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Economic News Release
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CES CES Program Links

Employment Situation News Release

Transmission of material in this news release is embargoed until	                 USDL-24-0796
8:30 a.m. (ET) Friday, May 3, 2024

Technical information: 
 Household data:     (202) 691-6378  *  cpsinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/cps
 Establishment data: (202) 691-6555  *  cesinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/ces

Media contact:	     (202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov


                        THE EMPLOYMENT SITUATION -- APRIL 2024


Total nonfarm payroll employment increased by 175,000 in April, and the unemployment rate
changed little at 3.9 percent, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. Job gains
occurred in health care, in social assistance, and in transportation and warehousing.

This news release presents statistics from two monthly surveys. The household survey measures
labor force status, including unemployment, by demographic characteristics. The establishment
survey measures nonfarm employment, hours, and earnings by industry. For more information 
about the concepts and statistical methodology used in these two surveys, see the Technical 
Note.

Household Survey Data

Both the unemployment rate, at 3.9 percent, and the number of unemployed people, at 6.5
million, changed little in April. The unemployment rate has remained in a narrow range of 3.7
percent to 3.9 percent since August 2023. (See table A-1.)

Among the major worker groups, the unemployment rate for adult men (3.6 percent) increased in
April. The rate for Blacks (5.6 percent) decreased, offsetting an increase in the prior month.
The jobless rates for adult women (3.5 percent), teenagers (11.7 percent), Whites (3.5 percent),
Asians (2.8 percent), and Hispanics (4.8 percent) showed little change over the month. (See
tables A-1, A-2, and A-3.)

The number of long-term unemployed (those jobless for 27 weeks or more), at 1.3 million, was
essentially unchanged in April. The long-term unemployed accounted for 19.6 percent of all
unemployed people. (See table A-12.)

The labor force participation rate held at 62.7 percent in April, and the employment-population
ratio was little changed at 60.2 percent. These measures have shown little change over the
year. (See table A-1.)

The number of people employed part time for economic reasons, at 4.5 million, changed little
in April. These individuals, who would have preferred full-time employment, were working part
time because their hours had been reduced or they were unable to find full-time jobs. (See
table A-8.)

In April, the number of people not in the labor force who currently want a job, at 5.6 million,
was little changed. These individuals were not counted as unemployed because they were not
actively looking for work during the 4 weeks preceding the survey or were unavailable to take
a job. (See table A-1.)

Among those not in the labor force who wanted a job, the number of people marginally attached
to the labor force, at 1.6 million, was little changed in April. These individuals wanted and
were available for work and had looked for a job sometime in the prior 12 months but had not
looked for work in the 4 weeks preceding the survey. The number of discouraged workers, a 
subset of the marginally attached who believed that no jobs were available for them, also
changed little over the month at 362,000. (See Summary table A.)

Establishment Survey Data

Total nonfarm payroll employment increased by 175,000 in April, lower than the average monthly
gain of 242,000 over the prior 12 months. In April, job gains occurred in health care, in
social assistance, and in transportation and warehousing. (See table B-1.)

Health care added 56,000 jobs in April, in line with the average monthly gain of 63,000 over
the prior 12 months. In April, employment continued to increase in ambulatory health care
services (+33,000), hospitals (+14,000), and nursing and residential care facilities (+9,000). 

Employment in social assistance increased by 31,000 in April, led by a gain in individual and
family services (+23,000). Social assistance had added an average of 21,000 jobs per month 
over the prior 12 months.

In April, transportation and warehousing added 22,000 jobs, with gains in couriers and 
messengers (+8,000) and warehousing and storage (+8,000). Over the prior 12 months, employment
in transportation and warehousing had shown little net change.

Employment in retail trade continued to trend up in April (+20,000). Over the prior 12 months,
the industry had added an average of 7,000 jobs per month. In April, employment increased in
general merchandise retailers (+10,000), building material and garden equipment and supplies
dealers (+7,000), and health and personal care retailers (+5,000). Electronics and appliance
retailers lost 3,000 jobs. 

Construction employment changed little in April (+9,000), following an increase of 40,000 in
March. Over the prior 12 months, construction had added an average of 22,000 jobs per month. 

Employment in government changed little in April (+8,000). Over the prior 12 months, government
had added an average of 55,000 jobs per month. In April, local government employment was 
unchanged, following an increase of 51,000 in March. 

Employment was little changed over the month in other major industries, including mining,
quarrying, and oil and gas extraction; manufacturing; wholesale trade; information; financial
activities; professional and business services; leisure and hospitality; and other services.

In April, average hourly earnings for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls increased by
7 cents, or 0.2 percent, to $34.75. Over the past 12 months, average hourly earnings have 
increased by 3.9 percent. In April, average hourly earnings of private-sector production and
nonsupervisory employees edged up by 6 cents, or 0.2 percent, to $29.83. (See tables B-3 and
B-8.) 

In April, the average workweek for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls edged down by 0.1
hour to 34.3 hours. In manufacturing, the average workweek was unchanged at 40.0 hours, and
overtime was also unchanged at 2.9 hours. The average workweek for production and 
nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls edged down by 0.1 hour to 33.7 hours.
(See tables B-2 and B-7.) 

The change in total nonfarm payroll employment for February was revised down by 34,000, from
+270,000 to +236,000, and the change for March was revised up by 12,000, from +303,000 to
+315,000. With these revisions, employment in February and March combined is 22,000 lower than
previously reported. (Monthly revisions result from additional reports received from 
businesses and government agencies since the last published estimates and from the 
recalculation of seasonal factors.)

_____________
The Employment Situation for May is scheduled to be released on Friday, June 7, 2024,
at 8:30 a.m. (ET).




HOUSEHOLD DATA
Summary table A. Household data, seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Category Apr.
2023
Feb.
2024
Mar.
2024
Apr.
2024
Change from:
Mar.
2024-
Apr.
2024

Employment status

Civilian noninstitutional population

266,443 267,711 267,884 268,066 182

Civilian labor force

166,678 167,426 167,895 167,982 87

Participation rate

62.6 62.5 62.7 62.7 0.0

Employed

160,962 160,968 161,466 161,491 25

Employment-population ratio

60.4 60.1 60.3 60.2 -0.1

Unemployed

5,715 6,458 6,429 6,492 63

Unemployment rate

3.4 3.9 3.8 3.9 0.1

Not in labor force

99,766 100,285 99,989 100,083 94

Unemployment rates

Total, 16 years and over

3.4 3.9 3.8 3.9 0.1

Adult men (20 years and over)

3.3 3.5 3.3 3.6 0.3

Adult women (20 years and over)

3.1 3.5 3.6 3.5 -0.1

Teenagers (16 to 19 years)

9.3 12.5 12.6 11.7 -0.9

White

3.1 3.4 3.4 3.5 0.1

Black or African American

4.8 5.6 6.4 5.6 -0.8

Asian

2.8 3.4 2.5 2.8 0.3

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

4.4 5.0 4.5 4.8 0.3

Total, 25 years and over

2.9 3.2 3.1 3.2 0.1

Less than a high school diploma

5.4 6.1 4.9 6.0 1.1

High school graduates, no college

3.9 4.2 4.1 4.0 -0.1

Some college or associate degree

2.9 3.1 3.4 3.3 -0.1

Bachelor's degree and higher

1.9 2.2 2.1 2.2 0.1

Reason for unemployment

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

2,676 3,216 3,042 3,241 199

Job leavers

786 711 823 785 -38

Reentrants

1,778 1,946 1,920 1,929 9

New entrants

519 611 678 574 -104

Duration of unemployment

Less than 5 weeks

1,867 2,326 2,189 2,262 73

5 to 14 weeks

1,920 1,933 1,979 1,987 8

15 to 26 weeks

748 974 982 869 -113

27 weeks and over

1,089 1,203 1,246 1,250 4

Employed persons at work part time

Part time for economic reasons

3,896 4,376 4,308 4,469 161

Slack work or business conditions

2,764 2,863 2,972 3,058 86

Could only find part-time work

836 1,104 999 1,134 135

Part time for noneconomic reasons

21,753 22,309 22,902 22,253 -649

Persons not in the labor force

Marginally attached to the labor force

1,503 1,558 1,595 1,565 -30

Discouraged workers

366 425 337 362 25

NOTE: Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Summary table B. Establishment data, seasonally adjusted
Category Apr.
2023
Feb.
2024
Mar.
2024(p)
Apr.
2024(p)

EMPLOYMENT BY SELECTED INDUSTRY
(Over-the-month change, in thousands)

Total nonfarm

278 236 315 175

Total private

231 181 243 167

Goods-producing

33 15 39 14

Mining and logging

4 0 3 -3

Construction

20 24 40 9

Manufacturing

9 -9 -4 8

Durable goods(1)

10 -3 2 1

Motor vehicles and parts

9.0 -3.1 3.8 -2.1

Nondurable goods

-1 -6 -6 7

Private service-providing

198 166 204 153

Wholesale trade

-1.0 -3.6 10.4 10.1

Retail trade

6.4 23.4 15.1 20.1

Transportation and warehousing

7.2 31.3 5.9 21.8

Utilities

1.9 3.0 -0.9 0.0

Information

-1 -3 4 -8

Financial activities

29 -7 5 6

Professional and business services(1)

30 6 10 -4

Temporary help services

-18.3 -16.2 -2.7 -16.4

Private education and health services(1)

79 80 88 95

Health care and social assistance

66.5 88.9 86.9 87.0

Leisure and hospitality

42 26 53 5

Other services

4 10 13 7

Government

47 55 72 8

(3-month average change, in thousands)

Total nonfarm

237 261 269 242

Total private

183 197 207 197

WOMEN AND PRODUCTION AND NONSUPERVISORY EMPLOYEES
AS A PERCENT OF ALL EMPLOYEES(2)

Total nonfarm women employees

49.8 49.9 49.9 49.9

Total private women employees

48.3 48.4 48.4 48.4

Total private production and nonsupervisory employees

81.4 81.4 81.4 81.4

HOURS AND EARNINGS
ALL EMPLOYEES

Total private

Average weekly hours

34.3 34.3 34.4 34.3

Average hourly earnings

$33.44 $34.56 $34.68 $34.75

Average weekly earnings

$1,146.99 $1,185.41 $1,192.99 $1,191.93

Index of aggregate weekly hours (2007=100)(3)

114.4 115.9 116.4 116.3

Over-the-month percent change

-0.1 0.4 0.4 -0.1

Index of aggregate weekly payrolls (2007=100)(4)

182.9 191.5 193.1 193.1

Over-the-month percent change

0.3 0.6 0.8 0.0

DIFFUSION INDEX
(Over 1-month span)(5)

Total private (250 industries)

60.4 54.0 59.6 60.4

Manufacturing (72 industries)

43.1 47.2 38.2 54.2

Footnotes
(1) Includes other industries, not shown separately.
(2) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries.
(3) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding annual average aggregate hours.
(4) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding annual average aggregate weekly payrolls.
(5) Figures are the percent of industries with employment increasing plus one-half of the industries with unchanged employment, where 50 percent indicates an equal balance between industries with increasing and decreasing employment.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2023 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


Frequently Asked Questions about Employment and Unemployment Estimates

1. Why are there two monthly measures of employment?

   The household survey and establishment survey both produce sample-based estimates
   of employment, and both have strengths and limitations. The establishment survey
   employment series has a smaller margin of error on the measurement of month-to-
   month change than the household survey because of its much larger sample size. An
   over-the-month employment change of about 130,000 is statistically significant in
   the establishment survey, while the threshold for a statistically significant change
   in the household survey is about 600,000. However, the household survey has a more
   expansive scope than the establishment survey because it includes self-employed
   workers whose businesses are unincorporated, unpaid family workers, agricultural
   workers, and private household workers, who are excluded by the establishment survey.
   The household survey also provides estimates of employment for demographic groups.
   For more information on the differences between the two surveys, please visit
   www.bls.gov/web/empsit/ces_cps_trends.htm.

2. Are undocumented immigrants counted in the surveys?

   It is likely that both surveys include at least some undocumented immigrants. However,
   neither the establishment nor the household survey is designed to identify the legal
   status of workers. Therefore, it is not possible to determine how many are counted in
   either survey. The establishment survey does not collect data on the legal status of
   workers. The household survey does include questions which identify the foreign and
   native born, but it does not include questions about the legal status of the foreign
   born. Data on the foreign and native born are published each month in table A-7 of
   The Employment Situation news release.

3. Why does the establishment survey have revisions?

   The establishment survey revises published estimates to improve its data series by
   incorporating additional information that was not available at the time of the
   initial publication of the estimates. The establishment survey revises its initial
   monthly estimates twice, in the immediately succeeding 2 months, to incorporate
   additional sample receipts from respondents in the survey and recalculated seasonal
   adjustment factors. For more information on the monthly revisions, please visit
   www.bls.gov/web/empsit/cestn.htm#section7.

   On an annual basis, the establishment survey incorporates a benchmark revision that
   re-anchors estimates to nearly complete employment counts available from unemployment
   insurance tax records. The benchmark helps to control for sampling and modeling errors
   in the estimates. For more information on the annual benchmark revision, please visit
   www.bls.gov/web/empsit/cesbmart.htm.

4. Does the establishment survey sample include small firms?

   Yes. About 45 percent of the establishment survey sample is comprised of business
   establishments with fewer than 20 employees. The establishment survey sample is
   designed to maximize the reliability of the statewide total nonfarm employment
   estimate; firms from all states, size classes, and industries are appropriately
   sampled to achieve that goal.

5. Does the establishment survey account for employment from new businesses?

   Yes. Monthly establishment survey estimates include an adjustment to account for
   the net employment change generated by business births and deaths. The adjustment
   comes from an econometric model that forecasts the monthly net jobs impact of
   business births and deaths based on the actual past values of the net impact that
   can be observed with a lag from the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages. The
   establishment survey uses modeling rather than sampling for this purpose because
   the survey is not immediately able to bring new businesses into the sample. There
   is an unavoidable lag between the birth of a new firm and its appearance on the
   sampling frame and availability for selection. BLS adds new businesses to the survey
   twice a year.

6. Is the count of unemployed people limited to just those receiving unemployment
   insurance benefits?

   No. The estimate of unemployment is based on a monthly sample survey of households.
   All people who are without jobs and are actively seeking and available to work are
   included among the unemployed. (People on temporary layoff are included even if
   they do not actively seek work.) There is no requirement or question relating to
   unemployment insurance benefits in the monthly survey.

7. Does the official unemployment rate exclude people who want a job but are not currently
   looking for work?

   Yes. However, there are separate estimates of people outside the labor force who
   want a job, including those who are not currently looking because they believe no
   jobs are available (discouraged workers). In addition, alternative measures of labor
   underutilization (some of which include discouraged workers and other groups not
   officially counted as unemployed) are published each month in table A-15 of The
   Employment Situation news release. For more information about these alternative
   measures, please visit www.bls.gov/cps/lfcharacteristics.htm#altmeasures.

8. How can unusually severe weather affect employment and hours estimates?

   In the establishment survey, the reference period is the pay period that includes
   the 12th of the month. Unusually severe weather is more likely to have an impact on
   average weekly hours than on employment. Average weekly hours are estimated for paid
   time during the pay period, including pay for holidays, sick leave, or other time off.
   The impact of severe weather on hours estimates typically, but not always, results in
   a reduction in average weekly hours. For example, some employees may be off work for
   part of the pay period and not receive pay for the time missed, while some workers,
   such as those dealing with cleanup or repair, may work extra hours.
   
   Typically, it is not possible to precisely quantify the effect of extreme weather on 
   payroll employment estimates. In order for severe weather conditions to reduce
   employment estimates, employees have to be off work without pay for the entire pay
   period. Employees who receive pay for any part of the pay period, even 1 hour, are
   counted in the payroll employment figures. For more information on how often employees
   are paid, please visit www.bls.gov/ces/publications/length-pay-period.htm.

   In the household survey, the reference period is generally the calendar week that
   includes the 12th of the month. People who miss the entire week's work for weather-
   related events are counted as employed whether or not they are paid for the time
   off. The household survey collects data on the number of people who had a job but
   were not at work due to bad weather. It also provides a measure of the number of
   people who usually work full time but had reduced hours due to bad weather. 
   
   Current and historical data are available on the household survey's most requested
   statistics page, please visit data.bls.gov/cgi-bin/surveymost?ln.




Technical Note


   This news release presents statistics from two major surveys, the Current
Population Survey (CPS; household survey) and the Current Employment Statistics
survey (CES; establishment survey). The household survey provides information
on the labor force, employment, and unemployment that appears in the "A" tables,
marked HOUSEHOLD DATA. It is a sample survey of about 60,000 eligible households
conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau for the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS).

   The establishment survey provides information on employment, hours, and
earnings of employees on nonfarm payrolls; the data appear in the "B" tables,
marked ESTABLISHMENT DATA. BLS collects these data each month from the payroll
records of a sample of nonagricultural business establishments. Each month
the CES program surveys about 119,000 businesses and government agencies,
representing approximately 629,000 individual worksites, in order to provide
detailed industry data on employment, hours, and earnings of workers on nonfarm
payrolls. The active sample includes approximately one-third of all nonfarm
payroll jobs.

   For both surveys, the data for a given month relate to a particular week or
pay period. In the household survey, the reference period is generally the
calendar week that contains the 12th day of the month. In the establishment
survey, the reference period is the pay period including the 12th, which may or
may not correspond directly to the calendar week.

Coverage, definitions, and differences between surveys

   Household survey. The sample is selected to reflect the entire civilian 
noninstitutional population. Based on responses to a series of questions on 
work and job search activities, each person 16 years and over in a sample
household is classified as employed, unemployed, or not in the labor force.

   People are classified as employed if they did any work at all as paid employees
during the reference week; worked in their own business, profession, or on their
own farm; or worked without pay at least 15 hours in a family business or farm.
People are also counted as employed if they were temporarily absent from their jobs
because of illness, bad weather, vacation, labor-management disputes, or personal
reasons.

   People are classified as unemployed if they meet all of the following criteria:
they had no employment during the reference week; they were available for work at
that time; and they made specific active efforts to find employment sometime during
the 4-week period ending with the reference week. People laid off from a job and
expecting recall need not be looking for work to be counted as unemployed. The
unemployment data derived from the household survey in no way depend upon the
eligibility for or receipt of unemployment insurance benefits.

   The civilian labor force is the sum of the employed and unemployed.
Those people not classified as employed or unemployed are not in the labor 
force. The unemployment rate is the number unemployed as a percent of the 
labor force. The labor force participation rate is the labor force as a 
percent of the population, and the employment-population ratio is the 
employed as a percent of the population. Additional information about the 
household survey can be found at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm.

   Establishment survey. The sample establishments are drawn from private
nonfarm businesses such as factories, offices, and stores, as well as
from federal, state, and local government entities. Employees on nonfarm
payrolls are those who worked or received pay for any part of the reference pay
period, including people on paid leave. People are counted in each job
they hold. Hours and earnings data are produced for the private sector for
all employees and for production and nonsupervisory employees. Production
and nonsupervisory employees are defined as production and related employees
in manufacturing and mining and logging, construction workers in construction,
and nonsupervisory employees in private service-providing industries.

   Industries are classified on the basis of an establishment's principal
activity in accordance with the 2022 version of the North American Industry
Classification System. Additional information about the establishment survey
can be found at www.bls.gov/ces/.

   Differences in employment estimates. The numerous conceptual and methodological
differences between the household and establishment surveys result in important
distinctions in the employment estimates derived from the surveys. Among these are:

   --The household survey includes agricultural workers, self-employed workers
     whose businesses are unincorporated, unpaid family workers, and private
     household workers among the employed. These groups are excluded from the
     establishment survey.

   --The household survey includes people on unpaid leave among the employed.
     The establishment survey does not.

   --The household survey is limited to workers 16 years of age and older.
     The establishment survey is not limited by age.

   --The household survey has no duplication of individuals, because
     individuals are counted only once, even if they hold more than one
     job. In the establishment survey, employees working at more than one
     job and thus appearing on more than one payroll are counted separately
     for each appearance.

Seasonal adjustment

   Over the course of a year, the size of the nation's labor force and the levels
of employment and unemployment undergo regularly occurring fluctuations. These 
events may result from seasonal changes in weather, major holidays, and the opening
and closing of schools. The effect of such seasonal variation can be very large.

   Because these seasonal events follow a more or less regular pattern each year,
their influence on the level of a series can be tempered by adjusting for regular
seasonal variation. These adjustments make nonseasonal developments, such as
declines in employment or increases in the participation of women in the labor
force, easier to spot. For example, in the household survey, the large number of
youth entering the labor force each June is likely to obscure any other changes
that have taken place relative to May, making it difficult to determine if the 
level of economic activity has risen or declined. Similarly, in the establishment
survey, payroll employment in education declines by about 20 percent at the end
of the spring term and later rises with the start of the fall term, obscuring the
underlying employment trends in the industry. Because seasonal employment changes
at the end and beginning of the school year can be estimated, the statistics can be
adjusted to make underlying employment patterns more discernable. The seasonally
adjusted figures provide a more useful tool with which to analyze changes in
month-to-month economic activity.

   Many seasonally adjusted series are independently adjusted in both the household
and establishment surveys. However, the adjusted series for many major estimates,
such as total payroll employment, employment in most major sectors, total employment,
and unemployment are computed by aggregating independently adjusted component series.
For example, total unemployment is derived by summing the adjusted series for four
major age-sex components; this differs from the unemployment estimate that would be
obtained by directly adjusting the total or by combining the duration, reasons, or 
more detailed age categories. Percentage distributions of unemployment by reason and
duration are derived from the sum of the independently seasonally adjusted component
series and will not necessarily match calculations made using the seasonally adjusted
total unemployment level. Additional information about seasonal adjustment in the 
household survey can be found at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#sa.

   For both the household and establishment surveys, a concurrent seasonal adjustment
methodology is used in which new seasonal factors are calculated each month using all
relevant data, up to and including the data for the current month. In the household
survey, new seasonal factors are used to adjust only the current month's data. In the
establishment survey, however, new seasonal factors are used each month to adjust the
three most recent monthly estimates. The prior 2 months are routinely revised to
incorporate additional sample reports and recalculated seasonal adjustment factors.
In both surveys, 5-year revisions to historical data are made once a year.

Reliability of the estimates

   Statistics based on the household and establishment surveys are subject to both
sampling and nonsampling error. When a sample, rather than the entire population,
is surveyed, there is a chance that the sample estimates may differ from the true
population values they represent. The component of this difference that occurs
because samples differ by chance is known as sampling error, and its variability
is measured by the standard error of the estimate. There is about a 90-percent
chance, or level of confidence, that an estimate based on a sample will differ by
no more than 1.6 standard errors from the true population value because of sampling
error. BLS analyses are generally conducted at the 90-percent level of confidence.

   For example, the confidence interval for the monthly change in total nonfarm
employment from the establishment survey is on the order of plus or minus 130,000.
Suppose the estimate of nonfarm employment increases by 50,000 from one month to
the next. The 90-percent confidence interval on the monthly change would range from
-80,000 to +180,000 (50,000 +/- 130,000). These figures do not mean that the sample
results are off by these magnitudes, but rather that there is about a 90-percent
chance that the true over-the-month change lies within this interval. Since this
range includes values of less than zero, we could not say with confidence that
nonfarm employment had, in fact, increased that month. If, however, the reported
nonfarm employment rise was 250,000, then all of the values within the 90-percent
confidence interval would be greater than zero. In this case, it is likely (at
least a 90-percent chance) that nonfarm employment had, in fact, risen that month.
At an unemployment rate of around 6.0 percent, the 90-percent confidence interval
for the monthly change in unemployment as measured by the household survey is
about +/- 300,000, and for the monthly change in the unemployment rate it is about
+/- 0.2 percentage point.

   In general, estimates involving many individuals or establishments have lower
standard errors (relative to the size of the estimate) than estimates which are based
on a small number of observations. The precision of estimates also is improved when
the data are cumulated over time, such as for quarterly and annual averages.

   The household and establishment surveys are also affected by nonsampling error,
which can occur for many reasons, including the failure to sample a segment of the
population, inability to obtain information for all respondents in the sample,
inability or unwillingness of respondents to provide correct information on a
timely basis, mistakes made by respondents, and errors made in the collection or
processing of the data.

   For example, in the establishment survey, estimates for the most recent 2 months
are based on incomplete returns; for this reason, these estimates are labeled
preliminary in the tables. It is only after two successive revisions to a monthly
estimate, when nearly all sample reports have been received, that the estimate is
considered final.

   Another major source of nonsampling error in the establishment survey is the
inability to capture, on a timely basis, employment generated by new firms. To
correct for this systematic underestimation of employment growth, an estimation
procedure with two components is used to account for business births. The first
component excludes employment losses from business deaths from sample-based
estimation in order to offset the missing employment gains from business births.
This is incorporated into the sample-based estimation procedure by simply not
reflecting sample units going out of business, but imputing to them the same
employment trend as the other firms in the sample. This procedure accounts for
most of the net birth/death employment.

   The second component is an ARIMA time series model designed to estimate the
residual net birth/death employment not accounted for by the imputation. The
historical time series used to create and test the ARIMA model was derived from
the unemployment insurance universe micro-level database and reflects the actual
residual net of births and deaths over the past 5 years.

   The sample-based estimates from the establishment survey are adjusted once a
year (on a lagged basis) to universe counts of payroll employment obtained from
administrative records of the unemployment insurance program. The difference 
between the March sample-based employment estimates and the March universe counts
is known as a benchmark revision, and serves as a rough proxy for total survey
error. Benchmarks also incorporate changes in the classification of industries
when necessary. Over the past decade, absolute benchmark revisions for total nonfarm
employment have averaged 0.1 percent, with a range from -0.3 percent to 0.3 percent.

Other information

   If you are deaf, hard of hearing, or have a speech disability, please dial 7-1-1
to access telecommunications relay services.




HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-1. Employment status of the civilian population by sex and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Apr.
2023
Mar.
2024
Apr.
2024
Apr.
2023
Dec.
2023
Jan.
2024
Feb.
2024
Mar.
2024
Apr.
2024

TOTAL

Civilian noninstitutional population

266,443 267,884 268,066 266,443 267,991 267,540 267,711 267,884 268,066

Civilian labor force

166,221 167,960 167,484 166,678 167,451 167,276 167,426 167,895 167,982

Participation rate

62.4 62.7 62.5 62.6 62.5 62.5 62.5 62.7 62.7

Employed

161,075 161,356 161,590 160,962 161,183 161,152 160,968 161,466 161,491

Employment-population ratio

60.5 60.2 60.3 60.4 60.1 60.2 60.1 60.3 60.2

Unemployed

5,146 6,604 5,894 5,715 6,268 6,124 6,458 6,429 6,492

Unemployment rate

3.1 3.9 3.5 3.4 3.7 3.7 3.9 3.8 3.9

Not in labor force

100,222 99,924 100,582 99,766 100,540 100,265 100,285 99,989 100,083

Persons who currently want a job

5,145 5,110 5,502 5,286 5,671 5,793 5,672 5,443 5,637

Men, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

130,234 130,605 130,694 130,234 130,985 130,436 130,520 130,605 130,694

Civilian labor force

88,437 88,892 88,472 88,621 89,250 88,507 88,391 88,812 88,708

Participation rate

67.9 68.1 67.7 68.0 68.1 67.9 67.7 68.0 67.9

Employed

85,534 85,253 85,187 85,521 85,794 85,034 84,993 85,490 85,208

Employment-population ratio

65.7 65.3 65.2 65.7 65.5 65.2 65.1 65.5 65.2

Unemployed

2,903 3,639 3,285 3,100 3,456 3,473 3,398 3,323 3,500

Unemployment rate

3.3 4.1 3.7 3.5 3.9 3.9 3.8 3.7 3.9

Not in labor force

41,797 41,713 42,222 41,613 41,735 41,929 42,129 41,793 41,986

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

121,488 121,685 121,763 121,488 122,187 121,539 121,611 121,685 121,763

Civilian labor force

85,396 85,656 85,347 85,393 86,007 85,364 85,180 85,398 85,382

Participation rate

70.3 70.4 70.1 70.3 70.4 70.2 70.0 70.2 70.1

Employed

82,743 82,457 82,424 82,596 82,958 82,304 82,178 82,543 82,318

Employment-population ratio

68.1 67.8 67.7 68.0 67.9 67.7 67.6 67.8 67.6

Unemployed

2,653 3,199 2,923 2,797 3,050 3,060 3,002 2,855 3,064

Unemployment rate

3.1 3.7 3.4 3.3 3.5 3.6 3.5 3.3 3.6

Not in labor force

36,092 36,029 36,416 36,095 36,180 36,175 36,431 36,287 36,381

Women, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

136,209 137,279 137,372 136,209 137,006 137,104 137,191 137,279 137,372

Civilian labor force

77,784 79,068 79,011 78,057 78,201 78,768 79,035 79,083 79,274

Participation rate

57.1 57.6 57.5 57.3 57.1 57.5 57.6 57.6 57.7

Employed

75,541 76,103 76,403 75,441 75,389 76,118 75,975 75,976 76,283

Employment-population ratio

55.5 55.4 55.6 55.4 55.0 55.5 55.4 55.3 55.5

Unemployed

2,243 2,965 2,609 2,615 2,811 2,650 3,060 3,106 2,991

Unemployment rate

2.9 3.7 3.3 3.4 3.6 3.4 3.9 3.9 3.8

Not in labor force

58,425 58,211 58,361 58,152 58,805 58,336 58,156 58,197 58,098

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

127,761 128,659 128,742 127,761 128,513 128,503 128,581 128,659 128,742

Civilian labor force

74,818 75,945 75,901 74,920 75,047 75,529 75,835 75,792 75,989

Participation rate

58.6 59.0 59.0 58.6 58.4 58.8 59.0 58.9 59.0

Employed

72,824 73,304 73,579 72,597 72,587 73,144 73,182 73,061 73,334

Employment-population ratio

57.0 57.0 57.2 56.8 56.5 56.9 56.9 56.8 57.0

Unemployed

1,994 2,642 2,322 2,324 2,460 2,385 2,653 2,731 2,655

Unemployment rate

2.7 3.5 3.1 3.1 3.3 3.2 3.5 3.6 3.5

Not in labor force

52,943 52,714 52,841 52,841 53,466 52,974 52,746 52,867 52,753

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian noninstitutional population

17,194 17,540 17,561 17,194 17,291 17,498 17,519 17,540 17,561

Civilian labor force

6,007 6,359 6,236 6,365 6,396 6,383 6,411 6,704 6,611

Participation rate

34.9 36.3 35.5 37.0 37.0 36.5 36.6 38.2 37.6

Employed

5,508 5,595 5,587 5,770 5,638 5,704 5,608 5,862 5,839

Employment-population ratio

32.0 31.9 31.8 33.6 32.6 32.6 32.0 33.4 33.2

Unemployed

499 764 649 595 758 679 803 842 772

Unemployment rate

8.3 12.0 10.4 9.3 11.9 10.6 12.5 12.6 11.7

Not in labor force

11,187 11,181 11,326 10,830 10,895 11,115 11,108 10,835 10,950

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-2. Employment status of the civilian population by race, sex, and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, race, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Apr.
2023
Mar.
2024
Apr.
2024
Apr.
2023
Dec.
2023
Jan.
2024
Feb.
2024
Mar.
2024
Apr.
2024

WHITE

Civilian noninstitutional population

204,261 204,752 204,831 204,261 205,022 204,608 204,677 204,752 204,831

Civilian labor force

126,873 127,640 127,369 127,241 127,226 126,962 127,040 127,596 127,708

Participation rate

62.1 62.3 62.2 62.3 62.1 62.1 62.1 62.3 62.3

Employed

123,300 123,175 123,298 123,263 122,802 122,663 122,685 123,286 123,229

Employment-population ratio

60.4 60.2 60.2 60.3 59.9 60.0 59.9 60.2 60.2

Unemployed

3,574 4,465 4,071 3,978 4,424 4,299 4,356 4,310 4,479

Unemployment rate

2.8 3.5 3.2 3.1 3.5 3.4 3.4 3.4 3.5

Not in labor force

77,388 77,112 77,463 77,021 77,796 77,646 77,637 77,156 77,123

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

66,340 66,098 65,960 66,361 66,405 65,869 65,685 65,963 65,982

Participation rate

70.2 70.0 69.8 70.2 70.0 69.8 69.6 69.8 69.8

Employed

64,496 63,906 63,887 64,399 64,208 63,674 63,658 64,029 63,801

Employment-population ratio

68.2 67.7 67.6 68.1 67.7 67.5 67.4 67.8 67.5

Unemployed

1,844 2,193 2,073 1,962 2,197 2,195 2,027 1,933 2,181

Unemployment rate

2.8 3.3 3.1 3.0 3.3 3.3 3.1 2.9 3.3

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

55,825 56,614 56,561 55,904 55,844 56,219 56,454 56,489 56,622

Participation rate

57.4 58.0 57.9 57.5 57.2 57.6 57.9 57.9 58.0

Employed

54,463 54,849 54,995 54,331 54,175 54,615 54,646 54,677 54,843

Employment-population ratio

56.0 56.2 56.3 55.9 55.5 56.0 56.0 56.0 56.2

Unemployed

1,361 1,765 1,565 1,573 1,669 1,604 1,808 1,811 1,779

Unemployment rate

2.4 3.1 2.8 2.8 3.0 2.9 3.2 3.2 3.1

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

4,709 4,928 4,848 4,976 4,976 4,874 4,902 5,145 5,103

Participation rate

37.7 38.8 38.2 39.8 39.7 38.4 38.6 40.5 40.2

Employed

4,340 4,420 4,416 4,533 4,418 4,374 4,381 4,580 4,584

Employment-population ratio

34.7 34.8 34.8 36.2 35.3 34.5 34.5 36.1 36.1

Unemployed

369 508 433 443 558 500 520 565 519

Unemployment rate

7.8 10.3 8.9 8.9 11.2 10.3 10.6 11.0 10.2

BLACK OR AFRICAN AMERICAN

Civilian noninstitutional population

34,583 34,883 34,918 34,583 34,853 34,813 34,849 34,883 34,918

Civilian labor force

21,756 22,124 22,021 21,763 22,094 22,051 22,190 22,170 22,051

Participation rate

62.9 63.4 63.1 62.9 63.4 63.3 63.7 63.6 63.2

Employed

20,809 20,689 20,892 20,713 20,952 20,887 20,950 20,746 20,812

Employment-population ratio

60.2 59.3 59.8 59.9 60.1 60.0 60.1 59.5 59.6

Unemployed

947 1,435 1,128 1,050 1,143 1,164 1,240 1,424 1,239

Unemployment rate

4.4 6.5 5.1 4.8 5.2 5.3 5.6 6.4 5.6

Not in labor force

12,827 12,759 12,897 12,820 12,759 12,762 12,659 12,713 12,867

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

9,986 10,303 10,187 9,978 10,294 10,266 10,344 10,317 10,194

Participation rate

67.6 69.5 68.6 67.6 69.2 69.4 69.8 69.6 68.7

Employed

9,540 9,624 9,670 9,519 9,821 9,717 9,709 9,677 9,661

Employment-population ratio

64.6 64.9 65.2 64.5 66.0 65.7 65.5 65.3 65.1

Unemployed

447 679 517 458 473 548 636 640 533

Unemployment rate

4.5 6.6 5.1 4.6 4.6 5.3 6.1 6.2 5.2

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

11,082 11,014 11,012 11,051 11,014 10,967 11,050 10,999 10,991

Participation rate

64.1 63.1 63.0 63.9 63.2 62.9 63.4 63.0 62.9

Employed

10,658 10,416 10,538 10,557 10,486 10,445 10,568 10,387 10,442

Employment-population ratio

61.6 59.7 60.3 61.1 60.2 59.9 60.6 59.5 59.8

Unemployed

423 598 474 495 528 521 482 612 548

Unemployment rate

3.8 5.4 4.3 4.5 4.8 4.8 4.4 5.6 5.0

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

688 807 822 734 786 819 796 854 867

Participation rate

27.2 31.0 31.5 29.0 30.7 31.6 30.7 32.8 33.2

Employed

611 649 684 636 644 724 673 682 709

Employment-population ratio

24.2 24.9 26.2 25.2 25.2 27.9 25.9 26.2 27.2

Unemployed

77 159 138 97 142 95 122 171 158

Unemployment rate

11.2 19.6 16.8 13.2 18.0 11.6 15.4 20.1 18.2

ASIAN

Civilian noninstitutional population

17,557 17,781 17,816 17,557 17,896 17,930 17,784 17,781 17,816

Civilian labor force

11,319 11,442 11,485 11,374 11,436 11,559 11,472 11,403 11,536

Participation rate

64.5 64.3 64.5 64.8 63.9 64.5 64.5 64.1 64.7

Employed

11,017 11,157 11,182 11,053 11,084 11,223 11,081 11,113 11,214

Employment-population ratio

62.7 62.7 62.8 63.0 61.9 62.6 62.3 62.5 62.9

Unemployed

302 285 302 321 353 336 390 290 322

Unemployment rate

2.7 2.5 2.6 2.8 3.1 2.9 3.4 2.5 2.8

Not in labor force

6,238 6,339 6,331 6,183 6,459 6,372 6,312 6,379 6,280

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Estimates for the above race groups will not sum to totals shown in table A-1 because data are not presented for all races. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-3. Employment status of the Hispanic or Latino population by sex and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Apr.
2023
Mar.
2024
Apr.
2024
Apr.
2023
Dec.
2023
Jan.
2024
Feb.
2024
Mar.
2024
Apr.
2024

HISPANIC OR LATINO ETHNICITY

Civilian noninstitutional population

47,288 48,565 48,667 47,288 48,068 48,364 48,467 48,565 48,667

Civilian labor force

31,506 32,459 32,757 31,587 32,081 32,318 32,499 32,442 32,777

Participation rate

66.6 66.8 67.3 66.8 66.7 66.8 67.1 66.8 67.3

Employed

30,234 30,948 31,296 30,183 30,480 30,700 30,883 30,994 31,187

Employment-population ratio

63.9 63.7 64.3 63.8 63.4 63.5 63.7 63.8 64.1

Unemployed

1,273 1,510 1,462 1,403 1,602 1,618 1,616 1,448 1,589

Unemployment rate

4.0 4.7 4.5 4.4 5.0 5.0 5.0 4.5 4.8

Not in labor force

15,782 16,106 15,910 15,702 15,986 16,046 15,967 16,123 15,890

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

16,970 17,512 17,548 16,963 17,261 17,372 17,415 17,455 17,532

Participation rate

79.0 79.8 79.8 78.9 79.1 79.5 79.5 79.5 79.7

Employed

16,316 16,781 16,821 16,267 16,438 16,519 16,720 16,800 16,765

Employment-population ratio

75.9 76.4 76.5 75.7 75.3 75.6 76.3 76.5 76.2

Unemployed

654 732 727 695 824 852 695 654 766

Unemployment rate

3.9 4.2 4.1 4.1 4.8 4.9 4.0 3.7 4.4

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

13,071 13,473 13,655 13,102 13,346 13,336 13,535 13,483 13,638

Participation rate

61.0 61.1 61.8 61.1 61.3 60.7 61.5 61.1 61.7

Employed

12,583 12,847 13,078 12,568 12,746 12,759 12,860 12,870 13,016

Employment-population ratio

58.7 58.3 59.2 58.6 58.5 58.1 58.4 58.4 58.9

Unemployed

489 627 577 534 601 577 675 612 623

Unemployment rate

3.7 4.7 4.2 4.1 4.5 4.3 5.0 4.5 4.6

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

1,465 1,473 1,554 1,522 1,474 1,610 1,549 1,504 1,607

Participation rate

33.6 32.3 34.0 34.9 33.2 35.5 34.0 33.0 35.1

Employed

1,335 1,321 1,397 1,348 1,296 1,422 1,304 1,323 1,406

Employment-population ratio

30.6 29.0 30.5 30.9 29.2 31.3 28.6 29.0 30.7

Unemployed

130 152 157 174 177 188 246 181 200

Unemployment rate

8.9 10.3 10.1 11.4 12.0 11.7 15.9 12.0 12.5

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-4. Employment status of the civilian population 25 years and over by educational attainment
[Numbers in thousands]
Educational attainment Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Apr.
2023
Mar.
2024
Apr.
2024
Apr.
2023
Dec.
2023
Jan.
2024
Feb.
2024
Mar.
2024
Apr.
2024

Less than a high school diploma

Civilian labor force

9,194 8,864 9,117 9,067 9,384 9,271 9,192 8,916 8,990

Participation rate

46.9 46.0 47.5 46.2 47.5 47.1 48.3 46.3 46.8

Employed

8,705 8,349 8,578 8,575 8,819 8,715 8,626 8,483 8,451

Employment-population ratio

44.4 43.4 44.6 43.7 44.6 44.3 45.4 44.1 44.0

Unemployed

489 514 539 492 564 556 565 433 539

Unemployment rate

5.3 5.8 5.9 5.4 6.0 6.0 6.1 4.9 6.0

High school graduates, no college(1)

Civilian labor force

35,840 36,504 36,273 35,792 35,748 35,927 36,474 36,364 36,208

Participation rate

56.5 57.5 56.8 56.5 57.1 57.0 57.0 57.3 56.7

Employed

34,491 34,889 34,890 34,379 34,247 34,385 34,948 34,866 34,757

Employment-population ratio

54.4 54.9 54.6 54.2 54.7 54.6 54.7 54.9 54.4

Unemployed

1,349 1,615 1,383 1,413 1,501 1,543 1,526 1,498 1,451

Unemployment rate

3.8 4.4 3.8 3.9 4.2 4.3 4.2 4.1 4.0

Some college or associate degree

Civilian labor force

35,685 36,198 36,251 35,680 35,737 36,205 36,322 36,147 36,225

Participation rate

63.0 63.3 63.0 63.0 62.4 62.6 63.5 63.2 62.9

Employed

34,730 34,934 35,114 34,659 34,623 35,020 35,178 34,918 35,017

Employment-population ratio

61.3 61.1 61.0 61.2 60.4 60.6 61.5 61.1 60.8

Unemployed

955 1,264 1,137 1,020 1,114 1,184 1,144 1,229 1,208

Unemployment rate

2.7 3.5 3.1 2.9 3.1 3.3 3.1 3.4 3.3

Bachelor's degree and higher(2)

Civilian labor force

64,050 64,820 64,406 64,080 64,297 64,195 63,965 64,478 64,449

Participation rate

73.2 72.8 72.8 73.3 72.3 72.7 72.1 72.4 72.8

Employed

62,929 63,469 63,127 62,834 62,933 62,836 62,527 63,095 63,047

Employment-population ratio

71.9 71.2 71.3 71.8 70.8 71.2 70.5 70.8 71.2

Unemployed

1,120 1,351 1,279 1,246 1,364 1,359 1,438 1,383 1,402

Unemployment rate

1.7 2.1 2.0 1.9 2.1 2.1 2.2 2.1 2.2

Footnotes
(1) Includes persons with a high school diploma or equivalent.
(2) Includes persons with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees.

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals for those 25 years and over because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-5. Employment status of the civilian population 18 years and over by veteran status, period of service, and sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, veteran status, and period of service Total Men Women
Apr.
2023
Apr.
2024
Apr.
2023
Apr.
2024
Apr.
2023
Apr.
2024

VETERANS, 18 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

17,961 17,631 15,923 15,584 2,038 2,047

Civilian labor force

8,672 8,516 7,497 7,341 1,175 1,175

Participation rate

48.3 48.3 47.1 47.1 57.7 57.4

Employed

8,488 8,254 7,350 7,087 1,138 1,167

Employment-population ratio

47.3 46.8 46.2 45.5 55.8 57.0

Unemployed

184 262 146 254 38 8

Unemployment rate

2.1 3.1 2.0 3.5 3.2 0.7

Not in labor force

9,289 9,115 8,426 8,243 863 872

Gulf War-era II veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

5,034 5,350 4,129 4,409 906 940

Civilian labor force

4,077 4,290 3,375 3,584 702 706

Participation rate

81.0 80.2 81.7 81.3 77.6 75.1

Employed

3,980 4,140 3,298 3,440 682 700

Employment-population ratio

79.1 77.4 79.9 78.0 75.3 74.4

Unemployed

97 150 77 143 20 6

Unemployment rate

2.4 3.5 2.3 4.0 2.9 0.9

Not in labor force

957 1,060 754 826 203 234

Gulf War-era I veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

2,929 2,761 2,473 2,309 455 453

Civilian labor force

2,059 1,906 1,763 1,622 296 284

Participation rate

70.3 69.0 71.3 70.3 64.9 62.6

Employed

2,016 1,860 1,724 1,577 292 284

Employment-population ratio

68.8 67.4 69.7 68.3 64.2 62.6

Unemployed

43 45 39 45 4 0

Unemployment rate

2.1 2.4 2.2 2.8 1.2 0.0

Not in labor force

870 856 710 686 160 169

World War II, Korean War, and Vietnam-era veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

6,032 5,704 5,776 5,463 256 241

Civilian labor force

793 716 777 692 15 23

Participation rate

13.1 12.5 13.5 12.7 6.0 9.7

Employed

773 692 760 670 13 22

Employment-population ratio

12.8 12.1 13.2 12.3 5.0 9.2

Unemployed

20 23 17 22 3 1

Unemployment rate

2.5 3.2 2.2 3.2 - -

Not in labor force

5,239 4,988 4,999 4,771 241 218

Veterans of other service periods

Civilian noninstitutional population

3,966 3,816 3,545 3,403 421 413

Civilian labor force

1,743 1,605 1,581 1,443 162 162

Participation rate

43.9 42.0 44.6 42.4 38.5 39.2

Employed

1,719 1,561 1,568 1,400 151 161

Employment-population ratio

43.3 40.9 44.2 41.1 35.8 39.1

Unemployed

24 43 13 43 11 0

Unemployment rate

1.4 2.7 0.8 3.0 6.9 0.3

Not in labor force

2,223 2,211 1,964 1,960 259 251

NONVETERANS, 18 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

239,186 241,318 109,666 110,563 129,521 130,755

Civilian labor force

155,317 156,752 79,845 80,055 75,472 76,697

Participation rate

64.9 65.0 72.8 72.4 58.3 58.7

Employed

150,560 151,386 77,177 77,159 73,383 74,228

Employment-population ratio

62.9 62.7 70.4 69.8 56.7 56.8

Unemployed

4,757 5,366 2,668 2,896 2,088 2,470

Unemployment rate

3.1 3.4 3.3 3.6 2.8 3.2

Not in labor force

83,869 84,566 29,821 30,508 54,049 54,058

NOTE: Veterans served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces and were not on active duty at the time of the survey. Nonveterans never served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces. Veterans could have served anywhere in the world during these periods of service: Gulf War era II (September 2001-present), Gulf War era I (August 1990-August 2001), Vietnam era (August 1964-April 1975), Korean War (July 1950-January 1955), World War II (December 1941-December 1946), and other service periods (all other time periods). Veterans who served in more than one wartime period are classified only in the most recent one. Veterans who served during one of the selected wartime periods and another period are classified only in the wartime period. Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria (values not shown where base is less than 75,000).


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-6. Employment status of the civilian population by sex, age, and disability status, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Persons with a disability Persons with no disability
Apr.
2023
Apr.
2024
Apr.
2023
Apr.
2024

TOTAL, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

32,818 34,003 233,625 234,062

Civilian labor force

7,551 8,341 158,670 159,143

Participation rate

23.0 24.5 67.9 68.0

Employed

7,078 7,814 153,996 153,776

Employment-population ratio

21.6 23.0 65.9 65.7

Unemployed

473 526 4,674 5,368

Unemployment rate

6.3 6.3 2.9 3.4

Not in labor force

25,267 25,663 74,955 74,919

Men, 16 to 64 years

Civilian labor force

3,051 3,420 79,363 78,835

Participation rate

39.1 40.6 82.5 82.8

Employed

2,838 3,198 76,798 75,965

Employment-population ratio

36.4 38.0 79.8 79.7

Unemployed

213 222 2,565 2,870

Unemployment rate

7.0 6.5 3.2 3.6

Not in labor force

4,756 5,007 16,886 16,426

Women, 16 to 64 years

Civilian labor force

3,126 3,407 69,589 70,386

Participation rate

37.6 40.6 72.3 72.9

Employed

2,905 3,172 67,676 68,138

Employment-population ratio

35.0 37.8 70.3 70.5

Unemployed

221 235 1,913 2,247

Unemployment rate

7.1 6.9 2.7 3.2

Not in labor force

5,181 4,985 26,664 26,227

Both sexes, 65 years and over

Civilian labor force

1,374 1,513 9,717 9,922

Participation rate

8.2 8.8 23.6 23.5

Employed

1,336 1,445 9,522 9,672

Employment-population ratio

8.0 8.4 23.2 22.9

Unemployed

38 69 196 250

Unemployment rate

2.8 4.6 2.0 2.5

Not in labor force

15,330 15,670 31,405 32,266

NOTE: A person with a disability has at least one of the following conditions: is deaf or has serious difficulty hearing; is blind or has serious difficulty seeing even when wearing glasses; has serious difficulty concentrating, remembering, or making decisions because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition; has serious difficulty walking or climbing stairs; has difficulty dressing or bathing; or has difficulty doing errands alone such as visiting a doctor's office or shopping because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-7. Employment status of the civilian population by nativity and sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status and nativity Total Men Women
Apr.
2023
Apr.
2024
Apr.
2023
Apr.
2024
Apr.
2023
Apr.
2024

Foreign born, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

46,328 48,089 22,732 23,675 23,596 24,414

Civilian labor force

30,912 31,726 17,595 18,132 13,317 13,594

Participation rate

66.7 66.0 77.4 76.6 56.4 55.7

Employed

29,962 30,482 17,121 17,468 12,841 13,014

Employment-population ratio

64.7 63.4 75.3 73.8 54.4 53.3

Unemployed

950 1,244 474 664 476 580

Unemployment rate

3.1 3.9 2.7 3.7 3.6 4.3

Not in labor force

15,416 16,363 5,137 5,544 10,279 10,819

Native born, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

220,115 219,976 107,503 107,019 112,612 112,958

Civilian labor force

135,309 135,758 70,842 70,341 64,467 65,417

Participation rate

61.5 61.7 65.9 65.7 57.2 57.9

Employed

131,113 131,108 68,413 67,720 62,700 63,388

Employment-population ratio

59.6 59.6 63.6 63.3 55.7 56.1

Unemployed

4,196 4,650 2,429 2,621 1,767 2,028

Unemployment rate

3.1 3.4 3.4 3.7 2.7 3.1

Not in labor force

84,806 84,219 36,660 36,678 48,146 47,541

NOTE: The foreign born are those residing in the United States who were not U.S. citizens at birth. That is, they were born outside the United States or one of its outlying areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam, to parents neither of whom was a U.S. citizen. The native born are persons who were born in the United States or one of its outlying areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam or who were born abroad of at least one parent who was a U.S. citizen. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-8. Employed persons by class of worker and part-time status
[In thousands]
Category Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Apr.
2023
Mar.
2024
Apr.
2024
Apr.
2023
Dec.
2023
Jan.
2024
Feb.
2024
Mar.
2024
Apr.
2024

CLASS OF WORKER

Agriculture and related industries

2,231 2,099 2,187 2,295 2,205 2,184 2,201 2,217 2,246

Wage and salary workers(1)

1,472 1,427 1,496 1,538 1,520 1,489 1,524 1,507 1,555

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

713 627 657 713 680 687 649 654 657

Unpaid family workers

46 44 34 - - - - - -

Nonagricultural industries

158,844 159,258 159,403 158,615 158,993 158,735 158,601 158,970 159,161

Wage and salary workers(1)

149,752 149,720 150,119 149,451 149,702 149,741 149,321 149,513 149,831

Government

21,893 21,866 21,883 21,643 21,700 21,490 21,142 21,436 21,616

Private industries

127,860 127,854 128,236 127,774 128,086 128,407 128,256 128,092 128,170

Private households

613 679 620 - - - - - -

Other industries

127,247 127,175 127,616 127,116 127,414 127,521 127,392 127,331 127,493

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

9,035 9,487 9,241 9,076 9,335 9,087 9,377 9,522 9,295

Unpaid family workers

57 51 43 - - - - - -

PERSONS AT WORK PART TIME(2)

All industries

Part time for economic reasons(3)

3,692 4,422 4,267 3,896 4,211 4,422 4,376 4,308 4,469

Slack work or business conditions

2,612 3,051 2,910 2,764 2,960 2,994 2,863 2,972 3,058

Could only find part-time work

823 1,053 1,146 836 964 1,026 1,104 999 1,134

Part time for noneconomic reasons(4)

22,453 23,416 22,913 21,753 22,458 22,156 22,309 22,902 22,253

Nonagricultural industries

Part time for economic reasons(3)

3,627 4,343 4,200 3,834 4,138 4,371 4,300 4,255 4,404

Slack work or business conditions

2,570 3,010 2,856 2,726 2,913 2,959 2,803 2,949 3,010

Could only find part-time work

813 1,033 1,146 826 953 1,018 1,098 980 1,132

Part time for noneconomic reasons(4)

22,058 23,054 22,575 21,353 22,060 21,793 21,951 22,523 21,906

Footnotes
(1) Includes self-employed workers whose businesses are incorporated.
(2) Refers to those who worked 1 to 34 hours during the survey reference week and excludes employed persons who were absent from their jobs for the entire week.
(3) Refers to those who worked 1 to 34 hours during the reference week for an economic reason such as slack work or unfavorable business conditions, inability to find full-time work, or seasonal declines in demand.
(4) Refers to persons who usually work part time for noneconomic reasons such as childcare problems, family or personal obligations, school or training, retirement or Social Security limits on earnings, and other reasons. This excludes persons who usually work full time but worked only 1 to 34 hours during the reference week for reasons such as vacations, holidays, illness, and bad weather.

- Data not available.
NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-9. Selected employment indicators
[Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Apr.
2023
Mar.
2024
Apr.
2024
Apr.
2023
Dec.
2023
Jan.
2024
Feb.
2024
Mar.
2024
Apr.
2024

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

161,075 161,356 161,590 160,962 161,183 161,152 160,968 161,466 161,491

16 to 19 years

5,508 5,595 5,587 5,770 5,638 5,704 5,608 5,862 5,839

16 to 17 years

2,027 1,946 1,949 2,191 2,194 2,292 2,035 2,146 2,116

18 to 19 years

3,481 3,650 3,637 3,582 3,446 3,428 3,595 3,756 3,727

20 years and over

155,567 155,761 156,003 155,193 155,545 155,448 155,360 155,604 155,652

20 to 24 years

14,711 14,121 14,295 14,818 14,756 14,562 14,192 14,287 14,419

25 years and over

140,856 141,641 141,709 140,479 140,617 140,972 141,300 141,485 141,328

25 to 54 years

103,484 103,766 104,119 103,208 103,161 103,489 103,717 103,669 103,832

25 to 34 years

35,957 35,696 35,732 35,847 35,859 35,700 35,672 35,667 35,638

35 to 44 years

35,385 36,185 36,319 35,290 35,546 35,818 36,117 36,123 36,197

45 to 54 years

32,142 31,885 32,069 32,071 31,757 31,970 31,928 31,879 31,997

55 years and over

37,372 37,875 37,589 37,271 37,455 37,484 37,582 37,816 37,497

Men, 16 years and over

85,534 85,253 85,187 85,521 85,794 85,034 84,993 85,490 85,208

16 to 19 years

2,791 2,796 2,763 2,925 2,836 2,730 2,815 2,947 2,890

16 to 17 years

1,007 922 942 1,063 1,033 1,063 939 1,022 1,000

18 to 19 years

1,784 1,874 1,822 1,863 1,807 1,679 1,900 1,964 1,901

20 years and over

82,743 82,457 82,424 82,596 82,958 82,304 82,178 82,543 82,318

20 to 24 years

7,424 7,116 7,315 7,481 7,432 7,320 7,107 7,222 7,381

25 years and over

75,319 75,341 75,109 75,187 75,397 75,093 75,239 75,496 75,012

25 to 54 years

55,247 55,060 55,093 55,165 55,178 55,008 55,126 55,179 55,027

25 to 34 years

19,148 18,945 18,914 19,112 19,104 18,948 18,945 18,957 18,893

35 to 44 years

19,036 19,288 19,271 19,001 19,108 19,109 19,266 19,332 19,234

45 to 54 years

17,062 16,827 16,908 17,052 16,966 16,951 16,916 16,890 16,900

55 years and over

20,072 20,282 20,016 20,023 20,219 20,085 20,112 20,316 19,985

Women, 16 years and over

75,541 76,103 76,403 75,441 75,389 76,118 75,975 75,976 76,283

16 to 19 years

2,716 2,799 2,823 2,845 2,802 2,974 2,793 2,915 2,949

16 to 17 years

1,020 1,023 1,008 1,128 1,162 1,229 1,096 1,124 1,116

18 to 19 years

1,696 1,776 1,815 1,719 1,639 1,749 1,694 1,793 1,827

20 years and over

72,824 73,304 73,579 72,597 72,587 73,144 73,182 73,061 73,334

20 to 24 years

7,287 7,005 6,980 7,337 7,324 7,241 7,085 7,065 7,038

25 years and over

65,537 66,299 66,599 65,292 65,220 65,879 66,061 65,989 66,316

25 to 54 years

48,237 48,706 49,026 48,043 47,983 48,480 48,591 48,490 48,805

25 to 34 years

16,808 16,751 16,818 16,735 16,755 16,752 16,727 16,710 16,745

35 to 44 years

16,349 16,896 17,048 16,289 16,438 16,709 16,851 16,791 16,963

45 to 54 years

15,080 15,059 15,161 15,019 14,791 15,019 15,013 14,989 15,096

55 years and over

17,300 17,593 17,573 17,249 17,237 17,399 17,470 17,500 17,511

MARITAL STATUS

Married men, spouse present(1)

46,330 46,100 45,700 46,099 46,392 45,672 45,387 45,962 45,547

Married women, spouse present(1)

37,358 37,358 37,117 37,139 36,790 37,033 36,822 37,069 36,906

Women who maintain families(2)

9,648 9,785 9,935 - - - - - -

FULL- OR PART-TIME STATUS

Full-time workers(3)

133,886 132,070 133,351 134,446 133,196 133,133 132,946 132,940 133,889

Part-time workers(4)

27,189 29,287 28,239 26,673 27,794 27,890 27,941 28,632 27,718

MULTIPLE JOBHOLDERS

Total multiple jobholders

7,676 8,637 8,349 7,709 8,565 8,272 8,259 8,476 8,383

Percent of total employed

4.8 5.4 5.2 4.8 5.3 5.1 5.1 5.2 5.2

SELF-EMPLOYMENT

Self-employed workers, incorporated

6,404 6,637 6,686 - - - - - -

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

9,748 10,114 9,897 9,789 10,014 9,774 10,026 10,176 9,952

Footnotes
(1) Beginning with data for January 2020, refers to persons in both opposite-sex and same-sex married couples. Prior to January 2020, referred to persons in opposite-sex married couples only.
(2) Beginning with data for January 2020, refers to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not a spouse of either sex. Prior to January 2020, referred to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not an opposite-sex spouse.
(3) Employed full-time workers are persons who usually work 35 hours or more per week.
(4) Employed part-time workers are persons who usually work less than 35 hours per week.

- Data not available.
NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-10. Selected unemployment indicators, seasonally adjusted
Characteristic Number of
unemployed persons
(in thousands)
Unemployment rates
Apr.
2023
Mar.
2024
Apr.
2024
Apr.
2023
Dec.
2023
Jan.
2024
Feb.
2024
Mar.
2024
Apr.
2024

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

5,715 6,429 6,492 3.4 3.7 3.7 3.9 3.8 3.9

16 to 19 years

595 842 772 9.3 11.9 10.6 12.5 12.6 11.7

16 to 17 years

234 353 306 9.6 13.1 10.0 12.5 14.1 12.6

18 to 19 years

380 490 474 9.6 11.2 10.8 12.2 11.5 11.3

20 years and over

5,120 5,587 5,720 3.2 3.4 3.4 3.5 3.5 3.5

20 to 24 years

854 1,091 1,033 5.4 6.4 5.9 7.2 7.1 6.7

25 years and over

4,195 4,499 4,630 2.9 3.2 3.2 3.2 3.1 3.2

25 to 54 years

3,290 3,466 3,462 3.1 3.3 3.3 3.3 3.2 3.2

25 to 34 years

1,430 1,518 1,424 3.8 4.2 3.9 4.3 4.1 3.8

35 to 44 years

1,063 982 1,104 2.9 2.9 3.0 2.9 2.6 3.0

45 to 54 years

798 967 935 2.4 2.6 2.7 2.6 2.9 2.8

55 years and over

909 1,016 1,163 2.4 2.8 2.9 2.8 2.6 3.0

Men, 16 years and over

3,100 3,323 3,500 3.5 3.9 3.9 3.8 3.7 3.9

16 to 19 years

303 467 436 9.4 12.5 13.2 12.3 13.7 13.1

16 to 17 years

103 167 159 8.8 15.2 15.1 11.6 14.1 13.8

18 to 19 years

215 298 279 10.3 11.3 12.1 12.5 13.2 12.8

20 years and over

2,797 2,855 3,064 3.3 3.5 3.6 3.5 3.3 3.6

20 to 24 years

486 549 524 6.1 6.4 7.0 7.9 7.1 6.6

25 years and over

2,271 2,329 2,516 2.9 3.3 3.3 3.2 3.0 3.2

25 to 54 years

1,790 1,779 1,882 3.1 3.5 3.4 3.3 3.1 3.3

25 to 34 years

811 813 785 4.1 4.4 4.0 4.2 4.1 4.0

35 to 44 years

559 436 598 2.9 3.2 3.3 3.0 2.2 3.0

45 to 54 years

420 529 499 2.4 2.7 2.7 2.6 3.0 2.9

55 years and over

481 550 633 2.3 2.9 3.2 2.8 2.6 3.1

Women, 16 years and over

2,615 3,106 2,991 3.4 3.6 3.4 3.9 3.9 3.8

16 to 19 years

291 375 336 9.3 11.1 8.2 12.7 11.4 10.2

16 to 17 years

131 186 147 10.4 11.2 5.0 13.1 14.2 11.6

18 to 19 years

165 193 195 8.8 11.1 9.6 11.8 9.7 9.6

20 years and over

2,324 2,731 2,655 3.1 3.3 3.2 3.5 3.6 3.5

20 to 24 years

367 542 509 4.8 6.4 4.9 6.4 7.1 6.7

25 years and over

1,924 2,170 2,114 2.9 3.0 3.0 3.2 3.2 3.1

25 to 54 years

1,501 1,687 1,580 3.0 3.0 3.1 3.3 3.4 3.1

25 to 34 years

619 704 639 3.6 3.9 3.9 4.4 4.0 3.7

35 to 44 years

505 546 505 3.0 2.7 2.7 2.8 3.1 2.9

45 to 54 years

378 437 436 2.5 2.5 2.8 2.6 2.8 2.8

55 years and over

418 463 524 2.4 2.7 2.5 2.9 2.6 2.9

MARITAL STATUS

Married men, spouse present(1)

826 831 979 1.8 2.1 2.1 1.9 1.8 2.1

Married women, spouse present(1)

766 860 890 2.0 2.2 2.0 2.0 2.3 2.4

Women who maintain families(2)

489 550 506 4.8 4.7 5.4 5.5 5.3 4.8

FULL- OR PART-TIME STATUS

Full-time workers(3)

4,707 5,090 5,257 3.4 3.8 3.6 3.9 3.7 3.8

Part-time workers(4)

998 1,329 1,222 3.6 3.8 4.2 3.9 4.4 4.2

Footnotes
(1) Beginning with data for January 2020, refers to persons in both opposite-sex and same-sex married couples. Prior to January 2020, referred to persons in opposite-sex married couples only.
(2) Data are not seasonally adjusted. Beginning with data for January 2020, refers to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not a spouse of either sex. Prior to January 2020, referred to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not an opposite-sex spouse.
(3) Full-time workers are unemployed persons who have expressed a desire to work full time (35 hours or more per week) or are on layoff from full-time jobs.
(4) Part-time workers are unemployed persons who have expressed a desire to work part time (less than 35 hours per week) or are on layoff from part-time jobs.

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-11. Unemployed persons by reason for unemployment
[Numbers in thousands]
Reason Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Apr.
2023
Mar.
2024
Apr.
2024
Apr.
2023
Dec.
2023
Jan.
2024
Feb.
2024
Mar.
2024
Apr.
2024

NUMBER OF UNEMPLOYED

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

2,391 3,295 2,973 2,676 3,058 3,028 3,216 3,042 3,241

On temporary layoff

568 938 688 760 917 876 827 779 871

Not on temporary layoff

1,824 2,357 2,286 1,916 2,140 2,151 2,389 2,263 2,370

Permanent job losers

1,391 1,719 1,728 1,426 1,543 1,556 1,730 1,655 1,756

Persons who completed temporary jobs

433 639 558 490 597 595 659 607 615

Job leavers

746 811 744 786 833 794 711 823 785

Reentrants

1,581 1,916 1,723 1,778 1,741 1,834 1,946 1,920 1,929

New entrants

428 582 453 519 609 550 611 678 574

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

46.5 49.9 50.5 46.5 49.0 48.8 49.6 47.1 49.6

On temporary layoff

11.0 14.2 11.7 13.2 14.7 14.1 12.8 12.1 13.3

Not on temporary layoff

35.4 35.7 38.8 33.3 34.3 34.7 36.8 35.0 36.3

Job leavers

14.5 12.3 12.6 13.6 13.4 12.8 11.0 12.7 12.0

Reentrants

30.7 29.0 29.2 30.9 27.9 29.5 30.0 29.7 29.5

New entrants

8.3 8.8 7.7 9.0 9.8 8.9 9.4 10.5 8.8

UNEMPLOYED AS A PERCENT OF THE
CIVILIAN LABOR FORCE

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

1.4 2.0 1.8 1.6 1.8 1.8 1.9 1.8 1.9

Job leavers

0.4 0.5 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.4 0.5 0.5

Reentrants

1.0 1.1 1.0 1.1 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.1 1.1

New entrants

0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.3 0.4 0.4 0.3

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to total unemployed in table A-1 because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-12. Unemployed persons by duration of unemployment
[Numbers in thousands]
Duration Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Apr.
2023
Mar.
2024
Apr.
2024
Apr.
2023
Dec.
2023
Jan.
2024
Feb.
2024
Mar.
2024
Apr.
2024

NUMBER OF UNEMPLOYED

Less than 5 weeks

1,484 1,909 1,888 1,867 2,191 2,140 2,326 2,189 2,262

5 to 14 weeks

1,607 2,141 1,670 1,920 1,791 1,848 1,933 1,979 1,987

15 weeks and over

2,055 2,554 2,336 1,837 2,350 2,144 2,176 2,228 2,119

15 to 26 weeks

958 1,195 1,064 748 1,104 867 974 982 869

27 weeks and over

1,098 1,359 1,271 1,089 1,245 1,277 1,203 1,246 1,250

Average (mean) duration, in weeks

22.4 22.3 21.4 20.8 22.3 20.8 20.9 21.6 19.9

Median duration, in weeks

10.5 10.7 10.5 8.7 9.7 9.6 9.3 9.5 8.7

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION

Less than 5 weeks

28.8 28.9 32.0 33.2 34.6 34.9 36.1 34.2 35.5

5 to 14 weeks

31.2 32.4 28.3 34.1 28.3 30.1 30.0 30.9 31.2

15 weeks and over

39.9 38.7 39.6 32.7 37.1 35.0 33.8 34.8 33.3

15 to 26 weeks

18.6 18.1 18.1 13.3 17.4 14.1 15.1 15.3 13.6

27 weeks and over

21.3 20.6 21.6 19.4 19.7 20.8 18.7 19.5 19.6

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to total unemployed in table A-1 because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-13. Employed and unemployed persons by occupation, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Occupation Employed Unemployed Unemployment
rates
Apr.
2023
Apr.
2024
Apr.
2023
Apr.
2024
Apr.
2023
Apr.
2024

Total, 16 years and over(1)

161,075 161,590 5,146 5,894 3.1 3.5

Management, professional, and related occupations

70,403 70,548 1,153 1,399 1.6 1.9

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

30,517 30,172 571 743 1.8 2.4

Professional and related occupations

39,886 40,376 582 656 1.4 1.6

Service occupations

26,224 26,430 1,122 1,162 4.1 4.2

Sales and office occupations

30,534 30,037 917 1,061 2.9 3.4

Sales and related occupations

14,377 14,410 438 543 3.0 3.6

Office and administrative support occupations

16,157 15,627 480 518 2.9 3.2

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

14,214 14,501 586 749 4.0 4.9

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

873 831 67 59 7.1 6.7

Construction and extraction occupations

8,506 8,662 443 545 5.0 5.9

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

4,834 5,009 76 144 1.6 2.8

Production, transportation, and material moving
occupations

19,700 20,074 935 1,057 4.5 5.0

Production occupations

8,143 8,069 308 419 3.6 4.9

Transportation and material moving occupations

11,557 12,005 627 638 5.1 5.0

Footnotes
(1) Persons with no previous work experience and persons whose last job was in the U.S. Armed Forces are included in the unemployed total.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data. Effective with January 2020 data, occupations reflect the introduction of the 2018 Census occupational classification system into the Current Population Survey, or household survey. This classification system is derived from the 2018 Standard Occupational Classification (SOC). No historical data have been revised. Data for 2020 are not strictly comparable with earlier years.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-14. Unemployed persons by industry and class of worker, not seasonally adjusted
Industry and class of worker Number of
unemployed
persons
(in thousands)
Unemployment
rates
Apr.
2023
Apr.
2024
Apr.
2023
Apr.
2024

Total, 16 years and over(1)

5,146 5,894 3.1 3.5

Nonagricultural private wage and salary workers

4,062 4,795 3.1 3.6

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

11 8 1.8 1.3

Construction

424 555 4.1 5.2

Manufacturing

429 416 2.8 2.7

Durable goods

240 281 2.4 2.9

Nondurable goods

190 134 3.4 2.4

Wholesale and retail trade

644 725 3.3 3.8

Transportation and utilities

298 358 3.6 4.4

Information

38 128 1.4 5.0

Financial activities

214 280 2.1 2.7

Professional and business services

684 746 3.7 4.0

Education and health services

494 559 1.9 2.1

Leisure and hospitality

686 784 5.0 5.7

Other services

139 235 2.1 3.5

Agriculture and related private wage and salary workers

68 83 4.6 5.4

Government workers

343 267 1.5 1.2

Self-employed workers, unincorporated, and unpaid family workers

244 296 2.4 2.9

Footnotes
(1) Persons with no previous work experience and persons whose last job was in the U.S. Armed Forces are included in the unemployed total.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data. Effective with January 2020 data, industries reflect the introduction of the 2017 Census industry classification system into the Current Population Survey. This industry classification system is derived from the 2017 North American Industry Classification System (NAICS). No historical data have been revised.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-15. Alternative measures of labor underutilization
[Percent]
Measure Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Apr.
2023
Mar.
2024
Apr.
2024
Apr.
2023
Dec.
2023
Jan.
2024
Feb.
2024
Mar.
2024
Apr.
2024

U-1 Persons unemployed 15 weeks or longer, as a percent of the civilian labor force

1.2 1.5 1.4 1.1 1.4 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3

U-2 Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs, as a percent of the civilian labor force

1.4 2.0 1.8 1.6 1.8 1.8 1.9 1.8 1.9

U-3 Total unemployed, as a percent of the civilian labor force (official unemployment rate)

3.1 3.9 3.5 3.4 3.7 3.7 3.9 3.8 3.9

U-4 Total unemployed plus discouraged workers, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus discouraged workers

3.3 4.1 3.7 3.6 3.9 3.9 4.1 4.0 4.1

U-5 Total unemployed, plus discouraged workers, plus all other persons marginally attached to the labor force, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force

3.9 4.7 4.4 4.3 4.6 4.6 4.7 4.7 4.8

U-6 Total unemployed, plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force, plus total employed part time for economic reasons, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force

6.1 7.4 6.9 6.6 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.3 7.4

NOTE: Persons marginally attached to the labor force are those who currently are neither working nor looking for work but indicate that they want and are available for a job and have looked for work sometime in the past 12 months. Discouraged workers, a subset of the marginally attached, have given a job-market related reason for not currently looking for work. Persons employed part time for economic reasons are those who want and are available for full-time work but have had to settle for a part-time schedule. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-16. Persons not in the labor force and multiple jobholders by sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Category Total Men Women
Apr.
2023
Apr.
2024
Apr.
2023
Apr.
2024
Apr.
2023
Apr.
2024

NOT IN THE LABOR FORCE

Total not in the labor force

100,222 100,582 41,797 42,222 58,425 58,361

Persons who currently want a job

5,145 5,502 2,418 2,717 2,727 2,786

Marginally attached to the labor force(1)

1,461 1,519 775 771 686 748

Discouraged workers(2)

386 380 250 210 136 170

Other persons marginally attached to the labor force(3)

1,075 1,139 524 561 550 578

MULTIPLE JOBHOLDERS

Total multiple jobholders(4)

7,676 8,349 3,765 3,986 3,911 4,363

Percent of total employed

4.8 5.2 4.4 4.7 5.2 5.7

Primary job full time, secondary job part time

4,388 4,844 2,369 2,560 2,018 2,284

Primary and secondary jobs both part time

1,808 2,091 643 713 1,164 1,378

Primary and secondary jobs both full time

424 376 213 215 210 161

Hours vary on primary or secondary job

1,001 984 517 473 483 511

Footnotes
(1) Data refer to persons who want a job, have searched for work during the prior 12 months, and were available to take a job during the reference week, but had not looked for work in the past 4 weeks.
(2) Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for reasons such as thinks no work available, could not find work, lacks schooling or training, employer thinks too young or old, and other types of discrimination.
(3) Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for such reasons as school or family responsibilities, ill health, and transportation problems, as well as a number for whom reason for nonparticipation was not determined.
(4) Includes a small number of persons who work part time on their primary job and full time on their secondary job(s), not shown separately.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-1. Employees on nonfarm payrolls by industry sector and selected industry detail
[In thousands]
Industry Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Apr.
2023
Feb.
2024
Mar.
2024(p)
Apr.
2024(p)
Apr.
2023
Feb.
2024
Mar.
2024(p)
Apr.
2024(p)
Change from:
Mar.2024 - Apr.2024(p)

Total nonfarm

155,201 156,551 157,213 158,016 155,484 157,796 158,111 158,286 175

Total private

132,239 133,098 133,636 134,421 132,831 134,605 134,848 135,015 167

Goods-producing

21,403 21,399 21,514 21,680 21,541 21,768 21,807 21,821 14

Mining and logging

633 632 639 635 639 641 644 641 -3

Logging

42.1 41.8 41.4 39.3 44.9 41.9 42.3 42.2 -0.1

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

590.7 590.2 597.6 595.4 593.8 599.0 601.8 598.3 -3.5

Oil and gas extraction

115.8 118.2 118.6 117.4 116.9 119.0 119.2 118.5 -0.7

Mining (except oil and gas)

186.0 184.5 186.2 188.3 187.2 189.2 189.8 189.7 -0.1

Coal mining

42.8 42.9 42.9 44.1 42.8 43.0 42.9 44.1 1.2

Metal ore mining

43.5 43.4 42.9 42.9 43.5 43.4 43.1 42.9 -0.2

Nonmetallic mineral mining and quarrying

99.7 98.2 100.4 101.3 101.0 102.8 103.8 102.7 -1.1

Support activities for mining

288.9 287.5 292.8 289.7 289.7 290.8 292.8 290.1 -2.7

Construction

7,874 7,860 7,972 8,132 7,961 8,170 8,210 8,219 9

Construction of buildings

1,772.5 1,809.7 1,831.2 1,847.9 1,792.6 1,850.0 1,863.6 1,867.3 3.7

Residential building construction

912.0 915.2 929.5 940.1 923.3 936.7 947.2 950.0 2.8

Nonresidential building construction

860.5 894.5 901.7 907.8 869.3 913.3 916.4 917.3 0.9

Heavy and civil engineering construction

1,093.0 1,055.7 1,083.3 1,134.7 1,104.3 1,142.7 1,146.0 1,146.3 0.3

Specialty trade contractors

5,008.5 4,994.8 5,057.8 5,149.8 5,064.5 5,177.6 5,200.2 5,205.1 4.9

Residential specialty trade contractors

2,334.9 2,314.4 2,342.4 2,380.9 2,358.5 2,396.7 2,409.1 2,407.4 -1.7

Nonresidential specialty trade contractors

2,673.6 2,680.4 2,715.4 2,768.9 2,706.0 2,780.9 2,791.1 2,797.7 6.6

Manufacturing

12,896 12,907 12,903 12,913 12,941 12,957 12,953 12,961 8

Durable goods

8,063 8,118 8,120 8,120 8,084 8,141 8,143 8,144 1

Wood product manufacturing

417.6 412.4 412.6 414.5 418.5 414.7 414.3 415.7 1.4

Nonmetallic mineral product manufacturing

415.5 411.3 415.2 418.3 418.9 420.3 421.6 422.0 0.4

Primary metal manufacturing

372.3 370.5 370.0 369.5 373.2 371.1 370.5 370.7 0.2

Fabricated metal product manufacturing

1,446.8 1,470.1 1,467.4 1,466.2 1,450.2 1,471.4 1,469.3 1,469.6 0.3

Machinery manufacturing

1,129.2 1,135.5 1,132.3 1,136.0 1,132.3 1,137.6 1,136.0 1,139.4 3.4

Computer and electronic product manufacturing

1,105.3 1,102.9 1,099.6 1,098.8 1,108.7 1,105.7 1,103.3 1,102.3 -1.0

Computer and peripheral equipment manufacturing

163.2 161.4 159.6 160.2 164.0 161.9 160.7 161.0 0.3

Communications equipment manufacturing

85.4 86.0 85.4 85.2 85.4 86.2 85.5 85.4 -0.1

Semiconductor and other electronic component manufacturing

395.3 391.5 390.9 391.3 396.5 392.7 391.7 392.1 0.4

Navigational, measuring, electromedical, and control instruments manufacturing

430.7 433.6 433.2 431.5 431.5 434.1 434.5 432.9 -1.6

Manufacturing and reproducing magnetic and optical media and audio and video equipment manufacturing

30.7 30.4 30.5 30.6 31.2 30.8 30.9 31.0 0.1

Electrical equipment, appliance, and component manufacturing

412.8 412.0 411.6 409.6 414.1 413.5 412.3 411.1 -1.2

Transportation equipment manufacturing(1)

1,773.6 1,831.7 1,838.3 1,837.1 1,775.8 1,831.6 1,840.1 1,841.0 0.9

Motor vehicles and parts(2)

1,036.9 1,061.9 1,067.7 1,064.3 1,034.0 1,062.2 1,066.0 1,063.9 -2.1

Furniture and related product manufacturing

361.9 346.2 347.5 344.9 363.0 347.4 347.6 345.9 -1.7

Miscellaneous manufacturing

627.7 625.6 625.7 625.0 629.0 627.4 627.6 626.5 -1.1

Nondurable goods

4,833 4,789 4,783 4,793 4,857 4,816 4,810 4,817 7

Food manufacturing

1,714.2 1,725.6 1,719.3 1,721.2 1,728.2 1,731.8 1,730.8 1,735.5 4.7

Textile mills

92.4 89.2 89.0 88.9 92.1 89.7 89.2 88.7 -0.5

Textile product mills

99.9 95.5 94.8 95.5 99.7 95.5 94.4 95.4 1.0

Apparel manufacturing

92.6 85.6 83.5 83.6 91.5 85.9 84.1 83.4 -0.7

Paper manufacturing

358.3 350.9 349.6 349.7 359.0 350.3 349.6 350.3 0.7

Printing and related support activities

373.5 362.6 364.4 366.1 374.9 365.4 365.7 366.7 1.0

Petroleum and coal products manufacturing

108.0 107.1 108.1 108.6 108.6 110.7 110.6 109.2 -1.4

Chemical manufacturing

900.5 895.9 900.4 896.6 902.2 895.3 900.0 898.2 -1.8

Plastics and rubber products manufacturing

739.1 726.0 724.6 726.8 740.5 728.1 726.0 728.1 2.1

Beverage, tobacco, and leather and allied product manufacturing

354.5 350.7 349.4 355.6 360.6 363.1 359.2 361.9 2.7

Private service-providing

110,836 111,699 112,122 112,741 111,290 112,837 113,041 113,194 153

Trade, transportation, and utilities

28,544 28,686 28,701 28,747 28,834 28,928 28,959 29,011 52

Wholesale trade

6,078.6 6,112.6 6,133.3 6,155.1 6,095.2 6,149.2 6,159.6 6,169.7 10.1

Merchant wholesalers, durable goods

3,371.4 3,409.1 3,414.4 3,417.2 3,379.7 3,419.4 3,422.8 3,425.3 2.5

Merchant wholesalers, nondurable goods

2,197.5 2,196.0 2,208.8 2,226.6 2,203.4 2,219.4 2,223.6 2,230.8 7.2

Wholesale trade agents and brokers

509.7 507.5 510.1 511.3 512.1 510.4 513.2 513.6 0.4

Retail trade

15,420.9 15,482.3 15,492.9 15,531.6 15,586.0 15,642.7 15,657.8 15,677.9 20.1

Motor vehicle and parts dealers

2,025.3 2,057.1 2,065.3 2,069.2 2,027.2 2,072.8 2,073.1 2,072.7 -0.4

Automobile dealers

1,266.2 1,288.6 1,294.8 1,297.5 1,267.0 1,292.4 1,296.3 1,298.6 2.3

Other motor vehicle dealers

178.5 165.5 168.4 170.6 178.1 173.0 172.3 170.9 -1.4

Automotive parts, accessories, and tire retailers

580.6 603.0 602.1 601.1 582.2 607.4 604.5 603.2 -1.3

Building material and garden equipment and supplies dealers

1,435.1 1,339.9 1,360.0 1,400.4 1,405.6 1,379.6 1,369.1 1,375.6 6.5

Food and beverage retailers

3,206.5 3,253.9 3,243.6 3,239.7 3,231.5 3,258.2 3,262.3 3,264.4 2.1

Furniture, home furnishings, electronics, and appliance retailers

847.0 825.6 819.6 813.5 856.6 825.1 823.0 821.7 -1.3

Furniture and home furnishings retailers

429.5 425.4 422.4 421.6 434.4 424.6 423.8 425.5 1.7

Electronics and appliance retailers

417.5 400.2 397.2 391.9 422.2 400.5 399.2 396.2 -3.0

General merchandise retailers

3,156.6 3,213.1 3,221.2 3,226.1 3,227.5 3,252.1 3,271.7 3,281.2 9.5

Department stores

931.4 940.0 939.5 941.2 973.0 962.0 969.5 974.7 5.2

Warehouse clubs, supercenters, and other general merchandise retailers

2,225.2 2,273.1 2,281.7 2,284.9 2,254.5 2,290.1 2,302.1 2,306.5 4.4

Health and personal care retailers

1,088.6 1,099.0 1,090.9 1,090.7 1,097.3 1,095.9 1,094.7 1,099.6 4.9

Gasoline stations and fuel dealers

1,048.6 1,063.3 1,066.7 1,072.8 1,057.5 1,075.1 1,077.7 1,080.6 2.9

Clothing, clothing accessories, shoe, and jewelry retailers

1,111.5 1,115.8 1,110.0 1,100.0 1,150.1 1,142.9 1,141.5 1,137.8 -3.7

Sporting goods, hobby, musical instrument, book, and miscellaneous retailers

1,501.7 1,514.6 1,515.6 1,519.2 1,532.7 1,541.0 1,544.7 1,544.3 -0.4

Transportation and warehousing

6,472.1 6,505.4 6,488.1 6,474.2 6,579.1 6,548.1 6,554.0 6,575.8 21.8

Air transportation

543.8 568.7 571.7 572.1 544.9 572.3 572.6 573.9 1.3

Rail transportation

152.9 153.6 153.2 153.2 152.8 153.3 153.2 153.4 0.2

Water transportation

67.1 68.8 71.6 74.0 68.2 72.1 73.8 74.9 1.1

Truck transportation

1,560.8 1,527.3 1,532.3 1,539.7 1,578.4 1,554.0 1,558.1 1,557.8 -0.3

Transit and ground passenger transportation

425.2 447.0 447.0 448.3 412.3 433.2 433.2 435.1 1.9

Pipeline transportation

52.1 52.9 53.0 53.8 52.1 53.0 53.0 53.6 0.6

Scenic and sightseeing transportation

27.2 26.7 27.2 29.0 30.3 32.3 32.0 31.9 -0.1

Support activities for transportation

815.1 836.6 837.2 834.2 819.9 837.3 837.8 839.7 1.9

Couriers and messengers

1,016.3 1,053.0 1,031.2 1,013.7 1,086.4 1,072.8 1,072.3 1,079.9 7.6

Warehousing and storage

1,811.6 1,770.8 1,763.7 1,756.2 1,833.8 1,767.8 1,768.0 1,775.6 7.6

Utilities

572.3 585.6 586.4 585.9 573.5 588.3 587.4 587.4 0.0

Information

3,035 2,997 3,004 2,993 3,053 3,017 3,021 3,013 -8

Motion picture and sound recording industries

422.0 428.7 434.0 429.5 426.9 441.4 442.7 434.4 -8.3

Publishing industries

947.2 919.1 922.6 921.7 955.2 927.1 931.0 932.4 1.4

Broadcasting and content providers

350.0 345.2 341.2 340.5 350.6 343.8 341.1 341.1 0.0

Telecommunications

650.5 631.7 632.7 627.9 653.1 631.7 631.3 630.0 -1.3

Computing infrastructure providers, data processing, web hosting, and related services

485.7 494.6 496.2 497.1 487.2 495.2 497.9 498.8 0.9

Web search portals, libraries, archives, and other information services

179.9 177.6 177.3 176.3 179.5 178.2 177.3 176.4 -0.9

Financial activities

9,137 9,167 9,169 9,186 9,179 9,222 9,227 9,233 6

Finance and insurance

6,703.0 6,709.3 6,707.9 6,709.5 6,725.1 6,724.4 6,725.9 6,732.5 6.6

Monetary authorities-central bank

22.5 22.5 22.5 22.5 22.6 22.6 22.6 22.6 0.0

Credit intermediation and related
activities

2,636.0 2,592.3 2,590.1 2,582.2 2,641.5 2,592.1 2,591.4 2,587.7 -3.7

Depository credit intermediation(1)

1,802.9 1,782.1 1,781.3 1,774.6 1,806.0 1,780.3 1,780.0 1,777.5 -2.5

Commercial banking

1,399.6 1,373.5 1,371.7 1,365.1 1,401.7 1,371.2 1,369.9 1,366.7 -3.2

Nondepository credit intermediation

537.5 525.0 523.6 523.4 539.4 527.3 526.2 525.7 -0.5

Activities related to credit intermediation

295.6 285.2 285.2 284.2 296.0 284.4 285.2 284.5 -0.7

Securities, commodity contracts, funds, trusts, and other financial vehicles, investments, and related activities

1,088.2 1,102.7 1,101.5 1,105.0 1,094.6 1,110.0 1,110.4 1,112.6 2.2

Insurance carriers and related activities

2,956.3 2,991.8 2,993.8 2,999.8 2,966.4 2,999.7 3,001.5 3,009.6 8.1

Real estate and rental and leasing

2,433.7 2,457.2 2,461.3 2,476.0 2,454.3 2,497.1 2,501.1 2,500.9 -0.2

Real estate

1,845.6 1,856.4 1,858.3 1,867.1 1,854.9 1,876.1 1,880.2 1,878.8 -1.4

Rental and leasing services

565.4 577.7 579.9 585.6 576.5 597.6 597.4 598.6 1.2

Lessors of nonfinancial intangible assets (except copyrighted works)

22.7 23.1 23.1 23.3 22.9 23.4 23.5 23.5 0.0

Professional and business services

22,767 22,691 22,724 22,891 22,827 22,936 22,946 22,942 -4

Professional, scientific, and technical services

10,799.3 10,983.8 10,966.5 11,020.1 10,767.1 10,966.4 10,978.4 10,995.5 17.1

Legal services

1,171.7 1,184.7 1,177.2 1,181.7 1,179.6 1,190.3 1,187.1 1,190.3 3.2

Accounting, tax preparation, bookkeeping, and payroll services

1,221.2 1,235.7 1,242.0 1,239.5 1,144.6 1,160.0 1,162.3 1,164.0 1.7

Architectural, engineering, and related services

1,636.7 1,668.0 1,665.6 1,672.0 1,652.2 1,690.4 1,688.9 1,688.8 -0.1

Specialized design services

151.8 153.2 152.3 153.8 152.4 155.0 154.5 154.6 0.1

Computer systems design and related services

2,489.5 2,531.3 2,515.8 2,542.6 2,490.5 2,533.8 2,538.7 2,544.3 5.6

Management, scientific, and technical consulting services

1,844.7 1,880.5 1,880.0 1,886.1 1,852.4 1,889.3 1,895.3 1,896.4 1.1

Scientific research and development services

923.0 947.4 948.8 950.6 929.3 952.9 955.6 957.1 1.5

Advertising, public relations, and related services

501.1 517.8 517.7 521.3 502.7 520.0 520.4 522.9 2.5

Other professional, scientific, and technical services

859.6 865.2 867.1 872.5 863.5 874.8 875.7 877.1 1.4

Management of companies and enterprises

2,549.3 2,554.6 2,548.3 2,545.8 2,558.3 2,561.2 2,557.0 2,555.7 -1.3

Administrative and support and waste management and remediation services

9,418.3 9,153.0 9,209.5 9,325.4 9,501.6 9,408.8 9,410.2 9,390.3 -19.9

Administrative and support services

8,922.9 8,646.9 8,700.8 8,810.4 9,002.1 8,895.3 8,895.1 8,872.4 -22.7

Office administrative services

614.2 628.6 628.1 628.8 615.2 633.6 633.8 631.4 -2.4

Facilities support services

166.0 175.4 176.2 176.6 166.6 175.4 175.9 176.7 0.8

Employment services(1)

3,620.5 3,485.3 3,481.0 3,459.6 3,694.1 3,533.3 3,531.3 3,516.5 -14.8

Temporary help services

2,860.1 2,719.4 2,712.4 2,688.6 2,922.1 2,755.8 2,753.1 2,736.7 -16.4

Business support services

749.0 716.9 710.1 706.5 753.1 716.9 714.7 709.8 -4.9

Travel arrangement and reservation services

186.7 194.3 194.6 193.5 187.4 196.9 196.4 194.4 -2.0

Investigation and security services

999.5 1,012.8 1,012.6 1,013.9 1,000.5 1,019.8 1,017.2 1,015.2 -2.0

Services to buildings and dwellings

2,252.4 2,095.8 2,158.5 2,288.7 2,249.0 2,274.4 2,281.7 2,284.0 2.3

Other support services

334.6 337.8 339.7 342.8 336.1 345.0 344.2 344.4 0.2

Waste management and remediation services

495.4 506.1 508.7 515.0 499.5 513.5 515.1 517.9 2.8

Private education and health services

25,208 26,116 26,187 26,293 25,109 26,011 26,099 26,194 95

Private educational services

3,950.0 3,999.9 3,993.4 4,017.9 3,806.4 3,860.9 3,861.2 3,869.3 8.1

Health care and social assistance

21,257.9 22,116.2 22,193.2 22,275.1 21,302.5 22,150.4 22,237.3 22,324.3 87.0

Health care(3)

16,740.0 17,387.5 17,455.3 17,504.1 16,785.0 17,418.9 17,493.3 17,549.5 56.2

Ambulatory health care services

8,360.7 8,677.4 8,702.6 8,740.0 8,377.0 8,692.1 8,721.3 8,754.7 33.4

Offices of physicians

2,882.1 2,996.4 2,999.1 3,004.5 2,887.4 3,000.8 3,007.0 3,012.6 5.6

Offices of dentists

1,021.0 1,029.6 1,030.3 1,032.8 1,024.4 1,034.0 1,034.6 1,036.3 1.7

Offices of other health practitioners

1,139.6 1,192.0 1,189.6 1,202.4 1,142.0 1,192.1 1,195.3 1,203.6 8.3

Outpatient care centers

1,052.1 1,075.6 1,079.6 1,079.6 1,053.6 1,074.0 1,078.4 1,081.9 3.5

Medical and diagnostic laboratories

321.3 322.2 322.4 323.4 320.0 322.3 323.1 322.5 -0.6

Home health care services

1,600.1 1,707.5 1,725.7 1,741.5 1,604.1 1,714.4 1,727.3 1,741.2 13.9

Other ambulatory health care services

344.5 354.1 355.9 355.8 345.5 354.4 355.6 356.7 1.1

Hospitals

5,274.1 5,478.6 5,507.0 5,509.3 5,290.4 5,486.4 5,513.9 5,527.4 13.5

Nursing and residential care facilities

3,105.2 3,231.5 3,245.7 3,254.8 3,117.6 3,240.4 3,258.1 3,267.4 9.3

Skilled nursing care facilities

1,392.7 1,448.2 1,454.3 1,457.3 1,401.4 1,453.7 1,462.9 1,466.6 3.7

Residential intellectual and developmental disability, mental health, and substance abuse facilities

625.7 658.2 660.6 664.5 628.0 660.2 663.2 666.9 3.7

Continuing care retirement communities and assisted living facilities for the elderly

932.0 966.0 969.0 970.8 931.8 967.1 970.2 970.8 0.6

Other residential care facilities

154.8 159.1 161.8 162.2 156.3 159.4 161.8 163.2 1.4

Social assistance

4,517.9 4,728.7 4,737.9 4,771.0 4,517.5 4,731.5 4,744.0 4,774.8 30.8

Individual and family services

2,987.1 3,153.0 3,161.6 3,187.8 2,989.5 3,156.0 3,167.1 3,189.6 22.5

Community food and housing, and emergency and other relief services

216.5 225.7 225.4 228.0 216.6 224.8 224.4 227.8 3.4

Vocational rehabilitation services

278.4 285.7 287.4 289.4 279.4 288.0 288.3 289.9 1.6

Child care services

1,035.9 1,064.3 1,063.5 1,065.8 1,032.1 1,062.7 1,064.2 1,067.4 3.2

Leisure and hospitality

16,358 16,221 16,483 16,739 16,489 16,839 16,892 16,897 5

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

2,433.6 2,398.3 2,486.0 2,580.2 2,492.0 2,621.5 2,644.4 2,641.4 -3.0

Performing arts, spectator sports, and related industries

584.0 566.9 592.4 638.1 565.4 616.4 625.5 621.4 -4.1

Museums, historical sites, and similar institutions

166.0 163.6 168.5 175.2 170.4 177.4 178.3 179.4 1.1

Amusement, gambling, and recreation industries

1,683.6 1,667.8 1,725.1 1,766.9 1,756.2 1,827.7 1,840.6 1,840.6 0.0

Accommodation and food services

13,924.8 13,822.7 13,997.1 14,159.1 13,997.4 14,217.6 14,247.4 14,255.2 7.8

Accommodation

1,825.8 1,827.0 1,849.7 1,870.2 1,874.0 1,921.4 1,922.7 1,923.9 1.2

Food services and drinking places

12,099.0 11,995.7 12,147.4 12,288.9 12,123.4 12,296.2 12,324.7 12,331.3 6.6

Other services

5,787 5,821 5,854 5,892 5,799 5,884 5,897 5,904 7

Repair and maintenance

1,442.7 1,461.5 1,474.4 1,481.1 1,442.7 1,477.5 1,481.9 1,482.2 0.3

Personal and laundry services

1,525.7 1,530.5 1,534.6 1,554.4 1,524.4 1,548.3 1,549.3 1,553.8 4.5

Religious, grantmaking, civic, professional, and similar organizations

2,818.4 2,829.1 2,844.7 2,856.5 2,831.6 2,857.8 2,865.4 2,867.8 2.4

Government

22,962 23,453 23,577 23,595 22,653 23,191 23,263 23,271 8

Federal

2,899 2,970 2,978 2,983 2,908 2,981 2,991 2,993 2

Federal, except U.S. Postal Service

2,289.5 2,363.3 2,370.2 2,372.3 2,302.3 2,375.1 2,384.0 2,386.7 2.7

U.S. Postal Service

609.7 607.1 608.2 610.8 606.1 606.2 607.0 606.2 -0.8

State government

5,404 5,563 5,586 5,603 5,263 5,434 5,445 5,451 6

State government education

2,702.0 2,795.0 2,808.5 2,824.2 2,558.5 2,653.7 2,661.6 2,669.1 7.5

State government, excluding education

2,702.0 2,768.4 2,777.9 2,778.7 2,704.6 2,780.6 2,783.6 2,781.5 -2.1

Local government

14,659 14,920 15,013 15,009 14,482 14,776 14,827 14,827 0

Local government education

8,194.3 8,318.4 8,360.3 8,337.4 7,935.2 8,057.6 8,075.1 8,078.4 3.3

Local government, excluding education

6,464.9 6,601.9 6,652.5 6,671.4 6,546.7 6,718.3 6,751.8 6,748.2 -3.6

Footnotes
(1) Includes other industries, not shown separately.
(2) Includes motor vehicle manufacturing, motor vehicle body and trailer manufacturing, and motor vehicle parts manufacturing.
(3) Includes ambulatory health care services, hospitals, and nursing and residential care facilities.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2023 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-2. Average weekly hours and overtime of all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Apr.
2023
Feb.
2024
Mar.
2024(p)
Apr.
2024(p)

AVERAGE WEEKLY HOURS

Total private

34.3 34.3 34.4 34.3

Goods-producing

39.8 39.7 39.9 39.7

Mining and logging

45.5 45.0 45.3 44.3

Construction

38.9 38.9 39.3 38.7

Manufacturing

40.1 40.0 40.0 40.0

Durable goods

40.6 40.5 40.5 40.5

Nondurable goods

39.4 39.1 39.2 39.2

Private service-providing

33.3 33.3 33.3 33.3

Trade, transportation, and utilities

33.9 33.9 33.9 33.8

Wholesale trade

38.8 39.1 39.1 39.1

Retail trade

29.9 29.8 29.7 29.6

Transportation and warehousing

37.9 38.0 38.4 38.0

Utilities

42.2 42.1 42.0 42.1

Information

36.5 36.5 36.5 36.2

Financial activities

37.4 37.5 37.5 37.5

Professional and business services

36.5 36.4 36.5 36.6

Private education and health services

33.3 33.3 33.2 33.2

Leisure and hospitality

25.3 25.6 25.5 25.4

Other services

32.2 32.3 32.4 32.3

AVERAGE OVERTIME HOURS

Manufacturing

3.0 3.0 2.9 2.9

Durable goods

3.1 3.1 3.0 3.0

Nondurable goods

2.8 2.7 2.8 2.8

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2023 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-3. Average hourly and weekly earnings of all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Average hourly earnings Average weekly earnings
Apr.
2023
Feb.
2024
Mar.
2024(p)
Apr.
2024(p)
Apr.
2023
Feb.
2024
Mar.
2024(p)
Apr.
2024(p)

Total private

$33.44 $34.56 $34.68 $34.75 $1,146.99 $1,185.41 $1,192.99 $1,191.93

Goods-producing

33.72 35.16 35.37 35.43 1,342.06 1,395.85 1,411.26 1,406.57

Mining and logging

37.70 39.38 39.23 39.73 1,715.35 1,772.10 1,777.12 1,760.04

Construction

36.13 37.57 37.79 38.02 1,405.46 1,461.47 1,485.15 1,471.37

Manufacturing

32.06 33.44 33.65 33.61 1,285.61 1,337.60 1,346.00 1,344.40

Durable goods

33.59 35.27 35.52 35.46 1,363.75 1,428.44 1,438.56 1,436.13

Nondurable goods

29.43 30.25 30.36 30.39 1,159.54 1,182.78 1,190.11 1,191.29

Private service-providing

33.37 34.43 34.52 34.60 1,111.22 1,146.52 1,149.52 1,152.18

Trade, transportation, and utilities

28.85 29.75 29.82 29.84 978.02 1,008.53 1,010.90 1,008.59

Wholesale trade

36.50 37.37 37.57 37.72 1,416.20 1,461.17 1,468.99 1,474.85

Retail trade

23.80 24.32 24.31 24.25 711.62 724.74 722.01 717.80

Transportation and warehousing

29.02 30.47 30.53 30.54 1,099.86 1,157.86 1,172.35 1,160.52

Utilities

49.57 50.78 50.80 50.99 2,091.85 2,137.84 2,133.60 2,146.68

Information

47.81 49.17 49.35 49.42 1,745.07 1,794.71 1,801.28 1,789.00

Financial activities

42.73 44.95 45.14 45.30 1,598.10 1,685.63 1,692.75 1,698.75

Professional and business services

40.21 41.50 41.67 41.82 1,467.67 1,510.60 1,520.96 1,530.61

Private education and health services

32.96 33.83 33.84 33.88 1,097.57 1,126.54 1,123.49 1,124.82

Leisure and hospitality

21.07 21.77 21.89 21.92 533.07 557.31 558.20 556.77

Other services

30.03 31.18 31.04 31.12 966.97 1,007.11 1,005.70 1,005.18

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2023 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-4. Indexes of aggregate weekly hours and payrolls for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
[2007=100]
Industry Index of aggregate weekly hours(1) Index of aggregate weekly payrolls(2)
Apr.
2023
Feb.
2024
Mar.
2024(p)
Apr.
2024(p)
Percent change from:
Mar.
2024 - Apr.
2024(p)
Apr.
2023
Feb.
2024
Mar.
2024(p)
Apr.
2024(p)
Percent change from:
Mar.
2024 - Apr.
2024(p)

Total private

114.4 115.9 116.4 116.3 -0.1 182.9 191.5 193.1 193.1 0.0

Goods-producing

97.7 98.5 99.1 98.7 -0.4 148.9 156.5 158.5 158.0 -0.3

Mining and logging

91.4 90.6 91.7 89.2 -2.7 138.3 143.3 144.4 142.3 -1.5

Construction

106.8 109.6 111.2 109.6 -1.4 167.6 178.8 182.6 181.1 -0.8

Manufacturing

93.4 93.2 93.2 93.3 0.1 139.2 145.0 145.9 145.8 -0.1

Durable goods

92.4 92.8 92.9 92.9 0.0 137.8 145.4 146.5 146.2 -0.2

Nondurable goods

95.5 94.0 94.1 94.3 0.2 142.6 144.3 145.0 145.3 0.2

Private service-providing

119.3 121.0 121.2 121.4 0.2 193.5 202.4 203.3 204.1 0.4

Trade, transportation, and utilities

106.8 107.1 107.3 107.1 -0.2 166.2 171.9 172.5 172.4 -0.1

Wholesale trade

104.3 106.1 106.2 106.4 0.2 159.3 165.8 167.0 167.9 0.5

Retail trade

94.8 94.9 94.6 94.4 -0.2 149.3 152.6 152.1 151.5 -0.4

Transportation and warehousing

143.3 143.0 144.6 143.6 -0.7 211.5 221.6 224.6 223.1 -0.7

Utilities

104.7 107.2 106.7 107.0 0.3 171.5 179.8 179.2 180.3 0.6

Information

101.8 100.6 100.7 99.6 -1.1 173.3 176.1 177.0 175.3 -1.0

Financial activities

112.5 113.3 113.3 113.4 0.1 187.4 198.6 199.6 200.4 0.4

Professional and business services

130.3 130.6 131.0 131.4 0.3 212.3 219.6 221.2 222.5 0.6

Private education and health services

136.5 141.4 141.5 142.0 0.4 216.5 230.2 230.3 231.4 0.5

Leisure and hospitality

119.0 123.0 122.9 122.5 -0.3 202.3 216.0 217.1 216.6 -0.2

Other services

107.7 109.6 110.2 110.0 -0.2 177.2 187.3 187.4 187.5 0.1

Footnotes
(1) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding 2007 annual average aggregate hours. Aggregate hours estimates are the product of estimates of average weekly hours and employment.
(2) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding 2007 annual average aggregate weekly payrolls. Aggregate payrolls estimates are the product of estimates of average hourly earnings, average weekly hours, and employment.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2023 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-5. Employment of women on nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Women employees (in thousands) Percent of all employees
Apr.
2023
Feb.
2024
Mar.
2024(p)
Apr.
2024(p)
Apr.
2023
Feb.
2024
Mar.
2024(p)
Apr.
2024(p)

Total nonfarm

77,432 78,675 78,824 78,913 49.8 49.9 49.9 49.9

Total private

64,215 65,134 65,244 65,317 48.3 48.4 48.4 48.4

Goods-producing

4,969 5,012 5,012 5,016 23.1 23.0 23.0 23.0

Mining and logging

82 86 86 87 12.8 13.4 13.4 13.6

Construction

1,121 1,165 1,169 1,173 14.1 14.3 14.2 14.3

Manufacturing

3,766 3,761 3,757 3,756 29.1 29.0 29.0 29.0

Durable goods

2,017 2,023 2,021 2,017 25.0 24.8 24.8 24.8

Nondurable goods

1,749 1,738 1,736 1,739 36.0 36.1 36.1 36.1

Private service-providing

59,246 60,122 60,232 60,301 53.2 53.3 53.3 53.3

Trade, transportation, and utilities

11,339 11,273 11,274 11,287 39.3 39.0 38.9 38.9

Wholesale trade

1,871.7 1,871.0 1,871.0 1,876.1 30.7 30.4 30.4 30.4

Retail trade

7,533.1 7,514.6 7,522.3 7,526.0 48.3 48.0 48.0 48.0

Transportation and warehousing

1,784.3 1,730.9 1,725.3 1,730.6 27.1 26.4 26.3 26.3

Utilities

150.1 156.0 155.3 154.0 26.2 26.5 26.4 26.2

Information

1,231 1,215 1,215 1,213 40.3 40.3 40.2 40.3

Financial activities

5,105 5,134 5,133 5,132 55.6 55.7 55.6 55.6

Professional and business services

10,513 10,552 10,557 10,554 46.1 46.0 46.0 46.0

Private education and health services

19,301 19,978 20,057 20,127 76.9 76.8 76.8 76.8

Leisure and hospitality

8,668 8,831 8,851 8,835 52.6 52.4 52.4 52.3

Other services

3,089 3,139 3,145 3,153 53.3 53.3 53.3 53.4

Government

13,217 13,541 13,580 13,596 58.3 58.4 58.4 58.4

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2023 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-6. Employment of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
[In thousands]
Industry Apr.
2023
Feb.
2024
Mar.
2024(p)
Apr.
2024(p)

Total private

108,117 109,596 109,790 109,947

Goods-producing

15,449 15,527 15,537 15,538

Mining and logging

482 502 507 499

Construction

5,865 5,972 5,994 6,001

Manufacturing

9,102 9,053 9,036 9,038

Durable goods

5,600 5,571 5,560 5,556

Nondurable goods

3,502 3,482 3,476 3,482

Private service-providing

92,668 94,069 94,253 94,409

Trade, transportation, and utilities

24,299 24,417 24,442 24,499

Wholesale trade

4,828.8 4,855.5 4,861.9 4,871.5

Retail trade

13,271.8 13,370.4 13,384.8 13,413.4

Transportation and warehousing

5,741.6 5,721.1 5,726.9 5,745.5

Utilities

456.8 469.6 468.0 468.3

Information

2,437 2,425 2,424 2,409

Financial activities

6,900 6,957 6,965 6,967

Professional and business services

18,083 18,094 18,110 18,128

Private education and health services

21,854 22,676 22,754 22,837

Leisure and hospitality

14,381 14,720 14,770 14,768

Other services

4,714 4,780 4,788 4,801

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2023 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-7. Average weekly hours and overtime of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry Apr.
2023
Feb.
2024
Mar.
2024(p)
Apr.
2024(p)

AVERAGE WEEKLY HOURS

Total private

33.8 33.7 33.8 33.7

Goods-producing

40.5 40.4 40.6 40.3

Mining and logging

47.5 47.4 47.5 46.7

Construction

39.5 39.5 40.0 39.4

Manufacturing

40.7 40.5 40.6 40.6

Durable goods

40.9 40.8 40.9 40.9

Nondurable goods

40.3 40.1 40.1 40.2

Private service-providing

32.7 32.7 32.7 32.6

Trade, transportation, and utilities

34.0 33.9 34.0 33.9

Wholesale trade

38.9 39.2 39.1 39.1

Retail trade

30.3 30.2 30.3 30.2

Transportation and warehousing

37.6 37.3 37.5 37.3

Utilities

42.5 42.2 42.3 42.4

Information

36.1 35.7 36.0 35.7

Financial activities

37.1 36.9 36.9 37.0

Professional and business services

36.3 36.3 36.4 36.4

Private education and health services

32.5 32.5 32.4 32.4

Leisure and hospitality

24.2 24.3 24.3 24.1

Other services

31.2 31.3 31.4 31.2

AVERAGE OVERTIME HOURS

Manufacturing

3.6 3.6 3.6 3.5

Durable goods

3.7 3.6 3.6 3.5

Nondurable goods

3.4 3.5 3.5 3.6

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2023 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-8. Average hourly and weekly earnings of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry Average hourly earnings Average weekly earnings
Apr.
2023
Feb.
2024
Mar.
2024(p)
Apr.
2024(p)
Apr.
2023
Feb.
2024
Mar.
2024(p)
Apr.
2024(p)

Total private

$28.68 $29.70 $29.77 $29.83 $969.38 $1,000.89 $1,006.23 $1,005.27

Goods-producing

29.24 30.67 30.81 30.87 1,184.22 1,239.07 1,250.89 1,244.06

Mining and logging

34.07 36.59 36.25 36.56 1,618.33 1,734.37 1,721.88 1,707.35

Construction

33.90 35.23 35.40 35.47 1,339.05 1,391.59 1,416.00 1,397.52

Manufacturing

26.03 27.35 27.45 27.54 1,059.42 1,107.68 1,114.47 1,118.12

Durable goods

27.19 28.73 28.87 29.02 1,112.07 1,172.18 1,180.78 1,186.92

Nondurable goods

24.15 25.10 25.13 25.14 973.25 1,006.51 1,007.71 1,010.63

Private service-providing

28.56 29.51 29.56 29.62 933.91 964.98 966.61 965.61

Trade, transportation, and utilities

25.12 25.87 25.94 25.98 854.08 876.99 881.96 880.72

Wholesale trade

30.26 31.08 31.22 31.37 1,177.11 1,218.34 1,220.70 1,226.57

Retail trade

20.43 20.77 20.89 20.86 619.03 627.25 632.97 629.97

Transportation and warehousing

27.67 29.11 29.04 29.06 1,040.39 1,085.80 1,089.00 1,083.94

Utilities

44.20 44.67 45.06 45.30 1,878.50 1,885.07 1,906.04 1,920.72

Information

39.40 40.44 40.70 40.66 1,422.34 1,443.71 1,465.20 1,451.56

Financial activities

33.26 35.26 35.41 35.46 1,233.95 1,301.09 1,306.63 1,312.02

Professional and business services

33.98 34.94 35.08 35.13 1,233.47 1,268.32 1,276.91 1,278.73

Private education and health services

30.05 30.93 30.90 30.93 976.63 1,005.23 1,001.16 1,002.13

Leisure and hospitality

18.41 19.28 19.31 19.40 445.52 468.50 469.23 467.54

Other services

25.81 27.01 26.82 26.99 805.27 845.41 842.15 842.09

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2023 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-9. Indexes of aggregate weekly hours and payrolls for production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
[2002=100]
Industry Index of aggregate weekly hours(2) Index of aggregate weekly payrolls(3)
Apr.
2023
Feb.
2024
Mar.
2024(p)
Apr.
2024(p)
Percent change from:
Mar.
2024 - Apr.
2024(p)
Apr.
2023
Feb.
2024
Mar.
2024(p)
Apr.
2024(p)
Percent change from:
Mar.
2024 - Apr.
2024(p)

Total private

121.8 123.1 123.7 123.5 -0.2 233.4 244.3 246.0 246.2 0.1

Goods-producing

95.6 95.9 96.4 95.7 -0.7 171.2 180.0 181.8 180.9 -0.5

Mining and logging

121.7 126.4 128.0 123.8 -3.3 241.1 269.1 269.8 263.3 -2.4

Construction

116.0 118.1 120.0 118.4 -1.3 212.3 224.7 229.5 226.7 -1.2

Manufacturing

85.0 84.2 84.2 84.2 0.0 144.8 150.5 151.2 151.7 0.3

Durable goods

86.0 85.4 85.4 85.4 0.0 146.1 153.2 154.0 154.7 0.5

Nondurable goods

83.2 82.3 82.1 82.5 0.5 141.9 145.9 145.8 146.5 0.5

Private service-providing

129.1 131.1 131.3 131.1 -0.2 252.9 265.3 266.3 266.4 0.0

Trade, transportation, and utilities

115.6 115.9 116.3 116.3 0.0 207.6 214.2 215.7 215.9 0.1

Wholesale trade

111.5 113.0 112.8 113.0 0.2 199.1 207.2 207.9 209.3 0.7

Retail trade

102.0 102.4 102.8 102.7 -0.1 178.6 182.3 184.2 183.7 -0.3

Transportation and warehousing

163.4 161.5 162.5 162.2 -0.2 287.8 299.2 300.4 300.0 -0.1

Utilities

99.3 101.3 101.2 101.5 0.3 183.2 189.0 190.4 192.0 0.8

Information