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Economic News Release
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CES CES Program Links

Employment Situation News Release

Transmission of material in this news release is embargoed until					USDL-20-0815
8:30 a.m. (EDT) Friday, May 8, 2020

Technical information: 
 Household data:	cpsinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/cps
 Establishment data:	cesinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/ces

Media contact:	        (202) 691-5902   *  PressOffice@bls.gov

(NOTE: On May 11, 2020, BLS corrected errors in national estimates for seasonally adjusted
all employees in professional and technical services, professional and business services,
private service-providing, service-providing, total private, and total nonfarm. Tables 
affected are Summary table B, B-1, B-4, and B-5. The corrected change in total nonfarm
employment for April is 37,000 lower than initially reported. Estimates in the LABSTAT
database and in this news release were corrected for February, March, and April 2020. BLS
also corrected other supporting documentation on www.bls.gov/ces/.)


                 		THE EMPLOYMENT SITUATION -- APRIL 2020     


Total nonfarm payroll employment fell by 20.5 million in April, and the unemployment rate rose to 14.7 percent,
the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. The changes in these measures reflect the effects of the
coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic and efforts to contain it. Employment fell sharply in all major industry sectors,
with particularly heavy job losses in leisure and hospitality.

This news release presents statistics from two monthly surveys. The household survey measures labor force status,
including unemployment, by demographic characteristics. The establishment survey measures nonfarm employment,
hours, and earnings by industry. For more information about the concepts and statistical methodology used in these
two surveys, see the Technical Note. 

Household Survey Data 

In April, the unemployment rate increased by 10.3 percentage points to 14.7 percent. This is the highest rate and 
the largest over-the-month increase in the history of the series (seasonally adjusted data are available back to 
January 1948). The number of unemployed persons rose by 15.9 million to 23.1 million in April. The sharp increases 
in these measures reflect the effects of the coronavirus pandemic and efforts to contain it. (See table A-1. For more
information about how the household survey and its measures were affected by the coronavirus pandemic, see the box 
at the end of the news release.) 

In April, unemployment rates rose sharply among all major worker groups. The rate was 13.0 percent for adult men,
15.5 percent for adult women, 31.9 percent for teenagers, 14.2 percent for Whites, 16.7 percent for Blacks, 14.5 
percent for Asians, and 18.9 percent for Hispanics. The rates for all of these groups, with the exception of Blacks,
represent record highs for their respective series. (See tables A-1, A-2, and A-3.) 

The number of unemployed persons who reported being on temporary layoff increased about ten-fold to 18.1 million in
April. The number of permanent job losers increased by 544,000 to 2.0 million. (See table A-11.) 

In April, the number of unemployed persons who were jobless less than 5 weeks increased by 10.7 million to 
14.3 million, accounting for almost two-thirds of the unemployed. The number of unemployed persons who were 
jobless 5 to 14 weeks rose by 5.2 million to 7.0 million. The number of long-term unemployed (those jobless 
for 27 weeks or more), at 939,000, declined by 225,000 over the month and represented 4.1 percent of the unemployed.
(See table A-12.) 

The labor force participation rate decreased by 2.5 percentage points over the month to 60.2 percent, the lowest
rate since January 1973 (when it was 60.0 percent). Total employment, as measured by the household survey, fell
by 22.4 million to 133.4 million. The employment-population ratio, at 51.3 percent, dropped by 8.7 percentage points
over the month. This is the lowest rate and largest over-the-month decline in the history of the series (seasonally
adjusted data are available back to January 1948). (See table A-1.) 

The number of persons who usually work full time declined by 15.0 million over the month, and the number who usually
work part time declined by 7.4 million. Part-time workers accounted for one-third of the over-the-month employment 
decline. (See table A-9.)

The number of persons at work part time for economic reasons nearly doubled over the month to 10.9 million. These 
individuals, who would have preferred full-time employment, were working part time because their hours had been
reduced or they were unable to find full-time jobs. This group includes persons who usually work full time and 
persons who usually work part time. (See table A-8.) 

The number of persons not in the labor force who currently want a job, at 9.9 million, nearly doubled in April.
These individuals were not counted as unemployed because they were not actively looking for work during the last
4 weeks or were unavailable to take a job. (See table A-1.)

Persons marginally attached to the labor force--a subset of persons not in the labor force who currently want a 
job--numbered 2.3 million in April, up by 855,000 over the month. These individuals were not in the labor force,
wanted and were available for work, and had looked for a job sometime in the prior 12 months but had not looked
for work in the 4 weeks preceding the survey. Discouraged workers, a subset of the marginally attached who believed
that no jobs were available for them, numbered 574,000 in April, little changed from the previous month.
(See Summary table A.)

Establishment Survey Data

Total nonfarm payroll employment fell by 20.5 million in April, after declining by 881,000 in March. The April
over-the-month decline is the largest in the history of the series and brought employment to its lowest level
since January 2011 (the series dates back to 1939). Job losses in April were widespread, with the largest 
employment decline occurring in leisure and hospitality. (See table B-1. For more information about how the 
establishment survey and its measures were affected by the coronavirus, see the box note at the end of the news
release.)

In April, employment in leisure and hospitality plummeted by 7.7 million, or 47 percent. Almost three-quarters of the
decrease occurred in food services and drinking places (-5.5 million). Employment also fell in the arts, entertainment,
and recreation industry (-1.3 million) and in the accommodation industry (-839,000).

Employment declined by 2.5 million in education and health services in April. In health care, employment declined by
1.4 million, led by losses in offices of dentists (-503,000), offices of physicians (-243,000), and offices of other
health care practitioners (-205,000). Employment also declined in social assistance (-651,000), reflecting job losses
in child day care services (-336,000) and individual and family services (-241,000). Employment in private education
declined by 457,000 over the month. 

Professional and business services shed 2.2 million jobs in April. Sharp losses occurred in temporary help services
(-842,000) and in services to buildings and dwellings (-259,000). 

In April, employment in retail trade declined by 2.1 million. Job losses occurred in clothing and clothing accessories
stores (-740,000), motor vehicle and parts dealers (-345,000), miscellaneous store retailers (-264,000), and furniture
and home furnishings stores (-209,000). By contrast, the component of general merchandise stores that includes warehouse
clubs and supercenters gained 93,000 jobs.  

In April, manufacturing employment dropped by 1.3 million. About two-thirds of the decline was in durable goods
manufacturing (-914,000), which saw losses in motor vehicles and parts (-382,000) and in fabricated metal products
(-109,000). Nondurable goods manufacturing shed 416,000 jobs.

Employment in the other services industry declined by 1.3 million in April, with nearly two-thirds of the decline 
occurring in personal and laundry services (-797,000).

Government employment dropped by 980,000 in April. Employment in local government was down by 801,000, in part reflecting
school closures. Employment also declined in state government education (-176,000).

Construction employment fell by 975,000 in April, with much of the loss in specialty trade contractors (-691,000). Job
losses also occurred in construction of buildings (-206,000). 

Employment fell in transportation and warehousing in April (-584,000). Transit and ground passenger transportation and
air transportation lost 185,000 jobs and 141,000 jobs, respectively.

Wholesale trade shed 363,000 jobs in April, largely reflecting losses in the durable and nondurable goods components. 

Employment in financial activities fell by 262,000 over the month, with the vast majority of the decline occurring in 
real estate and rental and leasing (-222,000). 

Employment in information fell by 254,000 in April, driven by a decline in motion picture and sound recording 
industries (-217,000).

Mining lost 46,000 jobs in April, with most of the decline occurring in support activities for mining (-33,000). 

In April, average hourly earnings for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls increased by $1.34 to $30.01. Average
hourly earnings of private-sector production and nonsupervisory employees increased by $1.04 to $25.12 in April. The 
increases in average hourly earnings largely reflect the substantial job loss among lower-paid workers; this change,
along with earnings increases, put upward pressure on the average hourly earnings estimates. (See tables B-3 and B-8.)

The average workweek for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls increased by 0.1 hour to 34.2 hours in April. In
manufacturing, the workweek declined by 2.1 hours to 38.3 hours, and overtime declined by 0.9 hour to 2.1 hours. The
average workweek for production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls increased by 0.1 hour to
33.5 hours. (See tables B-2 and B-7.)

The change in total nonfarm payroll employment for February was revised down by 24,000 from +275,000 to +251,000, and
the change for March was revised down by 180,000 from -701,000 to -881,000. With these revisions, employment changes
in February and March combined were 204,000 lower than previously reported. (Monthly revisions result from additional
reports received from businesses and government agencies since the last published estimates and from the 
recalculation of seasonal factors.)

_____________
The Employment Situation for May is scheduled to be released on Friday, June 5, 2020, at 8:30 a.m. (EDT).


 _______________________________________________________________________________________________________
|													|
|													|
|      Coronavirus (COVID-19) Impact on April 2020 Establishment and Household Survey Data		|
| 													|
|													|
|  Data collection for both surveys was affected by the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic. The household	|
|  survey is generally collected through in-person and telephone interviews, but personal interviews	|
|  were not conducted for the safety of interviewers and respondents. The household survey response	|
|  rate, at 70 percent, was about 13 percentage points lower than in months prior to the pandemic.	|
|  In the establishment survey, approximately one-fifth of the data is collected at four regional data	|
|  collection centers. Although these centers were closed, about half of the interviewers at these	|
|  centers worked remotely to collect data by telephone. Additionally, BLS encouraged businesses to	|
|  report electronically. The collection rate for the establishment survey in April was 74.9 percent,	|
|  essentially unchanged from collection rates prior to the pandemic.					|
|													|
|  In the establishment survey, workers who are paid by their employer for all or any part of the pay	|
|  period including the 12th of the month are counted as employed, even if they were not actually at	|
|  their jobs. Workers who are temporarily or permanently absent from their jobs and are not being	|
|  paid are not counted as employed, even if they are continuing to receive benefits. The length of	|
|  the reference period does vary across the respondents in the establishment survey; one-third of	|
|  businesses have a weekly pay period, slightly over 40 percent a bi-weekly, about 20 percent 		|
|  semi-monthly, and a small amount monthly. 								|
| 													|
|  There was a change to the estimation method used in the establishment survey for April. Business 	|
|  births and deaths cannot be adequately captured by the establishment survey as they occur. Therefore,|
|  the establishment survey estimates use a model to account for the relatively stable net employment	|
|  change generated by business births and deaths. Due to the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, the 	|
|  relationship between the two was no longer stable in April. Therefore, the establishment survey 	|
|  made modifications to the birth-death model. For more information, see				|
|  www.bls.gov/cps/employment-situation-covid19-faq-april-2020.pdf. 					|
|													|
|  In the household survey, individuals are classified as employed, unemployed, or not in the labor	|
|  force based on their answers to a series of questions about their activities during the survey 	|
|  reference week (April 12th through April 18th). Workers who indicate they were not working during	|
|  the entire survey reference week and expect to be recalled to their jobs should be classified as 	|
|  unemployed on temporary layoff. In April, there was an extremely large increase in the number of	|
|  persons classified as unemployed on temporary layoff.   						|
| 													|
|  However, there was also a large increase in the number of workers who were classified as employed 	|
|  but absent from work. As was the case in March, special instructions sent to household survey	|
|  interviewers called for all employed persons absent from work due to coronavirus-related business	|
|  closures to be classified as unemployed on temporary layoff. However, it is apparent that not all	|
|  such workers were so classified.  									|
| 													|
|  If the workers who were recorded as employed but absent from work due to "other reasons" (over	|
|  and above the number absent for other reasons in a typical April) had been classified as unemployed	|
|  on temporary layoff, the overall unemployment rate would have been almost 5 percentage points higher	|
|  than reported (on a not seasonally adjusted basis). However, according to usual practice, the data 	|
|  from the household survey are accepted as recorded. To maintain data integrity, no ad hoc actions	|
|  are taken to reclassify survey responses. 								|
| 													|
|  More information is available at www.bls.gov/cps/employment-situation-covid19-faq-april-2020.pdf.	|
|													|
|______________________________________________________________________________________________________	|




HOUSEHOLD DATA
Summary table A. Household data, seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Category Apr.
2019
Feb.
2020
Mar.
2020
Apr.
2020
Change from:
Mar.
2020-
Apr.
2020

Employment status

Civilian noninstitutional population

258,693 259,628 259,758 259,896 138

Civilian labor force

162,546 164,546 162,913 156,481 -6,432

Participation rate

62.8 63.4 62.7 60.2 -2.5

Employed

156,696 158,759 155,772 133,403 -22,369

Employment-population ratio

60.6 61.1 60.0 51.3 -8.7

Unemployed

5,850 5,787 7,140 23,078 15,938

Unemployment rate

3.6 3.5 4.4 14.7 10.3

Not in labor force

96,147 95,082 96,845 103,415 6,570

Unemployment rates

Total, 16 years and over

3.6 3.5 4.4 14.7 10.3

Adult men (20 years and over)

3.4 3.3 4.0 13.0 9.0

Adult women (20 years and over)

3.1 3.1 4.0 15.5 11.5

Teenagers (16 to 19 years)

12.9 11.0 14.3 31.9 17.6

White

3.1 3.1 4.0 14.2 10.2

Black or African American

6.6 5.8 6.7 16.7 10.0

Asian

2.2 2.5 4.1 14.5 10.4

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

4.2 4.4 6.0 18.9 12.9

Total, 25 years and over

2.9 2.9 3.5 13.1 9.6

Less than a high school diploma

5.3 5.7 6.8 21.2 14.4

High school graduates, no college

3.4 3.6 4.4 17.3 12.9

Some college or associate degree

3.1 3.0 3.7 15.0 11.3

Bachelor's degree and higher

2.1 1.9 2.5 8.4 5.9

Reason for unemployment

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

2,660 2,723 3,946 20,626 16,680

Job leavers

728 777 727 570 -157

Reentrants

1,899 1,803 1,778 1,477 -301

New entrants

535 505 509 389 -120

Duration of unemployment

Less than 5 weeks

1,906 2,013 3,542 14,283 10,741

5 to 14 weeks

1,835 1,803 1,794 7,004 5,210

15 to 26 weeks

860 825 808 833 25

27 weeks and over

1,227 1,102 1,164 939 -225

Employed persons at work part time

Part time for economic reasons

4,706 4,318 5,765 10,887 5,122

Slack work or business conditions

2,868 2,776 4,043 9,939 5,896

Could only find part-time work

1,447 1,317 1,321 697 -624

Part time for noneconomic reasons

21,356 22,175 20,601 12,355 -8,246

Persons not in the labor force

Marginally attached to the labor force

1,484 1,440 1,426 2,281 855

Discouraged workers

446 405 514 574 60

NOTE: Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Summary table B. Establishment data, seasonally adjusted
Category Apr.
2019
Feb.
2020
Mar.
2020(p)
Apr.
2020(p)

EMPLOYMENT BY SELECTED INDUSTRY
(Over-the-month change, in thousands)

Total nonfarm

210 251 -881 -20,537

Total private

185 220 -853 -19,557

Goods-producing

28 56 -74 -2,355

Mining and logging

0 2 -7 -50

Construction

26 46 -33 -975

Manufacturing

2 8 -34 -1,330

Durable goods(1)

0 6 -20 -914

Motor vehicles and parts

-2.9 8.3 -3.2 -381.5

Nondurable goods

2 2 -14 -416

Private service-providing

157 164 -779 -17,202

Wholesale trade

13.4 -3.3 -2.9 -362.8

Retail trade

-11.8 3.0 -44.8 -2,106.9

Transportation and warehousing

7.0 -0.4 -7.2 -584.1

Utilities

-2.6 -0.8 0.3 -3.3

Information

-6 0 -4 -254

Financial activities

14 22 -3 -262

Professional and business services(1)

50 27 -80 -2,165

Temporary help services

-0.4 -6.3 -57.9 -841.9

Education and health services(1)

65 52 -101 -2,544

Health care and social assistance

49.9 62.5 -64.1 -2,086.9

Leisure and hospitality

13 59 -499 -7,653

Other services

15 6 -38 -1,267

Government

25 31 -28 -980

(3-month average change, in thousands)

Total nonfarm

119 216 -139 -7,056

Total private

104 188 -151 -6,730

WOMEN AND PRODUCTION AND NONSUPERVISORY EMPLOYEES
AS A PERCENT OF ALL EMPLOYEES(2)

Total nonfarm women employees

49.8 50.0 50.0 49.3

Total private women employees

48.5 48.7 48.6 47.6

Total private production and nonsupervisory employees

82.3 82.3 82.1 80.2

HOURS AND EARNINGS
ALL EMPLOYEES

Total private

Average weekly hours

34.4 34.4 34.1 34.2

Average hourly earnings

$27.81 $28.52 $28.67 $30.01

Average weekly earnings

$956.66 $981.09 $977.65 $1,026.34

Index of aggregate weekly hours (2007=100)(3)

110.5 112.0 110.3 93.8

Over-the-month percent change

-0.1 0.4 -1.5 -15.0

Index of aggregate weekly payrolls (2007=100)(4)

146.9 152.7 151.2 134.6

Over-the-month percent change

0.1 0.7 -1.0 -11.0

DIFFUSION INDEX
(Over 1-month span)(5)

Total private (258 industries)

62.4 53.7 28.5 4.8

Manufacturing (76 industries)

53.9 46.7 26.3 2.6

Footnotes
(1) Includes other industries, not shown separately.
(2) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries.
(3) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding annual average aggregate hours.
(4) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding annual average aggregate weekly payrolls.
(5) Figures are the percent of industries with employment increasing plus one-half of the industries with unchanged employment, where 50 percent indicates an equal balance between industries with increasing and decreasing employment.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2019 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


Frequently Asked Questions about Employment and Unemployment Estimates

1. Why are there two monthly measures of employment?

   The household survey and establishment survey both produce sample-based estimates
   of employment, and both have strengths and limitations. The establishment survey
   employment series has a smaller margin of error on the measurement of month-to-
   month change than the household survey because of its much larger sample size. An
   over-the-month employment change of about 100,000 is statistically significant in
   the establishment survey, while the threshold for a statistically significant change
   in the household survey is about 500,000. However, the household survey has a more
   expansive scope than the establishment survey because it includes self-employed
   workers whose businesses are unincorporated, unpaid family workers, agricultural
   workers, and private household workers, who are excluded by the establishment survey.
   The household survey also provides estimates of employment for demographic groups.
   For more information on the differences between the two surveys, please visit
   https://www.bls.gov/web/empsit/ces_cps_trends.htm.

2. Are undocumented immigrants counted in the surveys?

   It is likely that both surveys include at least some undocumented immigrants. However,
   neither the establishment nor the household survey is designed to identify the legal
   status of workers. Therefore, it is not possible to determine how many are counted in
   either survey. The establishment survey does not collect data on the legal status of
   workers. The household survey does include questions which identify the foreign and
   native born, but it does not include questions about the legal status of the foreign
   born. Data on the foreign and native born are published each month in table A-7 of
   The Employment Situation news release.

3. Why does the establishment survey have revisions?

   The establishment survey revises published estimates to improve its data series by
   incorporating additional information that was not available at the time of the
   initial publication of the estimates. The establishment survey revises its initial
   monthly estimates twice, in the immediately succeeding 2 months, to incorporate
   additional sample receipts from respondents in the survey and recalculated seasonal
   adjustment factors. For more information on the monthly revisions, please visit
   https://www.bls.gov/ces/cesrevinfo.htm.

   On an annual basis, the establishment survey incorporates a benchmark revision that
   re-anchors estimates to nearly complete employment counts available from unemployment
   insurance tax records. The benchmark helps to control for sampling and modeling errors
   in the estimates. For more information on the annual benchmark revision, please visit
   https://www.bls.gov/web/empsit/cesbmart.htm.

4. Does the establishment survey sample include small firms?

   Yes; about 40 percent of the establishment survey sample is comprised of business
   establishments with fewer than 20 employees. The establishment survey sample is
   designed to maximize the reliability of the statewide total nonfarm employment
   estimate; firms from all states, size classes, and industries are appropriately
   sampled to achieve that goal.

5. Does the establishment survey account for employment from new businesses?

   Yes; monthly establishment survey estimates include an adjustment to account for
   the net employment change generated by business births and deaths. The adjustment
   comes from an econometric model that forecasts the monthly net jobs impact of
   business births and deaths based on the actual past values of the net impact that
   can be observed with a lag from the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages. The
   establishment survey uses modeling rather than sampling for this purpose because
   the survey is not immediately able to bring new businesses into the sample. There
   is an unavoidable lag between the birth of a new firm and its appearance on the
   sampling frame and availability for selection. BLS adds new businesses to the survey
   twice a year.

6. Is the count of unemployed persons limited to just those people receiving unemployment
   insurance benefits?

   No; the estimate of unemployment is based on a monthly sample survey of households.
   All persons who are without jobs and are actively seeking and available to work are
   included among the unemployed. (People on temporary layoff are included even if
   they do not actively seek work.) There is no requirement or question relating to
   unemployment insurance benefits in the monthly survey.

7. Does the official unemployment rate exclude people who want a job but are not currently
   looking for work?

   Yes; however, there are separate estimates of persons outside the labor force who
   want a job, including those who are not currently looking because they believe no
   jobs are available (discouraged workers). In addition, alternative measures of labor
   underutilization (some of which include discouraged workers and other groups not
   officially counted as unemployed) are published each month in table A-15 of The
   Employment Situation news release. For more information about these alternative
   measures, please visit https://www.bls.gov/cps/lfcharacteristics.htm#altmeasures.

8. How can unusually severe weather affect employment and hours estimates?

   In the establishment survey, the reference period is the pay period that includes
   the 12th of the month. Unusually severe weather is more likely to have an impact on
   average weekly hours than on employment. Average weekly hours are estimated for paid
   time during the pay period, including pay for holidays, sick leave, or other time off.
   The impact of severe weather on hours estimates typically, but not always, results in
   a reduction in average weekly hours. For example, some employees may be off work for
   part of the pay period and not receive pay for the time missed, while some workers,
   such as those dealing with cleanup or repair, may work extra hours.
   
   Typically, it is not possible to precisely quantify the effect of extreme weather on 
   payroll employment estimates. In order for severe weather conditions to reduce
   employment estimates, employees have to be off work without pay for the entire pay
   period. Employees who receive pay for any part of the pay period, even 1 hour, are
   counted in the payroll employment figures. For more information on how often employees
   are paid, please visit https://www.bls.gov/opub/btn/volume-3/how-frequently-do-private-
   businesses-pay-workers.htm.

   In the household survey, the reference period is generally the calendar week that
   includes the 12th of the month. Persons who miss the entire week's work for weather-
   related events are counted as employed whether or not they are paid for the time
   off. The household survey collects data on the number of persons who had a job but
   were not at work due to bad weather. It also provides a measure of the number of
   persons who usually work full time but had reduced hours due to bad weather. 
   Current and historical data are available on the household survey's most requested
   statistics page, please visit https://data.bls.gov/cgi-bin/surveymost?ln.




Technical Note


   This news release presents statistics from two major surveys, the Current
Population Survey (CPS; household survey) and the Current Employment Statistics
survey (CES; establishment survey). The household survey provides information
on the labor force, employment, and unemployment that appears in the "A" tables,
marked HOUSEHOLD DATA. It is a sample survey of about 60,000 eligible households
conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau for the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS).

   The establishment survey provides information on employment, hours, and
earnings of employees on nonfarm payrolls; the data appear in the "B" tables,
marked ESTABLISHMENT DATA. BLS collects these data each month from the payroll
records of a sample of nonagricultural business establishments. Each month
the CES program surveys about 145,000 businesses and government agencies,
representing approximately 697,000 individual worksites, in order to provide
detailed industry data on employment, hours, and earnings of workers on nonfarm
payrolls. The active sample includes approximately one-third of all nonfarm
payroll jobs.

   For both surveys, the data for a given month relate to a particular week or
pay period. In the household survey, the reference period is generally the
calendar week that contains the 12th day of the month. In the establishment
survey, the reference period is the pay period including the 12th, which may or
may not correspond directly to the calendar week.

Coverage, definitions, and differences between surveys

   Household survey. The sample is selected to reflect the entire civilian 
noninstitutional population. Based on responses to a series of questions on 
work and job search activities, each person 16 years and over in a sample
household is classified as employed, unemployed, or not in the labor force.

   People are classified as employed if they did any work at all as paid employees
during the reference week; worked in their own business, profession, or on their
own farm; or worked without pay at least 15 hours in a family business or farm.
People are also counted as employed if they were temporarily absent from their jobs
because of illness, bad weather, vacation, labor-management disputes, or personal
reasons.

   People are classified as unemployed if they meet all of the following criteria:
they had no employment during the reference week; they were available for work at
that time; and they made specific active efforts to find employment sometime during
the 4-week period ending with the reference week. Persons laid off from a job and
expecting recall need not be looking for work to be counted as unemployed. The
unemployment data derived from the household survey in no way depend upon the
eligibility for or receipt of unemployment insurance benefits.

   The civilian labor force is the sum of employed and unemployed persons.
Those persons not classified as employed or unemployed are not in the labor 
force. The unemployment rate is the number unemployed as a percent of the 
labor force. The labor force participation rate is the labor force as a 
percent of the population, and the employment-population ratio is the 
employed as a percent of the population. Additional information about the 
household survey can be found at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm.

   Establishment survey. The sample establishments are drawn from private
nonfarm businesses such as factories, offices, and stores, as well as
from federal, state, and local government entities. Employees on nonfarm
payrolls are those who worked or received pay for any part of the reference pay
period, including persons on paid leave. Persons are counted in each job
they hold. Hours and earnings data are produced for the private sector for
all employees and for production and nonsupervisory employees. Production
and nonsupervisory employees are defined as production and related employees
in manufacturing and mining and logging, construction workers in construction,
and nonsupervisory employees in private service-providing industries.

   Industries are classified on the basis of an establishment's principal
activity in accordance with the 2017 version of the North American Industry
Classification System. Additional information about the establishment survey
can be found at www.bls.gov/ces/.

   Differences in employment estimates. The numerous conceptual and methodological
differences between the household and establishment surveys result in important
distinctions in the employment estimates derived from the surveys. Among these are:

   --The household survey includes agricultural workers, self-employed workers
     whose businesses are unincorporated, unpaid family workers, and private
     household workers among the employed. These groups are excluded from the
     establishment survey.

   --The household survey includes people on unpaid leave among the employed.
     The establishment survey does not.

   --The household survey is limited to workers 16 years of age and older.
     The establishment survey is not limited by age.

   --The household survey has no duplication of individuals, because
     individuals are counted only once, even if they hold more than one
     job. In the establishment survey, employees working at more than one
     job and thus appearing on more than one payroll are counted separately
     for each appearance.

Seasonal adjustment

   Over the course of a year, the size of the nation's labor force and the levels
of employment and unemployment undergo regularly occurring fluctuations. These 
events may result from seasonal changes in weather, major holidays, and the opening
and closing of schools. The effect of such seasonal variation can be very large.

   Because these seasonal events follow a more or less regular pattern each year,
their influence on the level of a series can be tempered by adjusting for regular
seasonal variation. These adjustments make nonseasonal developments, such as
declines in employment or increases in the participation of women in the labor
force, easier to spot. For example, in the household survey, the large number of
youth entering the labor force each June is likely to obscure any other changes
that have taken place relative to May, making it difficult to determine if the 
level of economic activity has risen or declined. Similarly, in the establishment
survey, payroll employment in education declines by about 20 percent at the end
of the spring term and later rises with the start of the fall term, obscuring the
underlying employment trends in the industry. Because seasonal employment changes
at the end and beginning of the school year can be estimated, the statistics can be
adjusted to make underlying employment patterns more discernable.  The seasonally
adjusted figures provide a more useful tool with which to analyze changes in
month-to-month economic activity.

   Many seasonally adjusted series are independently adjusted in both the household
and establishment surveys. However, the adjusted series for many major estimates,
such as total payroll employment, employment in most major sectors, total employment,
and unemployment are computed by aggregating independently adjusted component series.
For example, total unemployment is derived by summing the adjusted series for four
major age-sex components; this differs from the unemployment estimate that would be
obtained by directly adjusting the total or by combining the duration, reasons, or 
more detailed age categories. Percentage distributions of unemployment by reason and
duration are derived from the sum of the independently seasonally adjusted component
series, and will not necessarily match calculations made using the seasonally adjusted
total unemployment level. Additional information about seasonal adjustment in the 
household survey can be found at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#sa.

   For both the household and establishment surveys, a concurrent seasonal adjustment
methodology is used in which new seasonal factors are calculated each month using all
relevant data, up to and including the data for the current month. In the household
survey, new seasonal factors are used to adjust only the current month's data. In the
establishment survey, however, new seasonal factors are used each month to adjust the
three most recent monthly estimates. The prior 2 months are routinely revised to
incorporate additional sample reports and recalculated seasonal adjustment factors.
In both surveys, 5-year revisions to historical data are made once a year.

Reliability of the estimates

   Statistics based on the household and establishment surveys are subject to both
sampling and nonsampling error. When a sample, rather than the entire population,
is surveyed, there is a chance that the sample estimates may differ from the true
population values they represent. The component of this difference that occurs
because samples differ by chance is known as sampling error, and its variability
is measured by the standard error of the estimate. There is about a 90-percent
chance, or level of confidence, that an estimate based on a sample will differ by
no more than 1.6 standard errors from the true population value because of sampling
error. BLS analyses are generally conducted at the 90-percent level of confidence.

   For example, the confidence interval for the monthly change in total nonfarm
employment from the establishment survey is on the order of plus or minus 110,000.
Suppose the estimate of nonfarm employment increases by 50,000 from one month to
the next. The 90-percent confidence interval on the monthly change would range from
-60,000 to +160,000 (50,000 +/- 110,000). These figures do not mean that the sample
results are off by these magnitudes, but rather that there is about a 90-percent
chance that the true over-the-month change lies within this interval. Since this
range includes values of less than zero, we could not say with confidence that
nonfarm employment had, in fact, increased that month. If, however, the reported
nonfarm employment rise was 250,000, then all of the values within the 90-percent
confidence interval would be greater than zero. In this case, it is likely (at
least a 90-percent chance) that nonfarm employment had, in fact, risen that month.
At an unemployment rate of around 6.0 percent, the 90-percent confidence interval
for the monthly change in unemployment as measured by the household survey is
about +/- 300,000, and for the monthly change in the unemployment rate it is about
+/- 0.2 percentage point.

   In general, estimates involving many individuals or establishments have lower
standard errors (relative to the size of the estimate) than estimates which are based
on a small number of observations. The precision of estimates also is improved when
the data are cumulated over time, such as for quarterly and annual averages.

   The household and establishment surveys are also affected by nonsampling error,
which can occur for many reasons, including the failure to sample a segment of the
population, inability to obtain information for all respondents in the sample,
inability or unwillingness of respondents to provide correct information on a
timely basis, mistakes made by respondents, and errors made in the collection or
processing of the data.

   For example, in the establishment survey, estimates for the most recent 2 months
are based on incomplete returns; for this reason, these estimates are labeled
preliminary in the tables. It is only after two successive revisions to a monthly
estimate, when nearly all sample reports have been received, that the estimate is
considered final.

   Another major source of nonsampling error in the establishment survey is the
inability to capture, on a timely basis, employment generated by new firms. To
correct for this systematic underestimation of employment growth, an estimation
procedure with two components is used to account for business births. The first
component excludes employment losses from business deaths from sample-based
estimation in order to offset the missing employment gains from business births.
This is incorporated into the sample-based estimation procedure by simply not
reflecting sample units going out of business, but imputing to them the same
employment trend as the other firms in the sample. This procedure accounts for
most of the net birth/death employment.

   The second component is an ARIMA time series model designed to estimate the
residual net birth/death employment not accounted for by the imputation. The
historical time series used to create and test the ARIMA model was derived from
the unemployment insurance universe micro-level database, and reflects the actual
residual net of births and deaths over the past 5 years.

   The sample-based estimates from the establishment survey are adjusted once a
year (on a lagged basis) to universe counts of payroll employment obtained from
administrative records of the unemployment insurance program. The difference 
between the March sample-based employment estimates and the March universe counts
is known as a benchmark revision, and serves as a rough proxy for total survey
error. The new benchmarks also incorporate changes in the classification of
industries. Over the past decade, absolute benchmark revisions for total nonfarm
employment have averaged 0.2 percent, with a range from -0.7 percent to 0.3 percent.

Other information

   Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired
individuals upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay
Service: (800) 877-8339.




HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-1. Employment status of the civilian population by sex and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Apr.
2019
Mar.
2020
Apr.
2020
Apr.
2019
Dec.
2019
Jan.
2020
Feb.
2020
Mar.
2020
Apr.
2020

TOTAL

Civilian noninstitutional population

258,693 259,758 259,896 258,693 260,181 259,502 259,628 259,758 259,896

Civilian labor force

162,097 162,537 155,830 162,546 164,556 164,606 164,546 162,913 156,481

Participation rate

62.7 62.6 60.0 62.8 63.2 63.4 63.4 62.7 60.2

Employed

156,710 155,167 133,326 156,696 158,803 158,714 158,759 155,772 133,403

Employment-population ratio

60.6 59.7 51.3 60.6 61.0 61.2 61.1 60.0 51.3

Unemployed

5,387 7,370 22,504 5,850 5,753 5,892 5,787 7,140 23,078

Unemployment rate

3.3 4.5 14.4 3.6 3.5 3.6 3.5 4.4 14.7

Not in labor force

96,596 97,221 104,066 96,147 95,625 94,896 95,082 96,845 103,415

Persons who currently want a job

4,951 5,215 9,761 5,105 4,832 4,904 4,962 5,509 9,916

Men, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

125,114 125,639 125,707 125,114 125,852 125,513 125,575 125,639 125,707

Civilian labor force

86,027 85,914 82,820 86,233 87,049 87,088 87,008 86,123 83,139

Participation rate

68.8 68.4 65.9 68.9 69.2 69.4 69.3 68.5 66.1

Employed

82,963 81,794 71,810 82,999 84,034 83,940 83,871 82,357 71,916

Employment-population ratio

66.3 65.1 57.1 66.3 66.8 66.9 66.8 65.6 57.2

Unemployed

3,064 4,120 11,010 3,234 3,015 3,147 3,137 3,765 11,223

Unemployment rate

3.6 4.8 13.3 3.8 3.5 3.6 3.6 4.4 13.5

Not in labor force

39,087 39,725 42,887 38,881 38,803 38,426 38,568 39,516 42,569

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

116,665 117,254 117,330 116,665 117,413 117,110 117,181 117,254 117,330

Civilian labor force

83,415 83,174 80,379 83,421 84,008 84,087 84,001 83,176 80,461

Participation rate

71.5 70.9 68.5 71.5 71.5 71.8 71.7 70.9 68.6

Employed

80,711 79,448 70,041 80,609 81,390 81,345 81,202 79,832 69,977

Employment-population ratio

69.2 67.8 59.7 69.1 69.3 69.5 69.3 68.1 59.6

Unemployed

2,703 3,726 10,338 2,812 2,618 2,743 2,799 3,344 10,483

Unemployment rate

3.2 4.5 12.9 3.4 3.1 3.3 3.3 4.0 13.0

Not in labor force

33,251 34,080 36,951 33,244 33,405 33,023 33,180 34,078 36,870

Women, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

133,579 134,119 134,189 133,579 134,329 133,988 134,053 134,119 134,189

Civilian labor force

76,069 76,623 73,010 76,313 77,507 77,518 77,538 76,790 73,343

Participation rate

56.9 57.1 54.4 57.1 57.7 57.9 57.8 57.3 54.7

Employed

73,747 73,373 61,516 73,697 74,769 74,774 74,888 73,415 61,487

Employment-population ratio

55.2 54.7 45.8 55.2 55.7 55.8 55.9 54.7 45.8

Unemployed

2,323 3,250 11,494 2,616 2,738 2,744 2,651 3,375 11,855

Unemployment rate

3.1 4.2 15.7 3.4 3.5 3.5 3.4 4.4 16.2

Not in labor force

57,510 57,496 61,179 57,266 56,822 56,470 56,514 57,329 60,847

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

125,332 125,915 125,991 125,332 126,082 125,770 125,841 125,915 125,991

Civilian labor force

73,382 73,789 70,790 73,440 74,584 74,512 74,501 73,840 70,913

Participation rate

58.5 58.6 56.2 58.6 59.2 59.2 59.2 58.6 56.3

Employed

71,327 70,908 60,124 71,136 72,200 72,097 72,179 70,886 59,947

Employment-population ratio

56.9 56.3 47.7 56.8 57.3 57.3 57.4 56.3 47.6

Unemployed

2,055 2,881 10,666 2,304 2,383 2,415 2,323 2,954 10,966

Unemployment rate

2.8 3.9 15.1 3.1 3.2 3.2 3.1 4.0 15.5

Not in labor force

51,950 52,126 55,202 51,892 51,498 51,258 51,340 52,075 55,079

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian noninstitutional population

16,696 16,590 16,574 16,696 16,686 16,622 16,606 16,590 16,574

Civilian labor force

5,300 5,574 4,661 5,685 5,964 6,007 6,043 5,897 5,108

Participation rate

31.7 33.6 28.1 34.1 35.7 36.1 36.4 35.5 30.8

Employed

4,672 4,811 3,161 4,951 5,213 5,273 5,378 5,054 3,479

Employment-population ratio

28.0 29.0 19.1 29.7 31.2 31.7 32.4 30.5 21.0

Unemployed

628 763 1,500 734 752 734 665 843 1,628

Unemployment rate

11.9 13.7 32.2 12.9 12.6 12.2 11.0 14.3 31.9

Not in labor force

11,395 11,015 11,913 11,010 10,722 10,614 10,562 10,693 11,467

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-2. Employment status of the civilian population by race, sex, and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, race, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Apr.
2019
Mar.
2020
Apr.
2020
Apr.
2019
Dec.
2019
Jan.
2020
Feb.
2020
Mar.
2020
Apr.
2020

WHITE

Civilian noninstitutional population

200,576 201,023 201,082 200,576 201,326 200,918 200,968 201,023 201,082

Civilian labor force

125,627 125,761 120,795 125,911 127,197 127,288 127,146 126,021 121,242

Participation rate

62.6 62.6 60.1 62.8 63.2 63.4 63.3 62.7 60.3

Employed

122,036 120,660 104,083 121,964 123,175 123,332 123,189 121,042 104,065

Employment-population ratio

60.8 60.0 51.8 60.8 61.2 61.4 61.3 60.2 51.8

Unemployed

3,591 5,101 16,713 3,947 4,022 3,957 3,957 4,979 17,176

Unemployment rate

2.9 4.1 13.8 3.1 3.2 3.1 3.1 4.0 14.2

Not in labor force

74,950 75,261 80,287 74,665 74,129 73,630 73,821 75,002 79,840

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

65,852 65,501 63,595 65,815 66,076 66,279 66,153 65,522 63,645

Participation rate

71.7 71.1 69.0 71.6 71.6 72.0 71.8 71.1 69.1

Employed

64,014 62,842 55,863 63,915 64,238 64,341 64,204 63,120 55,776

Employment-population ratio

69.7 68.2 60.6 69.6 69.6 69.9 69.7 68.5 60.5

Unemployed

1,838 2,659 7,732 1,900 1,839 1,938 1,950 2,402 7,869

Unemployment rate

2.8 4.1 12.2 2.9 2.8 2.9 2.9 3.7 12.4

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

55,639 55,894 53,581 55,657 56,429 56,324 56,247 55,878 53,634

Participation rate

57.7 57.8 55.4 57.7 58.3 58.3 58.2 57.8 55.4

Employed

54,309 53,974 45,735 54,120 54,827 54,807 54,692 53,878 45,563

Employment-population ratio

56.3 55.8 47.3 56.1 56.6 56.7 56.6 55.7 47.1

Unemployed

1,330 1,921 7,846 1,538 1,602 1,517 1,555 2,000 8,071

Unemployment rate

2.4 3.4 14.6 2.8 2.8 2.7 2.8 3.6 15.0

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

4,136 4,366 3,620 4,438 4,692 4,686 4,746 4,621 3,963

Participation rate

33.8 35.9 29.8 36.2 38.4 38.4 39.0 38.0 32.6

Employed

3,713 3,844 2,485 3,930 4,111 4,184 4,294 4,043 2,727

Employment-population ratio

30.3 31.6 20.4 32.1 33.6 34.3 35.2 33.2 22.4

Unemployed

423 521 1,135 509 581 502 452 578 1,236

Unemployment rate

10.2 11.9 31.3 11.5 12.4 10.7 9.5 12.5 31.2

BLACK OR AFRICAN AMERICAN

Civilian noninstitutional population

32,955 33,238 33,267 32,955 33,215 33,184 33,211 33,238 33,267

Civilian labor force

20,537 20,455 19,425 20,587 20,949 20,790 20,946 20,596 19,487

Participation rate

62.3 61.5 58.4 62.5 63.1 62.6 63.1 62.0 58.6

Employed

19,262 19,018 16,248 19,235 19,712 19,549 19,730 19,208 16,240

Employment-population ratio

58.4 57.2 48.8 58.4 59.3 58.9 59.4 57.8 48.8

Unemployed

1,275 1,438 3,177 1,352 1,238 1,241 1,216 1,387 3,247

Unemployment rate

6.2 7.0 16.4 6.6 5.9 6.0 5.8 6.7 16.7

Not in labor force

12,418 12,783 13,841 12,368 12,266 12,395 12,266 12,642 13,780

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

9,449 9,404 8,856 9,451 9,591 9,445 9,499 9,477 8,880

Participation rate

68.3 67.2 63.2 68.3 68.6 67.6 68.0 67.7 63.4

Employed

8,827 8,691 7,431 8,823 9,034 8,918 8,945 8,812 7,448

Employment-population ratio

63.8 62.1 53.0 63.8 64.6 63.9 64.0 63.0 53.2

Unemployed

622 713 1,425 628 557 526 554 665 1,432

Unemployment rate

6.6 7.6 16.1 6.6 5.8 5.6 5.8 7.0 16.1

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

10,406 10,363 9,997 10,416 10,625 10,617 10,721 10,374 9,995

Participation rate

62.5 61.6 59.4 62.6 63.3 63.3 63.8 61.7 59.4

Employed

9,907 9,806 8,413 9,860 10,094 10,067 10,207 9,830 8,351

Employment-population ratio

59.5 58.3 50.0 59.2 60.1 60.0 60.8 58.5 49.6

Unemployed

499 558 1,584 556 530 550 514 543 1,644

Unemployment rate

4.8 5.4 15.8 5.3 5.0 5.2 4.8 5.2 16.4

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

681 687 573 720 734 728 725 745 612

Participation rate

27.6 28.3 23.6 29.2 29.9 29.8 29.8 30.7 25.2

Employed

527 521 405 552 583 564 578 566 441

Employment-population ratio

21.3 21.4 16.7 22.4 23.8 23.1 23.7 23.3 18.2

Unemployed

155 167 168 168 151 164 148 180 171

Unemployment rate

22.7 24.2 29.4 23.3 20.6 22.5 20.4 24.1 28.0

ASIAN

Civilian noninstitutional population

16,290 16,419 16,363 16,290 16,482 16,178 16,421 16,419 16,363

Civilian labor force

10,166 10,486 9,893 10,194 10,478 10,332 10,574 10,470 9,938

Participation rate

62.4 63.9 60.5 62.6 63.6 63.9 64.4 63.8 60.7

Employed

9,954 10,058 8,476 9,969 10,214 10,017 10,312 10,037 8,499

Employment-population ratio

61.1 61.3 51.8 61.2 62.0 61.9 62.8 61.1 51.9

Unemployed

212 428 1,418 225 264 315 262 433 1,438

Unemployment rate

2.1 4.1 14.3 2.2 2.5 3.0 2.5 4.1 14.5

Not in labor force

6,124 5,932 6,470 6,096 6,004 5,847 5,848 5,948 6,425

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Estimates for the above race groups will not sum to totals shown in table A-1 because data are not presented for all races. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-3. Employment status of the Hispanic or Latino population by sex and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Apr.
2019
Mar.
2020
Apr.
2020
Apr.
2019
Dec.
2019
Jan.
2020
Feb.
2020
Mar.
2020
Apr.
2020

HISPANIC OR LATINO ETHNICITY

Civilian noninstitutional population

43,289 43,895 43,975 43,289 43,986 43,742 43,820 43,895 43,975

Civilian labor force

28,474 29,372 27,752 28,561 29,517 29,672 29,852 29,443 27,841

Participation rate

65.8 66.9 63.1 66.0 67.1 67.8 68.1 67.1 63.3

Employed

27,415 27,531 22,625 27,364 28,286 28,397 28,531 27,672 22,579

Employment-population ratio

63.3 62.7 51.5 63.2 64.3 64.9 65.1 63.0 51.3

Unemployed

1,059 1,841 5,126 1,198 1,231 1,275 1,322 1,771 5,263

Unemployment rate

3.7 6.3 18.5 4.2 4.2 4.3 4.4 6.0 18.9

Not in labor force

14,814 14,523 16,223 14,727 14,468 14,070 13,968 14,452 16,133

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

15,595 15,836 15,319 15,615 15,875 16,114 16,035 15,844 15,337

Participation rate

79.8 79.9 77.2 79.9 79.9 81.6 81.1 80.0 77.2

Employed

15,074 14,943 12,817 15,034 15,393 15,571 15,519 15,037 12,776

Employment-population ratio

77.2 75.4 64.6 76.9 77.5 78.9 78.5 75.9 64.3

Unemployed

521 893 2,502 581 483 543 516 807 2,561

Unemployment rate

3.3 5.6 16.3 3.7 3.0 3.4 3.2 5.1 16.7

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

11,776 12,208 11,341 11,770 12,293 12,242 12,441 12,245 11,348

Participation rate

59.6 60.8 56.4 59.5 61.1 61.2 62.1 61.0 56.4

Employed

11,381 11,462 9,090 11,337 11,736 11,701 11,834 11,507 9,060

Employment-population ratio

57.6 57.1 45.2 57.3 58.4 58.5 59.1 57.3 45.0

Unemployed

395 746 2,251 433 558 541 607 738 2,288

Unemployment rate

3.4 6.1 19.8 3.7 4.5 4.4 4.9 6.0 20.2

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

1,103 1,328 1,092 1,177 1,349 1,316 1,377 1,354 1,157

Participation rate

27.7 33.2 27.3 29.6 33.6 32.9 34.4 33.8 28.9

Employed

961 1,126 719 992 1,157 1,125 1,177 1,128 743

Employment-population ratio

24.2 28.1 18.0 25.0 28.8 28.1 29.4 28.2 18.6

Unemployed

142 202 373 184 191 191 199 225 414

Unemployment rate

12.9 15.2 34.2 15.7 14.2 14.5 14.5 16.7 35.8

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-4. Employment status of the civilian population 25 years and over by educational attainment
[Numbers in thousands]
Educational attainment Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Apr.
2019
Mar.
2020
Apr.
2020
Apr.
2019
Dec.
2019
Jan.
2020
Feb.
2020
Mar.
2020
Apr.
2020

Less than a high school diploma

Civilian labor force

10,081 9,184 8,688 9,985 9,895 9,621 9,710 9,251 8,595

Participation rate

45.7 45.3 43.3 45.2 46.5 45.9 47.8 45.7 42.8

Employed

9,554 8,439 6,872 9,453 9,379 9,090 9,160 8,626 6,774

Employment-population ratio

43.3 41.6 34.2 42.8 44.0 43.4 45.1 42.6 33.7

Unemployed

527 745 1,816 532 516 531 550 625 1,821

Unemployment rate

5.2 8.1 20.9 5.3 5.2 5.5 5.7 6.8 21.2

High school graduates, no college(1)

Civilian labor force

35,900 35,142 33,203 35,895 36,094 36,230 36,309 35,232 33,252

Participation rate

57.9 57.3 54.5 57.9 58.5 58.7 58.3 57.4 54.6

Employed

34,729 33,460 27,557 34,658 34,764 34,861 34,986 33,687 27,505

Employment-population ratio

56.0 54.6 45.2 55.9 56.3 56.5 56.2 54.9 45.1

Unemployed

1,172 1,682 5,646 1,237 1,330 1,369 1,323 1,545 5,747

Unemployment rate

3.3 4.8 17.0 3.4 3.7 3.8 3.6 4.4 17.3

Some college or associate degree

Civilian labor force

37,494 37,256 35,935 37,348 37,509 37,283 37,325 37,381 35,860

Participation rate

64.9 64.5 62.6 64.7 64.7 64.6 64.8 64.7 62.5

Employed

36,405 35,803 30,634 36,199 36,491 36,243 36,209 36,013 30,485

Employment-population ratio

63.0 62.0 53.4 62.7 63.0 62.8 62.9 62.3 53.1

Unemployed

1,089 1,453 5,301 1,149 1,018 1,040 1,116 1,368 5,376

Unemployment rate

2.9 3.9 14.8 3.1 2.7 2.8 3.0 3.7 15.0

Bachelor's degree and higher(2)

Civilian labor force

58,335 60,888 60,075 58,361 59,938 60,176 59,894 60,487 60,127

Participation rate

73.8 73.5 71.5 73.8 73.5 73.7 73.1 73.0 71.6

Employed

57,235 59,405 55,151 57,150 58,778 59,002 58,736 59,000 55,084

Employment-population ratio

72.4 71.7 65.7 72.3 72.1 72.3 71.7 71.2 65.6

Unemployed

1,099 1,484 4,924 1,211 1,160 1,174 1,158 1,487 5,043

Unemployment rate

1.9 2.4 8.2 2.1 1.9 2.0 1.9 2.5 8.4

Footnotes
(1) Includes persons with a high school diploma or equivalent.
(2) Includes persons with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees.

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals for those 25 years and over because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-5. Employment status of the civilian population 18 years and over by veteran status, period of service, and sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, veteran status, and period of service Total Men Women
Apr.
2019
Apr.
2020
Apr.
2019
Apr.
2020
Apr.
2019
Apr.
2020

VETERANS, 18 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

18,903 18,544 17,022 16,644 1,881 1,900

Civilian labor force

9,337 8,944 8,219 7,854 1,118 1,090

Participation rate

49.4 48.2 48.3 47.2 59.4 57.4

Employed

9,120 7,894 8,049 6,956 1,072 938

Employment-population ratio

48.2 42.6 47.3 41.8 57.0 49.4

Unemployed

217 1,050 171 898 46 152

Unemployment rate

2.3 11.7 2.1 11.4 4.1 14.0

Not in labor force

9,566 9,600 8,803 8,790 763 810

Gulf War-era II veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

4,248 4,453 3,552 3,710 697 743

Civilian labor force

3,390 3,478 2,913 2,949 477 530

Participation rate

79.8 78.1 82.0 79.5 68.5 71.3

Employed

3,331 3,025 2,880 2,601 451 424

Employment-population ratio

78.4 67.9 81.1 70.1 64.8 57.0

Unemployed

59 453 33 347 26 106

Unemployment rate

1.7 13.0 1.1 11.8 5.4 20.0

Not in labor force

858 975 639 761 220 213

Gulf War-era I veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

3,119 3,076 2,593 2,563 525 513

Civilian labor force

2,413 2,260 2,056 1,946 357 315

Participation rate

77.4 73.5 79.3 75.9 68.0 61.3

Employed

2,360 2,100 2,011 1,817 349 283

Employment-population ratio

75.7 68.3 77.5 70.9 66.6 55.1

Unemployed

53 160 45 129 8 32

Unemployment rate

2.2 7.1 2.2 6.6 2.2 10.1

Not in labor force

705 816 538 617 168 198

World War II, Korean War, and Vietnam-era veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

7,298 6,907 7,047 6,666 251 241

Civilian labor force

1,480 1,294 1,405 1,262 75 31

Participation rate

20.3 18.7 19.9 18.9 29.9 13.0

Employed

1,442 1,073 1,373 1,043 70 31

Employment-population ratio

19.8 15.5 19.5 15.6 27.8 12.7

Unemployed

38 221 33 220 5 1

Unemployment rate

2.6 17.0 2.3 17.4 7.3 -

Not in labor force

5,818 5,613 5,642 5,404 176 210

Veterans of other service periods

Civilian noninstitutional population

4,238 4,108 3,830 3,705 408 403

Civilian labor force

2,054 1,912 1,846 1,698 208 214

Participation rate

48.5 46.5 48.2 45.8 51.0 53.1

Employed

1,986 1,696 1,785 1,495 201 201

Employment-population ratio

46.9 41.3 46.6 40.4 49.3 49.9

Unemployed

67 216 60 203 7 13

Unemployment rate

3.3 11.3 3.3 11.9 3.2 6.2

Not in labor force

2,184 2,196 1,984 2,007 200 189

NONVETERANS, 18 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

230,997 232,724 103,613 104,740 127,385 127,985

Civilian labor force

150,960 145,311 76,873 74,246 74,087 71,065

Participation rate

65.4 62.4 74.2 70.9 58.2 55.5

Employed

146,047 124,330 74,093 64,288 71,953 60,042

Employment-population ratio

63.2 53.4 71.5 61.4 56.5 46.9

Unemployed

4,913 20,980 2,780 9,958 2,133 11,023

Unemployment rate

3.3 14.4 3.6 13.4 2.9 15.5

Not in labor force

80,038 87,414 26,740 30,494 53,298 56,920

NOTE: Veterans served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces and were not on active duty at the time of the survey. Nonveterans never served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces. Veterans could have served anywhere in the world during these periods of service: Gulf War era II (September 2001-present), Gulf War era I (August 1990-August 2001), Vietnam era (August 1964-April 1975), Korean War (July 1950-January 1955), World War II (December 1941-December 1946), and other service periods (all other time periods). Veterans who served in more than one wartime period are classified only in the most recent one. Veterans who served during one of the selected wartime periods and another period are classified only in the wartime period. Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria (values not shown where base is less than 75,000). Updated population controls introduced with the release of January 2020 data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-6. Employment status of the civilian population by sex, age, and disability status, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Persons with a disability Persons with no disability
Apr.
2019
Apr.
2020
Apr.
2019
Apr.
2020

TOTAL, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

30,770 29,846 227,923 230,051

Civilian labor force

6,384 5,923 155,713 149,907

Participation rate

20.7 19.8 68.3 65.2

Employed

5,978 4,805 150,731 128,520

Employment-population ratio

19.4 16.1 66.1 55.9

Unemployed

405 1,117 4,982 21,387

Unemployment rate

6.3 18.9 3.2 14.3

Not in labor force

24,386 23,923 72,210 80,143

Men, 16 to 64 years

Civilian labor force

2,732 2,611 77,629 74,556

Participation rate

36.6 35.4 82.5 79.3

Employed

2,522 2,096 74,947 64,877

Employment-population ratio

33.8 28.4 79.6 69.0

Unemployed

210 515 2,682 9,680

Unemployment rate

7.7 19.7 3.5 13.0

Not in labor force

4,735 4,764 16,470 19,431

Women, 16 to 64 years

Civilian labor force

2,402 2,157 68,967 66,201

Participation rate

30.2 30.0 71.3 68.2

Employed

2,249 1,731 66,927 55,927

Employment-population ratio

28.3 24.1 69.2 57.6

Unemployed

152 426 2,039 10,275

Unemployment rate

6.3 19.7 3.0 15.5

Not in labor force

5,547 5,035 27,760 30,938

Both sexes, 65 years and over

Civilian labor force

1,250 1,154 9,117 9,150

Participation rate

8.1 7.6 24.6 23.5

Employed

1,208 978 8,857 7,717

Employment-population ratio

7.9 6.4 23.9 19.8

Unemployed

43 177 260 1,432

Unemployment rate

3.4 15.3 2.9 15.7

Not in labor force

14,104 14,124 27,979 29,774

NOTE: A person with a disability has at least one of the following conditions: is deaf or has serious difficulty hearing; is blind or has serious difficulty seeing even when wearing glasses; has serious difficulty concentrating, remembering, or making decisions because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition; has serious difficulty walking or climbing stairs; has difficulty dressing or bathing; or has difficulty doing errands alone such as visiting a doctor's office or shopping because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-7. Employment status of the civilian population by nativity and sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status and nativity Total Men Women
Apr.
2019
Apr.
2020
Apr.
2019
Apr.
2020
Apr.
2019
Apr.
2020

Foreign born, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

43,527 42,504 21,187 20,489 22,340 22,015

Civilian labor force

28,439 26,285 16,521 15,238 11,918 11,047

Participation rate

65.3 61.8 78.0 74.4 53.3 50.2

Employed

27,660 21,961 16,122 12,908 11,539 9,053

Employment-population ratio

63.5 51.7 76.1 63.0 51.7 41.1

Unemployed

779 4,324 400 2,330 379 1,994

Unemployment rate

2.7 16.5 2.4 15.3 3.2 18.1

Not in labor force

15,088 16,219 4,665 5,251 10,422 10,968

Native born, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

215,166 217,392 103,927 105,218 111,239 112,174

Civilian labor force

133,657 129,545 69,506 67,582 64,151 61,963

Participation rate

62.1 59.6 66.9 64.2 57.7 55.2

Employed

129,049 111,365 66,842 58,902 62,208 52,463

Employment-population ratio

60.0 51.2 64.3 56.0 55.9 46.8

Unemployed

4,608 18,180 2,664 8,680 1,944 9,500

Unemployment rate

3.4 14.0 3.8 12.8 3.0 15.3

Not in labor force

81,509 87,847 34,421 37,636 47,087 50,211

NOTE: The foreign born are those residing in the United States who were not U.S. citizens at birth. That is, they were born outside the United States or one of its outlying areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam, to parents neither of whom was a U.S. citizen. The native born are persons who were born in the United States or one of its outlying areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam or who were born abroad of at least one parent who was a U.S. citizen. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-8. Employed persons by class of worker and part-time status
[In thousands]
Category Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Apr.
2019
Mar.
2020
Apr.
2020
Apr.
2019
Dec.
2019
Jan.
2020
Feb.
2020
Mar.
2020
Apr.
2020

CLASS OF WORKER

Agriculture and related industries

2,281 2,263 2,303 2,389 2,533 2,412 2,466 2,399 2,424

Wage and salary workers(1)

1,571 1,580 1,585 1,661 1,849 1,750 1,829 1,715 1,695

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

687 661 693 693 684 647 645 660 701

Unpaid family workers

23 22 25 - - - - - -

Nonagricultural industries

154,429 152,904 131,023 154,369 156,241 156,337 156,283 153,359 131,052

Wage and salary workers(1)

145,849 144,149 123,485 145,694 147,431 147,467 147,347 144,494 123,401

Government

21,189 21,414 19,485 20,848 21,323 21,390 20,943 21,081 19,156

Private industries

124,661 122,735 104,001 124,876 126,069 126,042 126,282 123,412 104,200

Private households

825 712 492 - - - - - -

Other industries

123,835 122,023 103,509 124,046 125,250 125,234 125,487 122,693 103,713

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

8,543 8,717 7,514 8,559 8,821 8,808 8,897 8,818 7,544

Unpaid family workers

37 37 23 - - - - - -

PERSONS AT WORK PART TIME(2)

All industries

Part time for economic reasons(3)

4,483 5,879 10,684 4,706 4,148 4,182 4,318 5,765 10,887

Slack work or business conditions

2,782 4,159 9,843 2,868 2,657 2,655 2,776 4,043 9,939

Could only find part-time work

1,473 1,404 728 1,447 1,215 1,294 1,317 1,321 697

Part time for noneconomic reasons(4)

22,160 20,764 13,149 21,356 21,586 22,154 22,175 20,601 12,355

Nonagricultural industries

Part time for economic reasons(3)

4,424 5,788 10,524 4,645 4,111 4,091 4,225 5,681 10,730

Slack work or business conditions

2,750 4,090 9,694 2,834 2,613 2,580 2,719 3,965 9,780

Could only find part-time work

1,461 1,392 723 1,437 1,209 1,308 1,313 1,312 695

Part time for noneconomic reasons(4)

21,830 20,392 12,779 21,008 21,180 21,784 21,770 20,236 11,971

Footnotes
(1) Includes self-employed workers whose businesses are incorporated.
(2) Refers to those who worked 1 to 34 hours during the survey reference week and excludes employed persons who were absent from their jobs for the entire week.
(3) Refers to those who worked 1 to 34 hours during the reference week for an economic reason such as slack work or unfavorable business conditions, inability to find full-time work, or seasonal declines in demand.
(4) Refers to persons who usually work part time for noneconomic reasons such as childcare problems, family or personal obligations, school or training, retirement or Social Security limits on earnings, and other reasons. This excludes persons who usually work full time but worked only 1 to 34 hours during the reference week for reasons such as vacations, holidays, illness, and bad weather.

- Data not available.
NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-9. Selected employment indicators
[Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Apr.
2019
Mar.
2020
Apr.
2020
Apr.
2019
Dec.
2019
Jan.
2020
Feb.
2020
Mar.
2020
Apr.
2020

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

156,710 155,167 133,326 156,696 158,803 158,714 158,759 155,772 133,403

16 to 19 years

4,672 4,811 3,161 4,951 5,213 5,273 5,378 5,054 3,479

16 to 17 years

1,543 1,636 1,101 1,728 1,874 1,949 1,972 1,800 1,302

18 to 19 years

3,129 3,175 2,060 3,201 3,339 3,311 3,401 3,269 2,154

20 years and over

152,038 150,356 130,165 151,744 153,590 153,441 153,381 150,719 129,924

20 to 24 years

14,114 13,248 9,951 14,207 14,142 14,214 14,278 13,428 10,023

25 years and over

137,923 137,107 120,214 137,525 139,426 139,215 139,188 137,392 119,906

25 to 54 years

100,890 100,141 87,910 100,691 101,653 101,487 101,426 100,313 87,769

25 to 34 years

35,602 35,429 30,456 35,586 36,230 36,129 36,123 35,501 30,453

35 to 44 years

33,001 33,050 29,658 32,943 33,406 33,412 33,402 33,168 29,607

45 to 54 years

32,287 31,662 27,796 32,162 32,017 31,945 31,901 31,644 27,709

55 years and over

37,033 36,966 32,304 36,834 37,773 37,728 37,762 37,079 32,137

Men, 16 years and over

82,963 81,794 71,810 82,999 84,034 83,940 83,871 82,357 71,916

16 to 19 years

2,252 2,346 1,769 2,390 2,644 2,596 2,669 2,525 1,939

16 to 17 years

821 724 566 894 876 860 891 817 632

18 to 19 years

1,430 1,622 1,203 1,492 1,766 1,733 1,784 1,715 1,277

20 years and over

80,711 79,448 70,041 80,609 81,390 81,345 81,202 79,832 69,977

20 to 24 years

7,161 6,688 5,183 7,212 7,152 7,307 7,272 6,818 5,222

25 years and over

73,551 72,760 64,858 73,389 74,217 74,057 73,982 73,159 64,758

25 to 54 years

53,870 53,170 47,282 53,789 54,005 53,840 53,770 53,374 47,236

25 to 34 years

19,170 18,957 16,390 19,170 19,364 19,145 19,175 19,002 16,396

35 to 44 years

17,815 17,687 16,090 17,770 17,881 17,884 17,874 17,790 16,049

45 to 54 years

16,884 16,527 14,803 16,849 16,761 16,810 16,720 16,582 14,792

55 years and over

19,681 19,590 17,575 19,600 20,212 20,217 20,213 19,785 17,522

Women, 16 years and over

73,747 73,373 61,516 73,697 74,769 74,774 74,888 73,415 61,487

16 to 19 years

2,420 2,465 1,392 2,561 2,568 2,677 2,709 2,529 1,541

16 to 17 years

721 912 536 834 999 1,089 1,081 983 670

18 to 19 years

1,699 1,553 856 1,709 1,573 1,578 1,616 1,554 877

20 years and over

71,327 70,908 60,124 71,136 72,200 72,097 72,179 70,886 59,947

20 to 24 years

6,954 6,561 4,768 6,995 6,990 6,907 7,006 6,610 4,801

25 years and over

64,373 64,347 55,356 64,136 65,208 65,158 65,206 64,232 55,147

25 to 54 years

47,020 46,971 40,627 46,902 47,648 47,647 47,657 46,939 40,533

25 to 34 years

16,432 16,472 14,066 16,416 16,866 16,984 16,949 16,499 14,058

35 to 44 years

15,186 15,363 13,568 15,173 15,525 15,528 15,528 15,378 13,558

45 to 54 years

15,402 15,135 12,993 15,313 15,256 15,135 15,180 15,062 12,917

55 years and over

17,352 17,376 14,729 17,234 17,561 17,510 17,549 17,293 14,615

MARITAL STATUS

Married men, spouse present(1)

45,927 45,901 41,843 45,758 46,177 46,257 46,067 45,920 41,683

Married women, spouse present(1)

36,414 36,700 32,034 36,205 36,631 36,869 36,597 36,353 31,860

Women who maintain families(2)

9,698 9,402 7,908 - - - - - -

FULL- OR PART-TIME STATUS

Full-time workers(3)

129,212 127,981 113,656 129,816 131,755 131,099 131,109 129,298 114,322

Part-time workers(4)

27,498 27,187 19,670 26,943 26,992 27,529 27,726 26,553 19,106

MULTIPLE JOBHOLDERS

Total multiple jobholders

7,765 7,358 5,360 7,849 7,946 8,152 8,070 7,268 5,451

Percent of total employed

5.0 4.7 4.0 5.0 5.0 5.1 5.1 4.7 4.1

SELF-EMPLOYMENT

Self-employed workers, incorporated

6,094 6,285 6,405 - - - - - -

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

9,230 9,378 8,207 9,252 9,506 9,455 9,542 9,478 8,245

Footnotes
(1) Beginning with data for January 2020, refers to persons in both opposite-sex and same-sex married couples. Prior to January 2020, referred to persons in opposite-sex married couples only.
(2) Beginning with data for January 2020, refers to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not a spouse of either sex. Prior to January 2020, referred to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not an opposite-sex spouse.
(3) Employed full-time workers are persons who usually work 35 hours or more per week.
(4) Employed part-time workers are persons who usually work less than 35 hours per week.

- Data not available.
NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-10. Selected unemployment indicators, seasonally adjusted
Characteristic Number of
unemployed persons
(in thousands)
Unemployment rates
Apr.
2019
Mar.
2020
Apr.
2020
Apr.
2019
Dec.
2019
Jan.
2020
Feb.
2020
Mar.
2020
Apr.
2020

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

5,850 7,140 23,078 3.6 3.5 3.6 3.5 4.4 14.7

16 to 19 years

734 843 1,628 12.9 12.6 12.2 11.0 14.3 31.9

16 to 17 years

274 354 496 13.7 13.7 11.8 9.8 16.4 27.6

18 to 19 years

453 479 1,126 12.4 12.1 12.5 12.0 12.8 34.3

20 years and over

5,116 6,297 21,449 3.3 3.2 3.3 3.2 4.0 14.2

20 to 24 years

989 1,281 3,466 6.5 6.3 6.6 6.4 8.7 25.7

25 years and over

4,141 5,007 18,008 2.9 2.8 2.9 2.9 3.5 13.1

25 to 54 years

3,156 3,725 12,909 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.6 12.8

25 to 34 years

1,422 1,534 5,176 3.8 3.6 3.7 3.7 4.1 14.5

35 to 44 years

898 1,157 3,849 2.7 2.8 2.8 2.8 3.4 11.5

45 to 54 years

836 1,034 3,884 2.5 2.6 2.5 2.5 3.2 12.3

55 years and over

975 1,276 5,071 2.6 2.4 2.6 2.6 3.3 13.6

Men, 16 years and over

3,234 3,765 11,223 3.8 3.5 3.6 3.6 4.4 13.5

16 to 19 years

422 421 739 15.0 13.0 13.5 11.2 14.3 27.6

16 to 17 years

125 142 168 12.3 14.6 14.4 10.8 14.8 21.0

18 to 19 years

300 265 567 16.7 12.8 12.9 12.0 13.4 30.8

20 years and over

2,812 3,344 10,483 3.4 3.1 3.3 3.3 4.0 13.0

20 to 24 years

598 681 1,601 7.7 7.2 6.8 6.7 9.1 23.5

25 years and over

2,234 2,651 8,886 3.0 2.7 2.9 3.0 3.5 12.1

25 to 54 years

1,707 1,951 6,477 3.1 2.9 3.0 3.1 3.5 12.1

25 to 34 years

720 842 2,711 3.6 3.6 3.9 3.9 4.2 14.2

35 to 44 years

495 584 1,870 2.7 2.5 2.6 2.8 3.2 10.4

45 to 54 years

491 525 1,896 2.8 2.5 2.5 2.5 3.1 11.4

55 years and over

527 700 2,409 2.6 2.2 2.6 2.7 3.4 12.1

Women, 16 years and over

2,616 3,375 11,855 3.4 3.5 3.5 3.4 4.4 16.2

16 to 19 years

312 422 889 10.9 12.1 11.0 10.8 14.3 36.6

16 to 17 years

148 212 328 15.1 12.9 9.6 8.9 17.8 32.9

18 to 19 years

153 214 558 8.2 11.3 12.1 12.0 12.1 38.9

20 years and over

2,304 2,954 10,966 3.1 3.2 3.2 3.1 4.0 15.5

20 to 24 years

391 600 1,865 5.3 5.5 6.5 6.1 8.3 28.0

25 years and over

1,907 2,356 9,122 2.9 2.9 2.9 2.8 3.5 14.2

25 to 54 years

1,449 1,774 6,432 3.0 3.1 3.0 2.9 3.6 13.7

25 to 34 years

702 692 2,464 4.1 3.5 3.5 3.4 4.0 14.9

35 to 44 years

403 573 1,979 2.6 3.0 2.9 2.8 3.6 12.7

45 to 54 years

344 509 1,988 2.2 2.7 2.5 2.6 3.3 13.3

55 years and over

476 582 2,671 2.7 2.6 2.4 2.4 3.3 15.5

MARITAL STATUS

Married men, spouse present(1)

830 1,065 4,457 1.8 1.6 1.7 2.0 2.3 9.7

Married women, spouse present(1)

678 1,114 4,811 1.8 2.1 2.1 2.2 3.0 13.1

Women who maintain families(2)

501 526 1,495 4.9 4.2 5.4 4.1 5.3 15.9

FULL- OR PART-TIME STATUS

Full-time workers(3)

4,687 5,477 16,885 3.5 3.4 3.5 3.5 4.1 12.9

Part-time workers(4)

1,171 1,712 6,194 4.2 3.9 4.1 3.7 6.1 24.5

Footnotes
(1) Beginning with data for January 2020, refers to persons in both opposite-sex and same-sex married couples. Prior to January 2020, referred to persons in opposite-sex married couples only.
(2) Data are not seasonally adjusted. Beginning with data for January 2020, refers to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not a spouse of either sex. Prior to January 2020, referred to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not an opposite-sex spouse.
(3) Full-time workers are unemployed persons who have expressed a desire to work full time (35 hours or more per week) or are on layoff from full-time jobs.
(4) Part-time workers are unemployed persons who have expressed a desire to work part time (less than 35 hours per week) or are on layoff from part-time jobs.

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-11. Unemployed persons by reason for unemployment
[Numbers in thousands]
Reason Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Apr.
2019
Mar.
2020
Apr.
2020
Apr.
2019
Dec.
2019
Jan.
2020
Feb.
2020
Mar.
2020
Apr.
2020

NUMBER OF UNEMPLOYED

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

2,484 4,441 20,384 2,660 2,686 2,665 2,723 3,946 20,626

On temporary layoff

574 2,223 17,878 722 807 742 801 1,848 18,063

Not on temporary layoff

1,910 2,219 2,506 1,938 1,880 1,923 1,922 2,099 2,563

Permanent job losers

1,287 1,559 1,951 1,314 1,295 1,289 1,279 1,456 2,000

Persons who completed temporary jobs

623 660 555 625 585 634 644 643 563

Job leavers

685 695 520 728 829 836 777 727 570

Reentrants

1,761 1,784 1,329 1,899 1,655 1,838 1,803 1,778 1,477

New entrants

457 449 271 535 551 557 505 509 389

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

46.1 60.3 90.6 45.7 46.9 45.2 46.9 56.7 89.4

On temporary layoff

10.6 30.2 79.4 12.4 14.1 12.6 13.8 26.5 78.3

Not on temporary layoff

35.5 30.1 11.1 33.3 32.9 32.6 33.1 30.2 11.1

Job leavers

12.7 9.4 2.3 12.5 14.5 14.2 13.4 10.5 2.5

Reentrants

32.7 24.2 5.9 32.6 28.9 31.2 31.0 25.5 6.4

New entrants

8.5 6.1 1.2 9.2 9.6 9.4 8.7 7.3 1.7

UNEMPLOYED AS A PERCENT OF THE
CIVILIAN LABOR FORCE

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

1.5 2.7 13.1 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.7 2.4 13.2

Job leavers

0.4 0.4 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.4 0.4

Reentrants

1.1 1.1 0.9 1.2 1.0 1.1 1.1 1.1 0.9

New entrants

0.3 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.2

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to total unemployed in table A-1 because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-12. Unemployed persons by duration of unemployment
[Numbers in thousands]
Duration Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Apr.
2019
Mar.
2020
Apr.
2020
Apr.
2019
Dec.
2019
Jan.
2020
Feb.
2020
Mar.
2020
Apr.
2020

NUMBER OF UNEMPLOYED

Less than 5 weeks

1,585 3,118 13,880 1,906 2,065 2,059 2,013 3,542 14,283

5 to 14 weeks

1,572 2,008 6,728 1,835 1,730 1,755 1,803 1,794 7,004

15 weeks and over

2,231 2,244 1,897 2,087 1,998 2,053 1,927 1,971 1,772

15 to 26 weeks

997 999 968 860 812 887 825 808 833

27 weeks and over

1,234 1,245 929 1,227 1,186 1,166 1,102 1,164 939

Average (mean) duration, in weeks

24.2 17.5 7.7 22.8 20.8 21.9 20.9 17.1 6.1

Median duration, in weeks

11.2 7.3 4.0 9.3 9.0 9.3 9.1 7.0 2.0

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION

Less than 5 weeks

29.4 42.3 61.7 32.7 35.6 35.1 35.1 48.5 61.9

5 to 14 weeks

29.2 27.2 29.9 31.5 29.9 29.9 31.4 24.5 30.4

15 weeks and over

41.4 30.4 8.4 35.8 34.5 35.0 33.6 27.0 7.7

15 to 26 weeks

18.5 13.6 4.3 14.8 14.0 15.1 14.4 11.1 3.6

27 weeks and over

22.9 16.9 4.1 21.1 20.5 19.9 19.2 15.9 4.1

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to total unemployed in table A-1 because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-13. Employed and unemployed persons by occupation, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Occupation Employed Unemployed Unemployment
rates
Apr.
2019
Apr.
2020
Apr.
2019
Apr.
2020
Apr.
2019
Apr.
2020

Total, 16 years and over(1)

156,710 133,326 5,387 22,504 3.3 14.4

Management, professional, and related occupations

63,560 61,152 1,040 5,079 1.6 7.7

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

26,645 26,437 375 1,742 1.4 6.2

Professional and related occupations

36,915 34,715 664 3,337 1.8 8.8

Service occupations

26,921 18,042 1,132 6,723 4.0 27.1

Sales and office occupations

33,295 26,546 1,254 4,599 3.6 14.8

Sales and related occupations

15,211 12,218 625 2,519 3.9 17.1

Office and administrative support occupations

18,084 14,328 629 2,080 3.4 12.7

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

14,141 11,827 725 2,301 4.9 16.3

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

1,198 1,079 140 153 10.5 12.4

Construction and extraction occupations

8,274 6,549 453 1,529 5.2 18.9

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

4,669 4,199 132 619 2.7 12.8

Production, transportation, and material moving
occupations

18,792 15,758 768 3,502 3.9 18.2

Production occupations

8,534 6,380 340 1,457 3.8 18.6

Transportation and material moving occupations

10,257 9,378 427 2,045 4.0 17.9

Footnotes
(1) Persons with no previous work experience and persons whose last job was in the U.S. Armed Forces are included in the unemployed total.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data. Effective with January 2020 data, occupations reflect the introduction of the 2018 Census occupational classification system into the Current Population Survey, or household survey. This classification system is derived from the 2018 Standard Occupational Classification (SOC). No historical data have been revised. Data for 2020 are not strictly comparable with earlier years.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-14. Unemployed persons by industry and class of worker, not seasonally adjusted
Industry and class of worker Number of
unemployed
persons
(in thousands)
Unemployment
rates
Apr.
2019
Apr.
2020
Apr.
2019
Apr.
2020

Total, 16 years and over(1)

5,387 22,504 3.3 14.4

Nonagricultural private wage and salary workers

4,254 19,167 3.3 15.6

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

17 77 2.4 10.2

Construction

439 1,531 4.7 16.6

Manufacturing

483 1,992 3.0 13.2

Durable goods

265 1,416 2.6 15.1

Nondurable goods

218 576 3.6 10.2

Wholesale and retail trade

829 3,223 4.3 17.1

Transportation and utilities

255 989 3.4 13.5

Information

87 279 3.5 11.0

Financial activities

210 545 2.1 5.4

Professional and business services

611 1,697 3.5 9.8

Education and health services

512 2,552 2.1 10.9

Leisure and hospitality

647 4,860 4.5 39.3

Other services

164 1,421 2.5 23.0

Agriculture and related private wage and salary workers

121 163 7.3 9.6

Government workers

347 2,017 1.6 9.4

Self-employed workers, unincorporated, and unpaid family workers

208 886 2.2 9.7

Footnotes
(1) Persons with no previous work experience and persons whose last job was in the U.S. Armed Forces are included in the unemployed total.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data. Effective with January 2020 data, industries reflect the introduction of the 2017 Census industry classification system into the Current Population Survey. This industry classification system is derived from the 2017 North American Industry Classification System (NAICS). No historical data have been revised.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-15. Alternative measures of labor underutilization
[Percent]
Measure Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Apr.
2019
Mar.
2020
Apr.
2020
Apr.
2019
Dec.
2019
Jan.
2020
Feb.
2020
Mar.
2020
Apr.
2020

U-1 Persons unemployed 15 weeks or longer, as a percent of the civilian labor force

1.4 1.4 1.2 1.3 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.1

U-2 Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs, as a percent of the civilian labor force

1.5 2.7 13.1 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.7 2.4 13.2

U-3 Total unemployed, as a percent of the civilian labor force (official unemployment rate)

3.3 4.5 14.4 3.6 3.5 3.6 3.5 4.4 14.7

U-4 Total unemployed plus discouraged workers, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus discouraged workers

3.6 4.8 14.8 3.9 3.7 3.8 3.8 4.7 15.1

U-5 Total unemployed, plus discouraged workers, plus all other persons marginally attached to the labor force, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force

4.2 5.3 15.6 4.5 4.2 4.4 4.4 5.2 16.0

U-6 Total unemployed, plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force, plus total employed part time for economic reasons, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force

6.9 8.9 22.4 7.3 6.7 6.9 7.0 8.7 22.8

NOTE: Persons marginally attached to the labor force are those who currently are neither working nor looking for work but indicate that they want and are available for a job and have looked for work sometime in the past 12 months. Discouraged workers, a subset of the marginally attached, have given a job-market related reason for not currently looking for work. Persons employed part time for economic reasons are those who want and are available for full-time work but have had to settle for a part-time schedule. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-16. Persons not in the labor force and multiple jobholders by sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Category Total Men Women
Apr.
2019
Apr.
2020
Apr.
2019
Apr.
2020
Apr.
2019
Apr.
2020

NOT IN THE LABOR FORCE

Total not in the labor force

96,596 104,066 39,087 42,887 57,510 61,179

Persons who currently want a job

4,951 9,761 2,420 4,792 2,531 4,969

Marginally attached to the labor force(1)

1,417 2,211 742 1,170 674 1,041

Discouraged workers(2)

454 585 288 309 166 275

Other persons marginally attached to the labor force(3)

963 1,626 455 860 508 766

MULTIPLE JOBHOLDERS

Total multiple jobholders(4)

7,765 5,360 3,693 2,641 4,072 2,719

Percent of total employed

5.0 4.0 4.5 3.7 5.5 4.4

Primary job full time, secondary job part time

4,317 3,202 2,227 1,709 2,090 1,493

Primary and secondary jobs both part time

2,098 1,170 738 387 1,360 783

Primary and secondary jobs both full time

252 275 168 145 84 130

Hours vary on primary or secondary job

1,045 671 535 381 510 290

Footnotes
(1) Data refer to persons who want a job, have searched for work during the prior 12 months, and were available to take a job during the reference week, but had not looked for work in the past 4 weeks.
(2) Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for reasons such as thinks no work available, could not find work, lacks schooling or training, employer thinks too young or old, and other types of discrimination.
(3) Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for such reasons as school or family responsibilities, ill health, and transportation problems, as well as a number for whom reason for nonparticipation was not determined.
(4) Includes a small number of persons who work part time on their primary job and full time on their secondary job(s), not shown separately.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-1. Employees on nonfarm payrolls by industry sector and selected industry detail
[In thousands]
Industry Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Apr.
2019
Feb.
2020
Mar.
2020(p)
Apr.
2020(p)
Apr.
2019
Feb.
2020
Mar.
2020(p)
Apr.
2020(p)
Change from:
Mar.2020 - Apr.2020(p)

Total nonfarm

150,430 151,076 150,583 131,071 150,492 152,463 151,582 131,045 -20,537

Total private

127,482 128,040 127,531 108,956 127,939 129,718 128,865 109,308 -19,557

Goods-producing

20,884 20,771 20,785 18,622 21,039 21,205 21,131 18,776 -2,355

Mining and logging

732 700 697 646 741 714 707 657 -50

Logging

45.9 53.6 53.0 46.6 48.6 54.5 54.6 49.6 -5.0

Mining

686.0 646.7 644.2 599.6 692.4 659.7 652.7 606.9 -45.8

Oil and gas extraction

144.8 155.0 155.2 149.3 146.1 156.6 156.6 151.8 -4.8

Mining, except oil and gas

191.4 182.9 185.0 179.2 192.6 188.6 188.5 180.6 -7.9

Coal mining

51.4 50.0 49.5 43.7 51.5 50.4 49.8 43.8 -6.0

Metal ore mining

42.4 40.5 40.9 40.7 42.6 40.8 41.0 40.8 -0.2

Nonmetallic mineral mining and quarrying

97.6 92.4 94.6 94.8 98.4 97.4 97.7 96.0 -1.7

Support activities for mining

349.8 308.8 304.0 271.1 353.7 314.5 307.6 274.5 -33.1

Construction

7,377 7,276 7,328 6,544 7,469 7,639 7,606 6,631 -975

Construction of buildings

1,629.2 1,636.0 1,640.7 1,453.2 1,649.4 1,689.1 1,681.2 1,475.1 -206.1

Residential building

801.3 814.1 818.1 711.4 811.6 841.3 839.7 722.1 -117.6

Nonresidential building

827.9 821.9 822.6 741.8 837.8 847.8 841.5 753.0 -88.5

Heavy and civil engineering construction

1,064.7 994.3 1,019.7 1,002.6 1,078.8 1,098.9 1,094.8 1,015.9 -78.9

Specialty trade contractors

4,682.9 4,645.6 4,667.9 4,087.8 4,741.0 4,850.7 4,830.2 4,139.7 -690.5

Residential specialty trade contractors

2,052.3 2,036.0 2,041.9 1,791.0 2,079.2 2,124.7 2,112.4 1,815.0 -297.4

Nonresidential specialty trade contractors

2,630.6 2,609.6 2,626.0 2,296.8 2,661.8 2,726.0 2,717.8 2,324.7 -393.1

Manufacturing

12,775 12,795 12,760 11,432 12,829 12,852 12,818 11,488 -1,330

Durable goods

8,038 8,036 8,020 7,107 8,056 8,058 8,038 7,124 -914

Wood products

407.4 407.8 406.0 380.8 409.2 410.6 410.1 382.2 -27.9

Nonmetallic mineral products

418.5 413.4 417.0 363.1 419.7 425.6 424.4 362.8 -61.6

Primary metals

387.9 373.5 372.3 336.1 388.4 372.7 371.7 337.4 -34.3

Fabricated metal products

1,490.6 1,478.9 1,474.8 1,367.3 1,492.9 1,483.9 1,477.8 1,369.1 -108.7

Machinery

1,126.1 1,110.5 1,104.5 1,023.7 1,128.3 1,109.9 1,105.9 1,026.4 -79.5

Computer and electronic products

1,069.1 1,095.9 1,096.0 1,083.8 1,073.2 1,098.2 1,097.6 1,088.0 -9.6

Computer and peripheral equipment

159.7 169.0 169.4 169.5 160.3 169.3 169.7 170.5 0.8

Communications equipment

83.7 84.3 84.7 83.5 83.9 84.6 84.6 83.7 -0.9

Semiconductors and electronic components

374.2 377.7 377.1 373.1 375.3 378.0 377.0 374.5 -2.5

Electronic instruments

419.2 432.0 431.7 425.0 420.7 433.1 432.9 426.2 -6.7

Miscellaneous computer and electronic products

32.3 32.9 33.1 32.7 32.9 33.2 33.4 33.1 -0.3

Electrical equipment and appliances

403.5 404.2 401.9 381.4 404.9 404.5 403.9 383.1 -20.8

Transportation equipment(1)

1,732.5 1,746.2 1,743.8 1,316.5 1,733.9 1,742.9 1,739.8 1,318.5 -421.3

Motor vehicles and parts(2)

1,004.6 1,004.1 1,002.1 615.7 1,002.9 998.7 995.5 614.0 -381.5

Furniture and related products

387.8 385.4 385.6 326.1 388.4 386.4 386.0 326.8 -59.2

Miscellaneous durable goods manufacturing

614.6 620.3 618.0 528.6 616.6 622.9 620.6 529.8 -90.8

Nondurable goods

4,737 4,759 4,740 4,325 4,773 4,794 4,780 4,364 -416

Food manufacturing

1,614.2 1,636.3 1,629.6 1,539.3 1,636.7 1,655.4 1,653.5 1,567.2 -86.3

Textile mills

110.4 107.0 105.0 85.6 110.4 106.5 105.3 85.8 -19.5

Textile product mills

113.9 110.4 108.7 88.2 114.3 111.3 109.7 88.6 -21.1

Apparel

111.9 104.7 104.4 62.4 111.9 105.0 104.6 62.4 -42.2

Paper and paper products

365.0 362.5 362.9 355.4 365.4 363.6 363.4 355.2 -8.2

Printing and related support activities

423.3 415.2 411.7 332.6 425.5 417.2 413.4 334.4 -79.0

Petroleum and coal products

113.8 110.2 110.2 103.8 115.2 114.3 113.7 105.0 -8.7

Chemicals

846.7 849.9 849.5 817.2 848.5 851.1 850.3 819.2 -31.1

Plastics and rubber products

732.7 746.0 745.2 680.4 733.7 746.2 746.0 680.5 -65.5

Miscellaneous nondurable goods manufacturing

305.0 316.4 312.8 260.2 310.9 323.5 320.5 265.6 -54.9

Private service-providing

106,598 107,269 106,746 90,334 106,900 108,513 107,734 90,532 -17,202

Trade, transportation, and utilities

27,425 27,481 27,459 24,508 27,671 27,830 27,776 24,719 -3,057

Wholesale trade

5,878.5 5,902.7 5,906.3 5,552.6 5,893.7 5,934.2 5,931.3 5,568.5 -362.8

Durable goods

3,188.4 3,209.9 3,215.7 3,032.2 3,195.2 3,221.0 3,224.4 3,039.4 -185.0

Nondurable goods

2,161.5 2,162.8 2,158.2 2,019.4 2,167.0 2,180.4 2,174.1 2,025.9 -148.2

Electronic markets and agents and brokers

528.6 530.0 532.4 501.0 531.5 532.8 532.8 503.2 -29.6

Retail trade

15,474.7 15,424.9 15,408.8 13,408.4 15,631.1 15,672.0 15,627.2 13,520.3 -2,106.9

Motor vehicle and parts dealers

2,027.8 2,050.3 2,048.6 1,711.3 2,029.2 2,063.7 2,058.2 1,713.5 -344.7

Automobile dealers

1,299.7 1,308.0 1,298.7 1,034.5 1,302.2 1,309.4 1,301.9 1,037.3 -264.6

Other motor vehicle dealers

165.7 158.2 161.1 126.1 164.6 165.6 165.4 124.7 -40.7

Auto parts, accessories, and tire stores

562.4 584.1 588.8 550.7 562.3 588.7 590.9 551.5 -39.4

Furniture and home furnishings stores

468.5 468.2 459.4 247.3 473.7 470.7 462.0 253.0 -209.0

Electronics and appliance stores

474.9 473.1 469.3 441.8 479.0 475.3 472.5 445.2 -27.3

Building material and garden supply stores

1,334.0 1,261.5 1,331.1 1,320.0 1,287.6 1,309.3 1,322.5 1,269.8 -52.7

Food and beverage stores

3,046.0 3,069.2 3,057.1 3,022.8 3,072.1 3,090.2 3,087.2 3,045.2 -42.0

Health and personal care stores

1,043.8 1,053.4 1,050.9 950.7 1,051.7 1,058.3 1,057.0 957.7 -99.3

Gasoline stations

928.9 934.4 932.0 894.0 937.4 947.2 944.0 900.6 -43.4

Clothing and clothing accessories stores

1,273.0 1,263.2 1,229.5 513.0 1,316.8 1,289.1 1,269.6 530.0 -739.6

Sporting goods, hobby, book, and music stores

534.5 537.1 518.8 339.5 551.4 549.8 535.9 351.0 -184.9

General merchandise stores

2,958.0 2,969.5 2,978.5 2,916.7 3,026.7 3,046.8 3,055.3 2,987.9 -67.4

Department stores

1,038.8 1,044.0 1,041.2 885.7 1,078.3 1,078.5 1,081.6 920.8 -160.8

General merchandise stores, including warehouse clubs and supercenters

1,919.2 1,925.5 1,937.3 2,031.0 1,948.3 1,968.3 1,973.7 2,067.1 93.4

Miscellaneous store retailers

825.1 802.6 790.0 540.8 837.8 820.4 812.9 548.7 -264.2

Nonstore retailers

560.2 542.4 543.6 510.5 567.7 551.2 550.1 517.7 -32.4

Transportation and warehousing

5,525.7 5,609.5 5,598.1 5,006.8 5,598.6 5,678.1 5,670.9 5,086.8 -584.1

Air transportation

499.5 508.0 511.3 371.8 500.3 511.2 512.7 372.0 -140.7

Rail transportation

179.5 158.9 159.2 157.2 179.6 159.9 159.6 157.2 -2.4

Water transportation

64.7 62.8 62.0 57.3 65.5 64.9 64.3 58.5 -5.8

Truck transportation

1,517.2 1,503.4 1,500.7 1,419.8 1,530.5 1,527.3 1,523.9 1,435.6 -88.3

Transit and ground passenger transportation

516.6 520.5 516.6 332.4 502.0 508.2 503.3 318.0 -185.3

Pipeline transportation

50.8 50.4 51.3 50.4 51.0 50.5 51.4 50.5 -0.9

Scenic and sightseeing transportation

31.5 28.0 27.8 12.6 36.0 36.7 35.4 13.9 -21.5

Support activities for transportation

749.1 762.2 753.9 687.8 751.0 763.8 756.5 689.6 -66.9

Couriers and messengers

746.9 816.8 808.5 786.7 797.5 847.8 846.7 848.5 1.8

Warehousing and storage

1,169.9 1,198.5 1,206.8 1,130.8 1,185.2 1,207.8 1,217.1 1,143.0 -74.1

Utilities

546.5 543.9 545.7 539.7 548.0 546.1 546.4 543.1 -3.3

Information

2,832 2,881 2,876 2,629 2,845 2,894 2,890 2,636 -254

Publishing industries, except Internet

750.7 767.8 768.4 749.9 755.9 770.0 771.7 754.6 -17.1

Motion picture and sound recording industries

437.4 444.7 442.6 240.4 437.8 456.3 452.3 235.8 -216.5

Broadcasting, except Internet

266.8 263.9 262.8 250.3 266.9 263.3 262.3 250.3 -12.0

Telecommunications

711.0 701.2 698.5 689.4 716.2 700.5 697.7 694.6 -3.1

Data processing, hosting and related services

334.7 349.4 348.2 344.0 335.5 349.6 349.0 342.5 -6.5

Other information services

331.1 353.9 355.2 355.4 333.1 354.4 357.4 357.9 0.5

Financial activities

8,678 8,797 8,794 8,536 8,721 8,845 8,842 8,580 -262

Finance and insurance

6,387.5 6,474.4 6,477.8 6,425.8 6,408.6 6,486.4 6,491.0 6,451.1 -39.9

Monetary authorities - central bank

19.8 19.1 19.6 19.6 19.9 19.3 19.6 19.7 0.1

Credit intermediation and related
activities

2,635.0 2,673.6 2,676.7 2,642.8 2,645.3 2,680.5 2,684.3 2,653.1 -31.2

Depository credit intermediation(1)

1,770.8 1,786.3 1,783.7 1,772.5 1,774.7 1,788.1 1,785.8 1,776.4 -9.4

Commercial banking

1,388.7 1,394.7 1,391.5 1,385.0 1,391.5 1,393.8 1,391.2 1,386.7 -4.5

Nondepository credit intermediation

565.4 582.6 584.8 572.0 570.9 587.2 589.7 577.7 -12.0

Activities related to credit intermediation

298.8 304.7 308.2 298.3 299.6 305.2 308.8 299.0 -9.8

Securities, commodity contracts, investments, and funds and trusts

957.7 965.8 965.7 960.1 961.5 968.8 969.6 965.2 -4.4

Insurance carriers and related activities

2,775.0 2,815.9 2,815.8 2,803.3 2,781.9 2,817.8 2,817.5 2,813.1 -4.4

Real estate and rental and leasing

2,290.4 2,322.3 2,316.6 2,109.7 2,312.0 2,358.5 2,350.7 2,128.8 -221.9

Real estate

1,696.0 1,732.1 1,728.2 1,634.7 1,707.5 1,750.0 1,747.8 1,646.5 -101.3

Rental and leasing services

571.4 566.9 565.1 452.3 581.2 584.8 579.4 459.2 -120.2

Lessors of nonfinancial intangible assets

23.0 23.3 23.3 22.7 23.3 23.7 23.5 23.1 -0.4

Professional and business services

21,169 21,246 21,186 19,264 21,226 21,550 21,470 19,305 -2,165

Professional and technical services

9,522.1 9,760.4 9,730.6 9,209.9 9,477.7 9,707.6 9,712.9 9,166.7 -546.2

Legal services

1,140.6 1,156.0 1,156.5 1,092.1 1,146.0 1,162.7 1,161.6 1,097.6 -64.0

Accounting and bookkeeping services

1,102.3 1,144.8 1,142.8 1,058.6 1,018.5 1,038.0 1,042.5 974.9 -67.6

Architectural and engineering services

1,495.1 1,522.9 1,521.5 1,443.4 1,507.0 1,539.8 1,539.4 1,454.2 -85.2

Specialized design services

144.1 143.6 142.9 128.4 143.8 145.1 144.4 129.1 -15.3

Computer systems design and related services

2,179.3 2,250.5 2,228.1 2,155.5 2,185.1 2,252.7 2,254.6 2,161.4 -93.2

Management and technical consulting services

1,510.0 1,549.6 1,544.3 1,474.7 1,518.5 1,561.1 1,562.7 1,484.2 -78.5

Scientific research and development services

716.9 743.9 746.8 726.5 720.8 749.5 750.9 730.8 -20.1

Advertising and related services

488.7 491.1 487.5 451.1 489.4 492.6 490.0 452.0 -38.0

Other professional and technical services

745.1 758.0 760.2 679.6 748.6 766.1 766.8 682.5 -84.3

Management of companies and enterprises

2,406.1 2,433.4 2,434.7 2,351.5 2,417.0 2,447.3 2,447.3 2,365.4 -81.9

Administrative and waste services

9,241.2 9,052.6 9,021.1 7,702.5 9,331.4 9,395.0 9,309.6 7,773.2 -1,536.4

Administrative and support services

8,794.2 8,593.4 8,560.9 7,251.3 8,881.1 8,928.0 8,842.5 7,319.2 -1,523.3

Office administrative services

524.5 526.4 525.6 488.1 525.1 530.3 529.7 489.3 -40.4

Facilities support services

162.1 163.3 164.0 153.2 162.5 164.3 164.7 153.8 -10.9

Employment services(1)

3,558.2 3,499.4 3,465.0 2,581.1 3,631.2 3,650.2 3,587.5 2,641.7 -945.8

Temporary help services

2,886.0 2,804.6 2,773.9 1,985.1 2,950.8 2,939.8 2,881.9 2,040.0 -841.9

Business support services

873.4 869.9 862.6 769.0 882.4 869.4 867.2 773.7 -93.5

Travel arrangement and reservation services

218.5 218.5 211.2 172.5 218.0 222.5 212.4 172.4 -40.0

Investigation and security services

952.8 965.7 957.6 883.1 956.1 970.2 965.6 888.3 -77.3

Services to buildings and dwellings

2,167.8 2,009.7 2,036.9 1,918.9 2,169.5 2,178.8 2,175.4 1,916.0 -259.4

Other support services

336.9 340.5 338.0 285.4 336.2 342.3 340.0 284.0 -56.0

Waste management and remediation services

447.0 459.2 460.2 451.2 450.3 467.0 467.1 454.0 -13.1

Education and health services

24,206 24,711 24,600 22,111 24,046 24,586 24,485 21,941 -2,544

Educational services

3,907.5 3,995.5 3,933.3 3,506.1 3,740.1 3,828.5 3,791.6 3,334.5 -457.1

Health care and social assistance

20,298.7 20,715.4 20,666.3 18,604.5 20,306.0 20,757.7 20,693.6 18,606.7 -2,086.9

Health care(3)

16,172.5 16,463.3 16,433.7 15,005.8 16,200.7 16,507.2 16,468.7 15,032.4 -1,436.3

Ambulatory health care services

7,640.7 7,831.4 7,799.3 6,618.9 7,648.7 7,855.2 7,815.0 6,626.7 -1,188.3

Offices of physicians

2,650.0 2,716.9 2,702.4 2,458.9 2,655.8 2,722.9 2,707.7 2,464.4 -243.3

Offices of dentists

966.4 972.9 957.5 455.4 968.0 977.0 959.3 456.0 -503.3

Offices of other health practitioners

961.0 985.1 975.8 773.3 961.2 987.8 980.2 775.1 -205.1

Outpatient care centers

957.5 979.0 984.0 895.9 957.6 980.2 982.7 894.8 -87.9

Medical and diagnostic laboratories

280.1 289.2 288.7 257.1 280.2 289.6 289.1 257.9 -31.2

Home health care services

1,513.6 1,565.2 1,570.8 1,482.2 1,514.1 1,572.4 1,575.3 1,481.7 -93.6

Other ambulatory health care services

312.1 323.1 320.1 296.1 311.8 325.3 320.7 296.8 -23.9

Hospitals

5,168.9 5,255.6 5,261.5 5,123.4 5,178.3 5,261.0 5,264.9 5,130.0 -134.9

Nursing and residential care facilities

3,362.9 3,376.3 3,372.9 3,263.5 3,373.7 3,391.0 3,388.8 3,275.7 -113.1

Nursing care facilities

1,593.0 1,586.0 1,582.0 1,536.4 1,599.1 1,592.2 1,590.2 1,543.0 -47.2

Residential mental health facilities

644.8 650.7 651.5 624.7 645.9 653.0 653.4 626.5 -26.9

Community care facilities for the elderly

962.1 973.0 972.6 940.8 965.0 977.9 977.7 944.3 -33.4

Other residential care facilities

163.0 166.6 166.8 161.6 163.7 167.9 167.5 161.9 -5.6

Social assistance

4,126.2 4,252.1 4,232.6 3,598.7 4,105.3 4,250.5 4,224.9 3,574.3 -650.6

Individual and family services

2,594.2 2,697.4 2,693.9 2,463.3 2,590.6 2,699.9 2,698.0 2,456.7 -241.3

Emergency and other relief services

182.4 185.3 185.7 175.5 182.7 186.0 185.6 176.4 -9.2

Vocational rehabilitation services

321.1 323.4 319.3 256.6 322.7 326.0 321.8 257.9 -63.9

Child day care services

1,028.5 1,046.0 1,033.7 703.3 1,009.4 1,038.6 1,019.5 683.3 -336.2

Leisure and hospitality

16,406 16,264 15,965 8,655 16,507 16,867 16,368 8,715 -7,653

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

2,369.9 2,260.6 2,270.4 1,100.0 2,421.3 2,472.4 2,447.2 1,124.4 -1,322.8

Performing arts and spectator sports

537.1 474.8 470.4 284.8 517.0 511.7 496.4 279.4 -217.0

Museums, historical sites, and similar institutions

169.2 160.3 162.8 127.5 172.4 175.2 173.3 129.5 -43.8

Amusements, gambling, and recreation

1,663.6 1,625.5 1,637.2 687.7 1,731.9 1,785.5 1,777.5 715.5 -1,062.0

Accommodation and food services

14,036.0 14,003.4 13,694.5 7,555.1 14,085.6 14,394.1 13,920.6 7,590.3 -6,330.3

Accommodation

2,020.2 2,002.0 1,976.3 1,157.4 2,066.8 2,091.0 2,045.0 1,206.0 -839.0

Food services and drinking places

12,015.8 12,001.4 11,718.2 6,397.7 12,018.8 12,303.1 11,875.6 6,384.3 -5,491.3

Other services

5,882 5,889 5,866 4,631 5,884 5,941 5,903 4,636 -1,267

Repair and maintenance

1,351.8 1,373.2 1,368.7 1,154.7 1,347.0 1,378.6 1,370.9 1,151.0 -219.9

Personal and laundry services

1,529.9 1,515.9 1,498.2 717.0 1,525.9 1,537.2 1,512.2 715.3 -796.9

Membership associations and organizations

3,000.7 2,999.6 2,999.1 2,758.8 3,011.3 3,025.6 3,019.5 2,769.4 -250.1

Government

22,948 23,036 23,052 22,115 22,553 22,745 22,717 21,737 -980

Federal

2,815.0 2,848.0 2,866.0 2,874.0 2,823.0 2,867.0 2,886.0 2,887.0 1.0

Federal, except U.S. Postal Service

2,210.0 2,252.7 2,270.6 2,278.7 2,217.2 2,265.3 2,285.8 2,286.4 0.6

U.S. Postal Service

604.6 595.1 595.0 595.2 605.8 601.6 599.8 600.3 0.5

State government

5,339.0 5,344.0 5,299.0 5,119.0 5,169.0 5,199.0 5,153.0 4,973.0 -180.0

State government education

2,657.7 2,645.9 2,599.4 2,425.5 2,487.4 2,489.9 2,447.8 2,271.7 -176.1

State government, excluding education

2,680.8 2,698.3 2,699.7 2,693.2 2,681.8 2,709.3 2,705.1 2,700.8 -4.3

Local government

14,794.0 14,844.0 14,887.0 14,122.0 14,561.0 14,679.0 14,678.0 13,877.0 -801.0

Local government education

8,311.0 8,333.6 8,353.0 7,891.4 7,994.9 8,042.0 8,037.0 7,568.2 -468.8

Local government, excluding education

6,482.9 6,510.7 6,534.3 6,230.3 6,565.7 6,636.8 6,640.6 6,308.3 -332.3

Footnotes
(1) Includes other industries, not shown separately.
(2) Includes motor vehicles, motor vehicle bodies and trailers, and motor vehicle parts.
(3) Includes ambulatory health care services, hospitals, and nursing and residential care facilities.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2019 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-2. Average weekly hours and overtime of all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Apr.
2019
Feb.
2020
Mar.
2020(p)
Apr.
2020(p)

AVERAGE WEEKLY HOURS

Total private

34.4 34.4 34.1 34.2

Goods-producing

40.3 40.4 40.1 38.3

Mining and logging

46.8 45.6 45.2 43.1

Construction

39.2 39.3 39.1 37.8

Manufacturing

40.6 40.7 40.4 38.3

Durable goods

40.9 41.1 40.8 38.1

Nondurable goods

39.9 40.0 39.8 38.5

Private service-providing

33.3 33.2 32.9 33.4

Trade, transportation, and utilities

34.3 34.2 34.1 33.8

Wholesale trade

39.0 38.8 38.8 37.6

Retail trade

30.7 30.7 30.6 30.6

Transportation and warehousing

38.7 38.2 38.0 37.3

Utilities

41.8 42.6 42.3 42.6

Information

36.2 36.3 36.4 36.5

Financial activities

37.7 37.6 37.6 37.6

Professional and business services

36.2 36.1 36.1 35.8

Education and health services

33.0 33.1 32.9 32.5

Leisure and hospitality

25.9 25.8 24.2 24.2

Other services

31.9 32.0 31.4 32.2

AVERAGE OVERTIME HOURS

Manufacturing

3.3 3.2 3.0 2.1

Durable goods

3.3 3.2 2.9 1.8

Nondurable goods

3.4 3.3 3.3 2.7

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2019 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-3. Average hourly and weekly earnings of all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Average hourly earnings Average weekly earnings
Apr.
2019
Feb.
2020
Mar.
2020(p)
Apr.
2020(p)
Apr.
2019
Feb.
2020
Mar.
2020(p)
Apr.
2020(p)

Total private

$27.81 $28.52 $28.67 $30.01 $956.66 $981.09 $977.65 $1,026.34

Goods-producing

28.81 29.57 29.62 30.13 1,161.04 1,194.63 1,187.76 1,153.98

Mining and logging

33.33 34.72 34.72 34.99 1,559.84 1,583.23 1,569.34 1,508.07

Construction

30.63 31.31 31.33 31.38 1,200.70 1,230.48 1,225.00 1,186.16

Manufacturing

27.48 28.24 28.33 29.11 1,115.69 1,149.37 1,144.53 1,114.91

Durable goods

28.95 29.66 29.71 30.69 1,184.06 1,219.03 1,212.17 1,169.29

Nondurable goods

24.95 25.79 25.94 26.56 995.51 1,031.60 1,032.41 1,022.56

Private service-providing

27.57 28.27 28.45 29.98 918.08 938.56 936.01 1,001.33

Trade, transportation, and utilities

24.01 24.68 24.75 25.70 823.54 844.06 843.98 868.66

Wholesale trade

31.12 31.81 31.81 32.38 1,213.68 1,234.23 1,234.23 1,217.49

Retail trade

19.48 20.19 20.30 21.20 598.04 619.83 621.18 648.72

Transportation and warehousing

24.66 25.17 25.19 26.01 954.34 961.49 957.22 970.17

Utilities

41.55 42.52 42.58 43.28 1,736.79 1,811.35 1,801.13 1,843.73

Information

41.97 43.03 43.28 43.78 1,519.31 1,561.99 1,575.39 1,597.97

Financial activities

35.73 36.85 36.81 37.44 1,347.02 1,385.56 1,384.06 1,407.74

Professional and business services

33.43 34.41 34.46 35.71 1,210.17 1,242.20 1,244.01 1,278.42

Education and health services

27.49 27.90 27.95 28.30 907.17 923.49 919.56 919.75

Leisure and hospitality

16.45 16.85 16.86 18.00 426.06 434.73 408.01 435.60

Other services

25.09 25.63 25.69 27.40 800.37 820.16 806.67 882.28

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2019 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-4. Indexes of aggregate weekly hours and payrolls for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
[2007=100]
Industry Index of aggregate weekly hours(1) Index of aggregate weekly payrolls(2)
Apr.
2019
Feb.
2020
Mar.
2020(p)
Apr.
2020(p)
Percent change from:
Mar.
2020 - Apr.
2020(p)
Apr.
2019
Feb.
2020
Mar.
2020(p)
Apr.
2020(p)
Percent change from:
Mar.
2020 - Apr.
2020(p)

Total private

110.5 112.0 110.3 93.8 -15.0 146.9 152.7 151.2 134.6 -11.0

Goods-producing

96.6 97.6 96.5 81.9 -15.1 125.8 130.4 129.2 111.6 -13.6

Mining and logging

109.0 102.3 100.4 89.0 -11.4 145.8 142.6 140.0 125.0 -10.7

Construction

100.9 103.5 102.5 86.4 -15.7 134.3 140.8 139.6 117.8 -15.6

Manufacturing

93.7 94.1 93.2 79.2 -15.0 119.7 123.6 122.7 107.2 -12.6

Durable goods

92.8 93.2 92.3 76.4 -17.2 119.3 122.8 121.8 104.2 -14.4

Nondurable goods

95.1 95.7 95.0 83.9 -11.7 120.3 125.3 125.0 113.0 -9.6

Private service-providing

114.6 116.0 114.1 97.1 -14.9 153.6 159.4 157.8 141.4 -10.4

Trade, transportation, and utilities

103.6 103.9 103.3 91.2 -11.7 134.1 138.2 137.9 126.4 -8.3

Wholesale trade

101.4 101.6 101.5 92.4 -9.0 132.0 135.1 135.1 125.1 -7.4

Retail trade

97.4 97.7 97.1 84.0 -13.5 125.4 130.4 130.3 117.7 -9.7

Transportation and warehousing

124.5 124.6 123.8 109.0 -12.0 156.2 159.6 158.7 144.3 -9.1

Utilities

99.1 100.7 100.0 100.1 0.1 136.1 141.4 140.7 143.1 1.7

Information

94.1 95.9 96.1 87.9 -8.5 140.6 147.0 148.0 137.0 -7.4

Financial activities

107.7 109.0 108.9 105.7 -2.9 150.1 156.6 156.4 154.4 -1.3

Professional and business services

120.5 122.0 121.5 108.4 -10.8 163.1 170.0 169.6 156.7 -7.6

Education and health services

129.6 132.9 131.5 116.4 -11.5 171.4 178.4 176.9 158.5 -10.4

Leisure and hospitality

122.0 124.2 113.0 60.2 -46.7 161.9 168.8 153.7 87.4 -43.1

Other services

108.2 109.6 106.9 86.1 -19.5 148.8 154.0 150.5 129.3 -14.1

Footnotes
(1) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding 2007 annual average aggregate hours. Aggregate hours estimates are the product of estimates of average weekly hours and employment.
(2) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding 2007 annual average aggregate weekly payrolls. Aggregate payrolls estimates are the product of estimates of average hourly earnings, average weekly hours, and employment.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2019 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-5. Employment of women on nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Women employees (in thousands) Percent of all employees
Apr.
2019
Feb.
2020
Mar.
2020(p)
Apr.
2020(p)
Apr.
2019
Feb.
2020
Mar.
2020(p)
Apr.
2020(p)

Total nonfarm

75,016 76,291 75,804 64,546 49.8 50.0 50.0 49.3

Total private

62,003 63,148 62,667 52,023 48.5 48.7 48.6 47.6

Goods-producing

4,688 4,769 4,753 4,207 22.3 22.5 22.5 22.4

Mining and logging

95 95 95 93 12.8 13.3 13.4 14.2

Construction

962 994 990 894 12.9 13.0 13.0 13.5

Manufacturing

3,631 3,680 3,668 3,220 28.3 28.6 28.6 28.0

Durable goods

1,927 1,957 1,951 1,719 23.9 24.3 24.3 24.1

Nondurable goods

1,704 1,723 1,717 1,501 35.7 35.9 35.9 34.4

Private service-providing

57,315 58,379 57,914 47,816 53.6 53.8 53.8 52.8

Trade, transportation, and utilities

11,078 11,156 11,117 9,467 40.0 40.1 40.0 38.3

Wholesale trade

1,773.2 1,787.2 1,787.0 1,651.4 30.1 30.1 30.1 29.7

Retail trade

7,758.0 7,767.0 7,734.5 6,450.8 49.6 49.6 49.5 47.7

Transportation and warehousing

1,414.9 1,468.5 1,462.6 1,232.1 25.3 25.9 25.8 24.2

Utilities

131.5 132.8 132.8 132.8 24.0 24.3 24.3 24.5

Information

1,130 1,149 1,146 1,046 39.7 39.7 39.7 39.7

Financial activities

4,946 5,000 5,002 4,864 56.7 56.5 56.6 56.7

Professional and business services

9,651 9,897 9,858 8,754 45.5 45.9 45.9 45.3

Education and health services

18,584 19,027 18,935 16,825 77.3 77.4 77.3 76.7

Leisure and hospitality

8,780 8,995 8,716 4,565 53.2 53.3 53.3 52.4

Other services

3,146 3,155 3,140 2,295 53.5 53.1 53.2 49.5

Government

13,013 13,143 13,137 12,523 57.7 57.8 57.8 57.6

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2019 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-6. Employment of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
[In thousands]
Industry Apr.
2019
Feb.
2020
Mar.
2020(p)
Apr.
2020(p)

Total private

105,335 106,696 105,740 87,640

Goods-producing

15,086 15,165 15,101 13,092

Mining and logging

549 514 506 460

Construction

5,558 5,688 5,665 4,808

Manufacturing

8,979 8,963 8,930 7,824

Durable goods

5,547 5,529 5,506 4,686

Nondurable goods

3,432 3,434 3,424 3,138

Private service-providing

90,249 91,531 90,639 74,548

Trade, transportation, and utilities

23,405 23,527 23,466 20,707

Wholesale trade

4,738.4 4,753.1 4,747.8 4,418.1

Retail trade

13,341.3 13,375.3 13,330.0 11,470.1

Transportation and warehousing

4,887.2 4,961.5 4,951.8 4,385.7

Utilities

438.4 437.0 436.1 433.3

Information

2,288 2,325 2,318 2,087

Financial activities

6,754 6,852 6,830 6,437

Professional and business services

17,294 17,497 17,373 15,328

Education and health services

21,117 21,611 21,472 19,145

Leisure and hospitality

14,516 14,812 14,327 7,134

Other services

4,875 4,907 4,853 3,710

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2019 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-7. Average weekly hours and overtime of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry Apr.
2019
Feb.
2020
Mar.
2020(p)
Apr.
2020(p)

AVERAGE WEEKLY HOURS

Total private

33.7 33.7 33.4 33.5

Goods-producing

41.2 41.0 40.8 38.7

Mining and logging

47.3 45.6 45.5 43.0

Construction

39.8 39.6 39.6 38.2

Manufacturing

41.6 41.6 41.3 38.7

Durable goods

42.0 41.9 41.5 38.4

Nondurable goods

41.1 41.2 41.1 39.1

Private service-providing

32.4 32.5 32.1 32.6

Trade, transportation, and utilities

33.9 34.1 33.9 33.6

Wholesale trade

38.7 38.6 38.4 37.0

Retail trade

30.5 30.6 30.6 30.6

Transportation and warehousing

38.0 38.3 37.9 37.1

Utilities

42.2 43.0 42.7 42.4

Information

35.3 35.2 35.3 35.8

Financial activities

36.9 36.8 36.7 36.7

Professional and business services

35.4 35.5 35.4 35.2

Education and health services

32.2 32.3 32.2 31.7

Leisure and hospitality

24.7 24.7 22.8 22.4

Other services

30.8 31.0 30.5 31.2

AVERAGE OVERTIME HOURS

Manufacturing

4.3 4.0 3.9 2.7

Durable goods

4.3 4.1 3.9 2.5

Nondurable goods

4.3 3.9 3.9 3.0

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2019 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-8. Average hourly and weekly earnings of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry Average hourly earnings Average weekly earnings
Apr.
2019
Feb.
2020
Mar.
2020(p)
Apr.
2020(p)
Apr.
2019
Feb.
2020
Mar.
2020(p)
Apr.
2020(p)

Total private

$23.33 $23.96 $24.08 $25.12 $786.22 $807.45 $804.27 $841.52

Goods-producing

24.60 25.17 25.24 25.25 1,013.52 1,031.97 1,029.79 977.18

Mining and logging

29.88 30.97 30.88 30.99 1,413.32 1,412.23 1,405.04 1,332.57

Construction

28.45 28.97 29.06 28.74 1,132.31 1,147.21 1,150.78 1,097.87

Manufacturing

21.96 22.52 22.57 22.76 913.54 936.83 932.14 880.81

Durable goods

22.88 23.51 23.56 23.68 960.96 985.07 977.74 909.31

Nondurable goods

20.44 20.89 20.97 21.41 840.08 860.67 861.87 837.13

Private service-providing

23.07 23.71 23.83 25.10 747.47 770.58 764.94 818.26

Trade, transportation, and utilities

20.53 20.94 20.94 21.66 695.97 714.05 709.87 727.78

Wholesale trade

25.98 26.25 26.34 26.83 1,005.43 1,013.25 1,011.46 992.71

Retail trade

16.49 16.94 17.00 17.61 502.95 518.36 520.20 538.87

Transportation and warehousing

22.38 22.76 22.60 23.33 850.44 871.71 856.54 865.54

Utilities

36.78 37.80 37.85 38.11 1,552.12 1,625.40 1,616.20 1,615.86

Information

33.41 34.55 34.62 35.58 1,179.37 1,216.16 1,222.09 1,273.76

Financial activities

27.50 28.25 28.30 28.72 1,014.75 1,039.60 1,038.61 1,054.02

Professional and business services

27.52 28.43 28.49 29.73 974.21 1,009.27 1,008.55 1,046.50

Education and health services

24.14 24.80 24.87 25.33 777.31 801.04 800.81 802.96

Leisure and hospitality

14.38 14.90 14.63 14.71 355.19 368.03 333.56 329.50

Other services

21.27 21.84 21.91 23.10 655.12 677.04 668.26 720.72

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2019 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-9. Indexes of aggregate weekly hours and payrolls for production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
[2002=100]
Industry Index of aggregate weekly hours(2) Index of aggregate weekly payrolls(3)
Apr.
2019
Feb.
2020
Mar.
2020(p)
Apr.
2020(p)
Percent change from:
Mar.
2020 - Apr.
2020(p)
Apr.
2019
Feb.
2020
Mar.
2020(p)
Apr.
2020(p)
Percent change from:
Mar.
2020 - Apr.
2020(p)

Total private

118.3 119.8 117.7 97.8 -16.9 184.4 191.9 189.4 164.3 -13.3

Goods-producing

95.0 95.0 94.2 77.4 -17.8 143.1 146.4 145.5 119.7 -17.7

Mining and logging

138.0 124.6 122.3 105.1 -14.1 239.8 224.3 219.7 189.4 -13.8

Construction

110.8 112.8 112.3 92.0 -18.1 170.2 176.4 176.3 142.7 -19.1

Manufacturing

85.7 85.6 84.7 69.5 -17.9 123.1 126.1 125.0 103.5 -17.2

Durable goods

87.5 87.0 85.9 67.6 -21.3 125.0 127.8 126.3 100.0 -20.8

Nondurable goods

83.1 83.4 82.9 72.3 -12.8 120.0 123.1 122.9 109.4 -11.0

Private service-providing

124.6 126.7 124.0 103.5 -16.5 197.1 206.1 202.6 178.3 -12.0

Trade, transportation, and utilities

111.0 112.2 111.2 97.3 -12.5 162.8 167.9 166.5 150.6 -9.5

Wholesale trade

108.8 108.9 108.2 97.0 -10.4 166.9 168.7 168.2 153.6 -8.7

Retail trade

103.0 103.6 103.2 88.8 -14.0 145.5 150.3 150.4 134.0 -10.9

Transportation and warehousing

140.6 143.8 142.0