Employment Situation News Release

Transmission of material in this release is embargoed until                  USDL-17-0551
8:30 a.m. (EDT) Friday, May 5, 2017

Technical information:
 Household data:     (202) 691-6378  *  cpsinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/cps
 Establishment data: (202) 691-6555  *  cesinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/ces

Media contact:      (202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov


                          THE EMPLOYMENT SITUATION -- APRIL 2017


Total nonfarm payroll employment increased by 211,000 in April, and the unemployment
rate was little changed at 4.4 percent, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported
today. Job gains occurred in leisure and hospitality, health care and social
assistance, financial activities, and mining.

Household Survey Data

Both the unemployment rate, at 4.4 percent, and the number of unemployed persons,
at 7.1 million, changed little in April. Over the year, the unemployment rate has
declined by 0.6 percentage point, and the number of unemployed has fallen by 854,000.
(See table A-1.)

Among the major worker groups, the unemployment rate for adult men declined to 4.0
percent in April. The jobless rates for adult women (4.1 percent), teenagers (14.7
percent), Whites (3.8 percent), Blacks (7.9 percent), Asians (3.2 percent), and
Hispanics (5.2 percent) showed little change. (See tables A-1, A-2, and A-3.)

The number of long-term unemployed (those jobless for 27 weeks or more) was essentially
unchanged at 1.6 million in April and accounted for 22.6 percent of the unemployed. Over
the year, the number of long-term unemployed was down by 433,000. (See table A-12.)

The labor force participation rate, at 62.9 percent, changed little in April and has
shown little movement over the past year. The employment-population ratio, at 60.2
percent, was also little changed over the month but was up by 0.5 percentage point since
December. (See table A-1.)

The number of persons employed part time for economic reasons (sometimes referred to
as involuntary part-time workers) declined by 281,000 to 5.3 million in April. These
individuals, who would have preferred full-time employment, were working part time
because their hours had been cut back or because they were unable to find full-time
jobs. Over the past 12 months, the number of persons employed part time for economic
reasons has decreased by 698,000. (See table A-8.)

In April, 1.5 million persons were marginally attached to the labor force, down by 
181,000 from a year earlier. (The data are not seasonally adjusted.) These individuals
were not in the labor force, wanted and were available for work, and had looked for a
job sometime in the prior 12 months. They were not counted as unemployed because they
had not searched for work in the 4 weeks preceding the survey. (See table A-16.)

Among the marginally attached, there were 455,000 discouraged workers in April, down
by 113,000 from a year earlier. (The data are not seasonally adjusted.) Discouraged
workers are persons not currently looking for work because they believe no jobs are 
available for them. The remaining 1.1 million persons marginally attached to the labor
force in April had not searched for work for reasons such as school attendance or
family responsibilities. (See table A-16.)

Establishment Survey Data

Total nonfarm payroll employment increased by 211,000 in April. Employment rose in
leisure and hospitality, health care and social assistance, financial activities, and
mining. (See table B-1.)

In April, leisure and hospitality added 55,000 jobs. Employment in food services and
drinking places continued to trend up over the month (+26,000) and has increased by
260,000 over the year.

Employment in health care and social assistance increased by 37,000 in April. Health
care employment continued to trend up over the month (+20,000). This is in line with
the industry's average monthly job growth during the first quarter of this year but
below the average gain of 32,000 per month in 2016. Social assistance added 17,000
jobs in April, with all of the gain in individual and family services.

In April, financial activities added 19,000 jobs, with insurance carriers and related
activities accounting for most of the gain (+14,000). Over the year, financial
activities has added 173,000 jobs.

Employment in mining rose by 9,000 in April, with most of the increase in support
activities for mining (+7,000). Since a recent low in October 2016, mining has added
44,000 jobs, with three-fourths of the gain in support activities for mining.

Employment in professional and business services continued to trend up in April
(+39,000). The industry has added 612,000 jobs over the past 12 months.

Employment in other major industries, including construction, manufacturing, wholesale
trade, retail trade, transportation and warehousing, information, and government,
showed little change over the month.

The average workweek for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls increased by 0.1
hour to 34.4 hours in April. In manufacturing, the workweek edged up by 0.1 hour to
40.7 hours, and overtime edged down by 0.1 hour to 3.2 hours. The average workweek
for production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls edged up by
0.1 hour to 33.7 hours. (See tables B-2 and B-7.)

In April, average hourly earnings for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls rose
by 7 cents to $26.19. Over the year, average hourly earnings have risen by 65 cents,
or 2.5 percent. In April, average hourly earnings of private-sector production and
nonsupervisory employees increased by 6 cents to $21.96. (See tables B-3 and B-8.)

The change in total nonfarm payroll employment for February was revised up from +219,000
to +232,000, and the change for March was revised down from +98,000 to +79,000. With
these revisions, employment gains in February and March combined were 6,000 lower than
previously reported. Monthly revisions result from additional reports received from
businesses since the last published estimates and from the recalculation of seasonal
factors. Over the past 3 months, job gains have averaged 174,000.

______________
The Employment Situation for May is scheduled to be released on Friday, June 2, 2017,
at 8:30 a.m. (EDT).




HOUSEHOLD DATA
Summary table A. Household data, seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Category Apr.
2016
Feb.
2017
Mar.
2017
Apr.
2017
Change from:
Mar.
2017-
Apr.
2017

Employment status

Civilian noninstitutional population

252,969 254,246 254,414 254,588 174

Civilian labor force

158,938 160,056 160,201 160,213 12

Participation rate

62.8 63.0 63.0 62.9 -0.1

Employed

151,028 152,528 153,000 153,156 156

Employment-population ratio

59.7 60.0 60.1 60.2 0.1

Unemployed

7,910 7,528 7,202 7,056 -146

Unemployment rate

5.0 4.7 4.5 4.4 -0.1

Not in labor force

94,031 94,190 94,213 94,375 162

Unemployment rates

Total, 16 years and over

5.0 4.7 4.5 4.4 -0.1

Adult men (20 years and over)

4.6 4.3 4.3 4.0 -0.3

Adult women (20 years and over)

4.5 4.3 4.0 4.1 0.1

Teenagers (16 to 19 years)

16.0 15.0 13.7 14.7 1.0

White

4.3 4.1 3.9 3.8 -0.1

Black or African American

8.8 8.1 8.0 7.9 -0.1

Asian

3.8 3.4 3.3 3.2 -0.1

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

6.1 5.6 5.1 5.2 0.1

Total, 25 years and over

4.1 3.9 3.8 3.6 -0.2

Less than a high school diploma

7.5 7.9 6.8 6.5 -0.3

High school graduates, no college

5.4 5.0 4.9 4.6 -0.3

Some college or associate degree

4.1 4.0 3.7 3.7 0.0

Bachelor's degree and higher

2.4 2.4 2.5 2.4 -0.1

Reason for unemployment

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

3,864 3,709 3,519 3,538 19

Job leavers

864 802 798 789 -9

Reentrants

2,337 2,197 2,066 2,032 -34

New entrants

847 773 790 712 -78

Duration of unemployment

Less than 5 weeks

2,573 2,566 2,334 2,335 1

5 to 14 weeks

2,155 2,138 2,109 2,135 26

15 to 26 weeks

1,281 1,057 1,115 1,108 -7

27 weeks and over

2,059 1,801 1,687 1,626 -61

Employed persons at work part time

Part time for economic reasons

5,970 5,704 5,553 5,272 -281

Slack work or business conditions

3,706 3,574 3,402 3,174 -228

Could only find part-time work

1,993 1,864 1,852 1,802 -50

Part time for noneconomic reasons

20,471 20,773 20,723 20,700 -23

Persons not in the labor force (not seasonally adjusted)

Marginally attached to the labor force

1,715 1,723 1,595 1,534 -

Discouraged workers

568 522 460 455 -

- Over-the-month changes are not displayed for not seasonally adjusted data.
NOTE: Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Summary table B. Establishment data, seasonally adjusted
Category Apr.
2016
Feb.
2017
Mar.
2017(p)
Apr.
2017(p)

EMPLOYMENT BY SELECTED INDUSTRY
(Over-the-month change, in thousands)

Total nonfarm

153 232 79 211

Total private

158 222 77 194

Goods-producing

-9 88 23 21

Mining and logging

-9 12 9 10

Construction

-1 54 1 5

Manufacturing

1 22 13 6

Durable goods(1)

-1 4 8 -3

Motor vehicles and parts

8.8 -5.5 2.3 2.8

Nondurable goods

2 18 5 9

Private service-providing

167 134 54 173

Wholesale trade

5.1 10.8 1.1 8.2

Retail trade

-5.7 -28.7 -27.4 6.3

Transportation and warehousing

11.3 7.6 6.6 3.5

Utilities

-0.1 -0.4 -0.3 0.7

Information

2 -6 -6 -7

Financial activities

18 5 4 19

Professional and business services(1)

66 35 57 39

Temporary help services

7.0 9.8 13.0 5.8

Education and health services(1)

52 68 10 41

Health care and social assistance

36.9 35.8 16.4 36.8

Leisure and hospitality

15 33 9 55

Other services

4 10 0 7

Government

-5 10 2 17

(3-month average change, in thousands)

Total nonfarm

205 201 176 174

Total private

189 192 168 164

WOMEN AND PRODUCTION AND NONSUPERVISORY EMPLOYEES
AS A PERCENT OF ALL EMPLOYEES(2)

Total nonfarm women employees

49.5 49.6 49.5 49.5

Total private women employees

48.1 48.1 48.1 48.1

Total private production and nonsupervisory employees

82.3 82.4 82.5 82.4

HOURS AND EARNINGS
ALL EMPLOYEES

Total private

Average weekly hours

34.4 34.3 34.3 34.4

Average hourly earnings

$25.54 $26.10 $26.12 $26.19

Average weekly earnings

$878.58 $895.23 $895.92 $900.94

Index of aggregate weekly hours (2007=100)(3)

105.0 106.3 106.3 106.8

Over-the-month percent change

0.1 -0.1 0.0 0.5

Index of aggregate weekly payrolls (2007=100)(4)

128.3 132.6 132.8 133.7

Over-the-month percent change

0.5 0.2 0.2 0.7

DIFFUSION INDEX
(Over 1-month span)(5)

Total private (261 industries)

52.1 65.1 58.8 60.2

Manufacturing (78 industries)

42.3 64.7 55.1 53.2

Footnotes
(1) Includes other industries, not shown separately.
(2) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries.
(3) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding annual average aggregate hours.
(4) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding annual average aggregate weekly payrolls.
(5) Figures are the percent of industries with employment increasing plus one-half of the industries with unchanged employment, where 50 percent indicates an equal balance between industries with increasing and decreasing employment.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2016 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


Frequently Asked Questions about Employment and Unemployment Estimates

1. Why are there two monthly measures of employment?

   The household survey and establishment survey both produce sample-based estimates
   of employment, and both have strengths and limitations. The establishment survey
   employment series has a smaller margin of error on the measurement of month-to-
   month change than the household survey because of its much larger sample size. An
   over-the-month employment change of about 100,000 is statistically significant in
   the establishment survey, while the threshold for a statistically significant change
   in the household survey is about 500,000. However, the household survey has a more
   expansive scope than the establishment survey because it includes self-employed
   workers whose businesses are unincorporated, unpaid family workers, agricultural
   workers, and private household workers, who are excluded by the establishment survey.
   The household survey also provides estimates of employment for demographic groups.
   For more information on the differences between the two surveys, please visit
   https://www.bls.gov/web/empsit/ces_cps_trends.htm.

2. Are undocumented immigrants counted in the surveys?

   It is likely that both surveys include at least some undocumented immigrants. However,
   neither the establishment nor the household survey is designed to identify the legal
   status of workers. Therefore, it is not possible to determine how many are counted in
   either survey. The establishment survey does not collect data on the legal status of
   workers. The household survey does include questions which identify the foreign and
   native born, but it does not include questions about the legal status of the foreign
   born. Data on the foreign and native born are published each month in table A-7 of
   The Employment Situation news release.

3. Why does the establishment survey have revisions?

   The establishment survey revises published estimates to improve its data series by
   incorporating additional information that was not available at the time of the
   initial publication of the estimates. The establishment survey revises its initial
   monthly estimates twice, in the immediately succeeding 2 months, to incorporate
   additional sample receipts from respondents in the survey and recalculated seasonal
   adjustment factors. For more information on the monthly revisions, please visit
   https://www.bls.gov/ces/cesrevinfo.htm.

   On an annual basis, the establishment survey incorporates a benchmark revision that
   re-anchors estimates to nearly complete employment counts available from unemployment
   insurance tax records. The benchmark helps to control for sampling and modeling errors
   in the estimates. For more information on the annual benchmark revision, please visit
   https://www.bls.gov/web/empsit/cesbmart.htm.

4. Does the establishment survey sample include small firms?

   Yes; about 40 percent of the establishment survey sample is comprised of business
   establishments with fewer than 20 employees. The establishment survey sample is
   designed to maximize the reliability of the statewide total nonfarm employment
   estimate; firms from all states, size classes, and industries are appropriately
   sampled to achieve that goal.

5. Does the establishment survey account for employment from new businesses?

   Yes; monthly establishment survey estimates include an adjustment to account for
   the net employment change generated by business births and deaths. The adjustment
   comes from an econometric model that forecasts the monthly net jobs impact of
   business births and deaths based on the actual past values of the net impact that
   can be observed with a lag from the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages. The
   establishment survey uses modeling rather than sampling for this purpose because
   the survey is not immediately able to bring new businesses into the sample. There
   is an unavoidable lag between the birth of a new firm and its appearance on the
   sampling frame and availability for selection. BLS adds new businesses to the survey
   twice a year.

6. Is the count of unemployed persons limited to just those people receiving unemployment
   insurance benefits?

   No; the estimate of unemployment is based on a monthly sample survey of households.
   All persons who are without jobs and are actively seeking and available to work are
   included among the unemployed. (People on temporary layoff are included even if
   they do not actively seek work.) There is no requirement or question relating to
   unemployment insurance benefits in the monthly survey.

7. Does the official unemployment rate exclude people who want a job but are not currently
   looking for work?

   Yes; however, there are separate estimates of persons outside the labor force who
   want a job, including those who are not currently looking because they believe no
   jobs are available (discouraged workers). In addition, alternative measures of labor
   underutilization (some of which include discouraged workers and other groups not
   officially counted as unemployed) are published each month in table A-15 of The
   Employment Situation news release. For more information about these alternative
   measures, please visit https://www.bls.gov/cps/lfcharacteristics.htm#altmeasures.

8. How can unusually severe weather affect employment and hours estimates?

   In the establishment survey, the reference period is the pay period that includes
   the 12th of the month. Unusually severe weather is more likely to have an impact on
   average weekly hours than on employment. Average weekly hours are estimated for paid
   time during the pay period, including pay for holidays, sick leave, or other time off.
   The impact of severe weather on hours estimates typically, but not always, results in
   a reduction in average weekly hours. For example, some employees may be off work for
   part of the pay period and not receive pay for the time missed, while some workers,
   such as those dealing with cleanup or repair, may work extra hours.
   
   Typically, it is not possible to precisely quantify the effect of extreme weather on 
   payroll employment estimates. In order for severe weather conditions to reduce
   employment estimates, employees have to be off work without pay for the entire pay
   period. Employees who receive pay for any part of the pay period, even 1 hour, are
   counted in the payroll employment figures. For more information on how often employees
   are paid, please visit https://www.bls.gov/opub/btn/volume-3/how-frequently-do-private-
   businesses-pay-workers.htm.

   In the household survey, the reference period is generally the calendar week that
   includes the 12th of the month. Persons who miss the entire week's work for weather-
   related events are counted as employed whether or not they are paid for the time
   off. The household survey collects data on the number of persons who had a job but
   were not at work due to bad weather. It also provides a measure of the number of
   persons who usually work full time but had reduced hours due to bad weather. 
   Current and historical data are available on the household survey's most requested
   statistics page, please visit https://data.bls.gov/cgi-bin/surveymost?ln.




Technical Note


   This news release presents statistics from two major surveys, the Current
Population Survey (CPS; household survey) and the Current Employment Statistics
survey (CES; establishment survey). The household survey provides information
on the labor force, employment, and unemployment that appears in the "A" tables,
marked HOUSEHOLD DATA. It is a sample survey of about 60,000 eligible households
conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau for the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS).

   The establishment survey provides information on employment, hours, and
earnings of employees on nonfarm payrolls; the data appear in the "B" tables,
marked ESTABLISHMENT DATA. BLS collects these data each month from the payroll
records of a sample of nonagricultural business establishments. Each month
the CES program surveys about 147,000 businesses and government agencies,
representing approximately 634,000 individual worksites, in order to provide
detailed industry data on employment, hours, and earnings of workers on nonfarm
payrolls. The active sample includes approximately one-third of all nonfarm
payroll employees.

   For both surveys, the data for a given month relate to a particular week or
pay period. In the household survey, the reference period is generally the
calendar week that contains the 12th day of the month. In the establishment
survey, the reference period is the pay period including the 12th, which may or
may not correspond directly to the calendar week.

Coverage, definitions, and differences between surveys

   Household survey. The sample is selected to reflect the entire civilian 
noninstitutional population. Based on responses to a series of questions on 
work and job search activities, each person 16 years and over in a sample
household is classified as employed, unemployed, or not in the labor force.

   People are classified as employed if they did any work at all as paid employees
during the reference week; worked in their own business, profession, or on their
own farm; or worked without pay at least 15 hours in a family business or farm.
People are also counted as employed if they were temporarily absent from their jobs
because of illness, bad weather, vacation, labor-management disputes, or personal
reasons.

   People are classified as unemployed if they meet all of the following criteria:
they had no employment during the reference week; they were available for work at
that time; and they made specific efforts to find employment sometime during the
4-week period ending with the reference week. Persons laid off from a job and
expecting recall need not be looking for work to be counted as unemployed. The
unemployment data derived from the household survey in no way depend upon the
eligibility for or receipt of unemployment insurance benefits.

   The civilian labor force is the sum of employed and unemployed persons.
Those persons not classified as employed or unemployed are not in the labor 
force. The unemployment rate is the number unemployed as a percent of the 
labor force. The labor force participation rate is the labor force as a 
percent of the population, and the employment-population ratio is the 
employed as a percent of the population. Additional information about the 
household survey can be found at https://www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm.

   Establishment survey. The sample establishments are drawn from private
nonfarm businesses such as factories, offices, and stores, as well as
from federal, state, and local government entities. Employees on nonfarm
payrolls are those who received pay for any part of the reference pay
period, including persons on paid leave. Persons are counted in each job
they hold. Hours and earnings data are produced for the private sector for
all employees and for production and nonsupervisory employees. Production
and nonsupervisory employees are defined as production and related employees
in manufacturing and mining and logging, construction workers in construction,
and nonsupervisory employees in private service-providing industries.

   Industries are classified on the basis of an establishment's principal
activity in accordance with the 2012 version of the North American Industry
Classification System. Additional information about the establishment survey
can be found at https://www.bls.gov/ces/.

   Differences in employment estimates. The numerous conceptual and methodological
differences between the household and establishment  surveys result in important
distinctions in the employment estimates derived from the surveys. Among these are:

   --The household survey includes agricultural workers, self-employed workers
     whose businesses are unincorporated, unpaid family workers, and private
     household workers among the employed. These groups are excluded from the
     establishment survey.

   --The household survey includes people on unpaid leave among the employed.
     The establishment survey does not.

   --The household survey is limited to workers 16 years of age and older.
     The establishment survey is not limited by age.

   --The household survey has no duplication of individuals, because
     individuals are counted only once, even if they hold more than one
     job. In the establishment survey, employees working at more than one
     job and thus appearing on more than one payroll are counted separately
     for each appearance.

Seasonal adjustment

   Over the course of a year, the size of the nation's labor force and the levels
of employment and unemployment undergo regularly occurring fluctuations. These 
events may result from seasonal changes in weather, major holidays, and the opening
and closing of schools. The effect of such seasonal variation can be very large.

   Because these seasonal events follow a more or less regular pattern each year,
their influence on the level of a series can be tempered by adjusting for regular
seasonal variation. These adjustments make nonseasonal developments, such as
declines in employment or increases in the participation of women in the labor
force, easier to spot. For example, in the household survey, the large number of
youth entering the labor force each June is likely to obscure any other changes
that have taken place relative to May, making it difficult to determine if the 
level of economic activity has risen or declined. Similarly, in the establishment
survey, payroll employment in education declines by about 20 percent at the end
of the spring term and later rises with the start of the fall term, obscuring the
underlying employment trends in the industry. Because seasonal employment changes
at the end and beginning of the school year can be estimated, the statistics can be
adjusted to make underlying employment patterns more discernable.  The seasonally
adjusted figures provide a more useful tool with which to analyze changes in
month-to-month economic activity.

   Many seasonally adjusted series are independently adjusted in both the household
and establishment surveys. However, the adjusted series for many major estimates,
such as total payroll employment, employment in most major sectors, total employment,
and unemployment are computed by aggregating independently adjusted component series.
For example, total unemployment is derived by summing the adjusted series for four
major age-sex components; this differs from the unemployment estimate that would be
obtained by directly adjusting the total or by combining
the duration, reasons, or more detailed age categories.

   For both the household and establishment surveys, a concurrent seasonal adjustment
methodology is used in which new seasonal factors are calculated each month using all
relevant data, up to and including the data for the current month. In the household
survey, new seasonal factors are used to adjust only the current month's data. In the
establishment survey, however, new seasonal factors are used each month to adjust the
three most recent monthly estimates. The prior 2 months are routinely revised to
incorporate additional sample reports and recalculated seasonal adjustment factors.
In both surveys, 5-year revisions to historical data are made once a year.

Reliability of the estimates

   Statistics based on the household and establishment surveys are subject to both
sampling and nonsampling error. When a sample, rather than the entire population,
is surveyed, there is a chance that the sample estimates may differ from the true
population values they represent. The component of this difference that occurs
because samples differ by chance is known as sampling error, and its variability
is measured by the standard error of the estimate. There is about a 90-percent
chance, or level of confidence, that an estimate based on a sample will differ by
no more than 1.6 standard errors from the true population value because of sampling
error. BLS analyses are generally conducted at the 90-percent level of confidence.

   For example, the confidence interval for the monthly change in total nonfarm
employment from the establishment survey is on the order of plus or minus 120,000.
Suppose the estimate of nonfarm employment increases by 50,000 from one month to
the next. The 90-percent confidence interval on the monthly change would range from
-70,000 to +170,000 (50,000 +/- 120,000). These figures do not mean that the sample
results are off by these magnitudes, but rather that there is about a 90-percent
chance that the true over-the-month change lies within this interval. Since this
range includes values of less than zero, we could not say with confidence that
nonfarm employment had, in fact, increased that month. If, however, the reported
nonfarm employment rise was 250,000, then all of the values within the 90- percent
confidence interval would be greater than zero. In this case, it is likely (at
least a 90-percent chance) that nonfarm employment had, in fact, risen that month.
At an unemployment rate of around 6.0 percent, the 90-percent confidence interval
for the monthly change in unemployment as measured by the household survey is
about +/- 300,000, and for the monthly change in the unemployment rate it is about
+/- 0.2 percentage point.

   In general, estimates involving many individuals or establishments have lower
standard errors (relative to the size of the estimate) than estimates which are based
on a small number of observations. The precision of estimates also is improved when
the data are cumulated over time, such as for quarterly and annual averages.

   The household and establishment surveys are also affected by nonsampling error,
which can occur for many reasons, including the failure to sample a segment of the
population, inability to obtain information for all respondents in the sample,
inability or unwillingness of respondents to provide correct information on a
timely basis, mistakes made by respondents, and errors made in the collection or
processing of the data.

   For example, in the establishment survey, estimates for the most recent 2 months
are based on incomplete returns; for this reason, these estimates are labeled
preliminary in the tables. It is only after two successive revisions to a monthly
estimate, when nearly all sample reports have been received, that the estimate is
considered final.

   Another major source of nonsampling error in the establishment survey is the
inability to capture, on a timely basis, employment generated by new firms. To
correct for this systematic underestimation of employment growth, an estimation
procedure with two components is used to account for business births. The first
component excludes employment losses from business deaths from sample-based
estimation in order to offset the missing employment gains from business births.
This is incorporated into the sample-based estimation procedure by simply not
reflecting sample units going out of business, but imputing to them the same
employment trend as the other firms in the sample. This procedure accounts for
most of the net birth/death employment.

   The second component is an ARIMA time series model designed to estimate the
residual net birth/death employment not accounted for by the imputation. The
historical time series used to create and test the ARIMA model was derived from
the unemployment insurance universe micro- level database, and reflects the actual
residual net of births and deaths over the past 5 years.

   The sample-based estimates from the establishment survey are adjusted once a
year (on a lagged basis) to universe counts of payroll employment obtained from
administrative records of the unemployment insurance program. The difference 
between the March sample-based employment estimates and the March universe counts
is known as a benchmark revision, and serves as a rough proxy for total survey
error. The new benchmarks also incorporate changes in the classification of
industries. Over the past decade, absolute benchmark revisions for total nonfarm
employment have averaged 0.3 percent, with a range from -0.7 percent to 0.6 percent.

Other information

   Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired
individuals upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay
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HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-1. Employment status of the civilian population by sex and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Apr.
2016
Mar.
2017
Apr.
2017
Apr.
2016
Dec.
2016
Jan.
2017
Feb.
2017
Mar.
2017
Apr.
2017

TOTAL

Civilian noninstitutional population

252,969 254,414 254,588 252,969 254,742 254,082 254,246 254,414 254,588

Civilian labor force

158,488 159,912 159,817 158,938 159,640 159,716 160,056 160,201 160,213

Participation rate

62.7 62.9 62.8 62.8 62.7 62.9 63.0 63.0 62.9

Employed

151,075 152,628 153,262 151,028 152,111 152,081 152,528 153,000 153,156

Employment-population ratio

59.7 60.0 60.2 59.7 59.7 59.9 60.0 60.1 60.2

Unemployed

7,413 7,284 6,555 7,910 7,529 7,635 7,528 7,202 7,056

Unemployment rate

4.7 4.6 4.1 5.0 4.7 4.8 4.7 4.5 4.4

Not in labor force

94,481 94,502 94,771 94,031 95,102 94,366 94,190 94,213 94,375

Persons who currently want a job

5,671 5,507 5,560 5,813 5,662 5,739 5,597 5,781 5,707

Men, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

122,213 122,945 123,032 122,213 123,099 122,781 122,862 122,945 123,032

Civilian labor force

84,323 84,718 84,851 84,652 84,979 85,096 85,194 85,076 85,175

Participation rate

69.0 68.9 69.0 69.3 69.0 69.3 69.3 69.2 69.2

Employed

80,302 80,546 81,341 80,423 80,861 81,013 81,141 81,136 81,419

Employment-population ratio

65.7 65.5 66.1 65.8 65.7 66.0 66.0 66.0 66.2

Unemployed

4,021 4,172 3,509 4,228 4,118 4,083 4,053 3,940 3,755

Unemployment rate

4.8 4.9 4.1 5.0 4.8 4.8 4.8 4.6 4.4

Not in labor force

37,890 38,227 38,181 37,561 38,120 37,685 37,668 37,870 37,857

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

113,746 114,455 114,538 113,746 114,603 114,297 114,375 114,455 114,538

Civilian labor force

81,655 81,924 82,019 81,743 81,983 82,113 82,138 82,046 82,091

Participation rate

71.8 71.6 71.6 71.9 71.5 71.8 71.8 71.7 71.7

Employed

78,028 78,172 78,922 77,993 78,379 78,503 78,573 78,556 78,838

Employment-population ratio

68.6 68.3 68.9 68.6 68.4 68.7 68.7 68.6 68.8

Unemployed

3,628 3,752 3,096 3,750 3,605 3,609 3,564 3,491 3,253

Unemployment rate

4.4 4.6 3.8 4.6 4.4 4.4 4.3 4.3 4.0

Not in labor force

32,090 32,531 32,519 32,003 32,620 32,184 32,237 32,409 32,447

Women, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

130,756 131,469 131,556 130,756 131,643 131,301 131,384 131,469 131,556

Civilian labor force

74,164 75,194 74,967 74,286 74,661 74,621 74,862 75,126 75,038

Participation rate

56.7 57.2 57.0 56.8 56.7 56.8 57.0 57.1 57.0

Employed

70,773 72,082 71,921 70,605 71,250 71,069 71,388 71,863 71,737

Employment-population ratio

54.1 54.8 54.7 54.0 54.1 54.1 54.3 54.7 54.5

Unemployed

3,391 3,112 3,046 3,681 3,411 3,552 3,475 3,262 3,301

Unemployment rate

4.6 4.1 4.1 5.0 4.6 4.8 4.6 4.3 4.4

Not in labor force

56,592 56,275 56,590 56,469 56,982 56,681 56,521 56,343 56,518

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

122,524 123,212 123,296 122,524 123,383 123,052 123,131 123,212 123,296

Civilian labor force

71,329 72,354 72,181 71,316 71,831 71,686 72,011 72,160 72,136

Participation rate

58.2 58.7 58.5 58.2 58.2 58.3 58.5 58.6 58.5

Employed

68,346 69,559 69,474 68,099 68,760 68,550 68,932 69,271 69,213

Employment-population ratio

55.8 56.5 56.3 55.6 55.7 55.7 56.0 56.2 56.1

Unemployed

2,983 2,795 2,707 3,218 3,071 3,136 3,079 2,890 2,922

Unemployment rate

4.2 3.9 3.7 4.5 4.3 4.4 4.3 4.0 4.1

Not in labor force

51,196 50,858 51,116 51,208 51,552 51,366 51,119 51,052 51,161

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian noninstitutional population

16,699 16,747 16,754 16,699 16,756 16,734 16,740 16,747 16,754

Civilian labor force

5,504 5,634 5,618 5,879 5,826 5,917 5,907 5,995 5,986

Participation rate

33.0 33.6 33.5 35.2 34.8 35.4 35.3 35.8 35.7

Employed

4,701 4,897 4,866 4,936 4,972 5,028 5,023 5,173 5,105

Employment-population ratio

28.2 29.2 29.0 29.6 29.7 30.0 30.0 30.9 30.5

Unemployed

802 737 752 943 854 890 884 822 881

Unemployment rate

14.6 13.1 13.4 16.0 14.7 15.0 15.0 13.7 14.7

Not in labor force

11,195 11,113 11,136 10,820 10,930 10,816 10,833 10,752 10,768

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-2. Employment status of the civilian population by race, sex, and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, race, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Apr.
2016
Mar.
2017
Apr.
2017
Apr.
2016
Dec.
2016
Jan.
2017
Feb.
2017
Mar.
2017
Apr.
2017

WHITE

Civilian noninstitutional population

197,906 198,604 198,685 197,906 198,845 198,453 198,525 198,604 198,685

Civilian labor force

124,416 124,804 124,676 124,732 124,616 124,675 124,856 125,046 124,925

Participation rate

62.9 62.8 62.8 63.0 62.7 62.8 62.9 63.0 62.9

Employed

119,337 119,831 120,214 119,341 119,263 119,311 119,740 120,180 120,142

Employment-population ratio

60.3 60.3 60.5 60.3 60.0 60.1 60.3 60.5 60.5

Unemployed

5,079 4,974 4,462 5,391 5,354 5,364 5,116 4,866 4,783

Unemployment rate

4.1 4.0 3.6 4.3 4.3 4.3 4.1 3.9 3.8

Not in labor force

73,490 73,799 74,009 73,174 74,229 73,778 73,669 73,557 73,760

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

65,093 65,125 65,263 65,182 65,146 65,345 65,362 65,219 65,306

Participation rate

72.0 71.7 71.9 72.1 71.7 72.1 72.0 71.9 71.9

Employed

62,583 62,548 63,103 62,595 62,476 62,730 62,877 62,850 63,053

Employment-population ratio

69.2 68.9 69.5 69.2 68.7 69.2 69.3 69.2 69.4

Unemployed

2,510 2,576 2,160 2,587 2,669 2,615 2,485 2,369 2,253

Unemployment rate

3.9 4.0 3.3 4.0 4.1 4.0 3.8 3.6 3.4

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

55,023 55,297 55,066 54,953 54,872 54,798 54,988 55,153 54,983

Participation rate

57.8 57.9 57.6 57.8 57.4 57.4 57.6 57.8 57.6

Employed

52,991 53,413 53,269 52,773 52,813 52,646 52,949 53,211 53,049

Employment-population ratio

55.7 55.9 55.8 55.5 55.2 55.2 55.5 55.7 55.5

Unemployed

2,032 1,883 1,798 2,180 2,059 2,152 2,039 1,942 1,935

Unemployment rate

3.7 3.4 3.3 4.0 3.8 3.9 3.7 3.5 3.5

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

4,300 4,383 4,346 4,597 4,599 4,531 4,505 4,674 4,635

Participation rate

34.8 35.5 35.2 37.3 37.2 36.7 36.5 37.9 37.5

Employed

3,763 3,869 3,842 3,973 3,974 3,934 3,913 4,119 4,040

Employment-population ratio

30.5 31.3 31.1 32.2 32.2 31.9 31.7 33.4 32.7

Unemployed

537 514 504 624 625 597 592 555 595

Unemployment rate

12.5 11.7 11.6 13.6 13.6 13.2 13.1 11.9 12.8

BLACK OR AFRICAN AMERICAN

Civilian noninstitutional population

31,792 32,128 32,161 31,792 32,105 32,063 32,095 32,128 32,161

Civilian labor force

19,368 19,898 20,046 19,415 19,844 19,993 19,998 20,002 20,110

Participation rate

60.9 61.9 62.3 61.1 61.8 62.4 62.3 62.3 62.5

Employed

17,779 18,296 18,577 17,711 18,292 18,445 18,378 18,409 18,514

Employment-population ratio

55.9 56.9 57.8 55.7 57.0 57.5 57.3 57.3 57.6

Unemployed

1,590 1,602 1,469 1,704 1,552 1,548 1,620 1,593 1,597

Unemployment rate

8.2 8.1 7.3 8.8 7.8 7.7 8.1 8.0 7.9

Not in labor force

12,423 12,229 12,116 12,377 12,261 12,070 12,097 12,126 12,051

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

8,964 9,116 9,135 9,015 9,056 9,106 9,081 9,132 9,169

Participation rate

67.7 68.0 68.1 68.1 67.7 68.1 67.8 68.1 68.3

Employed

8,157 8,313 8,505 8,166 8,366 8,437 8,369 8,384 8,496

Employment-population ratio

61.6 62.0 63.4 61.7 62.5 63.1 62.5 62.6 63.3

Unemployed

807 803 630 849 690 669 713 747 673

Unemployment rate

9.0 8.8 6.9 9.4 7.6 7.3 7.8 8.2 7.3

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

9,712 10,143 10,185 9,672 10,094 10,124 10,162 10,173 10,168

Participation rate

60.5 62.6 62.8 60.2 62.3 62.6 62.7 62.7 62.7

Employed

9,090 9,483 9,530 9,007 9,410 9,450 9,438 9,497 9,470

Employment-population ratio

56.6 58.5 58.7 56.1 58.1 58.4 58.3 58.6 58.4

Unemployed

622 661 655 666 683 673 724 676 698

Unemployment rate

6.4 6.5 6.4 6.9 6.8 6.7 7.1 6.6 6.9

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

693 639 726 727 694 764 754 697 773

Participation rate

27.6 25.4 28.9 29.0 27.6 30.4 30.0 27.7 30.8

Employed

533 500 542 538 515 558 571 528 547

Employment-population ratio

21.3 19.9 21.6 21.5 20.5 22.2 22.7 21.0 21.8

Unemployed

160 139 184 189 178 205 183 169 226

Unemployment rate

23.1 21.7 25.3 26.0 25.7 26.9 24.3 24.3 29.3

ASIAN

Civilian noninstitutional population

14,853 15,285 15,389 14,853 15,433 15,157 15,228 15,285 15,389

Civilian labor force

9,444 9,668 9,749 9,458 9,678 9,641 9,709 9,635 9,761

Participation rate

63.6 63.3 63.4 63.7 62.7 63.6 63.8 63.0 63.4

Employed

9,101 9,358 9,448 9,100 9,423 9,281 9,377 9,318 9,446

Employment-population ratio

61.3 61.2 61.4 61.3 61.1 61.2 61.6 61.0 61.4

Unemployed

343 310 301 358 256 360 332 317 316

Unemployment rate

3.6 3.2 3.1 3.8 2.6 3.7 3.4 3.3 3.2

Not in labor force

5,409 5,616 5,640 5,395 5,755 5,517 5,519 5,650 5,628

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Estimates for the above race groups will not sum to totals shown in table A-1 because data are not presented for all races. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-3. Employment status of the Hispanic or Latino population by sex and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Apr.
2016
Mar.
2017
Apr.
2017
Apr.
2016
Dec.
2016
Jan.
2017
Feb.
2017
Mar.
2017
Apr.
2017

HISPANIC OR LATINO ETHNICITY

Civilian noninstitutional population

40,474 41,081 41,162 40,474 41,190 40,922 41,003 41,081 41,162

Civilian labor force

26,530 27,354 27,155 26,600 27,079 27,044 27,251 27,387 27,241

Participation rate

65.5 66.6 66.0 65.7 65.7 66.1 66.5 66.7 66.2

Employed

25,036 25,929 25,897 24,966 25,486 25,453 25,727 25,986 25,832

Employment-population ratio

61.9 63.1 62.9 61.7 61.9 62.2 62.7 63.3 62.8

Unemployed

1,493 1,425 1,258 1,634 1,594 1,590 1,523 1,402 1,410

Unemployment rate

5.6 5.2 4.6 6.1 5.9 5.9 5.6 5.1 5.2

Not in labor force

13,944 13,727 14,007 13,874 14,111 13,879 13,753 13,694 13,921

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

14,656 14,929 14,890 14,687 14,821 14,898 14,938 14,957 14,927

Participation rate

80.3 80.7 80.3 80.5 79.8 80.9 80.9 80.9 80.5

Employed

13,985 14,217 14,331 13,952 14,102 14,187 14,253 14,291 14,297

Employment-population ratio

76.7 76.9 77.3 76.5 75.9 77.0 77.2 77.3 77.1

Unemployed

671 712 559 735 720 711 685 666 630

Unemployment rate

4.6 4.8 3.8 5.0 4.9 4.8 4.6 4.5 4.2

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

10,768 11,165 11,098 10,747 11,083 11,028 11,119 11,127 11,086

Participation rate

58.3 59.5 59.0 58.2 58.9 59.0 59.4 59.3 59.0

Employed

10,099 10,631 10,538 10,045 10,424 10,336 10,494 10,600 10,493

Employment-population ratio

54.7 56.7 56.1 54.4 55.4 55.3 56.0 56.5 55.8

Unemployed

670 534 561 702 659 692 625 527 593

Unemployment rate

6.2 4.8 5.1 6.5 5.9 6.3 5.6 4.7 5.4

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

1,105 1,260 1,166 1,166 1,175 1,117 1,193 1,304 1,228

Participation rate

29.4 33.0 30.4 31.0 30.8 29.3 31.3 34.1 32.1

Employed

952 1,081 1,028 969 960 930 980 1,095 1,042

Employment-population ratio

25.3 28.3 26.8 25.8 25.2 24.4 25.7 28.6 27.2

Unemployed

153 179 138 197 215 187 214 209 186

Unemployment rate

13.8 14.2 11.9 16.9 18.3 16.7 17.9 16.0 15.2

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-4. Employment status of the civilian population 25 years and over by educational attainment
[Numbers in thousands]
Educational attainment Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Apr.
2016
Mar.
2017
Apr.
2017
Apr.
2016
Dec.
2016
Jan.
2017
Feb.
2017
Mar.
2017
Apr.
2017

Less than a high school diploma

Civilian labor force

11,036 10,143 10,249 10,756 10,483 10,533 10,229 10,139 10,041

Participation rate

47.2 45.1 45.6 46.0 45.0 45.3 46.1 45.1 44.7

Employed

10,206 9,375 9,594 9,945 9,660 9,725 9,424 9,450 9,385

Employment-population ratio

43.7 41.7 42.7 42.6 41.4 41.8 42.5 42.1 41.8

Unemployed

830 768 656 811 823 808 806 689 656

Unemployment rate

7.5 7.6 6.4 7.5 7.9 7.7 7.9 6.8 6.5

High school graduates, no college(1)

Civilian labor force

35,635 36,227 36,186 35,620 35,661 35,443 35,853 36,092 36,032

Participation rate

57.4 58.0 58.0 57.4 57.7 57.9 57.9 57.8 57.7

Employed

33,785 34,324 34,603 33,702 33,860 33,580 34,078 34,315 34,374

Employment-population ratio

54.4 54.9 55.4 54.3 54.8 54.9 55.0 54.9 55.1

Unemployed

1,850 1,903 1,583 1,918 1,801 1,863 1,776 1,778 1,658

Unemployment rate

5.2 5.3 4.4 5.4 5.1 5.3 5.0 4.9 4.6

Some college or associate degree

Civilian labor force

37,841 37,881 37,854 37,783 38,244 38,007 37,754 37,851 37,850

Participation rate

66.1 66.2 65.8 66.0 66.1 65.7 65.8 66.1 65.8

Employed

36,350 36,442 36,532 36,223 36,773 36,563 36,245 36,454 36,465

Employment-population ratio

63.5 63.6 63.5 63.2 63.6 63.2 63.2 63.7 63.4

Unemployed

1,491 1,439 1,321 1,559 1,472 1,444 1,509 1,397 1,385

Unemployment rate

3.9 3.8 3.5 4.1 3.8 3.8 4.0 3.7 3.7

Bachelor's degree and higher(2)

Civilian labor force

53,428 54,905 54,821 53,337 54,032 54,271 54,804 54,653 54,764

Participation rate

74.4 74.2 74.1 74.3 73.6 73.8 73.5 73.9 74.0

Employed

52,223 53,573 53,585 52,037 52,699 52,925 53,498 53,308 53,426

Employment-population ratio

72.8 72.4 72.4 72.5 71.7 72.0 71.8 72.0 72.2

Unemployed

1,205 1,332 1,236 1,300 1,333 1,346 1,306 1,345 1,338

Unemployment rate

2.3 2.4 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.5 2.4 2.5 2.4

Footnotes
(1) Includes persons with a high school diploma or equivalent.
(2) Includes persons with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-5. Employment status of the civilian population 18 years and over by veteran status, period of service, and sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, veteran status, and period of service Total Men Women
Apr.
2016
Apr.
2017
Apr.
2016
Apr.
2017
Apr.
2016
Apr.
2017

VETERANS, 18 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

20,959 20,615 18,948 18,589 2,011 2,026

Civilian labor force

10,574 10,344 9,345 9,154 1,229 1,190

Participation rate

50.4 50.2 49.3 49.2 61.1 58.8

Employed

10,157 9,964 8,971 8,817 1,187 1,147

Employment-population ratio

48.5 48.3 47.3 47.4 59.0 56.6

Unemployed

416 380 374 337 42 43

Unemployment rate

3.9 3.7 4.0 3.7 3.4 3.6

Not in labor force

10,385 10,271 9,603 9,435 782 836

Gulf War-era II veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

3,958 4,104 3,230 3,379 727 725

Civilian labor force

3,129 3,274 2,607 2,781 522 493

Participation rate

79.1 79.8 80.7 82.3 71.8 68.0

Employed

3,002 3,145 2,507 2,676 495 468

Employment-population ratio

75.9 76.6 77.6 79.2 68.1 64.6

Unemployed

127 129 100 104 27 25

Unemployment rate

4.1 3.9 3.8 3.8 5.1 5.0

Not in labor force

828 830 623 598 205 232

Gulf War-era I veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

3,248 3,314 2,785 2,815 464 499

Civilian labor force

2,619 2,643 2,263 2,262 356 381

Participation rate

80.6 79.7 81.3 80.4 76.8 76.3

Employed

2,514 2,544 2,165 2,176 348 368

Employment-population ratio

77.4 76.8 77.8 77.3 75.1 73.7

Unemployed

105 99 98 86 8 13

Unemployment rate

4.0 3.7 4.3 3.8 2.2 3.3

Not in labor force

629 671 521 553 108 119

World War II, Korean War, and Vietnam-era veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

8,573 8,134 8,266 7,840 307 294

Civilian labor force

2,191 1,972 2,116 1,915 75 57

Participation rate

25.6 24.2 25.6 24.4 24.6 19.3

Employed

2,111 1,900 2,036 1,843 75 57

Employment-population ratio

24.6 23.4 24.6 23.5 24.6 19.3

Unemployed

80 72 80 72 0 0

Unemployment rate

3.6 3.6 3.8 3.7 0.0 -

Not in labor force

6,382 6,162 6,150 5,925 232 237

Veterans of other service periods

Civilian noninstitutional population

5,180 5,063 4,667 4,555 513 508

Civilian labor force

2,634 2,456 2,358 2,196 275 260

Participation rate

50.8 48.5 50.5 48.2 53.6 51.2

Employed

2,530 2,376 2,263 2,122 267 254

Employment-population ratio

48.8 46.9 48.5 46.6 52.1 50.0

Unemployed

104 80 96 74 8 6

Unemployment rate

3.9 3.3 4.1 3.4 2.8 2.3

Not in labor force

2,546 2,607 2,309 2,359 238 248

NONVETERANS, 18 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

222,987 225,046 98,726 99,978 124,261 125,068

Civilian labor force

146,005 147,418 74,087 74,682 71,918 72,736

Participation rate

65.5 65.5 75.0 74.7 57.9 58.2

Employed

139,378 141,599 70,623 71,671 68,755 69,928

Employment-population ratio

62.5 62.9 71.5 71.7 55.3 55.9

Unemployed

6,627 5,819 3,464 3,011 3,163 2,808

Unemployment rate

4.5 3.9 4.7 4.0 4.4 3.9

Not in labor force

76,982 77,628 24,639 25,296 52,343 52,332

NOTE: Veterans served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces and were not on active duty at the time of the survey. Nonveterans never served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces. Veterans could have served anywhere in the world during these periods of service: Gulf War era II (September 2001-present), Gulf War era I (August 1990-August 2001), Vietnam era (August 1964-April 1975), Korean War (July 1950-January 1955), World War II (December 1941-December 1946), and other service periods (all other time periods). Veterans who served in more than one wartime period are classified only in the most recent one. Veterans who served during one of the selected wartime periods and another period are classified only in the wartime period. Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria (values not shown where base is less than 75,000).


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-6. Employment status of the civilian population by sex, age, and disability status, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Persons with a disability Persons with no disability
Apr.
2016
Apr.
2017
Apr.
2016
Apr.
2017

TOTAL, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

29,974 30,612 222,995 223,976

Civilian labor force

6,108 6,166 152,380 153,652

Participation rate

20.4 20.1 68.3 68.6

Employed

5,453 5,509 145,622 147,754

Employment-population ratio

18.2 18.0 65.3 66.0

Unemployed

655 657 6,758 5,898

Unemployment rate

10.7 10.7 4.4 3.8

Not in labor force

23,866 24,447 70,615 70,324

Men, 16 to 64 years

Civilian labor force

2,633 2,700 76,461 76,784

Participation rate

34.3 34.3 82.0 82.4

Employed

2,329 2,352 72,923 73,794

Employment-population ratio

30.3 29.8 78.2 79.2

Unemployed

305 348 3,538 2,989

Unemployment rate

11.6 12.9 4.6 3.9

Not in labor force

5,054 5,181 16,777 16,350

Women, 16 to 64 years

Civilian labor force

2,377 2,411 67,675 68,236

Participation rate

29.1 29.8 70.4 70.9

Employed

2,097 2,157 64,694 65,627

Employment-population ratio

25.6 26.6 67.3 68.2

Unemployed

280 254 2,981 2,610

Unemployment rate

11.8 10.5 4.4 3.8

Not in labor force

5,803 5,691 28,520 27,994

Both sexes, 65 years and over

Civilian labor force

1,097 1,055 8,244 8,632

Participation rate

7.8 7.2 24.6 24.9

Employed

1,027 999 8,006 8,333

Employment-population ratio

7.3 6.8 23.9 24.1

Unemployed

71 55 238 299

Unemployment rate

6.4 5.2 2.9 3.5

Not in labor force

13,010 13,574 25,318 25,979

NOTE: A person with a disability has at least one of the following conditions: is deaf or has serious difficulty hearing; is blind or has serious difficulty seeing even when wearing glasses; has serious difficulty concentrating, remembering, or making decisions because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition; has serious difficulty walking or climbing stairs; has difficulty dressing or bathing; or has difficulty doing errands alone such as visiting a doctor's office or shopping because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-7. Employment status of the civilian population by nativity and sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status and nativity Total Men Women
Apr.
2016
Apr.
2017
Apr.
2016
Apr.
2017
Apr.
2016
Apr.
2017

Foreign born, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

40,797 41,567 19,830 20,238 20,967 21,329

Civilian labor force

26,596 27,402 15,399 15,816 11,197 11,586

Participation rate

65.2 65.9 77.7 78.2 53.4 54.3

Employed

25,460 26,354 14,831 15,300 10,629 11,054

Employment-population ratio

62.4 63.4 74.8 75.6 50.7 51.8

Unemployed

1,137 1,049 568 516 568 532

Unemployment rate

4.3 3.8 3.7 3.3 5.1 4.6

Not in labor force

14,200 14,165 4,430 4,422 9,770 9,743

Native born, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

212,172 213,021 102,384 102,794 109,789 110,227

Civilian labor force

131,891 132,415 68,924 69,035 62,967 63,380

Participation rate

62.2 62.2 67.3 67.2 57.4 57.5

Employed

125,615 126,908 65,471 66,042 60,144 60,867

Employment-population ratio

59.2 59.6 63.9 64.2 54.8 55.2

Unemployed

6,276 5,507 3,453 2,993 2,823 2,514

Unemployment rate

4.8 4.2 5.0 4.3 4.5 4.0

Not in labor force

80,281 80,606 33,459 33,759 46,822 46,847

NOTE: The foreign born are those residing in the United States who were not U.S. citizens at birth. That is, they were born outside the United States or one of its outlying areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam, to parents neither of whom was a U.S. citizen. The native born are persons who were born in the United States or one of its outlying areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam or who were born abroad of at least one parent who was a U.S. citizen. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-8. Employed persons by class of worker and part-time status
[In thousands]
Category Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Apr.
2016
Mar.
2017
Apr.
2017
Apr.
2016
Dec.
2016
Jan.
2017
Feb.
2017
Mar.
2017
Apr.
2017

CLASS OF WORKER

Agriculture and related industries

2,478 2,441 2,587 2,578 2,356 2,418 2,458 2,499 2,646

Wage and salary workers(1)

1,592 1,552 1,663 1,695 1,470 1,633 1,603 1,647 1,730

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

869 857 900 858 857 795 841 853 879

Unpaid family workers

17 31 24 - - - - - -

Nonagricultural industries

148,597 150,187 150,676 148,398 149,811 149,582 150,026 150,429 150,481

Wage and salary workers(1)

139,607 141,495 142,061 139,512 140,773 140,952 141,101 141,663 141,931

Government

20,615 21,247 20,901 20,350 20,865 20,796 20,843 20,858 20,683

Private industries

118,992 120,248 121,160 119,177 119,916 120,189 120,258 120,904 121,281

Private households

747 698 680 - - - - - -

Other industries

118,245 119,550 120,480 118,427 119,206 119,467 119,535 120,148 120,592

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

8,941 8,640 8,563 8,860 8,991 8,552 8,826 8,707 8,489

Unpaid family workers

50 53 53 - - - - - -

PERSONS AT WORK PART TIME(2)

All industries

Part time for economic reasons(3)

5,771 5,552 5,058 5,970 5,598 5,840 5,704 5,553 5,272

Slack work or business conditions

3,603 3,407 3,059 3,706 3,401 3,583 3,574 3,402 3,174

Could only find part-time work

1,994 1,920 1,767 1,993 1,873 1,944 1,864 1,852 1,802

Part time for noneconomic reasons(4)

21,460 21,042 21,257 20,471 21,251 20,487 20,773 20,723 20,700

Nonagricultural industries

Part time for economic reasons(3)

5,690 5,498 4,990 5,882 5,476 5,769 5,637 5,502 5,197

Slack work or business conditions

3,546 3,383 3,019 3,650 3,310 3,535 3,540 3,386 3,130

Could only find part-time work

1,984 1,901 1,750 1,986 1,862 1,947 1,853 1,842 1,781

Part time for noneconomic reasons(4)

21,089 20,667 20,849 20,093 20,818 20,136 20,445 20,396 20,349

Footnotes
(1) Includes self-employed workers whose businesses are incorporated.
(2) Refers to those who worked 1 to 34 hours during the survey reference week and excludes employed persons who were absent from their jobs for the entire week.
(3) Refers to those who worked 1 to 34 hours during the reference week for an economic reason such as slack work or unfavorable business conditions, inability to find full-time work, or seasonal declines in demand.
(4) Refers to persons who usually work part time for noneconomic reasons such as childcare problems, family or personal obligations, school or training, retirement or Social Security limits on earnings, and other reasons. This excludes persons who usually work full time but worked only 1 to 34 hours during the reference week for reasons such as vacations, holidays, illness, and bad weather.

- Data not available.
NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-9. Selected employment indicators
[Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Apr.
2016
Mar.
2017
Apr.
2017
Apr.
2016
Dec.
2016
Jan.
2017
Feb.
2017
Mar.
2017
Apr.
2017

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

151,075 152,628 153,262 151,028 152,111 152,081 152,528 153,000 153,156

16 to 19 years

4,701 4,897 4,866 4,936 4,972 5,028 5,023 5,173 5,105

16 to 17 years

1,540 1,723 1,699 1,713 1,723 1,813 1,779 1,904 1,884

18 to 19 years

3,161 3,174 3,167 3,240 3,253 3,219 3,252 3,269 3,244

20 years and over

146,374 147,731 148,396 146,092 147,139 147,054 147,505 147,826 148,051

20 to 24 years

13,810 14,017 14,082 13,989 14,071 14,070 14,181 14,198 14,247

25 years and over

132,564 133,714 134,314 132,010 133,065 132,956 133,252 133,639 133,741

25 to 54 years

97,932 98,507 98,920 97,668 98,495 98,190 98,371 98,557 98,649

25 to 34 years

33,458 34,376 34,455 33,429 34,185 34,136 34,247 34,460 34,413

35 to 44 years

31,533 31,584 31,833 31,454 31,611 31,553 31,614 31,592 31,745

45 to 54 years

32,941 32,547 32,633 32,786 32,698 32,502 32,511 32,506 32,491

55 years and over

34,632 35,207 35,394 34,341 34,570 34,765 34,880 35,081 35,092

Men, 16 years and over

80,302 80,546 81,341 80,423 80,861 81,013 81,141 81,136 81,419

16 to 19 years

2,275 2,374 2,419 2,430 2,482 2,509 2,567 2,581 2,581

16 to 17 years

709 815 853 806 786 871 895 947 957

18 to 19 years

1,566 1,559 1,566 1,623 1,699 1,641 1,677 1,636 1,631

20 years and over

78,028 78,172 78,922 77,993 78,379 78,503 78,573 78,556 78,838

20 to 24 years

7,168 7,123 7,214 7,263 7,246 7,302 7,223 7,241 7,293

25 years and over

70,860 71,049 71,708 70,726 71,114 71,202 71,299 71,315 71,532

25 to 54 years

52,414 52,407 52,800 52,398 52,737 52,705 52,687 52,640 52,770

25 to 34 years

18,056 18,346 18,415 18,073 18,374 18,472 18,408 18,445 18,426

35 to 44 years

17,024 17,005 17,234 17,023 17,054 17,048 17,072 17,086 17,217

45 to 54 years

17,334 17,056 17,151 17,303 17,309 17,185 17,206 17,108 17,127

55 years and over

18,446 18,642 18,908 18,328 18,377 18,497 18,612 18,675 18,762

Women, 16 years and over

70,773 72,082 71,921 70,605 71,250 71,069 71,388 71,863 71,737

16 to 19 years

2,427 2,523 2,447 2,506 2,490 2,518 2,456 2,593 2,524

16 to 17 years

831 909 846 907 938 942 884 956 927

18 to 19 years

1,596 1,615 1,601 1,617 1,554 1,578 1,574 1,633 1,614

20 years and over

68,346 69,559 69,474 68,099 68,760 68,550 68,932 69,271 69,213

20 to 24 years

6,642 6,894 6,868 6,726 6,825 6,767 6,957 6,958 6,954

25 years and over

61,704 62,665 62,606 61,284 61,951 61,754 61,953 62,324 62,209

25 to 54 years

45,518 46,100 46,120 45,270 45,758 45,485 45,685 45,918 45,879

25 to 34 years

15,402 16,031 16,039 15,356 15,812 15,664 15,838 16,014 15,987

35 to 44 years

14,509 14,578 14,599 14,432 14,557 14,505 14,541 14,505 14,528

45 to 54 years

15,607 15,491 15,481 15,483 15,389 15,317 15,305 15,398 15,364

55 years and over

16,186 16,565 16,486 16,013 16,193 16,269 16,268 16,406 16,330

MARITAL STATUS

Married men, spouse present(1)

45,277 45,858 46,135 45,226 45,252 45,593 46,017 45,907 46,029

Married women, spouse present(1)

35,333 36,288 36,079 35,233 35,478 35,402 35,640 35,992 35,918

Women who maintain families(2)

9,678 9,618 9,654 - - - - - -

FULL- OR PART-TIME STATUS

Full-time workers(3)

122,742 124,566 125,532 123,259 124,248 124,705 125,031 125,507 125,987

Part-time workers(4)

28,333 28,062 27,731 27,752 27,895 27,405 27,554 27,603 27,233

MULTIPLE JOBHOLDERS

Total multiple jobholders

7,383 8,137 7,609 7,416 7,554 7,562 7,822 7,960 7,683

Percent of total employed

4.9 5.3 5.0 4.9 5.0 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.0

SELF-EMPLOYMENT

Self-employed workers, incorporated

5,518 5,740 5,861 - - - - - -

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

9,809 9,497 9,463 9,719 9,848 9,347 9,667 9,560 9,368

Footnotes
(1) Refers to persons in opposite-sex married couples only.
(2) Refers to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not an opposite-sex spouse.
(3) Employed full-time workers are persons who usually work 35 hours or more per week.
(4) Employed part-time workers are persons who usually work less than 35 hours per week.

- Data not available.
NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-10. Selected unemployment indicators, seasonally adjusted
Characteristic Number of
unemployed persons
(in thousands)
Unemployment rates
Apr.
2016
Mar.
2017
Apr.
2017
Apr.
2016
Dec.
2016
Jan.
2017
Feb.
2017
Mar.
2017
Apr.
2017

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

7,910 7,202 7,056 5.0 4.7 4.8 4.7 4.5 4.4

16 to 19 years

943 822 881 16.0 14.7 15.0 15.0 13.7 14.7

16 to 17 years

410 400 379 19.3 17.6 16.0 18.0 17.4 16.8

18 to 19 years

502 412 465 13.4 13.1 14.5 13.5 11.2 12.5

20 years and over

6,967 6,380 6,176 4.6 4.3 4.4 4.3 4.1 4.0

20 to 24 years

1,353 1,122 1,118 8.8 8.2 8.3 8.0 7.3 7.3

25 years and over

5,601 5,256 5,041 4.1 3.9 3.9 3.9 3.8 3.6

25 to 54 years

4,320 4,020 3,910 4.2 4.0 4.1 4.1 3.9 3.8

25 to 34 years

1,822 1,642 1,576 5.2 4.7 4.9 4.8 4.5 4.4

35 to 44 years

1,304 1,289 1,190 4.0 4.0 3.9 4.1 3.9 3.6

45 to 54 years

1,193 1,089 1,144 3.5 3.3 3.3 3.2 3.2 3.4

55 years and over

1,296 1,224 1,160 3.6 3.6 3.5 3.4 3.4 3.2

Men, 16 years and over

4,228 3,940 3,755 5.0 4.8 4.8 4.8 4.6 4.4

16 to 19 years

479 449 502 16.5 17.1 15.9 16.0 14.8 16.3

16 to 17 years

201 203 181 20.0 21.1 17.2 17.7 17.7 15.9

18 to 19 years

247 240 295 13.2 14.8 15.1 15.3 12.8 15.3

20 years and over

3,750 3,491 3,253 4.6 4.4 4.4 4.3 4.3 4.0

20 to 24 years

762 676 668 9.5 9.2 9.3 9.4 8.5 8.4

25 years and over

2,974 2,805 2,564 4.0 3.9 3.8 3.8 3.8 3.5

25 to 54 years

2,259 2,151 1,945 4.1 3.9 4.0 3.9 3.9 3.6

25 to 34 years

1,019 931 846 5.3 4.7 4.9 5.0 4.8 4.4

35 to 44 years

636 666 601 3.6 3.8 3.9 3.8 3.8 3.4

45 to 54 years

604 554 499 3.4 3.2 3.1 3.0 3.1 2.8

55 years and over

715 654 619 3.8 3.7 3.3 3.4 3.4 3.2

Women, 16 years and over

3,681 3,262 3,301 5.0 4.6 4.8 4.6 4.3 4.4

16 to 19 years

464 372 379 15.6 12.0 14.2 13.9 12.6 13.1

16 to 17 years

208 196 198 18.7 14.4 14.8 18.3 17.0 17.6

18 to 19 years

255 172 169 13.6 11.1 13.8 11.6 9.6 9.5

20 years and over

3,218 2,890 2,922 4.5 4.3 4.4 4.3 4.0 4.1

20 to 24 years

591 446 451 8.1 7.0 7.1 6.5 6.0 6.1

25 years and over

2,627 2,451 2,477 4.1 3.9 4.0 4.0 3.8 3.8

25 to 54 years

2,061 1,869 1,964 4.4 4.1 4.2 4.2 3.9 4.1

25 to 34 years

804 711 730 5.0 4.7 5.0 4.6 4.2 4.4

35 to 44 years

669 623 589 4.4 4.1 4.1 4.5 4.1 3.9

45 to 54 years

589 536 645 3.7 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.4 4.0

55 years and over

579 567 548 3.5 3.6 3.6 3.5 3.3 3.2

MARITAL STATUS

Married men, spouse present(1)

1,246 1,228 1,136 2.7 2.7 2.7 2.6 2.6 2.4

Married women, spouse present(1)

1,134 1,043 1,021 3.1 2.9 3.1 3.1 2.8 2.8

Women who maintain families(2)

695 557 615 6.7 5.8 6.3 6.5 5.5 6.0

FULL- OR PART-TIME STATUS

Full-time workers(3)

6,592 5,760 5,613 5.1 4.7 4.8 4.6 4.4 4.3

Part-time workers(4)

1,312 1,414 1,425 4.5 4.9 4.8 5.1 4.9 5.0

Footnotes
(1) Refers to persons in opposite-sex couples only.
(2) Data are not seasonally adjusted. Refers to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not an opposite-sex spouse.
(3) Full-time workers are unemployed persons who have expressed a desire to work full time (35 hours or more per week) or are on layoff from full-time jobs.
(4) Part-time workers are unemployed persons who have expressed a desire to work part time (less than 35 hours per week) or are on layoff from part-time jobs.

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-11. Unemployed persons by reason for unemployment
[Numbers in thousands]
Reason Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Apr.
2016
Mar.
2017
Apr.
2017
Apr.
2016
Dec.
2016
Jan.
2017
Feb.
2017
Mar.
2017
Apr.
2017

NUMBER OF UNEMPLOYED

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

3,716 3,812 3,369 3,864 3,639 3,713 3,709 3,519 3,538

On temporary layoff

748 1,125 794 847 1,033 1,062 979 953 934

Not on temporary layoff

2,968 2,686 2,576 3,017 2,606 2,651 2,730 2,567 2,604

Permanent job losers

2,065 1,880 1,795 2,066 1,902 1,981 2,042 1,819 1,806

Persons who completed temporary jobs

903 806 781 951 704 670 688 748 799

Job leavers

810 778 726 864 905 862 802 798 789

Reentrants

2,163 2,004 1,858 2,337 2,219 2,170 2,197 2,066 2,032

New entrants

724 691 602 847 783 813 773 790 712

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

50.1 52.3 51.4 48.8 48.2 49.1 49.6 49.1 50.0

On temporary layoff

10.1 15.5 12.1 10.7 13.7 14.0 13.1 13.3 13.2

Not on temporary layoff

40.0 36.9 39.3 38.1 34.5 35.1 36.5 35.8 36.8

Job leavers

10.9 10.7 11.1 10.9 12.0 11.4 10.7 11.1 11.2

Reentrants

29.2 27.5 28.4 29.5 29.4 28.7 29.4 28.8 28.7

New entrants

9.8 9.5 9.2 10.7 10.4 10.8 10.3 11.0 10.1

UNEMPLOYED AS A PERCENT OF THE
CIVILIAN LABOR FORCE

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

2.3 2.4 2.1 2.4 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.2 2.2

Job leavers

0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5

Reentrants

1.4 1.3 1.2 1.5 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.3 1.3

New entrants

0.5 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.4

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-12. Unemployed persons by duration of unemployment
[Numbers in thousands]
Duration Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Apr.
2016
Mar.
2017
Apr.
2017
Apr.
2016
Dec.
2016
Jan.
2017
Feb.
2017
Mar.
2017
Apr.
2017

NUMBER OF UNEMPLOYED

Less than 5 weeks

2,164 2,000 1,953 2,573 2,379 2,468 2,566 2,334 2,335

5 to 14 weeks

1,749 2,269 1,735 2,155 2,156 2,089 2,138 2,109 2,135

15 weeks and over

3,499 3,016 2,868 3,340 3,030 3,043 2,858 2,802 2,734

15 to 26 weeks

1,390 1,255 1,206 1,281 1,199 1,192 1,057 1,115 1,108

27 weeks and over

2,109 1,761 1,662 2,059 1,831 1,850 1,801 1,687 1,626

Average (mean) duration, in weeks

29.8 26.1 25.7 27.7 26.0 25.1 25.1 25.3 24.1

Median duration, in weeks

13.2 11.6 12.1 11.2 10.3 10.2 10.0 10.3 10.2

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION

Less than 5 weeks

29.2 27.5 29.8 31.9 31.4 32.5 33.9 32.2 32.4

5 to 14 weeks

23.6 31.1 26.5 26.7 28.5 27.5 28.3 29.1 29.6

15 weeks and over

47.2 41.4 43.7 41.4 40.0 40.0 37.8 38.7 38.0

15 to 26 weeks

18.8 17.2 18.4 15.9 15.8 15.7 14.0 15.4 15.4

27 weeks and over

28.5 24.2 25.4 25.5 24.2 24.4 23.8 23.3 22.6

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-13. Employed and unemployed persons by occupation, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Occupation Employed Unemployed Unemployment
rates
Apr.
2016
Apr.
2017
Apr.
2016
Apr.
2017
Apr.
2016
Apr.
2017

Total, 16 years and over(1)

151,075 153,262 7,413 6,555 4.7 4.1

Management, professional, and related occupations

59,690 61,317 1,251 1,254 2.1 2.0

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

24,868 25,455 604 581 2.4 2.2

Professional and related occupations

34,822 35,862 647 673 1.8 1.8

Service occupations

26,357 26,370 1,517 1,426 5.4 5.1

Sales and office occupations

33,347 33,529 1,753 1,337 5.0 3.8

Sales and related occupations

15,788 15,838 871 688 5.2 4.2

Office and administrative support occupations

17,559 17,692 882 650 4.8 3.5

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

13,751 14,174 942 925 6.4 6.1

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

1,114 1,225 123 120 9.9 8.9

Construction and extraction occupations

7,934 7,930 586 657 6.9 7.6

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

4,703 5,019 233 149 4.7 2.9

Production, transportation, and material moving
occupations

17,930 17,871 1,207 994 6.3 5.3

Production occupations

8,927 8,491 554 432 5.8 4.8

Transportation and material moving occupations

9,003 9,380 653 562 6.8 5.7

Footnotes
(1) Persons with no previous work experience and persons whose last job was in the U.S. Armed Forces are included in the unemployed total.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-14. Unemployed persons by industry and class of worker, not seasonally adjusted
Industry and class of worker Number of
unemployed
persons
(in thousands)
Unemployment
rates
Apr.
2016
Apr.
2017
Apr.
2016
Apr.
2017

Total, 16 years and over(1)

7,413 6,555 4.7 4.1

Nonagricultural private wage and salary workers

5,735 5,121 4.6 4.1

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

86 36 9.5 4.7

Construction

530 585 6.0 6.3

Manufacturing

702 620 4.5 3.9

Durable goods

403 389 4.1 3.9

Nondurable goods

299 230 5.2 3.8

Wholesale and retail trade

1,054 844 5.3 4.2

Transportation and utilities

305 216 4.6 3.5

Information

131 107 4.8 4.1

Financial activities

264 229 2.7 2.3

Professional and business services

846 819 5.2 4.9

Education and health services

632 612 2.7 2.6

Leisure and hospitality

893 819 6.5 5.9

Other services

292 234 4.4 3.4

Agriculture and related private wage and salary workers

148 118 8.9 6.9

Government workers

490 379 2.3 1.8

Self-employed workers, unincorporated, and unpaid family workers

315 335 3.1 3.4

Footnotes
(1) Persons with no previous work experience and persons whose last job was in the U.S. Armed Forces are included in the unemployed total.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-15. Alternative measures of labor underutilization
[Percent]
Measure Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Apr.
2016
Mar.
2017
Apr.
2017
Apr.
2016
Dec.
2016
Jan.
2017
Feb.
2017
Mar.
2017
Apr.
2017

U-1 Persons unemployed 15 weeks or longer, as a percent of the civilian labor force

2.2 1.9 1.8 2.1 1.9 1.9 1.8 1.7 1.7

U-2 Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs, as a percent of the civilian labor force

2.3 2.4 2.1 2.4 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.2 2.2

U-3 Total unemployed, as a percent of the civilian labor force (official unemployment rate)

4.7 4.6 4.1 5.0 4.7 4.8 4.7 4.5 4.4

U-4 Total unemployed plus discouraged workers, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus discouraged workers

5.0 4.8 4.4 5.3 5.0 5.1 5.0 4.8 4.7

U-5 Total unemployed, plus discouraged workers, plus all other persons marginally attached to the labor force, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force

5.7 5.5 5.0 6.0 5.7 5.8 5.7 5.4 5.3

U-6 Total unemployed, plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force, plus total employed part time for economic reasons, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force

9.3 8.9 8.1 9.7 9.2 9.4 9.2 8.9 8.6

NOTE: Persons marginally attached to the labor force are those who currently are neither working nor looking for work but indicate that they want and are available for a job and have looked for work sometime in the past 12 months. Discouraged workers, a subset of the marginally attached, have given a job-market related reason for not currently looking for work. Persons employed part time for economic reasons are those who want and are available for full-time work but have had to settle for a part-time schedule. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-16. Persons not in the labor force and multiple jobholders by sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Category Total Men Women
Apr.
2016
Apr.
2017
Apr.
2016
Apr.
2017
Apr.
2016
Apr.
2017

NOT IN THE LABOR FORCE

Total not in the labor force

94,481 94,771 37,890 38,181 56,592 56,590

Persons who currently want a job

5,671 5,560 2,658 2,605 3,014 2,955

Marginally attached to the labor force(1)

1,715 1,534 870 855 845 680

Discouraged workers(2)

568 455 369 319 199 135

Other persons marginally attached to the labor force(3)

1,146 1,080 500 535 646 544

MULTIPLE JOBHOLDERS

Total multiple jobholders(4)

7,383 7,609 3,598 3,782 3,785 3,827

Percent of total employed

4.9 5.0 4.5 4.6 5.3 5.3

Primary job full time, secondary job part time

3,904 4,184 2,162 2,285 1,742 1,900

Primary and secondary jobs both part time

2,164 2,027 751 707 1,413 1,319

Primary and secondary jobs both full time

242 304 171 185 70 119

Hours vary on primary or secondary job

1,013 1,043 467 582 546 461

Footnotes
(1) Data refer to persons who want a job, have searched for work during the prior 12 months, and were available to take a job during the reference week, but had not looked for work in the past 4 weeks.
(2) Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for reasons such as thinks no work available, could not find work, lacks schooling or training, employer thinks too young or old, and other types of discrimination.
(3) Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for such reasons as school or family responsibilities, ill health, and transportation problems, as well as a number for whom reason for nonparticipation was not determined.
(4) Includes a small number of persons who work part time on their primary job and full time on their secondary job(s), not shown separately.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-1. Employees on nonfarm payrolls by industry sector and selected industry detail
[In thousands]
Industry Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Apr.
2016
Feb.
2017
Mar.
2017(p)
Apr.
2017(p)
Apr.
2016
Feb.
2017
Mar.
2017(p)
Apr.
2017(p)
Change from:
Mar.2017 - Apr.2017(p)

Total nonfarm

143,894 144,292 144,953 145,979 143,826 145,773 145,852 146,063 211

Total private

121,316 121,669 122,261 123,256 121,665 123,452 123,529 123,723 194

Goods-producing

19,577 19,451 19,589 19,795 19,743 19,933 19,956 19,977 21

Mining and logging

669 672 683 693 683 685 694 704 10

Logging

47.9 50.1 48.6 48.2 51.6 51.3 50.5 51.1 0.6

Mining

621.4 622.2 634.0 644.8 631.0 633.2 643.7 652.5 8.8

Oil and gas extraction

178.2 176.9 179.1 179.4 181.4 178.8 180.2 181.2 1.0

Mining, except oil and gas

180.9 177.2 179.8 185.5 181.6 184.2 185.1 186.2 1.1

Coal mining

51.0 50.0 50.1 50.5 51.2 50.3 50.4 50.6 0.2

Metal ore mining

38.3 39.0 39.1 39.0 38.5 39.1 39.3 39.4 0.1

Nonmetallic mineral mining and quarrying

91.6 88.2 90.6 96.0 91.9 94.7 95.3 96.2 0.9

Support activities for mining

262.3 268.1 275.1 279.9 268.0 270.2 278.4 285.1 6.7

Construction

6,609 6,479 6,580 6,769 6,704 6,871 6,872 6,877 5

Construction of buildings

1,466.6 1,466.5 1,478.0 1,495.7 1,493.4 1,523.1 1,524.2 1,525.5 1.3

Residential building

717.0 735.5 738.5 746.4 732.1 766.8 765.5 762.8 -2.7

Nonresidential building

749.6 731.0 739.5 749.3 761.3 756.3 758.7 762.7 4.0

Heavy and civil engineering construction

943.6 856.2 887.8 958.4 955.5 959.8 964.6 968.9 4.3

Specialty trade contractors

4,198.7 4,155.8 4,214.2 4,314.4 4,254.8 4,388.5 4,383.6 4,382.1 -1.5

Residential specialty trade contractors

1,825.6 1,824.1 1,843.6 1,900.9 1,850.3 1,931.5 1,925.3 1,928.9 3.6

Nonresidential specialty trade contractors

2,373.1 2,331.7 2,370.6 2,413.5 2,404.5 2,457.0 2,458.3 2,453.2 -5.1

Manufacturing

12,299 12,300 12,326 12,333 12,356 12,377 12,390 12,396 6

Durable goods

7,717 7,687 7,708 7,707 7,735 7,722 7,730 7,727 -3

Wood products

388.6 390.7 392.3 393.7 390.7 397.0 397.4 397.6 0.2

Nonmetallic mineral products

404.5 401.5 407.7 411.8 404.9 416.6 417.0 416.3 -0.7

Primary metals

377.6 378.1 379.1 380.3 379.5 378.2 379.1 380.6 1.5

Fabricated metal products

1,427.6 1,422.0 1,425.5 1,427.1 1,427.9 1,423.2 1,428.8 1,425.3 -3.5

Machinery

1,083.0 1,082.1 1,081.3 1,082.0 1,085.1 1,083.2 1,081.3 1,083.5 2.2

Computer and electronic products

1,048.9 1,032.3 1,034.5 1,031.0 1,051.9 1,035.9 1,036.7 1,035.0 -1.7

Computer and peripheral equipment

164.3 160.2 160.5 160.4 165.2 161.5 161.3 161.3 0.0

Communications equipment

85.9 84.0 84.5 84.8 86.1 84.6 84.7 84.9 0.2

Semiconductors and electronic components

368.0 358.2 359.7 356.7 369.3 359.0 360.3 358.0 -2.3

Electronic instruments

395.6 396.1 396.2 395.7 396.0 396.8 396.7 397.3 0.6

Miscellaneous computer and electronic products

35.1 33.8 33.6 33.4 35.2 33.9 33.8 33.7 -0.1

Electrical equipment and appliances

383.2 383.9 385.7 384.0 384.8 385.2 386.4 385.3 -1.1

Transportation equipment(1)

1,628.2 1,614.5 1,620.3 1,616.0 1,631.9 1,616.5 1,617.1 1,617.2 0.1

Motor vehicles and parts(2)

941.6 939.5 946.5 945.6 943.9 941.2 943.5 946.3 2.8

Furniture and related products

387.8 392.1 391.3 391.3 389.1 393.4 392.4 392.8 0.4

Miscellaneous durable goods manufacturing

587.5 589.8 590.7 590.2 589.4 592.4 593.5 593.3 -0.2

Nondurable goods

4,582 4,613 4,618 4,626 4,621 4,655 4,660 4,669 9

Food manufacturing

1,517.5 1,564.5 1,560.3 1,568.2 1,545.2 1,584.3 1,586.4 1,595.5 9.1

Textile mills

114.6 111.5 110.8 109.8 114.4 111.5 110.7 110.0 -0.7

Textile product mills

114.8 111.2 110.8 111.7 116.0 112.6 111.9 112.1 0.2

Apparel

131.8 125.9 124.1 122.8 132.2 125.8 124.5 123.7 -0.8

Paper and paper products

371.1 368.9 368.6 369.3 372.0 370.1 370.4 370.8 0.4

Printing and related support activities

448.2 437.7 439.2 437.7 449.0 440.7 439.9 438.4 -1.5

Petroleum and coal products

110.8 105.9 108.3 110.3 111.7 109.8 111.3 111.8 0.5

Chemicals

808.3 812.2 816.7 817.3 810.2 815.0 817.2 818.8 1.6

Plastics and rubber products

699.4 698.8 700.8 699.0 698.8 700.4 700.7 700.4 -0.3

Miscellaneous nondurable goods manufacturing

265.0 276.2 278.1 280.3 271.9 285.1 286.9 287.3 0.4

Private service-providing

101,739 102,218 102,672 103,461 101,922 103,519 103,573 103,746 173

Trade, transportation, and utilities

26,956 27,002 27,037 27,142 27,177 27,391 27,371 27,390 19

Wholesale trade

5,846.7 5,864.6 5,878.8 5,900.3 5,861.0 5,905.6 5,906.7 5,914.9 8.2

Durable goods

2,923.5 2,924.6 2,933.8 2,943.1 2,931.9 2,941.1 2,944.3 2,951.1 6.8

Nondurable goods

2,029.7 2,036.5 2,045.8 2,057.0 2,033.3 2,057.3 2,060.5 2,062.2 1.7

Electronic markets and agents and brokers

893.5 903.5 899.2 900.2 895.8 907.2 901.9 901.6 -0.3

Retail trade

15,641.1 15,607.2 15,618.5 15,693.0 15,791.5 15,887.6 15,860.2 15,866.5 6.3

Motor vehicle and parts dealers

1,971.5 1,990.9 2,000.4 2,013.0 1,973.2 2,011.5 2,010.9 2,013.6 2.7

Automobile dealers

1,272.5 1,293.6 1,298.4 1,300.8 1,275.3 1,301.5 1,302.3 1,302.8 0.5

Other motor vehicle dealers

150.2 146.5 150.1 156.1 149.0 155.0 154.2 155.3 1.1

Auto parts, accessories, and tire stores

548.8 550.8 551.9 556.1 549.0 555.0 554.4 555.5 1.1

Furniture and home furnishings stores

463.5 483.7 479.7 478.8 471.7 484.9 485.6 486.2 0.6

Electronics and appliance stores

517.0 509.0 508.3 500.4 528.5 511.0 513.8 511.6 -2.2

Building material and garden supply stores

1,316.7 1,233.7 1,288.2 1,331.6 1,267.3 1,282.8 1,287.9 1,282.8 -5.1

Food and beverage stores

3,058.8 3,064.4 3,061.6 3,065.9 3,083.8 3,096.6 3,097.1 3,096.4 -0.7

Health and personal care stores

1,042.0 1,057.5 1,054.3 1,051.9 1,048.1 1,062.4 1,060.5 1,059.8 -0.7

Gasoline stations

917.7 923.8 928.1 933.9 922.2 938.1 939.6 940.7 1.1

Clothing and clothing accessories stores

1,301.0 1,304.6 1,299.8 1,299.8 1,353.9 1,357.3 1,350.4 1,349.8 -0.6

Sporting goods, hobby, book, and music stores

603.9 593.6 583.3 584.5 619.5 605.3 603.7 604.7 1.0

General merchandise stores

3,109.0 3,082.2 3,058.2 3,066.7 3,158.0 3,151.5 3,119.9 3,127.4 7.5

Department stores

1,277.5 1,254.7 1,240.5 1,241.2 1,309.4 1,288.0 1,277.6 1,277.0 -0.6

Other general merchandise stores

1,831.5 1,827.5 1,817.7 1,825.5 1,848.5 1,863.5 1,842.4 1,850.4 8.0

Miscellaneous store retailers

818.8 814.9 809.8 819.4 832.2 832.4 834.7 835.5 0.8

Nonstore retailers

521.2 548.9 546.8 547.1 533.1 553.8 556.1 558.0 1.9

Transportation and warehousing

4,914.7 4,977.9 4,986.5 4,994.2 4,969.3 5,042.7 5,049.3 5,052.8 3.5

Air transportation

472.9 477.3 481.9 483.9 473.7 481.9 483.6 484.1 0.5

Rail transportation

215.0 209.0 209.7 209.7 214.9 210.3 210.6 210.1 -0.5

Water transportation

65.2 61.8 62.6 63.8 66.0 64.3 64.4 64.4 0.0

Truck transportation

1,434.0 1,442.4 1,448.9 1,460.7 1,451.5 1,471.3 1,476.1 1,476.0 -0.1

Transit and ground passenger transportation

499.0 483.0 484.4 477.6 484.2 470.6 468.9 464.5 -4.4

Pipeline transportation

50.2 47.9 47.9 47.2 49.9 48.0 48.0 47.6 -0.4

Scenic and sightseeing transportation

30.6 25.4 27.5 31.8 34.3 35.1 35.5 36.0 0.5

Support activities for transportation

657.6 657.4 660.2 665.7 659.5 662.1 663.9 666.1 2.2

Couriers and messengers

595.3 636.1 627.2 616.1 630.0 653.2 652.1 655.3 3.2

Warehousing and storage

894.9 937.6 936.2 937.7 905.3 945.9 946.2 948.7 2.5

Utilities

553.3 551.9 553.3 554.0 555.5 555.5 555.2 555.9 0.7

Information

2,784 2,745 2,734 2,729 2,781 2,748 2,742 2,735 -7

Publishing industries, except Internet

726.6 726.8 725.2 723.6 729.3 728.8 727.8 726.6 -1.2

Motion picture and sound recording industries

428.9 412.5 405.5 410.4 421.0 409.7 408.1 409.7 1.6

Broadcasting, except Internet

270.8 264.6 266.7 262.6 271.0 265.2 266.1 262.7 -3.4

Telecommunications

803.2 775.9 769.4 763.7 805.1 775.6 770.4 765.1 -5.3

Data processing, hosting and related services

300.3 299.0 299.0 301.0 298.5 300.5 300.6 301.2 0.6

Other information services

254.2 266.2 267.7 267.4 255.9 267.7 268.7 269.5 0.8

Financial activities

8,208 8,338 8,356 8,383 8,249 8,399 8,403 8,422 19

Finance and insurance

6,102.4 6,200.4 6,206.2 6,215.2 6,123.9 6,215.1 6,217.8 6,233.3 15.5

Monetary authorities - central bank

18.5 18.9 18.8 18.7 18.6 18.8 18.8 18.8 0.0

Credit intermediation and related
activities

2,596.5 2,639.5 2,644.2 2,643.9 2,606.4 2,645.3 2,647.7 2,648.6 0.9

Depository credit intermediation(1)

1,693.2 1,711.0 1,714.2 1,712.3 1,696.4 1,714.0 1,714.8 1,714.7 -0.1

Commercial banking

1,306.2 1,314.2 1,315.2 1,314.1 1,307.8 1,314.6 1,315.2 1,314.9 -0.3

Nondepository credit intermediation

606.2 621.6 621.3 621.1 611.2 622.6 622.6 623.0 0.4

Activities related to credit intermediation

297.1 306.9 308.7 310.5 298.8 308.7 310.3 310.8 0.5

Securities, commodity contracts, investments, and funds and trusts

921.8 931.2 931.7 931.0 926.0 935.1 936.0 936.6 0.6

Insurance carriers and related activities

2,565.6 2,610.8 2,611.5 2,621.6 2,572.9 2,615.9 2,615.3 2,629.3 14.0

Real estate and rental and leasing

2,105.4 2,138.0 2,150.0 2,167.3 2,124.6 2,183.9 2,185.3 2,188.6 3.3

Real estate

1,532.9 1,574.4 1,578.1 1,589.5 1,542.9 1,600.7 1,598.3 1,601.8 3.5

Rental and leasing services

549.3 540.6 548.9 554.8 558.2 559.9 563.7 563.4 -0.3

Lessors of nonfinancial intangible assets

23.2 23.0 23.0 23.0 23.5 23.3 23.3 23.4 0.1

Professional and business services

19,970 20,216 20,339 20,556 19,994 20,510 20,567 20,606 39

Professional and technical services

8,861.4 9,119.7 9,119.7 9,156.0 8,793.7 9,058.5 9,078.9 9,102.0 23.1

Legal services

1,114.5 1,118.0 1,118.4 1,120.2 1,119.3 1,123.7 1,123.0 1,124.1 1.1

Accounting and bookkeeping services

1,065.6 1,118.7 1,106.1 1,096.3 970.1 995.3 997.6 1,002.8 5.2

Architectural and engineering services

1,390.6 1,417.8 1,428.2 1,435.2 1,399.7 1,439.0 1,445.9 1,448.0 2.1

Specialized design services

137.2 141.0 141.3 142.4 137.7 142.7 143.2 143.2 0.0

Computer systems design and related services

1,968.0 2,043.5 2,029.2 2,042.3 1,970.4 2,044.5 2,047.1 2,049.7 2.6

Management and technical consulting services

1,345.6 1,402.2 1,410.2 1,424.1 1,352.6 1,416.9 1,424.0 1,431.7 7.7

Scientific research and development services

673.6 695.2 697.0 697.8 675.0 698.8 699.8 700.0 0.2

Advertising and related services

486.5 487.0 487.4 487.8 488.3 489.5 490.5 491.0 0.5

Other professional and technical services

679.8 696.3 701.9 709.9 680.5 707.8 707.9 711.7 3.8

Management of companies and enterprises

2,222.7 2,257.2 2,260.6 2,259.3 2,233.7 2,267.2 2,267.6 2,268.8 1.2

Administrative and waste services

8,885.7 8,839.1 8,958.2 9,140.8 8,966.9 9,184.2 9,220.9 9,235.4 14.5

Administrative and support services

8,485.5 8,432.2 8,550.7 8,730.9 8,562.8 8,769.8 8,806.2 8,821.3 15.1

Office administrative services

487.7 511.6 515.7 518.8 488.5 513.0 517.0 518.8 1.8

Facilities support services

143.2 138.0 139.6 139.7 142.1 139.0 139.3 139.6 0.3

Employment services(1)

3,478.9 3,500.1 3,547.7 3,590.0 3,542.4 3,648.3 3,660.3 3,665.9 5.6

Temporary help services

2,835.2 2,856.1 2,901.1 2,939.4 2,892.9 2,986.5 2,999.5 3,005.3 5.8

Business support services

900.9 916.9 911.8 903.9 904.7 915.2 915.0 912.5 -2.5

Travel arrangement and reservation services

216.8 213.9 215.2 214.2 216.6 216.9 216.1 213.9 -2.2

Investigation and security services

889.3 899.3 905.6 906.6 897.5 909.9 912.5 912.0 -0.5

Services to buildings and dwellings

2,056.4 1,935.1 1,994.6 2,133.4 2,059.3 2,106.4 2,124.3 2,134.2 9.9

Other support services

312.3 317.3 320.5 324.3 311.6 321.1 321.7 324.3 2.6

Waste management and remediation services

400.2 406.9 407.5 409.9 404.1 414.4 414.7 414.1 -0.6

Education and health services

22,679 23,077 23,113 23,176 22,495 22,956 22,966 23,007 41

Educational services

3,731.8 3,776.1 3,786.4 3,800.1 3,549.0 3,627.7 3,622.0 3,625.9 3.9

Health care and social assistance

18,947.1 19,300.6 19,326.1 19,375.4 18,945.7 19,328.0 19,344.4 19,381.2 36.8

Health care(3)

15,309.2 15,603.3 15,615.8 15,642.2 15,335.4 15,638.5 15,652.8 15,672.3 19.5

Ambulatory health care services

7,016.0 7,207.8 7,212.8 7,235.6 7,026.6 7,225.4 7,233.1 7,247.3 14.2

Offices of physicians

2,502.6 2,563.0 2,562.2 2,568.3 2,507.9 2,567.0 2,567.2 2,574.1 6.9

Offices of dentists

918.2 938.8 937.0 937.6 920.9 939.8 941.2 940.3 -0.9

Offices of other health practitioners

845.2 884.6 887.7 891.8 846.2 888.3 891.0 892.5 1.5

Outpatient care centers

845.6 890.4 897.1 897.5 846.5 891.6 897.3 897.7 0.4

Medical and diagnostic laboratories

263.3 259.0 257.9 258.0 263.1 259.6 258.4 258.1 -0.3

Home health care services

1,354.0 1,381.4 1,383.3 1,392.1 1,354.3 1,387.8 1,389.2 1,393.9 4.7

Other ambulatory health care services

287.1 290.6 287.6 290.3 287.8 291.3 288.8 290.7 1.9

Hospitals

4,996.3 5,078.7 5,089.7 5,086.2 5,002.1 5,085.5 5,092.7 5,096.9 4.2

Nursing and residential care facilities

3,296.9 3,316.8 3,313.3 3,320.4 3,306.7 3,327.6 3,327.0 3,328.1 1.1

Nursing care facilities

1,634.5 1,638.9 1,634.1 1,635.3 1,640.1 1,644.3 1,642.7 1,640.9 -1.8

Residential mental health facilities

612.4 616.6 618.2 620.5 614.3 618.6 619.2 620.6 1.4

Community care facilities for the elderly

887.4 897.2 897.9 899.0 889.1 899.7 900.3 900.7 0.4

Other residential care facilities

162.6 164.1 163.1 165.6 163.2 165.0 164.7 165.9 1.2

Social assistance

3,637.9 3,697.3 3,710.3 3,733.2 3,610.3 3,689.5 3,691.6 3,708.9 17.3

Individual and family services

2,213.1 2,275.1 2,278.5 2,297.0 2,206.4 2,278.0 2,276.6 2,293.7 17.1

Emergency and other relief services

160.5 168.4 168.8 168.2 160.9 167.7 168.4 167.4 -1.0

Vocational rehabilitation services

339.5 329.6 331.8 332.5 340.9 333.5 334.8 334.7 -0.1

Child day care services

924.8 924.2 931.2 935.5 902.2 910.3 911.9 913.1 1.2

Leisure and hospitality

15,470 15,167 15,397 15,745 15,552 15,792 15,801 15,856 55

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

2,176.2 2,020.3 2,065.2 2,194.7 2,227.5 2,253.4 2,235.3 2,256.7 21.4

Performing arts and spectator sports

470.0 412.2 423.5 462.2 458.1 450.2 443.0 449.4 6.4

Museums, historical sites, and similar institutions

155.8 148.9 152.9 160.4 158.0 162.9 162.1 163.6 1.5

Amusements, gambling, and recreation

1,550.4 1,459.2 1,488.8 1,572.1 1,611.4 1,640.3 1,630.2 1,643.7 13.5

Accommodation and food services

13,293.7 13,147.1 13,331.3 13,550.0 13,324.4 13,538.9 13,565.7 13,599.4 33.7

Accommodation

1,895.3 1,861.7 1,883.3 1,911.1 1,944.1 1,951.4 1,951.8 1,959.3 7.5

Food services and drinking places

11,398.4 11,285.4 11,448.0 11,638.9 11,380.3 11,587.5 11,613.9 11,640.1 26.2

Other services

5,672 5,673 5,696 5,730 5,674 5,723 5,723 5,730 7

Repair and maintenance

1,294.8 1,287.1 1,293.7 1,296.9 1,290.6 1,292.4 1,293.1 1,291.8 -1.3

Personal and laundry services

1,441.4 1,450.7 1,460.4 1,482.9 1,438.6 1,471.6 1,471.4 1,479.1 7.7

Membership associations and organizations

2,935.9 2,935.3 2,942.0 2,950.6 2,944.6 2,959.1 2,958.9 2,959.2 0.3

Government

22,578 22,623 22,692 22,723 22,161 22,321 22,323 22,340 17

Federal

2,777.0 2,800.0 2,797.0 2,800.0 2,769.0 2,815.0 2,812.0 2,806.0 -6.0

Federal, except U.S. Postal Service

2,174.7 2,185.1 2,180.9 2,185.7 2,178.6 2,199.0 2,196.0 2,195.0 -1.0

U.S. Postal Service

602.2 614.6 615.6 614.1 590.1 615.6 616.3 610.5 -5.8

State government

5,252.0 5,233.0 5,249.0 5,260.0 5,089.0 5,093.0 5,094.0 5,094.0 0.0

State government education

2,574.6 2,566.8 2,577.4 2,590.3 2,409.8 2,417.4 2,417.2 2,420.1 2.9

State government, excluding education

2,677.7 2,666.2 2,672.0 2,670.1 2,679.3 2,675.5 2,676.3 2,673.6 -2.7

Local government

14,549.0 14,590.0 14,646.0 14,663.0 14,303.0 14,413.0 14,417.0 14,440.0 23.0

Local government education

8,230.4 8,262.5 8,301.2 8,284.2 7,904.4 7,955.8 7,964.1 7,972.3 8.2

Local government, excluding education

6,318.9 6,327.3 6,344.4 6,378.6 6,399.0 6,457.3 6,453.0 6,467.8 14.8

Footnotes
(1) Includes other industries, not shown separately.
(2) Includes motor vehicles, motor vehicle bodies and trailers, and motor vehicle parts.
(3) Includes ambulatory health care services, hospitals, and nursing and residential care facilities.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2016 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-2. Average weekly hours and overtime of all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Apr.
2016
Feb.
2017
Mar.
2017(p)
Apr.
2017(p)

AVERAGE WEEKLY HOURS

Total private

34.4 34.3 34.3 34.4

Goods-producing

40.3 40.3 40.1 40.3

Mining and logging

43.0 44.2 44.7 44.9

Construction

39.1 39.1 38.7 39.2

Manufacturing

40.7 40.7 40.6 40.7

Durable goods

41.2 41.3 41.1 41.1

Nondurable goods

39.9 39.9 39.7 39.9

Private service-providing

33.3 33.2 33.2 33.3

Trade, transportation, and utilities

34.4 34.2 34.2 34.5

Wholesale trade

38.9 39.0 38.9 39.0

Retail trade

31.1 30.8 30.9 31.2

Transportation and warehousing

38.8 38.7 38.4 38.7

Utilities

42.3 41.9 42.3 41.4

Information

36.0 36.3 36.3 36.4

Financial activities

37.6 37.4 37.3 37.5

Professional and business services

36.1 36.0 36.0 36.1

Education and health services

32.8 32.9 32.9 32.9

Leisure and hospitality

26.1 25.9 26.0 26.1

Other services

31.9 31.8 31.9 31.9

AVERAGE OVERTIME HOURS

Manufacturing

3.3 3.3 3.3 3.2

Durable goods

3.3 3.3 3.3 3.2

Nondurable goods

3.3 3.3 3.2 3.2

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2016 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-3. Average hourly and weekly earnings of all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Average hourly earnings Average weekly earnings
Apr.
2016
Feb.
2017
Mar.
2017(p)
Apr.
2017(p)
Apr.
2016
Feb.
2017
Mar.
2017(p)
Apr.
2017(p)

Total private

$25.54 $26.10 $26.12 $26.19 $878.58 $895.23 $895.92 $900.94

Goods-producing

26.79 27.32 27.34 27.47 1,079.64 1,101.00 1,096.33 1,107.04

Mining and logging

32.12 32.54 32.57 32.56 1,381.16 1,438.27 1,455.88 1,461.94

Construction

27.96 28.48 28.54 28.55 1,093.24 1,113.57 1,104.50 1,119.16

Manufacturing

25.87 26.39 26.39 26.57 1,052.91 1,074.07 1,071.43 1,081.40

Durable goods

27.18 27.63 27.62 27.80 1,119.82 1,141.12 1,135.18 1,142.58

Nondurable goods

23.61 24.27 24.28 24.45 942.04 968.37 963.92 975.56

Private service-providing

25.24 25.81 25.84 25.89 840.49 856.89 857.89 862.14

Trade, transportation, and utilities

22.23 22.62 22.62 22.61 764.71 773.60 773.60 780.05

Wholesale trade

29.40 29.99 29.93 29.93 1,143.66 1,169.61 1,164.28 1,167.27

Retail trade

17.81 18.01 18.00 18.01 553.89 554.71 556.20 561.91

Transportation and warehousing

23.08 23.59 23.66 23.68 895.50 912.93 908.54 916.42

Utilities

38.22 38.61 38.88 39.23 1,616.71 1,617.76 1,644.62 1,624.12

Information

36.28 37.56 37.55 37.96 1,306.08 1,363.43 1,363.07 1,381.74

Financial activities

32.15 32.79 32.73 32.86 1,208.84 1,226.35 1,220.83 1,232.25

Professional and business services

30.68 31.37 31.59 31.62 1,107.55 1,129.32 1,137.24 1,141.48

Education and health services

25.67 26.11 26.07 26.15 841.98 859.02 857.70 860.34

Leisure and hospitality

14.76 15.26 15.33 15.40 385.24 395.23 398.58 401.94

Other services

22.93 23.62 23.48 23.53 731.47 751.12 749.01 750.61

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2016 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-4. Indexes of aggregate weekly hours and payrolls for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
[2007=100]
Industry Index of aggregate weekly hours(1) Index of aggregate weekly payrolls(2)
Apr.
2016
Feb.
2017
Mar.
2017(p)
Apr.
2017(p)
Percent change from:
Mar.
2017 - Apr.
2017(p)
Apr.
2016
Feb.
2017
Mar.
2017(p)
Apr.
2017(p)
Percent change from:
Mar.
2017 - Apr.
2017(p)

Total private

105.0 106.3 106.3 106.8 0.5 128.3 132.6 132.8 133.7 0.7

Goods-producing

90.6 91.5 91.2 91.7 0.5 109.8 113.0 112.7 113.9 1.1

Mining and logging

92.3 95.1 97.5 99.3 1.8 119.0 124.3 127.5 129.8 1.8

Construction

90.4 92.6 91.7 92.9 1.3 109.8 114.6 113.7 115.3 1.4

Manufacturing

90.5 90.6 90.5 90.8 0.3 108.8 111.2 111.1 112.2 1.0

Durable goods

89.7 89.8 89.4 89.4 0.0 108.3 110.2 109.7 110.4 0.6

Nondurable goods

92.0 92.7 92.3 93.0 0.8 110.2 114.1 113.7 115.3 1.4

Private service-providing

109.2 110.6 110.6 111.1 0.5 133.9 138.7 138.9 139.8 0.6

Trade, transportation, and utilities

101.7 101.9 101.8 102.8 1.0 121.7 124.0 123.9 125.1 1.0

Wholesale trade

99.5 100.5 100.3 100.6 0.3 122.1 125.8 125.2 125.7 0.4

Retail trade

99.8 99.4 99.6 100.6 1.0 117.5 118.3 118.5 119.7 1.0

Transportation and warehousing

110.4 111.7 111.0 111.9 0.8 129.2 133.7 133.2 134.5 1.0

Utilities

101.7 100.7 101.6 99.6 -2.0 128.4 128.5 130.5 129.1 -1.1

Information

91.4 91.1 90.9 90.9 0.0 118.1 121.8 121.5 122.9 1.2

Financial activities

101.6 102.9 102.7 103.4 0.7 127.4 131.6 131.0 132.6 1.2

Professional and business services

113.5 116.1 116.5 117.0 0.4 141.1 147.6 149.0 149.9 0.6

Education and health services

120.5 123.3 123.4 123.6 0.2 148.8 154.9 154.7 155.5 0.5

Leisure and hospitality

115.8 116.7 117.2 118.1 0.8 137.9 143.7 145.0 146.7 1.2

Other services

104.4 104.9 105.3 105.4 0.1 131.2 135.8 135.5 135.9 0.3

Footnotes
(1) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding 2007 annual average aggregate hours. Aggregate hours estimates are the product of estimates of average weekly hours and employment.
(2) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding 2007 annual average aggregate weekly payrolls. Aggregate payrolls estimates are the product of estimates of average hourly earnings, average weekly hours, and employment.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2016 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-5. Employment of women on nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Women employees (in thousands) Percent of all employees
Apr.
2016
Feb.
2017
Mar.
2017(p)
Apr.
2017(p)
Apr.
2016
Feb.
2017
Mar.
2017(p)
Apr.
2017(p)

Total nonfarm

71,186 72,238 72,257 72,341 49.5 49.6 49.5 49.5

Total private

58,482 59,431 59,443 59,512 48.1 48.1 48.1 48.1

Goods-producing

4,316 4,364 4,367 4,375 21.9 21.9 21.9 21.9

Mining and logging

101 100 101 102 14.8 14.6 14.6 14.5

Construction

837 863 859 862 12.5 12.6 12.5 12.5

Manufacturing

3,378 3,401 3,407 3,411 27.3 27.5 27.5 27.5

Durable goods

1,805 1,805 1,809 1,810 23.3 23.4 23.4 23.4

Nondurable goods

1,573 1,596 1,598 1,601 34.0 34.3 34.3 34.3

Private service-providing

54,166 55,067 55,076 55,137 53.1 53.2 53.2 53.1

Trade, transportation, and utilities

11,053 11,064 11,035 11,039 40.7 40.4 40.3 40.3

Wholesale trade

1,733.3 1,745.9 1,741.7 1,741.4 29.6 29.6 29.5 29.4

Retail trade

7,986.8 7,959.4 7,937.6 7,938.1 50.6 50.1 50.0 50.0

Transportation and warehousing

1,202.1 1,230.2 1,228.4 1,231.7 24.2 24.4 24.3 24.4

Utilities

131.2 128.0 127.3 128.0 23.6 23.0 22.9 23.0

Information

1,108 1,097 1,092 1,092 39.8 39.9 39.8 39.9

Financial activities

4,697 4,760 4,760 4,765 56.9 56.7 56.6 56.6

Professional and business services

8,955 9,223 9,249 9,255 44.8 45.0 45.0 44.9

Education and health services

17,316 17,692 17,703 17,728 77.0 77.1 77.1 77.1

Leisure and hospitality

8,065 8,216 8,218 8,233 51.9 52.0 52.0 51.9

Other services

2,972 3,015 3,019 3,025 52.4 52.7 52.8 52.8

Government

12,704 12,807 12,814 12,829 57.3 57.4 57.4 57.4

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2016 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-6. Employment of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
[In thousands]
Industry Apr.
2016
Feb.
2017
Mar.
2017(p)
Apr.
2017(p)

Total private

100,179 101,784 101,864 101,991

Goods-producing

14,229 14,364 14,378 14,397

Mining and logging

482 482 491 500

Construction

5,068 5,193 5,190 5,193

Manufacturing

8,679 8,689 8,697 8,704

Durable goods

5,323 5,311 5,315 5,309

Nondurable goods

3,356 3,378 3,382 3,395

Private service-providing

85,950 87,420 87,486 87,594

Trade, transportation, and utilities

22,853 23,044 23,031 23,046

Wholesale trade

4,686.0 4,725.4 4,732.9 4,743.2

Retail trade

13,424.7 13,494.4 13,468.0 13,466.5

Transportation and warehousing

4,297.0 4,376.9 4,381.8 4,388.5

Utilities

445.2 447.1 447.8 448.0

Information

2,243 2,213 2,209 2,205

Financial activities

6,391 6,530 6,530 6,539

Professional and business services

16,357 16,801 16,852 16,866

Education and health services

19,721 20,158 20,173 20,206

Leisure and hospitality

13,679 13,932 13,947 13,984

Other services

4,706 4,742 4,744 4,748

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2016 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-7. Average weekly hours and overtime of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry Apr.
2016
Feb.
2017
Mar.
2017(p)
Apr.
2017(p)

AVERAGE WEEKLY HOURS

Total private

33.6 33.6 33.6 33.7

Goods-producing

41.1 41.3 41.0 41.2

Mining and logging

44.9 45.9 45.8 46.0

Construction

39.5 39.8 39.4 39.8

Manufacturing

41.8 41.9 41.7 41.8

Durable goods

42.2 42.4 42.2 42.1

Nondurable goods

41.1 41.3 41.0 41.3

Private service-providing

32.4 32.4 32.3 32.4

Trade, transportation, and utilities

33.5 33.6 33.6 33.8

Wholesale trade

38.6 38.8 38.8 38.8

Retail trade

29.8 30.0 30.0 30.3

Transportation and warehousing

38.8 38.3 38.0 38.3

Utilities

42.3 42.2 42.6 41.8

Information

35.6 35.7 35.7 35.8

Financial activities

37.1 36.9 36.9 36.9

Professional and business services

35.5 35.3 35.3 35.4

Education and health services

32.2 32.3 32.2 32.1

Leisure and hospitality

24.9 24.8 24.8 24.9

Other services

30.9 30.8 30.8 30.8

AVERAGE OVERTIME HOURS

Manufacturing

4.3 4.2 4.2 4.2

Durable goods

4.5 4.3 4.3 4.2

Nondurable goods

4.1 4.0 4.1 4.1

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2016 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-8. Average hourly and weekly earnings of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry Average hourly earnings Average weekly earnings
Apr.
2016
Feb.
2017
Mar.
2017(p)
Apr.
2017(p)
Apr.
2016
Feb.
2017
Mar.
2017(p)
Apr.
2017(p)

Total private

$21.46 $21.86 $21.90 $21.96 $721.06 $734.50 $735.84 $740.05

Goods-producing

22.46 22.87 22.94 22.96 923.11 944.53 940.54 945.95

Mining and logging

27.13 27.54 27.76 27.83 1,218.14 1,264.09 1,271.41 1,280.18

Construction

25.72 26.29 26.39 26.36 1,015.94 1,046.34 1,039.77 1,049.13

Manufacturing

20.39 20.64 20.69 20.72 852.30 864.82 862.77 866.10

Durable goods

21.46 21.61 21.65 21.63 905.61 916.26 913.63 910.62

Nondurable goods

18.63 19.08 19.14 19.26 765.69 788.00 784.74 795.44

Private service-providing

21.25 21.65 21.69 21.75 688.50 701.46 700.59 704.70

Trade, transportation, and utilities

18.94 19.20 19.24 19.26 634.49 645.12 646.46 650.99

Wholesale trade

24.11 24.58 24.54 24.66 930.65 953.70 952.15 956.81

Retail trade

15.03 15.22 15.24 15.26 447.89 456.60 457.20 462.38

Transportation and warehousing

20.88 21.04 21.14 21.17 810.14 805.83 803.32 810.81

Utilities

35.10 36.00 36.25 36.08 1,484.73 1,519.20 1,544.25 1,508.14

Information

29.84 30.36 30.44 30.54 1,062.30 1,083.85 1,086.71 1,093.33

Financial activities

26.11 26.29 26.38 26.49 968.68 970.10 973.42 977.48

Professional and business services

25.27 25.83 25.91 26.01 897.09 911.80 914.62 920.75

Education and health services

22.47 22.89 22.88 22.95 723.53 739.35 736.74 736.70

Leisure and hospitality

12.78 13.18 13.24 13.30 318.22 326.86 328.35 331.17

Other services

19.28 19.84 19.73 19.81 595.75 611.07 607.68 610.15

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2016 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-9. Indexes of aggregate weekly hours and payrolls for production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
[2002=100]
Industry Index of aggregate weekly hours(2) Index of aggregate weekly payrolls(3)
Apr.
2016
Feb.
2017
Mar.
2017(p)
Apr.
2017(p)
Percent change from:
Mar.
2017 - Apr.
2017(p)
Apr.
2016
Feb.
2017
Mar.
2017(p)
Apr.
2017(p)
Percent change from:
Mar.
2017 - Apr.
2017(p)

Total private

112.1 113.9 114.0 114.5 0.4 160.8 166.5 166.9 168.1 0.7

Goods-producing

89.4 90.7 90.1 90.6 0.6 122.9 127.0 126.5 127.4 0.7

Mining and logging

115.0 117.6 119.5 122.2 2.3 181.5 188.3 192.9 197.8 2.5

Construction

100.2 103.5 102.4 103.5 1.1 139.2 146.9 145.9 147.3 1.0

Manufacturing

83.3 83.6 83.3 83.5 0.2 111.0 112.8 112.6 113.2 0.5

Durable goods

84.4 84.6 84.3 84.0 -0.4 113.1 114.2 113.9 113.4 -0.4

Nondurable goods

81.3 82.2 81.7 82.6 1.1 107.0 110.8 110.5 112.4 1.7

Private service-providing

118.6 120.6 120.3 120.9 0.5 172.8 179.1 179.0 180.3 0.7

Trade, transportation, and utilities

106.7 107.9 107.9 108.6 0.6 144.2 147.8 148.1 149.2 0.7

Wholesale trade

106.5 108.0 108.1 108.4 0.3 151.3 156.3 156.3 157.4 0.7

Retail trade

101.3 102.5 102.3 103.3 1.0 130.4 133.7 133.6 135.1 1.1

Transportation and warehousing

125.5 126.2 125.3 126.5 1.0 166.2 168.4 168.1 169.9 1.1

Utilities

96.3 96.5 97.6 95.8 -1.8 141.1 145.0 147.6 144.2 -2.3

Information

91.1 90.2 90.0 90.1 0.1 134.6 135.5 135.6 136.2 0.4

Financial activities

111.6 113.4 113.4 113.6 0.2 179.3 183.5 184.1 185.1 0.5

Professional and business services

130.1 132.9 133.3 133.8 0.4 195.7 204.3 205.6 207.1 0.7

Education and health services

135.4 138.8 138.5 138.3 -0.1 200.8 209.7 209.2 209.5 0.1

Leisure and hospitality

124.8 126.6 126.7 127.5 0.6 181.1 189.4 190.5 192.6 1.1

Other services

102.0 102.4 102.5 102.6 0.1 143.3 148.1 147.3 148.0 0.5

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(2) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding 2002 annual average aggregate hours. Aggregate hours estimates are the product of estimates of average weekly hours and employment.
(3) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding 2002 annual average aggregate weekly payrolls. Aggregate payrolls estimates are the product of estimates of average hourly earnings, average weekly hours, and employment.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2016 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


Last Modified Date: May 05, 2017