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Economic News Release
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CES CES Program Links

Employment Situation News Release

Transmission of material in this news release is embargoed until	      USDL-23-0630
8:30 a.m. (ET) Friday, April 7, 2023

Technical information: 
 Household data:     (202) 691-6378  *  cpsinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/cps
 Establishment data: (202) 691-6555  *  cesinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/ces

Media contact:	     (202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov


                     THE EMPLOYMENT SITUATION -- MARCH 2023


Total nonfarm payroll employment rose by 236,000 in March, and the unemployment rate
changed little at 3.5 percent, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today.
Employment continued to trend up in leisure and hospitality, government, professional
and business services, and health care. 

This news release presents statistics from two monthly surveys. The household survey
measures labor force status, including unemployment, by demographic characteristics.
The establishment survey measures nonfarm employment, hours, and earnings by industry.
For more information about the concepts and statistical methodology used in these two
surveys, see the Technical Note.

Household Survey Data

Both the unemployment rate, at 3.5 percent, and the number of unemployed persons, at
5.8 million, changed little in March. These measures have shown little net movement
since early 2022. (See table A-1.)

Among the major worker groups, the unemployment rate for Hispanics decreased to 4.6
percent in March, essentially offsetting an increase in the prior month. The 
unemployment rates for adult men (3.4 percent), adult women (3.1 percent), teenagers
(9.8 percent), Whites (3.2 percent), Blacks (5.0 percent), and Asians (2.8 percent)
showed little or no change over the month. (See tables A-1, A-2, and A-3.)

Among the unemployed, the number of permanent job losers increased by 172,000 to 1.6
million in March, and the number of reentrants to the labor force declined by 182,000
to 1.7 million. (Reentrants are persons who previously worked but were not in the 
labor force prior to beginning their job search.) (See table A-11.)

The number of long-term unemployed (those jobless for 27 weeks or more) was little
changed at 1.1 million in March. These individuals accounted for 18.9 percent of all
unemployed persons. (See table A-12.)

The labor force participation rate, at 62.6 percent, continued to trend up in March.
The employment-population ratio edged up over the month to 60.4 percent. These 
measures remain below their pre-pandemic February 2020 levels (63.3 percent and 61.1
percent, respectively). (See table A-1.)

The number of persons employed part time for economic reasons was essentially
unchanged at 4.1 million in March. These individuals, who would have preferred full-
time employment, were working part time because their hours had been reduced or 
they were unable to find full-time jobs. (See table A-8.)

The number of persons not in the labor force who currently want a job was little
changed at 4.9 million in March and has returned to its February 2020 level. These
individuals were not counted as unemployed because they were not actively looking
for work during the 4 weeks preceding the survey or were unavailable to take a job.
(See table A-1.)

Among those not in the labor force who wanted a job, the number of persons marginally
attached to the labor force was little changed at 1.3 million in March. These 
individuals wanted and were available for work and had looked for a job sometime
in the prior 12 months but had not looked for work in the 4 weeks preceding the 
survey. The number of discouraged workers, a subset of the marginally attached who
believed that no jobs were available for them, also was little changed over the month
at 351,000. (See Summary table A.)

Establishment Survey Data

Total nonfarm payroll employment increased by 236,000 in March, compared with the
average monthly gain of 334,000 over the prior 6 months. In March, employment 
continued to trend up in leisure and hospitality, government, professional and
business services, and health care. (See table B-1.) 

Leisure and hospitality added 72,000 jobs in March, lower than the average monthly
gain of 95,000 over the prior 6 months. Most of the job growth occurred in food
services and drinking places, where employment rose by 50,000 in March. Employment
in leisure and hospitality is below its pre-pandemic February 2020 level by 368,000,
or 2.2 percent. 

Government employment increased by 47,000 in March, the same as the average monthly
gain over the prior 6 months. Overall, employment in government is below its February
2020 level by 314,000, or 1.4 percent.

Employment in professional and business services continued to trend up in March 
(+39,000), in line with the average monthly growth over the prior 6 months (+34,000).
Within the industry, employment in professional, scientific, and technical services
continued its upward trend in March (+26,000). 

Over the month, health care added 34,000 jobs, lower than the average monthly gain
of 54,000 over the prior 6 months. In March, job growth occurred in home health 
care services (+15,000) and hospitals (+11,000). Employment continued to trend up
in nursing and residential care facilities (+8,000). 

Employment in social assistance continued to trend up in March (+17,000), in line
with the average monthly growth over the prior 6 months (+22,000). 

In March, employment in transportation and warehousing changed little (+10,000).
Couriers and messengers (+7,000) and air transportation (+6,000) added jobs, while
warehousing and storage lost jobs (-12,000). Employment in transportation and
warehousing has shown little net change in recent months. 

Employment in retail trade changed little in March (-15,000). Job losses in building
material and garden equipment and supplies dealers (-9,000) and in furniture, home
furnishings, electronics, and appliance retailers (-9,000) were partially offset
by a job gain in department stores (+15,000). Retail trade employment is little 
changed on net over the year. 

Employment showed little change over the month in other major industries, including
mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction; construction; manufacturing; wholesale
trade; information; financial activities; and other services. 

In March, average hourly earnings for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls 
rose by 9 cents, or 0.3 percent, to $33.18. Over the past 12 months, average hourly
earnings have increased by 4.2 percent. In March, average hourly earnings of 
private-sector production and nonsupervisory employees rose by 9 cents, or 0.3
percent, to $28.50. (See tables B-3 and B-8.) 

The average workweek for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls edged down by
0.1 hour to 34.4 hours in March. In manufacturing, the average workweek was unchanged
at 40.3 hours, and overtime remained at 3.0 hours. The average workweek for production
and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls was unchanged at 33.9 hours.
(See tables B-2 and B-7.)

The change in total nonfarm payroll employment for January was revised down by 
32,000, from +504,000 to +472,000, and the change for February was revised up by
15,000, from +311,000 to +326,000. With these revisions, employment in January and
February combined is 17,000 lower than previously reported. (Monthly revisions result
from additional reports received from businesses and government agencies since the
last published estimates and from the recalculation of seasonal factors.) 

_____________
The Employment Situation for April is scheduled to be released on Friday,
May 5, 2023, at 8:30 a.m. (ET).




HOUSEHOLD DATA
Summary table A. Household data, seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Category Mar.
2022
Jan.
2023
Feb.
2023
Mar.
2023
Change from:
Feb.
2023-
Mar.
2023

Employment status

Civilian noninstitutional population

263,444 265,962 266,112 266,272 160

Civilian labor force

164,301 165,832 166,251 166,731 480

Participation rate

62.4 62.4 62.5 62.6 0.1

Employed

158,328 160,138 160,315 160,892 577

Employment-population ratio

60.1 60.2 60.2 60.4 0.2

Unemployed

5,972 5,694 5,936 5,839 -97

Unemployment rate

3.6 3.4 3.6 3.5 -0.1

Not in labor force

99,144 100,130 99,861 99,541 -320

Unemployment rates

Total, 16 years and over

3.6 3.4 3.6 3.5 -0.1

Adult men (20 years and over)

3.4 3.2 3.3 3.4 0.1

Adult women (20 years and over)

3.3 3.1 3.2 3.1 -0.1

Teenagers (16 to 19 years)

10.1 10.3 11.1 9.8 -1.3

White

3.2 3.1 3.2 3.2 0.0

Black or African American

6.2 5.4 5.7 5.0 -0.7

Asian

2.8 2.8 3.4 2.8 -0.6

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

4.2 4.5 5.3 4.6 -0.7

Total, 25 years and over

2.9 2.8 2.9 2.9 0.0

Less than a high school diploma

5.3 4.5 5.8 4.8 -1.0

High school graduates, no college

4.0 3.7 3.6 4.0 0.4

Some college or associate degree

3.1 2.9 3.2 3.0 -0.2

Bachelor's degree and higher

2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 0.0

Reason for unemployment

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

2,840 2,529 2,752 2,949 197

Job leavers

789 884 891 845 -46

Reentrants

1,992 1,817 1,847 1,665 -182

New entrants

472 531 515 492 -23

Duration of unemployment

Less than 5 weeks

2,303 1,946 2,289 2,272 -17

5 to 14 weeks

1,688 1,785 1,845 1,733 -112

15 to 26 weeks

552 890 805 734 -71

27 weeks and over

1,429 1,111 1,057 1,104 47

Employed persons at work part time

Part time for economic reasons

4,168 4,050 4,067 4,102 35

Slack work or business conditions

2,883 2,685 2,840 2,873 33

Could only find part-time work

1,045 999 859 882 23

Part time for noneconomic reasons

20,890 22,083 21,856 21,433 -423

Persons not in the labor force

Marginally attached to the labor force

1,372 1,354 1,396 1,289 -107

Discouraged workers

374 342 363 351 -12

NOTE: Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Summary table B. Establishment data, seasonally adjusted
Category Mar.
2022
Jan.
2023
Feb.
2023(p)
Mar.
2023(p)

EMPLOYMENT BY SELECTED INDUSTRY
(Over-the-month change, in thousands)

Total nonfarm

414 472 326 236

Total private

423 353 266 189

Goods-producing

91 41 11 -7

Mining and logging

6 4 0 3

Construction

23 26 12 -9

Manufacturing

62 11 -1 -1

Durable goods(1)

43 0 -2 1

Motor vehicles and parts

27.4 -4.6 1.3 3.7

Nondurable goods

19 11 1 -2

Private service-providing

332 312 255 196

Wholesale trade

35.9 8.9 10.9 6.7

Retail trade

-22.1 22.3 41.3 -14.6

Transportation and warehousing

25.4 31.7 -20.5 10.4

Utilities

0.5 -1.6 -1.2 1.5

Information

26 -23 -10 6

Financial activities

15 -1 -1 -1

Professional and business services(1)

133 44 55 39

Temporary help services

28.3 16.6 3.4 -10.7

Private education and health services(1)

54 111 85 65

Health care and social assistance

44.0 77.3 73.0 50.8

Leisure and hospitality

54 99 90 72

Other services

11 21 5 11

Government

-9 119 60 47

(3-month average change, in thousands)

Total nonfarm

561 334 346 345

Total private

555 271 284 269

WOMEN AND PRODUCTION AND NONSUPERVISORY EMPLOYEES
AS A PERCENT OF ALL EMPLOYEES(2)

Total nonfarm women employees

49.7 49.8 49.8 49.8

Total private women employees

48.3 48.4 48.3 48.4

Total private production and nonsupervisory employees

81.5 81.3 81.3 81.3

HOURS AND EARNINGS
ALL EMPLOYEES

Total private

Average weekly hours

34.7 34.6 34.5 34.4

Average hourly earnings

$31.83 $33.02 $33.09 $33.18

Average weekly earnings

$1,104.50 $1,142.49 $1,141.61 $1,141.39

Index of aggregate weekly hours (2007=100)(3)

112.7 115.1 115.0 114.9

Over-the-month percent change

0.4 0.8 -0.1 -0.1

Index of aggregate weekly payrolls (2007=100)(4)

171.5 181.8 182.0 182.2

Over-the-month percent change

1.0 1.2 0.1 0.1

DIFFUSION INDEX
(Over 1-month span)(5)

Total private (250 industries)

79.0 64.6 57.4 60.2

Manufacturing (72 industries)

78.5 52.8 47.9 56.3

Footnotes
(1) Includes other industries, not shown separately.
(2) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries.
(3) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding annual average aggregate hours.
(4) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding annual average aggregate weekly payrolls.
(5) Figures are the percent of industries with employment increasing plus one-half of the industries with unchanged employment, where 50 percent indicates an equal balance between industries with increasing and decreasing employment.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2022 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


Frequently Asked Questions about Employment and Unemployment Estimates

1. Why are there two monthly measures of employment?

   The household survey and establishment survey both produce sample-based estimates
   of employment, and both have strengths and limitations. The establishment survey
   employment series has a smaller margin of error on the measurement of month-to-
   month change than the household survey because of its much larger sample size. An
   over-the-month employment change of about 130,000 is statistically significant in
   the establishment survey, while the threshold for a statistically significant change
   in the household survey is about 600,000. However, the household survey has a more
   expansive scope than the establishment survey because it includes self-employed
   workers whose businesses are unincorporated, unpaid family workers, agricultural
   workers, and private household workers, who are excluded by the establishment survey.
   The household survey also provides estimates of employment for demographic groups.
   For more information on the differences between the two surveys, please visit
   www.bls.gov/web/empsit/ces_cps_trends.htm.

2. Are undocumented immigrants counted in the surveys?

   It is likely that both surveys include at least some undocumented immigrants. However,
   neither the establishment nor the household survey is designed to identify the legal
   status of workers. Therefore, it is not possible to determine how many are counted in
   either survey. The establishment survey does not collect data on the legal status of
   workers. The household survey does include questions which identify the foreign and
   native born, but it does not include questions about the legal status of the foreign
   born. Data on the foreign and native born are published each month in table A-7 of
   The Employment Situation news release.

3. Why does the establishment survey have revisions?

   The establishment survey revises published estimates to improve its data series by
   incorporating additional information that was not available at the time of the
   initial publication of the estimates. The establishment survey revises its initial
   monthly estimates twice, in the immediately succeeding 2 months, to incorporate
   additional sample receipts from respondents in the survey and recalculated seasonal
   adjustment factors. For more information on the monthly revisions, please visit
   www.bls.gov/web/empsit/cestn.htm#section7.

   On an annual basis, the establishment survey incorporates a benchmark revision that
   re-anchors estimates to nearly complete employment counts available from unemployment
   insurance tax records. The benchmark helps to control for sampling and modeling errors
   in the estimates. For more information on the annual benchmark revision, please visit
   www.bls.gov/web/empsit/cesbmart.htm.

4. Does the establishment survey sample include small firms?

   Yes; about 40 percent of the establishment survey sample is comprised of business
   establishments with fewer than 20 employees. The establishment survey sample is
   designed to maximize the reliability of the statewide total nonfarm employment
   estimate; firms from all states, size classes, and industries are appropriately
   sampled to achieve that goal.

5. Does the establishment survey account for employment from new businesses?

   Yes; monthly establishment survey estimates include an adjustment to account for
   the net employment change generated by business births and deaths. The adjustment
   comes from an econometric model that forecasts the monthly net jobs impact of
   business births and deaths based on the actual past values of the net impact that
   can be observed with a lag from the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages. The
   establishment survey uses modeling rather than sampling for this purpose because
   the survey is not immediately able to bring new businesses into the sample. There
   is an unavoidable lag between the birth of a new firm and its appearance on the
   sampling frame and availability for selection. BLS adds new businesses to the survey
   twice a year.

6. Is the count of unemployed persons limited to just those people receiving unemployment
   insurance benefits?

   No; the estimate of unemployment is based on a monthly sample survey of households.
   All persons who are without jobs and are actively seeking and available to work are
   included among the unemployed. (People on temporary layoff are included even if
   they do not actively seek work.) There is no requirement or question relating to
   unemployment insurance benefits in the monthly survey.

7. Does the official unemployment rate exclude people who want a job but are not currently
   looking for work?

   Yes; however, there are separate estimates of persons outside the labor force who
   want a job, including those who are not currently looking because they believe no
   jobs are available (discouraged workers). In addition, alternative measures of labor
   underutilization (some of which include discouraged workers and other groups not
   officially counted as unemployed) are published each month in table A-15 of The
   Employment Situation news release. For more information about these alternative
   measures, please visit www.bls.gov/cps/lfcharacteristics.htm#altmeasures.

8. How can unusually severe weather affect employment and hours estimates?

   In the establishment survey, the reference period is the pay period that includes
   the 12th of the month. Unusually severe weather is more likely to have an impact on
   average weekly hours than on employment. Average weekly hours are estimated for paid
   time during the pay period, including pay for holidays, sick leave, or other time off.
   The impact of severe weather on hours estimates typically, but not always, results in
   a reduction in average weekly hours. For example, some employees may be off work for
   part of the pay period and not receive pay for the time missed, while some workers,
   such as those dealing with cleanup or repair, may work extra hours.
   
   Typically, it is not possible to precisely quantify the effect of extreme weather on 
   payroll employment estimates. In order for severe weather conditions to reduce
   employment estimates, employees have to be off work without pay for the entire pay
   period. Employees who receive pay for any part of the pay period, even 1 hour, are
   counted in the payroll employment figures. For more information on how often employees
   are paid, please visit www.bls.gov/ces/publications/length-pay-period.htm.

   In the household survey, the reference period is generally the calendar week that
   includes the 12th of the month. Persons who miss the entire week's work for weather-
   related events are counted as employed whether or not they are paid for the time
   off. The household survey collects data on the number of persons who had a job but
   were not at work due to bad weather. It also provides a measure of the number of
   persons who usually work full time but had reduced hours due to bad weather. 
   Current and historical data are available on the household survey's most requested
   statistics page, please visit data.bls.gov/cgi-bin/surveymost?ln.




Technical Note


   This news release presents statistics from two major surveys, the Current
Population Survey (CPS; household survey) and the Current Employment Statistics
survey (CES; establishment survey). The household survey provides information
on the labor force, employment, and unemployment that appears in the "A" tables,
marked HOUSEHOLD DATA. It is a sample survey of about 60,000 eligible households
conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau for the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS).

   The establishment survey provides information on employment, hours, and
earnings of employees on nonfarm payrolls; the data appear in the "B" tables,
marked ESTABLISHMENT DATA. BLS collects these data each month from the payroll
records of a sample of nonagricultural business establishments. Each month
the CES program surveys about 122,000 businesses and government agencies,
representing approximately 666,000 individual worksites, in order to provide
detailed industry data on employment, hours, and earnings of workers on nonfarm
payrolls. The active sample includes approximately one-third of all nonfarm
payroll jobs.

   For both surveys, the data for a given month relate to a particular week or
pay period. In the household survey, the reference period is generally the
calendar week that contains the 12th day of the month. In the establishment
survey, the reference period is the pay period including the 12th, which may or
may not correspond directly to the calendar week.

Coverage, definitions, and differences between surveys

   Household survey. The sample is selected to reflect the entire civilian 
noninstitutional population. Based on responses to a series of questions on 
work and job search activities, each person 16 years and over in a sample
household is classified as employed, unemployed, or not in the labor force.

   People are classified as employed if they did any work at all as paid employees
during the reference week; worked in their own business, profession, or on their
own farm; or worked without pay at least 15 hours in a family business or farm.
People are also counted as employed if they were temporarily absent from their jobs
because of illness, bad weather, vacation, labor-management disputes, or personal
reasons.

   People are classified as unemployed if they meet all of the following criteria:
they had no employment during the reference week; they were available for work at
that time; and they made specific active efforts to find employment sometime during
the 4-week period ending with the reference week. Persons laid off from a job and
expecting recall need not be looking for work to be counted as unemployed. The
unemployment data derived from the household survey in no way depend upon the
eligibility for or receipt of unemployment insurance benefits.

   The civilian labor force is the sum of employed and unemployed persons.
Those persons not classified as employed or unemployed are not in the labor 
force. The unemployment rate is the number unemployed as a percent of the 
labor force. The labor force participation rate is the labor force as a 
percent of the population, and the employment-population ratio is the 
employed as a percent of the population. Additional information about the 
household survey can be found at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm.

   Establishment survey. The sample establishments are drawn from private
nonfarm businesses such as factories, offices, and stores, as well as
from federal, state, and local government entities. Employees on nonfarm
payrolls are those who worked or received pay for any part of the reference pay
period, including persons on paid leave. Persons are counted in each job
they hold. Hours and earnings data are produced for the private sector for
all employees and for production and nonsupervisory employees. Production
and nonsupervisory employees are defined as production and related employees
in manufacturing and mining and logging, construction workers in construction,
and nonsupervisory employees in private service-providing industries.

   Industries are classified on the basis of an establishment's principal
activity in accordance with the 2022 version of the North American Industry
Classification System. Additional information about the establishment survey
can be found at www.bls.gov/ces/.

   Differences in employment estimates. The numerous conceptual and methodological
differences between the household and establishment surveys result in important
distinctions in the employment estimates derived from the surveys. Among these are:

   --The household survey includes agricultural workers, self-employed workers
     whose businesses are unincorporated, unpaid family workers, and private
     household workers among the employed. These groups are excluded from the
     establishment survey.

   --The household survey includes people on unpaid leave among the employed.
     The establishment survey does not.

   --The household survey is limited to workers 16 years of age and older.
     The establishment survey is not limited by age.

   --The household survey has no duplication of individuals, because
     individuals are counted only once, even if they hold more than one
     job. In the establishment survey, employees working at more than one
     job and thus appearing on more than one payroll are counted separately
     for each appearance.

Seasonal adjustment

   Over the course of a year, the size of the nation's labor force and the levels
of employment and unemployment undergo regularly occurring fluctuations. These 
events may result from seasonal changes in weather, major holidays, and the opening
and closing of schools. The effect of such seasonal variation can be very large.

   Because these seasonal events follow a more or less regular pattern each year,
their influence on the level of a series can be tempered by adjusting for regular
seasonal variation. These adjustments make nonseasonal developments, such as
declines in employment or increases in the participation of women in the labor
force, easier to spot. For example, in the household survey, the large number of
youth entering the labor force each June is likely to obscure any other changes
that have taken place relative to May, making it difficult to determine if the 
level of economic activity has risen or declined. Similarly, in the establishment
survey, payroll employment in education declines by about 20 percent at the end
of the spring term and later rises with the start of the fall term, obscuring the
underlying employment trends in the industry. Because seasonal employment changes
at the end and beginning of the school year can be estimated, the statistics can be
adjusted to make underlying employment patterns more discernable.  The seasonally
adjusted figures provide a more useful tool with which to analyze changes in
month-to-month economic activity.

   Many seasonally adjusted series are independently adjusted in both the household
and establishment surveys. However, the adjusted series for many major estimates,
such as total payroll employment, employment in most major sectors, total employment,
and unemployment are computed by aggregating independently adjusted component series.
For example, total unemployment is derived by summing the adjusted series for four
major age-sex components; this differs from the unemployment estimate that would be
obtained by directly adjusting the total or by combining the duration, reasons, or 
more detailed age categories. Percentage distributions of unemployment by reason and
duration are derived from the sum of the independently seasonally adjusted component
series and will not necessarily match calculations made using the seasonally adjusted
total unemployment level. Additional information about seasonal adjustment in the 
household survey can be found at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#sa.

   For both the household and establishment surveys, a concurrent seasonal adjustment
methodology is used in which new seasonal factors are calculated each month using all
relevant data, up to and including the data for the current month. In the household
survey, new seasonal factors are used to adjust only the current month's data. In the
establishment survey, however, new seasonal factors are used each month to adjust the
three most recent monthly estimates. The prior 2 months are routinely revised to
incorporate additional sample reports and recalculated seasonal adjustment factors.
In both surveys, 5-year revisions to historical data are made once a year.

Reliability of the estimates

   Statistics based on the household and establishment surveys are subject to both
sampling and nonsampling error. When a sample, rather than the entire population,
is surveyed, there is a chance that the sample estimates may differ from the true
population values they represent. The component of this difference that occurs
because samples differ by chance is known as sampling error, and its variability
is measured by the standard error of the estimate. There is about a 90-percent
chance, or level of confidence, that an estimate based on a sample will differ by
no more than 1.6 standard errors from the true population value because of sampling
error. BLS analyses are generally conducted at the 90-percent level of confidence.

   For example, the confidence interval for the monthly change in total nonfarm
employment from the establishment survey is on the order of plus or minus 130,000.
Suppose the estimate of nonfarm employment increases by 50,000 from one month to
the next. The 90-percent confidence interval on the monthly change would range from
-80,000 to +180,000 (50,000 +/- 130,000). These figures do not mean that the sample
results are off by these magnitudes, but rather that there is about a 90-percent
chance that the true over-the-month change lies within this interval. Since this
range includes values of less than zero, we could not say with confidence that
nonfarm employment had, in fact, increased that month. If, however, the reported
nonfarm employment rise was 250,000, then all of the values within the 90-percent
confidence interval would be greater than zero. In this case, it is likely (at
least a 90-percent chance) that nonfarm employment had, in fact, risen that month.
At an unemployment rate of around 6.0 percent, the 90-percent confidence interval
for the monthly change in unemployment as measured by the household survey is
about +/- 300,000, and for the monthly change in the unemployment rate it is about
+/- 0.2 percentage point.

   In general, estimates involving many individuals or establishments have lower
standard errors (relative to the size of the estimate) than estimates which are based
on a small number of observations. The precision of estimates also is improved when
the data are cumulated over time, such as for quarterly and annual averages.

   The household and establishment surveys are also affected by nonsampling error,
which can occur for many reasons, including the failure to sample a segment of the
population, inability to obtain information for all respondents in the sample,
inability or unwillingness of respondents to provide correct information on a
timely basis, mistakes made by respondents, and errors made in the collection or
processing of the data.

   For example, in the establishment survey, estimates for the most recent 2 months
are based on incomplete returns; for this reason, these estimates are labeled
preliminary in the tables. It is only after two successive revisions to a monthly
estimate, when nearly all sample reports have been received, that the estimate is
considered final.

   Another major source of nonsampling error in the establishment survey is the
inability to capture, on a timely basis, employment generated by new firms. To
correct for this systematic underestimation of employment growth, an estimation
procedure with two components is used to account for business births. The first
component excludes employment losses from business deaths from sample-based
estimation in order to offset the missing employment gains from business births.
This is incorporated into the sample-based estimation procedure by simply not
reflecting sample units going out of business, but imputing to them the same
employment trend as the other firms in the sample. This procedure accounts for
most of the net birth/death employment.

   The second component is an ARIMA time series model designed to estimate the
residual net birth/death employment not accounted for by the imputation. The
historical time series used to create and test the ARIMA model was derived from
the unemployment insurance universe micro-level database, and reflects the actual
residual net of births and deaths over the past 5 years.

   The sample-based estimates from the establishment survey are adjusted once a
year (on a lagged basis) to universe counts of payroll employment obtained from
administrative records of the unemployment insurance program. The difference 
between the March sample-based employment estimates and the March universe counts
is known as a benchmark revision, and serves as a rough proxy for total survey
error. The new benchmarks also incorporate changes in the classification of
industries. Over the past decade, absolute benchmark revisions for total nonfarm
employment have averaged 0.1 percent, with a range from -0.3 percent to 0.3 percent.

Other information

   If you are deaf, hard of hearing, or have a speech disability, please dial 7-1-1
to access telecommunications relay services.




HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-1. Employment status of the civilian population by sex and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Mar.
2022
Feb.
2023
Mar.
2023
Mar.
2022
Nov.
2022
Dec.
2022
Jan.
2023
Feb.
2023
Mar.
2023

TOTAL

Civilian noninstitutional population

263,444 266,112 266,272 263,444 264,708 264,844 265,962 266,112 266,272

Civilian labor force

164,274 166,178 166,783 164,301 164,527 164,966 165,832 166,251 166,731

Participation rate

62.4 62.4 62.6 62.4 62.2 62.3 62.4 62.5 62.6

Employed

158,106 159,713 160,741 158,328 158,527 159,244 160,138 160,315 160,892

Employment-population ratio

60.0 60.0 60.4 60.1 59.9 60.1 60.2 60.2 60.4

Unemployed

6,168 6,465 6,043 5,972 6,000 5,722 5,694 5,936 5,839

Unemployment rate

3.8 3.9 3.6 3.6 3.6 3.5 3.4 3.6 3.5

Not in labor force

99,170 99,934 99,489 99,144 100,181 99,878 100,130 99,861 99,541

Persons who currently want a job

5,502 4,987 4,646 5,752 5,528 5,176 5,314 5,103 4,925

Men, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

128,355 130,072 130,150 128,355 128,983 129,050 129,998 130,072 130,150

Civilian labor force

87,408 88,382 88,958 87,495 87,793 87,864 88,334 88,474 88,999

Participation rate

68.1 67.9 68.4 68.2 68.1 68.1 67.9 68.0 68.4

Employed

83,902 84,666 85,420 84,294 84,557 84,880 85,186 85,266 85,776

Employment-population ratio

65.4 65.1 65.6 65.7 65.6 65.8 65.5 65.6 65.9

Unemployed

3,506 3,717 3,538 3,201 3,236 2,984 3,147 3,208 3,223

Unemployment rate

4.0 4.2 4.0 3.7 3.7 3.4 3.6 3.6 3.6

Not in labor force

40,947 41,689 41,192 40,860 41,189 41,186 41,665 41,597 41,151

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

119,726 121,346 121,415 119,726 120,301 120,360 121,283 121,346 121,415

Civilian labor force

84,403 85,363 85,876 84,266 84,525 84,694 85,084 85,210 85,696

Participation rate

70.5 70.3 70.7 70.4 70.3 70.4 70.2 70.2 70.6

Employed

81,201 82,048 82,654 81,389 81,698 82,033 82,324 82,407 82,816

Employment-population ratio

67.8 67.6 68.1 68.0 67.9 68.2 67.9 67.9 68.2

Unemployed

3,202 3,315 3,222 2,877 2,827 2,661 2,760 2,803 2,880

Unemployment rate

3.8 3.9 3.8 3.4 3.3 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4

Not in labor force

35,323 35,983 35,539 35,460 35,776 35,666 36,199 36,136 35,718

Women, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

135,089 136,040 136,122 135,089 135,725 135,795 135,963 136,040 136,122

Civilian labor force

76,866 77,796 77,825 76,806 76,734 77,102 77,498 77,777 77,732

Participation rate

56.9 57.2 57.2 56.9 56.5 56.8 57.0 57.2 57.1

Employed

74,203 75,047 75,320 74,035 73,970 74,364 74,952 75,049 75,115

Employment-population ratio

54.9 55.2 55.3 54.8 54.5 54.8 55.1 55.2 55.2

Unemployed

2,663 2,749 2,505 2,771 2,764 2,738 2,546 2,728 2,617

Unemployment rate

3.5 3.5 3.2 3.6 3.6 3.6 3.3 3.5 3.4

Not in labor force

58,223 58,245 58,297 58,284 58,991 58,692 58,465 58,264 58,390

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

126,691 127,613 127,684 126,691 127,283 127,345 127,546 127,613 127,684

Civilian labor force

73,946 74,823 74,860 73,736 73,532 73,930 74,379 74,606 74,612

Participation rate

58.4 58.6 58.6 58.2 57.8 58.1 58.3 58.5 58.4

Employed

71,555 72,354 72,606 71,275 71,088 71,531 72,104 72,189 72,284

Employment-population ratio

56.5 56.7 56.9 56.3 55.9 56.2 56.5 56.6 56.6

Unemployed

2,391 2,470 2,253 2,462 2,444 2,398 2,275 2,417 2,328

Unemployment rate

3.2 3.3 3.0 3.3 3.3 3.2 3.1 3.2 3.1

Not in labor force

52,745 52,790 52,825 52,955 53,750 53,416 53,167 53,007 53,072

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian noninstitutional population

17,027 17,153 17,173 17,027 17,124 17,139 17,133 17,153 17,173

Civilian labor force

5,926 5,992 6,048 6,298 6,469 6,343 6,368 6,435 6,423

Participation rate

34.8 34.9 35.2 37.0 37.8 37.0 37.2 37.5 37.4

Employed

5,350 5,311 5,480 5,665 5,740 5,680 5,710 5,719 5,792

Employment-population ratio

31.4 31.0 31.9 33.3 33.5 33.1 33.3 33.3 33.7

Unemployed

576 680 568 634 729 662 658 716 631

Unemployment rate

9.7 11.4 9.4 10.1 11.3 10.4 10.3 11.1 9.8

Not in labor force

11,102 11,161 11,125 10,729 10,655 10,796 10,765 10,718 10,750

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-2. Employment status of the civilian population by race, sex, and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, race, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Mar.
2022
Feb.
2023
Mar.
2023
Mar.
2022
Nov.
2022
Dec.
2022
Jan.
2023
Feb.
2023
Mar.
2023

WHITE

Civilian noninstitutional population

202,932 204,118 204,186 202,932 203,617 203,684 204,062 204,118 204,186

Civilian labor force

126,302 126,754 126,976 126,262 125,902 126,408 126,699 126,756 126,933

Participation rate

62.2 62.1 62.2 62.2 61.8 62.1 62.1 62.1 62.2

Employed

122,122 122,285 122,698 122,241 121,807 122,556 122,776 122,738 122,831

Employment-population ratio

60.2 59.9 60.1 60.2 59.8 60.2 60.2 60.1 60.2

Unemployed

4,180 4,470 4,278 4,021 4,094 3,852 3,924 4,017 4,102

Unemployment rate

3.3 3.5 3.4 3.2 3.3 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.2

Not in labor force

76,630 77,364 77,210 76,670 77,716 77,276 77,362 77,362 77,253

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

66,085 66,225 66,467 65,924 65,759 66,045 66,118 66,083 66,304

Participation rate

70.6 70.1 70.3 70.4 70.0 70.3 70.0 69.9 70.2

Employed

63,808 63,842 64,180 63,901 63,767 64,189 64,210 64,125 64,287

Employment-population ratio

68.1 67.6 67.9 68.2 67.9 68.3 68.0 67.9 68.0

Unemployed

2,278 2,383 2,288 2,023 1,992 1,856 1,908 1,958 2,018

Unemployment rate

3.4 3.6 3.4 3.1 3.0 2.8 2.9 3.0 3.0

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

55,556 55,932 55,812 55,398 55,174 55,461 55,637 55,733 55,656

Participation rate

57.4 57.6 57.4 57.2 56.8 57.1 57.3 57.4 57.3

Employed

54,041 54,309 54,203 53,825 53,562 53,918 54,093 54,142 53,994

Employment-population ratio

55.8 55.9 55.8 55.6 55.1 55.5 55.7 55.7 55.6

Unemployed

1,515 1,623 1,609 1,573 1,611 1,543 1,544 1,591 1,661

Unemployment rate

2.7 2.9 2.9 2.8 2.9 2.8 2.8 2.9 3.0

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

4,660 4,597 4,696 4,940 4,969 4,902 4,944 4,940 4,973

Participation rate

37.4 36.8 37.6 39.6 39.7 39.2 39.6 39.6 39.8

Employed

4,273 4,133 4,316 4,515 4,478 4,449 4,472 4,471 4,550

Employment-population ratio

34.3 33.1 34.5 36.2 35.8 35.5 35.8 35.8 36.4

Unemployed

388 463 381 424 491 453 472 469 423

Unemployment rate

8.3 10.1 8.1 8.6 9.9 9.2 9.5 9.5 8.5

BLACK OR AFRICAN AMERICAN

Civilian noninstitutional population

34,030 34,519 34,550 34,030 34,272 34,301 34,487 34,519 34,550

Civilian labor force

21,026 21,770 22,062 21,125 21,365 21,418 21,697 21,893 22,152

Participation rate

61.8 63.1 63.9 62.1 62.3 62.4 62.9 63.4 64.1

Employed

19,695 20,488 20,938 19,821 20,139 20,189 20,535 20,654 21,037

Employment-population ratio

57.9 59.4 60.6 58.2 58.8 58.9 59.5 59.8 60.9

Unemployed

1,331 1,282 1,124 1,304 1,226 1,229 1,162 1,239 1,114

Unemployment rate

6.3 5.9 5.1 6.2 5.7 5.7 5.4 5.7 5.0

Not in labor force

13,003 12,749 12,488 12,905 12,907 12,883 12,790 12,626 12,399

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

9,754 10,153 10,353 9,815 9,947 9,956 10,115 10,218 10,400

Participation rate

67.4 68.9 70.2 67.9 68.3 68.3 68.7 69.3 70.5

Employed

9,163 9,593 9,776 9,261 9,408 9,446 9,579 9,700 9,860

Employment-population ratio

63.4 65.1 66.3 64.0 64.6 64.8 65.0 65.8 66.8

Unemployed

590 560 577 554 539 510 535 518 539

Unemployment rate

6.1 5.5 5.6 5.6 5.4 5.1 5.3 5.1 5.2

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

10,572 10,876 10,991 10,567 10,633 10,679 10,804 10,877 10,986

Participation rate

61.8 63.0 63.6 61.8 61.8 62.0 62.6 63.0 63.6

Employed

9,986 10,301 10,541 9,981 10,077 10,093 10,301 10,319 10,522

Employment-population ratio

58.4 59.7 61.0 58.4 58.6 58.6 59.7 59.8 60.9

Unemployed

586 575 450 586 556 586 504 558 464

Unemployment rate

5.5 5.3 4.1 5.5 5.2 5.5 4.7 5.1 4.2

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

701 741 718 743 785 784 778 797 766

Participation rate

28.3 29.5 28.5 30.1 31.4 31.4 31.0 31.7 30.4

Employed

546 594 621 578 654 650 655 635 655

Employment-population ratio

22.1 23.6 24.6 23.4 26.2 26.0 26.1 25.2 26.0

Unemployed

155 147 97 165 131 134 123 163 111

Unemployment rate

22.1 19.9 13.5 22.2 16.7 17.1 15.8 20.4 14.5

ASIAN

Civilian noninstitutional population

16,803 17,444 17,545 16,803 16,980 17,005 17,541 17,444 17,545

Civilian labor force

10,784 11,371 11,421 10,771 10,995 10,918 11,240 11,348 11,390

Participation rate

64.2 65.2 65.1 64.1 64.8 64.2 64.1 65.1 64.9

Employed

10,493 10,982 11,104 10,472 10,704 10,654 10,926 10,962 11,067

Employment-population ratio

62.4 63.0 63.3 62.3 63.0 62.7 62.3 62.8 63.1

Unemployed

291 389 317 299 291 265 313 386 323

Unemployment rate

2.7 3.4 2.8 2.8 2.6 2.4 2.8 3.4 2.8

Not in labor force

6,019 6,073 6,123 6,032 5,984 6,086 6,301 6,096 6,154

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Estimates for the above race groups will not sum to totals shown in table A-1 because data are not presented for all races. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-3. Employment status of the Hispanic or Latino population by sex and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Mar.
2022
Feb.
2023
Mar.
2023
Mar.
2022
Nov.
2022
Dec.
2022
Jan.
2023
Feb.
2023
Mar.
2023

HISPANIC OR LATINO ETHNICITY

Civilian noninstitutional population

45,888 47,103 47,194 45,888 46,545 46,624 47,010 47,103 47,194

Civilian labor force

30,498 31,507 31,551 30,487 30,600 30,893 31,153 31,444 31,517

Participation rate

66.5 66.9 66.9 66.4 65.7 66.3 66.3 66.8 66.8

Employed

29,155 29,640 30,017 29,214 29,382 29,611 29,737 29,789 30,071

Employment-population ratio

63.5 62.9 63.6 63.7 63.1 63.5 63.3 63.2 63.7

Unemployed

1,343 1,866 1,534 1,274 1,218 1,281 1,416 1,655 1,446

Unemployment rate

4.4 5.9 4.9 4.2 4.0 4.1 4.5 5.3 4.6

Not in labor force

15,390 15,597 15,643 15,401 15,944 15,731 15,857 15,659 15,677

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

16,672 16,951 17,035 16,626 16,526 16,725 16,795 16,882 16,969

Participation rate

80.2 79.2 79.4 80.0 78.4 79.2 78.6 78.8 79.1

Employed

15,938 15,912 16,260 15,978 15,925 16,047 16,073 16,036 16,293

Employment-population ratio

76.6 74.3 75.8 76.8 75.5 76.0 75.2 74.9 76.0

Unemployed

734 1,038 775 648 601 677 722 846 676

Unemployment rate

4.4 6.1 4.6 3.9 3.6 4.0 4.3 5.0 4.0

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

12,465 13,120 13,064 12,476 12,637 12,785 13,024 13,085 13,069

Participation rate

59.8 61.5 61.1 59.8 59.7 60.3 61.1 61.3 61.1

Employed

11,928 12,465 12,462 11,950 12,179 12,307 12,447 12,460 12,482

Employment-population ratio

57.2 58.4 58.3 57.3 57.6 58.1 58.4 58.4 58.4

Unemployed

537 655 602 526 458 478 577 626 587

Unemployment rate

4.3 5.0 4.6 4.2 3.6 3.7 4.4 4.8 4.5

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

1,361 1,436 1,452 1,385 1,438 1,383 1,334 1,477 1,479

Participation rate

32.1 33.1 33.4 32.7 33.4 32.0 30.8 34.0 34.0

Employed

1,289 1,262 1,296 1,285 1,279 1,257 1,217 1,294 1,296

Employment-population ratio

30.4 29.1 29.8 30.3 29.7 29.1 28.1 29.8 29.8

Unemployed

72 173 157 100 159 126 116 183 183

Unemployment rate

5.3 12.1 10.8 7.2 11.0 9.1 8.7 12.4 12.4

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-4. Employment status of the civilian population 25 years and over by educational attainment
[Numbers in thousands]
Educational attainment Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Mar.
2022
Feb.
2023
Mar.
2023
Mar.
2022
Nov.
2022
Dec.
2022
Jan.
2023
Feb.
2023
Mar.
2023

Less than a high school diploma

Civilian labor force

9,030 8,850 9,138 9,099 8,901 8,885 8,814 9,165 9,203

Participation rate

45.3 46.7 46.2 45.6 45.6 45.6 46.0 48.3 46.6

Employed

8,456 8,198 8,605 8,617 8,506 8,443 8,417 8,629 8,762

Employment-population ratio

42.4 43.2 43.5 43.2 43.5 43.4 43.9 45.5 44.3

Unemployed

574 652 532 482 395 442 397 536 441

Unemployment rate

6.4 7.4 5.8 5.3 4.4 5.0 4.5 5.8 4.8

High school graduates, no college(1)

Civilian labor force

36,943 35,852 35,827 36,773 35,192 35,605 36,189 35,850 35,680

Participation rate

56.9 56.0 56.3 56.6 55.7 56.2 56.4 56.0 56.1

Employed

35,365 34,441 34,275 35,303 33,816 34,339 34,836 34,574 34,246

Employment-population ratio

54.5 53.8 53.8 54.4 53.5 54.2 54.3 54.0 53.8

Unemployed

1,578 1,411 1,553 1,469 1,377 1,266 1,353 1,276 1,433

Unemployment rate

4.3 3.9 4.3 4.0 3.9 3.6 3.7 3.6 4.0

Some college or associate degree

Civilian labor force

35,600 35,869 35,943 35,604 35,880 35,789 36,082 35,962 35,944

Participation rate

63.5 63.4 63.6 63.5 62.9 62.7 63.5 63.6 63.6

Employed

34,468 34,594 34,852 34,499 34,748 34,735 35,046 34,796 34,877

Employment-population ratio

61.5 61.2 61.7 61.6 60.9 60.8 61.7 61.5 61.8

Unemployed

1,132 1,275 1,091 1,105 1,133 1,054 1,036 1,167 1,067

Unemployment rate

3.2 3.6 3.0 3.1 3.2 2.9 2.9 3.2 3.0

Bachelor's degree and higher(2)

Civilian labor force

62,027 63,848 64,036 61,657 63,041 63,150 62,854 63,140 63,632

Participation rate

73.3 73.1 73.5 72.9 72.5 72.7 72.7 72.3 73.1

Employed

60,855 62,530 62,786 60,447 61,781 61,947 61,591 61,858 62,355

Employment-population ratio

71.9 71.6 72.1 71.4 71.1 71.3 71.2 70.9 71.6

Unemployed

1,172 1,318 1,250 1,210 1,260 1,203 1,263 1,282 1,278

Unemployment rate

1.9 2.1 2.0 2.0 2.0 1.9 2.0 2.0 2.0

Footnotes
(1) Includes persons with a high school diploma or equivalent.
(2) Includes persons with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees.

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals for those 25 years and over because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-5. Employment status of the civilian population 18 years and over by veteran status, period of service, and sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, veteran status, and period of service Total Men Women
Mar.
2022
Mar.
2023
Mar.
2022
Mar.
2023
Mar.
2022
Mar.
2023

VETERANS, 18 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

18,449 17,983 16,427 15,947 2,022 2,036

Civilian labor force

8,979 8,718 7,799 7,573 1,180 1,145

Participation rate

48.7 48.5 47.5 47.5 58.3 56.2

Employed

8,763 8,507 7,603 7,388 1,160 1,119

Employment-population ratio

47.5 47.3 46.3 46.3 57.4 55.0

Unemployed

216 211 196 185 20 26

Unemployment rate

2.4 2.4 2.5 2.4 1.7 2.2

Not in labor force

9,470 9,265 8,628 8,374 842 891

Gulf War-era II veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

4,761 4,970 3,864 4,065 898 905

Civilian labor force

3,860 4,057 3,218 3,395 642 662

Participation rate

81.1 81.6 83.3 83.5 71.6 73.2

Employed

3,746 3,944 3,115 3,299 631 645

Employment-population ratio

78.7 79.4 80.6 81.1 70.3 71.3

Unemployed

114 113 103 96 12 17

Unemployment rate

3.0 2.8 3.2 2.8 1.8 2.6

Not in labor force

901 912 645 670 255 242

Gulf War-era I veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

3,332 2,980 2,870 2,527 461 453

Civilian labor force

2,493 2,131 2,158 1,826 335 305

Participation rate

74.8 71.5 75.2 72.3 72.6 67.3

Employed

2,460 2,085 2,127 1,780 332 305

Employment-population ratio

73.8 70.0 74.1 70.4 72.0 67.3

Unemployed

34 46 31 46 3 0

Unemployment rate

1.4 2.2 1.4 2.5 0.8 0.0

Not in labor force

839 849 712 701 126 148

World War II, Korean War, and Vietnam-era veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

6,322 6,055 6,070 5,798 252 257

Civilian labor force

945 806 913 781 32 25

Participation rate

15.0 13.3 15.0 13.5 12.9 9.7

Employed

911 781 884 761 27 20

Employment-population ratio

14.4 12.9 14.6 13.1 10.6 7.9

Unemployed

34 25 28 20 6 4

Unemployment rate

3.6 3.1 3.1 2.6 - -

Not in labor force

5,377 5,249 5,157 5,017 220 232

Veterans of other service periods

Civilian noninstitutional population

4,034 3,978 3,623 3,557 411 421

Civilian labor force

1,680 1,723 1,510 1,571 170 152

Participation rate

41.7 43.3 41.7 44.2 41.4 36.1

Employed

1,646 1,697 1,476 1,548 170 148

Employment-population ratio

40.8 42.6 40.7 43.5 41.4 35.2

Unemployed

35 27 35 23 0 4

Unemployment rate

2.1 1.5 2.3 1.5 0.0 2.5

Not in labor force

2,354 2,255 2,113 1,986 241 269

NONVETERANS, 18 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

235,932 239,167 107,359 109,561 128,573 129,606

Civilian labor force

153,017 155,858 78,515 80,266 74,501 75,592

Participation rate

64.9 65.2 73.1 73.3 57.9 58.3

Employed

147,263 150,224 75,305 77,021 71,959 73,203

Employment-population ratio

62.4 62.8 70.1 70.3 56.0 56.5

Unemployed

5,753 5,634 3,211 3,246 2,543 2,389

Unemployment rate

3.8 3.6 4.1 4.0 3.4 3.2

Not in labor force

82,915 83,309 28,844 29,295 54,072 54,014

NOTE: Veterans served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces and were not on active duty at the time of the survey. Nonveterans never served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces. Veterans could have served anywhere in the world during these periods of service: Gulf War era II (September 2001-present), Gulf War era I (August 1990-August 2001), Vietnam era (August 1964-April 1975), Korean War (July 1950-January 1955), World War II (December 1941-December 1946), and other service periods (all other time periods). Veterans who served in more than one wartime period are classified only in the most recent one. Veterans who served during one of the selected wartime periods and another period are classified only in the wartime period. Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria (values not shown where base is less than 75,000).


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-6. Employment status of the civilian population by sex, age, and disability status, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Persons with a disability Persons with no disability
Mar.
2022
Mar.
2023
Mar.
2022
Mar.
2023

TOTAL, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

32,616 33,062 230,828 233,210

Civilian labor force

7,550 7,904 156,724 158,879

Participation rate

23.1 23.9 67.9 68.1

Employed

6,882 7,256 151,224 153,484

Employment-population ratio

21.1 21.9 65.5 65.8

Unemployed

668 648 5,501 5,395

Unemployment rate

8.8 8.2 3.5 3.4

Not in labor force

25,066 25,158 74,104 74,331

Men, 16 to 64 years

Civilian labor force

3,202 3,272 78,110 79,656

Participation rate

38.8 41.6 82.6 82.8

Employed

2,889 2,986 75,114 76,591

Employment-population ratio

35.0 38.0 79.4 79.6

Unemployed

313 286 2,996 3,065

Unemployment rate

9.8 8.7 3.8 3.8

Not in labor force

5,050 4,588 16,444 16,531

Women, 16 to 64 years

Civilian labor force

3,107 3,315 69,120 69,455

Participation rate

36.7 38.9 71.9 72.3

Employed

2,804 3,011 66,884 67,364

Employment-population ratio

33.2 35.3 69.6 70.2

Unemployed

303 304 2,236 2,091

Unemployment rate

9.7 9.2 3.2 3.0

Not in labor force

5,351 5,217 26,947 26,549

Both sexes, 65 years and over

Civilian labor force

1,242 1,318 9,494 9,767

Participation rate

7.8 7.9 23.6 23.8

Employed

1,190 1,260 9,226 9,529

Employment-population ratio

7.5 7.6 22.9 23.2

Unemployed

52 58 268 238

Unemployment rate

4.2 4.4 2.8 2.4

Not in labor force

14,665 15,353 30,713 31,251

NOTE: A person with a disability has at least one of the following conditions: is deaf or has serious difficulty hearing; is blind or has serious difficulty seeing even when wearing glasses; has serious difficulty concentrating, remembering, or making decisions because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition; has serious difficulty walking or climbing stairs; has difficulty dressing or bathing; or has difficulty doing errands alone such as visiting a doctor's office or shopping because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-7. Employment status of the civilian population by nativity and sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status and nativity Total Men Women
Mar.
2022
Mar.
2023
Mar.
2022
Mar.
2023
Mar.
2022
Mar.
2023

Foreign born, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

44,456 46,445 21,475 22,786 22,982 23,659

Civilian labor force

29,159 30,845 16,553 17,678 12,606 13,167

Participation rate

65.6 66.4 77.1 77.6 54.9 55.7

Employed

28,172 29,848 16,001 17,089 12,172 12,759

Employment-population ratio

63.4 64.3 74.5 75.0 53.0 53.9

Unemployed

986 997 552 589 435 408

Unemployment rate

3.4 3.2 3.3 3.3 3.4 3.1

Not in labor force

15,297 15,600 4,922 5,108 10,376 10,492

Native born, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

218,988 219,827 106,880 107,364 112,108 112,463

Civilian labor force

135,115 135,938 70,855 71,280 64,260 64,658

Participation rate

61.7 61.8 66.3 66.4 57.3 57.5

Employed

129,933 130,893 67,901 68,331 62,032 62,562

Employment-population ratio

59.3 59.5 63.5 63.6 55.3 55.6

Unemployed

5,182 5,045 2,954 2,949 2,228 2,096

Unemployment rate

3.8 3.7 4.2 4.1 3.5 3.2

Not in labor force

83,873 83,888 36,025 36,084 47,847 47,805

NOTE: The foreign born are those residing in the United States who were not U.S. citizens at birth. That is, they were born outside the United States or one of its outlying areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam, to parents neither of whom was a U.S. citizen. The native born are persons who were born in the United States or one of its outlying areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam or who were born abroad of at least one parent who was a U.S. citizen. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-8. Employed persons by class of worker and part-time status
[In thousands]
Category Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Mar.
2022
Feb.
2023
Mar.
2023
Mar.
2022
Nov.
2022
Dec.
2022
Jan.
2023
Feb.
2023
Mar.
2023

CLASS OF WORKER

Agriculture and related industries

2,256 2,251 2,106 2,363 2,228 2,311 2,245 2,346 2,226

Wage and salary workers(1)

1,490 1,456 1,439 1,562 1,492 1,496 1,485 1,521 1,509

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

737 755 639 757 715 791 720 781 666

Unpaid family workers

29 40 28 - - - - - -

Nonagricultural industries

155,849 157,461 158,634 155,670 156,344 156,818 157,645 157,743 158,318

Wage and salary workers(1)

146,612 148,238 149,499 146,726 147,381 147,886 148,822 148,723 149,479

Government

21,687 21,951 21,919 21,231 21,084 21,683 21,548 21,501 21,467

Private industries

124,924 126,287 127,580 125,240 126,468 126,169 126,981 126,967 127,750

Private households

575 592 561 - - - - - -

Other industries

124,349 125,696 127,019 124,559 125,819 125,538 126,248 126,261 127,055

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

9,165 9,173 9,087 9,247 8,970 9,036 9,217 9,338 9,173

Unpaid family workers

73 50 48 - - - - - -

PERSONS AT WORK PART TIME(2)

All industries

Part time for economic reasons(3)

4,266 4,285 4,205 4,168 3,688 3,878 4,050 4,067 4,102

Slack work or business conditions

2,921 3,079 2,929 2,883 2,546 2,648 2,685 2,840 2,873

Could only find part-time work

1,116 868 942 1,045 826 911 999 859 882

Part time for noneconomic reasons(4)

21,356 22,494 21,822 20,890 21,226 21,628 22,083 21,856 21,433

Nonagricultural industries

Part time for economic reasons(3)

4,211 4,146 4,115 4,140 3,623 3,810 3,959 3,964 4,037

Slack work or business conditions

2,879 2,975 2,873 2,846 2,497 2,611 2,646 2,750 2,822

Could only find part-time work

1,114 850 935 1,040 819 892 988 842 872

Part time for noneconomic reasons(4)

20,997 22,074 21,472 20,519 20,844 21,211 21,674 21,453 21,069

Footnotes
(1) Includes self-employed workers whose businesses are incorporated.
(2) Refers to those who worked 1 to 34 hours during the survey reference week and excludes employed persons who were absent from their jobs for the entire week.
(3) Refers to those who worked 1 to 34 hours during the reference week for an economic reason such as slack work or unfavorable business conditions, inability to find full-time work, or seasonal declines in demand.
(4) Refers to persons who usually work part time for noneconomic reasons such as childcare problems, family or personal obligations, school or training, retirement or Social Security limits on earnings, and other reasons. This excludes persons who usually work full time but worked only 1 to 34 hours during the reference week for reasons such as vacations, holidays, illness, and bad weather.

- Data not available.
NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-9. Selected employment indicators
[Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Mar.
2022
Feb.
2023
Mar.
2023
Mar.
2022
Nov.
2022
Dec.
2022
Jan.
2023
Feb.
2023
Mar.
2023

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

158,106 159,713 160,741 158,328 158,527 159,244 160,138 160,315 160,892

16 to 19 years

5,350 5,311 5,480 5,665 5,740 5,680 5,710 5,719 5,792

16 to 17 years

2,080 1,992 2,010 2,297 2,241 2,371 2,265 2,200 2,227

18 to 19 years

3,270 3,319 3,470 3,395 3,500 3,312 3,462 3,534 3,589

20 years and over

152,756 154,401 155,260 152,664 152,787 153,564 154,428 154,597 155,100

20 to 24 years

13,611 14,638 14,742 13,775 13,759 13,834 14,705 14,831 14,896

25 years and over

139,145 139,763 140,518 139,055 138,845 139,477 139,834 139,939 140,372

25 to 54 years

101,788 102,681 103,200 101,784 101,400 101,848 102,366 102,838 103,121

25 to 34 years

35,358 35,751 35,798 35,370 35,073 35,066 35,594 35,799 35,780

35 to 44 years

34,672 35,179 35,519 34,687 34,777 34,983 35,010 35,243 35,492

45 to 54 years

31,758 31,751 31,883 31,727 31,550 31,799 31,762 31,796 31,849

55 years and over

37,357 37,082 37,318 37,271 37,446 37,630 37,468 37,100 37,250

Men, 16 years and over

83,902 84,666 85,420 84,294 84,557 84,880 85,186 85,266 85,776

16 to 19 years

2,701 2,618 2,766 2,905 2,859 2,847 2,862 2,859 2,961

16 to 17 years

995 912 1,012 1,123 1,059 1,109 1,039 1,020 1,134

18 to 19 years

1,707 1,706 1,754 1,802 1,809 1,748 1,838 1,851 1,850

20 years and over

81,201 82,048 82,654 81,389 81,698 82,033 82,324 82,407 82,816

20 to 24 years

6,847 7,355 7,585 6,976 7,071 7,080 7,354 7,484 7,687

25 years and over

74,354 74,693 75,069 74,573 74,451 74,767 75,036 75,070 75,249

25 to 54 years

54,113 54,765 55,095 54,308 54,119 54,370 54,708 55,033 55,232

25 to 34 years

18,719 19,087 19,110 18,777 18,548 18,629 18,916 19,167 19,140

35 to 44 years

18,608 18,859 19,056 18,694 18,761 18,798 18,896 18,965 19,115

45 to 54 years

16,786 16,819 16,930 16,837 16,810 16,943 16,896 16,901 16,977

55 years and over

20,240 19,928 19,974 20,265 20,332 20,396 20,328 20,037 20,017

Women, 16 years and over

74,203 75,047 75,320 74,035 73,970 74,364 74,952 75,049 75,115

16 to 19 years

2,649 2,693 2,714 2,760 2,881 2,833 2,848 2,860 2,831

16 to 17 years

1,085 1,080 998 1,174 1,182 1,262 1,226 1,179 1,093

18 to 19 years

1,564 1,614 1,716 1,593 1,691 1,564 1,624 1,683 1,738

20 years and over

71,555 72,354 72,606 71,275 71,088 71,531 72,104 72,189 72,284

20 to 24 years

6,764 7,283 7,158 6,799 6,688 6,755 7,351 7,347 7,209

25 years and over

64,791 65,070 65,448 64,482 64,394 64,711 64,798 64,868 65,123

25 to 54 years

47,675 47,916 48,105 47,476 47,281 47,477 47,658 47,805 47,889

25 to 34 years

16,639 16,664 16,688 16,593 16,525 16,436 16,678 16,633 16,640

35 to 44 years

16,064 16,320 16,463 15,993 16,016 16,185 16,114 16,278 16,377

45 to 54 years

14,972 14,932 14,953 14,890 14,740 14,857 14,866 14,895 14,872

55 years and over

17,116 17,154 17,344 17,006 17,113 17,233 17,140 17,063 17,234

MARITAL STATUS

Married men, spouse present(1)

45,412 46,414 46,462 45,303 45,988 46,209 46,119 46,387 46,341

Married women, spouse present(1)

36,391 37,152 37,081 36,086 36,322 36,472 36,490 36,883 36,759

Women who maintain families(2)

10,182 9,696 9,748 - - - - - -

FULL- OR PART-TIME STATUS

Full-time workers(3)

131,663 132,173 133,453 132,587 132,300 132,299 132,577 133,184 134,339

Part-time workers(4)

26,443 27,540 27,288 25,908 26,115 26,794 27,400 27,089 26,747

MULTIPLE JOBHOLDERS

Total multiple jobholders

7,496 8,041 8,137 7,362 7,676 8,046 8,001 7,904 7,979

Percent of total employed

4.7 5.0 5.1 4.7 4.8 5.1 5.0 4.9 5.0

SELF-EMPLOYMENT

Self-employed workers, incorporated

6,322 6,435 6,285 - - - - - -

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

9,902 9,928 9,726 10,004 9,686 9,827 9,937 10,119 9,839

Footnotes
(1) Beginning with data for January 2020, refers to persons in both opposite-sex and same-sex married couples. Prior to January 2020, referred to persons in opposite-sex married couples only.
(2) Beginning with data for January 2020, refers to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not a spouse of either sex. Prior to January 2020, referred to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not an opposite-sex spouse.
(3) Employed full-time workers are persons who usually work 35 hours or more per week.
(4) Employed part-time workers are persons who usually work less than 35 hours per week.

- Data not available.
NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-10. Selected unemployment indicators, seasonally adjusted
Characteristic Number of
unemployed persons
(in thousands)
Unemployment rates
Mar.
2022
Feb.
2023
Mar.
2023
Mar.
2022
Nov.
2022
Dec.
2022
Jan.
2023
Feb.
2023
Mar.
2023

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

5,972 5,936 5,839 3.6 3.6 3.5 3.4 3.6 3.5

16 to 19 years

634 716 631 10.1 11.3 10.4 10.3 11.1 9.8

16 to 17 years

225 216 224 8.9 11.5 8.4 10.9 9.0 9.1

18 to 19 years

417 488 411 10.9 11.3 12.2 10.0 12.1 10.3

20 years and over

5,339 5,219 5,208 3.4 3.3 3.2 3.2 3.3 3.2

20 to 24 years

1,107 1,103 1,034 7.4 6.8 7.3 7.1 6.9 6.5

25 years and over

4,163 4,235 4,126 2.9 3.0 2.8 2.8 2.9 2.9

25 to 54 years

3,160 3,242 3,109 3.0 3.2 2.9 3.0 3.1 2.9

25 to 34 years

1,447 1,447 1,397 3.9 4.1 3.8 3.9 3.9 3.8

35 to 44 years

989 936 927 2.8 2.6 2.4 2.6 2.6 2.5

45 to 54 years

723 858 785 2.2 2.7 2.3 2.3 2.6 2.4

55 years and over

1,004 957 1,009 2.6 2.5 2.7 2.3 2.5 2.6

Men, 16 years and over

3,201 3,208 3,223 3.7 3.7 3.4 3.6 3.6 3.6

16 to 19 years

325 405 342 10.1 12.5 10.2 11.9 12.4 10.4

16 to 17 years

109 131 119 8.8 15.6 9.3 15.0 11.4 9.5

18 to 19 years

216 275 220 10.7 10.9 11.3 10.1 12.9 10.6

20 years and over

2,877 2,803 2,880 3.4 3.3 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4

20 to 24 years

647 646 568 8.5 7.7 7.3 7.8 7.9 6.9

25 years and over

2,189 2,251 2,289 2.9 2.9 2.8 2.9 2.9 3.0

25 to 54 years

1,642 1,738 1,709 2.9 3.0 2.8 3.1 3.1 3.0

25 to 34 years

775 773 807 4.0 4.1 3.9 4.3 3.9 4.0

35 to 44 years

538 532 543 2.8 2.4 2.3 2.5 2.7 2.8

45 to 54 years

330 434 360 1.9 2.6 2.1 2.2 2.5 2.1

55 years and over

546 512 580 2.6 2.6 2.7 2.4 2.5 2.8

Women, 16 years and over

2,771 2,728 2,617 3.6 3.6 3.6 3.3 3.5 3.4

16 to 19 years

309 311 289 10.1 10.0 10.7 8.7 9.8 9.3

16 to 17 years

116 86 105 9.0 7.4 7.6 7.1 6.8 8.7

18 to 19 years

201 213 190 11.2 11.7 13.2 9.8 11.2 9.9

20 years and over

2,462 2,417 2,328 3.3 3.3 3.2 3.1 3.2 3.1

20 to 24 years

460 457 466 6.3 5.9 7.3 6.3 5.9 6.1

25 years and over

1,974 1,984 1,836 3.0 3.0 2.8 2.7 3.0 2.7

25 to 54 years

1,517 1,503 1,400 3.1 3.3 3.0 2.9 3.0 2.8

25 to 34 years

673 674 591 3.9 4.1 3.7 3.5 3.9 3.4

35 to 44 years

451 405 385 2.7 2.9 2.5 2.7 2.4 2.3

45 to 54 years

394 425 425 2.6 2.8 2.5 2.4 2.8 2.8

55 years and over

455 482 432 2.6 2.3 2.6 2.2 2.7 2.4

MARITAL STATUS

Married men, spouse present(1)

796 885 884 1.7 2.0 1.8 1.8 1.9 1.9

Married women, spouse present(1)

785 766 735 2.1 2.0 2.1 1.9 2.0 2.0

Women who maintain families(2)

514 514 471 4.8 4.9 3.6 3.8 5.0 4.6

FULL- OR PART-TIME STATUS

Full-time workers(3)

4,790 4,863 4,725 3.5 3.5 3.4 3.4 3.5 3.4

Part-time workers(4)

1,141 1,117 1,083 4.2 4.4 3.9 3.8 4.0 3.9

Footnotes
(1) Beginning with data for January 2020, refers to persons in both opposite-sex and same-sex married couples. Prior to January 2020, referred to persons in opposite-sex married couples only.
(2) Data are not seasonally adjusted. Beginning with data for January 2020, refers to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not a spouse of either sex. Prior to January 2020, referred to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not an opposite-sex spouse.
(3) Full-time workers are unemployed persons who have expressed a desire to work full time (35 hours or more per week) or are on layoff from full-time jobs.
(4) Part-time workers are unemployed persons who have expressed a desire to work part time (less than 35 hours per week) or are on layoff from part-time jobs.

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-11. Unemployed persons by reason for unemployment
[Numbers in thousands]
Reason Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Mar.
2022
Feb.
2023
Mar.
2023
Mar.
2022
Nov.
2022
Dec.
2022
Jan.
2023
Feb.
2023
Mar.
2023

NUMBER OF UNEMPLOYED

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

2,999 3,249 3,159 2,840 2,761 2,629 2,529 2,752 2,949

On temporary layoff

891 1,117 961 784 806 814 734 816 833

Not on temporary layoff

2,108 2,132 2,198 2,057 1,956 1,815 1,795 1,935 2,117

Permanent job losers

1,425 1,482 1,602 1,405 1,351 1,339 1,257 1,380 1,552

Persons who completed temporary jobs

683 650 596 652 605 476 538 555 564

Job leavers

774 892 828 789 829 825 884 891 845

Reentrants

2,026 1,862 1,670 1,992 1,798 1,767 1,817 1,847 1,665

New entrants

370 462 385 472 558 497 531 515 492

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

48.6 50.3 52.3 46.6 46.4 46.0 43.9 45.8 49.6

On temporary layoff

14.4 17.3 15.9 12.9 13.5 14.2 12.7 13.6 14.0

Not on temporary layoff

34.2 33.0 36.4 33.8 32.9 31.7 31.2 32.2 35.6

Job leavers

12.5 13.8 13.7 12.9 13.9 14.4 15.3 14.8 14.2

Reentrants

32.8 28.8 27.6 32.7 30.2 30.9 31.5 30.8 28.0

New entrants

6.0 7.1 6.4 7.7 9.4 8.7 9.2 8.6 8.3

UNEMPLOYED AS A PERCENT OF THE
CIVILIAN LABOR FORCE

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

1.8 2.0 1.9 1.7 1.7 1.6 1.5 1.7 1.8

Job leavers

0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5

Reentrants

1.2 1.1 1.0 1.2 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.0

New entrants

0.2 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to total unemployed in table A-1 because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-12. Unemployed persons by duration of unemployment
[Numbers in thousands]
Duration Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Mar.
2022
Feb.
2023
Mar.
2023
Mar.
2022
Nov.
2022
Dec.
2022
Jan.
2023
Feb.
2023
Mar.
2023

NUMBER OF UNEMPLOYED

Less than 5 weeks

2,003 2,130 1,978 2,303 2,244 2,233 1,946 2,289 2,272

5 to 14 weeks

1,850 2,247 1,891 1,688 1,694 1,639 1,785 1,845 1,733

15 weeks and over

2,315 2,089 2,173 1,981 2,036 1,895 2,001 1,862 1,838

15 to 26 weeks

830 957 1,007 552 821 826 890 805 734

27 weeks and over

1,486 1,131 1,167 1,429 1,215 1,069 1,111 1,057 1,104

Average (mean) duration, in weeks

24.9 19.1 20.1 24.1 21.4 19.5 20.4 19.3 19.5

Median duration, in weeks

10.0 8.9 9.6 8.3 8.8 8.9 9.1 8.3 8.1

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION

Less than 5 weeks

32.5 32.9 32.7 38.6 37.6 38.7 33.9 38.2 38.9

5 to 14 weeks

30.0 34.7 31.3 28.3 28.4 28.4 31.1 30.8 29.7

15 weeks and over

37.5 32.3 36.0 33.2 34.1 32.9 34.9 31.1 31.5

15 to 26 weeks

13.4 14.8 16.7 9.2 13.7 14.3 15.5 13.4 12.6

27 weeks and over

24.1 17.5 19.3 23.9 20.3 18.5 19.4 17.6 18.9

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to total unemployed in table A-1 because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-13. Employed and unemployed persons by occupation, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Occupation Employed Unemployed Unemployment
rates
Mar.
2022
Mar.
2023
Mar.
2022
Mar.
2023
Mar.
2022
Mar.
2023

Total, 16 years and over(1)

158,106 160,741 6,168 6,043 3.8 3.6

Management, professional, and related occupations

67,823 70,651 1,053 1,368 1.5 1.9

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

28,828 30,285 431 647 1.5 2.1

Professional and related occupations

38,995 40,366 622 721 1.6 1.8

Service occupations

25,376 25,600 1,422 1,242 5.3 4.6

Sales and office occupations

30,920 30,361 1,313 1,138 4.1 3.6

Sales and related occupations

14,489 14,447 656 552 4.3 3.7

Office and administrative support occupations

16,431 15,913 657 586 3.8 3.6

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

14,163 14,003 794 808 5.3 5.5

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

945 797 86 70 8.4 8.1

Construction and extraction occupations

8,318 8,415 623 601 7.0 6.7

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

4,900 4,792 84 137 1.7 2.8

Production, transportation, and material moving
occupations

19,824 20,125 1,196 1,101 5.7 5.2

Production occupations

8,111 8,405 401 384 4.7 4.4

Transportation and material moving occupations

11,713 11,721 795 718 6.4 5.8

Footnotes
(1) Persons with no previous work experience and persons whose last job was in the U.S. Armed Forces are included in the unemployed total.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data. Effective with January 2020 data, occupations reflect the introduction of the 2018 Census occupational classification system into the Current Population Survey, or household survey. This classification system is derived from the 2018 Standard Occupational Classification (SOC). No historical data have been revised. Data for 2020 are not strictly comparable with earlier years.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-14. Unemployed persons by industry and class of worker, not seasonally adjusted
Industry and class of worker Number of
unemployed
persons
(in thousands)
Unemployment
rates
Mar.
2022
Mar.
2023
Mar.
2022
Mar.
2023

Total, 16 years and over(1)

6,168 6,043 3.8 3.6

Nonagricultural private wage and salary workers

5,035 4,842 3.9 3.7

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

14 36 2.6 6.5

Construction

598 598 6.0 5.6

Manufacturing

485 459 3.1 2.9

Durable goods

343 257 3.5 2.5

Nondurable goods

142 202 2.5 3.6

Wholesale and retail trade

881 846 4.6 4.4

Transportation and utilities

433 390 5.1 4.6

Information

58 84 2.3 3.1

Financial activities

211 189 2.0 1.8

Professional and business services

756 744 4.0 3.9

Education and health services

628 604 2.5 2.4

Leisure and hospitality

771 684 5.9 5.0

Other services

200 208 3.2 3.3

Agriculture and related private wage and salary workers

107 108 7.0 7.4

Government workers

324 372 1.5 1.7

Self-employed workers, unincorporated, and unpaid family workers

331 334 3.2 3.3

Footnotes
(1) Persons with no previous work experience and persons whose last job was in the U.S. Armed Forces are included in the unemployed total.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data. Effective with January 2020 data, industries reflect the introduction of the 2017 Census industry classification system into the Current Population Survey. This industry classification system is derived from the 2017 North American Industry Classification System (NAICS). No historical data have been revised.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-15. Alternative measures of labor underutilization
[Percent]
Measure Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Mar.
2022
Feb.
2023
Mar.
2023
Mar.
2022
Nov.
2022
Dec.
2022
Jan.
2023
Feb.
2023
Mar.
2023

U-1 Persons unemployed 15 weeks or longer, as a percent of the civilian labor force

1.4 1.3 1.3 1.2 1.2 1.1 1.2 1.1 1.1

U-2 Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs, as a percent of the civilian labor force

1.8 2.0 1.9 1.7 1.7 1.6 1.5 1.7 1.8

U-3 Total unemployed, as a percent of the civilian labor force (official unemployment rate)

3.8 3.9 3.6 3.6 3.6 3.5 3.4 3.6 3.5

U-4 Total unemployed plus discouraged workers, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus discouraged workers

3.9 4.1 3.8 3.9 3.9 3.7 3.6 3.8 3.7

U-5 Total unemployed, plus discouraged workers, plus all other persons marginally attached to the labor force, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force

4.5 4.7 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.2 4.2 4.4 4.2

U-6 Total unemployed, plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force, plus total employed part time for economic reasons, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force

7.1 7.3 6.8 6.9 6.7 6.5 6.6 6.8 6.7

NOTE: Persons marginally attached to the labor force are those who currently are neither working nor looking for work but indicate that they want and are available for a job and have looked for work sometime in the past 12 months. Discouraged workers, a subset of the marginally attached, have given a job-market related reason for not currently looking for work. Persons employed part time for economic reasons are those who want and are available for full-time work but have had to settle for a part-time schedule. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-16. Persons not in the labor force and multiple jobholders by sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Category Total Men Women
Mar.
2022
Mar.
2023
Mar.
2022
Mar.
2023
Mar.
2022
Mar.
2023

NOT IN THE LABOR FORCE

Total not in the labor force

99,170 99,489 40,947 41,192 58,223 58,297

Persons who currently want a job

5,502 4,646 2,571 2,314 2,931 2,332

Marginally attached to the labor force(1)

1,281 1,190 649 638 632 552

Discouraged workers(2)

330 303 176 202 154 100

Other persons marginally attached to the labor force(3)

951 887 473 436 479 452

MULTIPLE JOBHOLDERS

Total multiple jobholders(4)

7,496 8,137 3,686 4,031 3,810 4,106

Percent of total employed

4.7 5.1 4.4 4.7 5.1 5.5

Primary job full time, secondary job part time

4,231 4,649 2,248 2,511 1,983 2,138

Primary and secondary jobs both part time

1,818 1,976 639 717 1,179 1,259

Primary and secondary jobs both full time

425 395 288 230 137 166

Hours vary on primary or secondary job

968 1,034 485 527 483 507

Footnotes
(1) Data refer to persons who want a job, have searched for work during the prior 12 months, and were available to take a job during the reference week, but had not looked for work in the past 4 weeks.
(2) Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for reasons such as thinks no work available, could not find work, lacks schooling or training, employer thinks too young or old, and other types of discrimination.
(3) Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for such reasons as school or family responsibilities, ill health, and transportation problems, as well as a number for whom reason for nonparticipation was not determined.
(4) Includes a small number of persons who work part time on their primary job and full time on their secondary job(s), not shown separately.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-1. Employees on nonfarm payrolls by industry sector and selected industry detail
[In thousands]
Industry Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Mar.
2022
Jan.
2023
Feb.
2023(p)
Mar.
2023(p)
Mar.
2022
Jan.
2023
Feb.
2023(p)
Mar.
2023(p)
Change from:
Feb.2023 - Mar.2023(p)

Total nonfarm

150,411 152,839 153,997 154,517 151,424 155,007 155,333 155,569 236

Total private

128,085 130,515 131,256 131,686 129,351 132,557 132,823 133,012 189

Goods-producing

20,719 21,061 21,153 21,221 20,997 21,502 21,513 21,506 -7

Mining and logging

583 622 624 629 589 632 632 635 3

Logging

45.6 46.6 46.6 46.7 45.8 46.4 46.2 46.6 0.4

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

537.5 575.2 577.1 582.1 543.4 585.4 586.2 588.0 1.8

Oil and gas extraction

112.1 116.7 116.6 116.8 112.6 117.5 117.4 117.5 0.1

Mining (except oil and gas)

176.5 180.9 182.4 183.3 180.7 186.7 187.7 187.5 -0.2

Coal mining

39.7 40.9 41.2 41.3 39.8 41.0 41.1 41.3 0.2

Metal ore mining

42.3 43.5 43.5 43.7 42.5 43.8 43.8 43.9 0.1

Nonmetallic mineral mining and quarrying

94.5 96.5 97.7 98.3 98.4 101.9 102.7 102.3 -0.4

Support activities for mining

248.9 277.6 278.1 282.0 250.1 281.2 281.1 283.0 1.9

Construction

7,463 7,550 7,603 7,656 7,692 7,885 7,897 7,888 -9

Construction of buildings

1,702.1 1,751.1 1,754.5 1,757.8 1,739.2 1,796.6 1,796.4 1,794.4 -2.0

Residential building construction

893.5 910.2 911.3 913.2 913.6 935.8 933.4 934.2 0.8

Nonresidential building construction

808.6 840.9 843.2 844.6 825.6 860.8 863.0 860.2 -2.8

Heavy and civil engineering construction

1,001.7 986.9 1,013.0 1,043.1 1,066.2 1,087.5 1,097.1 1,104.2 7.1

Specialty trade contractors

4,758.7 4,812.2 4,835.2 4,854.8 4,886.9 5,001.1 5,003.0 4,989.1 -13.9

Residential specialty trade contractors

2,233.5 2,235.2 2,250.5 2,252.0 2,285.6 2,316.2 2,319.1 2,311.3 -7.8

Nonresidential specialty trade contractors

2,525.2 2,577.0 2,584.7 2,602.8 2,601.3 2,684.9 2,683.9 2,677.8 -6.1

Manufacturing

12,673 12,889 12,926 12,936 12,716 12,985 12,984 12,983 -1

Durable goods

7,888 8,053 8,072 8,078 7,902 8,096 8,094 8,095 1

Wood product manufacturing

427.2 426.7 424.3 425.0 428.4 428.7 426.7 426.7 0.0

Nonmetallic mineral product manufacturing

408.6 423.6 424.4 425.2 415.5 433.7 433.9 431.7 -2.2

Primary metal manufacturing

360.4 364.5 365.8 368.7 359.8 366.0 366.3 368.1 1.8

Fabricated metal product manufacturing

1,420.4 1,444.1 1,446.6 1,444.4 1,420.6 1,450.7 1,449.5 1,445.4 -4.1

Machinery manufacturing

1,094.2 1,121.1 1,122.9 1,127.5 1,096.6 1,125.4 1,125.6 1,129.4 3.8

Computer and electronic product manufacturing

1,072.8 1,095.9 1,099.7 1,096.6 1,075.4 1,099.9 1,101.3 1,099.5 -1.8

Computer and peripheral equipment manufacturing

158.9 167.2 167.1 167.2 159.8 167.3 167.7 168.4 0.7

Communications equipment manufacturing

85.8 83.7 84.0 85.3 85.4 84.1 84.4 84.8 0.4

Semiconductor and other electronic component manufacturing

378.7 391.7 392.2 388.5 379.3 393.5 392.7 389.5 -3.2

Navigational, measuring, electromedical, and control instruments manufacturing

418.5 420.9 423.8 422.9 419.4 422.1 423.5 423.8 0.3

Manufacturing and reproducing magnetic and optical media and audio and video equipment manufacturing

30.9 32.4 32.6 32.7 31.5 32.8 33.0 33.1 0.1

Electrical equipment, appliance, and component manufacturing

401.5 405.2 404.2 403.8 402.0 406.5 406.5 404.7 -1.8

Transportation equipment manufacturing(1)

1,696.7 1,771.1 1,782.8 1,787.8 1,695.4 1,777.5 1,780.0 1,786.4 6.4

Motor vehicles and parts(2)

996.9 1,040.7 1,047.1 1,049.8 995.2 1,043.5 1,044.8 1,048.5 3.7

Furniture and related product manufacturing

382.6 369.4 368.7 368.2 382.4 372.3 369.5 369.3 -0.2

Miscellaneous manufacturing

623.8 631.3 632.2 630.9 626.3 635.6 634.8 633.9 -0.9

Nondurable goods

4,785 4,836 4,854 4,858 4,814 4,889 4,890 4,888 -2

Food manufacturing

1,665.6 1,708.0 1,715.7 1,714.7 1,681.4 1,724.6 1,726.0 1,729.4 3.4

Textile mills

98.4 96.1 94.5 95.5 98.8 96.9 95.5 95.9 0.4

Textile product mills

106.1 103.3 103.4 102.2 106.3 103.6 103.6 102.3 -1.3

Apparel manufacturing

92.9 92.1 92.9 93.6 93.6 94.0 93.0 93.9 0.9

Paper manufacturing

361.5 356.7 356.4 358.4 361.5 357.6 356.8 358.5 1.7

Printing and related support activities

375.6 377.9 378.8 380.5 377.2 381.5 382.0 382.1 0.1

Petroleum and coal products manufacturing

102.6 100.2 101.4 103.8 105.6 104.4 105.5 106.4 0.9

Chemical manufacturing

894.9 909.9 917.2 912.4 894.8 914.3 917.4 913.4 -4.0

Plastics and rubber products manufacturing

750.8 749.9 748.1 748.0 749.3 755.3 750.9 748.7 -2.2

Beverage, tobacco, and leather and allied product manufacturing

336.8 342.3 345.8 348.5 345.1 357.1 358.8 357.8 -1.0

Private service-providing

107,366 109,454 110,103 110,465 108,354 111,055 111,310 111,506 196

Trade, transportation, and utilities

28,327 28,758 28,638 28,601 28,600 28,828 28,859 28,863 4

Wholesale trade

5,890.4 5,990.0 6,011.2 6,027.5 5,917.9 6,037.7 6,048.6 6,055.3 6.7

Merchant wholesalers, durable goods

3,249.6 3,315.9 3,327.7 3,333.8 3,259.3 3,335.2 3,340.4 3,344.5 4.1

Merchant wholesalers, nondurable goods

2,134.0 2,151.8 2,158.4 2,168.0 2,149.0 2,177.1 2,180.5 2,182.3 1.8

Wholesale trade agents and brokers

506.8 522.3 525.1 525.7 509.6 525.4 527.7 528.5 0.8

Retail trade

15,352.1 15,453.6 15,395.7 15,358.1 15,542.0 15,500.1 15,541.4 15,526.8 -14.6

Motor vehicle and parts dealers

1,995.5 2,002.2 2,007.7 2,016.8 2,000.6 2,025.1 2,023.7 2,023.2 -0.5

Automobile dealers

1,253.3 1,247.5 1,251.3 1,252.0 1,252.9 1,256.6 1,255.4 1,253.0 -2.4

Other motor vehicle dealers

171.3 168.9 170.1 173.8 174.8 179.0 178.0 177.8 -0.2

Automotive parts, accessories, and tire retailers

570.9 585.8 586.3 591.0 572.8 589.5 590.4 592.3 1.9

Building material and garden equipment and supplies dealers

1,430.8 1,356.9 1,355.4 1,384.0 1,426.9 1,406.0 1,398.1 1,389.6 -8.5

Food and beverage retailers

3,159.9 3,232.2 3,236.0 3,220.4 3,182.3 3,242.6 3,246.6 3,240.2 -6.4

Furniture, home furnishings, electronics, and appliance retailers

915.6 884.2 877.1 867.3 917.7 876.8 878.7 870.0 -8.7

Furniture and home furnishings retailers

466.3 450.1 446.4 443.6 467.7 445.9 445.6 444.9 -0.7

Electronics and appliance retailers

449.3 434.1 430.7 423.7 453.0 428.7 429.0 428.8 -0.2

General merchandise retailers

3,150.4 3,115.2 3,128.3 3,106.1 3,212.5 3,082.2 3,125.1 3,138.6 13.5

Department stores

942.1 953.1 932.7 931.6 983.6 928.5 948.3 963.1 14.8

Warehouse clubs, supercenters, and other general merchandise retailers

2,208.3 2,162.1 2,195.6 2,174.5 2,228.9 2,153.6 2,176.8 2,175.6 -1.2

Health and personal care retailers

1,101.1 1,118.1 1,106.7 1,099.3 1,106.3 1,106.7 1,106.7 1,104.4 -2.3

Gasoline stations and fuel dealers

1,013.6 1,053.2 1,050.1 1,045.6 1,025.1 1,061.8 1,060.0 1,057.7 -2.3

Clothing, clothing accessories, shoe, and jewelry retailers

1,097.4 1,169.3 1,123.8 1,122.9 1,142.8 1,158.7 1,162.3 1,165.2 2.9

Sporting goods, hobby, musical instrument, book, and miscellaneous retailers

1,487.8 1,522.3 1,510.6 1,495.7 1,527.8 1,540.2 1,540.2 1,537.9 -2.3

Transportation and warehousing

6,533.9 6,762.6 6,681.4 6,662.3 6,588.7 6,736.6 6,716.1 6,726.5 10.4

Air transportation

487.2 522.0 523.7 533.6 488.2 527.1 528.7 534.4 5.7

Rail transportation

145.9 148.6 149.4 149.4 146.1 149.2 149.6 149.4 -0.2

Water transportation

60.3 63.0 63.0 63.9 62.2 65.8 66.1 66.2 0.1

Truck transportation

1,537.8 1,588.6 1,581.0 1,584.6 1,561.8 1,611.4 1,606.3 1,612.0 5.7

Transit and ground passenger transportation

416.0 444.6 446.6 449.8 405.8 438.0 435.4 438.6 3.2

Pipeline transportation

50.5 47.3 47.8 48.0 50.5 48.0 48.3 48.0 -0.3

Scenic and sightseeing transportation

23.5 27.0 27.2 29.5 29.0 33.2 33.6 34.6 1.0

Support activities for transportation

776.8 813.2 809.7 807.3 779.2 815.6 811.1 811.4 0.3

Couriers and messengers

1,097.3 1,166.5 1,094.2 1,081.9 1,131.0 1,115.1 1,114.6 1,121.3 6.7

Warehousing and storage

1,938.6 1,941.8 1,938.8 1,914.3 1,934.9 1,933.2 1,922.4 1,910.6 -11.8

Utilities

551.0 551.9 549.3 553.0 551.7 553.7 552.5 554.0 1.5

Information

3,006 3,050 3,060 3,070 3,018 3,097 3,087 3,093 6

Motion picture and sound recording industries

438.1 418.9 433.1 448.2 450.0 452.8 453.5 462.4 8.9

Publishing industries

925.7 938.2 935.4 934.1 926.9 943.3 941.7 939.9 -1.8

Broadcasting and content providers

355.2 354.8 357.4 355.3 355.0 357.6 357.4 355.7 -1.7

Telecommunications

660.3 652.2 654.8 650.6 658.5 655.0 653.2 650.1 -3.1

Computing infrastructure providers, data processing, web hosting, and related services

448.4 484.4 482.2 481.3 448.2 485.5 481.5 482.6 1.1

Web search portals, libraries, archives, and other information services

178.2 201.5 197.4 200.2 178.9 202.8 200.0 202.1 2.1

Financial activities

8,949 9,046 9,047 9,041 8,997 9,100 9,099 9,098 -1

Finance and insurance

6,633.7 6,681.5 6,668.8 6,668.5 6,644.5 6,693.1 6,678.3 6,684.9 6.6

Monetary authorities-central bank

21.1 21.7 21.9 21.8 21.2 21.8 22.0 21.9 -0.1

Credit intermediation and related
activities

2,701.9 2,678.3 2,673.1 2,665.4 2,703.9 2,678.9 2,670.8 2,669.8 -1.0

Depository credit intermediation(1)

1,755.6 1,783.3 1,787.7 1,785.0 1,756.1 1,782.9 1,785.1 1,785.7 0.6

Commercial banking

1,365.8 1,376.6 1,381.3 1,376.8 1,364.2 1,375.8 1,376.9 1,375.8 -1.1

Nondepository credit intermediation

610.4 577.1 569.0 568.3 613.2 579.0 571.7 571.8 0.1

Activities related to credit intermediation

335.9 317.9 316.4 312.1 334.7 317.0 314.0 312.3 -1.7

Securities, commodity contracts, funds, trusts, and other financial vehicles, investments, and related activities

1,024.5 1,065.0 1,063.7 1,064.8 1,031.8 1,070.7 1,070.3 1,073.7 3.4

Insurance carriers and related activities

2,886.2 2,916.5 2,910.1 2,916.5 2,887.6 2,921.7 2,915.2 2,919.5 4.3

Real estate and rental and leasing

2,315.7 2,364.5 2,377.7 2,372.3 2,352.9 2,407.1 2,420.4 2,413.2 -7.2

Real estate

1,782.9 1,824.5 1,829.7 1,825.4 1,805.0 1,849.3 1,853.3 1,850.7 -2.6

Rental and leasing services

510.8 518.1 525.9 524.8 525.6 535.4 544.6 540.0 -4.6

Lessors of nonfinancial intangible assets (except copyrighted works)

22.0 21.9 22.1 22.1 22.3 22.4 22.5 22.5 0.0

Professional and business services

22,207 22,468 22,642 22,677 22,439 22,858 22,913 22,952 39

Professional, scientific, and technical services

10,371.8 10,693.6 10,777.1 10,773.0 10,362.2 10,730.9 10,753.3 10,779.0 25.7

Legal services

1,164.6 1,175.2 1,174.4 1,172.8 1,171.0 1,180.8 1,181.5 1,180.9 -0.6

Accounting, tax preparation, bookkeeping, and payroll services

1,174.8 1,164.5 1,210.0 1,217.2 1,089.7 1,132.6 1,131.3 1,137.1 5.8

Architectural, engineering, and related services

1,560.2 1,628.9 1,634.2 1,640.1 1,583.0 1,650.8 1,657.6 1,664.3 6.7

Specialized design services

146.0 155.5 156.7 156.5 148.6 157.9 158.6 158.9 0.3

Computer systems design and related services

2,413.8 2,481.5 2,485.4 2,469.8 2,427.8 2,485.6 2,485.4 2,487.5 2.1

Management, scientific, and technical consulting services

1,743.2 1,829.4 1,843.7 1,841.7 1,758.1 1,841.4 1,850.9 1,858.5 7.6

Scientific research and development services

868.2 909.8 917.6 920.0 874.9 918.1 922.4 927.5 5.1

Advertising, public relations, and related services

480.8 487.8 491.8 490.4 481.9 494.3 494.3 492.2 -2.1

Other professional, scientific, and technical services

820.2 861.0 863.3 864.5 827.2 869.5 871.4 872.2 0.8

Management of companies and enterprises

2,472.7 2,507.5 2,507.0 2,509.2 2,481.3 2,515.9 2,518.3 2,518.7 0.4

Administrative and support and waste management and remediation services

9,362.5 9,266.8 9,358.3 9,395.2 9,595.8 9,611.1 9,641.3 9,654.3 13.0

Administrative and support services

8,895.4 8,790.3 8,874.9 8,910.1 9,124.9 9,126.2 9,152.5 9,165.8 13.3

Office administrative services

572.1 605.7 612.0 614.5 578.0 613.8 618.3 621.8 3.5

Facilities support services

154.8 159.2 161.5 163.7 154.7 159.9 161.8 162.9 1.1

Employment services(1)

3,869.6 3,728.2 3,770.5 3,752.2 3,938.2 3,844.7 3,855.0 3,857.4 2.4

Temporary help services

3,118.2 2,953.0 2,998.9 2,971.7 3,177.0 3,054.5 3,057.9 3,047.2 -10.7

Business support services

802.3 771.2 766.7 760.5 805.9 766.0 765.0 764.7 -0.3

Travel arrangement and reservation services

164.6 178.1 176.3 176.6 167.0 181.6 179.6 178.8 -0.8

Investigation and security services

941.1 969.7 969.4 968.9 944.5 980.2 976.5 972.2 -4.3

Services to buildings and dwellings

2,069.9 2,047.2 2,085.1 2,136.0 2,210.5 2,239.4 2,253.8 2,264.6 10.8

Other support services

321.0 331.0 333.4 337.7 326.0 340.7 342.6 343.4 0.8

Waste management and remediation services

467.1 476.5 483.4 485.1 470.9 484.9 488.8 488.5 -0.3

Private education and health services

24,162 24,750 25,127 25,204 24,050 24,938 25,023 25,088 65

Private educational services

3,884.0 3,779.8 4,037.3 4,062.9 3,742.8 3,890.4 3,902.5 3,917.1 14.6

Health care and social assistance

20,277.5 20,970.1 21,089.5 21,140.7 20,307.5 21,047.5 21,120.5 21,171.3 50.8

Health care(3)

16,082.7 16,584.9 16,671.4 16,698.8 16,118.3 16,645.3 16,700.2 16,734.1 33.9

Ambulatory health care services

8,021.9 8,258.8 8,298.4 8,312.8 8,035.8 8,298.5 8,312.4 8,327.4 15.0

Offices of physicians

2,775.2 2,851.6 2,856.4 2,858.5 2,779.8 2,862.5 2,862.2 2,864.2 2.0

Offices of dentists

1,001.4 1,027.5 1,026.7 1,024.0 1,004.2 1,028.7 1,029.7 1,027.2 -2.5

Offices of other health practitioners

1,063.5 1,106.1 1,121.0 1,118.8 1,067.7 1,113.6 1,121.9 1,123.8 1.9

Outpatient care centers

1,025.0 1,059.8 1,062.4 1,061.1 1,024.1 1,061.4 1,061.3 1,060.6 -0.7

Medical and diagnostic laboratories

322.1 321.8 324.3 321.0 322.8 321.7 323.6 321.9 -1.7

Home health care services

1,513.5 1,556.9 1,573.1 1,593.3 1,517.0 1,574.9 1,579.4 1,594.6 15.2

Other ambulatory health care services

321.2 335.1 334.5 336.1 320.2 335.7 334.2 335.2 1.0

Hospitals

5,105.0 5,243.9 5,274.4 5,285.2 5,108.9 5,254.6 5,279.8 5,290.7 10.9

Nursing and residential care facilities

2,955.8 3,082.2 3,098.6 3,100.8 2,973.6 3,092.2 3,108.0 3,116.0 8.0

Skilled nursing care facilities

1,331.5 1,380.4 1,385.1 1,384.2 1,342.6 1,382.9 1,389.3 1,392.7 3.4

Residential intellectual and developmental disability, mental health, and substance abuse facilities

594.3 620.0 621.9 621.9 595.6 623.4 623.9 623.6 -0.3

Continuing care retirement communities and assisted living facilities for the elderly

879.2 927.4 936.1 939.3 884.2 930.6 939.7 944.0 4.3

Other residential care facilities

150.8 154.4 155.5 155.4 151.3 155.3 155.1 155.7 0.6

Social assistance

4,194.8 4,385.2 4,418.1 4,441.9 4,189.2 4,402.2 4,420.3 4,437.2 16.9

Individual and family services

2,776.6 2,918.4 2,939.9 2,952.0 2,776.8 2,927.8 2,941.9 2,951.9 10.0

Community food and housing, and emergency and other relief services

201.4 210.8 211.9 214.2 200.2 210.6 210.3 212.5 2.2

Vocational rehabilitation services

269.3 273.3 275.5 277.9 272.0 278.4 278.7 279.6 0.9

Child care services

947.5 982.7 990.8 997.8 940.2 985.4 989.4 993.3 3.9

Leisure and hospitality

15,103 15,639 15,823 16,084 15,590 16,415 16,505 16,577 72

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

2,083.0 2,143.1 2,187.8 2,257.8 2,266.5 2,407.3 2,426.1 2,442.3 16.2

Performing arts, spectator sports, and related industries

455.2 446.0 471.1 492.1 484.3 513.4 518.7 521.7 3.0

Museums, historical sites, and similar institutions

144.7 152.7 154.0 161.1 154.8 166.8 168.4 170.7 2.3

Amusement, gambling, and recreation industries

1,483.1 1,544.4 1,562.7 1,604.6 1,627.4 1,727.1 1,739.0 1,749.9 10.9

Accommodation and food services

13,019.6 13,496.1 13,635.3 13,826.2 13,323.6 14,008.0 14,079.3 14,134.8 55.5

Accommodation

1,652.0 1,752.7 1,772.8 1,791.9 1,727.0 1,854.6 1,865.7 1,870.9 5.2

Food services and drinking places

11,367.6 11,743.4 11,862.5 12,034.3 11,596.6 12,153.4 12,213.6 12,263.9 50.3

Other services

5,612 5,743 5,766 5,788 5,660 5,819 5,824 5,835 11

Repair and maintenance

1,373.3 1,406.1 1,414.2 1,423.3 1,380.9 1,422.2 1,426.6 1,430.5 3.9

Personal and laundry services

1,442.1 1,508.1 1,511.7 1,514.5 1,456.6 1,531.4 1,529.3 1,529.5 0.2

Religious, grantmaking, civic, professional, and similar organizations

2,796.3 2,828.9 2,839.8 2,850.2 2,822.8 2,864.9 2,868.2 2,874.7 6.5

Government

22,326 22,324 22,741 22,831 22,073 22,450 22,510 22,557 47

Federal

2,853 2,873 2,886 2,889 2,873 2,886 2,895 2,903 8

Federal, except U.S. Postal Service

2,246.3 2,273.4 2,281.7 2,284.9 2,265.4 2,287.5 2,293.5 2,299.9 6.4

U.S. Postal Service

606.8 599.2 604.1 604.5 607.6 598.4 601.5 603.3 1.8

State government

5,187 5,057 5,283 5,313 5,063 5,156 5,171 5,184 13

State government education

2,554.5 2,403.1 2,620.9 2,637.8 2,422.4 2,484.9 2,494.9 2,502.0 7.1

State government, excluding education

2,632.3 2,654.0 2,662.3 2,675.6 2,640.4 2,670.7 2,676.1 2,681.5 5.4

Local government

14,286 14,394 14,572 14,629 14,137 14,408 14,444 14,470 26

Local government education

8,012.9 8,002.3 8,159.2 8,185.6 7,759.5 7,891.4 7,913.8 7,925.8 12.0

Local government, excluding education

6,273.0 6,391.2 6,413.0 6,443.1 6,377.8 6,516.4 6,530.1 6,544.1 14.0

Footnotes
(1) Includes other industries, not shown separately.
(2) Includes motor vehicles, motor vehicle bodies and trailers, and motor vehicle parts.
(3) Includes ambulatory health care services, hospitals, and nursing and residential care facilities.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2022 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-2. Average weekly hours and overtime of all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Mar.
2022
Jan.
2023
Feb.
2023(p)
Mar.
2023(p)

AVERAGE WEEKLY HOURS

Total private

34.7 34.6 34.5 34.4

Goods-producing

40.1 40.2 40.0 39.9

Mining and logging

46.0 46.3 45.9 46.1

Construction

38.7 39.2 39.0 38.9

Manufacturing

40.7 40.5 40.3 40.3

Durable goods

41.0 41.0 40.8 40.7

Nondurable goods

40.1 39.8 39.5 39.6

Private service-providing

33.6 33.5 33.4 33.3

Trade, transportation, and utilities

34.1 34.3 34.1 34.2

Wholesale trade

39.3 38.9 38.8 38.8

Retail trade

30.2 30.4 30.2 30.3

Transportation and warehousing

37.9 38.5 38.4 38.2

Utilities

42.3 42.0 42.2 42.5

Information

36.9 36.6 36.4 36.3

Financial activities

37.6 37.4 37.4 37.4

Professional and business services

36.7 36.5 36.5 36.3

Private education and health services

33.5 33.5 33.4 33.4

Leisure and hospitality

25.9 25.8 25.6 25.3

Other services

32.3 32.3 32.2 32.2

AVERAGE OVERTIME HOURS

Manufacturing

3.5 3.0 3.0 3.0

Durable goods

3.5 3.1 3.1 3.1

Nondurable goods

3.4 2.9 2.8 2.8

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2022 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-3. Average hourly and weekly earnings of all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Average hourly earnings Average weekly earnings
Mar.
2022
Jan.
2023
Feb.
2023(p)
Mar.
2023(p)
Mar.
2022
Jan.
2023
Feb.
2023(p)
Mar.
2023(p)

Total private

$31.83 $33.02 $33.09 $33.18 $1,104.50 $1,142.49 $1,141.61 $1,141.39

Goods-producing

32.04 33.28 33.34 33.50 1,284.80 1,337.86 1,333.60 1,336.65

Mining and logging

35.58 36.97 37.17 37.24 1,636.68 1,711.71 1,706.10 1,716.76

Construction

34.14 35.69 35.83 35.98 1,321.22 1,399.05 1,397.37 1,399.62

Manufacturing

30.64 31.67 31.67 31.83 1,247.05 1,282.64 1,276.30 1,282.75

Durable goods

32.19 33.18 33.19 33.39 1,319.79 1,360.38 1,354.15 1,358.97

Nondurable goods

28.03 29.09 29.06 29.17 1,124.00 1,157.78 1,147.87 1,155.13

Private service-providing

31.78 32.96 33.03 33.10 1,067.81 1,104.16 1,103.20 1,102.23

Trade, transportation, and utilities

27.44 28.38 28.55 28.59 935.70 973.43 973.56 977.78

Wholesale trade

34.76 36.24 36.15 36.23 1,366.07 1,409.74 1,402.62 1,405.72

Retail trade

22.85 23.52 23.78 23.79 690.07 715.01 718.16 720.84

Transportation and warehousing

27.45 28.27 28.45 28.47 1,040.36 1,088.40 1,092.48 1,087.55

Utilities

46.88 48.82 49.02 49.48 1,983.02 2,050.44 2,068.64 2,102.90

Information

45.48 47.75 47.94 47.96 1,678.21 1,747.65 1,745.02 1,740.95

Financial activities

41.06 42.51 42.54 42.67 1,543.86 1,589.87 1,591.00 1,595.86

Professional and business services

38.25 39.68 39.76 39.95 1,403.78 1,448.32 1,451.24 1,450.19

Private education and health services

31.43 32.70 32.66 32.67 1,052.91 1,095.45 1,090.84 1,091.18

Leisure and hospitality

19.76 20.78 20.80 20.96 511.78 536.12 532.48 530.29

Other services

28.36 29.50 29.51 29.24 916.03 952.85 950.22 941.53

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2022 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-4. Indexes of aggregate weekly hours and payrolls for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
[2007=100]
Industry Index of aggregate weekly hours(1) Index of aggregate weekly payrolls(2)
Mar.
2022
Jan.
2023
Feb.
2023(p)
Mar.
2023(p)
Percent change from:
Feb.
2023 - Mar.
2023(p)
Mar.
2022
Jan.
2023
Feb.
2023(p)
Mar.
2023(p)
Percent change from:
Feb.
2023 - Mar.
2023(p)

Total private

112.7 115.1 115.0 114.9 -0.1 171.5 181.8 182.0 182.2 0.1

Goods-producing

95.9 98.5 98.0 97.8 -0.2 138.9 148.1 147.7 148.0 0.2

Mining and logging

85.1 91.9 91.2 92.0 0.9 121.6 136.5 136.0 137.5 1.1

Construction

102.6 106.5 106.2 105.8 -0.4 152.2 165.2 165.3 165.4 0.1

Manufacturing

93.1 94.6 94.1 94.1 0.0 132.7 139.3 138.6 139.3 0.5

Durable goods

91.2 93.5 93.0 92.8 -0.2 130.4 137.7 137.0 137.6 0.4

Nondurable goods

96.4 97.1 96.4 96.6 0.2 137.0 143.4 142.2 143.0 0.6

Private service-providing

117.2 119.8 119.7 119.5 -0.2 181.1 191.9 192.2 192.3 0.1

Trade, transportation, and utilities

106.6 108.0 107.5 107.9 0.4 157.7 165.3 165.5 166.3 0.5

Wholesale trade

102.6 103.6 103.5 103.6 0.1 149.2 157.1 156.5 157.1 0.4

Retail trade

95.5 95.9 95.5 95.8 0.3 144.3 149.2 150.2 150.6 0.3

Transportation and warehousing

143.5 149.0 148.2 147.6 -0.4 200.4 214.3 214.5 213.8 -0.3

Utilities

101.0 100.6 100.9 101.9 1.0 156.4 162.3 163.4 166.5 1.9

Information

101.7 103.5 102.6 102.6 0.0 164.7 176.0 175.2 175.1 -0.1

Financial activities

110.8 111.5 111.5 111.5 0.0 177.5 184.9 185.0 185.5 0.3

Professional and business services

128.8 130.5 130.8 130.3 -0.4 199.6 209.8 210.7 210.9 0.1

Private education and health services

131.6 136.4 136.5 136.8 0.2 198.9 214.6 214.4 215.0 0.3

Leisure and hospitality

115.2 120.8 120.6 119.7 -0.7 183.7 202.6 202.3 202.4 0.0

Other services

105.4 108.4 108.1 108.3 0.2 163.8 175.2 174.9 173.6 -0.7

Footnotes
(1) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding 2007 annual average aggregate hours. Aggregate hours estimates are the product of estimates of average weekly hours and employment.
(2) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding 2007 annual average aggregate weekly payrolls. Aggregate payrolls estimates are the product of estimates of average hourly earnings, average weekly hours, and employment.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2022 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-5. Employment of women on nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Women employees (in thousands) Percent of all employees
Mar.
2022
Jan.
2023
Feb.
2023(p)
Mar.
2023(p)
Mar.
2022
Jan.
2023
Feb.
2023(p)
Mar.
2023(p)

Total nonfarm

75,232 77,186 77,338 77,480 49.7 49.8 49.8 49.8

Total private

62,415 64,104 64,215 64,320 48.3 48.4 48.3 48.4

Goods-producing

4,815 4,966 4,971 4,978 22.9 23.1 23.1 23.1

Mining and logging

75 82 82 83 12.7 13.0 13.0 13.1

Construction

1,076 1,115 1,116 1,120 14.0 14.1 14.1 14.2

Manufacturing

3,664 3,769 3,773 3,775 28.8 29.0 29.1 29.1

Durable goods

1,951 2,014 2,016 2,016 24.7 24.9 24.9 24.9

Nondurable goods

1,713 1,755 1,757 1,759 35.6 35.9 35.9 36.0

Private service-providing

57,600 59,138 59,244 59,342 53.2 53.3 53.2 53.2

Trade, transportation, and utilities

11,241 11,338 11,354 11,359 39.3 39.3 39.3 39.4

Wholesale trade

1,797.0 1,850.7 1,859.3 1,866.2 30.4 30.7 30.7 30.8

Retail trade

7,533.8 7,512.9 7,514.9 7,508.9 48.5 48.5 48.4 48.4

Transportation and warehousing

1,771.9 1,829.9 1,835.6 1,837.5 26.9 27.2 27.3 27.3

Utilities

138.2 144.7 144.5 145.9 25.0 26.1 26.2 26.3

Information

1,198 1,262 1,254 1,256 39.7 40.7 40.6 40.6

Financial activities

5,022 5,074 5,061 5,061 55.8 55.8 55.6 55.6

Professional and business services

10,376 10,538 10,572 10,587 46.2 46.1 46.1 46.1

Private education and health services

18,486 19,161 19,213 19,264 76.9 76.8 76.8 76.8

Leisure and hospitality

8,245 8,645 8,665 8,687 52.9 52.7 52.5 52.4

Other services

3,032 3,120 3,125 3,128 53.6 53.6 53.7 53.6

Government

12,817 13,082 13,123 13,160 58.1 58.3 58.3 58.3

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2022 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-6. Employment of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
[In thousands]
Industry Mar.
2022
Jan.
2023
Feb.
2023(p)
Mar.
2023(p)

Total private

105,365 107,832 107,995 108,149

Goods-producing

15,032 15,435 15,419 15,422

Mining and logging

447 478 478 479

Construction

5,670 5,820 5,808 5,810

Manufacturing

8,915 9,137 9,133 9,133

Durable goods

5,471 5,625 5,623 5,627

Nondurable goods

3,444 3,512 3,510 3,506

Private service-providing

90,333 92,397 92,576 92,727

Trade, transportation, and utilities

24,179 24,276 24,351 24,348

Wholesale trade

4,712.4 4,796.2 4,805.5 4,799.9

Retail trade

13,248.3 13,182.9 13,233.0 13,216.0

Transportation and warehousing

5,778.4 5,856.3 5,872.2 5,891.3

Utilities

439.8 440.9 439.8 440.3

Information

2,403 2,465 2,457 2,470

Financial activities

6,775 6,851 6,854 6,850

Professional and business services

17,920 18,138 18,142 18,129

Private education and health services

20,936 21,706 21,758 21,804

Leisure and hospitality

13,527 14,229 14,274 14,386

Other services

4,593 4,732 4,740 4,740

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2022 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-7. Average weekly hours and overtime of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry Mar.
2022
Jan.
2023
Feb.
2023(p)
Mar.
2023(p)

AVERAGE WEEKLY HOURS

Total private

34.1 34.1 33.9 33.9

Goods-producing

40.8 40.7 40.6 40.5

Mining and logging

47.6 47.7 47.6 48.0

Construction

39.3 39.9 39.9 39.6

Manufacturing

41.5 40.9 40.7 40.7

Durable goods

41.7 41.1 41.0 40.9

Nondurable goods

41.0 40.5 40.2 40.4

Private service-providing

33.0 33.0 32.8 32.8

Trade, transportation, and utilities

34.1 34.4 34.1 34.1

Wholesale trade

39.4 38.9 38.8 38.7

Retail trade

30.5 30.8 30.5 30.5

Transportation and warehousing

37.5 38.3 37.8 37.9

Utilities

42.0 42.7 42.9 42.7

Information

36.7 36.1 36.0 35.9

Financial activities

37.5 37.1 37.2 37.2

Professional and business services

36.3 36.4 36.3 36.3

Private education and health services

32.7 32.7 32.6 32.7

Leisure and hospitality

24.8 24.6 24.3 24.2

Other services

31.3 31.3 31.3 31.2

AVERAGE OVERTIME HOURS

Manufacturing

4.3 3.8 3.7 3.7

Durable goods

4.5 3.8 3.9 3.9

Nondurable goods

4.0 3.7 3.5 3.5

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2022 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-8. Average hourly and weekly earnings of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry Average hourly earnings Average weekly earnings
Mar.
2022
Jan.
2023
Feb.
2023(p)
Mar.
2023(p)
Mar.
2022
Jan.
2023
Feb.
2023(p)
Mar.
2023(p)

Total private

$27.12 $28.29 $28.41 $28.50 $924.79 $964.69 $963.10 $966.15

Goods-producing

27.54 28.91 28.96 29.10 1,123.63 1,176.64 1,175.78 1,178.55

Mining and logging

32.27 33.45 33.54 33.51 1,536.05 1,595.57 1,596.50 1,608.48

Construction

31.72 33.44 33.61 33.82 1,246.60 1,334.26 1,341.04 1,339.27

Manufacturing

24.74 25.82 25.78 25.91 1,026.71 1,056.04 1,049.25 1,054.54

Durable goods

25.89 26.96 26.97 27.07 1,079.61 1,108.06 1,105.77 1,107.16

Nondurable goods

22.90 23.96 23.84 24.03 938.90 970.38 958.37 970.81

Private service-providing

27.04 28.16 28.29 28.38 892.32 929.28 927.91 930.86

Trade, transportation, and utilities

23.63 24.67 24.85 24.91 805.78 848.65 847.39 849.43

Wholesale trade

28.77 29.99 30.15 30.08 1,133.54 1,166.61 1,169.82 1,164.10

Retail trade

19.42 20.22 20.34 20.40 592.31 622.78 620.37 622.20

Transportation and warehousing

25.57 26.72 27.01 27.14 958.88 1,023.38 1,020.98 1,028.61

Utilities

41.38 43.36 43.50 43.83 1,737.96 1,851.47 1,866.15 1,871.54

Information

37.21 38.82 38.85 38.81 1,365.61 1,401.40 1,398.60 1,393.28

Financial activities

31.51 32.93 33.24 33.26 1,181.63 1,221.70 1,236.53 1,237.27

Professional and business services

32.11 33.47 33.63 33.88 1,165.59 1,218.31 1,220.77 1,229.84

Private education and health services

28.54 29.74 29.76 29.79 933.26 972.50 970.18 974.13

Leisure and hospitality

17.51 18.31 18.33 18.51 434.25 450.43 445.42 447.94

Other services

24.56 25.33 25.40 25.15 768.73 792.83 795.02 784.68

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2022 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-9. Indexes of aggregate weekly hours and payrolls for production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
[2002=100]
Industry Index of aggregate weekly hours(2) Index of aggregate weekly payrolls(3)
Mar.
2022
Jan.
2023
Feb.
2023(p)
Mar.
2023(p)
Percent change from:
Feb.
2023 - Mar.
2023(p)
Mar.
2022
Jan.
2023
Feb.
2023(p)
Mar.
2023(p)
Percent change from:
Feb.
2023 - Mar.
2023(p)

Total private

119.7 122.5 122.0 122.2 0.2 217.0 231.7 231.7 232.7 0.4

Goods-producing

93.7 96.0 95.7 95.4 -0.3 158.0 169.9 169.6 170.1 0.3

Mining and logging

113.1 121.2 120.9 122.2 1.1 212.2 235.7 235.9 238.1 0.9

Construction

111.6 116.3 116.0 115.2 -0.7 191.1 209.9 210.6 210.4 -0.1

Manufacturing

84.9 85.8 85.3 85.3 0.0 137.4 144.9 143.9 144.6 0.5

Durable goods

85.7 86.9 86.6 86.5 -0.1 138.5 146.2 145.8 146.1 0.2

Nondurable goods

83.2 83.8 83.1 83.5 0.5 134.6 141.9 140.1 141.7 1.1

Private service-providing

127.0 129.9 129.4 129.6 0.2 235.6 250.9 251.0 252.3 0.5

Trade, transportation, and utilities

115.4 116.9 116.2 116.2 0.0 194.9 206.1 206.4 206.9 0.2

Wholesale trade

110.2 110.7 110.7 110.2 -0.5 187.1 196.0 196.9 195.7 -0.6

Retail trade

102.5 102.9 102.3 102.2 -0.1 170.6 178.5 178.5 178.8 0.2

Transportation and warehousing

164.0 169.8 168.0 169.0 0.6 266.9 288.7 288.8 291.9 1.1

Utilities

94.5 96.3 96.5 96.1 -0.4 163.2 174.2 175.2 175.9 0.4

Information

100.7 101.6 101.0 101.2 0.2 185.4 195.2 194.2 194.5 0.2

Financial activities

119.6 119.6 120.0 119.9 -0.1 231.8 242.4 245.4 245.4 0.0

Professional and business services

145.2 147.4 147.0 146.9 -0.1 277.3 293.4 294.1 296.0 0.6

Private education and health services

146.0 151.3 151.2 152.0 0.5 275.0 297.1 297.1 298.9 0.6

Leisure and hospitality

122.9 128.2 127.1 127.5 0.3 244.3 266.6 264.5 268.1 1.4

Other services

100.8 103.9 104.1 103.7