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Economic News Release
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CPS CPS Program Links
CES CES Program Links

Employment Situation News Release

Transmission of material in this news release is embargoed until		USDL-22-0787
8:30 a.m. (ET) Friday, May 6, 2022

Technical information: 
 Household data:	(202) 691-6378  *  cpsinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/cps
 Establishment data:	(202) 691-6555  *  cesinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/ces

Media contact:		(202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov
	

			  THE EMPLOYMENT SITUATION -- APRIL 2022


Total nonfarm payroll employment increased by 428,000 in April, and the unemployment rate
was unchanged at 3.6 percent, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. Job 
growth was widespread, led by gains in leisure and hospitality, in manufacturing, and in
transportation and warehousing.

This news release presents statistics from two monthly surveys. The household survey 
measures labor force status, including unemployment, by demographic characteristics. The 
establishment survey measures nonfarm employment, hours, and earnings by industry. For more
information about the concepts and statistical methodology used in these two surveys, see
the Technical Note.

Household Survey Data

The unemployment rate remained at 3.6 percent in April, and the number of unemployed 
persons was essentially unchanged at 5.9 million. These measures are little different from
their values in February 2020 (3.5 percent and 5.7 million, respectively), prior to the 
coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic. (See table A-1.) 

Among the major worker groups, the unemployment rates for adult men (3.5 percent), adult 
women (3.2 percent), teenagers (10.2 percent), Whites (3.2 percent), Blacks (5.9 percent),
Asians (3.1 percent), and Hispanics (4.1 percent) showed little or no change over the
month. (See tables A-1, A-2, and A-3.) 

Among the unemployed, the number of permanent job losers remained at 1.4 million in April,
and the number of persons on temporary layoff was little changed at 853,000. These 
measures are little different from their values in February 2020. (See table A-11.) 

In April, the number of long-term unemployed (those jobless for 27 weeks or more) was 
little changed at 1.5 million. This measure is 362,000 higher than in February 2020. The 
long-term unemployed accounted for 25.2 percent of all unemployed persons in April. 
(See table A-12.) 

Both the labor force participation rate, at 62.2 percent, and the employment-population 
ratio, at 60.0 percent, were little changed over the month. These measures are each 1.2 
percentage points below their February 2020 values. (See table A-1.) 

The number of persons employed part time for economic reasons was little changed at 4.0
million in April and is down by 357,000 from its February 2020 level. These individuals, 
who would have preferred full-time employment, were working part time because their hours
had been reduced or they were unable to find full-time jobs. (See table A-8.) 

The number of persons not in the labor force who currently want a job was little changed 
at 5.9 million in April. This measure is above its February 2020 level of 5.0 million. 
These individuals were not counted as unemployed because they were not actively looking 
for work during the 4 weeks preceding the survey or were unavailable to take a job. 
(See table A-1.) 

Among those not in the labor force who wanted a job, the number of persons marginally 
attached to the labor force increased by 262,000 in April to 1.6 million. These individuals
wanted and were available for work and had looked for a job sometime in the prior 12 months
but had not looked for work in the 4 weeks preceding the survey. Discouraged workers, a 
subset of the marginally attached who believed that no jobs were available for them, 
numbered 456,000 in April, little different from the prior month. (See Summary table A.) 

Household Survey Supplemental Data 

In April, 7.7 percent of employed persons teleworked because of the coronavirus pandemic,
down from 10.0 percent in the prior month. These data refer to employed persons who 
teleworked or worked at home for pay at some point in the 4 weeks preceding the survey 
specifically because of the pandemic. 

In April, 1.7 million persons reported that they had been unable to work because their 
employer closed or lost business due to the pandemic--that is, they did not work at all or
worked fewer hours at some point in the 4 weeks preceding the survey due to the pandemic.
This measure is down from 2.5 million in the previous month. Among those who reported in 
April that they were unable to work because of pandemic-related closures or lost business,
19.0 percent received at least some pay from their employer for the hours not worked, 
little different from the prior month. 

Among those not in the labor force in April, 586,000 persons were prevented from looking 
for work due to the pandemic, down from 874,000 in the prior month. (To be counted as 
unemployed, by definition, individuals must be either actively looking for work or on 
temporary layoff.) 

These supplemental data come from questions added to the household survey beginning in May
2020 to help gauge the effects of the pandemic on the labor market. The data are not 
seasonally adjusted. Tables with estimates from the supplemental questions for all months
are available online at www.bls.gov/cps/effects-of-the-coronavirus-covid-19-pandemic.htm. 

Establishment Survey Data

Total nonfarm payroll employment rose by 428,000 in April. Job gains were widespread, with
the largest gains occurring in leisure and hospitality, in manufacturing, and in 
transportation and warehousing. However, nonfarm employment is down by 1.2 million, or 0.8
percent, from its pre-pandemic level in February 2020. (See table B-1.)

Employment in leisure and hospitality increased by 78,000 in April. Job growth continued 
in food services and drinking places (+44,000) and accommodation (+22,000). Employment in
leisure and hospitality is down by 1.4 million, or 8.5 percent, since February 2020.

Manufacturing added 55,000 jobs in April. Employment in durable goods rose by 31,000, with
gains in transportation equipment (+14,000) and machinery (+7,000). Nondurable goods added
24,000 jobs, with job growth in food manufacturing (+8,000) and plastics and rubber 
products (+6,000). Since February 2020, manufacturing employment is down by 56,000, or 
0.4 percent.

Employment in transportation and warehousing rose by 52,000 in April. Within the industry,
job gains occurred in warehousing and storage (+17,000), couriers and messengers 
(+15,000), truck transportation (+13,000), and air transportation (+4,000). Employment in
transportation and warehousing is 674,000 above its February 2020 level, led by strong 
growth in warehousing and storage (+467,000) and in couriers and messengers (+259,000).

In April, employment in professional and business services continued to trend up 
(+41,000). Since February 2020, employment in the industry is up by 738,000.

Financial activities added 35,000 jobs in April, led by a gain in insurance carriers and 
related activities (+20,000). Employment also rose in nondepository credit intermediation
(+6,000) and in securities, commodity contracts, and investments (+5,000). Employment in 
financial activities is 71,000 higher than in February 2020.

Health care employment rose by 34,000 in April, reflecting a gain in ambulatory health 
care services (+28,000). Employment in health care is down by 250,000, or 1.5 percent, 
since February 2020.

Employment in retail trade increased by 29,000 in April. Job gains in food and beverage 
stores (+24,000) and general merchandise stores (+12,000) were partially offset by losses 
in building material and garden supply stores (-16,000) and health and personal care 
stores (-9,000). Retail trade employment is 284,000 above its level in February 2020.

In April, wholesale trade employment rose by 22,000. Employment in the industry is down by
57,000, or 1.0 percent, since February 2020.

Mining added 9,000 jobs in April, with a gain in oil and gas extraction (+5,000). Mining 
employment is 73,000 higher than a recent low in February 2021.

Employment showed little change over the month in other major industries, including 
construction, information, other services, and government.

Average hourly earnings for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls rose by 10 cents, or
0.3 percent, to $31.85 in April. Over the past 12 months, average hourly earnings have 
increased by 5.5 percent. In April, average hourly earnings of private sector production 
and nonsupervisory employees rose by 10 cents, or 0.4 percent, to $27.12. (See tables B-3
and B-8.) 

The average workweek for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls was unchanged at 34.6
hours in April. In manufacturing, the average workweek for all employees fell by 0.2 hour
to 40.5 hours, and overtime held at 3.4 hours. The average workweek for production and 
nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls was unchanged at 34.1 hours. 
(See tables B-2 and B-7.) 

The change in total nonfarm payroll employment for February was revised down by 36,000, 
from +750,000 to +714,000, and the change for March was revised down by 3,000, from 
+431,000 to +428,000. With these revisions, employment in February and March combined is 
39,000 lower than previously reported. (Monthly revisions result from additional reports
received from businesses and government agencies since the last published estimates and 
from the recalculation of seasonal factors.)

_____________
The Employment Situation for May is scheduled to be released on 
Friday, June 3, 2022, at 8:30 a.m. (ET).




HOUSEHOLD DATA
Summary table A. Household data, seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Category Apr.
2021
Feb.
2022
Mar.
2022
Apr.
2022
Change from:
Mar.
2022-
Apr.
2022

Employment status

Civilian noninstitutional population

261,103 263,324 263,444 263,559 115

Civilian labor force

160,978 163,991 164,409 164,046 -363

Participation rate

61.7 62.3 62.4 62.2 -0.2

Employed

151,259 157,722 158,458 158,105 -353

Employment-population ratio

57.9 59.9 60.1 60.0 -0.1

Unemployed

9,719 6,270 5,952 5,941 -11

Unemployment rate

6.0 3.8 3.6 3.6 0.0

Not in labor force

100,125 99,333 99,035 99,513 478

Unemployment rates

Total, 16 years and over

6.0 3.8 3.6 3.6 0.0

Adult men (20 years and over)

6.0 3.5 3.4 3.5 0.1

Adult women (20 years and over)

5.6 3.6 3.3 3.2 -0.1

Teenagers (16 to 19 years)

11.6 10.3 10.0 10.2 0.2

White

5.3 3.3 3.2 3.2 0.0

Black or African American

9.7 6.6 6.2 5.9 -0.3

Asian

5.7 3.1 2.8 3.1 0.3

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

7.7 4.4 4.2 4.1 -0.1

Total, 25 years and over

5.3 3.3 2.9 3.0 0.1

Less than a high school diploma

9.4 4.3 5.2 5.4 0.2

High school graduates, no college

6.9 4.5 4.0 3.8 -0.2

Some college or associate degree

5.9 3.8 3.0 3.1 0.1

Bachelor's degree and higher

3.5 2.2 2.0 2.0 0.0

Reason for unemployment

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

6,270 3,044 2,831 2,839 8

Job leavers

818 963 787 793 6

Reentrants

2,132 1,947 1,985 1,882 -103

New entrants

595 417 463 515 52

Duration of unemployment

Less than 5 weeks

2,400 2,131 2,289 2,227 -62

5 to 14 weeks

1,981 1,800 1,684 1,617 -67

15 to 26 weeks

1,160 735 571 551 -20

27 weeks and over

4,187 1,702 1,428 1,483 55

Employed persons at work part time

Part time for economic reasons

5,245 4,135 4,170 4,033 -137

Slack work or business conditions

4,011 2,707 2,880 2,647 -233

Could only find part-time work

990 1,060 1,055 1,071 16

Part time for noneconomic reasons

19,220 20,667 20,870 20,826 -44

Persons not in the labor force

Marginally attached to the labor force

1,853 1,471 1,360 1,622 262

Discouraged workers

562 391 373 456 83

NOTE: Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Summary table B. Establishment data, seasonally adjusted
Category Apr.
2021
Feb.
2022
Mar.
2022(p)
Apr.
2022(p)

EMPLOYMENT BY SELECTED INDUSTRY
(Over-the-month change, in thousands)

Total nonfarm

263 714 428 428

Total private

212 704 424 406

Goods-producing

-40 114 67 66

Mining and logging

3 10 4 9

Construction

-15 54 20 2

Manufacturing

-28 50 43 55

Durable goods(1)

-33 20 25 31

Motor vehicles and parts

-49.1 -14.0 3.6 6.1

Nondurable goods

5 30 18 24

Private service-providing

252 590 357 340

Wholesale trade

11.6 26.5 24.7 22.2

Retail trade

10.2 111.3 24.5 29.2

Transportation and warehousing

2.0 73.8 9.5 52.0

Utilities

0.5 0.1 0.0 0.3

Information

20 0 21 12

Financial activities

14 29 12 35

Professional and business services(1)

-78 87 94 41

Temporary help services

-115.1 28.2 1.3 2.4

Education and health services(1)

41 101 57 59

Health care and social assistance

26.3 91.1 45.2 40.9

Leisure and hospitality

208 124 100 78

Other services

23 38 14 11

Government

51 10 4 22

(3-month average change, in thousands)

Total nonfarm

559 602 549 523

Total private

518 586 540 511

WOMEN AND PRODUCTION AND NONSUPERVISORY EMPLOYEES
AS A PERCENT OF ALL EMPLOYEES(2)

Total nonfarm women employees

49.8 49.7 49.8 49.8

Total private women employees

48.4 48.3 48.4 48.4

Total private production and nonsupervisory employees

81.3 81.5 81.5 81.5

HOURS AND EARNINGS
ALL EMPLOYEES

Total private

Average weekly hours

34.9 34.7 34.6 34.6

Average hourly earnings

$30.20 $31.60 $31.75 $31.85

Average weekly earnings

$1,053.98 $1,096.52 $1,098.55 $1,102.01

Index of aggregate weekly hours (2007=100)(3)

107.6 111.8 111.8 112.2

Over-the-month percent change

0.2 0.9 0.0 0.4

Index of aggregate weekly payrolls (2007=100)(4)

155.3 168.8 169.7 170.8

Over-the-month percent change

0.6 1.0 0.5 0.6

DIFFUSION INDEX
(Over 1-month span)(5)

Total private (256 industries)

65.2 79.9 71.3 71.3

Manufacturing (74 industries)

60.8 85.1 64.9 74.3

Footnotes
(1) Includes other industries, not shown separately.
(2) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries.
(3) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding annual average aggregate hours.
(4) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding annual average aggregate weekly payrolls.
(5) Figures are the percent of industries with employment increasing plus one-half of the industries with unchanged employment, where 50 percent indicates an equal balance between industries with increasing and decreasing employment.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2021 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


Frequently Asked Questions about Employment and Unemployment Estimates

1. Why are there two monthly measures of employment?

   The household survey and establishment survey both produce sample-based estimates
   of employment, and both have strengths and limitations. The establishment survey
   employment series has a smaller margin of error on the measurement of month-to-
   month change than the household survey because of its much larger sample size. An
   over-the-month employment change of about 100,000 is statistically significant in
   the establishment survey, while the threshold for a statistically significant change
   in the household survey is about 500,000. However, the household survey has a more
   expansive scope than the establishment survey because it includes self-employed
   workers whose businesses are unincorporated, unpaid family workers, agricultural
   workers, and private household workers, who are excluded by the establishment survey.
   The household survey also provides estimates of employment for demographic groups.
   For more information on the differences between the two surveys, please visit
   https://www.bls.gov/web/empsit/ces_cps_trends.htm.

2. Are undocumented immigrants counted in the surveys?

   It is likely that both surveys include at least some undocumented immigrants. However,
   neither the establishment nor the household survey is designed to identify the legal
   status of workers. Therefore, it is not possible to determine how many are counted in
   either survey. The establishment survey does not collect data on the legal status of
   workers. The household survey does include questions which identify the foreign and
   native born, but it does not include questions about the legal status of the foreign
   born. Data on the foreign and native born are published each month in table A-7 of
   The Employment Situation news release.

3. Why does the establishment survey have revisions?

   The establishment survey revises published estimates to improve its data series by
   incorporating additional information that was not available at the time of the
   initial publication of the estimates. The establishment survey revises its initial
   monthly estimates twice, in the immediately succeeding 2 months, to incorporate
   additional sample receipts from respondents in the survey and recalculated seasonal
   adjustment factors. For more information on the monthly revisions, please visit
   https://www.bls.gov/web/empsit/cestn.htm#section7.

   On an annual basis, the establishment survey incorporates a benchmark revision that
   re-anchors estimates to nearly complete employment counts available from unemployment
   insurance tax records. The benchmark helps to control for sampling and modeling errors
   in the estimates. For more information on the annual benchmark revision, please visit
   https://www.bls.gov/web/empsit/cesbmart.htm.

4. Does the establishment survey sample include small firms?

   Yes; about 40 percent of the establishment survey sample is comprised of business
   establishments with fewer than 20 employees. The establishment survey sample is
   designed to maximize the reliability of the statewide total nonfarm employment
   estimate; firms from all states, size classes, and industries are appropriately
   sampled to achieve that goal.

5. Does the establishment survey account for employment from new businesses?

   Yes; monthly establishment survey estimates include an adjustment to account for
   the net employment change generated by business births and deaths. The adjustment
   comes from an econometric model that forecasts the monthly net jobs impact of
   business births and deaths based on the actual past values of the net impact that
   can be observed with a lag from the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages. The
   establishment survey uses modeling rather than sampling for this purpose because
   the survey is not immediately able to bring new businesses into the sample. There
   is an unavoidable lag between the birth of a new firm and its appearance on the
   sampling frame and availability for selection. BLS adds new businesses to the survey
   twice a year.

6. Is the count of unemployed persons limited to just those people receiving unemployment
   insurance benefits?

   No; the estimate of unemployment is based on a monthly sample survey of households.
   All persons who are without jobs and are actively seeking and available to work are
   included among the unemployed. (People on temporary layoff are included even if
   they do not actively seek work.) There is no requirement or question relating to
   unemployment insurance benefits in the monthly survey.

7. Does the official unemployment rate exclude people who want a job but are not currently
   looking for work?

   Yes; however, there are separate estimates of persons outside the labor force who
   want a job, including those who are not currently looking because they believe no
   jobs are available (discouraged workers). In addition, alternative measures of labor
   underutilization (some of which include discouraged workers and other groups not
   officially counted as unemployed) are published each month in table A-15 of The
   Employment Situation news release. For more information about these alternative
   measures, please visit https://www.bls.gov/cps/lfcharacteristics.htm#altmeasures.

8. How can unusually severe weather affect employment and hours estimates?

   In the establishment survey, the reference period is the pay period that includes
   the 12th of the month. Unusually severe weather is more likely to have an impact on
   average weekly hours than on employment. Average weekly hours are estimated for paid
   time during the pay period, including pay for holidays, sick leave, or other time off.
   The impact of severe weather on hours estimates typically, but not always, results in
   a reduction in average weekly hours. For example, some employees may be off work for
   part of the pay period and not receive pay for the time missed, while some workers,
   such as those dealing with cleanup or repair, may work extra hours.
   
   Typically, it is not possible to precisely quantify the effect of extreme weather on 
   payroll employment estimates. In order for severe weather conditions to reduce
   employment estimates, employees have to be off work without pay for the entire pay
   period. Employees who receive pay for any part of the pay period, even 1 hour, are
   counted in the payroll employment figures. For more information on how often employees
   are paid, please visit https://www.bls.gov/opub/btn/volume-3/how-frequently-do-private-
   businesses-pay-workers.htm.

   In the household survey, the reference period is generally the calendar week that
   includes the 12th of the month. Persons who miss the entire week's work for weather-
   related events are counted as employed whether or not they are paid for the time
   off. The household survey collects data on the number of persons who had a job but
   were not at work due to bad weather. It also provides a measure of the number of
   persons who usually work full time but had reduced hours due to bad weather. 
   Current and historical data are available on the household survey's most requested
   statistics page, please visit https://data.bls.gov/cgi-bin/surveymost?ln.




Technical Note


   This news release presents statistics from two major surveys, the Current
Population Survey (CPS; household survey) and the Current Employment Statistics
survey (CES; establishment survey). The household survey provides information
on the labor force, employment, and unemployment that appears in the "A" tables,
marked HOUSEHOLD DATA. It is a sample survey of about 60,000 eligible households
conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau for the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS).

   The establishment survey provides information on employment, hours, and
earnings of employees on nonfarm payrolls; the data appear in the "B" tables,
marked ESTABLISHMENT DATA. BLS collects these data each month from the payroll
records of a sample of nonagricultural business establishments. Each month
the CES program surveys about 131,000 businesses and government agencies,
representing approximately 670,000 individual worksites, in order to provide
detailed industry data on employment, hours, and earnings of workers on nonfarm
payrolls. The active sample includes approximately one-third of all nonfarm
payroll jobs.

   For both surveys, the data for a given month relate to a particular week or
pay period. In the household survey, the reference period is generally the
calendar week that contains the 12th day of the month. In the establishment
survey, the reference period is the pay period including the 12th, which may or
may not correspond directly to the calendar week.

Coverage, definitions, and differences between surveys

   Household survey. The sample is selected to reflect the entire civilian 
noninstitutional population. Based on responses to a series of questions on 
work and job search activities, each person 16 years and over in a sample
household is classified as employed, unemployed, or not in the labor force.

   People are classified as employed if they did any work at all as paid employees
during the reference week; worked in their own business, profession, or on their
own farm; or worked without pay at least 15 hours in a family business or farm.
People are also counted as employed if they were temporarily absent from their jobs
because of illness, bad weather, vacation, labor-management disputes, or personal
reasons.

   People are classified as unemployed if they meet all of the following criteria:
they had no employment during the reference week; they were available for work at
that time; and they made specific active efforts to find employment sometime during
the 4-week period ending with the reference week. Persons laid off from a job and
expecting recall need not be looking for work to be counted as unemployed. The
unemployment data derived from the household survey in no way depend upon the
eligibility for or receipt of unemployment insurance benefits.

   The civilian labor force is the sum of employed and unemployed persons.
Those persons not classified as employed or unemployed are not in the labor 
force. The unemployment rate is the number unemployed as a percent of the 
labor force. The labor force participation rate is the labor force as a 
percent of the population, and the employment-population ratio is the 
employed as a percent of the population. Additional information about the 
household survey can be found at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm.

   Establishment survey. The sample establishments are drawn from private
nonfarm businesses such as factories, offices, and stores, as well as
from federal, state, and local government entities. Employees on nonfarm
payrolls are those who worked or received pay for any part of the reference pay
period, including persons on paid leave. Persons are counted in each job
they hold. Hours and earnings data are produced for the private sector for
all employees and for production and nonsupervisory employees. Production
and nonsupervisory employees are defined as production and related employees
in manufacturing and mining and logging, construction workers in construction,
and nonsupervisory employees in private service-providing industries.

   Industries are classified on the basis of an establishment's principal
activity in accordance with the 2017 version of the North American Industry
Classification System. Additional information about the establishment survey
can be found at www.bls.gov/ces/.

   Differences in employment estimates. The numerous conceptual and methodological
differences between the household and establishment surveys result in important
distinctions in the employment estimates derived from the surveys. Among these are:

   --The household survey includes agricultural workers, self-employed workers
     whose businesses are unincorporated, unpaid family workers, and private
     household workers among the employed. These groups are excluded from the
     establishment survey.

   --The household survey includes people on unpaid leave among the employed.
     The establishment survey does not.

   --The household survey is limited to workers 16 years of age and older.
     The establishment survey is not limited by age.

   --The household survey has no duplication of individuals, because
     individuals are counted only once, even if they hold more than one
     job. In the establishment survey, employees working at more than one
     job and thus appearing on more than one payroll are counted separately
     for each appearance.

Seasonal adjustment

   Over the course of a year, the size of the nation's labor force and the levels
of employment and unemployment undergo regularly occurring fluctuations. These 
events may result from seasonal changes in weather, major holidays, and the opening
and closing of schools. The effect of such seasonal variation can be very large.

   Because these seasonal events follow a more or less regular pattern each year,
their influence on the level of a series can be tempered by adjusting for regular
seasonal variation. These adjustments make nonseasonal developments, such as
declines in employment or increases in the participation of women in the labor
force, easier to spot. For example, in the household survey, the large number of
youth entering the labor force each June is likely to obscure any other changes
that have taken place relative to May, making it difficult to determine if the 
level of economic activity has risen or declined. Similarly, in the establishment
survey, payroll employment in education declines by about 20 percent at the end
of the spring term and later rises with the start of the fall term, obscuring the
underlying employment trends in the industry. Because seasonal employment changes
at the end and beginning of the school year can be estimated, the statistics can be
adjusted to make underlying employment patterns more discernable.  The seasonally
adjusted figures provide a more useful tool with which to analyze changes in
month-to-month economic activity.

   Many seasonally adjusted series are independently adjusted in both the household
and establishment surveys. However, the adjusted series for many major estimates,
such as total payroll employment, employment in most major sectors, total employment,
and unemployment are computed by aggregating independently adjusted component series.
For example, total unemployment is derived by summing the adjusted series for four
major age-sex components; this differs from the unemployment estimate that would be
obtained by directly adjusting the total or by combining the duration, reasons, or 
more detailed age categories. Percentage distributions of unemployment by reason and
duration are derived from the sum of the independently seasonally adjusted component
series, and will not necessarily match calculations made using the seasonally adjusted
total unemployment level. Additional information about seasonal adjustment in the 
household survey can be found at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#sa.

   For both the household and establishment surveys, a concurrent seasonal adjustment
methodology is used in which new seasonal factors are calculated each month using all
relevant data, up to and including the data for the current month. In the household
survey, new seasonal factors are used to adjust only the current month's data. In the
establishment survey, however, new seasonal factors are used each month to adjust the
three most recent monthly estimates. The prior 2 months are routinely revised to
incorporate additional sample reports and recalculated seasonal adjustment factors.
In both surveys, 5-year revisions to historical data are made once a year.

Reliability of the estimates

   Statistics based on the household and establishment surveys are subject to both
sampling and nonsampling error. When a sample, rather than the entire population,
is surveyed, there is a chance that the sample estimates may differ from the true
population values they represent. The component of this difference that occurs
because samples differ by chance is known as sampling error, and its variability
is measured by the standard error of the estimate. There is about a 90-percent
chance, or level of confidence, that an estimate based on a sample will differ by
no more than 1.6 standard errors from the true population value because of sampling
error. BLS analyses are generally conducted at the 90-percent level of confidence.

   For example, the confidence interval for the monthly change in total nonfarm
employment from the establishment survey is on the order of plus or minus 120,000.
Suppose the estimate of nonfarm employment increases by 50,000 from one month to
the next. The 90-percent confidence interval on the monthly change would range from
-70,000 to +170,000 (50,000 +/- 120,000). These figures do not mean that the sample
results are off by these magnitudes, but rather that there is about a 90-percent
chance that the true over-the-month change lies within this interval. Since this
range includes values of less than zero, we could not say with confidence that
nonfarm employment had, in fact, increased that month. If, however, the reported
nonfarm employment rise was 250,000, then all of the values within the 90-percent
confidence interval would be greater than zero. In this case, it is likely (at
least a 90-percent chance) that nonfarm employment had, in fact, risen that month.
At an unemployment rate of around 6.0 percent, the 90-percent confidence interval
for the monthly change in unemployment as measured by the household survey is
about +/- 300,000, and for the monthly change in the unemployment rate it is about
+/- 0.2 percentage point.

   In general, estimates involving many individuals or establishments have lower
standard errors (relative to the size of the estimate) than estimates which are based
on a small number of observations. The precision of estimates also is improved when
the data are cumulated over time, such as for quarterly and annual averages.

   The household and establishment surveys are also affected by nonsampling error,
which can occur for many reasons, including the failure to sample a segment of the
population, inability to obtain information for all respondents in the sample,
inability or unwillingness of respondents to provide correct information on a
timely basis, mistakes made by respondents, and errors made in the collection or
processing of the data.

   For example, in the establishment survey, estimates for the most recent 2 months
are based on incomplete returns; for this reason, these estimates are labeled
preliminary in the tables. It is only after two successive revisions to a monthly
estimate, when nearly all sample reports have been received, that the estimate is
considered final.

   Another major source of nonsampling error in the establishment survey is the
inability to capture, on a timely basis, employment generated by new firms. To
correct for this systematic underestimation of employment growth, an estimation
procedure with two components is used to account for business births. The first
component excludes employment losses from business deaths from sample-based
estimation in order to offset the missing employment gains from business births.
This is incorporated into the sample-based estimation procedure by simply not
reflecting sample units going out of business, but imputing to them the same
employment trend as the other firms in the sample. This procedure accounts for
most of the net birth/death employment.

   The second component is an ARIMA time series model designed to estimate the
residual net birth/death employment not accounted for by the imputation. The
historical time series used to create and test the ARIMA model was derived from
the unemployment insurance universe micro-level database, and reflects the actual
residual net of births and deaths over the past 5 years.

   The sample-based estimates from the establishment survey are adjusted once a
year (on a lagged basis) to universe counts of payroll employment obtained from
administrative records of the unemployment insurance program. The difference 
between the March sample-based employment estimates and the March universe counts
is known as a benchmark revision, and serves as a rough proxy for total survey
error. The new benchmarks also incorporate changes in the classification of
industries. Over the past decade, absolute benchmark revisions for total nonfarm
employment have averaged 0.1 percent, with a range from -0.3 percent to 0.3 percent.

Other information

   If you are deaf, hard of hearing, or have a speech disability, please dial 7-1-1
to access telecommunications relay services.




HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-1. Employment status of the civilian population by sex and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Apr.
2021
Mar.
2022
Apr.
2022
Apr.
2021
Dec.
2021
Jan.
2022
Feb.
2022
Mar.
2022
Apr.
2022

TOTAL

Civilian noninstitutional population

261,103 263,444 263,559 261,103 262,136 263,202 263,324 263,444 263,559

Civilian labor force

160,379 164,274 163,449 160,978 162,294 163,687 163,991 164,409 164,046

Participation rate

61.4 62.4 62.0 61.7 61.9 62.2 62.3 62.4 62.2

Employed

151,160 158,106 157,991 151,259 155,975 157,174 157,722 158,458 158,105

Employment-population ratio

57.9 60.0 59.9 57.9 59.5 59.7 59.9 60.1 60.0

Unemployed

9,220 6,168 5,458 9,719 6,319 6,513 6,270 5,952 5,941

Unemployment rate

5.7 3.8 3.3 6.0 3.9 4.0 3.8 3.6 3.6

Not in labor force

100,723 99,170 100,110 100,125 99,842 99,516 99,333 99,035 99,513

Persons who currently want a job

6,466 5,502 5,712 6,628 5,713 5,704 5,355 5,737 5,859

Men, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

126,316 128,355 128,411 126,316 126,832 128,236 128,296 128,355 128,411

Civilian labor force

85,112 87,408 87,041 85,416 85,857 87,074 87,567 87,660 87,377

Participation rate

67.4 68.1 67.8 67.6 67.7 67.9 68.3 68.3 68.0

Employed

79,965 83,902 83,922 80,092 82,508 83,518 84,247 84,465 84,089

Employment-population ratio

63.3 65.4 65.4 63.4 65.1 65.1 65.7 65.8 65.5

Unemployed

5,146 3,506 3,119 5,324 3,349 3,556 3,320 3,195 3,288

Unemployment rate

6.0 4.0 3.6 6.2 3.9 4.1 3.8 3.6 3.8

Not in labor force

41,204 40,947 41,371 40,900 40,975 41,162 40,729 40,695 41,034

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

118,003 119,726 119,780 118,003 118,520 119,612 119,669 119,726 119,780

Civilian labor force

82,275 84,403 84,157 82,384 82,902 83,967 84,446 84,426 84,295

Participation rate

69.7 70.5 70.3 69.8 69.9 70.2 70.6 70.5 70.4

Employed

77,447 81,201 81,324 77,423 79,892 80,767 81,473 81,554 81,334

Employment-population ratio

65.6 67.8 67.9 65.6 67.4 67.5 68.1 68.1 67.9

Unemployed

4,828 3,202 2,834 4,961 3,010 3,199 2,973 2,872 2,961

Unemployment rate

5.9 3.8 3.4 6.0 3.6 3.8 3.5 3.4 3.5

Not in labor force

35,728 35,323 35,623 35,619 35,618 35,645 35,224 35,300 35,486

Women, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

134,787 135,089 135,148 134,787 135,304 134,966 135,028 135,089 135,148

Civilian labor force

75,268 76,866 76,409 75,562 76,437 76,612 76,425 76,749 76,670

Participation rate

55.8 56.9 56.5 56.1 56.5 56.8 56.6 56.8 56.7

Employed

71,195 74,203 74,069 71,167 73,467 73,656 73,475 73,992 74,017

Employment-population ratio

52.8 54.9 54.8 52.8 54.3 54.6 54.4 54.8 54.8

Unemployed

4,073 2,663 2,339 4,395 2,970 2,957 2,950 2,757 2,653

Unemployment rate

5.4 3.5 3.1 5.8 3.9 3.9 3.9 3.6 3.5

Not in labor force

59,519 58,223 58,739 59,225 58,867 58,354 58,604 58,340 58,479

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

126,648 126,691 126,749 126,648 127,167 126,570 126,631 126,691 126,749

Civilian labor force

72,378 73,946 73,418 72,486 73,455 73,494 73,446 73,695 73,514

Participation rate

57.1 58.4 57.9 57.2 57.8 58.1 58.0 58.2 58.0

Employed

68,605 71,555 71,348 68,436 70,795 70,857 70,775 71,244 71,170

Employment-population ratio

54.2 56.5 56.3 54.0 55.7 56.0 55.9 56.2 56.2

Unemployed

3,773 2,391 2,069 4,050 2,660 2,637 2,671 2,451 2,344

Unemployment rate

5.2 3.2 2.8 5.6 3.6 3.6 3.6 3.3 3.2

Not in labor force

54,271 52,745 53,331 54,162 53,712 53,076 53,185 52,996 53,234

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian noninstitutional population

16,451 17,027 17,030 16,451 16,449 17,020 17,024 17,027 17,030

Civilian labor force

5,727 5,926 5,874 6,107 5,936 6,226 6,100 6,288 6,237

Participation rate

34.8 34.8 34.5 37.1 36.1 36.6 35.8 36.9 36.6

Employed

5,108 5,350 5,319 5,399 5,287 5,550 5,474 5,660 5,601

Employment-population ratio

31.1 31.4 31.2 32.8 32.1 32.6 32.2 33.2 32.9

Unemployed

618 576 555 708 649 676 626 629 636

Unemployment rate

10.8 9.7 9.5 11.6 10.9 10.9 10.3 10.0 10.2

Not in labor force

10,725 11,102 11,156 10,344 10,512 10,795 10,924 10,739 10,793

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-2. Employment status of the civilian population by race, sex, and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, race, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Apr.
2021
Mar.
2022
Apr.
2022
Apr.
2021
Dec.
2021
Jan.
2022
Feb.
2022
Mar.
2022
Apr.
2022

WHITE

Civilian noninstitutional population

201,687 202,932 202,982 201,687 202,250 202,819 202,875 202,932 202,982

Civilian labor force

123,638 126,302 125,320 124,035 124,780 125,782 126,139 126,364 125,664

Participation rate

61.3 62.2 61.7 61.5 61.7 62.0 62.2 62.3 61.9

Employed

117,458 122,122 121,625 117,475 120,749 121,497 121,967 122,357 121,606

Employment-population ratio

58.2 60.2 59.9 58.2 59.7 59.9 60.1 60.3 59.9

Unemployed

6,180 4,180 3,694 6,560 4,032 4,285 4,172 4,007 4,058

Unemployment rate

5.0 3.3 2.9 5.3 3.2 3.4 3.3 3.2 3.2

Not in labor force

78,049 76,630 77,663 77,652 77,469 77,038 76,736 76,568 77,319

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

64,600 66,085 65,546 64,614 65,000 65,736 65,972 66,059 65,540

Participation rate

69.8 70.6 70.0 69.8 70.0 70.2 70.5 70.6 70.0

Employed

61,269 63,808 63,615 61,185 63,047 63,612 63,995 64,043 63,521

Employment-population ratio

66.2 68.1 67.9 66.1 67.9 68.0 68.4 68.4 67.8

Unemployed

3,331 2,278 1,931 3,428 1,953 2,124 1,977 2,015 2,020

Unemployment rate

5.2 3.4 2.9 5.3 3.0 3.2 3.0 3.1 3.1

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

54,576 55,556 55,143 54,651 55,177 55,169 55,312 55,376 55,215

Participation rate

56.2 57.4 56.9 56.3 56.7 57.0 57.1 57.2 57.0

Employed

52,147 54,041 53,794 52,012 53,493 53,449 53,571 53,803 53,656

Employment-population ratio

53.7 55.8 55.5 53.6 54.9 55.2 55.3 55.6 55.4

Unemployed

2,429 1,515 1,348 2,639 1,684 1,720 1,740 1,572 1,559

Unemployment rate

4.5 2.7 2.4 4.8 3.1 3.1 3.1 2.8 2.8

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

4,462 4,660 4,630 4,771 4,603 4,877 4,855 4,930 4,909

Participation rate

37.0 37.4 37.1 39.5 38.2 39.1 38.9 39.5 39.4

Employed

4,043 4,273 4,216 4,278 4,209 4,435 4,400 4,510 4,429

Employment-population ratio

33.5 34.3 33.8 35.4 34.9 35.6 35.3 36.2 35.5

Unemployed

420 388 415 493 395 442 455 420 480

Unemployment rate

9.4 8.3 9.0 10.3 8.6 9.1 9.4 8.5 9.8

BLACK OR AFRICAN AMERICAN

Civilian noninstitutional population

33,551 34,030 34,055 33,551 33,749 33,978 34,004 34,030 34,055

Civilian labor force

20,488 21,026 21,176 20,543 20,506 21,056 21,145 21,134 21,209

Participation rate

61.1 61.8 62.2 61.2 60.8 62.0 62.2 62.1 62.3

Employed

18,555 19,695 19,992 18,543 19,057 19,597 19,751 19,825 19,963

Employment-population ratio

55.3 57.9 58.7 55.3 56.5 57.7 58.1 58.3 58.6

Unemployed

1,932 1,331 1,184 2,000 1,449 1,459 1,394 1,309 1,246

Unemployment rate

9.4 6.3 5.6 9.7 7.1 6.9 6.6 6.2 5.9

Not in labor force

13,064 13,003 12,880 13,009 13,243 12,922 12,859 12,895 12,846

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

9,450 9,754 9,955 9,469 9,378 9,741 9,966 9,817 9,969

Participation rate

66.7 67.4 68.8 66.8 65.7 67.5 69.0 67.9 68.9

Employed

8,478 9,163 9,343 8,503 8,723 9,051 9,327 9,264 9,360

Employment-population ratio

59.8 63.4 64.5 60.0 61.1 62.7 64.5 64.1 64.7

Unemployed

973 590 612 966 655 690 640 553 608

Unemployment rate

10.3 6.1 6.1 10.2 7.0 7.1 6.4 5.6 6.1

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

10,315 10,572 10,573 10,309 10,445 10,568 10,537 10,569 10,555

Participation rate

60.7 61.8 61.8 60.7 61.1 61.9 61.7 61.8 61.7

Employed

9,487 9,986 10,090 9,423 9,794 9,954 9,897 9,984 10,022

Employment-population ratio

55.9 58.4 59.0 55.5 57.3 58.3 57.9 58.4 58.6

Unemployed

828 586 482 886 651 614 640 585 533

Unemployment rate

8.0 5.5 4.6 8.6 6.2 5.8 6.1 5.5 5.0

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

723 701 648 764 683 747 642 749 686

Participation rate

30.2 28.3 26.2 32.0 28.6 30.2 26.0 30.3 27.7

Employed

591 546 558 616 540 592 528 577 581

Employment-population ratio

24.7 22.1 22.6 25.8 22.6 24.0 21.4 23.3 23.5

Unemployed

132 155 89 148 143 155 114 172 104

Unemployment rate

18.2 22.1 13.8 19.3 21.0 20.7 17.8 22.9 15.2

ASIAN

Civilian noninstitutional population

16,532 16,803 16,826 16,532 16,612 16,903 16,782 16,803 16,826

Civilian labor force

10,294 10,784 10,763 10,381 10,739 10,880 10,555 10,761 10,837

Participation rate

62.3 64.2 64.0 62.8 64.6 64.4 62.9 64.0 64.4

Employed

9,722 10,493 10,453 9,791 10,326 10,492 10,231 10,460 10,504

Employment-population ratio

58.8 62.4 62.1 59.2 62.2 62.1 61.0 62.3 62.4

Unemployed

571 291 310 590 413 388 324 300 333

Unemployment rate

5.6 2.7 2.9 5.7 3.8 3.6 3.1 2.8 3.1

Not in labor force

6,238 6,019 6,064 6,150 5,873 6,022 6,227 6,042 5,989

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Estimates for the above race groups will not sum to totals shown in table A-1 because data are not presented for all races. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-3. Employment status of the Hispanic or Latino population by sex and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Apr.
2021
Mar.
2022
Apr.
2022
Apr.
2021
Dec.
2021
Jan.
2022
Feb.
2022
Mar.
2022
Apr.
2022

HISPANIC OR LATINO ETHNICITY

Civilian noninstitutional population

44,719 45,888 45,963 44,719 45,303 45,740 45,816 45,888 45,963

Civilian labor force

29,110 30,498 30,311 29,137 29,883 30,390 30,492 30,475 30,376

Participation rate

65.1 66.5 65.9 65.2 66.0 66.4 66.6 66.4 66.1

Employed

26,922 29,155 29,155 26,902 28,427 28,893 29,136 29,209 29,121

Employment-population ratio

60.2 63.5 63.4 60.2 62.7 63.2 63.6 63.7 63.4

Unemployed

2,189 1,343 1,156 2,235 1,456 1,497 1,356 1,265 1,255

Unemployment rate

7.5 4.4 3.8 7.7 4.9 4.9 4.4 4.2 4.1

Not in labor force

15,609 15,390 15,652 15,582 15,420 15,350 15,324 15,414 15,587

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

16,094 16,672 16,634 16,020 16,266 16,586 16,700 16,619 16,604

Participation rate

79.6 80.2 79.9 79.3 79.4 80.0 80.4 79.9 79.7

Employed

14,928 15,938 16,036 14,886 15,580 15,867 16,086 15,979 15,989

Employment-population ratio

73.9 76.6 77.0 73.7 76.1 76.6 77.5 76.8 76.8

Unemployed

1,166 734 598 1,134 687 719 614 640 615

Unemployment rate

7.2 4.4 3.6 7.1 4.2 4.3 3.7 3.8 3.7

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

11,768 12,465 12,294 11,800 12,288 12,383 12,403 12,477 12,331

Participation rate

57.5 59.8 58.8 57.6 59.2 59.6 59.6 59.8 59.0

Employed

10,923 11,928 11,859 10,921 11,682 11,775 11,802 11,950 11,857

Employment-population ratio

53.3 57.2 56.8 53.3 56.3 56.6 56.7 57.3 56.8

Unemployed

845 537 434 879 606 608 601 527 474

Unemployment rate

7.2 4.3 3.5 7.5 4.9 4.9 4.8 4.2 3.8

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

1,249 1,361 1,384 1,317 1,328 1,421 1,389 1,379 1,441

Participation rate

31.0 32.1 32.6 32.6 32.6 33.6 32.8 32.5 34.0

Employed

1,071 1,289 1,260 1,096 1,165 1,251 1,248 1,280 1,275

Employment-population ratio

26.5 30.4 29.7 27.2 28.6 29.6 29.5 30.2 30.1

Unemployed

178 72 124 221 163 170 141 98 165

Unemployment rate

14.3 5.3 8.9 16.8 12.2 12.0 10.2 7.1 11.5

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-4. Employment status of the civilian population 25 years and over by educational attainment
[Numbers in thousands]
Educational attainment Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Apr.
2021
Mar.
2022
Apr.
2022
Apr.
2021
Dec.
2021
Jan.
2022
Feb.
2022
Mar.
2022
Apr.
2022

Less than a high school diploma

Civilian labor force

9,039 9,030 9,300 8,993 8,712 8,687 8,962 9,097 9,207

Participation rate

44.3 45.3 44.9 44.1 44.8 44.5 46.8 45.6 44.4

Employed

8,205 8,456 8,808 8,152 8,255 8,142 8,574 8,627 8,713

Employment-population ratio

40.2 42.4 42.5 39.9 42.5 41.7 44.8 43.2 42.0

Unemployed

835 574 492 841 457 545 388 470 494

Unemployment rate

9.2 6.4 5.3 9.4 5.2 6.3 4.3 5.2 5.4

High school graduates, no college(1)

Civilian labor force

34,768 36,943 36,498 34,809 35,828 37,064 36,589 36,847 36,464

Participation rate

55.4 56.9 56.8 55.4 55.7 57.2 56.2 56.8 56.8

Employed

32,451 35,365 35,168 32,393 34,188 35,361 34,953 35,368 35,064

Employment-population ratio

51.7 54.5 54.7 51.6 53.1 54.6 53.7 54.5 54.6

Unemployed

2,317 1,578 1,330 2,416 1,640 1,703 1,636 1,479 1,401

Unemployment rate

6.7 4.3 3.6 6.9 4.6 4.6 4.5 4.0 3.8

Some college or associate degree

Civilian labor force

35,627 35,600 35,628 35,610 35,477 35,320 35,391 35,555 35,540

Participation rate

63.2 63.5 63.5 63.2 62.7 63.1 63.6 63.4 63.4

Employed

33,622 34,468 34,586 33,526 34,204 34,059 34,060 34,480 34,445

Employment-population ratio

59.7 61.5 61.7 59.5 60.4 60.9 61.2 61.5 61.4

Unemployed

2,005 1,132 1,042 2,084 1,274 1,261 1,331 1,075 1,095

Unemployment rate

5.6 3.2 2.9 5.9 3.6 3.6 3.8 3.0 3.1

Bachelor's degree and higher(2)

Civilian labor force

60,786 62,027 61,702 60,758 61,134 61,699 62,003 61,597 61,705

Participation rate

72.1 73.3 72.9 72.1 72.3 72.6 72.4 72.8 72.9

Employed

58,757 60,855 60,579 58,614 59,860 60,294 60,656 60,386 60,459

Employment-population ratio

69.7 71.9 71.6 69.6 70.8 70.9 70.9 71.4 71.5

Unemployed

2,030 1,172 1,123 2,144 1,274 1,404 1,347 1,211 1,247

Unemployment rate

3.3 1.9 1.8 3.5 2.1 2.3 2.2 2.0 2.0

Footnotes
(1) Includes persons with a high school diploma or equivalent.
(2) Includes persons with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees.

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals for those 25 years and over because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-5. Employment status of the civilian population 18 years and over by veteran status, period of service, and sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, veteran status, and period of service Total Men Women
Apr.
2021
Apr.
2022
Apr.
2021
Apr.
2022
Apr.
2021
Apr.
2022

VETERANS, 18 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

18,879 18,429 16,870 16,404 2,009 2,025

Civilian labor force

9,186 8,905 8,024 7,750 1,162 1,155

Participation rate

48.7 48.3 47.6 47.2 57.8 57.0

Employed

8,706 8,645 7,594 7,521 1,111 1,124

Employment-population ratio

46.1 46.9 45.0 45.9 55.3 55.5

Unemployed

480 260 430 228 51 31

Unemployment rate

5.2 2.9 5.4 2.9 4.4 2.7

Not in labor force

9,693 9,524 8,846 8,654 847 870

Gulf War-era II veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

4,634 4,851 3,824 3,938 810 914

Civilian labor force

3,733 3,891 3,194 3,235 538 656

Participation rate

80.5 80.2 83.5 82.2 66.4 71.8

Employed

3,544 3,758 3,036 3,122 508 637

Employment-population ratio

76.5 77.5 79.4 79.3 62.7 69.7

Unemployed

189 133 158 113 31 19

Unemployment rate

5.1 3.4 5.0 3.5 5.7 3.0

Not in labor force

902 960 630 703 272 258

Gulf War-era I veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

3,313 3,256 2,793 2,806 520 449

Civilian labor force

2,450 2,343 2,087 2,062 363 282

Participation rate

74.0 72.0 74.7 73.5 69.9 62.7

Employed

2,323 2,301 1,970 2,030 353 270

Employment-population ratio

70.1 70.7 70.5 72.3 68.0 60.2

Unemployed

127 43 117 31 10 11

Unemployment rate

5.2 1.8 5.6 1.5 2.6 4.1

Not in labor force

863 912 706 745 157 168

World War II, Korean War, and Vietnam-era veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

6,771 6,298 6,509 6,047 262 251

Civilian labor force

1,148 937 1,118 897 31 40

Participation rate

17.0 14.9 17.2 14.8 11.7 16.1

Employed

1,102 905 1,071 864 31 40

Employment-population ratio

16.3 14.4 16.5 14.3 11.7 16.1

Unemployed

47 32 47 32 0 0

Unemployment rate

4.1 3.4 4.2 3.6 - -

Not in labor force

5,623 5,361 5,391 5,150 231 211

Veterans of other service periods

Civilian noninstitutional population

4,161 4,024 3,744 3,613 417 411

Civilian labor force

1,855 1,733 1,625 1,556 230 177

Participation rate

44.6 43.1 43.4 43.1 55.1 43.0

Employed

1,736 1,681 1,517 1,505 219 176

Employment-population ratio

41.7 41.8 40.5 41.6 52.6 42.9

Unemployed

118 52 108 51 11 0

Unemployment rate

6.4 3.0 6.6 3.3 4.6 0.3

Not in labor force

2,306 2,291 2,119 2,057 187 234

NONVETERANS, 18 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

233,521 236,151 105,022 107,517 128,499 128,634

Civilian labor force

149,093 152,232 76,069 78,168 73,024 74,065

Participation rate

63.8 64.5 72.4 72.7 56.8 57.6

Employed

140,575 147,231 71,452 75,382 69,124 71,849

Employment-population ratio

60.2 62.3 68.0 70.1 53.8 55.9

Unemployed

8,518 5,001 4,617 2,785 3,901 2,216

Unemployment rate

5.7 3.3 6.1 3.6 5.3 3.0

Not in labor force

84,428 83,919 28,953 29,349 55,475 54,570

NOTE: Veterans served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces and were not on active duty at the time of the survey. Nonveterans never served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces. Veterans could have served anywhere in the world during these periods of service: Gulf War era II (September 2001-present), Gulf War era I (August 1990-August 2001), Vietnam era (August 1964-April 1975), Korean War (July 1950-January 1955), World War II (December 1941-December 1946), and other service periods (all other time periods). Veterans who served in more than one wartime period are classified only in the most recent one. Veterans who served during one of the selected wartime periods and another period are classified only in the wartime period. Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria (values not shown where base is less than 75,000).


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-6. Employment status of the civilian population by sex, age, and disability status, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Persons with a disability Persons with no disability
Apr.
2021
Apr.
2022
Apr.
2021
Apr.
2022

TOTAL, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

30,360 32,698 230,743 230,862

Civilian labor force

6,176 7,545 154,203 155,904

Participation rate

20.3 23.1 66.8 67.5

Employed

5,585 6,922 145,575 151,069

Employment-population ratio

18.4 21.2 63.1 65.4

Unemployed

592 623 8,628 4,835

Unemployment rate

9.6 8.3 5.6 3.1

Not in labor force

24,183 25,153 76,540 74,957

Men, 16 to 64 years

Civilian labor force

2,609 3,190 76,676 77,839

Participation rate

34.7 39.1 81.8 82.3

Employed

2,302 2,838 72,099 75,248

Employment-population ratio

30.7 34.8 77.0 79.5

Unemployed

306 351 4,578 2,591

Unemployment rate

11.7 11.0 6.0 3.3

Not in labor force

4,901 4,968 17,010 16,765

Women, 16 to 64 years

Civilian labor force

2,543 3,028 68,049 68,750

Participation rate

32.6 35.9 70.7 71.6

Employed

2,314 2,815 64,436 66,750

Employment-population ratio

29.7 33.3 66.9 69.5

Unemployed

229 212 3,612 2,000

Unemployment rate

9.0 7.0 5.3 2.9

Not in labor force

5,251 5,417 28,268 27,315

Both sexes, 65 years and over

Civilian labor force

1,025 1,327 9,478 9,315

Participation rate

6.8 8.2 23.3 23.2

Employed

968 1,268 9,040 9,072

Employment-population ratio

6.4 7.9 22.2 22.6

Unemployed

56 59 438 243

Unemployment rate

5.5 4.5 4.6 2.6

Not in labor force

14,031 14,767 31,262 30,877

NOTE: A person with a disability has at least one of the following conditions: is deaf or has serious difficulty hearing; is blind or has serious difficulty seeing even when wearing glasses; has serious difficulty concentrating, remembering, or making decisions because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition; has serious difficulty walking or climbing stairs; has difficulty dressing or bathing; or has difficulty doing errands alone such as visiting a doctor's office or shopping because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-7. Employment status of the civilian population by nativity and sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status and nativity Total Men Women
Apr.
2021
Apr.
2022
Apr.
2021
Apr.
2022
Apr.
2021
Apr.
2022

Foreign born, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

43,046 45,016 20,660 21,881 22,386 23,135

Civilian labor force

27,644 29,458 15,693 16,800 11,951 12,658

Participation rate

64.2 65.4 76.0 76.8 53.4 54.7

Employed

25,886 28,488 14,751 16,261 11,135 12,227

Employment-population ratio

60.1 63.3 71.4 74.3 49.7 52.9

Unemployed

1,758 970 942 539 816 431

Unemployment rate

6.4 3.3 6.0 3.2 6.8 3.4

Not in labor force

15,402 15,558 4,966 5,081 10,436 10,477

Native born, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

218,057 218,544 105,656 106,531 112,401 112,013

Civilian labor force

132,735 133,992 69,418 70,241 63,317 63,751

Participation rate

60.9 61.3 65.7 65.9 56.3 56.9

Employed

125,274 129,503 65,214 67,661 60,059 61,842

Employment-population ratio

57.5 59.3 61.7 63.5 53.4 55.2

Unemployed

7,462 4,488 4,204 2,580 3,258 1,909

Unemployment rate

5.6 3.3 6.1 3.7 5.1 3.0

Not in labor force

85,321 84,552 36,238 36,290 49,084 48,262

NOTE: The foreign born are those residing in the United States who were not U.S. citizens at birth. That is, they were born outside the United States or one of its outlying areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam, to parents neither of whom was a U.S. citizen. The native born are persons who were born in the United States or one of its outlying areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam or who were born abroad of at least one parent who was a U.S. citizen. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-8. Employed persons by class of worker and part-time status
[In thousands]
Category Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Apr.
2021
Mar.
2022
Apr.
2022
Apr.
2021
Dec.
2021
Jan.
2022
Feb.
2022
Mar.
2022
Apr.
2022

CLASS OF WORKER

Agriculture and related industries

2,196 2,256 2,265 2,275 2,308 2,326 2,383 2,378 2,349

Wage and salary workers(1)

1,466 1,490 1,435 1,529 1,477 1,501 1,525 1,571 1,505

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

674 737 798 680 785 771 801 758 800

Unpaid family workers

56 29 32 - - - - - -

Nonagricultural industries

148,964 155,849 155,726 148,978 153,409 154,598 155,094 155,871 155,729

Wage and salary workers(1)

139,929 146,612 146,650 139,915 144,474 145,993 146,263 146,955 146,638

Government

20,640 21,687 21,128 20,424 21,097 21,274 20,971 21,296 20,948

Private industries

119,289 124,924 125,521 119,287 123,172 124,240 124,886 125,204 125,371

Private households

602 575 591 - - - - - -

Other industries

118,686 124,349 124,931 118,623 122,484 123,512 124,144 124,505 124,658

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

8,960 9,165 9,030 8,992 9,282 9,089 9,175 9,260 9,086

Unpaid family workers

75 73 46 - - - - - -

PERSONS AT WORK PART TIME(2)

All industries

Part time for economic reasons(3)

5,031 4,266 3,822 5,245 3,929 3,717 4,135 4,170 4,033

Slack work or business conditions

3,866 2,921 2,500 4,011 2,594 2,430 2,707 2,880 2,647

Could only find part-time work

984 1,116 1,077 990 1,082 969 1,060 1,055 1,071

Part time for noneconomic reasons(4)

19,836 21,356 21,479 19,220 20,315 20,198 20,667 20,870 20,826

Nonagricultural industries

Part time for economic reasons(3)

4,968 4,211 3,777 5,190 3,898 3,620 4,105 4,149 3,996

Slack work or business conditions

3,812 2,879 2,472 3,956 2,578 2,400 2,672 2,842 2,617

Could only find part-time work

979 1,114 1,071 986 1,079 960 1,053 1,049 1,064

Part time for noneconomic reasons(4)

19,501 20,997 21,092 18,877 19,951 19,839 20,275 20,498 20,435

Footnotes
(1) Includes self-employed workers whose businesses are incorporated.
(2) Refers to those who worked 1 to 34 hours during the survey reference week and excludes employed persons who were absent from their jobs for the entire week.
(3) Refers to those who worked 1 to 34 hours during the reference week for an economic reason such as slack work or unfavorable business conditions, inability to find full-time work, or seasonal declines in demand.
(4) Refers to persons who usually work part time for noneconomic reasons such as childcare problems, family or personal obligations, school or training, retirement or Social Security limits on earnings, and other reasons. This excludes persons who usually work full time but worked only 1 to 34 hours during the reference week for reasons such as vacations, holidays, illness, and bad weather.

- Data not available.
NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-9. Selected employment indicators
[Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Apr.
2021
Mar.
2022
Apr.
2022
Apr.
2021
Dec.
2021
Jan.
2022
Feb.
2022
Mar.
2022
Apr.
2022

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

151,160 158,106 157,991 151,259 155,975 157,174 157,722 158,458 158,105

16 to 19 years

5,108 5,350 5,319 5,399 5,287 5,550 5,474 5,660 5,601

16 to 17 years

1,879 2,080 2,115 2,072 2,075 2,188 2,295 2,310 2,316

18 to 19 years

3,229 3,270 3,204 3,336 3,214 3,378 3,205 3,392 3,307

20 years and over

146,051 152,756 152,672 145,860 150,688 151,624 152,248 152,798 152,504

20 to 24 years

13,018 13,611 13,532 13,139 13,870 13,756 13,834 13,774 13,673

25 years and over

133,034 139,145 139,140 132,688 136,605 137,840 138,412 139,055 138,737

25 to 54 years

97,234 101,788 101,849 97,064 99,740 100,647 101,109 101,769 101,605

25 to 34 years

34,377 35,358 35,523 34,340 35,352 34,985 35,125 35,367 35,472

35 to 44 years

32,491 34,672 34,696 32,430 33,454 34,147 34,535 34,695 34,612

45 to 54 years

30,366 31,758 31,630 30,294 30,934 31,515 31,448 31,707 31,522

55 years and over

35,800 37,357 37,292 35,624 36,865 37,193 37,304 37,287 37,132

Men, 16 years and over

79,965 83,902 83,922 80,092 82,508 83,518 84,247 84,465 84,089

16 to 19 years

2,518 2,701 2,598 2,668 2,616 2,751 2,774 2,911 2,754

16 to 17 years

919 995 1,018 995 970 1,022 1,131 1,137 1,097

18 to 19 years

1,599 1,707 1,580 1,679 1,655 1,744 1,659 1,804 1,662

20 years and over

77,447 81,201 81,324 77,423 79,892 80,767 81,473 81,554 81,334

20 to 24 years

6,712 6,847 6,887 6,775 7,070 7,032 7,059 6,975 6,958

25 years and over

70,735 74,354 74,436 70,679 72,702 73,752 74,457 74,613 74,340

25 to 54 years

51,680 54,113 54,296 51,688 52,992 53,693 54,227 54,331 54,259

25 to 34 years

18,328 18,719 18,830 18,354 18,793 18,555 18,788 18,782 18,851

35 to 44 years

17,532 18,608 18,636 17,501 17,899 18,420 18,696 18,696 18,605

45 to 54 years

15,820 16,786 16,830 15,833 16,300 16,718 16,743 16,852 16,803

55 years and over

19,055 20,240 20,141 18,991 19,710 20,059 20,230 20,282 20,081

Women, 16 years and over

71,195 74,203 74,069 71,167 73,467 73,656 73,475 73,992 74,017

16 to 19 years

2,590 2,649 2,721 2,731 2,671 2,799 2,699 2,748 2,847

16 to 17 years

960 1,085 1,097 1,077 1,105 1,166 1,164 1,173 1,219

18 to 19 years

1,630 1,564 1,624 1,657 1,558 1,634 1,546 1,589 1,645

20 years and over

68,605 71,555 71,348 68,436 70,795 70,857 70,775 71,244 71,170

20 to 24 years

6,305 6,764 6,644 6,364 6,799 6,725 6,775 6,799 6,715

25 years and over

62,299 64,791 64,704 62,009 63,904 64,088 63,955 64,442 64,397

25 to 54 years

45,554 47,675 47,553 45,376 46,748 46,954 46,882 47,438 47,346

25 to 34 years

16,049 16,639 16,693 15,986 16,559 16,430 16,338 16,584 16,621

35 to 44 years

14,959 16,064 16,060 14,929 15,555 15,727 15,838 15,999 16,007

45 to 54 years

14,546 14,972 14,800 14,461 14,635 14,798 14,705 14,855 14,718

55 years and over

16,745 17,116 17,151 16,633 17,156 17,134 17,074 17,004 17,051

MARITAL STATUS

Married men, spouse present(1)

43,977 45,412 45,496 43,810 44,437 45,342 45,648 45,325 45,259

Married women, spouse present(1)

35,192 36,391 36,221 34,996 35,557 35,885 35,870 36,043 35,999

Women who maintain families(2)

9,420 10,182 10,014 - - - - - -

FULL- OR PART-TIME STATUS

Full-time workers(3)

125,635 131,663 131,362 126,279 130,191 131,164 131,806 132,718 132,067

Part-time workers(4)

25,524 26,443 26,629 25,046 25,681 25,817 25,801 25,902 26,091

MULTIPLE JOBHOLDERS

Total multiple jobholders

6,883 7,496 7,532 6,893 7,395 7,486 7,431 7,370 7,539

Percent of total employed

4.6 4.7 4.8 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.7 4.7 4.8

SELF-EMPLOYMENT

Self-employed workers, incorporated

6,196 6,322 6,678 - - - - - -

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

9,634 9,902 9,828 9,672 10,067 9,860 9,976 10,018 9,886

Footnotes
(1) Beginning with data for January 2020, refers to persons in both opposite-sex and same-sex married couples. Prior to January 2020, referred to persons in opposite-sex married couples only.
(2) Beginning with data for January 2020, refers to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not a spouse of either sex. Prior to January 2020, referred to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not an opposite-sex spouse.
(3) Employed full-time workers are persons who usually work 35 hours or more per week.
(4) Employed part-time workers are persons who usually work less than 35 hours per week.

- Data not available.
NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-10. Selected unemployment indicators, seasonally adjusted
Characteristic Number of
unemployed persons
(in thousands)
Unemployment rates
Apr.
2021
Mar.
2022
Apr.
2022
Apr.
2021
Dec.
2021
Jan.
2022
Feb.
2022
Mar.
2022
Apr.
2022

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

9,719 5,952 5,941 6.0 3.9 4.0 3.8 3.6 3.6

16 to 19 years

708 629 636 11.6 10.9 10.9 10.3 10.0 10.2

16 to 17 years

246 219 223 10.6 10.8 11.3 10.2 8.6 8.8

18 to 19 years

485 416 442 12.7 11.5 10.6 10.1 10.9 11.8

20 years and over

9,011 5,323 5,305 5.8 3.6 3.7 3.6 3.4 3.4

20 to 24 years

1,527 1,113 1,016 10.4 7.1 7.3 7.5 7.5 6.9

25 years and over

7,453 4,139 4,234 5.3 3.3 3.4 3.3 2.9 3.0

25 to 54 years

5,565 3,149 3,190 5.4 3.5 3.5 3.3 3.0 3.0

25 to 34 years

2,350 1,450 1,461 6.4 4.3 4.3 4.1 3.9 4.0

35 to 44 years

1,681 984 1,033 4.9 3.3 3.5 3.3 2.8 2.9

45 to 54 years

1,534 715 697 4.8 2.8 2.6 2.5 2.2 2.2

55 years and over

1,864 978 1,045 5.0 3.0 3.1 3.0 2.6 2.7

Men, 16 years and over

5,324 3,195 3,288 6.2 3.9 4.1 3.8 3.6 3.8

16 to 19 years

364 323 327 12.0 11.5 11.5 11.1 10.0 10.6

16 to 17 years

113 109 120 10.2 10.7 13.5 9.0 8.7 9.8

18 to 19 years

268 215 228 13.7 12.6 10.2 12.4 10.7 12.1

20 years and over

4,961 2,872 2,961 6.0 3.6 3.8 3.5 3.4 3.5

20 to 24 years

877 651 611 11.5 7.7 8.6 7.8 8.5 8.1

25 years and over

4,060 2,180 2,302 5.4 3.3 3.4 3.2 2.8 3.0

25 to 54 years

3,021 1,633 1,715 5.5 3.5 3.5 3.2 2.9 3.1

25 to 34 years

1,312 779 835 6.7 4.5 4.4 3.9 4.0 4.2

35 to 44 years

852 535 538 4.6 3.3 3.5 3.3 2.8 2.8

45 to 54 years

857 320 341 5.1 2.5 2.4 2.3 1.9 2.0

55 years and over

1,039 546 587 5.2 2.7 3.2 3.2 2.6 2.8

Women, 16 years and over

4,395 2,757 2,653 5.8 3.9 3.9 3.9 3.6 3.5

16 to 19 years

345 306 308 11.2 10.4 10.2 9.4 10.0 9.8

16 to 17 years

133 110 103 11.0 10.8 9.3 11.2 8.5 7.8

18 to 19 years

217 201 214 11.6 10.2 11.0 7.6 11.2 11.5

20 years and over

4,050 2,451 2,344 5.6 3.6 3.6 3.6 3.3 3.2

20 to 24 years

651 461 405 9.3 6.5 5.9 7.2 6.4 5.7

25 years and over

3,393 1,959 1,932 5.2 3.3 3.4 3.3 3.0 2.9

25 to 54 years

2,545 1,516 1,475 5.3 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.1 3.0

25 to 34 years

1,039 671 626 6.1 4.1 4.2 4.4 3.9 3.6

35 to 44 years

829 450 494 5.3 3.2 3.5 3.3 2.7 3.0

45 to 54 years

677 395 355 4.5 3.1 2.8 2.7 2.6 2.4

55 years and over

849 458 482 4.9 3.2 3.1 2.9 2.6 2.7

MARITAL STATUS

Married men, spouse present(1)

1,722 778 870 3.8 1.9 2.0 1.9 1.7 1.9

Married women, spouse present(1)

1,374 784 778 3.8 2.5 2.4 2.3 2.1 2.1

Women who maintain families(2)

746 514 420 7.3 5.6 5.0 5.3 4.8 4.0

FULL- OR PART-TIME STATUS

Full-time workers(3)

8,202 4,784 4,729 6.1 3.9 3.9 3.8 3.5 3.5

Part-time workers(4)

1,500 1,138 1,187 5.6 4.2 4.4 4.0 4.2 4.4

Footnotes
(1) Beginning with data for January 2020, refers to persons in both opposite-sex and same-sex married couples. Prior to January 2020, referred to persons in opposite-sex married couples only.
(2) Data are not seasonally adjusted. Beginning with data for January 2020, refers to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not a spouse of either sex. Prior to January 2020, referred to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not an opposite-sex spouse.
(3) Full-time workers are unemployed persons who have expressed a desire to work full time (35 hours or more per week) or are on layoff from full-time jobs.
(4) Part-time workers are unemployed persons who have expressed a desire to work part time (less than 35 hours per week) or are on layoff from part-time jobs.

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-11. Unemployed persons by reason for unemployment
[Numbers in thousands]
Reason Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Apr.
2021
Mar.
2022
Apr.
2022
Apr.
2021
Dec.
2021
Jan.
2022
Feb.
2022
Mar.
2022
Apr.
2022

NUMBER OF UNEMPLOYED

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

6,092 2,999 2,650 6,270 3,095 3,220 3,044 2,831 2,839

On temporary layoff

1,944 891 731 2,074 812 959 888 787 853

Not on temporary layoff

4,148 2,108 1,919 4,196 2,283 2,261 2,156 2,044 1,987

Permanent job losers

3,438 1,425 1,373 3,432 1,703 1,630 1,583 1,392 1,386

Persons who completed temporary jobs

710 683 546 764 580 632 573 652 601

Job leavers

775 774 752 818 724 952 963 787 793

Reentrants

1,896 2,026 1,654 2,132 2,038 1,959 1,947 1,985 1,882

New entrants

457 370 402 595 513 433 417 463 515

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

66.1 48.6 48.6 63.9 48.6 49.1 47.8 46.7 47.1

On temporary layoff

21.1 14.4 13.4 21.1 12.8 14.6 13.9 13.0 14.1

Not on temporary layoff

45.0 34.2 35.2 42.7 35.8 34.5 33.8 33.7 33.0

Job leavers

8.4 12.5 13.8 8.3 11.4 14.5 15.1 13.0 13.1

Reentrants

20.6 32.8 30.3 21.7 32.0 29.8 30.6 32.7 31.2

New entrants

5.0 6.0 7.4 6.1 8.1 6.6 6.6 7.6 8.5

UNEMPLOYED AS A PERCENT OF THE
CIVILIAN LABOR FORCE

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

3.8 1.8 1.6 3.9 1.9 2.0 1.9 1.7 1.7

Job leavers

0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.4 0.6 0.6 0.5 0.5

Reentrants

1.2 1.2 1.0 1.3 1.3 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.1

New entrants

0.3 0.2 0.2 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to total unemployed in table A-1 because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-12. Unemployed persons by duration of unemployment
[Numbers in thousands]
Duration Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Apr.
2021
Mar.
2022
Apr.
2022
Apr.
2021
Dec.
2021
Jan.
2022
Feb.
2022
Mar.
2022
Apr.
2022

NUMBER OF UNEMPLOYED

Less than 5 weeks

2,028 2,003 1,895 2,400 1,977 2,417 2,131 2,289 2,227

5 to 14 weeks

1,665 1,850 1,344 1,981 1,571 1,607 1,800 1,684 1,617

15 weeks and over

5,527 2,315 2,219 5,348 2,788 2,507 2,437 1,999 2,033

15 to 26 weeks

1,426 830 814 1,160 780 816 735 571 551

27 weeks and over

4,101 1,486 1,405 4,187 2,008 1,691 1,702 1,428 1,483

Average (mean) duration, in weeks

30.4 24.9 26.6 28.5 28.6 24.6 26.6 24.2 25.0

Median duration, in weeks

22.2 10.0 10.4 19.4 12.9 10.1 9.6 7.5 7.5

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION

Less than 5 weeks

22.0 32.5 34.7 24.7 31.2 37.0 33.5 38.3 37.9

5 to 14 weeks

18.1 30.0 24.6 20.4 24.8 24.6 28.3 28.2 27.5

15 weeks and over

59.9 37.5 40.7 55.0 44.0 38.4 38.3 33.5 34.6

15 to 26 weeks

15.5 13.4 14.9 11.9 12.3 12.5 11.5 9.6 9.4

27 weeks and over

44.5 24.1 25.7 43.0 31.7 25.9 26.7 23.9 25.2

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to total unemployed in table A-1 because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-13. Employed and unemployed persons by occupation, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Occupation Employed Unemployed Unemployment
rates
Apr.
2021
Apr.
2022
Apr.
2021
Apr.
2022
Apr.
2021
Apr.
2022

Total, 16 years and over(1)

151,160 157,991 9,220 5,458 5.7 3.3

Management, professional, and related occupations

64,264 67,319 2,014 1,088 3.0 1.6

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

27,626 29,018 896 462 3.1 1.6

Professional and related occupations

36,638 38,301 1,118 626 3.0 1.6

Service occupations

24,203 25,440 2,098 1,181 8.0 4.4

Sales and office occupations

29,993 30,664 1,777 1,094 5.6 3.4

Sales and related occupations

14,056 14,306 943 616 6.3 4.1

Office and administrative support occupations

15,936 16,358 834 478 5.0 2.8

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

13,969 14,230 1,207 601 8.0 4.1

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

1,090 894 128 43 10.5 4.6

Construction and extraction occupations

7,933 8,395 858 433 9.8 4.9

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

4,946 4,941 222 125 4.3 2.5

Production, transportation, and material moving
occupations

18,731 20,339 1,646 1,067 8.1 5.0

Production occupations

7,691 8,418 578 295 7.0 3.4

Transportation and material moving occupations

11,040 11,921 1,068 771 8.8 6.1

Footnotes
(1) Persons with no previous work experience and persons whose last job was in the U.S. Armed Forces are included in the unemployed total.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data. Effective with January 2020 data, occupations reflect the introduction of the 2018 Census occupational classification system into the Current Population Survey, or household survey. This classification system is derived from the 2018 Standard Occupational Classification (SOC). No historical data have been revised. Data for 2020 are not strictly comparable with earlier years.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-14. Unemployed persons by industry and class of worker, not seasonally adjusted
Industry and class of worker Number of
unemployed
persons
(in thousands)
Unemployment
rates
Apr.
2021
Apr.
2022
Apr.
2021
Apr.
2022

Total, 16 years and over(1)

9,220 5,458 5.7 3.3

Nonagricultural private wage and salary workers

7,550 4,288 6.0 3.3

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

97 19 14.3 3.4

Construction

768 464 7.7 4.6

Manufacturing

861 489 5.8 3.2

Durable goods

505 312 5.5 3.3

Nondurable goods

357 177 6.3 3.0

Wholesale and retail trade

1,222 805 6.2 4.2

Transportation and utilities

530 287 6.8 3.4

Information

154 69 5.9 2.7

Financial activities

269 198 2.7 1.9

Professional and business services

1,036 551 5.9 3.0

Education and health services

846 556 3.4 2.2

Leisure and hospitality

1,372 641 10.8 4.8

Other services

395 209 6.2 3.3

Agriculture and related private wage and salary workers

139 62 8.9 4.3

Government workers

492 328 2.3 1.5

Self-employed workers, unincorporated, and unpaid family workers

582 378 5.6 3.7

Footnotes
(1) Persons with no previous work experience and persons whose last job was in the U.S. Armed Forces are included in the unemployed total.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data. Effective with January 2020 data, industries reflect the introduction of the 2017 Census industry classification system into the Current Population Survey. This industry classification system is derived from the 2017 North American Industry Classification System (NAICS). No historical data have been revised.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-15. Alternative measures of labor underutilization
[Percent]
Measure Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Apr.
2021
Mar.
2022
Apr.
2022
Apr.
2021
Dec.
2021
Jan.
2022
Feb.
2022
Mar.
2022
Apr.
2022

U-1 Persons unemployed 15 weeks or longer, as a percent of the civilian labor force

3.4 1.4 1.4 3.3 1.7 1.5 1.5 1.2 1.2

U-2 Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs, as a percent of the civilian labor force

3.8 1.8 1.6 3.9 1.9 2.0 1.9 1.7 1.7

U-3 Total unemployed, as a percent of the civilian labor force (official unemployment rate)

5.7 3.8 3.3 6.0 3.9 4.0 3.8 3.6 3.6

U-4 Total unemployed plus discouraged workers, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus discouraged workers

6.1 3.9 3.6 6.4 4.2 4.2 4.1 3.8 3.9

U-5 Total unemployed, plus discouraged workers, plus all other persons marginally attached to the labor force, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force

6.8 4.5 4.3 7.1 4.9 4.9 4.7 4.4 4.6

U-6 Total unemployed, plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force, plus total employed part time for economic reasons, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force

9.9 7.1 6.6 10.3 7.3 7.1 7.2 6.9 7.0

NOTE: Persons marginally attached to the labor force are those who currently are neither working nor looking for work but indicate that they want and are available for a job and have looked for work sometime in the past 12 months. Discouraged workers, a subset of the marginally attached, have given a job-market related reason for not currently looking for work. Persons employed part time for economic reasons are those who want and are available for full-time work but have had to settle for a part-time schedule. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-16. Persons not in the labor force and multiple jobholders by sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Category Total Men Women
Apr.
2021
Apr.
2022
Apr.
2021
Apr.
2022
Apr.
2021
Apr.
2022

NOT IN THE LABOR FORCE

Total not in the labor force

100,723 100,110 41,204 41,371 59,519 58,739

Persons who currently want a job

6,466 5,712 3,149 2,784 3,317 2,928

Marginally attached to the labor force(1)

1,763 1,570 1,006 891 757 679

Discouraged workers(2)

573 477 329 323 244 154

Other persons marginally attached to the labor force(3)

1,190 1,092 677 568 513 524

MULTIPLE JOBHOLDERS

Total multiple jobholders(4)

6,883 7,532 3,403 3,630 3,479 3,902

Percent of total employed

4.6 4.8 4.3 4.3 4.9 5.3

Primary job full time, secondary job part time

3,915 4,385 2,038 2,252 1,877 2,133

Primary and secondary jobs both part time

1,524 1,835 507 616 1,016 1,218

Primary and secondary jobs both full time

401 324 251 231 150 93

Hours vary on primary or secondary job

1,004 941 587 494 417 447

Footnotes
(1) Data refer to persons who want a job, have searched for work during the prior 12 months, and were available to take a job during the reference week, but had not looked for work in the past 4 weeks.
(2) Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for reasons such as thinks no work available, could not find work, lacks schooling or training, employer thinks too young or old, and other types of discrimination.
(3) Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for such reasons as school or family responsibilities, ill health, and transportation problems, as well as a number for whom reason for nonparticipation was not determined.
(4) Includes a small number of persons who work part time on their primary job and full time on their secondary job(s), not shown separately.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-1. Employees on nonfarm payrolls by industry sector and selected industry detail
[In thousands]
Industry Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Apr.
2021
Feb.
2022
Mar.
2022(p)
Apr.
2022(p)
Apr.
2021
Feb.
2022
Mar.
2022(p)
Apr.
2022(p)
Change from:
Mar.2022 - Apr.2022(p)

Total nonfarm

144,358 149,143 149,912 150,983 144,694 150,458 150,886 151,314 428

Total private

122,117 126,784 127,483 128,482 122,784 128,295 128,719 129,125 406

Goods-producing

20,049 20,455 20,627 20,846 20,187 20,837 20,904 20,970 66

Mining and logging

549 590 600 608 554 600 604 613 9

Logging

43.4 45.0 45.5 41.7 47.1 44.8 45.9 45.3 -0.6

Mining

505.8 545.2 554.5 566.7 506.5 554.7 558.4 567.3 8.9

Oil and gas extraction

113.7 127.2 129.7 134.6 116.0 128.8 131.1 136.2 5.1

Mining, except oil and gas

173.8 170.9 172.7 176.9 173.3 176.1 176.1 176.9 0.8

Coal mining

36.6 37.0 37.0 38.1 36.3 36.9 37.0 37.9 0.9

Metal ore mining

40.8 42.4 42.8 43.1 41.2 42.8 43.0 43.3 0.3

Nonmetallic mineral mining and quarrying

96.4 91.5 92.9 95.7 95.8 96.5 96.1 95.7 -0.4

Support activities for mining

218.3 247.1 252.1 255.2 217.2 249.8 251.2 254.2 3.0

Construction

7,322 7,285 7,395 7,559 7,393 7,606 7,626 7,628 2

Construction of buildings

1,616.7 1,646.5 1,662.7 1,686.0 1,641.2 1,697.1 1,700.6 1,708.0 7.4

Residential building

840.7 868.3 873.4 885.3 852.5 892.2 893.1 896.6 3.5

Nonresidential building

776.0 778.2 789.3 800.7 788.7 804.9 807.5 811.4 3.9

Heavy and civil engineering construction

1,040.3 975.0 1,005.5 1,067.7 1,042.3 1,063.6 1,068.7 1,069.2 0.5

Specialty trade contractors

4,665.1 4,663.2 4,726.9 4,805.2 4,709.1 4,845.4 4,856.9 4,850.8 -6.1

Residential specialty trade contractors

2,156.5 2,159.6 2,195.9 2,228.4 2,174.0 2,233.1 2,242.8 2,243.1 0.3

Nonresidential specialty trade contractors

2,508.6 2,503.6 2,531.0 2,576.8 2,535.1 2,612.3 2,614.1 2,607.7 -6.4

Manufacturing

12,178 12,580 12,632 12,679 12,240 12,631 12,674 12,729 55

Durable goods

7,571 7,821 7,855 7,883 7,593 7,846 7,871 7,902 31

Wood products

404.5 424.7 427.1 429.9 405.6 424.1 426.3 429.9 3.6

Nonmetallic mineral products

403.3 401.0 402.7 409.9 403.5 414.4 410.1 410.3 0.2

Primary metals

346.9 360.4 359.9 359.0 347.9 360.1 359.4 360.0 0.6

Fabricated metal products

1,369.9 1,418.7 1,426.7 1,430.2 1,371.2 1,424.9 1,428.3 1,431.8 3.5

Machinery

1,041.4 1,078.9 1,083.8 1,089.6 1,048.9 1,081.3 1,088.0 1,095.4 7.4

Computer and electronic products

1,052.2 1,068.7 1,068.3 1,071.7 1,055.0 1,069.9 1,070.2 1,073.9 3.7

Computer and peripheral equipment

156.7 159.9 158.8 159.6 156.7 160.0 159.4 159.7 0.3

Communications equipment

84.5 84.6 84.6 84.4 84.9 84.5 84.3 84.6 0.3

Semiconductors and electronic components

364.7 373.7 375.0 376.4 366.4 374.1 375.3 377.8 2.5

Electronic instruments

416.5 419.9 419.1 419.8 416.6 420.3 419.7 419.8 0.1

Miscellaneous computer and electronic products

29.8 30.6 30.8 31.5 30.5 31.1 31.5 32.0 0.5

Electrical equipment and appliances

389.5 403.3 407.3 407.2 391.3 404.2 408.4 409.0 0.6

Transportation equipment(1)

1,593.9 1,650.9 1,660.8 1,669.5 1,595.6 1,649.0 1,657.8 1,671.5 13.7

Motor vehicles and parts(2)

913.0 965.0 972.5 981.0 913.8 970.9 974.5 980.6 6.1

Furniture and related products

367.1 385.3 386.4 383.7 369.9 385.9 387.8 386.7 -1.1

Miscellaneous durable goods manufacturing

602.3 628.9 632.3 631.9 604.3 631.9 635.0 633.6 -1.4

Nondurable goods

4,607 4,759 4,777 4,796 4,647 4,785 4,803 4,827 24

Food manufacturing

1,608.5 1,665.7 1,666.6 1,668.9 1,633.5 1,676.0 1,681.8 1,689.7 7.9

Textile mills

95.8 99.4 99.6 100.1 96.6 100.1 100.0 100.7 0.7

Textile product mills

103.2 105.7 106.6 106.0 103.3 105.6 106.3 105.9 -0.4

Apparel

90.6 95.0 94.4 93.4 91.2 94.6 94.4 93.8 -0.6

Paper and paper products

346.9 357.6 358.5 358.9 347.6 357.0 357.1 358.4 1.3

Printing and related support activities

361.5 370.1 371.8 373.9 364.7 373.8 373.4 376.5 3.1

Petroleum and coal products

104.6 102.4 103.8 108.0 105.6 106.0 106.8 108.6 1.8

Chemicals

868.6 885.4 889.3 889.6 869.3 884.4 888.3 889.3 1.0

Plastics and rubber products

714.9 741.9 744.7 748.4 716.8 739.8 743.7 749.4 5.7

Miscellaneous nondurable goods manufacturing

312.2 335.5 341.9 349.1 318.5 347.7 351.5 354.8 3.3

Private service-providing

102,068 106,329 106,856 107,636 102,597 107,458 107,815 108,155 340

Trade, transportation, and utilities

27,152 28,330 28,361 28,372 27,527 28,562 28,621 28,725 104

Wholesale trade

5,626.3 5,754.3 5,790.4 5,822.8 5,647.1 5,788.8 5,813.5 5,835.7 22.2

Durable goods

3,093.7 3,173.5 3,191.2 3,202.5 3,103.1 3,184.7 3,199.5 3,208.4 8.9

Nondurable goods

2,052.1 2,100.4 2,113.7 2,129.9 2,062.1 2,122.4 2,128.9 2,137.1 8.2

Electronic markets and agents and brokers

480.5 480.4 485.5 490.4 481.9 481.7 485.1 490.2 5.1

Retail trade

15,106.9 15,648.4 15,670.0 15,673.8 15,338.8 15,827.8 15,852.3 15,881.5 29.2

Motor vehicle and parts dealers

1,936.4 1,943.1 1,960.4 1,967.3 1,938.9 1,960.4 1,967.7 1,968.6 0.9

Automobile dealers

1,220.7 1,228.2 1,236.1 1,236.7 1,223.1 1,232.5 1,236.7 1,237.8 1.1

Other motor vehicle dealers

169.4 162.2 167.0 170.1 167.6 170.4 171.5 169.1 -2.4

Auto parts, accessories, and tire stores

546.3 552.7 557.3 560.5 548.2 557.5 559.5 561.7 2.2

Furniture and home furnishings stores

437.3 446.7 444.9 438.7 442.0 448.6 446.1 444.1 -2.0

Electronics and appliance stores

417.7 434.3 428.1 426.5 423.6 432.2 431.9 431.3 -0.6

Building material and garden supply stores

1,429.2 1,361.7 1,402.6 1,398.7 1,401.0 1,396.1 1,391.1 1,375.0 -16.1

Food and beverage stores

3,095.0 3,143.7 3,145.2 3,157.2 3,131.0 3,147.3 3,160.0 3,183.8 23.8

Health and personal care stores

1,025.8 1,075.2 1,067.3 1,057.4 1,029.6 1,076.6 1,071.4 1,062.0 -9.4

Gasoline stations

917.6 950.5 953.6 961.1 930.5 964.6 967.4 972.7 5.3

Clothing and clothing accessories stores

964.9 1,051.2 1,046.9 1,048.6 1,020.8 1,088.4 1,092.4 1,097.8 5.4

Sporting goods, hobby, book, and music stores

508.7 532.2 521.7 524.4 520.7 539.3 538.4 539.8 1.4

General merchandise stores

2,983.2 3,242.9 3,227.1 3,212.2 3,085.6 3,282.8 3,286.0 3,298.4 12.4

Department stores

888.3 962.9 949.2 937.6 930.9 980.5 978.0 974.8 -3.2

General merchandise stores, including warehouse clubs and supercenters

2,094.9 2,280.0 2,277.9 2,274.6 2,154.7 2,302.3 2,308.0 2,323.6 15.6

Miscellaneous store retailers

781.1 823.5 830.3 841.8 791.8 838.2 844.9 851.1 6.2

Nonstore retailers

610.0 643.4 641.9 639.9 623.3 653.3 655.0 656.9 1.9

Transportation and warehousing

5,876.9 6,390.3 6,362.5 6,338.2 5,997.8 6,406.9 6,416.4 6,468.4 52.0

Air transportation

453.2 525.4 537.0 540.7 453.7 528.8 538.3 542.4 4.1

Rail transportation

147.0 145.2 145.9 145.9 146.8 145.4 145.6 145.6 0.0

Water transportation

56.7 56.2 55.9 57.6 57.2 57.9 57.7 57.9 0.2

Truck transportation

1,487.9 1,539.0 1,533.3 1,547.4 1,504.7 1,556.7 1,551.1 1,564.1 13.0

Transit and ground passenger transportation

384.2 407.9 408.9 410.3 370.4 395.7 395.3 395.9 0.6

Pipeline transportation

49.5 49.8 49.6 49.8 49.7 50.1 49.8 49.9 0.1

Scenic and sightseeing transportation

19.0 21.9 21.3 22.6 20.6 27.0 25.4 24.4 -1.0

Support activities for transportation

702.7 766.8 764.4 766.0 705.2 767.9 766.0 769.3 3.3

Couriers and messengers

981.7 1,108.4 1,074.4 1,034.6 1,074.9 1,117.2 1,118.2 1,133.1 14.9

Warehousing and storage

1,595.0 1,769.7 1,771.8 1,763.3 1,614.6 1,760.2 1,769.0 1,785.8 16.8

Utilities

541.5 536.9 538.4 537.6 543.2 538.8 538.8 539.1 0.3

Information

2,782 2,901 2,929 2,945 2,788 2,918 2,939 2,951 12

Publishing industries, except Internet

781.9 805.5 814.7 817.6 786.6 809.3 815.9 820.6 4.7

Motion picture and sound recording industries

338.4 406.2 415.9 415.3 338.4 420.1 426.3 420.6 -5.7

Broadcasting, except Internet

234.9 235.8 233.7 233.2 235.3 233.4 233.2 233.6 0.4

Telecommunications

671.5 654.0 657.5 661.8 670.2 653.8 655.5 659.2 3.7

Data processing, hosting and related services

384.8 406.3 406.4 412.0 384.3 405.5 405.3 410.6 5.3

Other information services

370.3 392.7 400.7 404.6 373.1 395.5 402.4 406.2 3.8

Financial activities

8,706 8,845 8,855 8,900 8,747 8,894 8,906 8,941 35

Finance and insurance

6,498.3 6,556.6 6,555.7 6,578.8 6,515.4 6,562.6 6,565.9 6,593.2 27.3

Monetary authorities - central bank

20.8 20.7 20.7 20.7 21.0 20.8 20.8 20.8 0.0

Credit intermediation and related
activities

2,711.0 2,717.2 2,715.2 2,717.3 2,715.4 2,717.2 2,717.9 2,720.6 2.7

Depository credit intermediation(1)

1,747.5 1,733.8 1,734.9 1,730.3 1,749.6 1,733.7 1,734.5 1,732.3 -2.2

Commercial banking

1,367.2 1,343.7 1,343.9 1,339.0 1,371.0 1,343.6 1,343.4 1,342.3 -1.1

Nondepository credit intermediation

631.5 642.6 640.2 647.3 634.3 643.3 643.6 649.3 5.7

Activities related to credit intermediation

332.0 340.8 340.1 339.7 331.5 340.2 339.8 339.0 -0.8

Securities, commodity contracts, investments, and funds and trusts

973.5 1,004.6 1,007.7 1,012.8 979.7 1,009.0 1,013.8 1,018.7 4.9

Insurance carriers and related activities

2,793.0 2,814.1 2,812.1 2,828.0 2,799.3 2,815.6 2,813.4 2,833.1 19.7

Real estate and rental and leasing

2,207.3 2,288.1 2,299.1 2,321.6 2,231.4 2,331.0 2,340.5 2,348.2 7.7

Real estate

1,716.1 1,763.7 1,769.1 1,784.2 1,730.5 1,790.6 1,795.8 1,801.9 6.1

Rental and leasing services

471.0 504.4 509.9 516.3 480.4 520.0 524.3 525.0 0.7

Lessors of nonfinancial intangible assets

20.2 20.0 20.1 21.1 20.5 20.4 20.4 21.3 0.9

Professional and business services

20,930 21,810 21,920 22,118 20,943 21,996 22,090 22,131 41

Professional and technical services

9,790.1 10,275.3 10,309.6 10,374.2 9,748.5 10,239.0 10,297.4 10,333.2 35.8

Legal services

1,140.4 1,168.4 1,168.0 1,172.1 1,146.2 1,173.9 1,173.2 1,177.9 4.7

Accounting and bookkeeping services

1,110.9 1,148.9 1,166.9 1,158.0 1,032.3 1,063.8 1,076.6 1,082.0 5.4

Architectural and engineering services

1,513.7 1,583.0 1,586.7 1,600.1 1,525.7 1,603.0 1,608.5 1,612.5 4.0

Specialized design services

136.0 145.3 146.5 148.7 137.0 146.7 148.6 149.5 0.9

Computer systems design and related services

2,270.1 2,385.2 2,385.8 2,408.6 2,270.8 2,384.0 2,404.3 2,408.5 4.2

Management and technical consulting services

1,600.6 1,713.0 1,717.6 1,729.7 1,608.6 1,721.4 1,733.7 1,737.7 4.0

Scientific research and development services

807.8 853.5 857.8 867.4 811.5 859.3 863.6 870.9 7.3

Advertising and related services

437.2 470.6 474.4 474.9 439.1 470.4 475.3 475.6 0.3

Other professional and technical services

773.4 807.4 805.9 814.7 777.4 816.4 813.6 818.7 5.1

Management of companies and enterprises

2,329.2 2,356.2 2,359.6 2,359.2 2,334.3 2,365.0 2,366.1 2,364.3 -1.8

Administrative and waste services

8,810.2 9,178.1 9,251.2 9,384.6 8,860.3 9,392.3 9,426.8 9,433.1 6.3

Administrative and support services

8,362.0 8,720.3 8,787.5 8,919.4 8,407.7 8,926.5 8,957.8 8,963.2 5.4

Office administrative services

534.2 569.9 572.8 581.1 535.1 573.7 577.2 581.9 4.7

Facilities support services

154.2 152.1 153.5 153.9 156.0 153.1 153.9 155.2 1.3

Employment services(1)

3,387.8 3,819.4 3,830.4 3,799.1 3,425.3 3,843.2 3,852.8 3,842.3 -10.5

Temporary help services

2,753.4 3,119.4 3,129.3 3,102.6 2,777.5 3,133.2 3,134.5 3,136.9 2.4

Business support services

800.8 808.5 791.0 792.2 811.3 802.9 795.3 801.0 5.7

Travel arrangement and reservation services

132.9 144.7 147.6 152.9 133.9 149.7 150.2 153.1 2.9

Investigation and security services

919.7 911.0 911.7 915.8 917.0 914.3 912.4 913.1 0.7

Services to buildings and dwellings

2,142.8 2,012.3 2,070.7 2,205.8 2,138.5 2,180.4 2,202.0 2,198.6 -3.4

Other support services

289.6 302.4 309.8 318.6 290.8 309.3 314.0 318.0 4.0

Waste management and remediation services

448.2 457.8 463.7 465.2 452.6 465.8 469.0 469.9 0.9

Education and health services

23,720 24,142 24,245 24,334 23,582 24,073 24,130 24,189 59

Educational services

3,677.1 3,860.2 3,901.6 3,922.6 3,528.3 3,740.7 3,752.8 3,770.8 18.0

Health care and social assistance

20,042.8 20,281.7 20,343.2 20,411.1 20,054.1 20,332.2 20,377.4 20,418.3 40.9

Health care(3)

15,981.2 16,143.4 16,173.9 16,216.5 16,011.8 16,183.2 16,206.5 16,240.8 34.3

Ambulatory health care services

7,818.7 8,058.0 8,077.4 8,114.2 7,830.6 8,077.9 8,095.4 8,123.3 27.9

Offices of physicians

2,723.8 2,793.7 2,797.5 2,812.0 2,727.0 2,800.0 2,802.6 2,812.4 9.8

Offices of dentists

984.2 1,020.8 1,020.9 1,022.9 985.2 1,025.4 1,024.6 1,025.0 0.4

Offices of other health practitioners

995.6 1,064.1 1,066.8 1,073.6 997.9 1,067.8 1,072.5 1,076.6 4.1

Outpatient care centers

991.8 1,010.5 1,015.9 1,015.9 991.9 1,011.0 1,014.3 1,016.4 2.1

Medical and diagnostic laboratories

306.6 315.3 313.5 317.5 305.7 313.6 313.2 315.7 2.5

Home health care services

1,505.2 1,537.0 1,546.3 1,554.6 1,511.5 1,544.8 1,552.1 1,559.9 7.8

Other ambulatory health care services

311.5 316.6 316.5 317.7 311.3 315.3 316.2 317.3 1.1

Hospitals

5,120.6 5,126.0 5,136.3 5,138.3 5,126.1 5,132.7 5,138.0 5,142.5 4.5

Nursing and residential care facilities

3,041.9 2,959.4 2,960.2 2,964.0 3,055.1 2,972.6 2,973.1 2,975.0 1.9

Nursing care facilities

1,378.3 1,337.4 1,336.0 1,334.0 1,388.7 1,344.6 1,343.8 1,344.7 0.9

Residential mental health facilities

610.7 595.9 594.4 598.4 611.8 597.1 595.4 598.8 3.4

Community care facilities for the elderly

899.5 870.0 873.9 877.6 900.2 874.5 877.4 876.3 -1.1

Other residential care facilities

153.4 156.1 155.9 154.0 154.4 156.5 156.5 155.2 -1.3

Social assistance

4,061.6 4,138.3 4,169.3 4,194.6 4,042.3 4,149.0 4,170.9 4,177.5 6.6

Individual and family services

2,711.1 2,734.3 2,752.5 2,767.4 2,701.3 2,743.7 2,758.2 2,762.7 4.5

Emergency and other relief services

192.0 199.3 200.9 201.5 192.3 199.0 199.8 201.3 1.5

Vocational rehabilitation services

271.7 272.8 274.6 275.1 271.8 276.4 277.6 275.4 -2.2

Child day care services

886.8 931.9 941.3 950.6 876.9 930.0 935.3 938.0 2.7

Leisure and hospitality

13,421 14,717 14,939 15,318 13,631 15,367 15,467 15,545 78

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

1,808.3 2,011.7 2,074.1 2,183.5 1,881.8 2,233.7 2,251.1 2,262.4 11.3

Performing arts and spectator sports

340.5 419.4 435.3 482.3 340.4 462.5 469.2 482.5 13.3

Museums, historical sites, and similar institutions

130.7 139.1 144.5 151.5 134.3 152.3 154.0 154.9 0.9

Amusements, gambling, and recreation

1,337.1 1,453.2 1,494.3 1,549.7 1,407.1 1,618.9 1,627.9 1,625.0 -2.9

Accommodation and food services

11,612.8 12,705.5 12,865.3 13,134.0 11,748.7 13,133.5 13,216.2 13,282.3 66.1

Accommodation

1,333.9 1,561.4 1,599.1 1,646.8 1,399.5 1,669.8 1,693.2 1,715.5 22.3

Food services and drinking places

10,278.9 11,144.1 11,266.2 11,487.2 10,349.2 11,463.7 11,523.0 11,566.8 43.8

Other services

5,357 5,584 5,607 5,649 5,379 5,648 5,662 5,673 11

Repair and maintenance

1,330.0 1,397.4 1,406.2 1,415.8 1,327.1 1,408.6 1,412.2 1,414.8 2.6

Personal and laundry services

1,316.6 1,416.1 1,421.2 1,438.0 1,319.2 1,436.4 1,439.9 1,442.9 3.0

Membership associations and organizations

2,710.1 2,770.6 2,779.8 2,795.3 2,732.5 2,802.6 2,809.5 2,815.4 5.9

Government

22,241 22,359 22,429 22,501 21,910 22,163 22,167 22,189 22

Federal

2,888 2,860 2,857 2,860 2,895 2,878 2,876 2,870 -6

Federal, except U.S. Postal Service

2,274.4 2,251.5 2,250.1 2,253.2 2,281.7 2,267.1 2,266.3 2,261.2 -5.1

U.S. Postal Service

613.6 608.5 606.8 606.9 613.7 610.8 610.0 608.9 -1.1

State government

5,343 5,331 5,350 5,380 5,173 5,212 5,200 5,207 7

State government education

2,651.5 2,714.7 2,731.7 2,743.1 2,482.0 2,583.6 2,573.9 2,572.4 -1.5

State government, excluding education

2,691.9 2,616.3 2,618.5 2,636.5 2,690.9 2,628.6 2,626.0 2,634.9 8.9

Local government

14,010 14,168 14,222 14,261 13,842 14,073 14,091 14,112 21

Local government education

7,756.2 7,928.5 7,959.9 7,969.7 7,514.5 7,714.5 7,730.5 7,747.4 16.9

Local government, excluding education

6,253.9 6,239.8 6,262.2 6,291.1 6,327.8 6,358.1 6,360.1 6,364.8 4.7

Footnotes
(1) Includes other industries, not shown separately.
(2) Includes motor vehicles, motor vehicle bodies and trailers, and motor vehicle parts.
(3) Includes ambulatory health care services, hospitals, and nursing and residential care facilities.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2021 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-2. Average weekly hours and overtime of all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Apr.
2021
Feb.
2022
Mar.
2022(p)
Apr.
2022(p)

AVERAGE WEEKLY HOURS

Total private

34.9 34.7 34.6 34.6

Goods-producing

40.0 40.4 40.1 40.0

Mining and logging

45.2 45.2 45.7 44.7

Construction

39.0 39.5 38.7 38.8

Manufacturing

40.4 40.7 40.7 40.5

Durable goods

40.5 41.0 41.0 40.9

Nondurable goods

40.3 40.2 40.1 39.9

Private service-providing

33.9 33.6 33.6 33.6

Trade, transportation, and utilities

34.7 34.1 33.9 34.0

Wholesale trade

39.2 39.2 39.4 39.3

Retail trade

31.0 30.4 30.0 30.1

Transportation and warehousing

39.4 38.0 37.9 38.2

Utilities

42.3 42.2 42.3 42.4

Information

37.2 36.9 36.9 36.7

Financial activities

37.6 37.6 37.7 37.6

Professional and business services

36.7 36.8 36.7 36.7

Education and health services

33.3 33.5 33.5 33.4

Leisure and hospitality

26.6 25.9 25.9 26.0

Other services

32.4 32.4 32.3 32.3

AVERAGE OVERTIME HOURS

Manufacturing

3.2 3.5 3.4 3.4

Durable goods

3.1 3.5 3.4 3.4

Nondurable goods

3.4 3.5 3.4 3.3

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2021 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-3. Average hourly and weekly earnings of all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Average hourly earnings Average weekly earnings
Apr.
2021
Feb.
2022
Mar.
2022(p)
Apr.
2022(p)
Apr.
2021
Feb.
2022
Mar.
2022(p)
Apr.
2022(p)

Total private

$30.20 $31.60 $31.75 $31.85 $1,053.98 $1,096.52 $1,098.55 $1,102.01

Goods-producing

30.66 31.91 32.04 32.24 1,226.40 1,289.16 1,284.80 1,289.60

Mining and logging

34.72 35.77 35.78 36.18 1,569.34 1,616.80 1,635.15 1,617.25

Construction

32.56 33.97 34.15 34.34 1,269.84 1,341.82 1,321.61 1,332.39

Manufacturing

29.35 30.50 30.64 30.82 1,185.74 1,241.35 1,247.05 1,248.21

Durable goods

30.88 31.99 32.21 32.39 1,250.64 1,311.59 1,320.61 1,324.75

Nondurable goods

26.83 28.01 28.00 28.19 1,081.25 1,126.00 1,122.80 1,124.78

Private service-providing

30.09 31.52 31.69 31.76 1,020.05 1,059.07 1,064.78 1,067.14

Trade, transportation, and utilities

25.98 27.23 27.42 27.41 901.51 928.54 929.54 931.94

Wholesale trade

33.32 34.60 34.69 34.80 1,306.14 1,356.32 1,366.79 1,367.64

Retail trade

21.64 22.66 22.81 22.71 670.84 688.86 684.30 683.57

Transportation and warehousing

26.03 27.63 27.75 27.88 1,025.58 1,049.94 1,051.73 1,065.02

Utilities

44.45 46.09 46.83 46.53 1,880.24 1,945.00 1,980.91 1,972.87

Information

44.25 45.17 45.24 45.41 1,646.10 1,666.77 1,669.36 1,666.55

Financial activities

39.84 40.73 41.07 41.23 1,497.98 1,531.45 1,548.34 1,550.25

Professional and business services

36.08 38.01 38.30 38.51 1,324.14 1,398.77 1,405.61 1,413.32

Education and health services

29.65 31.27 31.25 31.31 987.35 1,047.55 1,046.88 1,045.75

Leisure and hospitality

17.80 19.43 19.64 19.75 473.48 503.24 508.68 513.50

Other services

26.99 28.28 28.12 28.03 874.48 916.27 908.28 905.37

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2021 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-4. Indexes of aggregate weekly hours and payrolls for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
[2007=100]
Industry Index of aggregate weekly hours(1) Index of aggregate weekly payrolls(2)
Apr.
2021
Feb.
2022
Mar.
2022(p)
Apr.
2022(p)
Percent change from:
Mar.
2022 - Apr.
2022(p)
Apr.
2021
Feb.
2022
Mar.
2022(p)
Apr.
2022(p)
Percent change from:
Mar.
2022 - Apr.
2022(p)

Total private

107.6 111.8 111.8 112.2 0.4 155.3 168.8 169.7 170.8 0.6

Goods-producing

92.0 95.9 95.5 95.6 0.1 127.5 138.3 138.3 139.3 0.7

Mining and logging

78.7 85.2 86.7 86.1 -0.7 109.7 122.4 124.6 125.1 0.4

Construction

99.4 103.6 101.7 102.0 0.3 140.6 152.9 151.0 152.2 0.8

Manufacturing

89.0 92.5 92.8 92.7 -0.1 121.4 131.2 132.2 132.9 0.5

Durable goods

86.6 90.6 90.9 91.0 0.1 118.7 128.7 130.0 130.9 0.7

Nondurable goods

93.5 96.0 96.1 96.1 0.0 127.3 136.5 136.6 137.5 0.7

Private service-providing

112.0 116.2 116.6 117.0 0.3 163.8 178.1 179.6 180.6 0.6

Trade, transportation, and utilities

104.2 106.3 105.9 106.6 0.7 146.0 156.1 156.6 157.5 0.6

Wholesale trade

97.6 100.1 101.0 101.2 0.2 136.1 144.9 146.6 147.3 0.5

Retail trade

96.6 97.7 96.6 97.1 0.5 138.1 146.3 145.6 145.7 0.1

Transportation and warehousing

135.8 139.9 139.7 142.0 1.6 179.8 196.6 197.3 201.4 2.1

Utilities

99.4 98.4 98.6 98.9 0.3 146.0 149.8 152.6 152.0 -0.4

Information

94.7 98.3 99.0 98.9 -0.1 149.2 158.2 159.5 159.9 0.3

Financial activities

107.8 109.6 110.0 110.2 0.2 167.5 174.1 176.2 177.1 0.5

Professional and business services

120.5 126.9 127.1 127.3 0.2 176.1 195.3 197.1 198.6 0.8

Education and health services

128.2 131.7 132.0 131.9 -0.1 182.9 198.1 198.4 198.7 0.2

Leisure and hospitality

103.5 113.6 114.3 115.3 0.9 148.6 178.0 181.1 183.8 1.5

Other services

100.5 105.5 105.4 105.7 0.3 148.6 163.5 162.5 162.3 -0.1

Footnotes
(1) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding 2007 annual average aggregate hours. Aggregate hours estimates are the product of estimates of average weekly hours and employment.
(2) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding 2007 annual average aggregate weekly payrolls. Aggregate payrolls estimates are the product of estimates of average hourly earnings, average weekly hours, and employment.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2021 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-5. Employment of women on nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Women employees (in thousands) Percent of all employees
Apr.
2021
Feb.
2022
Mar.
2022(p)
Apr.
2022(p)
Apr.
2021
Feb.
2022
Mar.
2022(p)
Apr.
2022(p)

Total nonfarm

72,024 74,840 75,109 75,387 49.8 49.7 49.8 49.8

Total private

59,394 61,985 62,242 62,493 48.4 48.3 48.4 48.4

Goods-producing

4,588 4,766 4,799 4,837 22.7 22.9 23.0 23.1

Mining and logging

75 79 79 86 13.5 13.2 13.1 14.0

Construction

999 1,059 1,061 1,064 13.5 13.9 13.9 13.9

Manufacturing

3,514 3,628 3,659 3,687 28.7 28.7 28.9 29.0

Durable goods

1,860 1,921 1,947 1,965 24.5 24.5 24.7 24.9

Nondurable goods

1,654 1,707 1,712 1,722 35.6 35.7 35.6 35.7

Private service-providing

54,806 57,219 57,443 57,656 53.4 53.2 53.3 53.3

Trade, transportation, and utilities

10,813 11,315 11,336 11,377 39.3 39.6 39.6 39.6

Wholesale trade

1,701.5 1,747.7 1,758.1 1,768.0 30.1 30.2 30.2 30.3

Retail trade

7,435.1 7,724.8 7,728.5 7,743.7 48.5 48.8 48.8 48.8

Transportation and warehousing

1,540.9 1,707.2 1,714.2 1,729.0 25.7 26.6 26.7 26.7

Utilities

135.2 135.0 135.0 135.8 24.9 25.1 25.1 25.2

Information

1,109 1,149 1,170 1,172 39.8 39.4 39.8 39.7

Financial activities

4,930 4,962 4,969 4,980 56.4 55.8 55.8 55.7

Professional and business services

9,692 10,192 10,239 10,294 46.3 46.3 46.4 46.5

Education and health services

18,170 18,479 18,533 18,576 77.1 76.8 76.8 76.8

Leisure and hospitality

7,240 8,121 8,186 8,247 53.1 52.8 52.9 53.1

Other services

2,852 3,001 3,010 3,010 53.0 53.1 53.2 53.1

Government

12,630 12,855 12,867 12,894 57.6 58.0 58.0 58.1

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2021 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-6. Employment of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
[In thousands]
Industry Apr.
2021
Feb.
2022
Mar.
2022(p)
Apr.
2022(p)

Total private

99,820 104,516 104,874 105,215

Goods-producing

14,341 14,902 14,970 15,023

Mining and logging

408 449 456 460

Construction

5,466 5,616 5,632 5,636

Manufacturing

8,467 8,837 8,882 8,927

Durable goods

5,148 5,417 5,445 5,468

Nondurable goods

3,319 3,420 3,437 3,459

Private service-providing

85,479 89,614 89,904 90,192

Trade, transportation, and utilities

23,194 24,117 24,149 24,229

Wholesale trade

4,486.9 4,611.1 4,632.7 4,647.4

Retail trade

13,047.7 13,467.3 13,485.4 13,517.5

Transportation and warehousing

5,225.9 5,609.5 5,601.0 5,632.7

Utilities

433.5 429.0 429.9 431.6

Information

2,203 2,314 2,339 2,353

Financial activities

6,611 6,695 6,704 6,724

Professional and business services

16,789 17,594 17,657 17,718

Education and health services

20,592 20,958 21,002 21,037

Leisure and hospitality

11,777 13,371 13,468 13,544

Other services

4,313 4,565 4,585 4,587

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2021 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-7. Average weekly hours and overtime of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry Apr.
2021
Feb.
2022
Mar.
2022(p)
Apr.
2022(p)

AVERAGE WEEKLY HOURS

Total private

34.4 34.2 34.1 34.1

Goods-producing

41.0 41.4 40.9 40.8

Mining and logging

46.7 46.8 47.5 46.2

Construction

39.7 40.6 39.4 39.5

Manufacturing

41.6 41.6 41.5 41.4

Durable goods

41.6 41.8 41.8 41.7

Nondurable goods

41.5 41.3 41.1 40.9

Private service-providing

33.3 33.0 33.0 33.0

Trade, transportation, and utilities

34.6 34.2 34.1 34.1

Wholesale trade

38.9 39.3 39.4 39.2

Retail trade

31.0 30.8 30.5 30.6

Transportation and warehousing

39.2 37.7 37.6 37.7

Utilities

42.7 42.0 42.0 42.4

Information

36.7 36.8 36.7 36.6

Financial activities

37.4 37.5 37.5 37.5

Professional and business services

36.2 36.4 36.4 36.3

Education and health services

32.7 32.6 32.6 32.6

Leisure and hospitality

25.2 24.7 24.8 24.8

Other services

31.5 31.3 31.3 31.3

AVERAGE OVERTIME HOURS

Manufacturing

4.3 4.4 4.2 4.1

Durable goods

4.3 4.5 4.3 4.2

Nondurable goods

4.2 4.2 4.0 3.9

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2021 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-8. Average hourly and weekly earnings of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry Average hourly earnings Average weekly earnings
Apr.
2021
Feb.
2022
Mar.
2022(p)
Apr.
2022(p)
Apr.
2021
Feb.
2022
Mar.
2022(p)
Apr.
2022(p)

Total private

$25.49 $26.95 $27.02 $27.12 $876.86 $921.69 $921.38 $924.79

Goods-producing

26.16 27.42 27.50 27.56 1,072.56 1,135.19 1,124.75 1,124.45

Mining and logging

30.79 32.07 32.36 32.21 1,437.89 1,500.88 1,537.10 1,488.10

Construction

30.12 31.60 31.67 31.73 1,195.76 1,282.96 1,247.80 1,253.34

Manufacturing

23.48 24.56 24.71 24.78 976.77 1,021.70 1,025.47 1,025.89

Durable goods

24.47 25.62 25.83 25.94 1,017.95 1,070.92 1,079.69 1,081.70

Nondurable goods

21.92 22.86 22.91 22.91 909.68 944.12 941.60 937.02

Private service-providing

25.35 26.85 26.92 27.03 844.16 886.05 888.36 891.99

Trade, transportation, and utilities

22.01 23.44 23.52 23.60 761.55 801.65 802.03 804.76

Wholesale trade

27.35 28.69 28.74 28.86 1,063.92 1,127.52 1,132.36 1,131.31

Retail trade

18.38 19.40 19.43 19.46 569.78 597.52 592.62 595.48

Transportation and warehousing

23.04 25.38 25.46 25.61 903.17 956.83 957.30 965.50

Utilities

39.65 40.84 41.32 41.63 1,693.06 1,715.28 1,735.44 1,765.11

Information

36.96 37.02 36.94 36.94 1,356.43 1,362.34 1,355.70 1,352.00

Financial activities

29.90 31.36 31.51 31.66 1,118.26 1,176.00 1,181.63 1,187.25

Professional and business services

30.14 31.97 32.13 32.31 1,091.07 1,163.71 1,169.53 1,172.85

Education and health services

26.62 28.38 28.35 28.49 870.47 925.19 924.21 928.77

Leisure and hospitality

15.59 17.29 17.47 17.56 392.87 427.06 433.26 435.49

Other services

23.42 24.44 24.23 24.30 737.73 764.97 758.40 760.59

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2021 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-9. Indexes of aggregate weekly hours and payrolls for production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
[2002=100]
Industry Index of aggregate weekly hours(2) Index of aggregate weekly payrolls(3)
Apr.
2021
Feb.
2022
Mar.
2022(p)
Apr.
2022(p)
Percent change from:
Mar.
2022 - Apr.
2022(p)
Apr.
2021
Feb.
2022
Mar.
2022(p)
Apr.
2022(p)
Percent change from:
Mar.
2022 - Apr.
2022(p)

Total private

114.4 119.1 119.2 119.6 0.3 194.9 214.5 215.2 216.7 0.7

Goods-producing

89.9 94.3 93.6 93.7 0.1 143.9 158.3 157.6 158.1 0.3

Mining and logging

101.3 111.7 115.1 112.9 -1.9 181.3 208.3 216.6 211.6 -2.3

Construction

108.7 114.2 111.1 111.5 0.4 176.7 194.8 190.0 191.0 0.5

Manufacturing

80.9 84.4 84.6 84.8 0.2 124.2 135.5 136.7 137.5 0.6

Durable goods

80.5 85.1 85.5 85.7 0.2 122.9 136.1 137.9 138.7 0.6

Nondurable goods

81.2 83.2 83.2 83.4 0.2 125.7 134.4 134.7 134.9 0.1

Private service-providing

121.3 126.0 126.4 126.8 0.3 210.9 232.0 233.4 235.1 0.7

Trade, transportation, and utilities

112.2 115.3 115.2 115.5 0.3 176.5 193.2 193.6 194.9 0.7

Wholesale trade

103.6 107.5 108.3 108.1 -0.2 167.2 182.1 183.8 184.2 0.2

Retail trade

102.4 105.0 104.1 104.7 0.6 161.2 174.5 173.3 174.5 0.7

Transportation and warehousing

155.0 160.0 159.4 160.7 0.8 227.4 258.6 258.3 262.0 1.4

Utilities

94.7 92.1 92.3 93.6 1.4 156.7 157.1 159.3 162.6 2.1

Information

92.3 97.2 98.0 98.3 0.3 168.8 178.1 179.2 179.8 0.3

Financial activities

116.4 118.2 118.3 118.7 0.3 214.1 228.0 229.4 231.2 0.8

Professional and business services

135.9 143.2 143.7 143.8 0.1 243.6 272.2 274.6 276.3 0.6

Education and health services

143.6 145.7