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Economic News Release
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CPS CPS Program Links
CES CES Program Links

Employment Situation News Release

Transmission of material in this news release is embargoed until		USDL-21-0816
8:30 a.m. (ET) Friday, May 7, 2021

Technical information: 
 Household data:	cpsinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/cps
 Establishment data:	cesinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/ces

Media contact:		(202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov

	
			THE EMPLOYMENT SITUATION -- APRIL 2021


Total nonfarm payroll employment rose by 266,000 in April, and the unemployment rate was
little changed at 6.1 percent, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. Notable
job gains in leisure and hospitality, other services, and local government education were
partially offset by employment declines in temporary help services and in couriers and
messengers. 

This news release presents statistics from two monthly surveys. The household survey 
measures labor force status, including unemployment, by demographic characteristics. The 
establishment survey measures nonfarm employment, hours, and earnings by industry. For more
information about the concepts and statistical methodology used in these two surveys, see
the Technical Note.

Household Survey Data

Both the unemployment rate, at 6.1 percent, and the number of unemployed persons, at 9.8
million, were little changed in April. These measures are down considerably from their
recent highs in April 2020 but remain well above their levels prior to the coronavirus 
(COVID-19) pandemic (3.5 percent and 5.7 million, respectively, in February 2020). (See
table A-1. See the box note at the end of this news release for more information about 
how the household survey and its measures were affected by the coronavirus pandemic.)

Among the major worker groups, the unemployment rates for adult men (6.1 percent), adult
women (5.6 percent), teenagers (12.3 percent), Whites (5.3 percent), Blacks (9.7 percent),
Asians (5.7 percent), and Hispanics (7.9 percent) showed little or no change in April. 
(See tables A-1, A-2, and A-3.)

Among the unemployed, the number of persons on temporary layoff, at 2.1 million, changed
little in April. This measure is down considerably from the recent high of 18.0 million
in April 2020 but is 1.4 million higher than in February 2020. The number of permanent 
job losers, at 3.5 million, was also little changed over the month but is 2.2 million 
higher than in February 2020. (See table A-11.)

In April, the number of persons jobless less than 5 weeks increased by 237,000 to 2.4
million, while the number of persons jobless 15 to 26 weeks declined by 188,000 to 1.2
million. The number of long-term unemployed (those jobless for 27 weeks or more), at 
4.2 million, was essentially unchanged in April but is 3.1 million higher than in 
February 2020. These long-term unemployed accounted for 43.0 percent of the total 
unemployed in April. (See table A-12.)

The labor force participation rate was little changed at 61.7 percent in April and is
1.6 percentage points lower than in February 2020. The employment-population ratio was
also little changed in April at 57.9 percent but is up by 0.5 percentage point since
December 2020. However, this measure is 3.2 percentage points below its February 2020
level. (See table A-1.)

The number of persons employed part time for economic reasons decreased by 583,000 to
5.2 million in April. This decline reflected a drop in the number of people whose 
hours were cut due to slack work or business conditions. The number of persons employed
part time for economic reasons is 845,000 higher than in February 2020. These 
individuals, who would have preferred full-time employment, were working part time 
because their hours had been reduced or they were unable to find full-time jobs. (See 
table A-8.)

In April, the number of persons not in the labor force who currently want a job was 6.6
million, little changed over the month but up by 1.6 million since February 2020. These
individuals were not counted as unemployed because they were not actively looking for
work during the last 4 weeks or were unavailable to take a job. (See table A-1.) 

Among those not in the labor force who currently want a job, the number of persons 
marginally attached to the labor force, at 1.9 million, was essentially unchanged in
April but is up by 419,000 since February 2020. These individuals wanted and were 
available for work and had looked for a job sometime in the prior 12 months but had not
looked for work in the 4 weeks preceding the survey. The number of discouraged workers,
a subset of the marginally attached who believed that no jobs were available for them,
was little changed at 565,000 in April but is 164,000 higher than in February 2020. 
(See Summary table A.)

Household Survey Supplemental Data

In April, 18.3 percent of employed persons teleworked because of the coronavirus 
pandemic, down from 21.0 percent in the prior month. These data refer to employed persons
who teleworked or worked at home for pay at some point in the last 4 weeks specifically 
because of the pandemic.

In April, 9.4 million persons reported that they had been unable to work because their
employer closed or lost business due to the pandemic--that is, they did not work at all
or worked fewer hours at some point in the last 4 weeks due to the pandemic. This measure
is down from 11.4 million in the previous month. Among those who reported in April that 
they were unable to work because of pandemic-related closures or lost business, 9.3 percent
received at least some pay from their employer for the hours not worked, little changed 
from the previous month.

Among those not in the labor force in April, 2.8 million persons were prevented from 
looking for work due to the pandemic. This measure is down from 3.7 million the month 
before. (To be counted as unemployed, by definition, individuals must be either actively 
looking for work or on temporary layoff.)

These supplemental data come from questions added to the household survey beginning in May
2020 to help gauge the effects of the pandemic on the labor market. The data are not
seasonally adjusted. Tables with estimates from the supplemental questions for all months 
are available online at www.bls.gov/cps/effects-of-the-coronavirus-covid-19-pandemic.htm.

Establishment Survey Data

Total nonfarm payroll employment increased by 266,000 in April, following increases of 
770,000 in March and 536,000 in February. In April, nonfarm employment is down by 8.2 
million, or 5.4 percent, from its pre-pandemic level in February 2020. In April, notable
job gains in leisure and hospitality, other services, and local government education were
partially offset by losses in temporary help services and in couriers and messengers. 
(See table B-1. See the box note at the end of this news release for more information about
how the establishment survey and its measures were affected by the coronavirus pandemic.)

In April, employment in leisure and hospitality increased by 331,000, as pandemic-related
restrictions continued to ease in many parts of the country. More than half of the increase
was in food services and drinking places (+187,000). Job gains also occurred in amusements,
gambling, and recreation (+73,000) and in accommodation (+54,000). Although leisure and 
hospitality has added 5.4 million jobs over the year, employment in the industry is down
by 2.8 million, or 16.8 percent, since February 2020.

In April, employment increased by 44,000 in the other services industry, with gains in 
repair and maintenance (+14,000) and personal and laundry services (+14,000). Employment
in other services is 352,000 below its February 2020 level.

Employment in local government education increased by 31,000 in April but is 611,000 lower
than in February 2020. Federal government employment increased by 9,000 over the month. 

In April, employment in social assistance rose by 23,000, with about half of the increase
in child day care services (+12,000). Employment in social assistance is 286,000 lower 
than in February 2020. 

Employment in financial activities rose by 19,000 over the month, with most of the gain 
occurring in real estate and rental and leasing (+17,000). Employment in financial 
activities is down by 63,000 since February 2020. 

Within professional and business services, employment in temporary help services declined
by 111,000 in April and is 296,000 lower than in February 2020. Business support services
lost jobs in April (-15,000), while architectural and engineering services and scientific
research and development services added jobs (+12,000 and +7,000, respectively). 

Within transportation and warehousing, employment in couriers and messengers fell by 
77,000 in April but is up by 126,000 since February 2020. Air transportation added 7,000
jobs over the month. 

Manufacturing employment edged down in April (-18,000), following gains in the previous 2
months (+54,000 in March and +35,000 in February). In April, job losses in motor vehicles
and parts (-27,000) and in wood products (-7,000) more than offset job gains in 
miscellaneous durable goods manufacturing (+13,000) and chemicals (+4,000). Employment in
manufacturing is 515,000 lower than in February 2020.

Retail trade employment changed little in April (-15,000), following a gain in the prior 
month (+33,000). In April, employment declined in food and beverage stores (-49,000), 
general merchandise stores (-10,000), and gasoline stations (-9,000). These losses were 
partially offset by employment increases in sporting goods, hobby, book, and music stores
(+20,000); clothing and clothing accessories stores (+10,000); and health and personal 
care stores (+9,000). Employment in retail trade overall is 400,000 lower than in February
2020.

Employment in health care changed little in April (-4,000), as a job gain in ambulatory 
health care services (+21,000) was largely offset by a job loss in nursing care facilities
(-19,000). Health care employment is down by 542,000 since February 2020.

Employment in construction was unchanged over the month. Employment in the industry is up
by 917,000 over the year but is 196,000 below its February 2020 level.

In April, employment changed little in other major industries, including mining, 
wholesale trade, and information.

In April, average hourly earnings for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls 
increased by 21 cents to $30.17, following a decline of 4 cents in the prior month. In
April, average hourly earnings for private-sector production and nonsupervisory employees
rose by 20 cents to $25.45. The data for April suggest that the rising demand for labor 
associated with the recovery from the pandemic may have put upward pressure on wages. 
Since average hourly earnings vary widely across industries, the large employment 
fluctuations since February 2020 complicate the analysis of recent trends in average 
hourly earnings. (See tables B-3 and B-8.)

The average workweek for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls increased by 0.1 hour 
to 35.0 hours in April. In manufacturing, the workweek and overtime were both unchanged 
over the month, at 40.5 hours and 3.2 hours, respectively. The average workweek for 
production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls was unchanged at 34.4 
hours. (See tables B-2 and B-7.)

The change in total nonfarm payroll employment for February was revised up by 68,000, from
+468,000 to +536,000, and the change for March was revised down by 146,000, from +916,000
to +770,000. With these revisions, employment in February and March combined is 78,000 
lower than previously reported. (Monthly revisions result from additional reports received
from businesses and government agencies since the last published estimates and from the
recalculation of seasonal factors.)

_____________
The Employment Situation for May is scheduled to be released on Friday, June 4, 2021, at
8:30 a.m. (ET).


 _______________________________________________________________________________________
|											|
|                      Coronavirus (COVID-19) Impact on April 2021                      |
|                        Household and Establishment Survey Data			|
|											|
| Data collection for both surveys was affected by the pandemic. In the establishment 	|
| survey, more data continued to be collected by web than in months prior to the 	|
| pandemic. In the household survey, for the safety of both interviewers and 		|
| respondents, in-person interviews were conducted only when telephone interviews could |
| not be done. 										|
|											|
| As in previous months, some workers affected by the pandemic who should have been 	|
| classified as unemployed on temporary layoff were instead misclassified as employed 	|
| but not at work. However, the share of responses that may have been misclassified was |
| highest in the early months of the pandemic and has been considerably lower in recent |
| months. Since March 2020, BLS has published an estimate of what the unemployment rate |
| might have been had misclassified workers been included among the unemployed. 	|
| Repeating this same approach, the seasonally adjusted unemployment rate in April 2021 |
| would have been 0.3 percentage point higher than reported. However, this represents 	|
| the upper bound of our estimate of misclassification and probably overstates the size |
| of the misclassification error. 							|
|											|
| More information about the impact of the pandemic on the two surveys is available at 	|
| www.bls.gov/covid19/employment-situation-covid19-faq-april-2021.htm.			|
|_______________________________________________________________________________________|




HOUSEHOLD DATA
Summary table A. Household data, seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Category Apr.
2020
Feb.
2021
Mar.
2021
Apr.
2021
Change from:
Mar.
2021-
Apr.
2021

Employment status

Civilian noninstitutional population

259,896 260,918 261,003 261,103 100

Civilian labor force

156,478 160,211 160,558 160,988 430

Participation rate

60.2 61.4 61.5 61.7 0.2

Employed

133,370 150,239 150,848 151,176 328

Employment-population ratio

51.3 57.6 57.8 57.9 0.1

Unemployed

23,109 9,972 9,710 9,812 102

Unemployment rate

14.8 6.2 6.0 6.1 0.1

Not in labor force

103,418 100,708 100,445 100,115 -330

Unemployment rates

Total, 16 years and over

14.8 6.2 6.0 6.1 0.1

Adult men (20 years and over)

13.1 6.0 5.8 6.1 0.3

Adult women (20 years and over)

15.5 5.9 5.7 5.6 -0.1

Teenagers (16 to 19 years)

32.1 13.9 13.0 12.3 -0.7

White

14.1 5.6 5.4 5.3 -0.1

Black or African American

16.7 9.9 9.6 9.7 0.1

Asian

14.5 5.1 6.0 5.7 -0.3

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

18.9 8.5 7.9 7.9 0.0

Total, 25 years and over

13.1 5.6 5.3 5.3 0.0

Less than a high school diploma

21.0 10.1 8.2 9.3 1.1

High school graduates, no college

17.3 7.2 6.7 6.9 0.2

Some college or associate degree

15.0 5.9 5.9 5.8 -0.1

Bachelor's degree and higher

8.4 3.8 3.7 3.5 -0.2

Reason for unemployment

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

20,662 6,586 6,226 6,387 161

Job leavers

569 701 777 824 47

Reentrants

1,506 2,124 2,253 2,072 -181

New entrants

423 582 497 625 128

Duration of unemployment

Less than 5 weeks

14,282 2,185 2,177 2,414 237

5 to 14 weeks

6,992 2,254 1,941 1,939 -2

15 to 26 weeks

763 1,407 1,391 1,203 -188

27 weeks and over

1,004 4,148 4,218 4,183 -35

Employed persons at work part time

Part time for economic reasons

10,899 6,088 5,826 5,243 -583

Slack work or business conditions

9,980 4,723 4,629 3,997 -632

Could only find part-time work

708 1,166 984 974 -10

Part time for noneconomic reasons

12,365 18,369 19,102 19,057 -45

Persons not in the labor force

Marginally attached to the labor force

2,300 1,890 1,853 1,856 3

Discouraged workers

576 522 523 565 42

NOTE: Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Summary table B. Establishment data, seasonally adjusted
Category Apr.
2020
Feb.
2021
Mar.
2021(p)
Apr.
2021(p)

EMPLOYMENT BY SELECTED INDUSTRY
(Over-the-month change, in thousands)

Total nonfarm

-20,679 536 770 266

Total private

-19,731 622 708 218

Goods-producing

-2,378 -20 166 -16

Mining and logging

-52 2 15 2

Construction

-1,022 -57 97 0

Manufacturing

-1,304 35 54 -18

Durable goods(1)

-899 27 31 -20

Motor vehicles and parts

-352.6 -0.1 1.2 -27.0

Nondurable goods

-405 8 23 2

Private service-providing

-17,353 642 542 234

Wholesale trade

-390.6 7.7 20.6 7.8

Retail trade

-2,248.3 14.4 32.8 -15.3

Transportation and warehousing

-573.6 36.4 44.8 -74.1

Utilities

-3.5 -0.2 0.8 0.4

Information

-265 6 8 1

Financial activities

-254 -7 19 19

Professional and business services(1)

-2,236 93 67 -79

Temporary help services

-947.7 47.6 -7.9 -111.4

Education and health services(1)

-2,625 57 104 -1

Health care and social assistance

-2,181.9 52.6 50.7 18.5

Leisure and hospitality

-7,442 413 206 331

Other services

-1,315 22 39 44

Government

-948 -86 62 48

(3-month average change, in thousands)

Total nonfarm

-7,358 154 513 524

Total private

-7,037 157 484 516

WOMEN AND PRODUCTION AND NONSUPERVISORY EMPLOYEES
AS A PERCENT OF ALL EMPLOYEES(2)

Total nonfarm women employees

49.2 49.8 49.7 49.7

Total private women employees

47.6 48.4 48.4 48.4

Total private production and nonsupervisory employees

80.3 81.5 81.4 81.2

HOURS AND EARNINGS
ALL EMPLOYEES

Total private

Average weekly hours

34.2 34.6 34.9 35.0

Average hourly earnings

$30.07 $30.00 $29.96 $30.17

Average weekly earnings

$1,028.39 $1,038.00 $1,045.60 $1,055.95

Index of aggregate weekly hours (2007=100)(3)

93.0 105.8 107.3 107.8

Over-the-month percent change

-15.1 -0.7 1.4 0.5

Index of aggregate weekly payrolls (2007=100)(4)

133.7 151.7 153.7 155.5

Over-the-month percent change

-11.2 -0.4 1.3 1.2

DIFFUSION INDEX
(Over 1-month span)(5)

Total private (257 industries)

4.5 61.7 74.7 60.1

Manufacturing (75 industries)

3.3 60.0 77.3 55.3

Footnotes
(1) Includes other industries, not shown separately.
(2) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries.
(3) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding annual average aggregate hours.
(4) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding annual average aggregate weekly payrolls.
(5) Figures are the percent of industries with employment increasing plus one-half of the industries with unchanged employment, where 50 percent indicates an equal balance between industries with increasing and decreasing employment.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2020 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


Frequently Asked Questions about Employment and Unemployment Estimates

1. Why are there two monthly measures of employment?

   The household survey and establishment survey both produce sample-based estimates
   of employment, and both have strengths and limitations. The establishment survey
   employment series has a smaller margin of error on the measurement of month-to-
   month change than the household survey because of its much larger sample size. An
   over-the-month employment change of about 100,000 is statistically significant in
   the establishment survey, while the threshold for a statistically significant change
   in the household survey is about 500,000. However, the household survey has a more
   expansive scope than the establishment survey because it includes self-employed
   workers whose businesses are unincorporated, unpaid family workers, agricultural
   workers, and private household workers, who are excluded by the establishment survey.
   The household survey also provides estimates of employment for demographic groups.
   For more information on the differences between the two surveys, please visit
   https://www.bls.gov/web/empsit/ces_cps_trends.htm.

2. Are undocumented immigrants counted in the surveys?

   It is likely that both surveys include at least some undocumented immigrants. However,
   neither the establishment nor the household survey is designed to identify the legal
   status of workers. Therefore, it is not possible to determine how many are counted in
   either survey. The establishment survey does not collect data on the legal status of
   workers. The household survey does include questions which identify the foreign and
   native born, but it does not include questions about the legal status of the foreign
   born. Data on the foreign and native born are published each month in table A-7 of
   The Employment Situation news release.

3. Why does the establishment survey have revisions?

   The establishment survey revises published estimates to improve its data series by
   incorporating additional information that was not available at the time of the
   initial publication of the estimates. The establishment survey revises its initial
   monthly estimates twice, in the immediately succeeding 2 months, to incorporate
   additional sample receipts from respondents in the survey and recalculated seasonal
   adjustment factors. For more information on the monthly revisions, please visit
   https://www.bls.gov/ces/cesrevinfo.htm.

   On an annual basis, the establishment survey incorporates a benchmark revision that
   re-anchors estimates to nearly complete employment counts available from unemployment
   insurance tax records. The benchmark helps to control for sampling and modeling errors
   in the estimates. For more information on the annual benchmark revision, please visit
   https://www.bls.gov/web/empsit/cesbmart.htm.

4. Does the establishment survey sample include small firms?

   Yes; about 40 percent of the establishment survey sample is comprised of business
   establishments with fewer than 20 employees. The establishment survey sample is
   designed to maximize the reliability of the statewide total nonfarm employment
   estimate; firms from all states, size classes, and industries are appropriately
   sampled to achieve that goal.

5. Does the establishment survey account for employment from new businesses?

   Yes; monthly establishment survey estimates include an adjustment to account for
   the net employment change generated by business births and deaths. The adjustment
   comes from an econometric model that forecasts the monthly net jobs impact of
   business births and deaths based on the actual past values of the net impact that
   can be observed with a lag from the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages. The
   establishment survey uses modeling rather than sampling for this purpose because
   the survey is not immediately able to bring new businesses into the sample. There
   is an unavoidable lag between the birth of a new firm and its appearance on the
   sampling frame and availability for selection. BLS adds new businesses to the survey
   twice a year.

6. Is the count of unemployed persons limited to just those people receiving unemployment
   insurance benefits?

   No; the estimate of unemployment is based on a monthly sample survey of households.
   All persons who are without jobs and are actively seeking and available to work are
   included among the unemployed. (People on temporary layoff are included even if
   they do not actively seek work.) There is no requirement or question relating to
   unemployment insurance benefits in the monthly survey.

7. Does the official unemployment rate exclude people who want a job but are not currently
   looking for work?

   Yes; however, there are separate estimates of persons outside the labor force who
   want a job, including those who are not currently looking because they believe no
   jobs are available (discouraged workers). In addition, alternative measures of labor
   underutilization (some of which include discouraged workers and other groups not
   officially counted as unemployed) are published each month in table A-15 of The
   Employment Situation news release. For more information about these alternative
   measures, please visit https://www.bls.gov/cps/lfcharacteristics.htm#altmeasures.

8. How can unusually severe weather affect employment and hours estimates?

   In the establishment survey, the reference period is the pay period that includes
   the 12th of the month. Unusually severe weather is more likely to have an impact on
   average weekly hours than on employment. Average weekly hours are estimated for paid
   time during the pay period, including pay for holidays, sick leave, or other time off.
   The impact of severe weather on hours estimates typically, but not always, results in
   a reduction in average weekly hours. For example, some employees may be off work for
   part of the pay period and not receive pay for the time missed, while some workers,
   such as those dealing with cleanup or repair, may work extra hours.
   
   Typically, it is not possible to precisely quantify the effect of extreme weather on 
   payroll employment estimates. In order for severe weather conditions to reduce
   employment estimates, employees have to be off work without pay for the entire pay
   period. Employees who receive pay for any part of the pay period, even 1 hour, are
   counted in the payroll employment figures. For more information on how often employees
   are paid, please visit https://www.bls.gov/opub/btn/volume-3/how-frequently-do-private-
   businesses-pay-workers.htm.

   In the household survey, the reference period is generally the calendar week that
   includes the 12th of the month. Persons who miss the entire week's work for weather-
   related events are counted as employed whether or not they are paid for the time
   off. The household survey collects data on the number of persons who had a job but
   were not at work due to bad weather. It also provides a measure of the number of
   persons who usually work full time but had reduced hours due to bad weather. 
   Current and historical data are available on the household survey's most requested
   statistics page, please visit https://data.bls.gov/cgi-bin/surveymost?ln.




Technical Note


   This news release presents statistics from two major surveys, the Current
Population Survey (CPS; household survey) and the Current Employment Statistics
survey (CES; establishment survey). The household survey provides information
on the labor force, employment, and unemployment that appears in the "A" tables,
marked HOUSEHOLD DATA. It is a sample survey of about 60,000 eligible households
conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau for the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS).

   The establishment survey provides information on employment, hours, and
earnings of employees on nonfarm payrolls; the data appear in the "B" tables,
marked ESTABLISHMENT DATA. BLS collects these data each month from the payroll
records of a sample of nonagricultural business establishments. Each month
the CES program surveys about 144,000 businesses and government agencies,
representing approximately 697,000 individual worksites, in order to provide
detailed industry data on employment, hours, and earnings of workers on nonfarm
payrolls. The active sample includes approximately one-third of all nonfarm
payroll jobs.

   For both surveys, the data for a given month relate to a particular week or
pay period. In the household survey, the reference period is generally the
calendar week that contains the 12th day of the month. In the establishment
survey, the reference period is the pay period including the 12th, which may or
may not correspond directly to the calendar week.

Coverage, definitions, and differences between surveys

   Household survey. The sample is selected to reflect the entire civilian 
noninstitutional population. Based on responses to a series of questions on 
work and job search activities, each person 16 years and over in a sample
household is classified as employed, unemployed, or not in the labor force.

   People are classified as employed if they did any work at all as paid employees
during the reference week; worked in their own business, profession, or on their
own farm; or worked without pay at least 15 hours in a family business or farm.
People are also counted as employed if they were temporarily absent from their jobs
because of illness, bad weather, vacation, labor-management disputes, or personal
reasons.

   People are classified as unemployed if they meet all of the following criteria:
they had no employment during the reference week; they were available for work at
that time; and they made specific active efforts to find employment sometime during
the 4-week period ending with the reference week. Persons laid off from a job and
expecting recall need not be looking for work to be counted as unemployed. The
unemployment data derived from the household survey in no way depend upon the
eligibility for or receipt of unemployment insurance benefits.

   The civilian labor force is the sum of employed and unemployed persons.
Those persons not classified as employed or unemployed are not in the labor 
force. The unemployment rate is the number unemployed as a percent of the 
labor force. The labor force participation rate is the labor force as a 
percent of the population, and the employment-population ratio is the 
employed as a percent of the population. Additional information about the 
household survey can be found at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm.

   Establishment survey. The sample establishments are drawn from private
nonfarm businesses such as factories, offices, and stores, as well as
from federal, state, and local government entities. Employees on nonfarm
payrolls are those who worked or received pay for any part of the reference pay
period, including persons on paid leave. Persons are counted in each job
they hold. Hours and earnings data are produced for the private sector for
all employees and for production and nonsupervisory employees. Production
and nonsupervisory employees are defined as production and related employees
in manufacturing and mining and logging, construction workers in construction,
and nonsupervisory employees in private service-providing industries.

   Industries are classified on the basis of an establishment's principal
activity in accordance with the 2017 version of the North American Industry
Classification System. Additional information about the establishment survey
can be found at www.bls.gov/ces/.

   Differences in employment estimates. The numerous conceptual and methodological
differences between the household and establishment surveys result in important
distinctions in the employment estimates derived from the surveys. Among these are:

   --The household survey includes agricultural workers, self-employed workers
     whose businesses are unincorporated, unpaid family workers, and private
     household workers among the employed. These groups are excluded from the
     establishment survey.

   --The household survey includes people on unpaid leave among the employed.
     The establishment survey does not.

   --The household survey is limited to workers 16 years of age and older.
     The establishment survey is not limited by age.

   --The household survey has no duplication of individuals, because
     individuals are counted only once, even if they hold more than one
     job. In the establishment survey, employees working at more than one
     job and thus appearing on more than one payroll are counted separately
     for each appearance.

Seasonal adjustment

   Over the course of a year, the size of the nation's labor force and the levels
of employment and unemployment undergo regularly occurring fluctuations. These 
events may result from seasonal changes in weather, major holidays, and the opening
and closing of schools. The effect of such seasonal variation can be very large.

   Because these seasonal events follow a more or less regular pattern each year,
their influence on the level of a series can be tempered by adjusting for regular
seasonal variation. These adjustments make nonseasonal developments, such as
declines in employment or increases in the participation of women in the labor
force, easier to spot. For example, in the household survey, the large number of
youth entering the labor force each June is likely to obscure any other changes
that have taken place relative to May, making it difficult to determine if the 
level of economic activity has risen or declined. Similarly, in the establishment
survey, payroll employment in education declines by about 20 percent at the end
of the spring term and later rises with the start of the fall term, obscuring the
underlying employment trends in the industry. Because seasonal employment changes
at the end and beginning of the school year can be estimated, the statistics can be
adjusted to make underlying employment patterns more discernable.  The seasonally
adjusted figures provide a more useful tool with which to analyze changes in
month-to-month economic activity.

   Many seasonally adjusted series are independently adjusted in both the household
and establishment surveys. However, the adjusted series for many major estimates,
such as total payroll employment, employment in most major sectors, total employment,
and unemployment are computed by aggregating independently adjusted component series.
For example, total unemployment is derived by summing the adjusted series for four
major age-sex components; this differs from the unemployment estimate that would be
obtained by directly adjusting the total or by combining the duration, reasons, or 
more detailed age categories. Percentage distributions of unemployment by reason and
duration are derived from the sum of the independently seasonally adjusted component
series, and will not necessarily match calculations made using the seasonally adjusted
total unemployment level. Additional information about seasonal adjustment in the 
household survey can be found at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#sa.

   For both the household and establishment surveys, a concurrent seasonal adjustment
methodology is used in which new seasonal factors are calculated each month using all
relevant data, up to and including the data for the current month. In the household
survey, new seasonal factors are used to adjust only the current month's data. In the
establishment survey, however, new seasonal factors are used each month to adjust the
three most recent monthly estimates. The prior 2 months are routinely revised to
incorporate additional sample reports and recalculated seasonal adjustment factors.
In both surveys, 5-year revisions to historical data are made once a year.

Reliability of the estimates

   Statistics based on the household and establishment surveys are subject to both
sampling and nonsampling error. When a sample, rather than the entire population,
is surveyed, there is a chance that the sample estimates may differ from the true
population values they represent. The component of this difference that occurs
because samples differ by chance is known as sampling error, and its variability
is measured by the standard error of the estimate. There is about a 90-percent
chance, or level of confidence, that an estimate based on a sample will differ by
no more than 1.6 standard errors from the true population value because of sampling
error. BLS analyses are generally conducted at the 90-percent level of confidence.

   For example, the confidence interval for the monthly change in total nonfarm
employment from the establishment survey is on the order of plus or minus 110,000.
Suppose the estimate of nonfarm employment increases by 50,000 from one month to
the next. The 90-percent confidence interval on the monthly change would range from
-60,000 to +160,000 (50,000 +/- 110,000). These figures do not mean that the sample
results are off by these magnitudes, but rather that there is about a 90-percent
chance that the true over-the-month change lies within this interval. Since this
range includes values of less than zero, we could not say with confidence that
nonfarm employment had, in fact, increased that month. If, however, the reported
nonfarm employment rise was 250,000, then all of the values within the 90-percent
confidence interval would be greater than zero. In this case, it is likely (at
least a 90-percent chance) that nonfarm employment had, in fact, risen that month.
At an unemployment rate of around 6.0 percent, the 90-percent confidence interval
for the monthly change in unemployment as measured by the household survey is
about +/- 300,000, and for the monthly change in the unemployment rate it is about
+/- 0.2 percentage point.

   In general, estimates involving many individuals or establishments have lower
standard errors (relative to the size of the estimate) than estimates which are based
on a small number of observations. The precision of estimates also is improved when
the data are cumulated over time, such as for quarterly and annual averages.

   The household and establishment surveys are also affected by nonsampling error,
which can occur for many reasons, including the failure to sample a segment of the
population, inability to obtain information for all respondents in the sample,
inability or unwillingness of respondents to provide correct information on a
timely basis, mistakes made by respondents, and errors made in the collection or
processing of the data.

   For example, in the establishment survey, estimates for the most recent 2 months
are based on incomplete returns; for this reason, these estimates are labeled
preliminary in the tables. It is only after two successive revisions to a monthly
estimate, when nearly all sample reports have been received, that the estimate is
considered final.

   Another major source of nonsampling error in the establishment survey is the
inability to capture, on a timely basis, employment generated by new firms. To
correct for this systematic underestimation of employment growth, an estimation
procedure with two components is used to account for business births. The first
component excludes employment losses from business deaths from sample-based
estimation in order to offset the missing employment gains from business births.
This is incorporated into the sample-based estimation procedure by simply not
reflecting sample units going out of business, but imputing to them the same
employment trend as the other firms in the sample. This procedure accounts for
most of the net birth/death employment.

   The second component is an ARIMA time series model designed to estimate the
residual net birth/death employment not accounted for by the imputation. The
historical time series used to create and test the ARIMA model was derived from
the unemployment insurance universe micro-level database, and reflects the actual
residual net of births and deaths over the past 5 years.

   The sample-based estimates from the establishment survey are adjusted once a
year (on a lagged basis) to universe counts of payroll employment obtained from
administrative records of the unemployment insurance program. The difference 
between the March sample-based employment estimates and the March universe counts
is known as a benchmark revision, and serves as a rough proxy for total survey
error. The new benchmarks also incorporate changes in the classification of
industries. Over the past decade, absolute benchmark revisions for total nonfarm
employment have averaged 0.2 percent, with a range from -0.7 percent to 0.3 percent.

Other information

   Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired
individuals upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay
Service: (800) 877-8339.




HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-1. Employment status of the civilian population by sex and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Apr.
2020
Mar.
2021
Apr.
2021
Apr.
2020
Dec.
2020
Jan.
2021
Feb.
2021
Mar.
2021
Apr.
2021

TOTAL

Civilian noninstitutional population

259,896 261,003 261,103 259,896 261,230 260,851 260,918 261,003 261,103

Civilian labor force

155,830 160,397 160,379 156,478 160,567 160,161 160,211 160,558 160,988

Participation rate

60.0 61.5 61.4 60.2 61.5 61.4 61.4 61.5 61.7

Employed

133,326 150,493 151,160 133,370 149,830 150,031 150,239 150,848 151,176

Employment-population ratio

51.3 57.7 57.9 51.3 57.4 57.5 57.6 57.8 57.9

Unemployed

22,504 9,905 9,220 23,109 10,736 10,130 9,972 9,710 9,812

Unemployment rate

14.4 6.2 5.7 14.8 6.7 6.3 6.2 6.0 6.1

Not in labor force

104,066 100,606 100,723 103,418 100,663 100,690 100,708 100,445 100,115

Persons who currently want a job

9,761 6,576 6,466 9,917 7,331 6,957 6,933 6,850 6,647

Men, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

125,707 126,266 126,316 125,707 126,367 126,192 126,224 126,266 126,316

Civilian labor force

82,820 84,728 85,112 83,166 85,175 85,149 85,061 84,917 85,410

Participation rate

65.9 67.1 67.4 66.2 67.4 67.5 67.4 67.3 67.6

Employed

71,810 79,188 79,965 71,892 79,481 79,714 79,666 79,681 80,017

Employment-population ratio

57.1 62.7 63.3 57.2 62.9 63.2 63.1 63.1 63.3

Unemployed

11,010 5,540 5,146 11,274 5,694 5,434 5,395 5,236 5,394

Unemployment rate

13.3 6.5 6.0 13.6 6.7 6.4 6.3 6.2 6.3

Not in labor force

42,887 41,538 41,204 42,541 41,192 41,043 41,163 41,349 40,905

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

117,330 117,949 118,003 117,330 118,010 117,864 117,902 117,949 118,003

Civilian labor force

80,379 81,992 82,275 80,490 82,244 82,173 82,095 81,978 82,333

Participation rate

68.5 69.5 69.7 68.6 69.7 69.7 69.6 69.5 69.8

Employed

70,041 76,872 77,447 69,975 77,004 77,204 77,193 77,194 77,348

Employment-population ratio

59.7 65.2 65.6 59.6 65.3 65.5 65.5 65.4 65.5

Unemployed

10,338 5,120 4,828 10,515 5,240 4,969 4,902 4,784 4,985

Unemployment rate

12.9 6.2 5.9 13.1 6.4 6.0 6.0 5.8 6.1

Not in labor force

36,951 35,957 35,728 36,841 35,767 35,691 35,807 35,972 35,670

Women, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

134,189 134,737 134,787 134,189 134,862 134,660 134,694 134,737 134,787

Civilian labor force

73,010 75,670 75,268 73,312 75,392 75,012 75,149 75,641 75,577

Participation rate

54.4 56.2 55.8 54.6 55.9 55.7 55.8 56.1 56.1

Employed

61,516 71,305 71,195 61,478 70,350 70,316 70,572 71,167 71,159

Employment-population ratio

45.8 52.9 52.8 45.8 52.2 52.2 52.4 52.8 52.8

Unemployed

11,494 4,365 4,073 11,834 5,042 4,696 4,577 4,474 4,418

Unemployment rate

15.7 5.8 5.4 16.1 6.7 6.3 6.1 5.9 5.8

Not in labor force

61,179 59,067 59,519 60,877 59,471 59,648 59,545 59,096 59,210

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

125,991 126,594 126,648 125,991 126,681 126,507 126,546 126,594 126,648

Civilian labor force

70,790 72,818 72,378 70,896 72,422 72,147 72,173 72,668 72,503

Participation rate

56.2 57.5 57.1 56.3 57.2 57.0 57.0 57.4 57.2

Employed

60,124 68,730 68,605 59,938 67,872 67,851 67,928 68,513 68,430

Employment-population ratio

47.7 54.3 54.2 47.6 53.6 53.6 53.7 54.1 54.0

Unemployed

10,666 4,088 3,773 10,958 4,551 4,296 4,245 4,155 4,073

Unemployment rate

15.1 5.6 5.2 15.5 6.3 6.0 5.9 5.7 5.6

Not in labor force

55,202 53,775 54,271 55,096 54,259 54,360 54,373 53,926 54,145

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian noninstitutional population

16,574 16,460 16,451 16,574 16,538 16,481 16,470 16,460 16,451

Civilian labor force

4,661 5,587 5,727 5,093 5,900 5,841 5,942 5,913 6,152

Participation rate

28.1 33.9 34.8 30.7 35.7 35.4 36.1 35.9 37.4

Employed

3,161 4,890 5,108 3,457 4,955 4,975 5,118 5,142 5,398

Employment-population ratio

19.1 29.7 31.1 20.9 30.0 30.2 31.1 31.2 32.8

Unemployed

1,500 697 618 1,636 946 865 825 771 754

Unemployment rate

32.2 12.5 10.8 32.1 16.0 14.8 13.9 13.0 12.3

Not in labor force

11,913 10,873 10,725 11,481 10,638 10,640 10,528 10,547 10,300

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-2. Employment status of the civilian population by race, sex, and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, race, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Apr.
2020
Mar.
2021
Apr.
2021
Apr.
2020
Dec.
2020
Jan.
2021
Feb.
2021
Mar.
2021
Apr.
2021

WHITE

Civilian noninstitutional population

201,082 201,642 201,687 201,082 201,749 201,588 201,606 201,642 201,687

Civilian labor force

120,795 123,768 123,638 121,158 124,208 123,727 123,737 123,819 123,964

Participation rate

60.1 61.4 61.3 60.3 61.6 61.4 61.4 61.4 61.5

Employed

104,083 116,981 117,458 104,028 116,703 116,699 116,859 117,166 117,358

Employment-population ratio

51.8 58.0 58.2 51.7 57.8 57.9 58.0 58.1 58.2

Unemployed

16,713 6,787 6,180 17,129 7,505 7,027 6,878 6,653 6,606

Unemployment rate

13.8 5.5 5.0 14.1 6.0 5.7 5.6 5.4 5.3

Not in labor force

80,287 77,874 78,049 79,924 77,541 77,862 77,869 77,823 77,723

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

63,595 64,348 64,600 63,608 64,593 64,550 64,434 64,289 64,593

Participation rate

69.0 69.6 69.8 69.0 69.8 69.8 69.7 69.5 69.8

Employed

55,863 60,753 61,269 55,757 60,872 60,988 60,989 60,935 61,155

Employment-population ratio

60.6 65.7 66.2 60.5 65.8 66.0 66.0 65.9 66.1

Unemployed

7,732 3,596 3,331 7,850 3,721 3,561 3,446 3,353 3,439

Unemployment rate

12.2 5.6 5.2 12.3 5.8 5.5 5.3 5.2 5.3

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

53,581 55,040 54,576 53,594 54,980 54,529 54,599 54,911 54,603

Participation rate

55.4 56.7 56.2 55.4 56.6 56.2 56.3 56.6 56.2

Employed

45,735 52,340 52,147 45,555 51,871 51,739 51,782 52,155 51,965

Employment-population ratio

47.3 53.9 53.7 47.1 53.4 53.3 53.4 53.7 53.5

Unemployed

7,846 2,699 2,429 8,039 3,109 2,790 2,817 2,756 2,638

Unemployment rate

14.6 4.9 4.5 15.0 5.7 5.1 5.2 5.0 4.8

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

3,620 4,380 4,462 3,956 4,635 4,648 4,704 4,619 4,768

Participation rate

29.8 36.3 37.0 32.5 38.2 38.4 38.9 38.2 39.5

Employed

2,485 3,888 4,043 2,716 3,960 3,972 4,088 4,076 4,238

Employment-population ratio

20.4 32.2 33.5 22.3 32.7 32.8 33.8 33.7 35.1

Unemployed

1,135 492 420 1,240 675 676 616 543 530

Unemployment rate

31.3 11.2 9.4 31.3 14.6 14.5 13.1 11.8 11.1

BLACK OR AFRICAN AMERICAN

Civilian noninstitutional population

33,267 33,530 33,551 33,267 33,516 33,493 33,511 33,530 33,551

Civilian labor force

19,425 20,283 20,488 19,507 20,055 20,189 20,154 20,362 20,544

Participation rate

58.4 60.5 61.1 58.6 59.8 60.3 60.1 60.7 61.2

Employed

16,248 18,281 18,555 16,247 18,061 18,323 18,159 18,412 18,546

Employment-population ratio

48.8 54.5 55.3 48.8 53.9 54.7 54.2 54.9 55.3

Unemployed

3,177 2,002 1,932 3,260 1,994 1,866 1,995 1,951 1,998

Unemployment rate

16.4 9.9 9.4 16.7 9.9 9.2 9.9 9.6 9.7

Not in labor force

13,841 13,247 13,064 13,760 13,461 13,305 13,357 13,168 13,007

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

8,856 9,394 9,450 8,882 9,222 9,348 9,340 9,430 9,465

Participation rate

63.2 66.3 66.7 63.4 65.2 66.1 66.0 66.6 66.8

Employed

7,431 8,406 8,478 7,457 8,265 8,468 8,383 8,501 8,498

Employment-population ratio

53.0 59.4 59.8 53.2 58.4 59.9 59.2 60.0 59.9

Unemployed

1,425 988 973 1,425 956 880 957 928 967

Unemployment rate

16.1 10.5 10.3 16.0 10.4 9.4 10.2 9.8 10.2

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

9,997 10,197 10,315 10,014 10,088 10,138 10,127 10,181 10,315

Participation rate

59.4 60.1 60.7 59.5 59.5 59.8 59.7 60.0 60.7

Employed

8,413 9,296 9,487 8,361 9,238 9,274 9,225 9,294 9,429

Employment-population ratio

50.0 54.8 55.9 49.7 54.5 54.7 54.4 54.8 55.5

Unemployed

1,584 902 828 1,653 849 864 902 887 887

Unemployment rate

15.8 8.8 8.0 16.5 8.4 8.5 8.9 8.7 8.6

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

573 691 723 610 746 703 687 752 764

Participation rate

23.6 28.9 30.2 25.2 31.0 29.3 28.7 31.4 32.0

Employed

405 579 591 428 558 581 551 616 620

Employment-population ratio

16.7 24.2 24.7 17.7 23.2 24.2 23.0 25.7 25.9

Unemployed

168 112 132 182 188 122 136 136 144

Unemployment rate

29.4 16.2 18.2 29.9 25.2 17.3 19.8 18.1 18.9

ASIAN

Civilian noninstitutional population

16,363 16,532 16,532 16,363 16,583 16,423 16,588 16,532 16,532

Civilian labor force

9,893 10,433 10,294 9,967 10,253 10,317 10,315 10,422 10,375

Participation rate

60.5 63.1 62.3 60.9 61.8 62.8 62.2 63.0 62.8

Employed

8,476 9,817 9,722 8,526 9,645 9,631 9,792 9,799 9,786

Employment-population ratio

51.8 59.4 58.8 52.1 58.2 58.6 59.0 59.3 59.2

Unemployed

1,418 616 571 1,441 608 686 523 623 589

Unemployment rate

14.3 5.9 5.6 14.5 5.9 6.6 5.1 6.0 5.7

Not in labor force

6,470 6,099 6,238 6,396 6,329 6,106 6,273 6,110 6,157

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Estimates for the above race groups will not sum to totals shown in table A-1 because data are not presented for all races. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-3. Employment status of the Hispanic or Latino population by sex and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Apr.
2020
Mar.
2021
Apr.
2021
Apr.
2020
Dec.
2020
Jan.
2021
Feb.
2021
Mar.
2021
Apr.
2021

HISPANIC OR LATINO ETHNICITY

Civilian noninstitutional population

43,975 44,651 44,719 43,975 44,639 44,521 44,587 44,651 44,719

Civilian labor force

27,752 29,232 29,110 27,842 29,150 28,920 29,174 29,273 29,199

Participation rate

63.1 65.5 65.1 63.3 65.3 65.0 65.4 65.6 65.3

Employed

22,625 26,848 26,922 22,583 26,436 26,437 26,701 26,975 26,889

Employment-population ratio

51.5 60.1 60.2 51.4 59.2 59.4 59.9 60.4 60.1

Unemployed

5,126 2,384 2,189 5,259 2,714 2,482 2,473 2,298 2,310

Unemployment rate

18.5 8.2 7.5 18.9 9.3 8.6 8.5 7.9 7.9

Not in labor force

16,223 15,418 15,609 16,133 15,489 15,601 15,413 15,378 15,520

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

15,319 16,033 16,094 15,322 15,856 15,789 15,952 16,007 16,086

Participation rate

77.2 79.5 79.6 77.2 78.6 78.5 79.2 79.3 79.6

Employed

12,817 14,733 14,928 12,769 14,462 14,578 14,727 14,804 14,882

Employment-population ratio

64.6 73.0 73.9 64.3 71.7 72.5 73.1 73.4 73.6

Unemployed

2,502 1,300 1,166 2,553 1,395 1,211 1,224 1,203 1,204

Unemployment rate

16.3 8.1 7.2 16.7 8.8 7.7 7.7 7.5 7.5

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

11,341 11,869 11,768 11,363 11,906 11,779 11,794 11,909 11,790

Participation rate

56.4 58.1 57.5 56.5 58.3 57.8 57.8 58.3 57.6

Employed

9,090 10,983 10,923 9,077 10,820 10,743 10,792 11,035 10,909

Employment-population ratio

45.2 53.7 53.3 45.1 52.9 52.7 52.9 54.0 53.3

Unemployed

2,251 886 845 2,286 1,086 1,036 1,002 874 881

Unemployment rate

19.8 7.5 7.2 20.1 9.1 8.8 8.5 7.3 7.5

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

1,092 1,331 1,249 1,157 1,388 1,352 1,428 1,356 1,323

Participation rate

27.3 33.0 31.0 28.9 34.3 33.6 35.4 33.6 32.8

Employed

719 1,133 1,071 737 1,155 1,116 1,182 1,135 1,098

Employment-population ratio

18.0 28.1 26.5 18.4 28.6 27.7 29.3 28.2 27.2

Unemployed

373 198 178 419 234 236 247 221 225

Unemployment rate

34.2 14.9 14.3 36.3 16.8 17.4 17.3 16.3 17.0

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-4. Employment status of the civilian population 25 years and over by educational attainment
[Numbers in thousands]
Educational attainment Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Apr.
2020
Mar.
2021
Apr.
2021
Apr.
2020
Dec.
2020
Jan.
2021
Feb.
2021
Mar.
2021
Apr.
2021

Less than a high school diploma

Civilian labor force

8,688 8,835 9,039 8,675 9,147 9,169 8,942 8,936 9,020

Participation rate

43.3 43.9 44.3 43.2 45.0 44.9 45.9 44.4 44.2

Employed

6,872 7,997 8,205 6,855 8,254 8,337 8,035 8,204 8,185

Employment-population ratio

34.2 39.8 40.2 34.1 40.7 40.8 41.2 40.8 40.1

Unemployed

1,816 838 835 1,820 893 832 907 731 835

Unemployment rate

20.9 9.5 9.2 21.0 9.8 9.1 10.1 8.2 9.3

High school graduates, no college(1)

Civilian labor force

33,203 34,351 34,768 33,097 34,925 34,506 34,462 34,278 34,704

Participation rate

54.5 54.9 55.4 54.3 55.5 55.2 54.7 54.8 55.3

Employed

27,557 31,902 32,451 27,371 32,198 32,051 31,977 31,984 32,307

Employment-population ratio

45.2 51.0 51.7 44.9 51.1 51.3 50.8 51.1 51.5

Unemployed

5,646 2,449 2,317 5,726 2,726 2,455 2,485 2,295 2,397

Unemployment rate

17.0 7.1 6.7 17.3 7.8 7.1 7.2 6.7 6.9

Some college or associate degree

Civilian labor force

35,935 35,782 35,627 35,782 35,676 35,440 35,450 35,771 35,485

Participation rate

62.6 63.3 63.2 62.3 62.5 62.3 62.7 63.3 63.0

Employed

30,634 33,608 33,622 30,421 33,430 33,257 33,360 33,677 33,422

Employment-population ratio

53.4 59.5 59.7 53.0 58.6 58.4 59.0 59.6 59.3

Unemployed

5,301 2,174 2,005 5,361 2,246 2,183 2,089 2,094 2,063

Unemployment rate

14.8 6.1 5.6 15.0 6.3 6.2 5.9 5.9 5.8

Bachelor's degree and higher(2)

Civilian labor force

60,075 61,316 60,786 60,126 59,940 60,391 60,744 60,835 60,804

Participation rate

71.5 72.6 72.1 71.6 71.9 72.2 71.8 72.0 72.2

Employed

55,151 59,086 58,757 55,087 57,665 57,969 58,417 58,612 58,662

Employment-population ratio

65.7 69.9 69.7 65.6 69.1 69.3 69.1 69.4 69.6

Unemployed

4,924 2,230 2,030 5,040 2,274 2,422 2,327 2,224 2,142

Unemployment rate

8.2 3.6 3.3 8.4 3.8 4.0 3.8 3.7 3.5

Footnotes
(1) Includes persons with a high school diploma or equivalent.
(2) Includes persons with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees.

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals for those 25 years and over because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-5. Employment status of the civilian population 18 years and over by veteran status, period of service, and sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, veteran status, and period of service Total Men Women
Apr.
2020
Apr.
2021
Apr.
2020
Apr.
2021
Apr.
2020
Apr.
2021

VETERANS, 18 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

18,544 18,879 16,644 16,870 1,900 2,009

Civilian labor force

8,944 9,186 7,854 8,024 1,090 1,162

Participation rate

48.2 48.7 47.2 47.6 57.4 57.8

Employed

7,894 8,706 6,956 7,594 938 1,111

Employment-population ratio

42.6 46.1 41.8 45.0 49.4 55.3

Unemployed

1,050 480 898 430 152 51

Unemployment rate

11.7 5.2 11.4 5.4 14.0 4.4

Not in labor force

9,600 9,693 8,790 8,846 810 847

Gulf War-era II veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

4,453 4,634 3,710 3,824 743 810

Civilian labor force

3,478 3,733 2,949 3,194 530 538

Participation rate

78.1 80.5 79.5 83.5 71.3 66.4

Employed

3,025 3,544 2,601 3,036 424 508

Employment-population ratio

67.9 76.5 70.1 79.4 57.0 62.7

Unemployed

453 189 347 158 106 31

Unemployment rate

13.0 5.1 11.8 5.0 20.0 5.7

Not in labor force

975 902 761 630 213 272

Gulf War-era I veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

3,076 3,313 2,563 2,793 513 520

Civilian labor force

2,260 2,450 1,946 2,087 315 363

Participation rate

73.5 74.0 75.9 74.7 61.3 69.9

Employed

2,100 2,323 1,817 1,970 283 353

Employment-population ratio

68.3 70.1 70.9 70.5 55.1 68.0

Unemployed

160 127 129 117 32 10

Unemployment rate

7.1 5.2 6.6 5.6 10.1 2.6

Not in labor force

816 863 617 706 198 157

World War II, Korean War, and Vietnam-era veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

6,907 6,771 6,666 6,509 241 262

Civilian labor force

1,294 1,148 1,262 1,118 31 31

Participation rate

18.7 17.0 18.9 17.2 13.0 11.7

Employed

1,073 1,102 1,043 1,071 31 31

Employment-population ratio

15.5 16.3 15.6 16.5 12.7 11.7

Unemployed

221 47 220 47 1 0

Unemployment rate

17.0 4.1 17.4 4.2 - -

Not in labor force

5,613 5,623 5,404 5,391 210 231

Veterans of other service periods

Civilian noninstitutional population

4,108 4,161 3,705 3,744 403 417

Civilian labor force

1,912 1,855 1,698 1,625 214 230

Participation rate

46.5 44.6 45.8 43.4 53.1 55.1

Employed

1,696 1,736 1,495 1,517 201 219

Employment-population ratio

41.3 41.7 40.4 40.5 49.9 52.6

Unemployed

216 118 203 108 13 11

Unemployment rate

11.3 6.4 11.9 6.6 6.2 4.6

Not in labor force

2,196 2,306 2,007 2,119 189 187

NONVETERANS, 18 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

232,724 233,521 104,740 105,022 127,985 128,499

Civilian labor force

145,311 149,093 74,246 76,069 71,065 73,024

Participation rate

62.4 63.8 70.9 72.4 55.5 56.8

Employed

124,330 140,575 64,288 71,452 60,042 69,124

Employment-population ratio

53.4 60.2 61.4 68.0 46.9 53.8

Unemployed

20,980 8,518 9,958 4,617 11,023 3,901

Unemployment rate

14.4 5.7 13.4 6.1 15.5 5.3

Not in labor force

87,414 84,428 30,494 28,953 56,920 55,475

NOTE: Veterans served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces and were not on active duty at the time of the survey. Nonveterans never served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces. Veterans could have served anywhere in the world during these periods of service: Gulf War era II (September 2001-present), Gulf War era I (August 1990-August 2001), Vietnam era (August 1964-April 1975), Korean War (July 1950-January 1955), World War II (December 1941-December 1946), and other service periods (all other time periods). Veterans who served in more than one wartime period are classified only in the most recent one. Veterans who served during one of the selected wartime periods and another period are classified only in the wartime period. Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria (values not shown where base is less than 75,000). Updated population controls introduced with the release of January 2021 data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-6. Employment status of the civilian population by sex, age, and disability status, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Persons with a disability Persons with no disability
Apr.
2020
Apr.
2021
Apr.
2020
Apr.
2021

TOTAL, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

29,846 30,360 230,051 230,743

Civilian labor force

5,923 6,176 149,907 154,203

Participation rate

19.8 20.3 65.2 66.8

Employed

4,805 5,585 128,520 145,575

Employment-population ratio

16.1 18.4 55.9 63.1

Unemployed

1,117 592 21,387 8,628

Unemployment rate

18.9 9.6 14.3 5.6

Not in labor force

23,923 24,183 80,143 76,540

Men, 16 to 64 years

Civilian labor force

2,611 2,609 74,556 76,676

Participation rate

35.4 34.7 79.3 81.8

Employed

2,096 2,302 64,877 72,099

Employment-population ratio

28.4 30.7 69.0 77.0

Unemployed

515 306 9,680 4,578

Unemployment rate

19.7 11.7 13.0 6.0

Not in labor force

4,764 4,901 19,431 17,010

Women, 16 to 64 years

Civilian labor force

2,157 2,543 66,201 68,049

Participation rate

30.0 32.6 68.2 70.7

Employed

1,731 2,314 55,927 64,436

Employment-population ratio

24.1 29.7 57.6 66.9

Unemployed

426 229 10,275 3,612

Unemployment rate

19.7 9.0 15.5 5.3

Not in labor force

5,035 5,251 30,938 28,268

Both sexes, 65 years and over

Civilian labor force

1,154 1,025 9,150 9,478

Participation rate

7.6 6.8 23.5 23.3

Employed

978 968 7,717 9,040

Employment-population ratio

6.4 6.4 19.8 22.2

Unemployed

177 56 1,432 438

Unemployment rate

15.3 5.5 15.7 4.6

Not in labor force

14,124 14,031 29,774 31,262

NOTE: A person with a disability has at least one of the following conditions: is deaf or has serious difficulty hearing; is blind or has serious difficulty seeing even when wearing glasses; has serious difficulty concentrating, remembering, or making decisions because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition; has serious difficulty walking or climbing stairs; has difficulty dressing or bathing; or has difficulty doing errands alone such as visiting a doctor's office or shopping because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-7. Employment status of the civilian population by nativity and sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status and nativity Total Men Women
Apr.
2020
Apr.
2021
Apr.
2020
Apr.
2021
Apr.
2020
Apr.
2021

Foreign born, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

42,504 43,046 20,489 20,660 22,015 22,386

Civilian labor force

26,285 27,644 15,238 15,693 11,047 11,951

Participation rate

61.8 64.2 74.4 76.0 50.2 53.4

Employed

21,961 25,886 12,908 14,751 9,053 11,135

Employment-population ratio

51.7 60.1 63.0 71.4 41.1 49.7

Unemployed

4,324 1,758 2,330 942 1,994 816

Unemployment rate

16.5 6.4 15.3 6.0 18.1 6.8

Not in labor force

16,219 15,402 5,251 4,966 10,968 10,436

Native born, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

217,392 218,057 105,218 105,656 112,174 112,401

Civilian labor force

129,545 132,735 67,582 69,418 61,963 63,317

Participation rate

59.6 60.9 64.2 65.7 55.2 56.3

Employed

111,365 125,274 58,902 65,214 52,463 60,059

Employment-population ratio

51.2 57.5 56.0 61.7 46.8 53.4

Unemployed

18,180 7,462 8,680 4,204 9,500 3,258

Unemployment rate

14.0 5.6 12.8 6.1 15.3 5.1

Not in labor force

87,847 85,321 37,636 36,238 50,211 49,084

NOTE: The foreign born are those residing in the United States who were not U.S. citizens at birth. That is, they were born outside the United States or one of its outlying areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam, to parents neither of whom was a U.S. citizen. The native born are persons who were born in the United States or one of its outlying areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam or who were born abroad of at least one parent who was a U.S. citizen. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-8. Employed persons by class of worker and part-time status
[In thousands]
Category Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Apr.
2020
Mar.
2021
Apr.
2021
Apr.
2020
Dec.
2020
Jan.
2021
Feb.
2021
Mar.
2021
Apr.
2021

CLASS OF WORKER

Agriculture and related industries

2,303 2,109 2,196 2,379 2,461 2,466 2,308 2,228 2,292

Wage and salary workers(1)

1,585 1,429 1,466 1,644 1,569 1,552 1,519 1,518 1,527

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

693 623 674 698 823 827 712 635 688

Unpaid family workers

25 57 56 - - - - - -

Nonagricultural industries

131,023 148,384 148,964 130,982 147,351 147,535 147,895 148,598 148,942

Wage and salary workers(1)

123,485 139,161 139,929 123,374 138,971 138,941 139,243 139,382 139,825

Government

19,543 20,958 20,640 19,268 20,709 20,689 20,829 20,644 20,410

Private industries

103,942 118,203 119,289 104,081 118,123 118,102 118,151 118,616 119,548

Private households

492 650 602 - - - - - -

Other industries

103,450 117,553 118,686 103,600 117,472 117,532 117,451 117,896 118,995

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

7,514 9,143 8,960 7,523 8,638 8,721 8,787 9,241 8,962

Unpaid family workers

23 80 75 - - - - - -

PERSONS AT WORK PART TIME(2)

All industries

Part time for economic reasons(3)

10,684 5,913 5,031 10,899 6,170 5,954 6,088 5,826 5,243

Slack work or business conditions

9,843 4,660 3,866 9,980 4,891 4,756 4,723 4,629 3,997

Could only find part-time work

728 1,061 984 708 1,045 986 1,166 984 974

Part time for noneconomic reasons(4)

13,149 19,523 19,836 12,365 18,237 18,519 18,369 19,102 19,057

Nonagricultural industries

Part time for economic reasons(3)

10,524 5,859 4,968 10,739 6,082 5,824 5,986 5,804 5,178

Slack work or business conditions

9,694 4,622 3,812 9,836 4,819 4,691 4,661 4,592 3,949

Could only find part-time work

723 1,060 979 705 1,037 986 1,154 982 970

Part time for noneconomic reasons(4)

12,779 19,151 19,501 11,986 17,846 18,112 17,998 18,726 18,713

Footnotes
(1) Includes self-employed workers whose businesses are incorporated.
(2) Refers to those who worked 1 to 34 hours during the survey reference week and excludes employed persons who were absent from their jobs for the entire week.
(3) Refers to those who worked 1 to 34 hours during the reference week for an economic reason such as slack work or unfavorable business conditions, inability to find full-time work, or seasonal declines in demand.
(4) Refers to persons who usually work part time for noneconomic reasons such as childcare problems, family or personal obligations, school or training, retirement or Social Security limits on earnings, and other reasons. This excludes persons who usually work full time but worked only 1 to 34 hours during the reference week for reasons such as vacations, holidays, illness, and bad weather.

- Data not available.
NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-9. Selected employment indicators
[Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Apr.
2020
Mar.
2021
Apr.
2021
Apr.
2020
Dec.
2020
Jan.
2021
Feb.
2021
Mar.
2021
Apr.
2021

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

133,326 150,493 151,160 133,370 149,830 150,031 150,239 150,848 151,176

16 to 19 years

3,161 4,890 5,108 3,457 4,955 4,975 5,118 5,142 5,398

16 to 17 years

1,101 1,742 1,879 1,297 1,785 1,784 1,868 1,923 2,057

18 to 19 years

2,060 3,149 3,229 2,171 3,192 3,222 3,245 3,256 3,337

20 years and over

130,165 145,603 146,051 129,913 144,876 145,055 145,121 145,706 145,778

20 to 24 years

9,951 13,009 13,018 10,045 13,167 13,216 13,216 13,150 13,118

25 years and over

120,214 132,593 133,034 119,745 131,637 131,689 131,789 132,492 132,540

25 to 54 years

87,910 96,911 97,234 87,662 96,225 96,307 96,461 96,856 96,952

25 to 34 years

30,456 34,125 34,377 30,421 33,913 33,884 33,988 34,099 34,319

35 to 44 years

29,658 32,356 32,491 29,595 32,011 32,162 32,146 32,406 32,407

45 to 54 years

27,796 30,431 30,366 27,646 30,300 30,261 30,327 30,351 30,226

55 years and over

32,304 35,682 35,800 32,083 35,412 35,382 35,328 35,636 35,588

Men, 16 years and over

71,810 79,188 79,965 71,892 79,481 79,714 79,666 79,681 80,017

16 to 19 years

1,769 2,316 2,518 1,917 2,477 2,510 2,474 2,488 2,669

16 to 17 years

566 774 919 633 881 892 938 879 970

18 to 19 years

1,203 1,542 1,599 1,290 1,603 1,634 1,550 1,632 1,680

20 years and over

70,041 76,872 77,447 69,975 77,004 77,204 77,193 77,194 77,348

20 to 24 years

5,183 6,594 6,712 5,246 6,672 6,810 6,763 6,711 6,770

25 years and over

64,858 70,278 70,735 64,695 70,220 70,317 70,329 70,499 70,562

25 to 54 years

47,282 51,374 51,680 47,234 51,246 51,368 51,436 51,542 51,616

25 to 34 years

16,390 18,188 18,328 16,411 18,172 18,133 18,145 18,229 18,339

35 to 44 years

16,090 17,393 17,532 16,049 17,201 17,358 17,390 17,468 17,477

45 to 54 years

14,803 15,793 15,820 14,774 15,873 15,876 15,901 15,845 15,801

55 years and over

17,575 18,904 19,055 17,462 18,974 18,950 18,892 18,957 18,946

Women, 16 years and over

61,516 71,305 71,195 61,478 70,350 70,316 70,572 71,167 71,159

16 to 19 years

1,392 2,574 2,590 1,540 2,478 2,465 2,644 2,654 2,729

16 to 17 years

536 968 960 663 904 892 930 1,044 1,087

18 to 19 years

856 1,607 1,630 881 1,589 1,588 1,695 1,624 1,656

20 years and over

60,124 68,730 68,605 59,938 67,872 67,851 67,928 68,513 68,430

20 to 24 years

4,768 6,415 6,305 4,799 6,495 6,406 6,453 6,440 6,348

25 years and over

55,356 62,315 62,299 55,050 61,417 61,371 61,460 61,993 61,978

25 to 54 years

40,627 45,537 45,554 40,428 44,979 44,939 45,024 45,314 45,336

25 to 34 years

14,066 15,936 16,049 14,010 15,741 15,751 15,843 15,870 15,980

35 to 44 years

13,568 14,963 14,959 13,547 14,810 14,804 14,756 14,938 14,930

45 to 54 years

12,993 14,638 14,546 12,872 14,428 14,384 14,426 14,506 14,425

55 years and over

14,729 16,778 16,745 14,622 16,438 16,432 16,436 16,679 16,642

MARITAL STATUS

Married men, spouse present(1)

41,843 43,681 43,977 41,677 43,720 43,819 44,033 43,695 43,805

Married women, spouse present(1)

32,034 35,255 35,192 31,859 34,817 34,668 34,803 34,910 35,013

Women who maintain families(2)

7,908 9,402 9,420 - - - - - -

FULL- OR PART-TIME STATUS

Full-time workers(3)

113,656 124,840 125,635 114,325 124,689 124,990 124,868 125,803 126,161

Part-time workers(4)

19,670 25,653 25,524 19,117 24,917 24,627 25,109 25,078 25,024

MULTIPLE JOBHOLDERS

Total multiple jobholders

5,360 7,004 6,883 5,411 6,460 6,623 6,678 6,817 6,916

Percent of total employed

4.0 4.7 4.6 4.1 4.3 4.4 4.4 4.5 4.6

SELF-EMPLOYMENT

Self-employed workers, incorporated

6,410 6,024 6,196 - - - - - -

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

8,207 9,766 9,634 8,221 9,461 9,548 9,498 9,876 9,651

Footnotes
(1) Beginning with data for January 2020, refers to persons in both opposite-sex and same-sex married couples. Prior to January 2020, referred to persons in opposite-sex married couples only.
(2) Beginning with data for January 2020, refers to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not a spouse of either sex. Prior to January 2020, referred to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not an opposite-sex spouse.
(3) Employed full-time workers are persons who usually work 35 hours or more per week.
(4) Employed part-time workers are persons who usually work less than 35 hours per week.

- Data not available.
NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-10. Selected unemployment indicators, seasonally adjusted
Characteristic Number of
unemployed persons
(in thousands)
Unemployment rates
Apr.
2020
Mar.
2021
Apr.
2021
Apr.
2020
Dec.
2020
Jan.
2021
Feb.
2021
Mar.
2021
Apr.
2021

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

23,109 9,710 9,812 14.8 6.7 6.3 6.2 6.0 6.1

16 to 19 years

1,636 771 754 32.1 16.0 14.8 13.9 13.0 12.3

16 to 17 years

504 278 261 28.0 14.5 15.9 14.8 12.6 11.3

18 to 19 years

1,127 500 497 34.2 17.0 14.2 13.7 13.3 13.0

20 years and over

21,473 8,939 9,058 14.2 6.3 6.0 5.9 5.8 5.8

20 to 24 years

3,452 1,502 1,535 25.6 11.2 9.7 9.6 10.3 10.5

25 years and over

17,979 7,349 7,477 13.1 5.8 5.7 5.6 5.3 5.3

25 to 54 years

12,921 5,639 5,600 12.8 5.8 5.8 5.7 5.5 5.5

25 to 34 years

5,186 2,454 2,365 14.6 6.6 6.8 6.4 6.7 6.4

35 to 44 years

3,845 1,752 1,673 11.5 5.5 5.7 5.7 5.1 4.9

45 to 54 years

3,890 1,433 1,561 12.3 5.3 4.9 4.9 4.5 4.9

55 years and over

5,056 1,692 1,878 13.6 6.0 5.3 5.3 4.5 5.0

Men, 16 years and over

11,274 5,236 5,394 13.6 6.7 6.4 6.3 6.2 6.3

16 to 19 years

759 452 409 28.4 15.5 15.7 16.6 15.4 13.3

16 to 17 years

173 143 126 21.4 15.3 15.0 15.7 14.0 11.5

18 to 19 years

572 314 275 30.7 15.8 16.0 17.6 16.1 14.1

20 years and over

10,515 4,784 4,985 13.1 6.4 6.0 6.0 5.8 6.1

20 to 24 years

1,592 823 883 23.3 12.1 10.0 10.1 10.9 11.5

25 years and over

8,882 3,889 4,073 12.1 5.8 5.8 5.6 5.2 5.5

25 to 54 years

6,471 2,986 3,031 12.0 5.8 5.9 5.6 5.5 5.5

25 to 34 years

2,709 1,299 1,313 14.2 6.6 7.0 6.6 6.7 6.7

35 to 44 years

1,868 939 843 10.4 5.7 5.8 5.6 5.1 4.6

45 to 54 years

1,894 749 875 11.4 5.0 4.7 4.6 4.5 5.2

55 years and over

2,411 903 1,043 12.1 5.9 5.4 5.6 4.5 5.2

Women, 16 years and over

11,834 4,474 4,418 16.1 6.7 6.3 6.1 5.9 5.8

16 to 19 years

877 319 345 36.3 16.5 14.0 11.2 10.7 11.2

16 to 17 years

331 135 136 33.3 13.7 16.8 13.9 11.5 11.1

18 to 19 years

555 185 221 38.7 18.2 12.3 9.7 10.3 11.8

20 years and over

10,958 4,155 4,073 15.5 6.3 6.0 5.9 5.7 5.6

20 to 24 years

1,860 680 652 27.9 10.1 9.5 9.1 9.5 9.3

25 years and over

9,098 3,460 3,404 14.2 5.9 5.6 5.5 5.3 5.2

25 to 54 years

6,450 2,653 2,569 13.8 5.8 5.8 5.7 5.5 5.4

25 to 34 years

2,477 1,155 1,052 15.0 6.6 6.6 6.2 6.8 6.2

35 to 44 years

1,978 813 830 12.7 5.2 5.6 5.7 5.2 5.3

45 to 54 years

1,996 685 687 13.4 5.7 5.1 5.3 4.5 4.5

55 years and over

2,660 811 848 15.4 6.1 5.1 5.1 4.6 4.9

MARITAL STATUS

Married men, spouse present(1)

4,430 1,464 1,738 9.6 4.0 3.9 3.8 3.2 3.8

Married women, spouse present(1)

4,795 1,383 1,392 13.1 4.7 4.4 4.3 3.8 3.8

Women who maintain families(2)

1,495 822 746 15.9 7.2 8.3 7.7 8.0 7.3

FULL- OR PART-TIME STATUS

Full-time workers(3)

16,813 8,156 8,221 12.8 6.7 6.4 6.3 6.1 6.1

Part-time workers(4)

6,191 1,544 1,515 24.5 7.0 6.4 6.0 5.8 5.7

Footnotes
(1) Beginning with data for January 2020, refers to persons in both opposite-sex and same-sex married couples. Prior to January 2020, referred to persons in opposite-sex married couples only.
(2) Data are not seasonally adjusted. Beginning with data for January 2020, refers to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not a spouse of either sex. Prior to January 2020, referred to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not an opposite-sex spouse.
(3) Full-time workers are unemployed persons who have expressed a desire to work full time (35 hours or more per week) or are on layoff from full-time jobs.
(4) Part-time workers are unemployed persons who have expressed a desire to work part time (less than 35 hours per week) or are on layoff from part-time jobs.

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-11. Unemployed persons by reason for unemployment
[Numbers in thousands]
Reason Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Apr.
2020
Mar.
2021
Apr.
2021
Apr.
2020
Dec.
2020
Jan.
2021
Feb.
2021
Mar.
2021
Apr.
2021

NUMBER OF UNEMPLOYED

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

20,384 6,448 6,092 20,662 7,210 6,997 6,586 6,226 6,387

On temporary layoff

17,878 2,202 1,944 18,047 3,039 2,746 2,229 2,026 2,114

Not on temporary layoff

2,506 4,246 4,148 2,615 4,171 4,251 4,357 4,200 4,273

Permanent job losers

1,951 3,462 3,438 2,029 3,370 3,503 3,497 3,432 3,529

Persons who completed temporary jobs

555 784 710 586 802 749 860 768 744

Job leavers

520 754 775 569 743 653 701 777 824

Reentrants

1,329 2,295 1,896 1,506 2,250 1,963 2,124 2,253 2,072

New entrants

271 407 457 423 509 542 582 497 625

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

90.6 65.1 66.1 89.2 67.3 68.9 65.9 63.8 64.5

On temporary layoff

79.4 22.2 21.1 77.9 28.4 27.0 22.3 20.8 21.3

Not on temporary layoff

11.1 42.9 45.0 11.3 38.9 41.9 43.6 43.1 43.1

Job leavers

2.3 7.6 8.4 2.5 6.9 6.4 7.0 8.0 8.3

Reentrants

5.9 23.2 20.6 6.5 21.0 19.3 21.3 23.1 20.9

New entrants

1.2 4.1 5.0 1.8 4.7 5.3 5.8 5.1 6.3

UNEMPLOYED AS A PERCENT OF THE
CIVILIAN LABOR FORCE

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

13.1 4.0 3.8 13.2 4.5 4.4 4.1 3.9 4.0

Job leavers

0.3 0.5 0.5 0.4 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.5

Reentrants

0.9 1.4 1.2 1.0 1.4 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.3

New entrants

0.2 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.3 0.4

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to total unemployed in table A-1 because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-12. Unemployed persons by duration of unemployment
[Numbers in thousands]
Duration Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Apr.
2020
Mar.
2021
Apr.
2021
Apr.
2020
Dec.
2020
Jan.
2021
Feb.
2021
Mar.
2021
Apr.
2021

NUMBER OF UNEMPLOYED

Less than 5 weeks

13,880 1,876 2,028 14,282 2,904 2,278 2,185 2,177 2,414

5 to 14 weeks

6,728 2,142 1,665 6,992 2,222 2,528 2,254 1,941 1,939

15 weeks and over

1,897 5,886 5,527 1,767 5,529 5,369 5,555 5,609 5,386

15 to 26 weeks

968 1,610 1,426 763 1,572 1,346 1,407 1,391 1,203

27 weeks and over

929 4,276 4,101 1,004 3,956 4,023 4,148 4,218 4,183

Average (mean) duration, in weeks

7.7 30.6 30.4 6.1 23.4 26.0 27.6 29.7 28.8

Median duration, in weeks

4.0 21.6 22.2 1.9 16.8 15.3 18.3 19.7 19.8

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION

Less than 5 weeks

61.7 18.9 22.0 62.0 27.3 22.4 21.9 22.4 24.8

5 to 14 weeks

29.9 21.6 18.1 30.3 20.9 24.8 22.6 20.0 19.9

15 weeks and over

8.4 59.4 59.9 7.7 51.9 52.8 55.6 57.7 55.3

15 to 26 weeks

4.3 16.3 15.5 3.3 14.8 13.2 14.1 14.3 12.4

27 weeks and over

4.1 43.2 44.5 4.4 37.1 39.5 41.5 43.4 43.0

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to total unemployed in table A-1 because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-13. Employed and unemployed persons by occupation, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Occupation Employed Unemployed Unemployment
rates
Apr.
2020
Apr.
2021
Apr.
2020
Apr.
2021
Apr.
2020
Apr.
2021

Total, 16 years and over(1)

133,326 151,160 22,504 9,220 14.4 5.7

Management, professional, and related occupations

61,221 64,264 5,079 2,014 7.7 3.0

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

26,455 27,626 1,742 896 6.2 3.1

Professional and related occupations

34,766 36,638 3,337 1,118 8.8 3.0

Service occupations

18,034 24,203 6,723 2,098 27.2 8.0

Sales and office occupations

26,511 29,993 4,599 1,777 14.8 5.6

Sales and related occupations

12,223 14,056 2,519 943 17.1 6.3

Office and administrative support occupations

14,288 15,936 2,080 834 12.7 5.0

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

11,828 13,969 2,301 1,207 16.3 8.0

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

1,080 1,090 153 128 12.4 10.5

Construction and extraction occupations

6,549 7,933 1,529 858 18.9 9.8

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

4,199 4,946 619 222 12.8 4.3

Production, transportation, and material moving
occupations

15,732 18,731 3,502 1,646 18.2 8.1

Production occupations

6,358 7,691 1,457 578 18.6 7.0

Transportation and material moving occupations

9,375 11,040 2,045 1,068 17.9 8.8

Footnotes
(1) Persons with no previous work experience and persons whose last job was in the U.S. Armed Forces are included in the unemployed total.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data. Effective with January 2020 data, occupations reflect the introduction of the 2018 Census occupational classification system into the Current Population Survey, or household survey. This classification system is derived from the 2018 Standard Occupational Classification (SOC). No historical data have been revised. Data for 2020 are not strictly comparable with earlier years.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-14. Unemployed persons by industry and class of worker, not seasonally adjusted
Industry and class of worker Number of
unemployed
persons
(in thousands)
Unemployment
rates
Apr.
2020
Apr.
2021
Apr.
2020
Apr.
2021

Total, 16 years and over(1)

22,504 9,220 14.4 5.7

Nonagricultural private wage and salary workers

19,166 7,550 15.6 6.0

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

77 97 10.2 14.3

Construction

1,531 768 16.6 7.7

Manufacturing

1,992 861 13.2 5.8

Durable goods

1,416 505 15.1 5.5

Nondurable goods

576 357 10.2 6.3

Wholesale and retail trade

3,223 1,222 17.1 6.2

Transportation and utilities

988 530 13.6 6.8

Information

279 154 11.0 5.9

Financial activities

545 269 5.4 2.7

Professional and business services

1,697 1,036 9.8 5.9

Education and health services

2,555 846 10.9 3.4

Leisure and hospitality

4,857 1,372 39.3 10.8

Other services

1,421 395 23.0 6.2

Agriculture and related private wage and salary workers

163 139 9.6 8.9

Government workers

2,018 492 9.3 2.3

Self-employed workers, unincorporated, and unpaid family workers

886 582 9.7 5.6

Footnotes
(1) Persons with no previous work experience and persons whose last job was in the U.S. Armed Forces are included in the unemployed total.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data. Effective with January 2020 data, industries reflect the introduction of the 2017 Census industry classification system into the Current Population Survey. This industry classification system is derived from the 2017 North American Industry Classification System (NAICS). No historical data have been revised.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-15. Alternative measures of labor underutilization
[Percent]
Measure Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Apr.
2020
Mar.
2021
Apr.
2021
Apr.
2020
Dec.
2020
Jan.
2021
Feb.
2021
Mar.
2021
Apr.
2021

U-1 Persons unemployed 15 weeks or longer, as a percent of the civilian labor force

1.2 3.7 3.4 1.1 3.4 3.4 3.5 3.5 3.3

U-2 Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs, as a percent of the civilian labor force

13.1 4.0 3.8 13.2 4.5 4.4 4.1 3.9 4.0

U-3 Total unemployed, as a percent of the civilian labor force (official unemployment rate)

14.4 6.2 5.7 14.8 6.7 6.3 6.2 6.0 6.1

U-4 Total unemployed plus discouraged workers, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus discouraged workers

14.8 6.5 6.1 15.1 7.1 6.7 6.5 6.4 6.4

U-5 Total unemployed, plus discouraged workers, plus all other persons marginally attached to the labor force, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force

15.6 7.2 6.8 16.0 7.9 7.4 7.3 7.1 7.2

U-6 Total unemployed, plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force, plus total employed part time for economic reasons, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force

22.4 10.9 9.9 22.9 11.7 11.1 11.1 10.7 10.4

NOTE: Persons marginally attached to the labor force are those who currently are neither working nor looking for work but indicate that they want and are available for a job and have looked for work sometime in the past 12 months. Discouraged workers, a subset of the marginally attached, have given a job-market related reason for not currently looking for work. Persons employed part time for economic reasons are those who want and are available for full-time work but have had to settle for a part-time schedule. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-16. Persons not in the labor force and multiple jobholders by sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Category Total Men Women
Apr.
2020
Apr.
2021
Apr.
2020
Apr.
2021
Apr.
2020
Apr.
2021

NOT IN THE LABOR FORCE

Total not in the labor force

104,066 100,723 42,887 41,204 61,179 59,519

Persons who currently want a job

9,761 6,466 4,792 3,149 4,969 3,317

Marginally attached to the labor force(1)

2,211 1,763 1,170 1,006 1,041 757

Discouraged workers(2)

585 573 309 329 275 244

Other persons marginally attached to the labor force(3)

1,626 1,190 860 677 766 513

MULTIPLE JOBHOLDERS

Total multiple jobholders(4)

5,360 6,883 2,641 3,403 2,719 3,479

Percent of total employed

4.0 4.6 3.7 4.3 4.4 4.9

Primary job full time, secondary job part time

3,202 3,915 1,709 2,038 1,493 1,877

Primary and secondary jobs both part time

1,170 1,524 387 507 783 1,016

Primary and secondary jobs both full time

275 401 145 251 130 150

Hours vary on primary or secondary job

671 1,004 381 587 290 417

Footnotes
(1) Data refer to persons who want a job, have searched for work during the prior 12 months, and were available to take a job during the reference week, but had not looked for work in the past 4 weeks.
(2) Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for reasons such as thinks no work available, could not find work, lacks schooling or training, employer thinks too young or old, and other types of discrimination.
(3) Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for such reasons as school or family responsibilities, ill health, and transportation problems, as well as a number for whom reason for nonparticipation was not determined.
(4) Includes a small number of persons who work part time on their primary job and full time on their secondary job(s), not shown separately.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-1. Employees on nonfarm payrolls by industry sector and selected industry detail
[In thousands]
Industry Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Apr.
2020
Feb.
2021
Mar.
2021(p)
Apr.
2021(p)
Apr.
2020
Feb.
2021
Mar.
2021(p)
Apr.
2021(p)
Change from:
Mar.2021 - Apr.2021(p)

Total nonfarm

130,251 142,133 143,309 144,398 130,161 143,272 144,042 144,308 266

Total private

108,032 120,369 121,415 122,407 108,335 121,791 122,499 122,717 218

Goods-producing

18,436 19,803 20,084 20,232 18,571 20,201 20,367 20,351 -16

Mining and logging

615 589 609 611 622 598 613 615 2

Logging

41.8 46.2 44.3 41.5 44.7 46.1 45.1 44.5 -0.6

Mining

573.1 542.5 564.8 569.8 576.8 551.6 567.8 570.9 3.1

Oil and gas extraction

132.5 130.7 133.6 134.3 135.3 133.3 135.7 137.2 1.5

Mining, except oil and gas

172.7 174.5 177.8 180.9 174.5 178.9 179.7 182.6 2.9

Coal mining

37.6 43.2 43.4 42.3 38.0 42.8 43.3 42.5 -0.8

Metal ore mining

42.0 41.6 41.7 41.7 41.9 41.7 41.6 41.5 -0.1

Nonmetallic mineral mining and quarrying

93.1 89.7 92.7 96.9 94.6 94.4 94.8 98.6 3.8

Support activities for mining

267.9 237.3 253.4 254.6 267.0 239.4 252.4 251.1 -1.3

Construction

6,452 7,008 7,204 7,375 6,535 7,355 7,452 7,452 0

Construction of buildings

1,434.3 1,620.9 1,653.7 1,668.6 1,456.2 1,669.8 1,685.2 1,686.5 1.3

Residential building

699.0 837.9 854.9 859.5 709.2 860.6 870.5 869.2 -1.3

Nonresidential building

735.3 783.0 798.8 809.1 747.0 809.2 814.7 817.3 2.6

Heavy and civil engineering construction

990.2 934.5 983.9 1,053.8 1,002.5 1,036.8 1,059.8 1,066.1 6.3

Specialty trade contractors

4,027.3 4,452.4 4,566.0 4,652.2 4,076.5 4,648.1 4,706.8 4,699.4 -7.4

Residential specialty trade contractors

1,781.8 2,051.5 2,097.4 2,141.8 1,803.1 2,135.2 2,154.0 2,158.4 4.4

Nonresidential specialty trade contractors

2,245.5 2,400.9 2,468.6 2,510.4 2,273.4 2,512.9 2,552.8 2,541.0 -11.8

Manufacturing

11,369 12,206 12,271 12,246 11,414 12,248 12,302 12,284 -18

Durable goods

7,049 7,590 7,633 7,613 7,062 7,608 7,639 7,619 -20

Wood products

373.5 400.7 402.6 397.6 374.2 403.0 404.8 397.6 -7.2

Nonmetallic mineral products

369.3 379.5 389.3 395.8 369.7 393.1 397.3 396.5 -0.8

Primary metals

348.4 346.4 349.6 349.5 349.0 346.0 347.7 348.6 0.9

Fabricated metal products

1,344.8 1,384.1 1,398.1 1,396.7 1,345.2 1,386.4 1,396.8 1,393.9 -2.9

Machinery

1,017.1 1,057.5 1,061.7 1,063.5 1,018.8 1,055.8 1,061.2 1,064.9 3.7

Computer and electronic products

1,064.1 1,077.4 1,080.5 1,080.5 1,066.7 1,077.7 1,080.3 1,082.4 2.1

Computer and peripheral equipment

162.2 163.2 163.4 164.4 162.4 163.4 163.8 164.4 0.6

Communications equipment

85.8 85.7 86.3 85.3 85.7 85.6 85.8 85.4 -0.4

Semiconductors and electronic components

368.4 369.3 370.5 368.9 370.3 369.2 370.2 370.4 0.2

Electronic instruments

416.8 425.4 426.6 428.0 416.9 425.2 426.2 427.6 1.4

Miscellaneous computer and electronic products

30.9 33.8 33.7 33.9 31.5 34.3 34.3 34.6 0.3

Electrical equipment and appliances

376.8 370.7 372.9 373.8 378.4 370.6 373.9 375.1 1.2

Transportation equipment(1)

1,326.4 1,611.6 1,614.4 1,579.9 1,328.4 1,610.6 1,610.0 1,582.0 -28.0

Motor vehicles and parts(2)

626.5 909.7 915.9 882.4 626.3 904.3 905.5 878.5 -27.0

Furniture and related products

306.8 353.6 352.0 350.5 307.5 354.4 352.5 351.1 -1.4

Miscellaneous durable goods manufacturing

521.9 608.1 611.9 625.6 523.7 610.4 614.3 626.9 12.6

Nondurable goods

4,320 4,616 4,638 4,633 4,352 4,640 4,663 4,665 2

Food manufacturing

1,530.4 1,623.6 1,627.0 1,615.5 1,551.3 1,634.7 1,639.3 1,636.7 -2.6

Textile mills

84.7 94.5 96.3 95.4 84.8 94.5 96.5 95.4 -1.1

Textile product mills

85.5 106.3 106.1 105.4 86.3 106.7 106.5 106.2 -0.3

Apparel

70.3 91.9 91.6 93.5 70.4 92.6 92.0 93.0 1.0

Paper and paper products

354.3 355.0 357.2 355.3 353.9 355.7 356.7 355.1 -1.6

Printing and related support activities

339.0 367.1 372.1 368.7 341.4 368.9 374.2 371.3 -2.9

Petroleum and coal products

104.0 99.9 99.5 101.3 105.2 103.6 102.7 102.4 -0.3

Chemicals

831.3 851.2 852.6 856.9 832.3 850.0 851.4 855.7 4.3

Plastics and rubber products

659.7 728.4 727.7 727.9 660.6 727.8 727.7 728.5 0.8

Miscellaneous nondurable goods manufacturing

260.7 298.1 307.5 313.5 265.9 305.7 316.0 320.3 4.3

Private service-providing

89,596 100,566 101,331 102,175 89,764 101,590 102,132 102,366 234

Trade, transportation, and utilities

24,311 26,803 26,899 26,849 24,513 27,081 27,180 27,099 -81

Wholesale trade

5,470.0 5,611.1 5,633.4 5,651.9 5,486.0 5,639.1 5,659.7 5,667.5 7.8

Durable goods

3,002.9 3,084.5 3,094.4 3,104.2 3,010.8 3,093.9 3,104.6 3,112.3 7.7

Nondurable goods

1,993.6 2,050.1 2,061.4 2,071.8 1,999.6 2,066.7 2,076.8 2,078.4 1.6

Electronic markets and agents and brokers

473.5 476.5 477.6 475.9 475.6 478.5 478.3 476.8 -1.5

Retail trade

13,131.5 14,995.9 15,038.6 15,060.5 13,235.3 15,192.7 15,225.5 15,210.2 -15.3

Motor vehicle and parts dealers

1,660.4 1,941.6 1,960.2 1,972.2 1,662.2 1,953.2 1,969.6 1,973.2 3.6

Automobile dealers

1,018.3 1,239.6 1,246.1 1,246.7 1,020.3 1,238.5 1,249.8 1,248.9 -0.9

Other motor vehicle dealers

120.7 148.2 154.7 164.2 119.3 156.0 158.5 162.0 3.5

Auto parts, accessories, and tire stores

521.4 553.8 559.4 561.3 522.6 558.7 561.3 562.3 1.0

Furniture and home furnishings stores

251.0 435.9 441.7 441.3 254.1 437.3 444.0 447.7 3.7

Electronics and appliance stores

420.2 416.7 415.5 416.9 420.7 417.4 415.1 414.7 -0.4

Building material and garden supply stores

1,307.4 1,339.7 1,376.8 1,417.3 1,268.1 1,393.9 1,378.6 1,382.0 3.4

Food and beverage stores

3,006.4 3,141.0 3,130.4 3,088.5 3,029.8 3,162.5 3,161.9 3,112.5 -49.4

Health and personal care stores

915.6 983.2 992.0 1,007.3 921.9 992.8 999.5 1,008.1 8.6

Gasoline stations

899.3 924.0 928.5 924.8 905.3 937.2 939.4 930.5 -8.9

Clothing and clothing accessories stores

472.4 949.5 954.7 960.5 489.7 964.1 986.0 996.2 10.2

Sporting goods, hobby, book, and music stores

331.7 469.2 464.0 467.0 341.8 465.7 460.8 481.2 20.4

General merchandise stores

2,769.6 3,019.7 2,996.5 2,976.0 2,830.7 3,079.4 3,073.2 3,063.4 -9.8

Department stores

730.1 957.6 947.1 944.1 756.4 978.0 976.2 973.5 -2.7

General merchandise stores, including warehouse clubs and supercenters

2,039.5 2,062.1 2,049.4 2,031.9 2,074.3 2,101.4 2,097.0 2,089.9 -7.1

Miscellaneous store retailers

556.6 774.2 777.4 789.3 563.3 786.3 793.2 795.2 2.0

Nonstore retailers

540.9 601.2 600.9 599.4 547.7 602.9 604.2 605.5 1.3

Transportation and warehousing

5,168.3 5,659.0 5,687.3 5,598.2 5,248.5 5,710.4 5,755.2 5,681.1 -74.1

Air transportation

438.0 404.4 411.0 418.4 438.7 407.1 412.5 419.0 6.5

Rail transportation

154.3 142.2 143.0 143.0 153.9 142.5 142.4 142.3 -0.1

Water transportation

61.0 57.6 58.8 59.5 62.0 59.5 60.5 60.1 -0.4

Truck transportation

1,411.7 1,453.5 1,461.0 1,465.1 1,428.4 1,478.4 1,481.8 1,480.3 -1.5

Transit and ground passenger transportation

321.1 382.3 395.8 399.2 306.3 368.8 382.3 384.4 2.1

Pipeline transportation

51.4 48.1 49.0 49.0 51.4 48.5 49.0 49.0 0.0

Scenic and sightseeing transportation

11.2 19.2 22.4 26.9 12.8 25.2 28.4 30.7 2.3

Support activities for transportation

667.6 694.0 698.9 700.3 668.1 695.3 702.0 700.7 -1.3

Couriers and messengers

821.5 1,041.4 1,036.4 939.7 889.2 1,072.5 1,086.4 1,009.0 -77.4

Warehousing and storage

1,230.5 1,416.3 1,411.0 1,397.1 1,237.7 1,412.6 1,409.9 1,405.6 -4.3

Utilities

541.0 537.3 539.7 538.4 543.5 539.2 540.0 540.4 0.4

Information

2,630 2,672 2,681 2,689 2,633 2,678 2,686 2,687 1

Publishing industries, except Internet

757.6 761.6 766.9 762.2 762.6 764.1 770.9 767.2 -3.7

Motion picture and sound recording industries

215.6 253.3 263.0 268.8 213.2 261.3 268.7 265.6 -3.1

Broadcasting, except Internet

246.8 250.3 241.0 238.9 247.1 248.6 240.0 238.7 -1.3

Telecommunications

698.0 690.2 688.2 690.7 699.0 687.8 686.3 689.6 3.3

Data processing, hosting and related services

359.8 356.0 357.9 360.6 357.6 354.7 355.9 357.5 1.6

Other information services

352.3 361.0 363.8 367.6 353.6 361.7 364.6 368.0 3.4

Financial activities

8,555 8,732 8,751 8,773 8,596 8,774 8,793 8,812 19

Finance and insurance

6,452.7 6,534.7 6,541.8 6,533.0 6,473.5 6,542.5 6,548.8 6,551.9 3.1

Monetary authorities - central bank

20.0 20.2 20.1 20.2 20.1 20.3 20.2 20.3 0.1

Credit intermediation and related
activities

2,629.0 2,671.4 2,668.0 2,667.5 2,637.8 2,672.5 2,668.9 2,673.8 4.9

Depository credit intermediation(1)

1,767.7 1,741.7 1,739.2 1,733.8 1,771.0 1,742.2 1,739.7 1,738.1 -1.6

Commercial banking

1,383.7 1,356.9 1,353.7 1,348.0 1,387.8 1,356.5 1,354.2 1,353.2 -1.0

Nondepository credit intermediation

569.3 610.0 608.2 611.9 573.8 611.1 608.5 613.2 4.7

Activities related to credit intermediation

292.0 319.7 320.6 321.8 293.0 319.2 320.7 322.5 1.8

Securities, commodity contracts, investments, and funds and trusts

957.2 974.2 973.8 978.6 962.7 977.5 977.9 983.0 5.1

Insurance carriers and related activities

2,846.5 2,868.9 2,879.9 2,866.7 2,852.9 2,872.2 2,881.8 2,874.8 -7.0

Real estate and rental and leasing

2,102.7 2,197.6 2,209.0 2,239.7 2,122.0 2,231.0 2,243.7 2,260.2 16.5

Real estate

1,625.1 1,697.6 1,704.8 1,721.9 1,636.8 1,716.0 1,727.0 1,734.4 7.4

Rental and leasing services

455.3 478.1 482.3 495.9 462.6 492.7 494.5 503.6 9.1

Lessors of nonfinancial intangible assets

22.3 21.9 21.9 21.9 22.6 22.3 22.2 22.2 0.0

Professional and business services

19,053 20,449 20,546 20,714 19,082 20,733 20,800 20,721 -79

Professional and technical services

9,198.2 9,656.3 9,681.3 9,752.9 9,164.1 9,603.1 9,641.2 9,683.8 42.6

Legal services

1,086.4 1,122.5 1,123.9 1,127.1 1,092.1 1,128.8 1,128.9 1,132.7 3.8

Accounting and bookkeeping services

1,042.2 1,112.7 1,123.1 1,117.2 966.6 1,006.8 1,011.0 1,015.1 4.1

Architectural and engineering services

1,465.6 1,514.5 1,520.3 1,537.5 1,476.9 1,530.6 1,538.3 1,549.9 11.6

Specialized design services

122.7 134.0 134.1 135.9 123.0 134.9 135.1 135.7 0.6

Computer systems design and related services

2,164.1 2,223.0 2,211.3 2,237.4 2,171.8 2,227.1 2,233.6 2,239.8 6.2

Management and technical consulting services

1,467.5 1,570.2 1,572.9 1,589.4 1,476.8 1,583.1 1,591.6 1,597.8 6.2

Scientific research and development services

741.2 790.9 797.6 803.2 744.5 794.7 798.3 805.1 6.8

Advertising and related services

440.4 437.5 438.7 440.6 441.8 438.8 441.1 442.4 1.3

Other professional and technical services

668.1 751.0 759.4 764.6 670.6 758.3 763.3 765.3 2.0

Management of companies and enterprises

2,315.6 2,326.4 2,332.2 2,336.7 2,329.4 2,339.5 2,341.3 2,347.0 5.7

Administrative and waste services

7,539.6 8,465.8 8,532.1 8,624.6 7,588.2 8,790.5 8,817.9 8,690.3 -127.6

Administrative and support services

7,107.8 8,025.6 8,088.3 8,178.7 7,153.9 8,342.4 8,367.7 8,241.2 -126.5

Office administrative services

504.7 534.2 539.1 546.2 505.5 539.2 542.4 545.8 3.4

Facilities support services

150.5 153.2 153.4 151.6 150.9 153.2 152.7 151.8 -0.9

Employment services(1)

2,432.0 3,252.4 3,271.9 3,221.9 2,470.7 3,387.6 3,393.4 3,278.2 -115.2

Temporary help services

1,893.0 2,635.1 2,651.5 2,593.6 1,946.8 2,767.9 2,760.0 2,648.6 -111.4

Business support services

772.5 799.7 795.3 780.6 777.0 798.8 800.6 785.2 -15.4

Travel arrangement and reservation services

170.6 143.9 147.5 149.2 170.4 146.7 148.4 149.0 0.6

Investigation and security services

869.3 897.7 904.3 905.0 874.6 901.5 911.3 910.6 -0.7

Services to buildings and dwellings

1,926.5 1,954.5 1,982.1 2,125.1 1,924.3 2,123.7 2,122.6 2,122.6 0.0

Other support services

281.7 290.0 294.7 299.1 280.4 291.7 296.3 298.0 1.7

Waste management and remediation services

431.8 440.2 443.8 445.9 434.3 448.1 450.2 449.1 -1.1

Education and health services

21,880 23,388 23,520 23,571 21,722 23,292 23,396 23,395 -1

Educational services

3,415.1 3,539.5 3,599.6 3,607.6 3,253.5 3,402.5 3,456.4 3,436.8 -19.6

Health care and social assistance

18,465.3 19,848.7 19,920.3 19,963.4 18,468.5 19,889.2 19,939.9 19,958.4 18.5

Health care(3)

14,847.4 15,882.1 15,925.8 15,928.6 14,875.5 15,925.6 15,954.4 15,950.3 -4.1

Ambulatory health care services

6,517.0 7,697.7 7,734.8 7,766.1 6,524.9 7,721.0 7,750.4 7,771.6 21.2

Offices of physicians

2,418.8 2,663.3 2,671.9 2,682.0 2,424.0 2,669.0 2,676.7 2,688.0 11.3

Offices of dentists

435.7 987.3 995.4 1,001.9 436.3 992.8 997.2 1,000.9 3.7

Offices of other health practitioners

757.4 950.6 957.5 970.1 758.5 953.6 962.1 971.5 9.4

Outpatient care centers

916.0 993.0 1,000.5 1,004.5 916.0 994.7 999.4 1,002.8 3.4

Medical and diagnostic laboratories

261.1 292.3 292.7 293.8 261.7 291.5 292.6 293.7 1.1

Home health care services

1,432.9 1,493.9 1,500.7 1,499.1 1,433.3 1,501.2 1,506.3 1,499.6 -6.7

Other ambulatory health care services

295.1 317.3 316.1 314.7 295.1 318.2 316.1 315.1 -1.0

Hospitals

5,101.3 5,131.5 5,146.4 5,133.7 5,108.8 5,138.4 5,143.6 5,137.8 -5.8

Nursing and residential care facilities

3,229.1 3,052.9 3,044.6 3,028.8 3,241.8 3,066.2 3,060.4 3,040.9 -19.5

Nursing care facilities

1,527.3 1,398.5 1,393.8 1,376.3 1,534.3 1,404.2 1,401.5 1,382.7 -18.8

Residential mental health facilities

611.5 608.1 607.6 609.4 613.3 610.3 609.4 611.3 1.9

Community care facilities for the elderly

933.8 894.8 893.0 893.5 937.4 899.2 898.3 896.9 -1.4

Other residential care facilities

156.5 151.5 150.2 149.6 156.8 152.5 151.2 150.0 -1.2

Social assistance

3,617.9 3,966.6 3,994.5 4,034.8 3,593.0 3,963.6 3,985.5 4,008.1 22.6

Individual and family services

2,491.2 2,620.7 2,636.9 2,656.5 2,484.7 2,623.4 2,641.1 2,649.3 8.2

Emergency and other relief services

178.8 184.0 184.9 182.9 178.9 184.0 184.2 183.7 -0.5

Vocational rehabilitation services

254.9 274.4 276.6 282.1 256.1 276.4 278.0 281.4 3.4

Child day care services

693.0 887.5 896.1 913.3 673.2 879.8 882.2 893.7 11.5

Leisure and hospitality

8,648 13,065 13,428 14,003 8,691 13,530 13,736 14,067 331

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

1,143.0 1,583.8 1,678.9 1,840.0 1,168.8 1,732.9 1,798.4 1,888.0 89.6

Performing arts and spectator sports

279.7 304.9 326.8 368.5 273.5 328.0 346.4 360.7 14.3

Museums, historical sites, and similar institutions

122.6 118.4 123.1 130.8 125.2 129.4 131.0 133.6 2.6

Amusements, gambling, and recreation

740.7 1,160.5 1,229.0 1,340.7 770.1 1,275.5 1,321.0 1,393.7 72.7

Accommodation and food services

7,505.2 11,480.9 11,748.6 12,162.7 7,522.6 11,797.0 11,937.1 12,178.5 241.4

Accommodation

1,158.0 1,378.7 1,431.0 1,495.4 1,189.2 1,441.4 1,481.8 1,536.2 54.4

Food services and drinking places

6,347.2 10,102.2 10,317.6 10,667.3 6,333.4 10,355.6 10,455.3 10,642.3 187.0

Other services

4,519 5,457 5,506 5,576 4,527 5,502 5,541 5,585 44

Repair and maintenance

1,118.6 1,302.9 1,321.2 1,338.8 1,116.5 1,305.3 1,324.4 1,338.2 13.8

Personal and laundry services

683.8 1,310.0 1,328.7 1,357.9 682.4 1,328.4 1,341.3 1,355.5 14.2

Membership associations and organizations

2,717.0 2,844.0 2,855.7 2,879.4 2,728.0 2,868.2 2,874.9 2,891.2 16.3

Government

22,219 21,764 21,894 21,991 21,826 21,481 21,543 21,591 48

Federal

2,867 2,861 2,860 2,886 2,883 2,882 2,888 2,897 9

Federal, except U.S. Postal Service

2,272.0 2,254.9 2,256.6 2,272.9 2,280.2 2,270.0 2,276.3 2,282.0 5.7

U.S. Postal Service

595.1 606.0 603.8 613.2 602.9 611.6 611.4 614.8 3.4

State government

5,239 5,088 5,132 5,142 5,074 4,955 4,970 4,977 7

State government education

2,541.4 2,419.0 2,460.4 2,466.6 2,374.2 2,275.4 2,292.0 2,297.9 5.9

State government, excluding education

2,697.4 2,669.4 2,671.3 2,675.5 2,700.0 2,679.9 2,678.0 2,679.0 1.0

Local government

14,113 13,815 13,902 13,963 13,869 13,644 13,685 13,717 32

Local government education

7,892.9 7,648.5 7,705.4 7,741.0 7,571.9 7,359.7 7,387.7 7,418.8 31.1

Local government, excluding education

6,220.2 6,166.6 6,196.1 6,222.0 6,296.7 6,284.4 6,297.2 6,297.8 0.6

Footnotes
(1) Includes other industries, not shown separately.
(2) Includes motor vehicles, motor vehicle bodies and trailers, and motor vehicle parts.
(3) Includes ambulatory health care services, hospitals, and nursing and residential care facilities.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2020 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-2. Average weekly hours and overtime of all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Apr.
2020
Feb.
2021
Mar.
2021(p)
Apr.
2021(p)

AVERAGE WEEKLY HOURS

Total private

34.2 34.6 34.9 35.0

Goods-producing

38.1 39.7 40.2 40.1

Mining and logging

43.0 44.6 45.5 45.2

Construction

37.9 38.2 39.4 39.1

Manufacturing

38.0 40.3 40.5 40.5

Durable goods

37.8 40.5 40.7 40.6

Nondurable goods

38.3 40.0 40.1 40.3

Private service-providing

33.4 33.6 33.8 33.9

Trade, transportation, and utilities

33.8 34.3 34.6 34.7

Wholesale trade

37.7 38.7 39.1 39.1

Retail trade

30.5 30.6 30.8 31.0

Transportation and warehousing

37.3 38.8 39.3 39.5

Utilities

42.5 42.7 42.7 42.5

Information

36.5 37.2 37.2 37.4

Financial activities

37.6 37.7 37.7 37.6

Professional and business services

36.0 36.5 36.8 37.0

Education and health services

32.7 33.3 33.4 33.3

Leisure and hospitality

24.2 25.3 26.2 26.7

Other services

32.2 32.2 32.4 32.4

AVERAGE OVERTIME HOURS

Manufacturing

2.1 3.2 3.2 3.2

Durable goods

1.7 3.1 3.1 3.1

Nondurable goods

2.7 3.3 3.4 3.4

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2020 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-3. Average hourly and weekly earnings of all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Average hourly earnings Average weekly earnings
Apr.
2020
Feb.
2021
Mar.
2021(p)
Apr.
2021(p)
Apr.
2020
Feb.
2021
Mar.
2021(p)
Apr.
2021(p)

Total private

$30.07 $30.00 $29.96 $30.17 $1,028.39 $1,038.00 $1,045.60 $1,055.95

Goods-producing

30.24 30.43 30.45 30.69 1,152.14 1,208.07 1,224.09 1,230.67

Mining and logging

34.74 34.78 34.55 35.28 1,493.82 1,551.19 1,572.03 1,594.66

Construction

31.38 32.28 32.25 32.57 1,189.30 1,233.10 1,270.65 1,273.49

Manufacturing

29.31 29.14 29.16 29.33 1,113.78 1,174.34 1,180.98 1,187.87

Durable goods

30.88 30.63 30.69 30.94 1,167.26 1,240.52 1,249.08 1,256.16

Nondurable goods

26.78 26.66 26.61 26.68 1,025.67 1,066.40 1,067.06 1,075.20

Private service-providing

30.03 29.90 29.84 30.05 1,003.00 1,004.64 1,008.59 1,018.70

Trade, transportation, and utilities

25.62 25.68 25.79 26.07 865.96 880.82 892.33 904.63

Wholesale trade

32.45 33.09 33.19 33.34 1,223.37 1,280.58 1,297.73 1,303.59

Retail trade

21.10 21.27 21.45 21.75 643.55 650.86 660.66 674.25

Transportation and warehousing

25.65 25.71 25.67 26.08 956.75 997.55 1,008.83 1,030.16

Utilities

43.11 44.12 44.22 44.46 1,832.18 1,883.92 1,888.19 1,889.55

Information

43.66 44.57 43.85 44.54 1,593.59 1,658.00 1,631.22 1,665.80

Financial activities

37.37 39.51 39.75 39.83 1,405.11 1,489.53 1,498.58 1,497.61

Professional and business services

35.83 35.83 35.87 36.03 1,289.88 1,307.80 1,320.02 1,333.11

Education and health services

28.41 29.35 29.16 29.54 929.01 977.36 973.94 983.68

Leisure and hospitality

18.00 17.38 17.59 17.88 435.60 439.71 460.86 477.40

Other services

27.79 27.11 26.81 26.99 894.84 872.94 868.64 874.48

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2020 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-4. Indexes of aggregate weekly hours and payrolls for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
[2007=100]
Industry Index of aggregate weekly hours(1) Index of aggregate weekly payrolls(2)
Apr.
2020
Feb.
2021
Mar.
2021(p)
Apr.
2021(p)
Percent change from:
Mar.
2021 - Apr.
2021(p)
Apr.
2020
Feb.
2021
Mar.
2021(p)
Apr.
2021(p)
Percent change from:
Mar.
2021 - Apr.
2021(p)

Total private

93.0 105.8 107.3 107.8 0.5 133.7 151.7 153.7 155.5 1.2

Goods-producing

80.6 91.4 93.3 93.0 -0.3 110.2 125.7 128.4 129.0 0.5

Mining and logging

84.0 83.8 87.6 87.3 -0.3 117.2 117.0 121.6 123.7 1.7

Construction

85.4 96.9 101.2 100.4 -0.8 116.4 135.8 141.8 142.1 0.2

Manufacturing

78.0 88.8 89.6 89.5 -0.1 106.4 120.3 121.6 122.1 0.4

Durable goods

75.2 86.8 87.5 87.1 -0.5 103.1 118.0 119.3 119.7 0.3

Nondurable goods

83.2 92.6 93.3 93.8 0.5 113.1 125.3 126.0 127.0 0.8

Private service-providing

96.5 109.9 111.1 111.7 0.5 140.9 159.7 161.2 163.2 1.2

Trade, transportation, and utilities

90.4 101.4 102.6 102.6 0.0 124.9 140.4 142.7 144.3 1.1

Wholesale trade

91.2 96.3 97.6 97.7 0.1 123.8 133.2 135.5 136.3 0.6

Retail trade

82.0 94.4 95.2 95.7 0.5 114.3 132.7 135.0 137.6 1.9

Transportation and warehousing

112.5 127.3 130.0 128.9 -0.8 146.8 166.5 169.7 171.1 0.8

Utilities

99.9 99.6 99.8 99.4 -0.4 142.3 145.2 145.8 146.0 0.1

Information

87.8 91.0 91.3 91.8 0.5 136.4 144.4 142.5 145.5 2.1

Financial activities

105.9 108.4 108.6 108.6 0.0 154.4 167.0 168.4 168.7 0.2

Professional and business services

107.7 118.7 120.0 120.2 0.2 156.3 172.1 174.3 175.4 0.6

Education and health services

116.0 126.6 127.6 127.2 -0.3 158.5 178.8 179.0 180.8 1.0

Leisure and hospitality

60.0 97.7 102.7 107.2 4.4 87.1 137.0 145.7 154.6 6.1

Other services

84.0 102.1 103.5 104.3 0.8 128.0 151.8 152.1 154.3 1.4

Footnotes
(1) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding 2007 annual average aggregate hours. Aggregate hours estimates are the product of estimates of average weekly hours and employment.
(2) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding 2007 annual average aggregate weekly payrolls. Aggregate payrolls estimates are the product of estimates of average hourly earnings, average weekly hours, and employment.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2020 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-5. Employment of women on nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Women employees (in thousands) Percent of all employees
Apr.
2020
Feb.
2021
Mar.
2021(p)
Apr.
2021(p)
Apr.
2020
Feb.
2021
Mar.
2021(p)
Apr.
2021(p)

Total nonfarm

64,104 71,360 71,620 71,781 49.2 49.8 49.7 49.7

Total private

51,543 59,000 59,234 59,350 47.6 48.4 48.4 48.4

Goods-producing

4,182 4,596 4,624 4,638 22.5 22.8 22.7 22.8

Mining and logging

88 82 85 84 14.1 13.7 13.9 13.7

Construction

884 993 1,001 1,010 13.5 13.5 13.4 13.6

Manufacturing

3,210 3,521 3,538 3,544 28.1 28.7 28.8 28.9

Durable goods

1,707 1,866 1,866 1,870 24.2 24.5 24.4 24.5

Nondurable goods

1,503 1,655 1,672 1,674 34.5 35.7 35.9 35.9

Private service-providing

47,361 54,404 54,610 54,712 52.8 53.6 53.5 53.4

Trade, transportation, and utilities

9,357 10,645 10,682 10,638 38.2 39.3 39.3 39.3

Wholesale trade

1,613.7 1,689.6 1,698.0 1,699.9 29.4 30.0 30.0 30.0

Retail trade

6,314.4 7,373.1 7,386.6 7,359.9 47.7 48.5 48.5 48.4

Transportation and warehousing

1,295.8 1,448.6 1,463.7 1,443.7 24.7 25.4 25.4 25.4

Utilities

132.8 133.6 133.8 134.1 24.4 24.8 24.8 24.8

Information

1,049 1,067 1,068 1,074 39.8 39.8 39.8 40.0

Financial activities

4,879 4,968 4,964 4,965 56.8 56.6 56.5 56.3

Professional and business services

8,647 9,571 9,602 9,556 45.3 46.2 46.2 46.1

Education and health services

16,637 18,013 18,049 18,069 76.6 77.3 77.1 77.2

Leisure and hospitality

4,545 7,208 7,306 7,456 52.3 53.3 53.2 53.0

Other services

2,247 2,932 2,939 2,954 49.6 53.3 53.0 52.9

Government

12,561 12,360 12,386 12,431 57.6 57.5 57.5 57.6

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2020 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-6. Employment of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
[In thousands]
Industry Apr.
2020
Feb.
2021
Mar.
2021(p)
Apr.
2021(p)

Total private

87,038 99,221 99,753 99,700

Goods-producing

12,935 14,330 14,475 14,378

Mining and logging

433 433 443 445

Construction

4,726 5,413 5,518 5,466

Manufacturing

7,776 8,484 8,514 8,467

Durable goods

4,656 5,159 5,182 5,143

Nondurable goods

3,120 3,325 3,332 3,324

Private service-providing

74,103 84,891 85,278 85,322

Trade, transportation, and utilities

20,550 22,896 22,953 22,820

Wholesale trade

4,346.3 4,479.7 4,503.0 4,495.9

Retail trade

11,232.0 12,988.4 12,989.0 12,952.4

Transportation and warehousing

4,537.4 5,000.1 5,032.6 4,940.9

Utilities

434.2 428.1 428.5 430.3

Information

2,091 2,122 2,130 2,133

Financial activities

6,589 6,648 6,650 6,651

Professional and business services

15,158 16,731 16,751 16,610

Education and health services

18,970 20,385 20,477 20,482

Leisure and hospitality

7,121 11,643 11,826 12,105

Other services

3,624 4,466 4,491 4,521

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2020 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-7. Average weekly hours and overtime of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry Apr.
2020
Feb.
2021
Mar.
2021(p)
Apr.
2021(p)

AVERAGE WEEKLY HOURS

Total private

33.5 34.0 34.4 34.4

Goods-producing

38.6 40.5 41.2 41.1

Mining and logging

43.1 45.4 46.9 46.6

Construction

38.3 38.6 40.1 39.8

Manufacturing

38.5 41.4 41.7 41.7

Durable goods

38.1 41.5 41.9 41.8

Nondurable goods

39.1 41.4 41.3 41.5

Private service-providing

32.6 32.9 33.2 33.3

Trade, transportation, and utilities

33.6 34.3 34.6 34.6

Wholesale trade

37.0 38.5 38.9 39.0

Retail trade

30.5 30.9 31.1 31.1

Transportation and warehousing

37.2 38.6 39.0 39.2

Utilities

42.3 42.6 42.8 42.7

Information

35.6 36.5 35.9 36.4

Financial activities

36.9 37.4 37.4 37.5

Professional and business services

35.2 35.9 36.3 36.5

Education and health services

31.8 32.6 32.7 32.6

Leisure and hospitality

22.3 24.1 24.8 25.3

Other services

31.2 31.0 31.4 31.4

AVERAGE OVERTIME HOURS

Manufacturing

2.8 4.2 4.2 4.2

Durable goods

2.5 4.2 4.2 4.2

Nondurable goods

3.2 4.1 4.1 4.2

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2020 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-8. Average hourly and weekly earnings of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry Average hourly earnings Average weekly earnings
Apr.
2020
Feb.
2021
Mar.
2021(p)
Apr.
2021(p)
Apr.
2020
Feb.
2021
Mar.
2021(p)
Apr.
2021(p)

Total private

$25.16 $25.21 $25.25 $25.45 $842.86 $857.14 $868.60 $875.48

Goods-producing

25.19 25.83 25.97 26.17 972.33 1,046.12 1,069.96 1,075.59

Mining and logging

30.98 30.66 30.68 31.29 1,335.24 1,391.96 1,438.89 1,458.11

Construction

28.69 29.65 29.77 30.21 1,098.83 1,144.49 1,193.78 1,202.36

Manufacturing

22.72 23.29 23.33 23.38 874.72 964.21 972.86 974.95

Durable goods

23.56 24.30 24.32 24.41 897.64 1,008.45 1,019.01 1,020.34

Nondurable goods

21.49 21.72 21.75 21.78 840.26 899.21 898.28 903.87

Private service-providing

25.15 25.08 25.10 25.30 819.89 825.13 833.32 842.49

Trade, transportation, and utilities

21.59 21.72 21.79 22.02 725.42 745.00 753.93 761.89

Wholesale trade

26.87 27.30 27.35 27.40 994.19 1,051.05 1,063.92 1,068.60

Retail trade

17.63 17.91 18.02 18.39 537.72 553.42 560.42 571.93

Transportation and warehousing

22.82 22.96 22.89 23.00 848.90 886.26 892.71 901.60

Utilities

38.00 39.63 39.89 39.79 1,607.40 1,688.24 1,707.29 1,699.03

Information

35.76 36.87 36.86 36.85 1,273.06 1,345.76 1,323.27 1,341.34

Financial activities

28.82 29.86 30.00 30.08 1,063.46 1,116.76 1,122.00 1,128.00

Professional and business services

29.86 29.88 29.98 30.15 1,051.07 1,072.69 1,088.27 1,100.48

Education and health services

25.35 26.20 26.17 26.52 806.13 854.12 855.76 864.55

Leisure and hospitality

14.68 15.05 15.27 15.68 327.36 362.71 378.70 396.70

Other services

23.50 23.00 23.01 23.07 733.20 713.00 722.51 724.40

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2020 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-9. Indexes of aggregate weekly hours and payrolls for production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
[2002=100]
Industry Index of aggregate weekly hours(2) Index of aggregate weekly payrolls(3)
Apr.
2020
Feb.
2021
Mar.
2021(p)
Apr.
2021(p)
Percent change from:
Mar.
2021 - Apr.
2021(p)
Apr.
2020
Feb.
2021
Mar.
2021(p)
Apr.
2021(p)
Percent change from:
Mar.
2021 - Apr.
2021(p)

Total private

97.2 112.4 114.3 114.3 0.0 163.4 189.4 193.0 194.4 0.7

Goods-producing

76.3 88.7 91.1 90.3 -0.9 117.7 140.3 144.9 144.7 -0.1

Mining and logging

99.2 104.5 110.4 110.2 -0.2 178.7 186.3 197.0 200.5 1.8

Construction

90.6 104.6 110.8 108.9 -1.7 140.4 167.5 178.1 177.7 -0.2

Manufacturing

68.7 80.6 81.5 81.1 -0.5 102.1 122.8 124.3 123.9 -0.3

Durable goods

66.6 80.4 81.6 80.8 -1.0 98.0 122.0 123.8 123.1 -0.6

Nondurable goods

71.9 81.1 81.1 81.3 0.2 109.1 124.5 124.6 125.1 0.4

Private service-providing

102.9 119.0 120.6 121.1 0.4 177.6 204.7 207.7 210.1 1.2

Trade, transportation, and utilities

96.6 109.8 111.1 110.4 -0.6 149.0 170.5 172.9 173.8 0.5

Wholesale trade

95.4 102.4 104.0 104.1 0.1 151.4 164.9 167.8 168.3 0.3

Retail trade

86.7 101.6 102.2 101.9 -0.3 131.0 155.9 157.9 160.6 1.7

Transportation and warehousing

127.7 146.1 148.5 146.6 -1.3 185.5 213.5 216.4 214.6 -0.8

Utilities

93.9 93.3 93.8 94.0 0.2 149.0 154.3 156.2 156.1 -0.1

Information

85.0 88.4 87.3 88.6