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Economic News Release
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CES CES Program Links

Employment Situation News Release

Transmission of material in this news release is embargoed until	         USDL-20-0521
8:30 a.m. (EDT) Friday, April 3, 2020

Technical information: 
 Household data:	cpsinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/cps
 Establishment data:	cesinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/ces

Media contact:	        (202) 691-5902   *  PressOffice@bls.gov

	
                 THE EMPLOYMENT SITUATION -- MARCH 2020


Total nonfarm payroll employment fell by 701,000 in March, and the unemployment
rate rose to 4.4 percent, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today.
The changes in these measures reflect the effects of the coronavirus (COVID-19)
and efforts to contain it. Employment in leisure and hospitality fell by 459,000,
mainly in food services and drinking places. Notable declines also occurred in
health care and social assistance, professional and business services, retail
trade, and construction. 

This news release presents statistics from two monthly surveys. The household
survey measures labor force status, including unemployment, by demographic 
characteristics. The establishment survey measures nonfarm employment, hours,
and earnings by industry. Note that the March survey reference periods for both
surveys predated many coronavirus-related business and school closures that 
occurred in the second half of the month. For more information about the concepts
and statistical methodology used in these two surveys, see the Technical Note.

Household Survey Data

In March, the unemployment rate increased by 0.9 percentage point to 4.4 percent.
This is the largest over-the-month increase in the rate since January 1975, when
the increase was also 0.9 percentage point. The number of unemployed persons rose
by 1.4 million to 7.1 million in March. The sharp increases in these measures
reflect the effects of the coronavirus and efforts to contain it. (See table A-1.
Measures from the household survey pertain to the week of March 8th to March 14th.
For more information about how the household survey and its measures were affected
by the coronavirus, see the box note at the end of this news release.)

In March, unemployment rates rose among all major worker groups. The rate was 4.0
percent for adult men, 4.0 percent for adult women, 14.3 percent for teenagers,
4.0 percent for Whites, 6.7 percent for Blacks, 4.1 percent for Asians, and 6.0
percent for Hispanics. (See tables A-1, A-2, and A-3.)

The number of unemployed persons who reported being on temporary layoff more than
doubled in March to 1.8 million. The number of permanent job losers increased by
177,000 to 1.5 million. (See table A-11.)

The number of unemployed persons who were jobless less than 5 weeks increased by
1.5 million in March to 3.5 million, accounting for almost half of the unemployed.
The number of long-term unemployed (those jobless for 27 weeks or more), at 1.2
million, was little changed in March and represented 15.9 percent of the unemployed.
(See table A-12.)

The labor force participation rate, at 62.7 percent, decreased by 0.7 percentage
point over the month. Total employment, as measured by the household survey, fell
by 3.0 million to 155.8 million, and the employment-population ratio, at 60.0
percent, dropped by 1.1 percentage points over the month. (See table A-1.)

The number of persons employed part time for economic reasons, at 5.8 million,
increased by 1.4 million in March. These individuals, who would have preferred
full-time employment, were working part time because their hours had been reduced
or they were unable to find full-time jobs. (See table A-8.)

In March, 1.4 million persons were marginally attached to the labor force, little
changed from the previous month. These individuals were not in the labor force,
wanted and were available for work, and had looked for a job sometime in the prior
12 months but had not looked for work in the 4 weeks preceding the survey. Discouraged
workers, a subset of the marginally attached who believed that no jobs were available
for them, numbered 514,000 in March, up by 109,000 from the previous month. (See
Summary table A.)

Establishment Survey Data

Total nonfarm payroll employment fell sharply in March (-701,000), reflecting the
effects of the coronavirus and efforts to contain it. About two-thirds of the drop
occurred in leisure and hospitality, mainly in food services and drinking places.
Notable employment declines also occurred in health care and social assistance,
professional and business services, retail trade, and construction. In the prior
12 months, nonfarm employment growth had averaged 196,000 per month. (See table
B-1. Measures from the establishment survey pertain to the pay period including
March 12th; pay periods may be weekly, bi-weekly, semi-monthly, or monthly. For
more information about the establishment survey reference period and how survey
operations were affected by the coronavirus, see the box note at the end of this
news release.)

In March, employment in leisure and hospitality fell by 459,000. Most of the
decline occurred in food services and drinking places (-417,000); this employment
decline nearly offset gains over the previous 2 years. Employment in the
accommodation industry also declined in March (-29,000). 

Employment in health care and social assistance fell by 61,000 in March. Health
care employment declined by 43,000, with job losses in offices of dentists
(-17,000), offices of physicians (-12,000), and offices of other health care
practitioners (-7,000). Over the prior 12 months, health care employment had
grown by 374,000. In March, social assistance saw an employment decline of 19,000,
reflecting a job loss in child day care services (-19,000). Over the prior 12
months, social assistance added 193,000 jobs.

Employment in professional and business services decreased by 52,000 in March,
with the decline concentrated in temporary help services (-50,000). Employment
also decreased in travel arrangement and reservation services (-7,000).

In March, employment in retail trade declined by 46,000. Job losses occurred
in clothing and clothing accessories stores (-16,000); furniture stores (-10,000);
and sporting goods, hobby, book, and music stores (-9,000). General merchandise
stores gained 10,000 jobs. 

Employment decreased over the month in construction (-29,000). In March,
nonresidential building (-11,000) and heavy and civil engineering construction
(-10,000) lost jobs. Construction employment had increased by 211,000 over
the prior 12 months.

Employment in the other services industry declined by 24,000 in March, with
about half of the loss occurring in personal and laundry services (-13,000).
Over the prior 12 months, other services had added 89,000 jobs.

Mining lost 6,000 jobs in March, with much of the decline occurring in support
activities for mining (-5,000). Since a recent peak in January 2019, mining
employment has declined by 42,000.

In March, manufacturing employment edged down (-18,000). Over the past 12 months,
employment in the industry has shown little net change.

Federal government employment rose by 18,000 in March, reflecting the hiring of
17,000 workers for the 2020 Census.

Employment in other major industries, including wholesale trade, transportation
and warehousing, information, and financial activities, changed little over the
month.

In March, average hourly earnings for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls
increased by 11 cents to $28.62. Over the past 12 months, average hourly earnings
have increased by 3.1 percent. Average hourly earnings of private-sector production
and nonsupervisory employees increased by 10 cents to $24.07 in March. (See tables
B-3 and B-8.)

The average workweek for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls fell by 0.2
hour to 34.2 hours in March. The decline in the average workweek was most
pronounced in leisure and hospitality, where average weekly hours dropped by
1.4 hours. In manufacturing, the workweek declined by 0.3 hour to 40.4 hours,
and overtime declined by 0.2 hour to 3.0 hours. The average workweek for production
and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls decreased by 0.3 hour
to 33.4 hours. (See tables B-2 and B-7.)

The change in total nonfarm payroll employment for January was revised down by
59,000 from +273,000 to +214,000, and the change for February was revised up
by 2,000 from +273,000 to +275,000. With these revisions, employment gains in
January and February combined were 57,000 lower than previously reported.
(Monthly revisions result from additional reports received from businesses and
government agencies since the last published estimates and from the recalculation
of seasonal factors.) After revisions, job gains averaged 245,000 per month for
January and February. 

_____________
The Employment Situation for April is scheduled to be released on
Friday, May 8, 2020, at 8:30 a.m. (EDT).


 ________________________________________________________________________________
|										 |
|               Coronavirus (COVID-19) Impact on March 2020 		         |
|                 Establishment and Household Survey Data			 |
|										 |
| March data from the establishment and household surveys broadly reflect	 |
| some of the early effects of the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic on the	 |
| labor market. We cannot precisely quantify the effects of the pandemic on	 |
| the job market in March. However, it is clear that the decrease in employment	 |
| and hours and the increase in unemployment can be ascribed to effects of the	 |
| illness and efforts to contain the virus. It is important to keep in mind	 |
| that the March survey reference periods for both surveys predated many	 |
| coronavirus-related business and school closures in the second half of the	 |
| month.									 |
|										 |
| In the household survey, individuals are classified as employed, unemployed,	 |
| or not in the labor force based on their answers to a series of questions	 |
| about their activities during the survey reference week (March 8th through	 |
| March 14th). Workers who indicate they were not working during the entire	 |
| survey reference week and expect to be recalled to their jobs should be	 |
| classified as unemployed on temporary layoff. In March 2020, there was an	 |
| extremely large increase in the number of persons classified as unemployed	 |
| on temporary layoff.  							 |
|										 |
| However, there was also a large increase in the number of workers who were	 |
| classified as employed but absent from work. Special instructions sent to	 |
| household survey interviewers just before data collection started for March	 |
| called for all employed persons absent from work due to coronavirus-related	 |
| business closures to be classified as unemployed on temporary layoff. 	 |
| However, it is apparent that not all such workers were so classified. Such	 |
| a misclassification is an example of nonsampling error and can occur when	 |
| respondents misunderstand questions or interviewers record answers 		 |
| incorrectly. 									 |
|										 |
| If the workers who were recorded as employed but absent from work due to	 |
| “other reasons” (over and above the number absent for other reasons in a	 |
| typical March) had been classified as unemployed on temporary layoff, the	 |
| overall unemployment rate would have been almost 1 percentage point higher	 |
| than reported. However, according to usual practice, the data from the	 |
| household survey are accepted as recorded. To maintain data integrity, no	 |
| ad hoc actions are taken to reclassify survey responses.			 |
|										 |
| In the establishment survey, workers who are paid by their employer for all	 |
| or any part of the pay period including the 12th of the month are counted 	 |
| as employed, even if they were not actually at their jobs. Workers who are	 |
| temporarily or permanently absent from their jobs, but are not being paid,	 |
| are not counted as employed, even if they are continuing to receive benefits.	 |
| The length of the reference period does vary across the respondents in the	 |
| establishment survey; one-third of respondents have a weekly pay period,	 |
| slightly over 40 percent a bi-weekly, about 20 percent semi-monthly, and a	 |
| small amount monthly. 							 |
|										 |
| Data collection for both surveys was affected by the coronavirus. The		 |
| household survey is generally collected through in-person and telephone	 |
| interviews, but personal interviews were suspended during the collection	 |
| period for the safety of interviewers and respondents. The household survey	 |
| response rate, at 73 percent, was about 10 percentage points lower than in	 |
| recent months. In the establishment survey, about one-fifth of the data is	 |
| generally collected by telephone at four regional data collection centers.	 |
| Although these centers were closed during the collection period, efforts were	 |
| made to collect data electronically. The collection rate for the establishment |
| survey, at 66 percent, was about 9 percentage points lower than average.	 |
|										 |
| More information is available at						 |
| www.bls.gov/cps/employment-situation-covid19-faq-march-2020.pdf. 		 |
|________________________________________________________________________________|




HOUSEHOLD DATA
Summary table A. Household data, seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Category Mar.
2019
Jan.
2020
Feb.
2020
Mar.
2020
Change from:
Feb.
2020-
Mar.
2020

Employment status

Civilian noninstitutional population

258,537 259,502 259,628 259,758 130

Civilian labor force

162,935 164,606 164,546 162,913 -1,633

Participation rate

63.0 63.4 63.4 62.7 -0.7

Employed

156,741 158,714 158,759 155,772 -2,987

Employment-population ratio

60.6 61.2 61.1 60.0 -1.1

Unemployed

6,194 5,892 5,787 7,140 1,353

Unemployment rate

3.8 3.6 3.5 4.4 0.9

Not in labor force

95,602 94,896 95,082 96,845 1,763

Unemployment rates

Total, 16 years and over

3.8 3.6 3.5 4.4 0.9

Adult men (20 years and over)

3.6 3.3 3.3 4.0 0.7

Adult women (20 years and over)

3.3 3.2 3.1 4.0 0.9

Teenagers (16 to 19 years)

12.7 12.2 11.0 14.3 3.3

White

3.4 3.1 3.1 4.0 0.9

Black or African American

6.6 6.0 5.8 6.7 0.9

Asian

3.1 3.0 2.5 4.1 1.6

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

4.7 4.3 4.4 6.0 1.6

Total, 25 years and over

3.1 2.9 2.9 3.5 0.6

Less than a high school diploma

5.8 5.5 5.7 6.8 1.1

High school graduates, no college

3.7 3.8 3.6 4.4 0.8

Some college or associate degree

3.4 2.8 3.0 3.7 0.7

Bachelor's degree and higher

2.0 2.0 1.9 2.5 0.6

Reason for unemployment

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

2,826 2,665 2,723 3,946 1,223

Job leavers

780 836 777 727 -50

Reentrants

2,002 1,838 1,803 1,778 -25

New entrants

605 557 505 509 4

Duration of unemployment

Less than 5 weeks

2,116 2,059 2,013 3,542 1,529

5 to 14 weeks

1,812 1,755 1,803 1,794 -9

15 to 26 weeks

936 887 825 808 -17

27 weeks and over

1,305 1,166 1,102 1,164 62

Employed persons at work part time

Part time for economic reasons

4,517 4,182 4,318 5,765 1,447

Slack work or business conditions

2,887 2,655 2,776 4,043 1,267

Could only find part-time work

1,347 1,294 1,317 1,321 4

Part time for noneconomic reasons

21,332 22,154 22,175 20,601 -1,574

Persons not in the labor force

Marginally attached to the labor force

1,423 1,342 1,440 1,426 -14

Discouraged workers

417 337 405 514 109

NOTE: Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Summary table B. Establishment data, seasonally adjusted
Category Mar.
2019
Jan.
2020
Feb.
2020(p)
Mar.
2020(p)

EMPLOYMENT BY SELECTED INDUSTRY
(Over-the-month change, in thousands)

Total nonfarm

147 214 275 -701

Total private

132 179 242 -713

Goods-producing

17 13 57 -54

Mining and logging

0 -3 3 -7

Construction

20 38 41 -29

Manufacturing

-3 -22 13 -18

Durable goods(1)

-6 -12 11 -7

Motor vehicles and parts

-6.4 -7.5 8.5 -2.2

Nondurable goods

3 -10 2 -11

Private service-providing

115 166 185 -659

Wholesale trade

-4.4 4.3 -1.9 0.9

Retail trade

-24.3 -3.2 1.2 -46.2

Transportation and warehousing

5.7 22.6 -1.2 -4.9

Utilities

0.5 -1.0 0.2 0.8

Information

10 11 3 2

Financial activities

17 9 31 -1

Professional and business services(1)

12 20 36 -52

Temporary help services

-11.0 -3.9 -3.9 -49.5

Education and health services(1)

63 69 65 -76

Health care and social assistance

61.5 41.0 66.1 -61.2

Leisure and hospitality

21 24 44 -459

Other services

15 10 8 -24

Government

15 35 33 12

(3-month average change, in thousands)

Total nonfarm

139 220 224 -71

Total private

128 197 195 -97

WOMEN AND PRODUCTION AND NONSUPERVISORY EMPLOYEES
AS A PERCENT OF ALL EMPLOYEES(2)

Total nonfarm women employees

49.8 50.0 50.0 50.0

Total private women employees

48.4 48.7 48.7 48.6

Total private production and nonsupervisory employees

82.4 82.2 82.2 82.0

HOURS AND EARNINGS
ALL EMPLOYEES

Total private

Average weekly hours

34.5 34.3 34.4 34.2

Average hourly earnings

$27.76 $28.43 $28.51 $28.62

Average weekly earnings

$957.72 $975.15 $980.74 $978.80

Index of aggregate weekly hours (2007=100)(3)

110.6 111.5 112.0 110.8

Over-the-month percent change

0.4 0.1 0.4 -1.1

Index of aggregate weekly payrolls (2007=100)(4)

146.8 151.6 152.7 151.6

Over-the-month percent change

0.6 0.4 0.7 -0.7

DIFFUSION INDEX
(Over 1-month span)(5)

Total private (258 industries)

57.2 55.2 57.9 36.0

Manufacturing (76 industries)

53.9 43.4 50.7 36.8

Footnotes
(1) Includes other industries, not shown separately.
(2) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries.
(3) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding annual average aggregate hours.
(4) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding annual average aggregate weekly payrolls.
(5) Figures are the percent of industries with employment increasing plus one-half of the industries with unchanged employment, where 50 percent indicates an equal balance between industries with increasing and decreasing employment.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2019 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


Frequently Asked Questions about Employment and Unemployment Estimates

1. Why are there two monthly measures of employment?

   The household survey and establishment survey both produce sample-based estimates
   of employment, and both have strengths and limitations. The establishment survey
   employment series has a smaller margin of error on the measurement of month-to-
   month change than the household survey because of its much larger sample size. An
   over-the-month employment change of about 100,000 is statistically significant in
   the establishment survey, while the threshold for a statistically significant change
   in the household survey is about 500,000. However, the household survey has a more
   expansive scope than the establishment survey because it includes self-employed
   workers whose businesses are unincorporated, unpaid family workers, agricultural
   workers, and private household workers, who are excluded by the establishment survey.
   The household survey also provides estimates of employment for demographic groups.
   For more information on the differences between the two surveys, please visit
   https://www.bls.gov/web/empsit/ces_cps_trends.htm.

2. Are undocumented immigrants counted in the surveys?

   It is likely that both surveys include at least some undocumented immigrants. However,
   neither the establishment nor the household survey is designed to identify the legal
   status of workers. Therefore, it is not possible to determine how many are counted in
   either survey. The establishment survey does not collect data on the legal status of
   workers. The household survey does include questions which identify the foreign and
   native born, but it does not include questions about the legal status of the foreign
   born. Data on the foreign and native born are published each month in table A-7 of
   The Employment Situation news release.

3. Why does the establishment survey have revisions?

   The establishment survey revises published estimates to improve its data series by
   incorporating additional information that was not available at the time of the
   initial publication of the estimates. The establishment survey revises its initial
   monthly estimates twice, in the immediately succeeding 2 months, to incorporate
   additional sample receipts from respondents in the survey and recalculated seasonal
   adjustment factors. For more information on the monthly revisions, please visit
   https://www.bls.gov/ces/cesrevinfo.htm.

   On an annual basis, the establishment survey incorporates a benchmark revision that
   re-anchors estimates to nearly complete employment counts available from unemployment
   insurance tax records. The benchmark helps to control for sampling and modeling errors
   in the estimates. For more information on the annual benchmark revision, please visit
   https://www.bls.gov/web/empsit/cesbmart.htm.

4. Does the establishment survey sample include small firms?

   Yes; about 40 percent of the establishment survey sample is comprised of business
   establishments with fewer than 20 employees. The establishment survey sample is
   designed to maximize the reliability of the statewide total nonfarm employment
   estimate; firms from all states, size classes, and industries are appropriately
   sampled to achieve that goal.

5. Does the establishment survey account for employment from new businesses?

   Yes; monthly establishment survey estimates include an adjustment to account for
   the net employment change generated by business births and deaths. The adjustment
   comes from an econometric model that forecasts the monthly net jobs impact of
   business births and deaths based on the actual past values of the net impact that
   can be observed with a lag from the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages. The
   establishment survey uses modeling rather than sampling for this purpose because
   the survey is not immediately able to bring new businesses into the sample. There
   is an unavoidable lag between the birth of a new firm and its appearance on the
   sampling frame and availability for selection. BLS adds new businesses to the survey
   twice a year.

6. Is the count of unemployed persons limited to just those people receiving unemployment
   insurance benefits?

   No; the estimate of unemployment is based on a monthly sample survey of households.
   All persons who are without jobs and are actively seeking and available to work are
   included among the unemployed. (People on temporary layoff are included even if
   they do not actively seek work.) There is no requirement or question relating to
   unemployment insurance benefits in the monthly survey.

7. Does the official unemployment rate exclude people who want a job but are not currently
   looking for work?

   Yes; however, there are separate estimates of persons outside the labor force who
   want a job, including those who are not currently looking because they believe no
   jobs are available (discouraged workers). In addition, alternative measures of labor
   underutilization (some of which include discouraged workers and other groups not
   officially counted as unemployed) are published each month in table A-15 of The
   Employment Situation news release. For more information about these alternative
   measures, please visit https://www.bls.gov/cps/lfcharacteristics.htm#altmeasures.

8. How can unusually severe weather affect employment and hours estimates?

   In the establishment survey, the reference period is the pay period that includes
   the 12th of the month. Unusually severe weather is more likely to have an impact on
   average weekly hours than on employment. Average weekly hours are estimated for paid
   time during the pay period, including pay for holidays, sick leave, or other time off.
   The impact of severe weather on hours estimates typically, but not always, results in
   a reduction in average weekly hours. For example, some employees may be off work for
   part of the pay period and not receive pay for the time missed, while some workers,
   such as those dealing with cleanup or repair, may work extra hours.
   
   Typically, it is not possible to precisely quantify the effect of extreme weather on 
   payroll employment estimates. In order for severe weather conditions to reduce
   employment estimates, employees have to be off work without pay for the entire pay
   period. Employees who receive pay for any part of the pay period, even 1 hour, are
   counted in the payroll employment figures. For more information on how often employees
   are paid, please visit https://www.bls.gov/opub/btn/volume-3/how-frequently-do-private-
   businesses-pay-workers.htm.

   In the household survey, the reference period is generally the calendar week that
   includes the 12th of the month. Persons who miss the entire week's work for weather-
   related events are counted as employed whether or not they are paid for the time
   off. The household survey collects data on the number of persons who had a job but
   were not at work due to bad weather. It also provides a measure of the number of
   persons who usually work full time but had reduced hours due to bad weather. 
   Current and historical data are available on the household survey's most requested
   statistics page, please visit https://data.bls.gov/cgi-bin/surveymost?ln.




Technical Note


   This news release presents statistics from two major surveys, the Current
Population Survey (CPS; household survey) and the Current Employment Statistics
survey (CES; establishment survey). The household survey provides information
on the labor force, employment, and unemployment that appears in the "A" tables,
marked HOUSEHOLD DATA. It is a sample survey of about 60,000 eligible households
conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau for the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS).

   The establishment survey provides information on employment, hours, and
earnings of employees on nonfarm payrolls; the data appear in the "B" tables,
marked ESTABLISHMENT DATA. BLS collects these data each month from the payroll
records of a sample of nonagricultural business establishments. Each month
the CES program surveys about 145,000 businesses and government agencies,
representing approximately 697,000 individual worksites, in order to provide
detailed industry data on employment, hours, and earnings of workers on nonfarm
payrolls. The active sample includes approximately one-third of all nonfarm
payroll jobs.

   For both surveys, the data for a given month relate to a particular week or
pay period. In the household survey, the reference period is generally the
calendar week that contains the 12th day of the month. In the establishment
survey, the reference period is the pay period including the 12th, which may or
may not correspond directly to the calendar week.

Coverage, definitions, and differences between surveys

   Household survey. The sample is selected to reflect the entire civilian 
noninstitutional population. Based on responses to a series of questions on 
work and job search activities, each person 16 years and over in a sample
household is classified as employed, unemployed, or not in the labor force.

   People are classified as employed if they did any work at all as paid employees
during the reference week; worked in their own business, profession, or on their
own farm; or worked without pay at least 15 hours in a family business or farm.
People are also counted as employed if they were temporarily absent from their jobs
because of illness, bad weather, vacation, labor-management disputes, or personal
reasons.

   People are classified as unemployed if they meet all of the following criteria:
they had no employment during the reference week; they were available for work at
that time; and they made specific active efforts to find employment sometime during
the 4-week period ending with the reference week. Persons laid off from a job and
expecting recall need not be looking for work to be counted as unemployed. The
unemployment data derived from the household survey in no way depend upon the
eligibility for or receipt of unemployment insurance benefits.

   The civilian labor force is the sum of employed and unemployed persons.
Those persons not classified as employed or unemployed are not in the labor 
force. The unemployment rate is the number unemployed as a percent of the 
labor force. The labor force participation rate is the labor force as a 
percent of the population, and the employment-population ratio is the 
employed as a percent of the population. Additional information about the 
household survey can be found at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm.

   Establishment survey. The sample establishments are drawn from private
nonfarm businesses such as factories, offices, and stores, as well as
from federal, state, and local government entities. Employees on nonfarm
payrolls are those who worked or received pay for any part of the reference pay
period, including persons on paid leave. Persons are counted in each job
they hold. Hours and earnings data are produced for the private sector for
all employees and for production and nonsupervisory employees. Production
and nonsupervisory employees are defined as production and related employees
in manufacturing and mining and logging, construction workers in construction,
and nonsupervisory employees in private service-providing industries.

   Industries are classified on the basis of an establishment's principal
activity in accordance with the 2017 version of the North American Industry
Classification System. Additional information about the establishment survey
can be found at www.bls.gov/ces/.

   Differences in employment estimates. The numerous conceptual and methodological
differences between the household and establishment surveys result in important
distinctions in the employment estimates derived from the surveys. Among these are:

   --The household survey includes agricultural workers, self-employed workers
     whose businesses are unincorporated, unpaid family workers, and private
     household workers among the employed. These groups are excluded from the
     establishment survey.

   --The household survey includes people on unpaid leave among the employed.
     The establishment survey does not.

   --The household survey is limited to workers 16 years of age and older.
     The establishment survey is not limited by age.

   --The household survey has no duplication of individuals, because
     individuals are counted only once, even if they hold more than one
     job. In the establishment survey, employees working at more than one
     job and thus appearing on more than one payroll are counted separately
     for each appearance.

Seasonal adjustment

   Over the course of a year, the size of the nation's labor force and the levels
of employment and unemployment undergo regularly occurring fluctuations. These 
events may result from seasonal changes in weather, major holidays, and the opening
and closing of schools. The effect of such seasonal variation can be very large.

   Because these seasonal events follow a more or less regular pattern each year,
their influence on the level of a series can be tempered by adjusting for regular
seasonal variation. These adjustments make nonseasonal developments, such as
declines in employment or increases in the participation of women in the labor
force, easier to spot. For example, in the household survey, the large number of
youth entering the labor force each June is likely to obscure any other changes
that have taken place relative to May, making it difficult to determine if the 
level of economic activity has risen or declined. Similarly, in the establishment
survey, payroll employment in education declines by about 20 percent at the end
of the spring term and later rises with the start of the fall term, obscuring the
underlying employment trends in the industry. Because seasonal employment changes
at the end and beginning of the school year can be estimated, the statistics can be
adjusted to make underlying employment patterns more discernable.  The seasonally
adjusted figures provide a more useful tool with which to analyze changes in
month-to-month economic activity.

   Many seasonally adjusted series are independently adjusted in both the household
and establishment surveys. However, the adjusted series for many major estimates,
such as total payroll employment, employment in most major sectors, total employment,
and unemployment are computed by aggregating independently adjusted component series.
For example, total unemployment is derived by summing the adjusted series for four
major age-sex components; this differs from the unemployment estimate that would be
obtained by directly adjusting the total or by combining the duration, reasons, or 
more detailed age categories. Percentage distributions of unemployment by reason and
duration are derived from the sum of the independently seasonally adjusted component
series, and will not necessarily match calculations made using the seasonally adjusted
total unemployment level. Additional information about seasonal adjustment in the 
household survey can be found at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#sa.

   For both the household and establishment surveys, a concurrent seasonal adjustment
methodology is used in which new seasonal factors are calculated each month using all
relevant data, up to and including the data for the current month. In the household
survey, new seasonal factors are used to adjust only the current month's data. In the
establishment survey, however, new seasonal factors are used each month to adjust the
three most recent monthly estimates. The prior 2 months are routinely revised to
incorporate additional sample reports and recalculated seasonal adjustment factors.
In both surveys, 5-year revisions to historical data are made once a year.

Reliability of the estimates

   Statistics based on the household and establishment surveys are subject to both
sampling and nonsampling error. When a sample, rather than the entire population,
is surveyed, there is a chance that the sample estimates may differ from the true
population values they represent. The component of this difference that occurs
because samples differ by chance is known as sampling error, and its variability
is measured by the standard error of the estimate. There is about a 90-percent
chance, or level of confidence, that an estimate based on a sample will differ by
no more than 1.6 standard errors from the true population value because of sampling
error. BLS analyses are generally conducted at the 90-percent level of confidence.

   For example, the confidence interval for the monthly change in total nonfarm
employment from the establishment survey is on the order of plus or minus 110,000.
Suppose the estimate of nonfarm employment increases by 50,000 from one month to
the next. The 90-percent confidence interval on the monthly change would range from
-60,000 to +160,000 (50,000 +/- 110,000). These figures do not mean that the sample
results are off by these magnitudes, but rather that there is about a 90-percent
chance that the true over-the-month change lies within this interval. Since this
range includes values of less than zero, we could not say with confidence that
nonfarm employment had, in fact, increased that month. If, however, the reported
nonfarm employment rise was 250,000, then all of the values within the 90-percent
confidence interval would be greater than zero. In this case, it is likely (at
least a 90-percent chance) that nonfarm employment had, in fact, risen that month.
At an unemployment rate of around 6.0 percent, the 90-percent confidence interval
for the monthly change in unemployment as measured by the household survey is
about +/- 300,000, and for the monthly change in the unemployment rate it is about
+/- 0.2 percentage point.

   In general, estimates involving many individuals or establishments have lower
standard errors (relative to the size of the estimate) than estimates which are based
on a small number of observations. The precision of estimates also is improved when
the data are cumulated over time, such as for quarterly and annual averages.

   The household and establishment surveys are also affected by nonsampling error,
which can occur for many reasons, including the failure to sample a segment of the
population, inability to obtain information for all respondents in the sample,
inability or unwillingness of respondents to provide correct information on a
timely basis, mistakes made by respondents, and errors made in the collection or
processing of the data.

   For example, in the establishment survey, estimates for the most recent 2 months
are based on incomplete returns; for this reason, these estimates are labeled
preliminary in the tables. It is only after two successive revisions to a monthly
estimate, when nearly all sample reports have been received, that the estimate is
considered final.

   Another major source of nonsampling error in the establishment survey is the
inability to capture, on a timely basis, employment generated by new firms. To
correct for this systematic underestimation of employment growth, an estimation
procedure with two components is used to account for business births. The first
component excludes employment losses from business deaths from sample-based
estimation in order to offset the missing employment gains from business births.
This is incorporated into the sample-based estimation procedure by simply not
reflecting sample units going out of business, but imputing to them the same
employment trend as the other firms in the sample. This procedure accounts for
most of the net birth/death employment.

   The second component is an ARIMA time series model designed to estimate the
residual net birth/death employment not accounted for by the imputation. The
historical time series used to create and test the ARIMA model was derived from
the unemployment insurance universe micro-level database, and reflects the actual
residual net of births and deaths over the past 5 years.

   The sample-based estimates from the establishment survey are adjusted once a
year (on a lagged basis) to universe counts of payroll employment obtained from
administrative records of the unemployment insurance program. The difference 
between the March sample-based employment estimates and the March universe counts
is known as a benchmark revision, and serves as a rough proxy for total survey
error. The new benchmarks also incorporate changes in the classification of
industries. Over the past decade, absolute benchmark revisions for total nonfarm
employment have averaged 0.2 percent, with a range from -0.7 percent to 0.3 percent.

Other information

   Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired
individuals upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay
Service: (800) 877-8339.




HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-1. Employment status of the civilian population by sex and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Mar.
2019
Feb.
2020
Mar.
2020
Mar.
2019
Nov.
2019
Dec.
2019
Jan.
2020
Feb.
2020
Mar.
2020

TOTAL

Civilian noninstitutional population

258,537 259,628 259,758 258,537 260,020 260,181 259,502 259,628 259,758

Civilian labor force

162,823 164,235 162,537 162,935 164,347 164,556 164,606 164,546 162,913

Participation rate

63.0 63.3 62.6 63.0 63.2 63.2 63.4 63.4 62.7

Employed

156,441 158,017 155,167 156,741 158,536 158,803 158,714 158,759 155,772

Employment-population ratio

60.5 60.9 59.7 60.6 61.0 61.0 61.2 61.1 60.0

Unemployed

6,382 6,218 7,370 6,194 5,811 5,753 5,892 5,787 7,140

Unemployment rate

3.9 3.8 4.5 3.8 3.5 3.5 3.6 3.5 4.4

Not in labor force

95,714 95,393 97,221 95,602 95,673 95,625 94,896 95,082 96,845

Persons who currently want a job

4,887 4,973 5,215 5,196 4,832 4,832 4,904 4,962 5,509

Men, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

125,037 125,575 125,639 125,037 125,773 125,852 125,513 125,575 125,639

Civilian labor force

86,286 86,597 85,914 86,441 87,104 87,049 87,088 87,008 86,123

Participation rate

69.0 69.0 68.4 69.1 69.3 69.2 69.4 69.3 68.5

Employed

82,606 83,047 81,794 83,047 84,018 84,034 83,940 83,871 82,357

Employment-population ratio

66.1 66.1 65.1 66.4 66.8 66.8 66.9 66.8 65.6

Unemployed

3,681 3,549 4,120 3,394 3,086 3,015 3,147 3,137 3,765

Unemployment rate

4.3 4.1 4.8 3.9 3.5 3.5 3.6 3.6 4.4

Not in labor force

38,750 38,979 39,725 38,595 38,669 38,803 38,426 38,568 39,516

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

116,586 117,181 117,254 116,586 117,331 117,413 117,110 117,181 117,254

Civilian labor force

83,603 83,804 83,174 83,566 84,057 84,008 84,087 84,001 83,176

Participation rate

71.7 71.5 70.9 71.7 71.6 71.5 71.8 71.7 70.9

Employed

80,295 80,592 79,448 80,570 81,377 81,390 81,345 81,202 79,832

Employment-population ratio

68.9 68.8 67.8 69.1 69.4 69.3 69.5 69.3 68.1

Unemployed

3,308 3,212 3,726 2,995 2,679 2,618 2,743 2,799 3,344

Unemployment rate

4.0 3.8 4.5 3.6 3.2 3.1 3.3 3.3 4.0

Not in labor force

32,983 33,377 34,080 33,021 33,274 33,405 33,023 33,180 34,078

Women, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

133,500 134,053 134,119 133,500 134,247 134,329 133,988 134,053 134,119

Civilian labor force

76,536 77,638 76,623 76,494 77,243 77,507 77,518 77,538 76,790

Participation rate

57.3 57.9 57.1 57.3 57.5 57.7 57.9 57.8 57.3

Employed

73,835 74,970 73,373 73,694 74,518 74,769 74,774 74,888 73,415

Employment-population ratio

55.3 55.9 54.7 55.2 55.5 55.7 55.8 55.9 54.7

Unemployed

2,701 2,668 3,250 2,799 2,725 2,738 2,744 2,651 3,375

Unemployment rate

3.5 3.4 4.2 3.7 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.4 4.4

Not in labor force

56,964 56,415 57,496 57,007 57,004 56,822 56,470 56,514 57,329

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

125,252 125,841 125,915 125,252 125,998 126,082 125,770 125,841 125,915

Civilian labor force

73,658 74,768 73,789 73,508 74,291 74,584 74,512 74,501 73,840

Participation rate

58.8 59.4 58.6 58.7 59.0 59.2 59.2 59.2 58.6

Employed

71,259 72,413 70,908 71,056 71,881 72,200 72,097 72,179 70,886

Employment-population ratio

56.9 57.5 56.3 56.7 57.0 57.3 57.3 57.4 56.3

Unemployed

2,399 2,355 2,881 2,451 2,411 2,383 2,415 2,323 2,954

Unemployment rate

3.3 3.1 3.9 3.3 3.2 3.2 3.2 3.1 4.0

Not in labor force

51,594 51,073 52,126 51,744 51,706 51,498 51,258 51,340 52,075

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian noninstitutional population

16,698 16,606 16,590 16,698 16,692 16,686 16,622 16,606 16,590

Civilian labor force

5,562 5,663 5,574 5,862 5,999 5,964 6,007 6,043 5,897

Participation rate

33.3 34.1 33.6 35.1 35.9 35.7 36.1 36.4 35.5

Employed

4,887 5,012 4,811 5,115 5,278 5,213 5,273 5,378 5,054

Employment-population ratio

29.3 30.2 29.0 30.6 31.6 31.2 31.7 32.4 30.5

Unemployed

675 651 763 747 721 752 734 665 843

Unemployment rate

12.1 11.5 13.7 12.7 12.0 12.6 12.2 11.0 14.3

Not in labor force

11,137 10,943 11,015 10,837 10,693 10,722 10,614 10,562 10,693

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-2. Employment status of the civilian population by race, sex, and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, race, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Mar.
2019
Feb.
2020
Mar.
2020
Mar.
2019
Nov.
2019
Dec.
2019
Jan.
2020
Feb.
2020
Mar.
2020

WHITE

Civilian noninstitutional population

200,508 200,968 201,023 200,508 201,254 201,326 200,918 200,968 201,023

Civilian labor force

126,290 126,954 125,761 126,398 127,191 127,197 127,288 127,146 126,021

Participation rate

63.0 63.2 62.6 63.0 63.2 63.2 63.4 63.3 62.7

Employed

121,929 122,669 120,660 122,111 123,077 123,175 123,332 123,189 121,042

Employment-population ratio

60.8 61.0 60.0 60.9 61.2 61.2 61.4 61.3 60.2

Unemployed

4,362 4,285 5,101 4,286 4,115 4,022 3,957 3,957 4,979

Unemployment rate

3.5 3.4 4.1 3.4 3.2 3.2 3.1 3.1 4.0

Not in labor force

74,218 74,014 75,261 74,111 74,063 74,129 73,630 73,821 75,002

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

66,029 66,057 65,501 66,020 66,204 66,076 66,279 66,153 65,522

Participation rate

71.9 71.7 71.1 71.9 71.8 71.6 72.0 71.8 71.1

Employed

63,742 63,767 62,842 63,937 64,247 64,238 64,341 64,204 63,120

Employment-population ratio

69.4 69.2 68.2 69.6 69.7 69.6 69.9 69.7 68.5

Unemployed

2,287 2,290 2,659 2,083 1,957 1,839 1,938 1,950 2,402

Unemployment rate

3.5 3.5 4.1 3.2 3.0 2.8 2.9 2.9 3.7

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

55,893 56,477 55,894 55,777 56,299 56,429 56,324 56,247 55,878

Participation rate

58.0 58.4 57.8 57.8 58.2 58.3 58.3 58.2 57.8

Employed

54,293 54,914 53,974 54,102 54,666 54,827 54,807 54,692 53,878

Employment-population ratio

56.3 56.8 55.8 56.1 56.5 56.6 56.7 56.6 55.7

Unemployed

1,600 1,563 1,921 1,676 1,633 1,602 1,517 1,555 2,000

Unemployment rate

2.9 2.8 3.4 3.0 2.9 2.8 2.7 2.8 3.6

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

4,368 4,420 4,366 4,600 4,688 4,692 4,686 4,746 4,621

Participation rate

35.6 36.3 35.9 37.5 38.3 38.4 38.4 39.0 38.0

Employed

3,894 3,988 3,844 4,073 4,164 4,111 4,184 4,294 4,043

Employment-population ratio

31.8 32.7 31.6 33.2 34.0 33.6 34.3 35.2 33.2

Unemployed

474 432 521 528 524 581 502 452 578

Unemployment rate

10.9 9.8 11.9 11.5 11.2 12.4 10.7 9.5 12.5

BLACK OR AFRICAN AMERICAN

Civilian noninstitutional population

32,925 33,211 33,238 32,925 33,184 33,215 33,184 33,211 33,238

Civilian labor force

20,328 20,833 20,455 20,437 20,675 20,949 20,790 20,946 20,596

Participation rate

61.7 62.7 61.5 62.1 62.3 63.1 62.6 63.1 62.0

Employed

18,965 19,530 19,018 19,093 19,527 19,712 19,549 19,730 19,208

Employment-population ratio

57.6 58.8 57.2 58.0 58.8 59.3 58.9 59.4 57.8

Unemployed

1,364 1,303 1,438 1,344 1,148 1,238 1,241 1,216 1,387

Unemployment rate

6.7 6.3 7.0 6.6 5.6 5.9 6.0 5.8 6.7

Not in labor force

12,597 12,379 12,783 12,488 12,509 12,266 12,395 12,266 12,642

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

9,344 9,408 9,404 9,396 9,504 9,591 9,445 9,499 9,477

Participation rate

67.6 67.3 67.2 68.0 68.1 68.6 67.6 68.0 67.7

Employed

8,675 8,779 8,691 8,765 9,019 9,034 8,918 8,945 8,812

Employment-population ratio

62.8 62.8 62.1 63.4 64.6 64.6 63.9 64.0 63.0

Unemployed

669 629 713 630 485 557 526 554 665

Unemployment rate

7.2 6.7 7.6 6.7 5.1 5.8 5.6 5.8 7.0

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

10,324 10,726 10,363 10,318 10,445 10,625 10,617 10,721 10,374

Participation rate

62.1 63.9 61.6 62.0 62.3 63.3 63.3 63.8 61.7

Employed

9,777 10,194 9,806 9,776 9,929 10,094 10,067 10,207 9,830

Employment-population ratio

58.8 60.7 58.3 58.8 59.2 60.1 60.0 60.8 58.5

Unemployed

547 532 558 542 516 530 550 514 543

Unemployment rate

5.3 5.0 5.4 5.3 4.9 5.0 5.2 4.8 5.2

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

660 698 687 723 727 734 728 725 745

Participation rate

26.7 28.7 28.3 29.3 29.6 29.9 29.8 29.8 30.7

Employed

513 556 521 552 579 583 564 578 566

Employment-population ratio

20.7 22.9 21.4 22.3 23.6 23.8 23.1 23.7 23.3

Unemployed

148 142 167 171 147 151 164 148 180

Unemployment rate

22.4 20.3 24.2 23.7 20.3 20.6 22.5 20.4 24.1

ASIAN

Civilian noninstitutional population

16,245 16,421 16,419 16,245 16,558 16,482 16,178 16,421 16,419

Civilian labor force

10,447 10,596 10,486 10,400 10,705 10,478 10,332 10,574 10,470

Participation rate

64.3 64.5 63.9 64.0 64.7 63.6 63.9 64.4 63.8

Employed

10,133 10,327 10,058 10,082 10,429 10,214 10,017 10,312 10,037

Employment-population ratio

62.4 62.9 61.3 62.1 63.0 62.0 61.9 62.8 61.1

Unemployed

314 268 428 318 276 264 315 262 433

Unemployment rate

3.0 2.5 4.1 3.1 2.6 2.5 3.0 2.5 4.1

Not in labor force

5,798 5,825 5,932 5,845 5,852 6,004 5,847 5,848 5,948

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Estimates for the above race groups will not sum to totals shown in table A-1 because data are not presented for all races. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-3. Employment status of the Hispanic or Latino population by sex and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Mar.
2019
Feb.
2020
Mar.
2020
Mar.
2019
Nov.
2019
Dec.
2019
Jan.
2020
Feb.
2020
Mar.
2020

HISPANIC OR LATINO ETHNICITY

Civilian noninstitutional population

43,205 43,820 43,895 43,205 43,902 43,986 43,742 43,820 43,895

Civilian labor force

28,900 29,750 29,372 28,919 29,575 29,517 29,672 29,852 29,443

Participation rate

66.9 67.9 66.9 66.9 67.4 67.1 67.8 68.1 67.1

Employed

27,479 28,311 27,531 27,562 28,339 28,286 28,397 28,531 27,672

Employment-population ratio

63.6 64.6 62.7 63.8 64.6 64.3 64.9 65.1 63.0

Unemployed

1,421 1,438 1,841 1,357 1,236 1,231 1,275 1,322 1,771

Unemployment rate

4.9 4.8 6.3 4.7 4.2 4.2 4.3 4.4 6.0

Not in labor force

14,305 14,071 14,523 14,286 14,327 14,468 14,070 13,968 14,452

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

15,836 15,985 15,836 15,833 15,983 15,875 16,114 16,035 15,844

Participation rate

81.2 80.8 79.9 81.2 80.6 79.9 81.6 81.1 80.0

Employed

15,114 15,355 14,943 15,192 15,498 15,393 15,571 15,519 15,037

Employment-population ratio

77.5 77.6 75.4 77.9 78.2 77.5 78.9 78.5 75.9

Unemployed

722 630 893 641 485 483 543 516 807

Unemployment rate

4.6 3.9 5.6 4.0 3.0 3.0 3.4 3.2 5.1

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

11,842 12,460 12,208 11,841 12,196 12,293 12,242 12,441 12,245

Participation rate

60.0 62.2 60.8 60.0 60.8 61.1 61.2 62.1 61.0

Employed

11,318 11,839 11,462 11,324 11,675 11,736 11,701 11,834 11,507

Employment-population ratio

57.3 59.1 57.1 57.4 58.2 58.4 58.5 59.1 57.3

Unemployed

524 622 746 517 521 558 541 607 738

Unemployment rate

4.4 5.0 6.1 4.4 4.3 4.5 4.4 4.9 6.0

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

1,222 1,305 1,328 1,245 1,396 1,349 1,316 1,377 1,354

Participation rate

30.8 32.6 33.2 31.4 34.8 33.6 32.9 34.4 33.8

Employed

1,048 1,118 1,126 1,046 1,166 1,157 1,125 1,177 1,128

Employment-population ratio

26.4 27.9 28.1 26.3 29.0 28.8 28.1 29.4 28.2

Unemployed

175 187 202 200 230 191 191 199 225

Unemployment rate

14.3 14.3 15.2 16.0 16.5 14.2 14.5 14.5 16.7

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-4. Employment status of the civilian population 25 years and over by educational attainment
[Numbers in thousands]
Educational attainment Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Mar.
2019
Feb.
2020
Mar.
2020
Mar.
2019
Nov.
2019
Dec.
2019
Jan.
2020
Feb.
2020
Mar.
2020

Less than a high school diploma

Civilian labor force

10,064 9,341 9,184 10,118 9,761 9,895 9,621 9,710 9,251

Participation rate

45.8 46.0 45.3 46.0 46.5 46.5 45.9 47.8 45.7

Employed

9,374 8,670 8,439 9,532 9,245 9,379 9,090 9,160 8,626

Employment-population ratio

42.6 42.7 41.6 43.4 44.1 44.0 43.4 45.1 42.6

Unemployed

689 671 745 586 516 516 531 550 625

Unemployment rate

6.9 7.2 8.1 5.8 5.3 5.2 5.5 5.7 6.8

High school graduates, no college(1)

Civilian labor force

36,015 36,278 35,142 35,995 36,178 36,094 36,230 36,309 35,232

Participation rate

57.9 58.3 57.3 57.9 58.0 58.5 58.7 58.3 57.4

Employed

34,571 34,793 33,460 34,667 34,850 34,764 34,861 34,986 33,687

Employment-population ratio

55.6 55.9 54.6 55.8 55.9 56.3 56.5 56.2 54.9

Unemployed

1,444 1,484 1,682 1,328 1,328 1,330 1,369 1,323 1,545

Unemployment rate

4.0 4.1 4.8 3.7 3.7 3.7 3.8 3.6 4.4

Some college or associate degree

Civilian labor force

37,204 37,291 37,256 37,278 37,478 37,509 37,283 37,325 37,381

Participation rate

65.1 64.7 64.5 65.2 64.7 64.7 64.6 64.8 64.7

Employed

35,895 36,061 35,803 36,025 36,393 36,491 36,243 36,209 36,013

Employment-population ratio

62.8 62.6 62.0 63.0 62.9 63.0 62.8 62.9 62.3

Unemployed

1,309 1,230 1,453 1,253 1,085 1,018 1,040 1,116 1,368

Unemployment rate

3.5 3.3 3.9 3.4 2.9 2.7 2.8 3.0 3.7

Bachelor's degree and higher(2)

Civilian labor force

58,984 60,589 60,888 58,598 59,924 59,938 60,176 59,894 60,487

Participation rate

74.2 74.0 73.5 73.7 74.0 73.5 73.7 73.1 73.0

Employed

57,789 59,411 59,405 57,408 58,750 58,778 59,002 58,736 59,000

Employment-population ratio

72.7 72.5 71.7 72.2 72.5 72.1 72.3 71.7 71.2

Unemployed

1,195 1,177 1,484 1,189 1,174 1,160 1,174 1,158 1,487

Unemployment rate

2.0 1.9 2.4 2.0 2.0 1.9 2.0 1.9 2.5

Footnotes
(1) Includes persons with a high school diploma or equivalent.
(2) Includes persons with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees.

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals for those 25 years and over because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-5. Employment status of the civilian population 18 years and over by veteran status, period of service, and sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, veteran status, and period of service Total Men Women
Mar.
2019
Mar.
2020
Mar.
2019
Mar.
2020
Mar.
2019
Mar.
2020

VETERANS, 18 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

18,933 18,578 17,055 16,678 1,878 1,900

Civilian labor force

9,351 9,072 8,208 7,974 1,143 1,098

Participation rate

49.4 48.8 48.1 47.8 60.9 57.8

Employed

9,081 8,703 7,968 7,653 1,113 1,051

Employment-population ratio

48.0 46.8 46.7 45.9 59.3 55.3

Unemployed

269 368 240 321 30 47

Unemployment rate

2.9 4.1 2.9 4.0 2.6 4.3

Not in labor force

9,582 9,506 8,847 8,704 735 802

Gulf War-era II veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

4,231 4,267 3,540 3,551 691 716

Civilian labor force

3,425 3,394 2,941 2,864 485 530

Participation rate

81.0 79.5 83.1 80.6 70.1 74.0

Employed

3,319 3,254 2,854 2,756 465 497

Employment-population ratio

78.5 76.2 80.6 77.6 67.3 69.4

Unemployed

106 140 87 107 19 33

Unemployment rate

3.1 4.1 2.9 3.7 4.0 6.2

Not in labor force

806 873 599 687 207 186

Gulf War-era I veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

3,123 3,249 2,596 2,711 527 538

Civilian labor force

2,437 2,437 2,072 2,087 365 350

Participation rate

78.0 75.0 79.8 77.0 69.3 65.0

Employed

2,391 2,359 2,031 2,021 360 338

Employment-population ratio

76.6 72.6 78.2 74.6 68.3 62.8

Unemployed

46 78 40 66 5 12

Unemployment rate

1.9 3.2 1.9 3.2 1.5 3.4

Not in labor force

686 812 525 624 162 188

World War II, Korean War, and Vietnam-era veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

7,332 6,941 7,080 6,699 252 242

Civilian labor force

1,443 1,327 1,370 1,303 72 24

Participation rate

19.7 19.1 19.4 19.5 28.7 9.8

Employed

1,403 1,273 1,330 1,249 72 24

Employment-population ratio

19.1 18.3 18.8 18.7 28.7 9.8

Unemployed

40 54 40 54 0 0

Unemployment rate

2.8 4.1 2.9 4.1 - -

Not in labor force

5,889 5,614 5,710 5,396 180 218

Veterans of other service periods

Civilian noninstitutional population

4,247 4,121 3,839 3,717 408 404

Civilian labor force

2,046 1,914 1,825 1,719 221 195

Participation rate

48.2 46.4 47.5 46.3 54.2 48.2

Employed

1,968 1,817 1,752 1,626 216 192

Employment-population ratio

46.3 44.1 45.6 43.7 52.9 47.5

Unemployed

78 97 73 94 5 3

Unemployment rate

3.8 5.0 4.0 5.5 2.4 1.4

Not in labor force

2,201 2,207 2,014 1,998 187 209

NONVETERANS, 18 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

230,736 232,458 103,460 104,614 127,276 127,844

Civilian labor force

151,634 151,507 77,174 77,080 74,459 74,427

Participation rate

65.7 65.2 74.6 73.7 58.5 58.2

Employed

145,758 144,827 73,845 73,417 71,913 71,410

Employment-population ratio

63.2 62.3 71.4 70.2 56.5 55.9

Unemployed

5,875 6,679 3,329 3,663 2,546 3,017

Unemployment rate

3.9 4.4 4.3 4.8 3.4 4.1

Not in labor force

79,102 80,951 26,286 27,534 52,816 53,417

NOTE: Veterans served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces and were not on active duty at the time of the survey. Nonveterans never served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces. Veterans could have served anywhere in the world during these periods of service: Gulf War era II (September 2001-present), Gulf War era I (August 1990-August 2001), Vietnam era (August 1964-April 1975), Korean War (July 1950-January 1955), World War II (December 1941-December 1946), and other service periods (all other time periods). Veterans who served in more than one wartime period are classified only in the most recent one. Veterans who served during one of the selected wartime periods and another period are classified only in the wartime period. Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria (values not shown where base is less than 75,000). Updated population controls introduced with the release of January 2020 data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-6. Employment status of the civilian population by sex, age, and disability status, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Persons with a disability Persons with no disability
Mar.
2019
Mar.
2020
Mar.
2019
Mar.
2020

TOTAL, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

30,575 30,563 227,962 229,195

Civilian labor force

6,570 6,418 156,253 156,119

Participation rate

21.5 21.0 68.5 68.1

Employed

6,049 5,888 150,392 149,279

Employment-population ratio

19.8 19.3 66.0 65.1

Unemployed

521 530 5,860 6,840

Unemployment rate

7.9 8.3 3.8 4.4

Not in labor force

24,005 24,145 71,709 73,076

Men, 16 to 64 years

Civilian labor force

2,921 2,713 77,724 77,342

Participation rate

38.0 36.5 82.8 82.4

Employed

2,623 2,442 74,535 73,756

Employment-population ratio

34.1 32.9 79.4 78.5

Unemployed

298 271 3,188 3,586

Unemployment rate

10.2 10.0 4.1 4.6

Not in labor force

4,774 4,715 16,136 16,569

Women, 16 to 64 years

Civilian labor force

2,427 2,542 69,297 69,285

Participation rate

30.5 33.3 71.7 71.6

Employed

2,250 2,330 66,925 66,379

Employment-population ratio

28.3 30.5 69.2 68.6

Unemployed

177 212 2,372 2,906

Unemployment rate

7.3 8.3 3.4 4.2

Not in labor force

5,523 5,086 27,405 27,437

Both sexes, 65 years and over

Civilian labor force

1,222 1,163 9,232 9,492

Participation rate

8.2 7.5 24.7 24.6

Employed

1,175 1,116 8,932 9,144

Employment-population ratio

7.9 7.2 23.9 23.7

Unemployed

46 47 300 348

Unemployment rate

3.8 4.0 3.2 3.7

Not in labor force

13,709 14,344 28,168 29,069

NOTE: A person with a disability has at least one of the following conditions: is deaf or has serious difficulty hearing; is blind or has serious difficulty seeing even when wearing glasses; has serious difficulty concentrating, remembering, or making decisions because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition; has serious difficulty walking or climbing stairs; has difficulty dressing or bathing; or has difficulty doing errands alone such as visiting a doctor's office or shopping because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-7. Employment status of the civilian population by nativity and sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status and nativity Total Men Women
Mar.
2019
Mar.
2020
Mar.
2019
Mar.
2020
Mar.
2019
Mar.
2020

Foreign born, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

43,562 42,323 21,216 20,474 22,346 21,849

Civilian labor force

28,893 27,819 16,564 15,965 12,329 11,854

Participation rate

66.3 65.7 78.1 78.0 55.2 54.3

Employed

27,775 26,478 15,981 15,301 11,794 11,178

Employment-population ratio

63.8 62.6 75.3 74.7 52.8 51.2

Unemployed

1,118 1,341 583 665 535 676

Unemployment rate

3.9 4.8 3.5 4.2 4.3 5.7

Not in labor force

14,669 14,504 4,652 4,509 10,017 9,995

Native born, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

214,975 217,435 103,821 105,165 111,154 112,270

Civilian labor force

133,930 134,718 69,722 69,949 64,207 64,769

Participation rate

62.3 62.0 67.2 66.5 57.8 57.7

Employed

128,666 128,689 66,625 66,493 62,041 62,195

Employment-population ratio

59.9 59.2 64.2 63.2 55.8 55.4

Unemployed

5,264 6,029 3,098 3,456 2,166 2,574

Unemployment rate

3.9 4.5 4.4 4.9 3.4 4.0

Not in labor force

81,045 82,717 34,099 35,216 46,947 47,501

NOTE: The foreign born are those residing in the United States who were not U.S. citizens at birth. That is, they were born outside the United States or one of its outlying areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam, to parents neither of whom was a U.S. citizen. The native born are persons who were born in the United States or one of its outlying areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam or who were born abroad of at least one parent who was a U.S. citizen. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-8. Employed persons by class of worker and part-time status
[In thousands]
Category Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Mar.
2019
Feb.
2020
Mar.
2020
Mar.
2019
Nov.
2019
Dec.
2019
Jan.
2020
Feb.
2020
Mar.
2020

CLASS OF WORKER

Agriculture and related industries

2,243 2,332 2,263 2,336 2,356 2,533 2,412 2,466 2,399

Wage and salary workers(1)

1,558 1,704 1,580 1,671 1,661 1,849 1,750 1,829 1,715

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

667 612 661 647 692 684 647 645 660

Unpaid family workers

18 16 22 - - - - - -

Nonagricultural industries

154,197 155,686 152,904 154,346 156,167 156,241 156,337 156,283 153,359

Wage and salary workers(1)

145,493 146,861 144,149 145,578 147,275 147,431 147,467 147,347 144,494

Government

21,077 21,330 21,414 20,706 21,342 21,323 21,390 20,943 21,081

Private industries

124,417 125,531 122,735 124,860 125,996 126,069 126,042 126,282 123,412

Private households

808 781 712 - - - - - -

Other industries

123,609 124,750 122,023 124,057 125,157 125,250 125,234 125,487 122,693

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

8,659 8,780 8,717 8,733 8,856 8,821 8,808 8,897 8,818

Unpaid family workers

45 45 37 - - - - - -

PERSONS AT WORK PART TIME(2)

All industries

Part time for economic reasons(3)

4,621 4,600 5,879 4,517 4,288 4,148 4,182 4,318 5,765

Slack work or business conditions

2,949 3,037 4,159 2,887 2,634 2,657 2,655 2,776 4,043

Could only find part-time work

1,413 1,288 1,404 1,347 1,259 1,215 1,294 1,317 1,321

Part time for noneconomic reasons(4)

21,738 22,902 20,764 21,332 21,532 21,586 22,154 22,175 20,601

Nonagricultural industries

Part time for economic reasons(3)

4,548 4,501 5,788 4,446 4,221 4,111 4,091 4,225 5,681

Slack work or business conditions

2,895 2,966 4,090 2,834 2,599 2,613 2,580 2,719 3,965

Could only find part-time work

1,410 1,282 1,392 1,343 1,254 1,209 1,308 1,313 1,312

Part time for noneconomic reasons(4)

21,434 22,473 20,392 21,025 21,163 21,180 21,784 21,770 20,236

Footnotes
(1) Includes self-employed workers whose businesses are incorporated.
(2) Refers to those who worked 1 to 34 hours during the survey reference week and excludes employed persons who were absent from their jobs for the entire week.
(3) Refers to those who worked 1 to 34 hours during the reference week for an economic reason such as slack work or unfavorable business conditions, inability to find full-time work, or seasonal declines in demand.
(4) Refers to persons who usually work part time for noneconomic reasons such as childcare problems, family or personal obligations, school or training, retirement or Social Security limits on earnings, and other reasons. This excludes persons who usually work full time but worked only 1 to 34 hours during the reference week for reasons such as vacations, holidays, illness, and bad weather.

- Data not available.
NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-9. Selected employment indicators
[Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Mar.
2019
Feb.
2020
Mar.
2020
Mar.
2019
Nov.
2019
Dec.
2019
Jan.
2020
Feb.
2020
Mar.
2020

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

156,441 158,017 155,167 156,741 158,536 158,803 158,714 158,759 155,772

16 to 19 years

4,887 5,012 4,811 5,115 5,278 5,213 5,273 5,378 5,054

16 to 17 years

1,601 1,776 1,636 1,757 1,978 1,874 1,949 1,972 1,800

18 to 19 years

3,285 3,236 3,175 3,354 3,315 3,339 3,311 3,401 3,269

20 years and over

151,554 153,005 150,356 151,627 153,258 153,590 153,441 153,381 150,719

20 to 24 years

13,925 14,069 13,248 14,093 14,112 14,142 14,214 14,278 13,428

25 years and over

137,629 138,936 137,107 137,642 139,176 139,426 139,215 139,188 137,392

25 to 54 years

100,750 101,152 100,141 100,770 101,517 101,653 101,487 101,426 100,313

25 to 34 years

35,686 36,038 35,429 35,682 36,190 36,230 36,129 36,123 35,501

35 to 44 years

32,785 33,273 33,050 32,872 33,293 33,406 33,412 33,402 33,168

45 to 54 years

32,279 31,841 31,662 32,216 32,033 32,017 31,945 31,901 31,644

55 years and over

36,879 37,784 36,966 36,872 37,660 37,773 37,728 37,762 37,079

Men, 16 years and over

82,606 83,047 81,794 83,047 84,018 84,034 83,940 83,871 82,357

16 to 19 years

2,311 2,455 2,346 2,477 2,640 2,644 2,596 2,669 2,525

16 to 17 years

793 776 724 886 929 876 860 891 817

18 to 19 years

1,518 1,679 1,622 1,596 1,717 1,766 1,733 1,784 1,715

20 years and over

80,295 80,592 79,448 80,570 81,377 81,390 81,345 81,202 79,832

20 to 24 years

7,015 7,126 6,688 7,141 7,157 7,152 7,307 7,272 6,818

25 years and over

73,280 73,466 72,760 73,522 74,224 74,217 74,057 73,982 73,159

25 to 54 years

53,825 53,415 53,170 53,947 54,101 54,005 53,840 53,770 53,374

25 to 34 years

19,294 19,038 18,957 19,298 19,413 19,364 19,145 19,175 19,002

35 to 44 years

17,635 17,734 17,687 17,723 17,890 17,881 17,884 17,874 17,790

45 to 54 years

16,897 16,643 16,527 16,926 16,797 16,761 16,810 16,720 16,582

55 years and over

19,455 20,052 19,590 19,575 20,124 20,212 20,217 20,213 19,785

Women, 16 years and over

73,835 74,970 73,373 73,694 74,518 74,769 74,774 74,888 73,415

16 to 19 years

2,576 2,557 2,465 2,638 2,637 2,568 2,677 2,709 2,529

16 to 17 years

808 1,000 912 871 1,049 999 1,089 1,081 983

18 to 19 years

1,767 1,557 1,553 1,758 1,598 1,573 1,578 1,616 1,554

20 years and over

71,259 72,413 70,908 71,056 71,881 72,200 72,097 72,179 70,886

20 to 24 years

6,910 6,944 6,561 6,952 6,955 6,990 6,907 7,006 6,610

25 years and over

64,349 65,469 64,347 64,120 64,952 65,208 65,158 65,206 64,232

25 to 54 years

46,925 47,737 46,971 46,823 47,416 47,648 47,647 47,657 46,939

25 to 34 years

16,392 17,001 16,472 16,385 16,777 16,866 16,984 16,949 16,499

35 to 44 years

15,151 15,539 15,363 15,149 15,403 15,525 15,528 15,528 15,378

45 to 54 years

15,382 15,198 15,135 15,290 15,236 15,256 15,135 15,180 15,062

55 years and over

17,424 17,733 17,376 17,297 17,536 17,561 17,510 17,549 17,293

MARITAL STATUS

Married men, spouse present(1)

45,865 45,855 45,901 45,865 46,059 46,177 46,257 46,067 45,920

Married women, spouse present(1)

36,841 36,811 36,700 36,391 36,581 36,631 36,869 36,597 36,353

Women who maintain families(2)

9,708 9,771 9,402 - - - - - -

FULL- OR PART-TIME STATUS

Full-time workers(3)

128,819 129,734 127,981 129,955 131,561 131,755 131,099 131,109 129,298

Part-time workers(4)

27,622 28,283 27,187 26,935 26,958 26,992 27,529 27,726 26,553

MULTIPLE JOBHOLDERS

Total multiple jobholders

8,047 8,181 7,358 7,908 8,107 7,946 8,152 8,070 7,268

Percent of total employed

5.1 5.2 4.7 5.0 5.1 5.0 5.1 5.1 4.7

SELF-EMPLOYMENT

Self-employed workers, incorporated

5,991 6,471 6,285 - - - - - -

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

9,326 9,392 9,378 9,380 9,548 9,506 9,455 9,542 9,478

Footnotes
(1) Beginning with data for January 2020, refers to persons in both opposite-sex and same-sex married couples. Prior to January 2020, referred to persons in opposite-sex married couples only.
(2) Beginning with data for January 2020, refers to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not a spouse of either sex. Prior to January 2020, referred to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not an opposite-sex spouse.
(3) Employed full-time workers are persons who usually work 35 hours or more per week.
(4) Employed part-time workers are persons who usually work less than 35 hours per week.

- Data not available.
NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-10. Selected unemployment indicators, seasonally adjusted
Characteristic Number of
unemployed persons
(in thousands)
Unemployment rates
Mar.
2019
Feb.
2020
Mar.
2020
Mar.
2019
Nov.
2019
Dec.
2019
Jan.
2020
Feb.
2020
Mar.
2020

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

6,194 5,787 7,140 3.8 3.5 3.5 3.6 3.5 4.4

16 to 19 years

747 665 843 12.7 12.0 12.6 12.2 11.0 14.3

16 to 17 years

258 214 354 12.8 12.6 13.7 11.8 9.8 16.4

18 to 19 years

482 464 479 12.6 11.7 12.1 12.5 12.0 12.8

20 years and over

5,447 5,122 6,297 3.5 3.2 3.2 3.3 3.2 4.0

20 to 24 years

1,097 972 1,281 7.2 6.4 6.3 6.6 6.4 8.7

25 years and over

4,348 4,168 5,007 3.1 2.9 2.8 2.9 2.9 3.5

25 to 54 years

3,349 3,152 3,725 3.2 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.6

25 to 34 years

1,471 1,371 1,534 4.0 3.6 3.6 3.7 3.7 4.1

35 to 44 years

931 955 1,157 2.8 2.7 2.8 2.8 2.8 3.4

45 to 54 years

947 827 1,034 2.9 2.6 2.6 2.5 2.5 3.2

55 years and over

1,016 1,003 1,276 2.7 2.6 2.4 2.6 2.6 3.3

Men, 16 years and over

3,394 3,137 3,765 3.9 3.5 3.5 3.6 3.6 4.4

16 to 19 years

399 338 421 13.9 13.4 13.0 13.5 11.2 14.3

16 to 17 years

117 108 142 11.6 14.1 14.6 14.4 10.8 14.8

18 to 19 years

271 243 265 14.5 13.0 12.8 12.9 12.0 13.4

20 years and over

2,995 2,799 3,344 3.6 3.2 3.1 3.3 3.3 4.0

20 to 24 years

685 519 681 8.8 7.3 7.2 6.8 6.7 9.1

25 years and over

2,310 2,278 2,651 3.0 2.8 2.7 2.9 3.0 3.5

25 to 54 years

1,754 1,707 1,951 3.1 2.9 2.9 3.0 3.1 3.5

25 to 34 years

747 771 842 3.7 3.7 3.6 3.9 3.9 4.2

35 to 44 years

501 507 584 2.7 2.6 2.5 2.6 2.8 3.2

45 to 54 years

506 429 525 2.9 2.2 2.5 2.5 2.5 3.1

55 years and over

556 571 700 2.8 2.6 2.2 2.6 2.7 3.4

Women, 16 years and over

2,799 2,651 3,375 3.7 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.4 4.4

16 to 19 years

348 328 422 11.7 10.6 12.1 11.0 10.8 14.3

16 to 17 years

141 105 212 13.9 11.3 12.9 9.6 8.9 17.8

18 to 19 years

211 221 214 10.7 10.2 11.3 12.1 12.0 12.1

20 years and over

2,451 2,323 2,954 3.3 3.2 3.2 3.2 3.1 4.0

20 to 24 years

412 453 600 5.6 5.5 5.5 6.5 6.1 8.3

25 years and over

2,038 1,891 2,356 3.1 3.0 2.9 2.9 2.8 3.5

25 to 54 years

1,595 1,445 1,774 3.3 3.1 3.1 3.0 2.9 3.6

25 to 34 years

724 599 692 4.2 3.4 3.5 3.5 3.4 4.0

35 to 44 years

430 447 573 2.8 2.9 3.0 2.9 2.8 3.6

45 to 54 years

441 398 509 2.8 2.9 2.7 2.5 2.6 3.3

55 years and over

474 430 582 2.7 2.6 2.6 2.4 2.4 3.3

MARITAL STATUS

Married men, spouse present(1)

900 925 1,065 1.9 1.9 1.6 1.7 2.0 2.3

Married women, spouse present(1)

886 814 1,114 2.4 2.2 2.1 2.1 2.2 3.0

Women who maintain families(2)

479 423 526 4.7 4.8 4.2 5.4 4.1 5.3

FULL- OR PART-TIME STATUS

Full-time workers(3)

4,998 4,710 5,477 3.7 3.5 3.4 3.5 3.5 4.1

Part-time workers(4)

1,227 1,065 1,712 4.4 3.8 3.9 4.1 3.7 6.1

Footnotes
(1) Beginning with data for January 2020, refers to persons in both opposite-sex and same-sex married couples. Prior to January 2020, referred to persons in opposite-sex married couples only.
(2) Data are not seasonally adjusted. Beginning with data for January 2020, refers to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not a spouse of either sex. Prior to January 2020, referred to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not an opposite-sex spouse.
(3) Full-time workers are unemployed persons who have expressed a desire to work full time (35 hours or more per week) or are on layoff from full-time jobs.
(4) Part-time workers are unemployed persons who have expressed a desire to work part time (less than 35 hours per week) or are on layoff from part-time jobs.

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-11. Unemployed persons by reason for unemployment
[Numbers in thousands]
Reason Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Mar.
2019
Feb.
2020
Mar.
2020
Mar.
2019
Nov.
2019
Dec.
2019
Jan.
2020
Feb.
2020
Mar.
2020

NUMBER OF UNEMPLOYED

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

3,098 3,151 4,441 2,826 2,804 2,686 2,665 2,723 3,946

On temporary layoff

1,029 1,069 2,223 866 768 807 742 801 1,848

Not on temporary layoff

2,069 2,082 2,219 1,959 2,036 1,880 1,923 1,922 2,099

Permanent job losers

1,470 1,358 1,559 1,376 1,422 1,295 1,289 1,279 1,456

Persons who completed temporary jobs

599 723 660 583 614 585 634 644 643

Job leavers

763 766 695 780 776 829 836 777 727

Reentrants

1,982 1,839 1,784 2,002 1,663 1,655 1,838 1,803 1,778

New entrants

539 462 449 605 581 551 557 505 509

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

48.5 50.7 60.3 45.5 48.1 46.9 45.2 46.9 56.7

On temporary layoff

16.1 17.2 30.2 13.9 13.2 14.1 12.6 13.8 26.5

Not on temporary layoff

32.4 33.5 30.1 31.5 35.0 32.9 32.6 33.1 30.2

Job leavers

12.0 12.3 9.4 12.6 13.3 14.5 14.2 13.4 10.5

Reentrants

31.1 29.6 24.2 32.2 28.6 28.9 31.2 31.0 25.5

New entrants

8.4 7.4 6.1 9.7 10.0 9.6 9.4 8.7 7.3

UNEMPLOYED AS A PERCENT OF THE
CIVILIAN LABOR FORCE

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

1.9 1.9 2.7 1.7 1.7 1.6 1.6 1.7 2.4

Job leavers

0.5 0.5 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.4

Reentrants

1.2 1.1 1.1 1.2 1.0 1.0 1.1 1.1 1.1

New entrants

0.3 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to total unemployed in table A-1 because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-12. Unemployed persons by duration of unemployment
[Numbers in thousands]
Duration Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Mar.
2019
Feb.
2020
Mar.
2020
Mar.
2019
Nov.
2019
Dec.
2019
Jan.
2020
Feb.
2020
Mar.
2020

NUMBER OF UNEMPLOYED

Less than 5 weeks

1,868 1,939 3,118 2,116 2,026 2,065 2,059 2,013 3,542

5 to 14 weeks

2,017 2,161 2,008 1,812 1,753 1,730 1,755 1,803 1,794

15 weeks and over

2,496 2,117 2,244 2,242 2,083 1,998 2,053 1,927 1,971

15 to 26 weeks

1,111 932 999 936 865 812 887 825 808

27 weeks and over

1,385 1,185 1,245 1,305 1,219 1,186 1,166 1,102 1,164

Average (mean) duration, in weeks

22.9 20.4 17.5 22.2 20.2 20.8 21.9 20.9 17.1

Median duration, in weeks

10.8 9.3 7.3 9.5 9.2 9.0 9.3 9.1 7.0

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION

Less than 5 weeks

29.3 31.2 42.3 34.3 34.6 35.6 35.1 35.1 48.5

5 to 14 weeks

31.6 34.8 27.2 29.4 29.9 29.9 29.9 31.4 24.5

15 weeks and over

39.1 34.1 30.4 36.3 35.5 34.5 35.0 33.6 27.0

15 to 26 weeks

17.4 15.0 13.6 15.2 14.7 14.0 15.1 14.4 11.1

27 weeks and over

21.7 19.1 16.9 21.2 20.8 20.5 19.9 19.2 15.9

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to total unemployed in table A-1 because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-13. Employed and unemployed persons by occupation, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Occupation Employed Unemployed Unemployment
rates
Mar.
2019
Mar.
2020
Mar.
2019
Mar.
2020
Mar.
2019
Mar.
2020

Total, 16 years and over(1)

156,441 155,167 6,382 7,370 3.9 4.5

Management, professional, and related occupations

64,299 65,881 1,289 1,663 2.0 2.5

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

26,898 27,958 552 631 2.0 2.2

Professional and related occupations

37,401 37,924 736 1,031 1.9 2.6

Service occupations

26,351 25,307 1,442 1,700 5.2 6.3

Sales and office occupations

33,050 30,867 1,379 1,254 4.0 3.9

Sales and related occupations

15,365 14,574 739 652 4.6 4.3

Office and administrative support occupations

17,685 16,294 640 602 3.5 3.6

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

14,060 13,918 827 990 5.6 6.6

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

1,130 1,103 207 131 15.5 10.6

Construction and extraction occupations

8,367 8,029 503 727 5.7 8.3

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

4,562 4,786 118 132 2.5 2.7

Production, transportation, and material moving
occupations

18,681 19,193 889 1,301 4.5 6.3

Production occupations

8,635 7,986 375 449 4.2 5.3

Transportation and material moving occupations

10,046 11,207 514 851 4.9 7.1

Footnotes
(1) Persons with no previous work experience and persons whose last job was in the U.S. Armed Forces are included in the unemployed total.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data. Effective with January 2020 data, occupations reflect the introduction of the 2018 Census occupational classification system into the Current Population Survey, or household survey. This classification system is derived from the 2018 Standard Occupational Classification (SOC). No historical data have been revised. Data for 2020 are not strictly comparable with earlier years.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-14. Unemployed persons by industry and class of worker, not seasonally adjusted
Industry and class of worker Number of
unemployed
persons
(in thousands)
Unemployment
rates
Mar.
2019
Mar.
2020
Mar.
2019
Mar.
2020

Total, 16 years and over(1)

6,382 7,370 3.9 4.5

Nonagricultural private wage and salary workers

4,869 5,964 3.8 4.6

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

26 52 3.6 6.2

Construction

490 658 5.2 6.9

Manufacturing

475 636 2.9 4.2

Durable goods

254 336 2.5 3.5

Nondurable goods

221 300 3.6 5.3

Wholesale and retail trade

917 955 4.7 4.9

Transportation and utilities

262 380 3.6 5.0

Information

105 47 4.0 1.8

Financial activities

280 230 2.8 2.2

Professional and business services

678 838 3.9 4.8

Education and health services

583 778 2.3 3.2

Leisure and hospitality

827 1,131 5.8 8.1

Other services

224 258 3.4 3.9

Agriculture and related private wage and salary workers

195 139 11.5 8.3

Government workers

405 490 1.9 2.2

Self-employed workers, unincorporated, and unpaid family workers

375 327 3.8 3.4

Footnotes
(1) Persons with no previous work experience and persons whose last job was in the U.S. Armed Forces are included in the unemployed total.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data. Effective with January 2020 data, industries reflect the introduction of the 2017 Census industry classification system into the Current Population Survey. This industry classification system is derived from the 2017 North American Industry Classification System (NAICS). No historical data have been revised.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-15. Alternative measures of labor underutilization
[Percent]
Measure Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Mar.
2019
Feb.
2020
Mar.
2020
Mar.
2019
Nov.
2019
Dec.
2019
Jan.
2020
Feb.
2020
Mar.
2020

U-1 Persons unemployed 15 weeks or longer, as a percent of the civilian labor force

1.5 1.3 1.4 1.4 1.3 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2

U-2 Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs, as a percent of the civilian labor force

1.9 1.9 2.7 1.7 1.7 1.6 1.6 1.7 2.4

U-3 Total unemployed, as a percent of the civilian labor force (official unemployment rate)

3.9 3.8 4.5 3.8 3.5 3.5 3.6 3.5 4.4

U-4 Total unemployed plus discouraged workers, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus discouraged workers

4.2 4.0 4.8 4.0 3.7 3.7 3.8 3.8 4.7

U-5 Total unemployed, plus discouraged workers, plus all other persons marginally attached to the labor force, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force

4.7 4.7 5.3 4.6 4.3 4.2 4.4 4.4 5.2

U-6 Total unemployed, plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force, plus total employed part time for economic reasons, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force

7.5 7.4 8.9 7.4 6.8 6.7 6.9 7.0 8.7

NOTE: Persons marginally attached to the labor force are those who currently are neither working nor looking for work but indicate that they want and are available for a job and have looked for work sometime in the past 12 months. Discouraged workers, a subset of the marginally attached, have given a job-market related reason for not currently looking for work. Persons employed part time for economic reasons are those who want and are available for full-time work but have had to settle for a part-time schedule. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-16. Persons not in the labor force and multiple jobholders by sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Category Total Men Women
Mar.
2019
Mar.
2020
Mar.
2019
Mar.
2020
Mar.
2019
Mar.
2020

NOT IN THE LABOR FORCE

Total not in the labor force

95,714 97,221 38,750 39,725 56,964 57,496

Persons who currently want a job

4,887 5,215 2,267 2,559 2,620 2,656

Marginally attached to the labor force(1)

1,357 1,380 680 744 677 636

Discouraged workers(2)

412 514 237 302 176 212

Other persons marginally attached to the labor force(3)

944 866 443 442 501 424

MULTIPLE JOBHOLDERS

Total multiple jobholders(4)

8,047 7,358 3,863 3,566 4,184 3,792

Percent of total employed

5.1 4.7 4.7 4.4 5.7 5.2

Primary job full time, secondary job part time

4,473 4,227 2,309 2,225 2,164 2,002

Primary and secondary jobs both part time

2,197 1,904 826 640 1,371 1,264

Primary and secondary jobs both full time

282 237 185 129 96 109

Hours vary on primary or secondary job

1,027 932 522 550 505 382

Footnotes
(1) Data refer to persons who want a job, have searched for work during the prior 12 months, and were available to take a job during the reference week, but had not looked for work in the past 4 weeks.
(2) Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for reasons such as thinks no work available, could not find work, lacks schooling or training, employer thinks too young or old, and other types of discrimination.
(3) Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for such reasons as school or family responsibilities, ill health, and transportation problems, as well as a number for whom reason for nonparticipation was not determined.
(4) Includes a small number of persons who work part time on their primary job and full time on their secondary job(s), not shown separately.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-1. Employees on nonfarm payrolls by industry sector and selected industry detail
[In thousands]
Industry Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Mar.
2019
Jan.
2020
Feb.
2020(p)
Mar.
2020(p)
Mar.
2019
Jan.
2020
Feb.
2020(p)
Mar.
2020(p)
Change from:
Feb.2020 - Mar.2020(p)

Total nonfarm

149,359 150,153 151,055 150,804 150,282 152,212 152,487 151,786 -701

Total private

126,473 127,556 128,032 127,703 127,754 129,498 129,740 129,027 -713

Goods-producing

20,675 20,707 20,767 20,811 21,011 21,149 21,206 21,152 -54

Mining and logging

731 701 700 697 741 712 715 708 -7

Logging

47.7 53.1 53.6 52.1 49.1 53.8 54.3 53.7 -0.6

Mining

683.6 647.4 646.6 644.6 692.1 658.4 660.4 654.1 -6.3

Oil and gas extraction

142.9 154.5 155.0 155.1 143.9 155.8 156.6 156.5 -0.1

Mining, except oil and gas

189.1 184.4 182.8 183.9 193.4 189.9 188.9 188.1 -0.8

Coal mining

51.9 51.1 50.0 49.4 52.2 51.1 50.4 49.8 -0.6

Metal ore mining

42.1 40.5 40.5 40.6 42.3 41.0 40.8 40.8 0.0

Nonmetallic mineral mining and quarrying

95.1 92.8 92.3 93.9 98.9 97.9 97.7 97.6 -0.1

Support activities for mining

351.6 308.5 308.8 305.6 354.8 312.7 314.9 309.5 -5.4

Construction

7,170 7,240 7,271 7,331 7,443 7,593 7,634 7,605 -29

Construction of buildings

1,615.7 1,631.7 1,635.4 1,639.9 1,654.7 1,676.0 1,688.6 1,680.1 -8.5

Residential building

795.5 807.0 813.2 823.0 817.0 831.8 841.8 844.0 2.2

Nonresidential building

820.2 824.7 822.2 816.9 837.7 844.2 846.8 836.1 -10.7

Heavy and civil engineering construction

996.6 990.1 991.6 1,009.6 1,070.6 1,094.1 1,094.6 1,084.4 -10.2

Specialty trade contractors

4,557.5 4,618.2 4,643.6 4,681.0 4,717.2 4,823.1 4,850.7 4,840.5 -10.2

Residential specialty trade contractors

2,004.5 2,021.6 2,035.6 2,050.3 2,074.6 2,111.5 2,125.6 2,119.1 -6.5

Nonresidential specialty trade contractors

2,553.0 2,596.6 2,608.0 2,630.7 2,642.6 2,711.6 2,725.1 2,721.4 -3.7

Manufacturing

12,774 12,766 12,796 12,783 12,827 12,844 12,857 12,839 -18

Durable goods

8,039 8,019 8,038 8,040 8,056 8,052 8,063 8,056 -7

Wood products

403.9 407.1 407.5 408.2 407.4 411.3 411.2 411.9 0.7

Nonmetallic mineral products

411.7 410.8 413.5 416.9 418.9 422.9 425.6 424.4 -1.2

Primary metals

390.1 373.7 373.6 372.4 389.7 373.3 372.7 371.7 -1.0

Fabricated metal products

1,490.2 1,477.1 1,479.2 1,477.5 1,492.9 1,483.8 1,484.8 1,480.4 -4.4

Machinery

1,130.6 1,114.0 1,109.6 1,107.4 1,131.9 1,114.3 1,110.0 1,108.5 -1.5

Computer and electronic products

1,069.1 1,093.9 1,095.9 1,099.4 1,071.4 1,097.1 1,099.5 1,101.3 1.8

Computer and peripheral equipment

160.4 169.1 169.0 169.8 160.6 169.1 169.5 170.2 0.7

Communications equipment

83.5 84.4 84.3 84.6 83.5 84.5 84.6 84.5 -0.1

Semiconductors and electronic components

374.7 376.6 377.7 379.2 375.2 378.6 378.8 379.4 0.6

Electronic instruments

418.3 431.8 432.0 432.7 419.4 432.3 433.3 433.8 0.5

Miscellaneous computer and electronic products

32.2 32.0 32.9 33.1 32.7 32.6 33.3 33.4 0.1

Electrical equipment and appliances

403.3 405.5 404.6 403.1 404.6 405.6 405.0 404.9 -0.1

Transportation equipment(1)

1,738.7 1,732.7 1,748.1 1,748.1 1,734.4 1,735.3 1,744.8 1,743.4 -1.4

Motor vehicles and parts(2)

1,011.7 989.2 1,004.1 1,003.6 1,005.8 990.4 998.9 996.7 -2.2

Furniture and related products

387.8 386.4 385.4 385.5 388.7 387.3 386.3 385.9 -0.4

Miscellaneous durable goods manufacturing

613.2 617.3 620.3 621.0 615.7 621.3 623.0 623.3 0.3

Nondurable goods

4,735 4,747 4,758 4,743 4,771 4,792 4,794 4,783 -11

Food manufacturing

1,614.6 1,632.2 1,635.2 1,629.7 1,636.2 1,654.9 1,654.9 1,653.4 -1.5

Textile mills

109.6 106.5 107.0 106.0 109.7 106.9 106.6 106.1 -0.5

Textile product mills

113.3 112.3 110.4 108.3 114.1 112.7 111.3 109.4 -1.9

Apparel

111.5 103.8 104.8 105.0 111.6 104.8 105.1 105.2 0.1

Paper and paper products

365.7 363.1 362.4 362.8 366.1 364.5 363.6 363.4 -0.2

Printing and related support activities

425.1 416.5 415.1 412.0 426.5 418.3 417.2 413.7 -3.5

Petroleum and coal products

111.8 110.0 110.2 110.0 115.2 114.3 114.3 113.6 -0.7

Chemicals

847.5 846.6 850.1 846.4 847.6 849.8 850.4 847.4 -3.0

Plastics and rubber products

733.4 743.9 746.7 748.6 733.9 745.4 747.4 749.0 1.6

Miscellaneous nondurable goods manufacturing

302.0 311.9 316.2 313.8 309.7 320.3 323.5 321.4 -2.1

Private service-providing

105,798 106,849 107,265 106,892 106,743 108,349 108,534 107,875 -659

Trade, transportation, and utilities

27,358 27,734 27,479 27,460 27,665 27,832 27,830 27,781 -49

Wholesale trade

5,857.1 5,904.8 5,903.1 5,912.1 5,880.3 5,937.5 5,935.6 5,936.5 0.9

Durable goods

3,180.4 3,208.9 3,209.0 3,210.8 3,188.5 3,220.0 3,219.2 3,220.1 0.9

Nondurable goods

2,149.7 2,164.9 2,163.6 2,168.7 2,164.4 2,184.3 2,183.3 2,183.5 0.2

Electronic markets and agents and brokers

527.0 531.0 530.5 532.6 527.4 533.2 533.1 532.9 -0.2

Retail trade

15,425.8 15,573.4 15,425.1 15,403.6 15,642.9 15,669.0 15,670.2 15,624.0 -46.2

Motor vehicle and parts dealers

2,013.0 2,047.5 2,050.6 2,049.9 2,022.6 2,064.3 2,064.4 2,059.7 -4.7

Automobile dealers

1,295.2 1,305.2 1,308.1 1,304.2 1,298.5 1,310.1 1,310.9 1,307.3 -3.6

Other motor vehicle dealers

157.6 156.3 158.7 160.5 161.6 165.3 165.7 165.1 -0.6

Auto parts, accessories, and tire stores

560.2 586.0 583.8 585.2 562.5 588.9 587.8 587.3 -0.5

Furniture and home furnishings stores

471.4 472.1 467.1 457.0 474.5 469.3 469.9 459.5 -10.4

Electronics and appliance stores

476.5 477.7 472.3 468.9 478.7 472.6 474.8 472.1 -2.7

Building material and garden supply stores

1,296.8 1,247.7 1,267.8 1,306.8 1,290.2 1,308.4 1,305.6 1,301.7 -3.9

Food and beverage stores

3,042.1 3,077.7 3,067.9 3,062.6 3,070.8 3,091.4 3,091.0 3,092.1 1.1

Health and personal care stores

1,041.6 1,059.1 1,053.4 1,045.6 1,047.4 1,051.3 1,058.2 1,052.3 -5.9

Gasoline stations

927.2 944.1 935.6 937.0 937.1 951.5 949.2 948.5 -0.7

Clothing and clothing accessories stores

1,280.8 1,298.0 1,261.3 1,232.1 1,322.6 1,290.3 1,288.5 1,272.2 -16.3

Sporting goods, hobby, book, and music stores

538.3 551.4 534.9 520.8 554.9 549.0 547.6 538.4 -9.2

General merchandise stores

2,958.6 3,049.6 2,969.7 2,982.7 3,036.2 3,046.6 3,048.2 3,058.5 10.3

Department stores

1,042.7 1,092.4 1,044.2 1,040.5 1,083.8 1,076.1 1,078.5 1,080.9 2.4

General merchandise stores, including warehouse clubs and supercenters

1,915.9 1,957.2 1,925.5 1,942.2 1,952.3 1,970.5 1,969.7 1,977.6 7.9

Miscellaneous store retailers

817.5 803.7 802.2 797.0 839.8 822.3 821.7 819.3 -2.4

Nonstore retailers

562.0 544.8 542.3 543.2 568.1 552.0 551.1 549.7 -1.4

Transportation and warehousing

5,525.3 5,710.7 5,606.6 5,597.5 5,591.6 5,678.5 5,677.3 5,672.4 -4.9

Air transportation

499.2 505.5 507.9 511.4 500.7 509.2 511.1 512.7 1.6

Rail transportation

180.5 159.7 158.9 156.9 181.2 160.7 159.6 157.5 -2.1

Water transportation

63.5 63.1 62.8 62.6 65.5 65.0 65.0 64.9 -0.1

Truck transportation

1,507.4 1,501.6 1,503.5 1,505.3 1,529.7 1,526.9 1,528.1 1,527.9 -0.2

Transit and ground passenger transportation

511.8 517.5 520.9 517.9 498.2 507.5 508.6 504.6 -4.0

Pipeline transportation

50.7 51.2 50.4 50.8 50.8 51.1 50.5 51.0 0.5

Scenic and sightseeing transportation

28.0 27.3 28.3 28.2 35.5 36.2 37.1 35.7 -1.4

Support activities for transportation

749.7 761.4 760.8 754.5 751.9 762.1 762.8 757.0 -5.8

Couriers and messengers

764.5 928.7 815.2 805.3 795.4 859.4 847.7 846.1 -1.6

Warehousing and storage

1,170.0 1,194.7 1,197.9 1,204.6 1,182.7 1,200.4 1,206.8 1,215.0 8.2

Utilities

549.4 545.2 544.3 547.0 550.6 546.9 547.1 547.9 0.8

Information

2,838 2,857 2,881 2,885 2,851 2,894 2,897 2,899 2

Publishing industries, except Internet

750.1 763.7 768.1 767.5 753.5 766.3 770.3 770.9 0.6

Motion picture and sound recording industries

433.1 424.7 445.7 445.9 440.9 456.8 457.5 455.0 -2.5

Broadcasting, except Internet

268.2 261.1 263.2 264.5 267.2 262.3 263.1 263.7 0.6

Telecommunications

725.2 705.7 700.9 699.9 724.2 706.6 701.3 699.6 -1.7

Data processing, hosting and related services

336.3 348.6 349.3 352.1 337.0 350.5 350.4 352.3 1.9

Other information services

325.5 352.7 353.9 354.7 327.7 351.9 354.6 357.3 2.7

Financial activities

8,658 8,762 8,804 8,803 8,707 8,823 8,854 8,853 -1

Finance and insurance

6,386.2 6,454.9 6,482.5 6,481.0 6,403.7 6,475.5 6,495.0 6,497.5 2.5

Monetary authorities - central bank

19.8 19.5 19.1 19.6 19.9 19.6 19.3 19.6 0.3

Credit intermediation and related
activities

2,635.1 2,670.5 2,675.8 2,675.2 2,643.7 2,674.2 2,681.8 2,682.7 0.9

Depository credit intermediation(1)

1,771.7 1,782.8 1,786.5 1,783.1 1,774.0 1,783.9 1,788.1 1,785.2 -2.9

Commercial banking

1,391.6 1,391.4 1,394.8 1,391.0 1,393.0 1,391.9 1,394.4 1,391.7 -2.7

Nondepository credit intermediation

563.9 581.6 582.8 585.2 569.4 584.5 587.4 590.1 2.7

Activities related to credit intermediation

299.5 306.1 306.5 306.9 300.3 305.7 306.3 307.4 1.1

Securities, commodity contracts, investments, and funds and trusts

954.2 960.7 965.8 965.3 959.0 967.7 969.9 970.6 0.7

Insurance carriers and related activities

2,777.1 2,804.2 2,821.8 2,820.9 2,781.1 2,814.0 2,824.0 2,824.6 0.6

Real estate and rental and leasing

2,271.7 2,306.9 2,321.6 2,321.7 2,303.0 2,347.4 2,358.6 2,355.2 -3.4

Real estate

1,682.8 1,721.6 1,731.4 1,731.5 1,699.6 1,743.4 1,749.9 1,750.4 0.5

Rental and leasing services

566.1 562.3 566.9 567.0 580.2 580.3 585.0 581.2 -3.8

Lessors of nonfinancial intangible assets

22.8 23.0 23.3 23.2 23.2 23.7 23.7 23.6 -0.1

Professional and business services

20,908 21,139 21,250 21,229 21,176 21,523 21,559 21,507 -52

Professional and technical services

9,479.6 9,658.7 9,755.7 9,730.0 9,457.0 9,678.8 9,705.6 9,712.1 6.5

Legal services

1,141.7 1,152.3 1,155.6 1,155.3 1,146.7 1,160.6 1,162.2 1,160.5 -1.7

Accounting and bookkeeping services

1,114.5 1,083.1 1,144.9 1,141.7 1,015.4 1,034.6 1,037.5 1,041.6 4.1

Architectural and engineering services

1,485.9 1,513.1 1,521.0 1,519.3 1,503.8 1,528.9 1,538.3 1,537.5 -0.8

Specialized design services

142.3 143.6 143.6 142.4 143.5 145.8 144.9 143.7 -1.2

Computer systems design and related services

2,150.0 2,243.3 2,248.2 2,230.7 2,173.3 2,246.6 2,253.0 2,256.8 3.8

Management and technical consulting services

1,498.4 1,542.4 1,549.8 1,545.0 1,515.5 1,559.8 1,561.3 1,563.3 2.0

Scientific research and development services

714.5 738.0 743.0 745.6 718.3 744.7 748.7 749.7 1.0

Advertising and related services

490.3 490.0 491.9 488.1 492.3 493.9 493.3 490.7 -2.6

Other professional and technical services

742.0 752.9 757.7 761.9 748.3 763.9 766.4 768.2 1.8

Management of companies and enterprises

2,402.8 2,442.4 2,439.4 2,443.7 2,413.6 2,451.0 2,452.9 2,455.6 2.7

Administrative and waste services

9,026.0 9,037.7 9,054.9 9,055.3 9,305.4 9,393.0 9,400.6 9,339.5 -61.1

Administrative and support services

8,584.5 8,579.8 8,595.5 8,595.2 8,857.2 8,927.6 8,933.6 8,872.6 -61.0

Office administrative services

518.3 526.6 527.1 530.9 521.5 530.9 532.2 533.8 1.6

Facilities support services

162.9 164.0 163.2 165.4 163.2 166.1 164.5 165.9 1.4

Employment services(1)

3,508.2 3,507.7 3,504.2 3,482.9 3,630.3 3,653.2 3,653.8 3,604.8 -49.0

Temporary help services

2,845.7 2,821.0 2,807.9 2,785.2 2,951.2 2,946.1 2,942.2 2,892.7 -49.5

Business support services

875.8 874.0 869.7 862.9 879.6 870.6 869.4 867.3 -2.1

Travel arrangement and reservation services

217.0 218.0 218.6 214.8 218.4 223.1 222.5 216.0 -6.5

Investigation and security services

947.8 953.5 965.0 964.1 954.4 966.5 971.3 970.4 -0.9

Services to buildings and dwellings

2,022.4 2,000.5 2,006.8 2,037.1 2,156.4 2,176.6 2,177.5 2,175.1 -2.4

Other support services

332.1 335.5 340.9 337.1 333.4 340.5 342.4 339.3 -3.1

Waste management and remediation services

441.5 457.9 459.4 460.1 448.2 465.4 467.0 466.9 -0.1

Education and health services

24,113 24,403 24,716 24,645 23,981 24,534 24,599 24,523 -76

Educational services

3,879.0 3,758.9 3,997.8 3,970.6 3,725.0 3,839.2 3,837.8 3,822.6 -15.2

Health care and social assistance

20,234.0 20,644.1 20,718.5 20,674.8 20,256.1 20,695.2 20,761.3 20,700.1 -61.2

Health care(3)

16,142.6 16,428.8 16,465.7 16,431.5 16,175.5 16,471.0 16,509.0 16,466.5 -42.5

Ambulatory health care services

7,617.4 7,802.5 7,833.1 7,799.8 7,633.6 7,830.3 7,856.5 7,815.8 -40.7

Offices of physicians

2,645.8 2,706.9 2,717.2 2,706.0 2,651.6 2,713.8 2,723.2 2,711.2 -12.0

Offices of dentists

965.9 972.0 973.2 958.2 967.8 975.3 977.2 960.0 -17.2

Offices of other health practitioners

954.7 980.9 985.8 977.5 958.7 985.0 988.3 981.7 -6.6

Outpatient care centers

958.0 979.8 979.5 988.4 956.2 980.7 981.2 986.4 5.2

Medical and diagnostic laboratories

278.9 289.2 288.5 287.4 279.0 290.3 288.9 287.8 -1.1

Home health care services

1,503.4 1,553.3 1,565.8 1,561.0 1,508.6 1,562.2 1,572.4 1,566.5 -5.9

Other ambulatory health care services

310.7 320.4 323.1 321.3 311.7 323.1 325.3 322.2 -3.1

Hospitals

5,168.1 5,248.3 5,256.1 5,258.1 5,170.6 5,251.4 5,261.3 5,261.5 0.2

Nursing and residential care facilities

3,357.1 3,378.0 3,376.5 3,373.6 3,371.3 3,389.3 3,391.2 3,389.2 -2.0

Nursing care facilities

1,594.2 1,587.1 1,585.7 1,582.2 1,601.8 1,592.1 1,592.1 1,590.3 -1.8

Residential mental health facilities

644.7 649.9 650.4 652.6 646.4 652.3 653.0 654.3 1.3

Community care facilities for the elderly

953.8 974.2 973.6 971.2 957.8 976.6 977.9 976.4 -1.5

Other residential care facilities

164.4 166.8 166.8 167.6 165.2 168.3 168.2 168.2 0.0

Social assistance

4,091.4 4,215.3 4,252.8 4,243.3 4,080.6 4,224.2 4,252.3 4,233.6 -18.7

Individual and family services

2,564.3 2,672.4 2,695.0 2,699.3 2,566.6 2,678.9 2,699.4 2,702.1 2.7

Emergency and other relief services

182.8 184.8 185.3 186.1 182.5 185.4 186.0 186.0 0.0

Vocational rehabilitation services

323.1 318.9 323.4 321.0 325.5 323.1 326.2 323.4 -2.8

Child day care services

1,021.2 1,039.2 1,049.1 1,036.9 1,006.1 1,036.8 1,040.7 1,022.1 -18.6

Leisure and hospitality

16,090 16,092 16,245 15,988 16,494 16,808 16,852 16,393 -459

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

2,263.8 2,236.8 2,259.3 2,285.7 2,427.3 2,480.7 2,475.5 2,462.3 -13.2

Performing arts and spectator sports

493.7 456.2 473.2 483.7 517.7 516.8 513.9 509.5 -4.4

Museums, historical sites, and similar institutions

161.6 162.2 160.3 163.8 171.6 176.0 175.5 174.3 -1.2

Amusements, gambling, and recreation

1,608.5 1,618.4 1,625.8 1,638.2 1,738.0 1,787.9 1,786.1 1,778.5 -7.6

Accommodation and food services

13,825.7 13,854.8 13,985.8 13,702.1 14,066.7 14,327.7 14,376.6 13,930.3 -446.3

Accommodation

1,999.1 1,995.5 2,005.0 1,996.3 2,067.6 2,095.4 2,093.7 2,064.8 -28.9

Food services and drinking places

11,826.6 11,859.3 11,980.8 11,705.8 11,999.1 12,232.3 12,282.9 11,865.5 -417.4

Other services

5,833 5,862 5,890 5,882 5,869 5,935 5,943 5,919 -24

Repair and maintenance

1,338.8 1,355.8 1,373.8 1,368.0 1,340.4 1,371.0 1,378.8 1,370.1 -8.7

Personal and laundry services

1,508.2 1,515.8 1,516.2 1,510.2 1,522.3 1,536.0 1,537.5 1,524.4 -13.1

Membership associations and organizations

2,986.3 2,990.4 2,999.7 3,003.7 3,006.2 3,027.6 3,026.4 3,024.1 -2.3

Government

22,886 22,597 23,023 23,101 22,528 22,714 22,747 22,759 12

Federal

2,794.0 2,842.0 2,841.0 2,857.0 2,815.0 2,855.0 2,863.0 2,881.0 18.0

Federal, except U.S. Postal Service

2,188.9 2,240.8 2,245.8 2,262.2 2,207.1 2,252.3 2,261.9 2,281.4 19.5

U.S. Postal Service

605.4 601.6 595.1 595.0 607.4 602.9 601.3 599.5 -1.8

State government

5,334.0 5,105.0 5,329.0 5,339.0 5,175.0 5,190.0 5,198.0 5,184.0 -14.0

State government education

2,654.2 2,411.1 2,630.9 2,641.6 2,488.3 2,483.2 2,488.8 2,480.2 -8.6

State government, excluding education

2,679.7 2,693.7 2,698.4 2,696.9 2,686.5 2,706.9 2,709.6 2,704.1 -5.5

Local government

14,758.0 14,650.0 14,853.0 14,905.0 14,538.0 14,669.0 14,686.0 14,694.0 8.0

Local government education

8,310.0 8,162.0 8,341.6 8,365.6 7,982.4 8,044.5 8,048.4 8,048.1 -0.3

Local government, excluding education

6,447.7 6,488.0 6,510.9 6,539.5 6,555.4 6,624.5 6,637.9 6,645.5 7.6

Footnotes
(1) Includes other industries, not shown separately.
(2) Includes motor vehicles, motor vehicle bodies and trailers, and motor vehicle parts.
(3) Includes ambulatory health care services, hospitals, and nursing and residential care facilities.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2019 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-2. Average weekly hours and overtime of all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Mar.
2019
Jan.
2020
Feb.
2020(p)
Mar.
2020(p)

AVERAGE WEEKLY HOURS

Total private

34.5 34.3 34.4 34.2

Goods-producing

40.4 40.2 40.4 40.1

Mining and logging

46.6 45.7 45.7 45.5

Construction

39.4 39.2 39.4 39.1

Manufacturing

40.7 40.4 40.7 40.4

Durable goods

41.0 40.9 41.1 40.7

Nondurable goods

40.1 39.6 39.9 39.8

Private service-providing

33.3 33.2 33.3 33.0

Trade, transportation, and utilities

34.3 34.0 34.3 34.3

Wholesale trade

39.0 38.8 38.8 38.7

Retail trade

30.7 30.3 30.8 30.9

Transportation and warehousing

38.7 38.3 38.4 38.4

Utilities

42.2 42.5 42.6 42.5

Information

36.3 36.3 36.3 36.4

Financial activities

37.7 37.7 37.6 37.6

Professional and business services

36.3 36.1 36.2 36.1

Education and health services

33.0 33.0 33.1 32.9

Leisure and hospitality

26.1 25.9 25.8 24.4

Other services

32.0 32.0 31.9 31.5

AVERAGE OVERTIME HOURS

Manufacturing

3.4 3.1 3.2 3.0

Durable goods

3.4 3.1 3.2 2.9

Nondurable goods

3.4 3.2 3.2 3.2

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2019 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-3. Average hourly and weekly earnings of all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Average hourly earnings Average weekly earnings
Mar.
2019
Jan.
2020
Feb.
2020(p)
Mar.
2020(p)
Mar.
2019
Jan.
2020
Feb.
2020(p)
Mar.
2020(p)

Total private

$27.76 $28.43 $28.51 $28.62 $957.72 $975.15 $980.74 $978.80

Goods-producing

28.73 29.48 29.57 29.63 1,160.69 1,185.10 1,194.63 1,188.16

Mining and logging

32.96 34.47 34.70 34.76 1,535.94 1,575.28 1,585.79 1,581.58

Construction

30.50 31.19 31.30 31.31 1,201.70 1,222.65 1,233.22 1,224.22

Manufacturing

27.46 28.19 28.25 28.35 1,117.62 1,138.88 1,149.78 1,145.34

Durable goods

28.90 29.61 29.65 29.70 1,184.90 1,211.05 1,218.62 1,208.79

Nondurable goods

24.96 25.73 25.82 26.02 1,000.90 1,018.91 1,030.22 1,035.60

Private service-providing

27.53 28.18 28.27 28.39 916.75 935.58 941.39 936.87

Trade, transportation, and utilities

24.02 24.61 24.67 24.69 823.89 836.74 846.18 846.87

Wholesale trade

31.26 31.72 31.82 31.82 1,219.14 1,230.74 1,234.62 1,231.43

Retail trade

19.44 20.11 20.18 20.26 596.81 609.33 621.54 626.03

Transportation and warehousing

24.61 25.00 25.14 25.11 952.41 957.50 965.38 964.22

Utilities

41.83 42.32 42.45 42.45 1,765.23 1,798.60 1,808.37 1,804.13

Information

41.96 42.80 42.95 43.06 1,523.15 1,553.64 1,559.09 1,567.38

Financial activities

35.54 36.59 36.83 36.71 1,339.86 1,379.44 1,384.81 1,380.30

Professional and business services

33.33 34.29 34.42 34.46 1,209.88 1,237.87 1,246.00 1,244.01

Education and health services

27.52 27.86 27.90 27.90 908.16 919.38 923.49 917.91

Leisure and hospitality

16.40 16.80 16.84 16.83 428.04 435.12 434.47 410.65

Other services

25.05 25.57 25.63 25.69 801.60 818.24 817.60 809.24

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2019 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-4. Indexes of aggregate weekly hours and payrolls for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
[2007=100]
Industry Index of aggregate weekly hours(1) Index of aggregate weekly payrolls(2)
Mar.
2019
Jan.
2020
Feb.
2020(p)
Mar.
2020(p)
Percent change from:
Feb.
2020 - Mar.
2020(p)
Mar.
2019
Jan.
2020
Feb.
2020(p)
Mar.
2020(p)
Percent change from:
Feb.
2020 - Mar.
2020(p)

Total private

110.6 111.5 112.0 110.8 -1.1 146.8 151.6 152.7 151.6 -0.7

Goods-producing

96.7 96.9 97.6 96.6 -1.0 125.6 129.1 130.4 129.4 -0.8

Mining and logging

108.5 102.2 102.7 101.2 -1.5 143.6 141.5 143.0 141.3 -1.2

Construction

101.1 102.6 103.7 102.5 -1.2 134.0 139.0 141.0 139.4 -1.1

Manufacturing

93.9 93.4 94.1 93.3 -0.9 119.9 122.4 123.7 123.0 -0.6

Durable goods

93.0 92.7 93.3 92.3 -1.1 119.4 121.9 122.9 121.8 -0.9

Nondurable goods

95.5 94.7 95.5 95.0 -0.5 120.9 123.7 125.1 125.5 0.3

Private service-providing

114.4 115.8 116.4 114.6 -1.5 153.1 158.6 159.9 158.2 -1.1

Trade, transportation, and utilities

103.5 103.3 104.2 104.0 -0.2 134.1 137.0 138.6 138.4 -0.1

Wholesale trade

101.2 101.6 101.6 101.3 -0.3 132.3 134.8 135.2 134.9 -0.2

Retail trade

97.5 96.4 98.0 98.0 0.0 125.3 128.1 130.7 131.3 0.5

Transportation and warehousing

124.3 125.0 125.3 125.2 -0.1 155.7 158.9 160.2 159.9 -0.2

Utilities

100.5 100.6 100.8 100.7 -0.1 138.9 140.6 141.4 141.3 -0.1

Information

94.5 95.9 96.0 96.4 0.4 141.2 146.2 146.9 147.8 0.6

Financial activities

107.6 109.0 109.1 109.1 0.0 149.1 155.5 156.7 156.2 -0.3

Professional and business services

120.5 121.8 122.4 121.7 -0.6 162.7 169.1 170.5 169.9 -0.4

Education and health services

129.2 132.2 133.0 131.7 -1.0 171.1 177.2 178.5 176.8 -1.0

Leisure and hospitality

122.8 124.2 124.1 114.1 -8.1 162.5 168.4 168.5 155.0 -8.0

Other services

108.3 109.5 109.3 107.5 -1.6 148.7 153.5 153.5 151.4 -1.4

Footnotes
(1) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding 2007 annual average aggregate hours. Aggregate hours estimates are the product of estimates of average weekly hours and employment.
(2) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding 2007 annual average aggregate weekly payrolls. Aggregate payrolls estimates are the product of estimates of average hourly earnings, average weekly hours, and employment.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2019 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-5. Employment of women on nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Women employees (in thousands) Percent of all employees
Mar.
2019
Jan.
2020
Feb.
2020(p)
Mar.
2020(p)
Mar.
2019
Jan.
2020
Feb.
2020(p)
Mar.
2020(p)

Total nonfarm

74,871 76,151 76,304 75,892 49.8 50.0 50.0 50.0

Total private

61,871 63,018 63,152 62,727 48.4 48.7 48.7 48.6

Goods-producing

4,682 4,766 4,773 4,767 22.3 22.5 22.5 22.5

Mining and logging

94 96 95 96 12.7 13.5 13.3 13.6

Construction

962 989 994 993 12.9 13.0 13.0 13.1

Manufacturing

3,626 3,681 3,684 3,678 28.3 28.7 28.7 28.6

Durable goods

1,925 1,958 1,960 1,962 23.9 24.3 24.3 24.4

Nondurable goods

1,701 1,723 1,724 1,716 35.7 36.0 36.0 35.9

Private service-providing

57,189 58,252 58,379 57,960 53.6 53.8 53.8 53.7

Trade, transportation, and utilities

11,070 11,138 11,151 11,112 40.0 40.0 40.1 40.0

Wholesale trade

1,763.8 1,789.9 1,789.0 1,793.1 30.0 30.1 30.1 30.2

Retail trade

7,767.3 7,746.9 7,760.6 7,725.2 49.7 49.4 49.5 49.4

Transportation and warehousing

1,406.7 1,468.7 1,468.1 1,460.9 25.2 25.9 25.9 25.8

Utilities

132.0 132.8 133.1 133.2 24.0 24.3 24.3 24.3

Information

1,130 1,148 1,150 1,149 39.6 39.7 39.7 39.6

Financial activities

4,941 4,990 5,001 4,999 56.7 56.6 56.5 56.5

Professional and business services

9,631 9,877 9,900 9,871 45.5 45.9 45.9 45.9

Education and health services

18,528 18,980 19,033 18,947 77.3 77.4 77.4 77.3

Leisure and hospitality

8,754 8,959 8,986 8,725 53.1 53.3 53.3 53.2

Other services

3,135 3,160 3,158 3,157 53.4 53.2 53.1 53.3

Government

13,000 13,133 13,152 13,165 57.7 57.8 57.8 57.8

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2019 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-6. Employment of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
[In thousands]
Industry Mar.
2019
Jan.
2020
Feb.
2020(p)
Mar.
2020(p)

Total private

105,217 106,495 106,694 105,796

Goods-producing

15,083 15,117 15,166 15,112

Mining and logging

553 512 513 504

Construction

5,538 5,653 5,686 5,665

Manufacturing

8,992 8,952 8,967 8,943

Durable goods

5,556 5,521 5,533 5,515

Nondurable goods

3,436 3,431 3,434 3,428

Private service-providing

90,134 91,378 91,528 90,684

Trade, transportation, and utilities

23,417 23,509 23,531 23,467

Wholesale trade

4,731.2 4,751.5 4,754.3 4,751.8

Retail trade

13,366.0 13,355.3 13,379.2 13,328.6

Transportation and warehousing

4,879.8 4,963.5 4,959.3 4,948.6

Utilities

439.6 438.5 437.9 437.9

Information

2,292 2,323 2,328 2,327

Financial activities

6,744 6,830 6,850 6,799

Professional and business services

17,264 17,470 17,504 17,395

Education and health services

21,063 21,565 21,613 21,478

Leisure and hospitality

14,495 14,776 14,795 14,357

Other services

4,859 4,905 4,907 4,861

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2019 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-7. Average weekly hours and overtime of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry Mar.
2019
Jan.
2020
Feb.
2020(p)
Mar.
2020(p)

AVERAGE WEEKLY HOURS

Total private

33.7 33.6 33.7 33.4

Goods-producing

41.3 41.0 41.0 40.9

Mining and logging

47.2 46.0 45.6 45.6

Construction

39.9 40.0 39.6 39.7

Manufacturing

41.7 41.3 41.7 41.4

Durable goods

42.1 41.6 42.0 41.6

Nondurable goods

41.2 40.9 41.2 41.0

Private service-providing

32.5 32.4 32.5 32.2

Trade, transportation, and utilities

33.9 33.9 34.0 34.0

Wholesale trade

38.8 38.6 38.6 38.4

Retail trade

30.4 30.4 30.5 30.6

Transportation and warehousing

38.0 38.0 38.3 38.1

Utilities

42.5 42.9 43.1 43.3

Information

35.5 35.1 35.2 35.3

Financial activities

37.0 37.0 36.9 36.8

Professional and business services

35.4 35.5 35.5 35.5

Education and health services

32.2 32.2 32.3 32.2

Leisure and hospitality

24.9 24.7 24.7 22.9

Other services

30.9 31.1 31.0 30.5

AVERAGE OVERTIME HOURS

Manufacturing

4.4 4.0 4.0 3.9

Durable goods

4.4 4.0 4.1 3.9

Nondurable goods

4.3 3.9 3.9 3.9

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2019 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-8. Average hourly and weekly earnings of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry Average hourly earnings Average weekly earnings
Mar.
2019
Jan.
2020
Feb.
2020(p)
Mar.
2020(p)
Mar.
2019
Jan.
2020
Feb.
2020(p)
Mar.
2020(p)

Total private

$23.28 $23.88 $23.97 $24.07 $784.54 $802.37 $807.79 $803.94

Goods-producing

24.53 25.09 25.18 25.26 1,013.09 1,028.69 1,032.38 1,033.13

Mining and logging

29.36 30.35 30.98 30.95 1,385.79 1,396.10 1,412.69 1,411.32

Construction

28.33 28.92 28.98 29.07 1,130.37 1,156.80 1,147.61 1,154.08

Manufacturing

21.96 22.42 22.53 22.58 915.73 925.95 939.50 934.81

Durable goods

22.90 23.37 23.53 23.57 964.09 972.19 988.26 980.51

Nondurable goods

20.40 20.87 20.88 20.98 840.48 853.58 860.26 860.18

Private service-providing

23.02 23.63 23.71 23.81 748.15 765.61 770.58 766.68

Trade, transportation, and utilities

20.49 20.87 20.96 20.96 694.61 707.49 712.64 712.64

Wholesale trade

26.04 26.24 26.29 26.37 1,010.35 1,012.86 1,014.79 1,012.61

Retail trade

16.41 16.88 16.94 17.02 498.86 513.15 516.67 520.81

Transportation and warehousing

22.31 22.58 22.76 22.55 847.78 858.04 871.71 859.16

Utilities

36.69 37.68 37.80 37.91 1,559.33 1,616.47 1,629.18 1,641.50

Information

33.36 34.40 34.52 34.54 1,184.28 1,207.44 1,215.10 1,219.26

Financial activities

27.37 28.16 28.23 28.23 1,012.69 1,041.92 1,041.69 1,038.86

Professional and business services

27.44 28.33 28.42 28.48 971.38 1,005.72 1,008.91 1,011.04

Education and health services

24.16 24.72 24.80 24.85 777.95 795.98 801.04 800.17

Leisure and hospitality

14.34 14.83 14.90 14.61 357.07 366.30 368.03 334.57

Other services

21.24 21.77 21.83 21.90 656.32 677.05 676.73 667.95

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2019 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-9. Indexes of aggregate weekly hours and payrolls for production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
[2002=100]
Industry Index of aggregate weekly hours(2) Index of aggregate weekly payrolls(3)
Mar.
2019
Jan.
2020
Feb.
2020(p)
Mar.
2020(p)
Percent change from:
Feb.
2020 - Mar.
2020(p)
Mar.
2019
Jan.
2020
Feb.
2020(p)
Mar.
2020(p)
Percent change from:
Feb.
2020 - Mar.
2020(p)

Total private

118.2 119.2 119.8 117.7 -1.8 183.8 190.3 192.0 189.4 -1.4

Goods-producing

95.2 94.7 95.0 94.5 -0.5 143.0 145.5 146.5 146.1 -0.3

Mining and logging

138.7 125.2 124.3 122.1 -1.8 236.8 220.9 224.0 219.8 -1.9

Construction

110.6 113.2 112.7 112.6 -0.1 169.2 176.8 176.4 176.8 0.2

Manufacturing

86.1 84.9 85.8 85.0 -0.9 123.6 124.4 126.5 125.5 -0.8

Durable goods

87.9 86.3 87.3 86.2 -1.3 125.7 125.9 128.3 126.9 -1.1

Nondurable goods

83.4 82.7 83.4 82.8 -0.7 120.2 121.9 123.0 122.8 -0.2

Private service-providing

124.8 126.1 126.7 124.4 -1.8 197.1 204.5 206.1 203.2 -1.4

Trade, transportation, and utilities

111.0 111.4 111.9 111.6 -0.3 162.6 166.2 167.6 167.1 -0.3

Wholesale trade

108.9 108.9 108.9 108.3 -0.6 167.4 168.6 169.0 168.6 -0.2

Retail trade

102.8 102.7 103.3 103.2 -0.1 144.6 148.6 149.9 150.5 0.4

Transportation and warehousing

140.3 142.7 143.7 142.7 -0.7 199.3 205.2 208.2 204.8 -1.6

Utilities

95.5 96.2 96.5 97.0 0.5 146.3 151.3 152.3 153.4 0.7

Information

92.9