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Economic News Release
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Employment Situation News Release

Transmission of material in this news release is embargoed until	      USDL-19-0731
8:30 a.m. (EDT) Friday, May 3, 2019

Technical information: 
 Household data:	(202) 691-6378  *  cpsinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/cps
 Establishment data:	(202) 691-6555  *  cesinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/ces

Media contact:	        (202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov

	
                 THE EMPLOYMENT SITUATION -- APRIL 2019


Total nonfarm payroll employment increased by 263,000 in April, and the
unemployment rate declined to 3.6 percent, the U.S. Bureau of Labor
Statistics reported today. Notable job gains occurred in professional
and business services, construction, health care, and social assistance.

This news release presents statistics from two monthly surveys. The
household survey measures labor force status, including unemployment,
by demographic characteristics. The establishment survey measures nonfarm
employment, hours, and earnings by industry. For more information about
the concepts and statistical methodology used in these two surveys, see
the Technical Note.

Household Survey Data

The unemployment rate declined by 0.2 percentage point to 3.6 percent in
April, the lowest rate since December 1969. Over the month, the number
of unemployed persons decreased by 387,000 to 5.8 million. (See table
A-1.)

Among the major worker groups, the unemployment rates declined in April
for adult men (3.4 percent), adult women (3.1 percent), Whites (3.1
percent), Asians (2.2 percent), and Hispanics (4.2 percent). The jobless
rates for teenagers (13.0 percent) and Blacks (6.7 percent) showed little
or no change. (See tables A-1, A-2, and A-3.)

Among the unemployed, the number of job losers and persons who completed
temporary jobs declined by 186,000 over the month to 2.7 million. (See
table A-11.)

In April, the number of persons unemployed less than 5 weeks declined by
222,000 to 1.9 million. The number of long-term unemployed (those jobless
for 27 weeks or more) was little changed at 1.2 million in April and
accounted for 21.1 percent of the unemployed. (See table A-12.)

The labor force participation rate declined by 0.2 percentage point to
62.8 percent in April but was unchanged from a year earlier. The employment-
population ratio was unchanged at 60.6 percent in April and has been either
60.6 percent or 60.7 percent since October 2018. (See table A-1.)

The number of persons employed part time for economic reasons (sometimes
referred to as involuntary part-time workers) was little changed at 4.7
million in April. These individuals, who would have preferred full-time
employment, were working part time because their hours had been reduced or
because they were unable to find full-time jobs. (See table A-8.)

In April, 1.4 million persons were marginally attached to the labor force,
little different from a year earlier. (Data are not seasonally adjusted.)
These individuals were not in the labor force, wanted and were available for
work, and had looked for a job sometime in the prior 12 months. They were
not counted as unemployed because they had not searched for work in the 4
weeks preceding the survey. (See table A-16.)

Among the marginally attached, there were 454,000 discouraged workers in
April, about unchanged from a year earlier. (Data are not seasonally adjusted.)
Discouraged workers are persons not currently looking for work because they
believe no jobs are available for them. The remaining 963,000 persons
marginally attached to the labor force in April had not searched for work for
reasons such as school attendance or family responsibilities. (See table A-16.)

Establishment Survey Data

Total nonfarm payroll employment increased by 263,000 in April, compared with
an average monthly gain of 213,000 over the prior 12 months. In April, notable
jobs gains occurred in professional and business services, construction,
health care, and social assistance. (See table B-1.)

Professional and business services added 76,000 jobs in April. Within the
industry, employment gains occurred in administrative and support services
(+53,000) and in computer systems design and related services (+14,000). Over
the past 12 months, professional and business services has added 535,000 jobs.

In April, construction employment rose by 33,000, with gains in nonresidential
specialty trade contractors (+22,000) and in heavy and civil engineering
construction (+10,000). Construction has added 256,000 jobs over the past 12
months.
 
Employment in health care grew by 27,000 in April and 404,000 over the past
12 months. In April, job growth occurred in ambulatory health care services
(+17,000), hospitals (+8,000), and community care facilities for the elderly
(+7,000).

Social assistance added 26,000 jobs over the month, with all of the gain in
individual and family services.

Financial activities employment continued to trend up in April (+12,000). The
industry has added 110,000 jobs over the past 12 months, with almost three-
fourths of the growth in real estate and rental and leasing. 

Manufacturing employment changed little for the third month in a row (+4,000
in April). In the 12 months prior to February, the industry had added an
average of 22,000 jobs per month. 

Employment in retail trade changed little in April (-12,000). Job losses
occurred in general merchandise stores (-9,000), while motor vehicle and
parts dealers added 8,000 jobs.

Employment in other major industries, including mining, wholesale trade,
transportation and warehousing, information, leisure and hospitality, and
government, showed little change over the month.

In April, average hourly earnings for all employees on private nonfarm
payrolls rose by 6 cents to $27.77. Over the year, average hourly earnings
have increased by 3.2 percent. Average hourly earnings of private-sector
production and nonsupervisory employees increased by 7 cents to $23.31 in
April. (See tables B-3 and B-8.)

The average workweek for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls decreased
by 0.1 hour to 34.4 hours in April. In manufacturing, both the workweek and
overtime were unchanged (40.7 hours and 3.4 hours, respectively). The average
workweek for production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm
payrolls held at 33.7 hours. (See tables B-2 and B-7.)

The change in total nonfarm payroll employment for February was revised up
from +33,000 to +56,000, and the change for March was revised down from
+196,000 to +189,000. With these revisions, employment gains in February and
March combined were 16,000 more than previously reported. (Monthly revisions
result from additional reports received from businesses and government agencies
since the last published estimates and from the recalculation of seasonal
factors.) After revisions, job gains have averaged 169,000 per month over the
last 3 months.

_____________
The Employment Situation for May is scheduled to be released on Friday,
June 7, 2019, at 8:30 a.m. (EDT).




HOUSEHOLD DATA
Summary table A. Household data, seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Category Apr.
2018
Feb.
2019
Mar.
2019
Apr.
2019
Change from:
Mar.
2019-
Apr.
2019

Employment status

Civilian noninstitutional population

257,272 258,392 258,537 258,693 156

Civilian labor force

161,551 163,184 162,960 162,470 -490

Participation rate

62.8 63.2 63.0 62.8 -0.2

Employed

155,216 156,949 156,748 156,645 -103

Employment-population ratio

60.3 60.7 60.6 60.6 0.0

Unemployed

6,335 6,235 6,211 5,824 -387

Unemployment rate

3.9 3.8 3.8 3.6 -0.2

Not in labor force

95,721 95,208 95,577 96,223 646

Unemployment rates

Total, 16 years and over

3.9 3.8 3.8 3.6 -0.2

Adult men (20 years and over)

3.7 3.5 3.6 3.4 -0.2

Adult women (20 years and over)

3.5 3.4 3.3 3.1 -0.2

Teenagers (16 to 19 years)

13.0 13.4 12.8 13.0 0.2

White

3.5 3.3 3.4 3.1 -0.3

Black or African American

6.5 7.0 6.7 6.7 0.0

Asian

2.8 3.1 3.1 2.2 -0.9

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

4.8 4.3 4.7 4.2 -0.5

Total, 25 years and over

3.3 3.1 3.1 2.9 -0.2

Less than a high school diploma

5.8 5.3 5.9 5.4 -0.5

High school graduates, no college

4.3 3.8 3.7 3.5 -0.2

Some college or associate degree

3.4 3.2 3.4 3.1 -0.3

Bachelor's degree and higher

2.1 2.2 2.0 2.1 0.1

Reason for unemployment

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

2,965 2,857 2,837 2,651 -186

Job leavers

812 840 779 737 -42

Reentrants

2,001 1,905 2,007 1,926 -81

New entrants

615 623 614 530 -84

Duration of unemployment

Less than 5 weeks

2,121 2,194 2,126 1,904 -222

5 to 14 weeks

1,975 1,810 1,815 1,842 27

15 to 26 weeks

1,018 942 950 854 -96

27 weeks and over

1,311 1,271 1,305 1,230 -75

Employed persons at work part time

Part time for economic reasons

4,952 4,310 4,499 4,654 155

Slack work or business conditions

2,990 2,792 2,909 2,891 -18

Could only find part-time work

1,564 1,347 1,329 1,446 117

Part time for noneconomic reasons

21,295 21,153 21,297 21,322 25

Persons not in the labor force (not seasonally adjusted)

Marginally attached to the labor force

1,362 1,424 1,357 1,417 -

Discouraged workers

408 428 412 454 -

- Over-the-month changes are not displayed for not seasonally adjusted data.
NOTE: Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Summary table B. Establishment data, seasonally adjusted
Category Apr.
2018
Feb.
2019
Mar.
2019(p)
Apr.
2019(p)

EMPLOYMENT BY SELECTED INDUSTRY
(Over-the-month change, in thousands)

Total nonfarm

196 56 189 263

Total private

184 46 179 236

Goods-producing

60 -19 21 34

Mining and logging

9 -4 1 -3

Construction

29 -23 20 33

Manufacturing

22 8 0 4

Durable goods(1)

17 5 -5 0

Motor vehicles and parts

-0.5 1.5 -6.3 -1.5

Nondurable goods

5 3 5 4

Private service-providing

124 65 158 202

Wholesale trade

-13.4 12.5 -0.1 9.9

Retail trade

3.7 -13.7 -15.7 -12.0

Transportation and warehousing

6.6 -6.3 2.4 11.1

Utilities

1.4 -1.3 1.3 -3.2

Information

5 -7 7 -1

Financial activities

4 5 13 12

Professional and business services(1)

62 54 24 76

Temporary help services

12.8 7.0 -5.8 17.9

Education and health services(1)

24 19 69 62

Health care and social assistance

20.6 35.8 64.6 52.6

Leisure and hospitality

18 -1 37 34

Other services

13 4 20 14

Government

12 10 10 27

(3-month average change, in thousands)

Total nonfarm

236 198 186 169

Total private

220 189 174 154

WOMEN AND PRODUCTION AND NONSUPERVISORY EMPLOYEES
AS A PERCENT OF ALL EMPLOYEES(2)

Total nonfarm women employees

49.6 49.8 49.8 49.8

Total private women employees

48.2 48.4 48.4 48.4

Total private production and nonsupervisory employees

82.4 82.4 82.4 82.4

HOURS AND EARNINGS
ALL EMPLOYEES

Total private

Average weekly hours

34.5 34.4 34.5 34.4

Average hourly earnings

$26.90 $27.66 $27.71 $27.77

Average weekly earnings

$928.05 $951.50 $956.00 $955.29

Index of aggregate weekly hours (2007=100)(3)

109.2 110.6 111.1 111.0

Over-the-month percent change

0.2 -0.3 0.5 -0.1

Index of aggregate weekly payrolls (2007=100)(4)

140.4 146.3 147.2 147.3

Over-the-month percent change

0.4 0.1 0.6 0.1

DIFFUSION INDEX
(Over 1-month span)(5)

Total private (258 industries)

64.7 58.1 59.7 60.1

Manufacturing (76 industries)

63.8 52.6 53.9 48.0

Footnotes
(1) Includes other industries, not shown separately.
(2) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries.
(3) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding annual average aggregate hours.
(4) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding annual average aggregate weekly payrolls.
(5) Figures are the percent of industries with employment increasing plus one-half of the industries with unchanged employment, where 50 percent indicates an equal balance between industries with increasing and decreasing employment.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2018 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


Frequently Asked Questions about Employment and Unemployment Estimates

1. Why are there two monthly measures of employment?

   The household survey and establishment survey both produce sample-based estimates
   of employment, and both have strengths and limitations. The establishment survey
   employment series has a smaller margin of error on the measurement of month-to-
   month change than the household survey because of its much larger sample size. An
   over-the-month employment change of about 100,000 is statistically significant in
   the establishment survey, while the threshold for a statistically significant change
   in the household survey is about 500,000. However, the household survey has a more
   expansive scope than the establishment survey because it includes self-employed
   workers whose businesses are unincorporated, unpaid family workers, agricultural
   workers, and private household workers, who are excluded by the establishment survey.
   The household survey also provides estimates of employment for demographic groups.
   For more information on the differences between the two surveys, please visit
   https://www.bls.gov/web/empsit/ces_cps_trends.htm.

2. Are undocumented immigrants counted in the surveys?

   It is likely that both surveys include at least some undocumented immigrants. However,
   neither the establishment nor the household survey is designed to identify the legal
   status of workers. Therefore, it is not possible to determine how many are counted in
   either survey. The establishment survey does not collect data on the legal status of
   workers. The household survey does include questions which identify the foreign and
   native born, but it does not include questions about the legal status of the foreign
   born. Data on the foreign and native born are published each month in table A-7 of
   The Employment Situation news release.

3. Why does the establishment survey have revisions?

   The establishment survey revises published estimates to improve its data series by
   incorporating additional information that was not available at the time of the
   initial publication of the estimates. The establishment survey revises its initial
   monthly estimates twice, in the immediately succeeding 2 months, to incorporate
   additional sample receipts from respondents in the survey and recalculated seasonal
   adjustment factors. For more information on the monthly revisions, please visit
   https://www.bls.gov/ces/cesrevinfo.htm.

   On an annual basis, the establishment survey incorporates a benchmark revision that
   re-anchors estimates to nearly complete employment counts available from unemployment
   insurance tax records. The benchmark helps to control for sampling and modeling errors
   in the estimates. For more information on the annual benchmark revision, please visit
   https://www.bls.gov/web/empsit/cesbmart.htm.

4. Does the establishment survey sample include small firms?

   Yes; about 40 percent of the establishment survey sample is comprised of business
   establishments with fewer than 20 employees. The establishment survey sample is
   designed to maximize the reliability of the statewide total nonfarm employment
   estimate; firms from all states, size classes, and industries are appropriately
   sampled to achieve that goal.

5. Does the establishment survey account for employment from new businesses?

   Yes; monthly establishment survey estimates include an adjustment to account for
   the net employment change generated by business births and deaths. The adjustment
   comes from an econometric model that forecasts the monthly net jobs impact of
   business births and deaths based on the actual past values of the net impact that
   can be observed with a lag from the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages. The
   establishment survey uses modeling rather than sampling for this purpose because
   the survey is not immediately able to bring new businesses into the sample. There
   is an unavoidable lag between the birth of a new firm and its appearance on the
   sampling frame and availability for selection. BLS adds new businesses to the survey
   twice a year.

6. Is the count of unemployed persons limited to just those people receiving unemployment
   insurance benefits?

   No; the estimate of unemployment is based on a monthly sample survey of households.
   All persons who are without jobs and are actively seeking and available to work are
   included among the unemployed. (People on temporary layoff are included even if
   they do not actively seek work.) There is no requirement or question relating to
   unemployment insurance benefits in the monthly survey.

7. Does the official unemployment rate exclude people who want a job but are not currently
   looking for work?

   Yes; however, there are separate estimates of persons outside the labor force who
   want a job, including those who are not currently looking because they believe no
   jobs are available (discouraged workers). In addition, alternative measures of labor
   underutilization (some of which include discouraged workers and other groups not
   officially counted as unemployed) are published each month in table A-15 of The
   Employment Situation news release. For more information about these alternative
   measures, please visit https://www.bls.gov/cps/lfcharacteristics.htm#altmeasures.

8. How can unusually severe weather affect employment and hours estimates?

   In the establishment survey, the reference period is the pay period that includes
   the 12th of the month. Unusually severe weather is more likely to have an impact on
   average weekly hours than on employment. Average weekly hours are estimated for paid
   time during the pay period, including pay for holidays, sick leave, or other time off.
   The impact of severe weather on hours estimates typically, but not always, results in
   a reduction in average weekly hours. For example, some employees may be off work for
   part of the pay period and not receive pay for the time missed, while some workers,
   such as those dealing with cleanup or repair, may work extra hours.
   
   Typically, it is not possible to precisely quantify the effect of extreme weather on 
   payroll employment estimates. In order for severe weather conditions to reduce
   employment estimates, employees have to be off work without pay for the entire pay
   period. Employees who receive pay for any part of the pay period, even 1 hour, are
   counted in the payroll employment figures. For more information on how often employees
   are paid, please visit https://www.bls.gov/opub/btn/volume-3/how-frequently-do-private-
   businesses-pay-workers.htm.

   In the household survey, the reference period is generally the calendar week that
   includes the 12th of the month. Persons who miss the entire week's work for weather-
   related events are counted as employed whether or not they are paid for the time
   off. The household survey collects data on the number of persons who had a job but
   were not at work due to bad weather. It also provides a measure of the number of
   persons who usually work full time but had reduced hours due to bad weather. 
   Current and historical data are available on the household survey's most requested
   statistics page, please visit https://data.bls.gov/cgi-bin/surveymost?ln.




Technical Note


   This news release presents statistics from two major surveys, the Current
Population Survey (CPS; household survey) and the Current Employment Statistics
survey (CES; establishment survey). The household survey provides information
on the labor force, employment, and unemployment that appears in the "A" tables,
marked HOUSEHOLD DATA. It is a sample survey of about 60,000 eligible households
conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau for the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS).

   The establishment survey provides information on employment, hours, and
earnings of employees on nonfarm payrolls; the data appear in the "B" tables,
marked ESTABLISHMENT DATA. BLS collects these data each month from the payroll
records of a sample of nonagricultural business establishments. Each month
the CES program surveys about 142,000 businesses and government agencies,
representing approximately 689,000 individual worksites, in order to provide
detailed industry data on employment, hours, and earnings of workers on nonfarm
payrolls. The active sample includes approximately one-third of all nonfarm
payroll employees.

   For both surveys, the data for a given month relate to a particular week or
pay period. In the household survey, the reference period is generally the
calendar week that contains the 12th day of the month. In the establishment
survey, the reference period is the pay period including the 12th, which may or
may not correspond directly to the calendar week.

Coverage, definitions, and differences between surveys

   Household survey. The sample is selected to reflect the entire civilian 
noninstitutional population. Based on responses to a series of questions on 
work and job search activities, each person 16 years and over in a sample
household is classified as employed, unemployed, or not in the labor force.

   People are classified as employed if they did any work at all as paid employees
during the reference week; worked in their own business, profession, or on their
own farm; or worked without pay at least 15 hours in a family business or farm.
People are also counted as employed if they were temporarily absent from their jobs
because of illness, bad weather, vacation, labor-management disputes, or personal
reasons.

   People are classified as unemployed if they meet all of the following criteria:
they had no employment during the reference week; they were available for work at
that time; and they made specific efforts to find employment sometime during the
4-week period ending with the reference week. Persons laid off from a job and
expecting recall need not be looking for work to be counted as unemployed. The
unemployment data derived from the household survey in no way depend upon the
eligibility for or receipt of unemployment insurance benefits.

   The civilian labor force is the sum of employed and unemployed persons.
Those persons not classified as employed or unemployed are not in the labor 
force. The unemployment rate is the number unemployed as a percent of the 
labor force. The labor force participation rate is the labor force as a 
percent of the population, and the employment-population ratio is the 
employed as a percent of the population. Additional information about the 
household survey can be found at https://www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm.

   Establishment survey. The sample establishments are drawn from private
nonfarm businesses such as factories, offices, and stores, as well as
from federal, state, and local government entities. Employees on nonfarm
payrolls are those who worked or received pay for any part of the reference pay
period, including persons on paid leave. Persons are counted in each job
they hold. Hours and earnings data are produced for the private sector for
all employees and for production and nonsupervisory employees. Production
and nonsupervisory employees are defined as production and related employees
in manufacturing and mining and logging, construction workers in construction,
and nonsupervisory employees in private service-providing industries.

   Industries are classified on the basis of an establishment's principal
activity in accordance with the 2017 version of the North American Industry
Classification System. Additional information about the establishment survey
can be found at https://www.bls.gov/ces/.

   Differences in employment estimates. The numerous conceptual and methodological
differences between the household and establishment  surveys result in important
distinctions in the employment estimates derived from the surveys. Among these are:

   --The household survey includes agricultural workers, self-employed workers
     whose businesses are unincorporated, unpaid family workers, and private
     household workers among the employed. These groups are excluded from the
     establishment survey.

   --The household survey includes people on unpaid leave among the employed.
     The establishment survey does not.

   --The household survey is limited to workers 16 years of age and older.
     The establishment survey is not limited by age.

   --The household survey has no duplication of individuals, because
     individuals are counted only once, even if they hold more than one
     job. In the establishment survey, employees working at more than one
     job and thus appearing on more than one payroll are counted separately
     for each appearance.

Seasonal adjustment

   Over the course of a year, the size of the nation's labor force and the levels
of employment and unemployment undergo regularly occurring fluctuations. These 
events may result from seasonal changes in weather, major holidays, and the opening
and closing of schools. The effect of such seasonal variation can be very large.

   Because these seasonal events follow a more or less regular pattern each year,
their influence on the level of a series can be tempered by adjusting for regular
seasonal variation. These adjustments make nonseasonal developments, such as
declines in employment or increases in the participation of women in the labor
force, easier to spot. For example, in the household survey, the large number of
youth entering the labor force each June is likely to obscure any other changes
that have taken place relative to May, making it difficult to determine if the 
level of economic activity has risen or declined. Similarly, in the establishment
survey, payroll employment in education declines by about 20 percent at the end
of the spring term and later rises with the start of the fall term, obscuring the
underlying employment trends in the industry. Because seasonal employment changes
at the end and beginning of the school year can be estimated, the statistics can be
adjusted to make underlying employment patterns more discernable.  The seasonally
adjusted figures provide a more useful tool with which to analyze changes in
month-to-month economic activity.

   Many seasonally adjusted series are independently adjusted in both the household
and establishment surveys. However, the adjusted series for many major estimates,
such as total payroll employment, employment in most major sectors, total employment,
and unemployment are computed by aggregating independently adjusted component series.
For example, total unemployment is derived by summing the adjusted series for four
major age-sex components; this differs from the unemployment estimate that would be
obtained by directly adjusting the total or by combining
the duration, reasons, or more detailed age categories.

   For both the household and establishment surveys, a concurrent seasonal adjustment
methodology is used in which new seasonal factors are calculated each month using all
relevant data, up to and including the data for the current month. In the household
survey, new seasonal factors are used to adjust only the current month's data. In the
establishment survey, however, new seasonal factors are used each month to adjust the
three most recent monthly estimates. The prior 2 months are routinely revised to
incorporate additional sample reports and recalculated seasonal adjustment factors.
In both surveys, 5-year revisions to historical data are made once a year.

Reliability of the estimates

   Statistics based on the household and establishment surveys are subject to both
sampling and nonsampling error. When a sample, rather than the entire population,
is surveyed, there is a chance that the sample estimates may differ from the true
population values they represent. The component of this difference that occurs
because samples differ by chance is known as sampling error, and its variability
is measured by the standard error of the estimate. There is about a 90-percent
chance, or level of confidence, that an estimate based on a sample will differ by
no more than 1.6 standard errors from the true population value because of sampling
error. BLS analyses are generally conducted at the 90-percent level of confidence.

   For example, the confidence interval for the monthly change in total nonfarm
employment from the establishment survey is on the order of plus or minus 110,000.
Suppose the estimate of nonfarm employment increases by 50,000 from one month to
the next. The 90-percent confidence interval on the monthly change would range from
-60,000 to +160,000 (50,000 +/- 110,000). These figures do not mean that the sample
results are off by these magnitudes, but rather that there is about a 90-percent
chance that the true over-the-month change lies within this interval. Since this
range includes values of less than zero, we could not say with confidence that
nonfarm employment had, in fact, increased that month. If, however, the reported
nonfarm employment rise was 250,000, then all of the values within the 90- percent
confidence interval would be greater than zero. In this case, it is likely (at
least a 90-percent chance) that nonfarm employment had, in fact, risen that month.
At an unemployment rate of around 6.0 percent, the 90-percent confidence interval
for the monthly change in unemployment as measured by the household survey is
about +/- 300,000, and for the monthly change in the unemployment rate it is about
+/- 0.2 percentage point.

   In general, estimates involving many individuals or establishments have lower
standard errors (relative to the size of the estimate) than estimates which are based
on a small number of observations. The precision of estimates also is improved when
the data are cumulated over time, such as for quarterly and annual averages.

   The household and establishment surveys are also affected by nonsampling error,
which can occur for many reasons, including the failure to sample a segment of the
population, inability to obtain information for all respondents in the sample,
inability or unwillingness of respondents to provide correct information on a
timely basis, mistakes made by respondents, and errors made in the collection or
processing of the data.

   For example, in the establishment survey, estimates for the most recent 2 months
are based on incomplete returns; for this reason, these estimates are labeled
preliminary in the tables. It is only after two successive revisions to a monthly
estimate, when nearly all sample reports have been received, that the estimate is
considered final.

   Another major source of nonsampling error in the establishment survey is the
inability to capture, on a timely basis, employment generated by new firms. To
correct for this systematic underestimation of employment growth, an estimation
procedure with two components is used to account for business births. The first
component excludes employment losses from business deaths from sample-based
estimation in order to offset the missing employment gains from business births.
This is incorporated into the sample-based estimation procedure by simply not
reflecting sample units going out of business, but imputing to them the same
employment trend as the other firms in the sample. This procedure accounts for
most of the net birth/death employment.

   The second component is an ARIMA time series model designed to estimate the
residual net birth/death employment not accounted for by the imputation. The
historical time series used to create and test the ARIMA model was derived from
the unemployment insurance universe micro- level database, and reflects the actual
residual net of births and deaths over the past 5 years.

   The sample-based estimates from the establishment survey are adjusted once a
year (on a lagged basis) to universe counts of payroll employment obtained from
administrative records of the unemployment insurance program. The difference 
between the March sample-based employment estimates and the March universe counts
is known as a benchmark revision, and serves as a rough proxy for total survey
error. The new benchmarks also incorporate changes in the classification of
industries. Over the past decade, absolute benchmark revisions for total nonfarm
employment have averaged 0.3 percent, with a range from -0.7 percent to 0.6 percent.

Other information

   Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired
individuals upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay
Service: (800) 877-8339.




HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-1. Employment status of the civilian population by sex and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Apr.
2018
Mar.
2019
Apr.
2019
Apr.
2018
Dec.
2018
Jan.
2019
Feb.
2019
Mar.
2019
Apr.
2019

TOTAL

Civilian noninstitutional population

257,272 258,537 258,693 257,272 258,888 258,239 258,392 258,537 258,693

Civilian labor force

161,280 162,823 162,097 161,551 163,240 163,229 163,184 162,960 162,470

Participation rate

62.7 63.0 62.7 62.8 63.1 63.2 63.2 63.0 62.8

Employed

155,348 156,441 156,710 155,216 156,945 156,694 156,949 156,748 156,645

Employment-population ratio

60.4 60.5 60.6 60.3 60.6 60.7 60.7 60.6 60.6

Unemployed

5,932 6,382 5,387 6,335 6,294 6,535 6,235 6,211 5,824

Unemployment rate

3.7 3.9 3.3 3.9 3.9 4.0 3.8 3.8 3.6

Not in labor force

95,992 95,714 96,596 95,721 95,649 95,010 95,208 95,577 96,223

Persons who currently want a job

5,010 4,887 4,951 5,143 5,327 5,254 5,222 5,227 5,121

Men, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

124,418 125,037 125,114 124,418 125,227 124,890 124,965 125,037 125,114

Civilian labor force

85,965 86,286 86,027 86,102 86,441 86,577 86,439 86,442 86,179

Participation rate

69.1 69.0 68.8 69.2 69.0 69.3 69.2 69.1 68.9

Employed

82,610 82,606 82,963 82,599 83,041 83,031 83,095 83,034 82,959

Employment-population ratio

66.4 66.1 66.3 66.4 66.3 66.5 66.5 66.4 66.3

Unemployed

3,355 3,681 3,064 3,502 3,401 3,545 3,343 3,408 3,221

Unemployment rate

3.9 4.3 3.6 4.1 3.9 4.1 3.9 3.9 3.7

Not in labor force

38,453 38,750 39,087 38,317 38,785 38,313 38,527 38,595 38,935

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

115,921 116,586 116,665 115,921 116,739 116,436 116,513 116,586 116,665

Civilian labor force

83,225 83,603 83,415 83,163 83,500 83,599 83,632 83,573 83,373

Participation rate

71.8 71.7 71.5 71.7 71.5 71.8 71.8 71.7 71.5

Employed

80,242 80,295 80,711 80,108 80,501 80,472 80,712 80,564 80,576

Employment-population ratio

69.2 68.9 69.2 69.1 69.0 69.1 69.3 69.1 69.1

Unemployed

2,983 3,308 2,703 3,055 2,999 3,126 2,920 3,009 2,797

Unemployment rate

3.6 4.0 3.2 3.7 3.6 3.7 3.5 3.6 3.4

Not in labor force

32,697 32,983 33,251 32,758 33,239 32,837 32,881 33,013 33,292

Women, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

132,853 133,500 133,579 132,853 133,662 133,350 133,427 133,500 133,579

Civilian labor force

75,314 76,536 76,069 75,449 76,798 76,652 76,746 76,518 76,291

Participation rate

56.7 57.3 56.9 56.8 57.5 57.5 57.5 57.3 57.1

Employed

72,738 73,835 73,747 72,616 73,904 73,663 73,854 73,715 73,687

Employment-population ratio

54.8 55.3 55.2 54.7 55.3 55.2 55.4 55.2 55.2

Unemployed

2,576 2,701 2,323 2,833 2,894 2,990 2,892 2,803 2,604

Unemployment rate

3.4 3.5 3.1 3.8 3.8 3.9 3.8 3.7 3.4

Not in labor force

57,539 56,964 57,510 57,405 56,864 56,697 56,681 56,982 57,288

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

124,579 125,252 125,332 124,579 125,393 125,099 125,177 125,252 125,332

Civilian labor force

72,573 73,658 73,382 72,558 73,769 73,691 73,760 73,525 73,419

Participation rate

58.3 58.8 58.5 58.2 58.8 58.9 58.9 58.7 58.6

Employed

70,266 71,259 71,327 70,033 71,218 71,049 71,221 71,072 71,131

Employment-population ratio

56.4 56.9 56.9 56.2 56.8 56.8 56.9 56.7 56.8

Unemployed

2,307 2,399 2,055 2,525 2,550 2,642 2,540 2,453 2,288

Unemployment rate

3.2 3.3 2.8 3.5 3.5 3.6 3.4 3.3 3.1

Not in labor force

52,006 51,594 51,950 52,021 51,624 51,408 51,417 51,727 51,913

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian noninstitutional population

16,771 16,698 16,696 16,771 16,756 16,704 16,702 16,698 16,696

Civilian labor force

5,482 5,562 5,300 5,829 5,971 5,939 5,792 5,862 5,678

Participation rate

32.7 33.3 31.7 34.8 35.6 35.6 34.7 35.1 34.0

Employed

4,840 4,887 4,672 5,074 5,226 5,172 5,017 5,113 4,938

Employment-population ratio

28.9 29.3 28.0 30.3 31.2 31.0 30.0 30.6 29.6

Unemployed

642 675 628 755 745 767 776 748 740

Unemployment rate

11.7 12.1 11.9 13.0 12.5 12.9 13.4 12.8 13.0

Not in labor force

11,290 11,137 11,395 10,942 10,785 10,765 10,909 10,837 11,018

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-2. Employment status of the civilian population by race, sex, and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, race, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Apr.
2018
Mar.
2019
Apr.
2019
Apr.
2018
Dec.
2018
Jan.
2019
Feb.
2019
Mar.
2019
Apr.
2019

WHITE

Civilian noninstitutional population

199,950 200,508 200,576 199,950 200,774 200,382 200,447 200,508 200,576

Civilian labor force

125,488 126,290 125,627 125,675 126,680 126,351 126,313 126,404 125,900

Participation rate

62.8 63.0 62.6 62.9 63.1 63.1 63.0 63.0 62.8

Employed

121,358 121,929 122,036 121,228 122,318 121,880 122,168 122,143 121,944

Employment-population ratio

60.7 60.8 60.8 60.6 60.9 60.8 60.9 60.9 60.8

Unemployed

4,130 4,362 3,591 4,447 4,362 4,471 4,144 4,261 3,957

Unemployment rate

3.3 3.5 2.9 3.5 3.4 3.5 3.3 3.4 3.1

Not in labor force

74,462 74,218 74,950 74,274 74,094 74,030 74,134 74,104 74,676

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

65,988 66,029 65,852 65,919 66,110 66,051 66,052 66,014 65,802

Participation rate

72.1 71.9 71.7 72.0 71.9 72.0 72.0 71.9 71.6

Employed

63,848 63,742 64,014 63,724 64,046 63,890 64,088 63,936 63,896

Employment-population ratio

69.8 69.4 69.7 69.6 69.6 69.6 69.8 69.6 69.6

Unemployed

2,140 2,287 1,838 2,195 2,064 2,161 1,964 2,078 1,906

Unemployment rate

3.2 3.5 2.8 3.3 3.1 3.3 3.0 3.1 2.9

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

55,210 55,893 55,639 55,192 55,995 55,740 55,814 55,806 55,671

Participation rate

57.4 58.0 57.7 57.4 58.0 57.8 57.9 57.9 57.7

Employed

53,641 54,293 54,309 53,451 54,226 53,959 54,151 54,140 54,133

Employment-population ratio

55.8 56.3 56.3 55.6 56.2 56.0 56.2 56.1 56.1

Unemployed

1,568 1,600 1,330 1,742 1,769 1,781 1,663 1,666 1,538

Unemployment rate

2.8 2.9 2.4 3.2 3.2 3.2 3.0 3.0 2.8

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

4,290 4,368 4,136 4,564 4,575 4,560 4,447 4,585 4,427

Participation rate

34.8 35.6 33.8 37.0 37.2 37.2 36.3 37.4 36.1

Employed

3,868 3,894 3,713 4,053 4,047 4,031 3,929 4,067 3,915

Employment-population ratio

31.4 31.8 30.3 32.9 32.9 32.9 32.0 33.2 31.9

Unemployed

421 474 423 511 528 530 518 517 512

Unemployment rate

9.8 10.9 10.2 11.2 11.6 11.6 11.6 11.3 11.6

BLACK OR AFRICAN AMERICAN

Civilian noninstitutional population

32,672 32,925 32,955 32,672 32,956 32,868 32,897 32,925 32,955

Civilian labor force

20,172 20,328 20,537 20,233 20,460 20,628 20,575 20,432 20,589

Participation rate

61.7 61.7 62.3 61.9 62.1 62.8 62.5 62.1 62.5

Employed

18,953 18,965 19,262 18,911 19,107 19,220 19,137 19,073 19,219

Employment-population ratio

58.0 57.6 58.4 57.9 58.0 58.5 58.2 57.9 58.3

Unemployed

1,219 1,364 1,275 1,321 1,353 1,408 1,437 1,359 1,370

Unemployment rate

6.0 6.7 6.2 6.5 6.6 6.8 7.0 6.7 6.7

Not in labor force

12,500 12,597 12,418 12,439 12,496 12,240 12,322 12,493 12,366

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

9,248 9,344 9,449 9,266 9,284 9,367 9,414 9,399 9,456

Participation rate

67.6 67.6 68.3 67.8 67.2 67.9 68.2 68.0 68.3

Employed

8,681 8,675 8,827 8,674 8,709 8,705 8,734 8,753 8,811

Employment-population ratio

63.5 62.8 63.8 63.4 63.0 63.1 63.3 63.3 63.7

Unemployed

567 669 622 593 575 662 680 646 645

Unemployment rate

6.1 7.2 6.6 6.4 6.2 7.1 7.2 6.9 6.8

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

10,239 10,324 10,406 10,244 10,359 10,419 10,366 10,316 10,411

Participation rate

62.1 62.1 62.5 62.1 62.2 62.8 62.4 62.0 62.5

Employed

9,764 9,777 9,907 9,716 9,749 9,847 9,822 9,777 9,859

Employment-population ratio

59.2 58.8 59.5 58.9 58.6 59.3 59.1 58.8 59.2

Unemployed

475 547 499 528 611 572 544 539 552

Unemployment rate

4.6 5.3 4.8 5.2 5.9 5.5 5.3 5.2 5.3

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

685 660 681 722 817 842 795 717 722

Participation rate

27.4 26.7 27.6 28.9 32.8 34.0 32.1 29.0 29.2

Employed

508 513 527 522 650 669 582 542 549

Employment-population ratio

20.3 20.7 21.3 20.8 26.1 27.0 23.5 21.9 22.2

Unemployed

177 148 155 201 167 173 213 174 173

Unemployment rate

25.8 22.4 22.7 27.8 20.5 20.6 26.8 24.3 24.0

ASIAN

Civilian noninstitutional population

15,933 16,245 16,290 15,933 16,138 16,034 16,055 16,245 16,290

Civilian labor force

10,034 10,447 10,166 10,039 10,262 10,298 10,369 10,402 10,180

Participation rate

63.0 64.3 62.4 63.0 63.6 64.2 64.6 64.0 62.5

Employed

9,765 10,133 9,954 9,760 9,929 9,978 10,045 10,082 9,957

Employment-population ratio

61.3 62.4 61.1 61.3 61.5 62.2 62.6 62.1 61.1

Unemployed

269 314 212 279 334 321 324 320 223

Unemployment rate

2.7 3.0 2.1 2.8 3.3 3.1 3.1 3.1 2.2

Not in labor force

5,898 5,798 6,124 5,894 5,876 5,736 5,686 5,843 6,110

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Estimates for the above race groups will not sum to totals shown in table A-1 because data are not presented for all races. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-3. Employment status of the Hispanic or Latino population by sex and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Apr.
2018
Mar.
2019
Apr.
2019
Apr.
2018
Dec.
2018
Jan.
2019
Feb.
2019
Mar.
2019
Apr.
2019

HISPANIC OR LATINO ETHNICITY

Civilian noninstitutional population

42,507 43,205 43,289 42,507 43,234 43,044 43,127 43,205 43,289

Civilian labor force

28,193 28,900 28,474 28,219 28,963 28,985 28,724 28,929 28,546

Participation rate

66.3 66.9 65.8 66.4 67.0 67.3 66.6 67.0 65.9

Employed

26,970 27,479 27,415 26,865 27,701 27,579 27,480 27,566 27,348

Employment-population ratio

63.4 63.6 63.3 63.2 64.1 64.1 63.7 63.8 63.2

Unemployed

1,223 1,421 1,059 1,354 1,261 1,406 1,245 1,363 1,198

Unemployment rate

4.3 4.9 3.7 4.8 4.4 4.9 4.3 4.7 4.2

Not in labor force

14,314 14,305 14,814 14,288 14,271 14,060 14,403 14,277 14,743

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

15,517 15,836 15,595 15,516 15,651 15,699 15,675 15,832 15,611

Participation rate

80.9 81.2 79.8 80.9 80.2 80.8 80.5 81.2 79.9

Employed

14,949 15,114 15,074 14,891 15,107 15,066 15,117 15,187 15,028

Employment-population ratio

77.9 77.5 77.2 77.6 77.4 77.6 77.7 77.9 76.9

Unemployed

568 722 521 626 544 633 557 646 583

Unemployment rate

3.7 4.6 3.3 4.0 3.5 4.0 3.6 4.1 3.7

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

11,437 11,842 11,776 11,410 12,002 11,968 11,798 11,839 11,762

Participation rate

59.0 60.0 59.6 58.8 60.8 60.9 59.9 60.0 59.5

Employed

10,929 11,318 11,381 10,869 11,487 11,396 11,331 11,321 11,330

Employment-population ratio

56.3 57.3 57.6 56.0 58.2 58.0 57.5 57.4 57.3

Unemployed

508 524 395 541 515 572 466 518 432

Unemployment rate

4.4 4.4 3.4 4.7 4.3 4.8 4.0 4.4 3.7

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

1,239 1,222 1,103 1,293 1,310 1,318 1,252 1,257 1,172

Participation rate

31.6 30.8 27.7 32.9 33.0 33.3 31.6 31.7 29.5

Employed

1,091 1,048 961 1,105 1,107 1,117 1,031 1,058 989

Employment-population ratio

27.8 26.4 24.2 28.2 27.9 28.2 26.0 26.6 24.9

Unemployed

148 175 142 187 202 201 221 199 183

Unemployment rate

11.9 14.3 12.9 14.5 15.4 15.2 17.6 15.9 15.6

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-4. Employment status of the civilian population 25 years and over by educational attainment
[Numbers in thousands]
Educational attainment Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Apr.
2018
Mar.
2019
Apr.
2019
Apr.
2018
Dec.
2018
Jan.
2019
Feb.
2019
Mar.
2019
Apr.
2019

Less than a high school diploma

Civilian labor force

10,438 10,064 10,081 10,294 10,283 10,065 10,267 10,142 9,996

Participation rate

46.6 45.8 45.7 46.0 46.1 45.2 47.0 46.1 45.3

Employed

9,836 9,374 9,554 9,692 9,683 9,489 9,720 9,548 9,460

Employment-population ratio

43.9 42.6 43.3 43.3 43.4 42.6 44.5 43.4 42.8

Unemployed

603 689 527 602 600 576 548 594 536

Unemployment rate

5.8 6.9 5.2 5.8 5.8 5.7 5.3 5.9 5.4

High school graduates, no college(1)

Civilian labor force

35,538 36,015 35,900 35,487 36,154 36,301 36,230 35,983 35,901

Participation rate

57.0 57.9 57.9 56.9 58.1 58.5 58.2 57.9 57.9

Employed

34,086 34,571 34,729 33,975 34,776 34,937 34,863 34,654 34,662

Employment-population ratio

54.7 55.6 56.0 54.5 55.9 56.3 56.0 55.8 55.9

Unemployed

1,451 1,444 1,172 1,512 1,377 1,363 1,367 1,329 1,239

Unemployment rate

4.1 4.0 3.3 4.3 3.8 3.8 3.8 3.7 3.5

Some college or associate degree

Civilian labor force

38,056 37,204 37,494 37,880 37,175 37,339 37,213 37,268 37,290

Participation rate

65.6 65.1 64.9 65.3 65.7 65.5 65.3 65.2 64.6

Employed

36,818 35,895 36,405 36,578 35,954 36,071 36,040 36,012 36,141

Employment-population ratio

63.5 62.8 63.0 63.1 63.5 63.2 63.3 63.0 62.6

Unemployed

1,238 1,309 1,089 1,302 1,222 1,268 1,173 1,256 1,149

Unemployment rate

3.3 3.5 2.9 3.4 3.3 3.4 3.2 3.4 3.1

Bachelor's degree and higher(2)

Civilian labor force

56,823 58,984 58,335 56,795 58,701 58,472 58,497 58,593 58,381

Participation rate

74.2 74.2 73.8 74.2 73.6 74.0 73.5 73.7 73.9

Employed

55,735 57,789 57,235 55,616 57,442 57,078 57,220 57,409 57,179

Employment-population ratio

72.8 72.7 72.4 72.6 72.0 72.2 71.9 72.2 72.3

Unemployed

1,088 1,195 1,099 1,179 1,260 1,395 1,277 1,184 1,202

Unemployment rate

1.9 2.0 1.9 2.1 2.1 2.4 2.2 2.0 2.1

Footnotes
(1) Includes persons with a high school diploma or equivalent.
(2) Includes persons with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-5. Employment status of the civilian population 18 years and over by veteran status, period of service, and sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, veteran status, and period of service Total Men Women
Apr.
2018
Apr.
2019
Apr.
2018
Apr.
2019
Apr.
2018
Apr.
2019

VETERANS, 18 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

19,280 18,903 17,418 17,022 1,862 1,881

Civilian labor force

9,582 9,337 8,446 8,219 1,136 1,118

Participation rate

49.7 49.4 48.5 48.3 61.0 59.4

Employed

9,231 9,120 8,117 8,049 1,114 1,072

Employment-population ratio

47.9 48.2 46.6 47.3 59.8 57.0

Unemployed

351 217 329 171 22 46

Unemployment rate

3.7 2.3 3.9 2.1 1.9 4.1

Not in labor force

9,698 9,566 8,972 8,803 726 763

Gulf War-era II veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

4,070 4,248 3,378 3,552 692 697

Civilian labor force

3,356 3,390 2,849 2,913 507 477

Participation rate

82.5 79.8 84.3 82.0 73.3 68.5

Employed

3,193 3,331 2,702 2,880 491 451

Employment-population ratio

78.5 78.4 80.0 81.1 70.9 64.8

Unemployed

163 59 147 33 16 26

Unemployment rate

4.9 1.7 5.2 1.1 3.2 5.4

Not in labor force

714 858 529 639 185 220

Gulf War-era I veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

3,134 3,119 2,638 2,593 496 525

Civilian labor force

2,441 2,413 2,085 2,056 355 357

Participation rate

77.9 77.4 79.0 79.3 71.6 68.0

Employed

2,397 2,360 2,044 2,011 353 349

Employment-population ratio

76.5 75.7 77.5 77.5 71.2 66.6

Unemployed

43 53 41 45 2 8

Unemployment rate

1.8 2.2 2.0 2.2 0.6 2.2

Not in labor force

694 705 553 538 141 168

World War II, Korean War, and Vietnam-era veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

7,714 7,298 7,452 7,047 262 251

Civilian labor force

1,628 1,480 1,569 1,405 60 75

Participation rate

21.1 20.3 21.0 19.9 22.7 29.9

Employed

1,576 1,442 1,516 1,373 60 70

Employment-population ratio

20.4 19.8 20.3 19.5 22.7 27.8

Unemployed

52 38 52 33 0 5

Unemployment rate

3.2 2.6 3.3 2.3 - 7.3

Not in labor force

6,086 5,818 5,883 5,642 202 176

Veterans of other service periods

Civilian noninstitutional population

4,362 4,238 3,950 3,830 412 408

Civilian labor force

2,158 2,054 1,944 1,846 214 208

Participation rate

49.5 48.5 49.2 48.2 52.0 51.0

Employed

2,065 1,986 1,854 1,785 211 201

Employment-population ratio

47.3 46.9 46.9 46.6 51.2 49.3

Unemployed

93 67 89 60 3 7

Unemployment rate

4.3 3.3 4.6 3.3 1.5 3.2

Not in labor force

2,204 2,184 2,006 1,984 198 200

NONVETERANS, 18 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

229,048 230,997 102,525 103,613 126,524 127,385

Civilian labor force

149,781 150,960 76,583 76,873 73,198 74,087

Participation rate

65.4 65.4 74.7 74.2 57.9 58.2

Employed

144,475 146,047 73,719 74,093 70,756 71,953

Employment-population ratio

63.1 63.2 71.9 71.5 55.9 56.5

Unemployed

5,306 4,913 2,864 2,780 2,442 2,133

Unemployment rate

3.5 3.3 3.7 3.6 3.3 2.9

Not in labor force

79,267 80,038 25,942 26,740 53,326 53,298

NOTE: Veterans served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces and were not on active duty at the time of the survey. Nonveterans never served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces. Veterans could have served anywhere in the world during these periods of service: Gulf War era II (September 2001-present), Gulf War era I (August 1990-August 2001), Vietnam era (August 1964-April 1975), Korean War (July 1950-January 1955), World War II (December 1941-December 1946), and other service periods (all other time periods). Veterans who served in more than one wartime period are classified only in the most recent one. Veterans who served during one of the selected wartime periods and another period are classified only in the wartime period. Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria (values not shown where base is less than 75,000).


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-6. Employment status of the civilian population by sex, age, and disability status, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Persons with a disability Persons with no disability
Apr.
2018
Apr.
2019
Apr.
2018
Apr.
2019

TOTAL, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

30,307 30,770 226,965 227,923

Civilian labor force

6,337 6,384 154,942 155,713

Participation rate

20.9 20.7 68.3 68.3

Employed

5,828 5,978 149,520 150,731

Employment-population ratio

19.2 19.4 65.9 66.1

Unemployed

509 405 5,423 4,982

Unemployment rate

8.0 6.3 3.5 3.2

Not in labor force

23,970 24,386 72,022 72,210

Men, 16 to 64 years

Civilian labor force

2,746 2,732 77,722 77,629

Participation rate

36.6 36.6 82.6 82.5

Employed

2,474 2,522 74,799 74,947

Employment-population ratio

33.0 33.8 79.5 79.6

Unemployed

272 210 2,923 2,682

Unemployment rate

9.9 7.7 3.8 3.5

Not in labor force

4,746 4,735 16,384 16,470

Women, 16 to 64 years

Civilian labor force

2,451 2,402 68,401 68,967

Participation rate

30.7 30.2 70.7 71.3

Employed

2,256 2,249 66,123 66,927

Employment-population ratio

28.2 28.3 68.3 69.2

Unemployed

194 152 2,279 2,039

Unemployment rate

7.9 6.3 3.3 3.0

Not in labor force

5,538 5,547 28,377 27,760

Both sexes, 65 years and over

Civilian labor force

1,141 1,250 8,819 9,117

Participation rate

7.7 8.1 24.4 24.6

Employed

1,098 1,208 8,598 8,857

Employment-population ratio

7.4 7.9 23.8 23.9

Unemployed

43 43 222 260

Unemployment rate

3.8 3.4 2.5 2.9

Not in labor force

13,685 14,104 27,261 27,979

NOTE: A person with a disability has at least one of the following conditions: is deaf or has serious difficulty hearing; is blind or has serious difficulty seeing even when wearing glasses; has serious difficulty concentrating, remembering, or making decisions because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition; has serious difficulty walking or climbing stairs; has difficulty dressing or bathing; or has difficulty doing errands alone such as visiting a doctor's office or shopping because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-7. Employment status of the civilian population by nativity and sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status and nativity Total Men Women
Apr.
2018
Apr.
2019
Apr.
2018
Apr.
2019
Apr.
2018
Apr.
2019

Foreign born, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

43,164 43,527 21,041 21,187 22,123 22,340

Civilian labor force

28,266 28,439 16,398 16,521 11,868 11,918

Participation rate

65.5 65.3 77.9 78.0 53.6 53.3

Employed

27,300 27,660 15,961 16,122 11,338 11,539

Employment-population ratio

63.2 63.5 75.9 76.1 51.2 51.7

Unemployed

967 779 437 400 530 379

Unemployment rate

3.4 2.7 2.7 2.4 4.5 3.2

Not in labor force

14,898 15,088 4,643 4,665 10,255 10,422

Native born, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

214,107 215,166 103,377 103,927 110,730 111,239

Civilian labor force

133,014 133,657 69,568 69,506 63,446 64,151

Participation rate

62.1 62.1 67.3 66.9 57.3 57.7

Employed

128,049 129,049 66,649 66,842 61,400 62,208

Employment-population ratio

59.8 60.0 64.5 64.3 55.5 55.9

Unemployed

4,965 4,608 2,919 2,664 2,046 1,944

Unemployment rate

3.7 3.4 4.2 3.8 3.2 3.0

Not in labor force

81,094 81,509 33,810 34,421 47,284 47,087

NOTE: The foreign born are those residing in the United States who were not U.S. citizens at birth. That is, they were born outside the United States or one of its outlying areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam, to parents neither of whom was a U.S. citizen. The native born are persons who were born in the United States or one of its outlying areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam or who were born abroad of at least one parent who was a U.S. citizen. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-8. Employed persons by class of worker and part-time status
[In thousands]
Category Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Apr.
2018
Mar.
2019
Apr.
2019
Apr.
2018
Dec.
2018
Jan.
2019
Feb.
2019
Mar.
2019
Apr.
2019

CLASS OF WORKER

Agriculture and related industries

2,230 2,243 2,281 2,312 2,522 2,576 2,510 2,332 2,394

Wage and salary workers(1)

1,438 1,558 1,571 1,528 1,747 1,778 1,741 1,687 1,687

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

759 667 687 747 752 787 764 644 690

Unpaid family workers

33 18 23 - - - - - -

Nonagricultural industries

153,119 154,197 154,429 152,860 154,520 154,177 154,446 154,358 154,271

Wage and salary workers(1)

144,009 145,493 145,849 143,815 145,478 145,251 145,674 145,609 145,675

Government

21,453 21,077 21,189 21,175 20,677 20,614 20,588 20,677 20,831

Private industries

122,556 124,417 124,661 122,663 124,787 124,657 125,042 124,948 124,892

Private households

780 808 825 - - - - - -

Other industries

121,776 123,609 123,835 121,895 123,904 123,861 124,243 124,153 124,075

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

9,039 8,659 8,543 9,001 9,031 8,855 8,780 8,727 8,569

Unpaid family workers

70 45 37 - - - - - -

PERSONS AT WORK PART TIME(2)

All industries

Part time for economic reasons(3)

4,734 4,621 4,483 4,952 4,657 5,147 4,310 4,499 4,654

Slack work or business conditions

2,867 2,949 2,782 2,990 2,891 3,451 2,792 2,909 2,891

Could only find part-time work

1,573 1,413 1,473 1,564 1,496 1,419 1,347 1,329 1,446

Part time for noneconomic reasons(4)

22,132 21,738 22,160 21,295 21,234 20,949 21,153 21,297 21,322

Nonagricultural industries

Part time for economic reasons(3)

4,631 4,548 4,424 4,844 4,580 5,079 4,244 4,439 4,589

Slack work or business conditions

2,799 2,895 2,750 2,926 2,816 3,418 2,763 2,854 2,865

Could only find part-time work

1,559 1,410 1,461 1,552 1,473 1,401 1,339 1,327 1,437

Part time for noneconomic reasons(4)

21,763 21,434 21,830 20,918 20,826 20,548 20,761 20,995 20,985

Footnotes
(1) Includes self-employed workers whose businesses are incorporated.
(2) Refers to those who worked 1 to 34 hours during the survey reference week and excludes employed persons who were absent from their jobs for the entire week.
(3) Refers to those who worked 1 to 34 hours during the reference week for an economic reason such as slack work or unfavorable business conditions, inability to find full-time work, or seasonal declines in demand.
(4) Refers to persons who usually work part time for noneconomic reasons such as childcare problems, family or personal obligations, school or training, retirement or Social Security limits on earnings, and other reasons. This excludes persons who usually work full time but worked only 1 to 34 hours during the reference week for reasons such as vacations, holidays, illness, and bad weather.

- Data not available.
NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-9. Selected employment indicators
[Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Apr.
2018
Mar.
2019
Apr.
2019
Apr.
2018
Dec.
2018
Jan.
2019
Feb.
2019
Mar.
2019
Apr.
2019

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

155,348 156,441 156,710 155,216 156,945 156,694 156,949 156,748 156,645

16 to 19 years

4,840 4,887 4,672 5,074 5,226 5,172 5,017 5,113 4,938

16 to 17 years

1,642 1,601 1,543 1,827 1,784 1,674 1,756 1,759 1,723

18 to 19 years

3,198 3,285 3,129 3,265 3,441 3,459 3,249 3,356 3,198

20 years and over

150,508 151,554 152,038 150,141 151,720 151,522 151,932 151,635 151,707

20 to 24 years

14,034 13,925 14,114 14,152 13,885 13,911 14,018 14,064 14,192

25 years and over

136,475 137,629 137,923 135,952 137,786 137,605 137,942 137,685 137,481

25 to 54 years

100,206 100,750 100,890 99,968 100,833 100,787 100,840 100,792 100,687

25 to 34 years

35,157 35,686 35,602 35,103 35,689 35,665 35,584 35,695 35,582

35 to 44 years

32,670 32,785 33,001 32,604 32,881 32,902 33,101 32,855 32,918

45 to 54 years

32,379 32,279 32,287 32,260 32,263 32,221 32,156 32,241 32,187

55 years and over

36,269 36,879 37,033 35,985 36,954 36,817 37,102 36,893 36,794

Men, 16 years and over

82,610 82,606 82,963 82,599 83,041 83,031 83,095 83,034 82,959

16 to 19 years

2,368 2,311 2,252 2,492 2,540 2,559 2,384 2,470 2,383

16 to 17 years

774 793 821 850 848 805 860 882 893

18 to 19 years

1,594 1,518 1,430 1,651 1,686 1,735 1,535 1,594 1,486

20 years and over

80,242 80,295 80,711 80,108 80,501 80,472 80,712 80,564 80,576

20 to 24 years

7,204 7,015 7,161 7,271 7,044 7,101 7,148 7,120 7,203

25 years and over

73,038 73,280 73,551 72,835 73,435 73,398 73,566 73,520 73,379

25 to 54 years

53,721 53,825 53,870 53,659 53,774 53,808 53,858 53,968 53,813

25 to 34 years

18,944 19,294 19,170 18,949 19,165 19,132 19,119 19,314 19,186

35 to 44 years

17,667 17,635 17,815 17,633 17,701 17,772 17,899 17,720 17,768

45 to 54 years

17,110 16,897 16,884 17,077 16,908 16,904 16,840 16,933 16,859

55 years and over

19,317 19,455 19,681 19,176 19,661 19,591 19,708 19,553 19,566

Women, 16 years and over

72,738 73,835 73,747 72,616 73,904 73,663 73,854 73,715 73,687

16 to 19 years

2,472 2,576 2,420 2,583 2,686 2,613 2,633 2,643 2,555

16 to 17 years

868 808 721 977 936 869 896 877 830

18 to 19 years

1,603 1,767 1,699 1,614 1,755 1,723 1,714 1,762 1,712

20 years and over

70,266 71,259 71,327 70,033 71,218 71,049 71,221 71,072 71,131

20 to 24 years

6,829 6,910 6,954 6,881 6,841 6,810 6,870 6,944 6,989

25 years and over

63,437 64,349 64,373 63,117 64,352 64,206 64,377 64,164 64,102

25 to 54 years

46,485 46,925 47,020 46,309 47,059 46,979 46,983 46,824 46,874

25 to 34 years

16,213 16,392 16,432 16,155 16,524 16,533 16,465 16,381 16,396

35 to 44 years

15,003 15,151 15,186 14,971 15,180 15,130 15,202 15,135 15,150

45 to 54 years

15,269 15,382 15,402 15,183 15,355 15,317 15,316 15,308 15,327

55 years and over

16,952 17,424 17,352 16,809 17,293 17,227 17,394 17,340 17,228

MARITAL STATUS

Married men, spouse present(1)

46,195 45,865 45,927 45,991 45,984 45,819 45,893 45,867 45,734

Married women, spouse present(1)

36,386 36,841 36,414 36,122 36,379 36,504 36,574 36,566 36,206

Women who maintain families(2)

9,492 9,708 9,698 - - - - - -

FULL- OR PART-TIME STATUS

Full-time workers(3)

127,340 128,819 129,212 127,826 129,913 129,837 130,159 129,969 129,778

Part-time workers(4)

28,008 27,622 27,498 27,382 26,994 26,752 26,878 26,938 26,915

MULTIPLE JOBHOLDERS

Total multiple jobholders

7,637 8,047 7,765 7,667 7,866 7,850 7,641 7,853 7,798

Percent of total employed

4.9 5.1 5.0 4.9 5.0 5.0 4.9 5.0 5.0

SELF-EMPLOYMENT

Self-employed workers, incorporated

5,787 5,991 6,094 - - - - - -

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

9,798 9,326 9,230 9,748 9,783 9,642 9,544 9,371 9,259

Footnotes
(1) Refers to persons in opposite-sex married couples only.
(2) Refers to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not an opposite-sex spouse.
(3) Employed full-time workers are persons who usually work 35 hours or more per week.
(4) Employed part-time workers are persons who usually work less than 35 hours per week.

- Data not available.
NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-10. Selected unemployment indicators, seasonally adjusted
Characteristic Number of
unemployed persons
(in thousands)
Unemployment rates
Apr.
2018
Mar.
2019
Apr.
2019
Apr.
2018
Dec.
2018
Jan.
2019
Feb.
2019
Mar.
2019
Apr.
2019

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

6,335 6,211 5,824 3.9 3.9 4.0 3.8 3.8 3.6

16 to 19 years

755 748 740 13.0 12.5 12.9 13.4 12.8 13.0

16 to 17 years

296 254 273 13.9 13.8 14.4 16.0 12.6 13.7

18 to 19 years

466 486 451 12.5 12.1 12.2 12.2 12.7 12.4

20 years and over

5,580 5,463 5,085 3.6 3.5 3.7 3.5 3.5 3.2

20 to 24 years

1,015 1,095 993 6.7 7.2 7.6 7.2 7.2 6.5

25 years and over

4,598 4,359 4,132 3.3 3.1 3.3 3.1 3.1 2.9

25 to 54 years

3,522 3,373 3,159 3.4 3.2 3.3 3.2 3.2 3.0

25 to 34 years

1,598 1,487 1,434 4.4 3.9 3.9 4.0 4.0 3.9

35 to 44 years

999 930 898 3.0 2.8 2.9 2.6 2.8 2.7

45 to 54 years

925 955 827 2.8 2.9 2.9 2.9 2.9 2.5

55 years and over

1,107 1,012 978 3.0 2.9 3.2 2.7 2.7 2.6

Men, 16 years and over

3,502 3,408 3,221 4.1 3.9 4.1 3.9 3.9 3.7

16 to 19 years

447 398 424 15.2 13.7 14.1 15.1 13.9 15.1

16 to 17 years

176 116 127 17.2 14.9 15.6 18.0 11.7 12.5

18 to 19 years

276 274 297 14.3 13.7 13.1 14.0 14.7 16.6

20 years and over

3,055 3,009 2,797 3.7 3.6 3.7 3.5 3.6 3.4

20 to 24 years

604 690 601 7.7 7.8 8.4 7.6 8.8 7.7

25 years and over

2,488 2,327 2,226 3.3 3.1 3.3 3.1 3.1 2.9

25 to 54 years

1,856 1,765 1,703 3.3 3.2 3.3 3.2 3.2 3.1

25 to 34 years

892 750 719 4.5 3.7 4.0 3.9 3.7 3.6

35 to 44 years

486 505 497 2.7 2.8 2.9 2.6 2.8 2.7

45 to 54 years

479 510 487 2.7 3.0 2.9 3.0 2.9 2.8

55 years and over

632 562 522 3.2 3.0 3.3 2.8 2.8 2.6

Women, 16 years and over

2,833 2,803 2,604 3.8 3.8 3.9 3.8 3.7 3.4

16 to 19 years

308 350 316 10.7 11.3 11.7 11.8 11.7 11.0

16 to 17 years

119 137 146 10.9 12.9 13.3 14.0 13.5 15.0

18 to 19 years

190 212 154 10.5 10.5 11.2 10.6 10.7 8.3

20 years and over

2,525 2,453 2,288 3.5 3.5 3.6 3.4 3.3 3.1

20 to 24 years

411 404 392 5.6 6.5 6.7 6.8 5.5 5.3

25 years and over

2,110 2,032 1,906 3.2 3.1 3.2 3.1 3.1 2.9

25 to 54 years

1,666 1,608 1,456 3.5 3.3 3.3 3.2 3.3 3.0

25 to 34 years

707 737 715 4.2 4.2 3.9 4.2 4.3 4.2

35 to 44 years

513 426 401 3.3 2.7 2.9 2.6 2.7 2.6

45 to 54 years

446 445 340 2.9 2.8 3.0 2.8 2.8 2.2

55 years and over

485 463 468 2.8 2.8 2.9 2.6 2.6 2.6

MARITAL STATUS

Married men, spouse present(1)

985 912 821 2.1 2.1 2.1 1.9 1.9 1.8

Married women, spouse present(1)

905 892 668 2.4 2.3 2.4 2.3 2.4 1.8

Women who maintain families(2)

548 479 501 5.5 4.5 5.4 4.9 4.7 4.9

FULL- OR PART-TIME STATUS

Full-time workers(3)

5,150 5,026 4,680 3.9 3.7 4.0 3.8 3.7 3.5

Part-time workers(4)

1,204 1,224 1,163 4.2 4.8 4.2 4.1 4.3 4.1

Footnotes
(1) Refers to persons in opposite-sex couples only.
(2) Data are not seasonally adjusted. Refers to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not an opposite-sex spouse.
(3) Full-time workers are unemployed persons who have expressed a desire to work full time (35 hours or more per week) or are on layoff from full-time jobs.
(4) Part-time workers are unemployed persons who have expressed a desire to work part time (less than 35 hours per week) or are on layoff from part-time jobs.

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-11. Unemployed persons by reason for unemployment
[Numbers in thousands]
Reason Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Apr.
2018
Mar.
2019
Apr.
2019
Apr.
2018
Dec.
2018
Jan.
2019
Feb.
2019
Mar.
2019
Apr.
2019

NUMBER OF UNEMPLOYED

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

2,805 3,098 2,484 2,965 2,903 3,082 2,857 2,837 2,651

On temporary layoff

713 1,029 574 865 762 937 820 878 717

Not on temporary layoff

2,092 2,069 1,910 2,100 2,141 2,144 2,037 1,960 1,934

Permanent job losers

1,415 1,470 1,287 1,418 1,432 1,427 1,300 1,379 1,302

Persons who completed temporary jobs

677 599 623 682 710 717 737 580 632

Job leavers

761 763 685 812 839 805 840 779 737

Reentrants

1,836 1,982 1,761 2,001 1,958 1,945 1,905 2,007 1,926

New entrants

530 539 457 615 588 606 623 614 530

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

47.3 48.5 46.1 46.4 46.2 47.9 45.9 45.5 45.4

On temporary layoff

12.0 16.1 10.6 13.5 12.1 14.6 13.2 14.1 12.3

Not on temporary layoff

35.3 32.4 35.5 32.8 34.1 33.3 32.7 31.4 33.1

Job leavers

12.8 12.0 12.7 12.7 13.3 12.5 13.5 12.5 12.6

Reentrants

31.0 31.1 32.7 31.3 31.1 30.2 30.6 32.2 33.0

New entrants

8.9 8.4 8.5 9.6 9.3 9.4 10.0 9.8 9.1

UNEMPLOYED AS A PERCENT OF THE
CIVILIAN LABOR FORCE

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

1.7 1.9 1.5 1.8 1.8 1.9 1.8 1.7 1.6

Job leavers

0.5 0.5 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5

Reentrants

1.1 1.2 1.1 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2

New entrants

0.3 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.3

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-12. Unemployed persons by duration of unemployment
[Numbers in thousands]
Duration Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Apr.
2018
Mar.
2019
Apr.
2019
Apr.
2018
Dec.
2018
Jan.
2019
Feb.
2019
Mar.
2019
Apr.
2019

NUMBER OF UNEMPLOYED

Less than 5 weeks

1,782 1,868 1,585 2,121 2,126 2,325 2,194 2,126 1,904

5 to 14 weeks

1,666 2,017 1,572 1,975 2,027 2,013 1,810 1,815 1,842

15 weeks and over

2,483 2,496 2,231 2,330 2,203 2,153 2,214 2,256 2,084

15 to 26 weeks

1,158 1,111 997 1,018 897 902 942 950 854

27 weeks and over

1,325 1,385 1,234 1,311 1,306 1,252 1,271 1,305 1,230

Average (mean) duration, in weeks

24.2 22.9 24.2 23.0 21.8 20.5 21.7 22.2 22.9

Median duration, in weeks

11.9 10.8 11.2 9.8 9.1 8.9 9.3 9.6 9.4

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION

Less than 5 weeks

30.1 29.3 29.4 33.0 33.4 35.8 35.3 34.3 32.7

5 to 14 weeks

28.1 31.6 29.2 30.7 31.9 31.0 29.1 29.3 31.6

15 weeks and over

41.9 39.1 41.4 36.3 34.7 33.2 35.6 36.4 35.7

15 to 26 weeks

19.5 17.4 18.5 15.9 14.1 13.9 15.2 15.3 14.6

27 weeks and over

22.3 21.7 22.9 20.4 20.5 19.3 20.4 21.1 21.1

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-13. Employed and unemployed persons by occupation, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Occupation Employed Unemployed Unemployment
rates
Apr.
2018
Apr.
2019
Apr.
2018
Apr.
2019
Apr.
2018
Apr.
2019

Total, 16 years and over(1)

155,348 156,710 5,932 5,387 3.7 3.3

Management, professional, and related occupations

62,561 63,560 1,134 1,040 1.8 1.6

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

25,742 26,645 460 375 1.8 1.4

Professional and related occupations

36,819 36,915 675 664 1.8 1.8

Service occupations

27,105 26,921 1,238 1,132 4.4 4.0

Sales and office occupations

33,170 33,295 1,242 1,254 3.6 3.6

Sales and related occupations

15,573 15,211 659 625 4.1 3.9

Office and administrative support occupations

17,597 18,084 583 629 3.2 3.4

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

14,036 14,141 926 725 6.2 4.9

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

969 1,198 127 140 11.6 10.5

Construction and extraction occupations

8,014 8,274 662 453 7.6 5.2

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

5,052 4,669 138 132 2.7 2.7

Production, transportation, and material moving
occupations

18,476 18,792 841 768 4.4 3.9

Production occupations

8,434 8,534 384 340 4.4 3.8

Transportation and material moving occupations

10,042 10,257 457 427 4.4 4.0

Footnotes
(1) Persons with no previous work experience and persons whose last job was in the U.S. Armed Forces are included in the unemployed total.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-14. Unemployed persons by industry and class of worker, not seasonally adjusted
Industry and class of worker Number of
unemployed
persons
(in thousands)
Unemployment
rates
Apr.
2018
Apr.
2019
Apr.
2018
Apr.
2019

Total, 16 years and over(1)

5,932 5,387 3.7 3.3

Nonagricultural private wage and salary workers

4,533 4,254 3.6 3.3

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

39 17 4.7 2.4

Construction

623 439 6.5 4.7

Manufacturing

521 483 3.3 3.0

Durable goods

308 265 3.1 2.6

Nondurable goods

212 218 3.5 3.6

Wholesale and retail trade

843 829 4.2 4.3

Transportation and utilities

207 255 3.0 3.4

Information

62 87 2.3 3.5

Financial activities

155 210 1.6 2.1

Professional and business services

596 611 3.5 3.5

Education and health services

555 512 2.3 2.1

Leisure and hospitality

719 647 5.2 4.5

Other services

212 164 3.1 2.5

Agriculture and related private wage and salary workers

137 121 9.0 7.3

Government workers

433 347 2.0 1.6

Self-employed workers, unincorporated, and unpaid family workers

300 208 2.9 2.2

Footnotes
(1) Persons with no previous work experience and persons whose last job was in the U.S. Armed Forces are included in the unemployed total.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-15. Alternative measures of labor underutilization
[Percent]
Measure Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Apr.
2018
Mar.
2019
Apr.
2019
Apr.
2018
Dec.
2018
Jan.
2019
Feb.
2019
Mar.
2019
Apr.
2019

U-1 Persons unemployed 15 weeks or longer, as a percent of the civilian labor force

1.5 1.5 1.4 1.4 1.3 1.3 1.4 1.4 1.3

U-2 Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs, as a percent of the civilian labor force

1.7 1.9 1.5 1.8 1.8 1.9 1.8 1.7 1.6

U-3 Total unemployed, as a percent of the civilian labor force (official unemployment rate)

3.7 3.9 3.3 3.9 3.9 4.0 3.8 3.8 3.6

U-4 Total unemployed plus discouraged workers, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus discouraged workers

3.9 4.2 3.6 4.2 4.1 4.3 4.1 4.1 3.9

U-5 Total unemployed, plus discouraged workers, plus all other persons marginally attached to the labor force, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force

4.5 4.7 4.2 4.7 4.8 4.9 4.7 4.6 4.4

U-6 Total unemployed, plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force, plus total employed part time for economic reasons, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force

7.4 7.5 6.9 7.8 7.6 8.1 7.3 7.3 7.3

NOTE: Persons marginally attached to the labor force are those who currently are neither working nor looking for work but indicate that they want and are available for a job and have looked for work sometime in the past 12 months. Discouraged workers, a subset of the marginally attached, have given a job-market related reason for not currently looking for work. Persons employed part time for economic reasons are those who want and are available for full-time work but have had to settle for a part-time schedule. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-16. Persons not in the labor force and multiple jobholders by sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Category Total Men Women
Apr.
2018
Apr.
2019
Apr.
2018
Apr.
2019
Apr.
2018
Apr.
2019

NOT IN THE LABOR FORCE

Total not in the labor force

95,992 96,596 38,453 39,087 57,539 57,510

Persons who currently want a job

5,010 4,951 2,294 2,420 2,716 2,531

Marginally attached to the labor force(1)

1,362 1,417 706 742 657 674

Discouraged workers(2)

408 454 242 288 165 166

Other persons marginally attached to the labor force(3)

955 963 463 455 491 508

MULTIPLE JOBHOLDERS

Total multiple jobholders(4)

7,637 7,765 3,841 3,693 3,797 4,072

Percent of total employed

4.9 5.0 4.6 4.5 5.2 5.5

Primary job full time, secondary job part time

4,237 4,317 2,337 2,227 1,900 2,090

Primary and secondary jobs both part time

2,040 2,098 756 738 1,284 1,360

Primary and secondary jobs both full time

273 252 163 168 111 84

Hours vary on primary or secondary job

1,053 1,045 572 535 480 510

Footnotes
(1) Data refer to persons who want a job, have searched for work during the prior 12 months, and were available to take a job during the reference week, but had not looked for work in the past 4 weeks.
(2) Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for reasons such as thinks no work available, could not find work, lacks schooling or training, employer thinks too young or old, and other types of discrimination.
(3) Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for such reasons as school or family responsibilities, ill health, and transportation problems, as well as a number for whom reason for nonparticipation was not determined.
(4) Includes a small number of persons who work part time on their primary job and full time on their secondary job(s), not shown separately.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-1. Employees on nonfarm payrolls by industry sector and selected industry detail
[In thousands]
Industry Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Apr.
2018
Feb.
2019
Mar.
2019(p)
Apr.
2019(p)
Apr.
2018
Feb.
2019
Mar.
2019(p)
Apr.
2019(p)
Change from:
Mar.2019 - Apr.2019(p)

Total nonfarm

148,383 149,148 149,862 150,988 148,475 150,643 150,832 151,095 263

Total private

125,581 126,370 126,998 128,058 126,054 128,133 128,312 128,548 236

Goods-producing

20,422 20,576 20,700 20,912 20,587 21,022 21,043 21,077 34

Mining and logging

714 744 746 743 723 755 756 753 -3

Logging

47.6 45.7 45.1 42.4 49.9 46.1 46.3 44.6 -1.7

Mining

665.9 698.0 701.2 700.9 672.8 708.5 709.6 708.0 -1.6

Oil and gas extraction

142.1 150.5 152.0 151.1 143.7 151.8 152.5 152.5 0.0

Mining, except oil and gas

188.5 189.2 191.3 194.0 189.8 195.4 195.9 195.7 -0.2

Coal mining

51.8 52.5 52.6 52.5 51.7 52.6 52.8 52.4 -0.4

Metal ore mining

41.0 40.8 40.9 41.0 41.4 41.1 41.2 41.4 0.2

Nonmetallic mineral mining and quarrying

95.7 95.9 97.8 100.5 96.7 101.7 101.9 101.9 0.0

Support activities for mining

335.3 358.3 357.9 355.8 339.3 361.3 361.2 359.8 -1.4

Construction

7,129 7,066 7,174 7,385 7,230 7,433 7,453 7,486 33

Construction of buildings

1,596.0 1,602.9 1,616.1 1,633.5 1,616.3 1,653.5 1,656.4 1,654.3 -2.1

Residential building

784.6 806.4 814.4 824.2 795.1 832.1 836.6 834.1 -2.5

Nonresidential building

811.4 796.5 801.7 809.3 821.2 821.4 819.8 820.2 0.4

Heavy and civil engineering construction

1,020.3 970.8 1,002.1 1,069.6 1,038.3 1,075.2 1,077.9 1,087.8 9.9

Specialty trade contractors

4,512.8 4,491.9 4,555.7 4,681.5 4,575.3 4,704.1 4,718.2 4,743.4 25.2

Residential specialty trade contractors

1,984.3 1,963.6 1,991.3 2,038.0 2,011.3 2,055.3 2,062.0 2,065.1 3.1

Nonresidential specialty trade contractors

2,528.5 2,528.3 2,564.4 2,643.5 2,564.0 2,648.8 2,656.2 2,678.3 22.1

Manufacturing

12,579 12,766 12,780 12,784 12,634 12,834 12,834 12,838 4

Durable goods

7,886 8,034 8,039 8,038 7,903 8,060 8,055 8,055 0

Wood products

403.5 406.1 405.1 408.6 405.6 411.2 409.8 411.2 1.4

Nonmetallic mineral products

414.3 403.5 407.1 413.3 414.3 415.3 414.1 413.5 -0.6

Primary metals

376.3 383.8 383.6 381.3 376.4 383.2 383.1 381.0 -2.1

Fabricated metal products

1,455.8 1,479.1 1,481.8 1,482.2 1,458.6 1,483.8 1,485.1 1,484.9 -0.2

Machinery

1,109.2 1,141.8 1,140.8 1,137.0 1,111.6 1,141.0 1,141.4 1,138.7 -2.7

Computer and electronic products

1,046.9 1,070.7 1,073.5 1,073.5 1,050.7 1,073.3 1,074.4 1,076.6 2.2

Computer and peripheral equipment

155.5 159.8 160.3 159.1 156.1 160.2 160.1 159.5 -0.6

Communications equipment

85.0 85.3 86.1 86.0 85.3 85.8 86.1 86.2 0.1

Semiconductors and electronic components

367.6 374.9 375.7 374.5 368.7 375.3 375.6 375.3 -0.3

Electronic instruments

405.8 417.8 418.4 421.1 407.1 418.6 419.3 422.2 2.9

Miscellaneous computer and electronic products

33.0 32.9 33.0 32.8 33.5 33.3 33.3 33.3 0.0

Electrical equipment and appliances

394.5 401.2 402.0 400.1 395.7 403.0 403.0 401.6 -1.4

Transportation equipment(1)

1,688.7 1,741.0 1,739.2 1,734.6 1,689.8 1,739.8 1,734.4 1,736.3 1.9

Motor vehicles and parts(2)

997.1 1,007.9 1,004.0 998.1 995.0 1,005.5 999.2 997.7 -1.5

Furniture and related products

392.4 395.6 394.1 393.3 393.8 395.5 394.9 394.9 0.0

Miscellaneous durable goods manufacturing

604.5 611.5 612.1 614.2 606.6 613.8 614.7 616.1 1.4

Nondurable goods

4,693 4,732 4,741 4,746 4,731 4,774 4,779 4,783 4

Food manufacturing

1,587.8 1,612.1 1,611.7 1,612.5 1,613.4 1,632.6 1,635.6 1,638.3 2.7

Textile mills

112.2 111.9 112.7 113.6 112.5 112.0 112.9 113.7 0.8

Textile product mills

115.6 113.8 114.5 114.4 115.9 114.7 115.0 114.9 -0.1

Apparel

116.0 106.8 107.7 108.3 116.1 106.8 107.7 107.9 0.2

Paper and paper products

364.8 370.4 370.5 368.8 365.1 369.8 370.6 369.0 -1.6

Printing and related support activities

430.2 420.6 420.7 417.9 431.5 423.2 421.5 419.6 -1.9

Petroleum and coal products

113.1 112.6 113.1 114.8 114.8 117.0 116.7 116.5 -0.2

Chemicals

830.3 855.5 855.9 857.8 832.5 858.2 856.7 859.7 3.0

Plastics and rubber products

729.0 734.9 735.5 735.6 729.2 736.2 735.9 735.9 0.0

Miscellaneous nondurable goods manufacturing

293.9 293.3 298.4 301.8 300.1 303.4 305.9 307.4 1.5

Private service-providing

105,159 105,794 106,298 107,146 105,467 107,111 107,269 107,471 202

Trade, transportation, and utilities

27,354 27,474 27,495 27,567 27,589 27,827 27,815 27,820 5

Wholesale trade

5,805.0 5,888.8 5,895.6 5,915.3 5,821.4 5,921.6 5,921.5 5,931.4 9.9

Durable goods

3,127.2 3,190.9 3,195.7 3,204.0 3,135.2 3,202.0 3,205.1 3,212.2 7.1

Nondurable goods

2,139.1 2,144.4 2,150.2 2,160.1 2,144.3 2,163.6 2,163.9 2,164.6 0.7

Electronic markets and agents and brokers

538.7 553.5 549.7 551.2 541.9 556.0 552.5 554.6 2.1

Retail trade

15,681.4 15,567.4 15,577.1 15,625.6 15,838.0 15,816.6 15,800.9 15,788.9 -12.0

Motor vehicle and parts dealers

2,012.0 2,020.7 2,032.7 2,049.2 2,014.1 2,038.9 2,043.0 2,050.5 7.5

Automobile dealers

1,293.2 1,300.7 1,304.8 1,311.0 1,296.7 1,307.2 1,308.9 1,314.0 5.1

Other motor vehicle dealers

159.2 151.2 153.8 161.1 158.4 159.0 157.9 160.2 2.3

Auto parts, accessories, and tire stores

559.6 568.8 574.1 577.1 559.0 572.7 576.2 576.3 0.1

Furniture and home furnishings stores

473.7 483.7 484.8 480.8 479.8 485.7 488.1 486.9 -1.2

Electronics and appliance stores

489.0 471.9 468.4 467.3 495.7 474.2 472.5 472.4 -0.1

Building material and garden supply stores

1,358.2 1,263.4 1,310.3 1,347.5 1,309.8 1,304.8 1,302.9 1,299.9 -3.0

Food and beverage stores

3,055.2 3,090.3 3,087.4 3,092.8 3,083.3 3,114.8 3,117.0 3,119.2 2.2

Health and personal care stores

1,053.6 1,042.4 1,035.8 1,035.9 1,060.5 1,049.3 1,042.4 1,045.0 2.6

Gasoline stations

924.2 935.4 935.5 940.6 931.9 947.3 945.6 948.2 2.6

Clothing and clothing accessories stores

1,317.7 1,312.6 1,303.6 1,292.9 1,365.4 1,354.3 1,348.7 1,342.1 -6.6

Sporting goods, hobby, book, and music stores

577.6 547.0 547.8 543.4 596.4 559.5 564.0 558.7 -5.3

General merchandise stores

3,035.9 3,005.8 2,981.2 2,981.4 3,094.3 3,069.8 3,059.0 3,050.5 -8.5

Department stores

1,106.2 1,099.8 1,084.5 1,079.5 1,144.0 1,130.2 1,125.5 1,120.8 -4.7

General merchandise stores, including warehouse clubs and supercenters

1,929.7 1,906.0 1,896.7 1,901.9 1,950.3 1,939.6 1,933.5 1,929.7 -3.8

Miscellaneous store retailers

821.1 817.2 814.2 822.3 834.1 836.5 836.3 835.2 -1.1

Nonstore retailers

563.2 577.0 575.4 571.5 572.7 581.5 581.4 580.3 -1.1

Transportation and warehousing

5,311.3 5,467.5 5,468.5 5,475.5 5,372.2 5,534.9 5,537.3 5,548.4 11.1

Air transportation

498.6 511.0 513.3 514.9 499.3 514.7 514.9 515.4 0.5

Rail transportation

212.7 212.4 211.2 211.2 212.8 213.9 212.3 211.6 -0.7

Water transportation

63.8 62.3 62.4 63.8 64.4 65.1 64.6 64.6 0.0

Truck transportation

1,468.7 1,492.9 1,494.4 1,502.9 1,481.4 1,516.5 1,516.8 1,516.3 -0.5

Transit and ground passenger transportation

500.0 500.0 502.1 508.3 486.6 489.0 489.0 494.1 5.1

Pipeline transportation

48.4 46.8 47.0 47.1 48.5 47.2 47.1 47.2 0.1

Scenic and sightseeing transportation

30.1 24.7 26.9 29.9 34.5 33.9 34.0 34.1 0.1

Support activities for transportation

705.6 714.6 717.3 718.3 706.7 718.7 719.6 719.7 0.1

Couriers and messengers

673.7 726.5 720.3 703.1 714.4 751.3 752.4 753.4 1.0

Warehousing and storage

1,109.7 1,176.3 1,173.6 1,176.0 1,123.6 1,184.6 1,186.6 1,192.0 5.4

Utilities

556.2 550.7 553.6 550.1 557.2 553.6 554.9 551.7 -3.2

Information

2,823 2,798 2,804 2,807 2,829 2,808 2,815 2,814 -1

Publishing industries, except Internet

726.5 731.2 731.2 730.9 730.4 733.5 733.8 734.7 0.9

Motion picture and sound recording industries

442.6 410.2 417.1 423.2 438.7 416.8 424.1 420.6 -3.5

Broadcasting, except Internet

270.6 270.6 269.8 268.4 270.4 271.1 269.0 268.5 -0.5

Telecommunications

752.9 732.5 730.3 722.6 756.6 730.9 730.1 727.0 -3.1

Data processing, hosting and related services

329.8 330.9 332.5 333.0 330.1 331.7 332.9 333.4 0.5

Other information services

300.8 322.7 322.6 328.7 302.6 324.3 324.8 330.0 5.2

Financial activities

8,496 8,571 8,592 8,605 8,541 8,626 8,639 8,651 12

Finance and insurance

6,281.3 6,310.3 6,314.1 6,310.9 6,303.3 6,323.8 6,329.5 6,332.9 3.4

Monetary authorities - central bank

19.3 19.6 19.6 19.6 19.4 19.7 19.7 19.7 0.0

Credit intermediation and related
activities

2,636.7 2,630.0 2,623.1 2,619.3 2,645.9 2,635.4 2,631.3 2,629.9 -1.4

Depository credit intermediation(1)

1,711.6 1,712.9 1,709.3 1,705.2 1,714.9 1,714.9 1,710.6 1,708.9 -1.7

Commercial banking

1,321.0 1,313.4 1,311.0 1,304.8 1,322.3 1,313.2 1,310.3 1,306.2 -4.1

Nondepository credit intermediation

617.1 608.5 608.1 607.9 622.3 612.0 613.7 613.6 -0.1

Activities related to credit intermediation

308.0 308.6 305.7 306.2 308.8 308.5 306.9 307.3 0.4

Securities, commodity contracts, investments, and funds and trusts

948.6 963.8 965.1 965.5 953.2 967.4 969.4 970.3 0.9

Insurance carriers and related activities

2,676.7 2,696.9 2,706.3 2,706.5 2,684.8 2,701.3 2,709.1 2,713.0 3.9

Real estate and rental and leasing

2,214.8 2,260.2 2,277.4 2,293.7 2,237.8 2,302.6 2,309.8 2,317.6 7.8

Real estate

1,637.9 1,670.3 1,677.1 1,686.4 1,650.0 1,691.3 1,693.6 1,699.0 5.4

Rental and leasing services

554.4 567.3 577.6 584.5 565.0 588.2 593.1 595.5 2.4

Lessors of nonfinancial intangible assets

22.5 22.6 22.7 22.8 22.8 23.1 23.1 23.1 0.0

Professional and business services

20,828 20,987 21,073 21,362 20,878 21,313 21,337 21,413 76

Professional and technical services

9,281.0 9,525.0 9,541.0 9,573.3 9,230.2 9,479.6 9,508.6 9,522.5 13.9

Legal services

1,135.1 1,134.0 1,138.3 1,137.5 1,140.0 1,141.7 1,143.1 1,142.4 -0.7

Accounting and bookkeeping services

1,093.0 1,144.3 1,145.5 1,132.5 1,005.6 1,037.8 1,041.6 1,042.9 1.3

Architectural and engineering services

1,452.6 1,483.2 1,490.5 1,493.9 1,464.1 1,503.1 1,508.3 1,506.6 -1.7

Specialized design services

142.8 147.5 148.2 149.5 142.8 149.1 149.5 149.4 -0.1

Computer systems design and related services

2,096.0 2,166.9 2,162.3 2,191.0 2,102.4 2,169.4 2,182.7 2,196.8 14.1

Management and technical consulting services

1,461.2 1,505.6 1,504.3 1,513.2 1,469.0 1,518.6 1,520.8 1,521.7 0.9

Scientific research and development services

680.4 713.5 715.9 719.2 683.8 717.3 719.9 723.1 3.2

Advertising and related services

490.0 487.5 488.4 485.3 490.4 490.5 489.6 485.8 -3.8

Other professional and technical services

729.9 742.5 747.6 751.2 732.0 752.1 753.2 753.8 0.6

Management of companies and enterprises

2,348.8 2,392.6 2,396.4 2,404.3 2,359.8 2,405.2 2,408.2 2,415.0 6.8

Administrative and waste services

9,198.2 9,069.2 9,135.7 9,384.1 9,288.4 9,428.0 9,420.6 9,475.4 54.8

Administrative and support services

8,767.6 8,625.7 8,690.0 8,933.4 8,854.2 8,977.1 8,968.3 9,021.4 53.1

Office administrative services

511.3 520.5 522.8 531.2 512.6 523.9 526.1 531.9 5.8

Facilities support services

151.7 155.2 155.6 154.4 151.8 155.8 155.6 154.8 -0.8

Employment services(1)

3,595.7 3,569.5 3,582.8 3,649.4 3,667.2 3,715.0 3,707.9 3,723.1 15.2

Temporary help services

2,937.5 2,908.5 2,924.8 2,985.6 2,999.1 3,040.5 3,034.7 3,052.6 17.9

Business support services

888.8 894.4 887.5 883.9 897.1 893.3 891.1 893.0 1.9

Travel arrangement and reservation services

220.5 212.8 214.3 216.0 219.7 215.8 215.5 215.4 -0.1

Investigation and security services

937.5 937.8 945.5 948.8 941.6 949.2 952.5 953.3 0.8

Services to buildings and dwellings

2,137.4 2,005.2 2,050.5 2,206.3 2,139.8 2,189.1 2,187.1 2,207.7 20.6

Other support services

324.7 330.3 331.0 343.4 324.5 335.0 332.5 342.3 9.8

Waste management and remediation services

430.6 443.5 445.7 450.7 434.2 450.9 452.3 454.0 1.7

Education and health services

23,705 24,130 24,204 24,296 23,542 23,999 24,068 24,130 62

Educational services

3,878.3 3,914.5 3,921.1 3,942.5 3,705.4 3,755.0 3,759.3 3,769.0 9.7

Health care and social assistance

19,827.0 20,215.7 20,283.2 20,353.1 19,836.9 20,243.6 20,308.2 20,360.8 52.6

Health care(3)

15,898.2 16,224.9 16,272.2 16,303.9 15,930.9 16,259.9 16,307.4 16,334.4 27.0

Ambulatory health care services

7,442.3 7,651.1 7,682.5 7,707.9 7,455.1 7,669.6 7,699.9 7,717.1 17.2

Offices of physicians

2,606.8 2,653.9 2,661.1 2,666.9 2,612.4 2,659.1 2,666.6 2,671.6 5.0

Offices of dentists

945.6 974.1 978.5 979.9 949.3 976.5 981.3 983.4 2.1

Offices of other health practitioners

921.3 956.4 956.7 962.8 921.6 959.4 961.1 963.4 2.3

Outpatient care centers

925.5 964.7 967.8 966.2 926.5 964.8 966.6 966.8 0.2

Medical and diagnostic laboratories

274.1 286.5 288.1 288.7 274.2 286.9 288.1 288.7 0.6

Home health care services

1,459.8 1,509.6 1,520.7 1,532.0 1,461.8 1,515.8 1,526.0 1,531.9 5.9

Other ambulatory health care services

309.2 305.9 309.6 311.4 309.3 307.2 310.2 311.2 1.0

Hospitals

5,114.2 5,206.0 5,217.3 5,218.9 5,123.5 5,211.6 5,220.9 5,229.2 8.3

Nursing and residential care facilities

3,341.7 3,367.8 3,372.4 3,377.1 3,352.3 3,378.7 3,386.6 3,388.1 1.5

Nursing care facilities

1,602.7 1,601.6 1,600.7 1,599.1 1,608.4 1,605.9 1,608.2 1,605.1 -3.1

Residential mental health facilities

640.0 645.8 650.0 648.7 640.8 647.4 651.3 649.9 -1.4

Community care facilities for the elderly

933.9 950.4 951.4 959.5 937.5 954.7 955.9 962.9 7.0

Other residential care facilities

165.1 170.0 170.3 169.8 165.6 170.7 171.2 170.3 -0.9

Social assistance

3,928.8 3,990.8 4,011.0 4,049.2 3,906.0 3,983.7 4,000.8 4,026.4 25.6

Individual and family services

2,447.2 2,498.6 2,513.2 2,548.3 2,443.8 2,502.7 2,517.5 2,543.8 26.3

Emergency and other relief services

171.4 177.1 176.6 176.0 171.3 175.9 175.9 176.2 0.3

Vocational rehabilitation services

327.6 326.1 328.4 326.6 329.1 329.4 331.1 328.3 -2.8

Child day care services

982.6 989.0 992.8 998.3 961.9 975.8 976.3 978.1 1.8

Leisure and hospitality

16,132 15,997 16,253 16,586 16,262 16,646 16,683 16,717 34

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

2,310.3 2,225.7 2,299.9 2,424.5 2,375.8 2,472.3 2,480.9 2,490.3 9.4

Performing arts and spectator sports

522.5 471.1 492.1 538.4 504.0 517.0 517.5 519.5 2.0

Museums, historical sites, and similar institutions

165.4 158.6 164.3 172.7 168.9 174.2 174.8 176.1 1.3

Amusements, gambling, and recreation

1,622.4 1,596.0 1,643.5 1,713.4 1,702.9 1,781.1 1,788.6 1,794.7 6.1

Accommodation and food services

13,821.9 13,771.4 13,953.1 14,161.2 13,886.1 14,173.5 14,202.4 14,226.8 24.4

Accommodation

1,976.9 1,955.9 1,979.5 1,999.6 2,023.0 2,045.5 2,046.6 2,046.0 -0.6

Food services and drinking places

11,845.0 11,815.5 11,973.6 12,161.6 11,863.1 12,128.0 12,155.8 12,180.8 25.0

Other services

5,821 5,837 5,877 5,923 5,826 5,892 5,912 5,926 14

Repair and maintenance

1,329.0 1,332.5 1,347.4 1,358.2 1,324.9 1,340.3 1,348.8 1,353.4 4.6

Personal and laundry services

1,502.1 1,507.6 1,517.5 1,538.9 1,499.8 1,528.7 1,532.5 1,536.9 4.4

Membership associations and organizations

2,989.5 2,997.1 3,011.8 3,025.7 3,001.0 3,023.3 3,030.8 3,035.7 4.9

Government

22,802 22,778 22,864 22,930 22,421 22,510 22,520 22,547 27

Federal

2,786.0 2,785.0 2,779.0 2,803.0 2,793.0 2,804.0 2,800.0 2,811.0 11.0

Federal, except U.S. Postal Service

2,177.6 2,180.3 2,173.8 2,197.8 2,186.3 2,197.7 2,193.9 2,206.4 12.5

U.S. Postal Service

608.6 604.6 605.6 604.8 607.0 606.0 606.2 604.7 -1.5

State government

5,335.0 5,313.0 5,339.0 5,338.0 5,169.0 5,186.0 5,186.0 5,175.0 -11.0

State government education

2,644.1 2,625.6 2,647.1 2,650.7 2,478.5 2,485.7 2,488.1 2,487.6 -0.5

State government, excluding education

2,691.1 2,687.4 2,692.1 2,687.4 2,690.3 2,699.9 2,697.6 2,687.4 -10.2

Local government

14,681.0 14,680.0 14,746.0 14,789.0 14,459.0 14,520.0 14,534.0 14,561.0 27.0

Local government education

8,258.8 8,268.3 8,310.5 8,311.9 7,953.4 7,983.6 7,990.4 8,003.3 12.9

Local government, excluding education

6,422.4 6,412.1 6,435.0 6,476.9 6,505.4 6,536.7 6,543.7 6,557.3 13.6

Footnotes
(1) Includes other industries, not shown separately.
(2) Includes motor vehicles, motor vehicle bodies and trailers, and motor vehicle parts.
(3) Includes ambulatory health care services, hospitals, and nursing and residential care facilities.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2018 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-2. Average weekly hours and overtime of all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Apr.
2018
Feb.
2019
Mar.
2019(p)
Apr.
2019(p)

AVERAGE WEEKLY HOURS

Total private

34.5 34.4 34.5 34.4

Goods-producing

40.6 40.3 40.5 40.3

Mining and logging

45.9 46.3 46.5 46.7

Construction

39.4 38.9 39.4 39.1

Manufacturing

41.0 40.7 40.7 40.7

Durable goods

41.5 41.0 41.1 41.0

Nondurable goods

40.2 40.1 40.1 40.1

Private service-providing

33.3 33.3 33.3 33.3

Trade, transportation, and utilities

34.5 34.2 34.3 34.3

Wholesale trade

39.0 39.0 39.0 39.0

Retail trade

31.0 30.6 30.6 30.7

Transportation and warehousing

39.0 38.6 38.8 38.8

Utilities

42.2 42.4 42.3 41.9

Information

36.1 36.2 36.2 36.3

Financial activities

37.6 37.7 37.7 37.7

Professional and business services

36.1 36.2 36.3 36.2

Education and health services

33.0 33.0 33.1 33.0

Leisure and hospitality

26.0 26.0 26.1 26.0

Other services

31.8 31.9 32.0 31.9

AVERAGE OVERTIME HOURS

Manufacturing

3.7 3.5 3.4 3.4

Durable goods

3.7 3.5 3.4 3.4

Nondurable goods

3.6 3.6 3.5 3.5

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2018 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-3. Average hourly and weekly earnings of all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Average hourly earnings Average weekly earnings
Apr.
2018
Feb.
2019
Mar.
2019(p)
Apr.
2019(p)
Apr.
2018
Feb.
2019
Mar.
2019(p)
Apr.
2019(p)

Total private

$26.90 $27.66 $27.71 $27.77 $928.05 $951.50 $956.00 $955.29

Goods-producing

28.09 28.68 28.73 28.80 1,140.45 1,155.80 1,163.57 1,160.64

Mining and logging

32.36 33.06 33.08 33.45 1,485.32 1,530.68 1,538.22 1,562.12

Construction

29.67 30.42 30.47 30.60 1,169.00 1,183.34 1,200.52 1,196.46

Manufacturing

26.95 27.43 27.45 27.47 1,104.95 1,116.40 1,117.22 1,118.03

Durable goods

28.28 28.88 28.91 28.94 1,173.62 1,184.08 1,188.20 1,186.54

Nondurable goods

24.66 24.92 24.95 24.93 991.33 999.29 1,000.50 999.69

Private service-providing

26.62 27.42 27.47 27.53 886.45 913.09 914.75 916.75

Trade, transportation, and utilities

23.13 23.94 24.04 24.01 797.99 818.75 824.57 823.54

Wholesale trade

30.11 31.06 31.31 31.15 1,174.29 1,211.34 1,221.09 1,214.85

Retail trade

18.60 19.40 19.42 19.47 576.60 593.64 594.25 597.73

Transportation and warehousing

24.28 24.59 24.62 24.66 946.92 949.17 955.26 956.81

Utilities

40.16 41.71 42.31 41.82 1,694.75 1,768.50 1,789.71 1,752.26

Information

39.46 41.56 41.68 41.64 1,424.51 1,504.47 1,508.82 1,511.53

Financial activities

34.46 35.53 35.52 35.75 1,295.70 1,339.48 1,339.10 1,347.78

Professional and business services

32.28 33.17 33.28 33.40 1,165.31 1,200.75 1,208.06 1,209.08

Education and health services

26.84 27.48 27.50 27.53 885.72 906.84 910.25 908.49

Leisure and hospitality

15.86 16.37 16.41 16.45 412.36 425.62 428.30 427.70

Other services

24.46 24.97 24.85 24.91 777.83 796.54 795.20 794.63

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2018 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-4. Indexes of aggregate weekly hours and payrolls for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
[2007=100]
Industry Index of aggregate weekly hours(1) Index of aggregate weekly payrolls(2)
Apr.
2018
Feb.
2019
Mar.
2019(p)
Apr.
2019(p)
Percent change from:
Mar.
2019 - Apr.
2019(p)
Apr.
2018
Feb.
2019
Mar.
2019(p)
Apr.
2019(p)
Percent change from:
Mar.
2019 - Apr.
2019(p)

Total private

109.2 110.6 111.1 111.0 -0.1 140.4 146.3 147.2 147.3 0.1

Goods-producing

95.2 96.5 97.1 96.8 -0.3 120.9 125.1 126.1 126.0 -0.1

Mining and logging

104.3 109.8 110.5 110.5 0.0 135.5 145.8 146.7 148.4 1.2

Construction

98.2 99.7 101.2 100.9 -0.3 126.6 131.7 134.0 134.2 0.1

Manufacturing

93.2 94.0 94.0 94.0 0.0 116.8 119.9 120.0 120.1 0.1

Durable goods

92.3 93.0 93.2 93.0 -0.2 116.0 119.3 119.7 119.5 -0.2

Nondurable goods

94.9 95.6 95.7 95.7 0.0 118.8 120.8 121.1 121.1 0.0

Private service-providing

113.0 114.7 114.9 115.1 0.2 146.2 152.9 153.4 154.0 0.4

Trade, transportation, and utilities

103.8 103.8 104.0 104.0 0.0 129.4 133.9 134.8 134.6 -0.1

Wholesale trade

100.1 101.9 101.9 102.0 0.1 126.1 132.3 133.4 132.9 -0.4

Retail trade

99.7 98.3 98.2 98.4 0.2 122.6 126.0 126.0 126.6 0.5

Transportation and warehousing

119.8 122.1 122.8 123.0 0.2 147.5 152.3 153.4 153.9 0.3

Utilities

101.7 101.6 101.6 100.0 -1.6 135.0 140.0 142.0 138.2 -2.7

Information

93.3 92.8 93.1 93.3 0.2 131.0 137.4 138.1 138.3 0.1

Financial activities

105.2 106.5 106.7 106.8 0.1 141.4 147.6 147.8 148.9 0.7

Professional and business services

118.2 121.0 121.4 121.5 0.1 154.5 162.5 163.6 164.4 0.5

Education and health services

126.9 129.3 130.1 130.0 -0.1 163.8 171.0 172.1 172.2 0.1

Leisure and hospitality

120.6 123.5 124.2 124.0 -0.2 154.4 163.1 164.5 164.6 0.1

Other services

106.8 108.4 109.1 109.0 -0.1 143.2 148.3 148.6 148.8 0.1

Footnotes
(1) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding 2007 annual average aggregate hours. Aggregate hours estimates are the product of estimates of average weekly hours and employment.
(2) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding 2007 annual average aggregate weekly payrolls. Aggregate payrolls estimates are the product of estimates of average hourly earnings, average weekly hours, and employment.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2018 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-5. Employment of women on nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Women employees (in thousands) Percent of all employees
Apr.
2018
Feb.
2019
Mar.
2019(p)
Apr.
2019(p)
Apr.
2018
Feb.
2019
Mar.
2019(p)
Apr.
2019(p)

Total nonfarm

73,646 74,994 75,133 75,298 49.6 49.8 49.8 49.8

Total private

60,757 62,009 62,131 62,278 48.2 48.4 48.4 48.4

Goods-producing

4,534 4,676 4,689 4,701 22.0 22.2 22.3 22.3

Mining and logging

91 96 97 97 12.6 12.7 12.8 12.9

Construction

923 960 963 964 12.8 12.9 12.9 12.9

Manufacturing

3,520 3,620 3,629 3,640 27.9 28.2 28.3 28.4

Durable goods

1,860 1,919 1,925 1,931 23.5 23.8 23.9 24.0

Nondurable goods

1,660 1,701 1,704 1,709 35.1 35.6 35.7 35.7

Private service-providing

56,223 57,333 57,442 57,577 53.3 53.5 53.5 53.6

Trade, transportation, and utilities

11,080 11,161 11,148 11,160 40.2 40.1 40.1 40.1

Wholesale trade

1,728.8 1,778.3 1,778.6 1,787.5 29.7 30.0 30.0 30.1

Retail trade

7,892.3 7,862.0 7,846.0 7,834.7 49.8 49.7 49.7 49.6

Transportation and warehousing

1,329.2 1,388.8 1,390.7 1,405.7 24.7 25.1 25.1 25.3

Utilities

129.4 131.8 132.6 132.0 23.2 23.8 23.9 23.9

Information

1,115 1,116 1,119 1,120 39.4 39.7 39.8 39.8

Financial activities

4,830 4,878 4,887 4,887 56.6 56.5 56.6 56.5

Professional and business services

9,440 9,680 9,702 9,734 45.2 45.4 45.5 45.5

Education and health services

18,142 18,530 18,583 18,638 77.1 77.2 77.2 77.2

Leisure and hospitality

8,532 8,821 8,846 8,873 52.5 53.0 53.0 53.1

Other services

3,084 3,147 3,157 3,165 52.9 53.4 53.4 53.4

Government

12,889 12,985 13,002 13,020 57.5 57.7 57.7 57.7

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2018 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-6. Employment of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
[In thousands]
Industry Apr.
2018
Feb.
2019
Mar.
2019(p)
Apr.
2019(p)

Total private

103,853 105,559 105,703 105,877

Goods-producing

14,796 15,106 15,106 15,122

Mining and logging

536 562 563 559

Construction

5,396 5,537 5,545 5,569

Manufacturing

8,864 9,007 8,998 8,994

Durable goods

5,433 5,565 5,554 5,554

Nondurable goods

3,431 3,442 3,444 3,440

Private service-providing

89,057 90,453 90,597 90,755

Trade, transportation, and utilities

23,334 23,539 23,530 23,507

Wholesale trade

4,671.2 4,764.2 4,761.8 4,771.6

Retail trade

13,543.4 13,505.1 13,493.8 13,454.8

Transportation and warehousing

4,673.2 4,828.1 4,832.0 4,839.0

Utilities

446.4 441.6 442.3 441.3

Information

2,276 2,264 2,263 2,260

Financial activities

6,619 6,684 6,692 6,700

Professional and business services

17,007 17,401 17,431 17,517

Education and health services

20,682 21,066 21,131 21,177

Leisure and hospitality

14,316 14,620 14,655 14,687

Other services

4,823 4,879 4,895 4,907

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2018 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-7. Average weekly hours and overtime of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry Apr.
2018
Feb.
2019
Mar.
2019(p)
Apr.
2019(p)

AVERAGE WEEKLY HOURS

Total private

33.8 33.6 33.7 33.7

Goods-producing

41.7 40.9 41.3 41.1

Mining and logging

47.0 46.8 47.1 47.3

Construction

40.0 39.0 39.9 39.6

Manufacturing

42.4 41.8 41.7 41.7

Durable goods

42.7 42.0 42.0 41.9

Nondurable goods

41.8 41.3 41.3 41.2

Private service-providing

32.5 32.4 32.5 32.4

Trade, transportation, and utilities

33.9 33.8 33.9 33.9

Wholesale trade

38.9 38.7 38.7 38.7

Retail trade

30.3 30.4 30.5 30.5

Transportation and warehousing

38.4 37.9 37.9 37.9

Utilities

43.0 42.3 42.5 42.4

Information

35.9 35.5 35.6 35.6

Financial activities

37.0 37.0 37.0 37.0

Professional and business services

35.3 35.4 35.4 35.4

Education and health services

32.3 32.2 32.3 32.3

Leisure and hospitality

24.9 24.8 24.9 24.7

Other services

30.8 30.8 30.9 30.8

AVERAGE OVERTIME HOURS

Manufacturing

4.7 4.4 4.4 4.3

Durable goods

4.9 4.4 4.4 4.3

Nondurable goods

4.5 4.4 4.4 4.4

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2018 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-8. Average hourly and weekly earnings of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry Average hourly earnings Average weekly earnings
Apr.
2018
Feb.
2019
Mar.
2019(p)
Apr.
2019(p)
Apr.
2018
Feb.
2019
Mar.
2019(p)
Apr.
2019(p)

Total private

$22.55 $23.17 $23.24 $23.31 $762.19 $778.51 $783.19 $785.55

Goods-producing

23.84 24.41 24.52 24.60 994.13 998.37 1,012.68 1,011.06

Mining and logging

27.88 29.11 29.43 29.98 1,310.36 1,362.35 1,386.15 1,418.05

Construction

27.52 28.19 28.30 28.41 1,100.80 1,099.41 1,129.17 1,125.04

Manufacturing

21.46 21.92 21.94 21.97 909.90 916.26 914.90 916.15

Durable goods

22.44 22.86 22.90 22.91 958.19 960.12 961.80 959.93

Nondurable goods

19.88 20.37 20.37 20.42 830.98 841.28 841.28 841.30

Private service-providing

22.28 22.91 22.97 23.04 724.10 742.28 746.53 746.50

Trade, transportation, and utilities

19.75 20.33 20.49 20.54 669.53 687.15 694.61 696.31

Wholesale trade

24.84 25.78 26.10 26.01 966.28 997.69 1,010.07 1,006.59

Retail trade

15.83 16.27 16.40 16.51 479.65 494.61 500.20 503.56

Transportation and warehousing

21.76 22.27 22.35 22.40 835.58 844.03 847.07 848.96

Utilities

36.46 36.94 36.75 36.70 1,567.78 1,562.56 1,561.88 1,556.08

Information

31.41 33.15 33.26 33.30 1,127.62 1,176.83 1,184.06 1,185.48

Financial activities

26.87 27.47 27.37 27.50 994.19 1,016.39 1,012.69 1,017.50

Professional and business services

26.61 27.26 27.38 27.45 939.33 965.00 969.25 971.73

Education and health services

23.48 24.10 24.11 24.16 758.40 776.02 778.75 780.37

Leisure and hospitality

13.75 14.28 14.34 14.36 342.38 354.14 357.07 354.69

Other services

20.67 21.22 21.04 21.12 636.64 653.58 650.14 650.50

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2018 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-9. Indexes of aggregate weekly hours and payrolls for production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
[2002=100]
Industry Index of aggregate weekly hours(2) Index of aggregate weekly payrolls(3)
Apr.
2018
Feb.
2019
Mar.
2019(p)
Apr.
2019(p)
Percent change from:
Mar.
2019 - Apr.
2019(p)
Apr.
2018
Feb.
2019
Mar.
2019(p)
Apr.
2019(p)
Percent change from:
Mar.
2019 - Apr.
2019(p)

Total private

117.0 118.2 118.7 118.9 0.2 176.2 183.0 184.3 185.2 0.5

Goods-producing

94.3 94.4 95.3 95.0 -0.3 137.6 141.1 143.1 143.1 0.0

Mining and logging

133.9 139.8 140.9 140.5 -0.3 217.1 236.6 241.2 245.0 1.6

Construction

108.1 108.1 110.8 110.4 -0.4 160.6 164.6 169.3 169.4 0.1

Manufacturing

86.3 86.4 86.1 86.1 0.0 121.1 123.9 123.6 123.7 0.1

Durable goods

87.2 87.8 87.6 87.4 -0.2 122.1 125.3 125.3 125.0 -0.2

Nondurable goods

84.5 83.8 83.8 83.5 -0.4 118.7 120.6 120.6 120.5 -0.1

Private service-providing

123.3 124.8 125.4 125.2 -0.2 188.3 196.1 197.5 197.9 0.2

Trade, transportation, and utilities

110.5 111.1 111.4 111.3 -0.1 155.8 161.3 162.9 163.2 0.2

Wholesale trade

107.8 109.4 109.4 109.6 0.2 158.1 166.5 168.5 168.2 -0.2

Retail trade

103.8 103.9 104.2 103.8 -0.4 140.9 144.8 146.4 146.9 0.3

Transportation and warehousing

135.0 137.6 137.7 137.9 0.1 186.3 194.4 195.2 196.0 0.4

Utilities

98.2 95.5 96.1 95.7 -0.4 149.4 147.3 147.5 146.6 -0.6

Information

93.3 91.7 92.0 91.8 -0.2 145.0 150.5 151.4 151.4 0.0

Financial activities

115.3 116.4 116.6 116.7 0.1 190.6 196.8 196.3 197.4 0.6

Professional and business services

134.2 137.7 138.0 138.6 0.4 212.4 223.3 224.6 226.3 0.8

Education and health services

142.4 144.6 145.5 145.8 0.2 220.7 230.1 231.6 232.6 0.4

Leisure and hospitality

130.6 132.8 133.7 132.9 -0.6 203.9 215.4 217.7 216.7 -0.5

Other services

104.2 105.4 106.1 106.0 -0.1 156.9 162.9 162.6 163.1 0.3

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(2) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding 2002 annual average aggregate hours. Aggregate hours estimates are the product of estimates of average weekly hours and employment.
(3) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding 2002 annual average aggregate weekly payrolls. Aggregate payrolls estimates are the product of estimates of average hourly earnings, average weekly hours, and employment.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2018 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


Last Modified Date: May 03, 2019