Employment Situation News Release

Transmission of material in this news release is embargoed until                  USDL-18-0916
8:30 a.m. (EDT) Friday, June 1, 2018

Technical information:
 Household data:       (202) 691-6378  *  cpsinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/cps
 Establishment data:   (202) 691-6555  *  cesinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/ces

Media contact:         (202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov


                         THE EMPLOYMENT SITUATION -- MAY 2018


Total nonfarm payroll employment increased by 223,000 in May, and the unemployment rate edged 
down to 3.8 percent, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. Employment continued 
to trend up in several industries, including retail trade, health care, and construction.

Household Survey Data

The unemployment rate edged down to 3.8 percent in May, and the number of unemployed persons 
declined to 6.1 million. Over the year, the unemployment rate was down by 0.5 percentage point, 
and the number of unemployed persons declined by 772,000. (See table A-1.)

Among the major worker groups, the unemployment rates for adult men (3.5 percent), Blacks 
(5.9 percent), and Asians (2.1 percent) decreased in May. The jobless rates for adult women 
(3.3 percent), teenagers (12.8 percent), Whites (3.5 percent), and Hispanics (4.9 percent) 
changed little over the month. (See tables A-1, A-2, and A-3.) 

The number of long-term unemployed (those jobless for 27 weeks or more) was little changed at 
1.2 million in May and accounted for 19.4 percent of the unemployed. Over the past 12 months, 
the number of long-term unemployed has declined by 476,000. (See table A-12.)

Both the labor force participation rate, at 62.7 percent, and the employment-population ratio, 
at 60.4 percent, changed little in May. (See table A-1.)

The number of persons employed part time for economic reasons (sometimes referred to as 
involuntary part-time workers) was essentially unchanged at 4.9 million in May. These 
individuals, who would have preferred full-time employment, were working part time because 
their hours had been reduced or they were unable to find full-time jobs. (See table A-8.)

The number of persons marginally attached to the labor force, at 1.5 million in May, was little 
different from a year earlier. (The data are not seasonally adjusted.) These individuals were 
not in the labor force, wanted and were available for work, and had looked for a job sometime 
in the prior 12 months. They were not counted as unemployed because they had not searched for 
work in the 4 weeks preceding the survey. (See table A-16.)

Among the marginally attached, there were 378,000 discouraged workers in May, little changed 
from a year earlier. (The data are not seasonally adjusted.) Discouraged workers are persons 
not currently looking for work because they believe no jobs are available for them. The 
remaining 1.1 million persons marginally attached to the labor force in May had not searched 
for work for reasons such as school attendance or family responsibilities. (See table A-16.) 

Establishment Survey Data

Total nonfarm payroll employment increased by 223,000 in May, compared with an average monthly 
gain of 191,000 over the prior 12 months. Over the month, employment continued to trend up in 
several industries, including retail trade, health care, and construction. (See table B-1.)

In May, retail trade added 31,000 jobs, with gains occurring in general merchandise stores 
(+13,000) and in building material and garden supply stores (+6,000). Over the year, retail 
trade has added 125,000 jobs.

Employment in health care rose by 29,000 in May, about in line with the average monthly gain 
over the prior 12 months. Ambulatory health care services added 18,000 jobs over the month, 
and employment in hospitals continued to trend up (+6,000).  

Employment in construction continued on an upward trend in May (+25,000) and has risen by 
286,000 over the past 12 months. Within the industry, nonresidential specialty trade 
contractors added 15,000 jobs over the month.

Employment in professional and technical services continued to trend up in May (+23,000) and 
has risen by 206,000 over the year.

Transportation and warehousing added 19,000 jobs over the month and 156,000 over the year. In 
May, job gains occurred in warehousing and storage (+7,000) and in couriers and messengers 
(+5,000).

Manufacturing employment continued to expand over the month (+18,000). Durable goods accounted 
for most of the change, including an increase of 6,000 jobs in machinery. Manufacturing 
employment has risen by 259,000 over the year, with about three-fourths of the growth in 
durable goods industries. 

Mining added 6,000 jobs in May. Since a recent low point in October 2016, employment in mining 
has grown by 91,000, with support activities for mining accounting for nearly all of the 
increase.

In May, employment changed little in other major industries, including wholesale trade, 
information, financial activities, leisure and hospitality, and government. 

The average workweek for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls was unchanged at 34.5 hours 
in May. In manufacturing, the workweek decreased by 0.2 hour to 40.8 hours, and overtime edged 
down by 0.2 hour to 3.5 hours. The average workweek for production and nonsupervisory employees 
on private nonfarm payrolls remained at 33.8 hours. (See tables B-2 and B-7.)

In May, average hourly earnings for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls rose by 8 cents 
to $26.92. Over the year, average hourly earnings have increased by 71 cents, or 2.7 percent. 
Average hourly earnings of private-sector production and nonsupervisory employees increased by 
7 cents to $22.59 in May. (See tables B-3 and B-8.)

The change in total nonfarm payroll employment for March was revised up from +135,000 to 
+155,000, and the change for April was revised down from +164,000 to +159,000. With these 
revisions, employment gains in March and April combined were 15,000 more than previously 
reported. (Monthly revisions result from additional reports received from businesses and 
government agencies since the last published estimates and from the recalculation of seasonal 
factors.) After revisions, job gains have averaged 179,000 over the last 3 months.

_____________
The Employment Situation for June is scheduled to be released on Friday, July 6, 2018, at 
8:30 a.m. (EDT).




HOUSEHOLD DATA
Summary table A. Household data, seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Category May
2017
Mar.
2018
Apr.
2018
May
2018
Change from:
Apr.
2018-
May
2018

Employment status

Civilian noninstitutional population

254,767 257,097 257,272 257,454 182

Civilian labor force

159,729 161,763 161,527 161,539 12

Participation rate

62.7 62.9 62.8 62.7 -0.1

Employed

152,892 155,178 155,181 155,474 293

Employment-population ratio

60.0 60.4 60.3 60.4 0.1

Unemployed

6,837 6,585 6,346 6,065 -281

Unemployment rate

4.3 4.1 3.9 3.8 -0.1

Not in labor force

95,038 95,335 95,745 95,915 170

Unemployment rates

Total, 16 years and over

4.3 4.1 3.9 3.8 -0.1

Adult men (20 years and over)

3.8 3.7 3.7 3.5 -0.2

Adult women (20 years and over)

4.0 3.7 3.5 3.3 -0.2

Teenagers (16 to 19 years)

14.1 13.5 12.9 12.8 -0.1

White

3.7 3.6 3.6 3.5 -0.1

Black or African American

7.6 6.9 6.6 5.9 -0.7

Asian

3.6 3.1 2.8 2.1 -0.7

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

5.2 5.1 4.8 4.9 0.1

Total, 25 years and over

3.6 3.4 3.3 3.0 -0.3

Less than a high school diploma

6.2 5.5 5.9 5.4 -0.5

High school graduates, no college

4.7 4.3 4.3 3.9 -0.4

Some college or associate degree

4.0 3.6 3.5 3.2 -0.3

Bachelor's degree and higher

2.3 2.2 2.1 2.0 -0.1

Reason for unemployment

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

3,333 3,146 2,958 2,854 -104

Job leavers

798 864 815 852 37

Reentrants

2,100 1,967 2,009 1,882 -127

New entrants

658 625 623 571 -52

Duration of unemployment

Less than 5 weeks

2,123 2,287 2,115 2,034 -81

5 to 14 weeks

1,958 2,009 2,017 1,945 -72

15 to 26 weeks

1,123 880 1,036 977 -59

27 weeks and over

1,665 1,322 1,293 1,189 -104

Employed persons at work part time

Part time for economic reasons

5,268 5,019 4,985 4,948 -37

Slack work or business conditions

3,058 3,005 2,994 3,004 10

Could only find part-time work

1,764 1,625 1,586 1,480 -106

Part time for noneconomic reasons

21,018 21,399 21,258 21,095 -163

Persons not in the labor force (not seasonally adjusted)

Marginally attached to the labor force

1,475 1,454 1,362 1,455 -

Discouraged workers

355 450 408 378 -

- Over-the-month changes are not displayed for not seasonally adjusted data.
NOTE: Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Summary table B. Establishment data, seasonally adjusted
Category May
2017
Mar.
2018
Apr.
2018(p)
May
2018(p)

EMPLOYMENT BY SELECTED INDUSTRY
(Over-the-month change, in thousands)

Total nonfarm

155 155 159 223

Total private

165 153 162 218

Goods-producing

15 26 53 47

Mining and logging

4 8 7 4

Construction

7 -3 21 25

Manufacturing

4 21 25 18

Durable goods(1)

5 19 19 15

Motor vehicles and parts

-1.2 -0.2 0.3 -4.4

Nondurable goods

-1 2 6 3

Private service-providing

150 127 109 171

Wholesale trade

-0.4 9.8 -11.4 4.2

Retail trade

-10.0 11.4 8.8 31.1

Transportation and warehousing

20.4 19.7 1.6 18.7

Utilities

-1.4 -0.5 1.4 -1.1

Information

-4 6 4 6

Financial activities

11 5 3 8

Professional and business services(1)

57 41 43 31

Temporary help services

17.2 -3.0 9.2 -7.8

Education and health services(1)

36 29 33 39

Health care and social assistance

24.8 34.5 29.1 31.7

Leisure and hospitality

26 2 12 21

Other services

16 3 14 13

Government

-10 2 -3 5

(3-month average change, in thousands)

Total nonfarm

134 218 213 179

Total private

136 221 212 178

WOMEN AND PRODUCTION AND NONSUPERVISORY EMPLOYEES
AS A PERCENT OF ALL EMPLOYEES(2)

Total nonfarm women employees

49.5 49.6 49.6 49.6

Total private women employees

48.1 48.2 48.2 48.2

Total private production and nonsupervisory employees

82.4 82.4 82.4 82.4

HOURS AND EARNINGS
ALL EMPLOYEES

Total private

Average weekly hours

34.4 34.5 34.5 34.5

Average hourly earnings

$26.21 $26.80 $26.84 $26.92

Average weekly earnings

$901.62 $924.60 $925.98 $928.74

Index of aggregate weekly hours (2007=100)(3)

107.1 109.1 109.2 109.4

Over-the-month percent change

0.2 0.2 0.1 0.2

Index of aggregate weekly payrolls (2007=100)(4)

134.1 139.7 140.1 140.8

Over-the-month percent change

0.2 0.3 0.3 0.5

DIFFUSION INDEX
(Over 1-month span)(5)

Total private (258 industries)

56.8 65.3 64.0 67.6

Manufacturing (76 industries)

44.7 64.5 61.8 63.8

Footnotes
(1) Includes other industries, not shown separately.
(2) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries.
(3) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding annual average aggregate hours.
(4) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding annual average aggregate weekly payrolls.
(5) Figures are the percent of industries with employment increasing plus one-half of the industries with unchanged employment, where 50 percent indicates an equal balance between industries with increasing and decreasing employment.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2017 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


Frequently Asked Questions about Employment and Unemployment Estimates

1. Why are there two monthly measures of employment?

   The household survey and establishment survey both produce sample-based estimates
   of employment, and both have strengths and limitations. The establishment survey
   employment series has a smaller margin of error on the measurement of month-to-
   month change than the household survey because of its much larger sample size. An
   over-the-month employment change of about 100,000 is statistically significant in
   the establishment survey, while the threshold for a statistically significant change
   in the household survey is about 500,000. However, the household survey has a more
   expansive scope than the establishment survey because it includes self-employed
   workers whose businesses are unincorporated, unpaid family workers, agricultural
   workers, and private household workers, who are excluded by the establishment survey.
   The household survey also provides estimates of employment for demographic groups.
   For more information on the differences between the two surveys, please visit
   https://www.bls.gov/web/empsit/ces_cps_trends.htm.

2. Are undocumented immigrants counted in the surveys?

   It is likely that both surveys include at least some undocumented immigrants. However,
   neither the establishment nor the household survey is designed to identify the legal
   status of workers. Therefore, it is not possible to determine how many are counted in
   either survey. The establishment survey does not collect data on the legal status of
   workers. The household survey does include questions which identify the foreign and
   native born, but it does not include questions about the legal status of the foreign
   born. Data on the foreign and native born are published each month in table A-7 of
   The Employment Situation news release.

3. Why does the establishment survey have revisions?

   The establishment survey revises published estimates to improve its data series by
   incorporating additional information that was not available at the time of the
   initial publication of the estimates. The establishment survey revises its initial
   monthly estimates twice, in the immediately succeeding 2 months, to incorporate
   additional sample receipts from respondents in the survey and recalculated seasonal
   adjustment factors. For more information on the monthly revisions, please visit
   https://www.bls.gov/ces/cesrevinfo.htm.

   On an annual basis, the establishment survey incorporates a benchmark revision that
   re-anchors estimates to nearly complete employment counts available from unemployment
   insurance tax records. The benchmark helps to control for sampling and modeling errors
   in the estimates. For more information on the annual benchmark revision, please visit
   https://www.bls.gov/web/empsit/cesbmart.htm.

4. Does the establishment survey sample include small firms?

   Yes; about 40 percent of the establishment survey sample is comprised of business
   establishments with fewer than 20 employees. The establishment survey sample is
   designed to maximize the reliability of the statewide total nonfarm employment
   estimate; firms from all states, size classes, and industries are appropriately
   sampled to achieve that goal.

5. Does the establishment survey account for employment from new businesses?

   Yes; monthly establishment survey estimates include an adjustment to account for
   the net employment change generated by business births and deaths. The adjustment
   comes from an econometric model that forecasts the monthly net jobs impact of
   business births and deaths based on the actual past values of the net impact that
   can be observed with a lag from the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages. The
   establishment survey uses modeling rather than sampling for this purpose because
   the survey is not immediately able to bring new businesses into the sample. There
   is an unavoidable lag between the birth of a new firm and its appearance on the
   sampling frame and availability for selection. BLS adds new businesses to the survey
   twice a year.

6. Is the count of unemployed persons limited to just those people receiving unemployment
   insurance benefits?

   No; the estimate of unemployment is based on a monthly sample survey of households.
   All persons who are without jobs and are actively seeking and available to work are
   included among the unemployed. (People on temporary layoff are included even if
   they do not actively seek work.) There is no requirement or question relating to
   unemployment insurance benefits in the monthly survey.

7. Does the official unemployment rate exclude people who want a job but are not currently
   looking for work?

   Yes; however, there are separate estimates of persons outside the labor force who
   want a job, including those who are not currently looking because they believe no
   jobs are available (discouraged workers). In addition, alternative measures of labor
   underutilization (some of which include discouraged workers and other groups not
   officially counted as unemployed) are published each month in table A-15 of The
   Employment Situation news release. For more information about these alternative
   measures, please visit https://www.bls.gov/cps/lfcharacteristics.htm#altmeasures.

8. How can unusually severe weather affect employment and hours estimates?

   In the establishment survey, the reference period is the pay period that includes
   the 12th of the month. Unusually severe weather is more likely to have an impact on
   average weekly hours than on employment. Average weekly hours are estimated for paid
   time during the pay period, including pay for holidays, sick leave, or other time off.
   The impact of severe weather on hours estimates typically, but not always, results in
   a reduction in average weekly hours. For example, some employees may be off work for
   part of the pay period and not receive pay for the time missed, while some workers,
   such as those dealing with cleanup or repair, may work extra hours.
   
   Typically, it is not possible to precisely quantify the effect of extreme weather on 
   payroll employment estimates. In order for severe weather conditions to reduce
   employment estimates, employees have to be off work without pay for the entire pay
   period. Employees who receive pay for any part of the pay period, even 1 hour, are
   counted in the payroll employment figures. For more information on how often employees
   are paid, please visit https://www.bls.gov/opub/btn/volume-3/how-frequently-do-private-
   businesses-pay-workers.htm.

   In the household survey, the reference period is generally the calendar week that
   includes the 12th of the month. Persons who miss the entire week's work for weather-
   related events are counted as employed whether or not they are paid for the time
   off. The household survey collects data on the number of persons who had a job but
   were not at work due to bad weather. It also provides a measure of the number of
   persons who usually work full time but had reduced hours due to bad weather. 
   Current and historical data are available on the household survey's most requested
   statistics page, please visit https://data.bls.gov/cgi-bin/surveymost?ln.




Technical Note


   This news release presents statistics from two major surveys, the Current
Population Survey (CPS; household survey) and the Current Employment Statistics
survey (CES; establishment survey). The household survey provides information
on the labor force, employment, and unemployment that appears in the "A" tables,
marked HOUSEHOLD DATA. It is a sample survey of about 60,000 eligible households
conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau for the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS).

   The establishment survey provides information on employment, hours, and
earnings of employees on nonfarm payrolls; the data appear in the "B" tables,
marked ESTABLISHMENT DATA. BLS collects these data each month from the payroll
records of a sample of nonagricultural business establishments. Each month
the CES program surveys about 149,000 businesses and government agencies,
representing approximately 651,000 individual worksites, in order to provide
detailed industry data on employment, hours, and earnings of workers on nonfarm
payrolls. The active sample includes approximately one-third of all nonfarm
payroll employees.

   For both surveys, the data for a given month relate to a particular week or
pay period. In the household survey, the reference period is generally the
calendar week that contains the 12th day of the month. In the establishment
survey, the reference period is the pay period including the 12th, which may or
may not correspond directly to the calendar week.

Coverage, definitions, and differences between surveys

   Household survey. The sample is selected to reflect the entire civilian 
noninstitutional population. Based on responses to a series of questions on 
work and job search activities, each person 16 years and over in a sample
household is classified as employed, unemployed, or not in the labor force.

   People are classified as employed if they did any work at all as paid employees
during the reference week; worked in their own business, profession, or on their
own farm; or worked without pay at least 15 hours in a family business or farm.
People are also counted as employed if they were temporarily absent from their jobs
because of illness, bad weather, vacation, labor-management disputes, or personal
reasons.

   People are classified as unemployed if they meet all of the following criteria:
they had no employment during the reference week; they were available for work at
that time; and they made specific efforts to find employment sometime during the
4-week period ending with the reference week. Persons laid off from a job and
expecting recall need not be looking for work to be counted as unemployed. The
unemployment data derived from the household survey in no way depend upon the
eligibility for or receipt of unemployment insurance benefits.

   The civilian labor force is the sum of employed and unemployed persons.
Those persons not classified as employed or unemployed are not in the labor 
force. The unemployment rate is the number unemployed as a percent of the 
labor force. The labor force participation rate is the labor force as a 
percent of the population, and the employment-population ratio is the 
employed as a percent of the population. Additional information about the 
household survey can be found at https://www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm.

   Establishment survey. The sample establishments are drawn from private
nonfarm businesses such as factories, offices, and stores, as well as
from federal, state, and local government entities. Employees on nonfarm
payrolls are those who received pay for any part of the reference pay
period, including persons on paid leave. Persons are counted in each job
they hold. Hours and earnings data are produced for the private sector for
all employees and for production and nonsupervisory employees. Production
and nonsupervisory employees are defined as production and related employees
in manufacturing and mining and logging, construction workers in construction,
and nonsupervisory employees in private service-providing industries.

   Industries are classified on the basis of an establishment's principal
activity in accordance with the 2017 version of the North American Industry
Classification System. Additional information about the establishment survey
can be found at https://www.bls.gov/ces/.

   Differences in employment estimates. The numerous conceptual and methodological
differences between the household and establishment  surveys result in important
distinctions in the employment estimates derived from the surveys. Among these are:

   --The household survey includes agricultural workers, self-employed workers
     whose businesses are unincorporated, unpaid family workers, and private
     household workers among the employed. These groups are excluded from the
     establishment survey.

   --The household survey includes people on unpaid leave among the employed.
     The establishment survey does not.

   --The household survey is limited to workers 16 years of age and older.
     The establishment survey is not limited by age.

   --The household survey has no duplication of individuals, because
     individuals are counted only once, even if they hold more than one
     job. In the establishment survey, employees working at more than one
     job and thus appearing on more than one payroll are counted separately
     for each appearance.

Seasonal adjustment

   Over the course of a year, the size of the nation's labor force and the levels
of employment and unemployment undergo regularly occurring fluctuations. These 
events may result from seasonal changes in weather, major holidays, and the opening
and closing of schools. The effect of such seasonal variation can be very large.

   Because these seasonal events follow a more or less regular pattern each year,
their influence on the level of a series can be tempered by adjusting for regular
seasonal variation. These adjustments make nonseasonal developments, such as
declines in employment or increases in the participation of women in the labor
force, easier to spot. For example, in the household survey, the large number of
youth entering the labor force each June is likely to obscure any other changes
that have taken place relative to May, making it difficult to determine if the 
level of economic activity has risen or declined. Similarly, in the establishment
survey, payroll employment in education declines by about 20 percent at the end
of the spring term and later rises with the start of the fall term, obscuring the
underlying employment trends in the industry. Because seasonal employment changes
at the end and beginning of the school year can be estimated, the statistics can be
adjusted to make underlying employment patterns more discernable.  The seasonally
adjusted figures provide a more useful tool with which to analyze changes in
month-to-month economic activity.

   Many seasonally adjusted series are independently adjusted in both the household
and establishment surveys. However, the adjusted series for many major estimates,
such as total payroll employment, employment in most major sectors, total employment,
and unemployment are computed by aggregating independently adjusted component series.
For example, total unemployment is derived by summing the adjusted series for four
major age-sex components; this differs from the unemployment estimate that would be
obtained by directly adjusting the total or by combining
the duration, reasons, or more detailed age categories.

   For both the household and establishment surveys, a concurrent seasonal adjustment
methodology is used in which new seasonal factors are calculated each month using all
relevant data, up to and including the data for the current month. In the household
survey, new seasonal factors are used to adjust only the current month's data. In the
establishment survey, however, new seasonal factors are used each month to adjust the
three most recent monthly estimates. The prior 2 months are routinely revised to
incorporate additional sample reports and recalculated seasonal adjustment factors.
In both surveys, 5-year revisions to historical data are made once a year.

Reliability of the estimates

   Statistics based on the household and establishment surveys are subject to both
sampling and nonsampling error. When a sample, rather than the entire population,
is surveyed, there is a chance that the sample estimates may differ from the true
population values they represent. The component of this difference that occurs
because samples differ by chance is known as sampling error, and its variability
is measured by the standard error of the estimate. There is about a 90-percent
chance, or level of confidence, that an estimate based on a sample will differ by
no more than 1.6 standard errors from the true population value because of sampling
error. BLS analyses are generally conducted at the 90-percent level of confidence.

   For example, the confidence interval for the monthly change in total nonfarm
employment from the establishment survey is on the order of plus or minus 115,000.
Suppose the estimate of nonfarm employment increases by 50,000 from one month to
the next. The 90-percent confidence interval on the monthly change would range from
-65,000 to +165,000 (50,000 +/- 115,000). These figures do not mean that the sample
results are off by these magnitudes, but rather that there is about a 90-percent
chance that the true over-the-month change lies within this interval. Since this
range includes values of less than zero, we could not say with confidence that
nonfarm employment had, in fact, increased that month. If, however, the reported
nonfarm employment rise was 250,000, then all of the values within the 90- percent
confidence interval would be greater than zero. In this case, it is likely (at
least a 90-percent chance) that nonfarm employment had, in fact, risen that month.
At an unemployment rate of around 6.0 percent, the 90-percent confidence interval
for the monthly change in unemployment as measured by the household survey is
about +/- 300,000, and for the monthly change in the unemployment rate it is about
+/- 0.2 percentage point.

   In general, estimates involving many individuals or establishments have lower
standard errors (relative to the size of the estimate) than estimates which are based
on a small number of observations. The precision of estimates also is improved when
the data are cumulated over time, such as for quarterly and annual averages.

   The household and establishment surveys are also affected by nonsampling error,
which can occur for many reasons, including the failure to sample a segment of the
population, inability to obtain information for all respondents in the sample,
inability or unwillingness of respondents to provide correct information on a
timely basis, mistakes made by respondents, and errors made in the collection or
processing of the data.

   For example, in the establishment survey, estimates for the most recent 2 months
are based on incomplete returns; for this reason, these estimates are labeled
preliminary in the tables. It is only after two successive revisions to a monthly
estimate, when nearly all sample reports have been received, that the estimate is
considered final.

   Another major source of nonsampling error in the establishment survey is the
inability to capture, on a timely basis, employment generated by new firms. To
correct for this systematic underestimation of employment growth, an estimation
procedure with two components is used to account for business births. The first
component excludes employment losses from business deaths from sample-based
estimation in order to offset the missing employment gains from business births.
This is incorporated into the sample-based estimation procedure by simply not
reflecting sample units going out of business, but imputing to them the same
employment trend as the other firms in the sample. This procedure accounts for
most of the net birth/death employment.

   The second component is an ARIMA time series model designed to estimate the
residual net birth/death employment not accounted for by the imputation. The
historical time series used to create and test the ARIMA model was derived from
the unemployment insurance universe micro- level database, and reflects the actual
residual net of births and deaths over the past 5 years.

   The sample-based estimates from the establishment survey are adjusted once a
year (on a lagged basis) to universe counts of payroll employment obtained from
administrative records of the unemployment insurance program. The difference 
between the March sample-based employment estimates and the March universe counts
is known as a benchmark revision, and serves as a rough proxy for total survey
error. The new benchmarks also incorporate changes in the classification of
industries. Over the past decade, absolute benchmark revisions for total nonfarm
employment have averaged 0.3 percent, with a range from -0.7 percent to 0.6 percent.

Other information

   Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired
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HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-1. Employment status of the civilian population by sex and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
May
2017
Apr.
2018
May
2018
May
2017
Jan.
2018
Feb.
2018
Mar.
2018
Apr.
2018
May
2018

TOTAL

Civilian noninstitutional population

254,767 257,272 257,454 254,767 256,780 256,934 257,097 257,272 257,454

Civilian labor force

159,979 161,280 161,765 159,729 161,115 161,921 161,763 161,527 161,539

Participation rate

62.8 62.7 62.8 62.7 62.7 63.0 62.9 62.8 62.7

Employed

153,407 155,348 156,009 152,892 154,430 155,215 155,178 155,181 155,474

Employment-population ratio

60.2 60.4 60.6 60.0 60.1 60.4 60.4 60.3 60.4

Unemployed

6,572 5,932 5,756 6,837 6,684 6,706 6,585 6,346 6,065

Unemployment rate

4.1 3.7 3.6 4.3 4.1 4.1 4.1 3.9 3.8

Not in labor force

94,788 95,992 95,689 95,038 95,665 95,012 95,335 95,745 95,915

Persons who currently want a job

5,976 5,010 5,696 5,475 5,171 5,131 5,096 5,115 5,183

Men, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

123,120 124,418 124,509 123,120 124,173 124,250 124,331 124,418 124,509

Civilian labor force

85,007 85,965 86,309 84,852 85,931 86,267 86,169 86,152 86,157

Participation rate

69.0 69.1 69.3 68.9 69.2 69.4 69.3 69.2 69.2

Employed

81,572 82,610 83,103 81,272 82,274 82,685 82,630 82,611 82,784

Employment-population ratio

66.3 66.4 66.7 66.0 66.3 66.5 66.5 66.4 66.5

Unemployed

3,436 3,355 3,206 3,581 3,658 3,582 3,539 3,541 3,373

Unemployment rate

4.0 3.9 3.7 4.2 4.3 4.2 4.1 4.1 3.9

Not in labor force

38,113 38,453 38,201 38,268 38,242 37,983 38,162 38,266 38,352

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

114,627 115,921 116,017 114,627 115,669 115,748 115,832 115,921 116,017

Civilian labor force

82,130 83,225 83,458 81,915 82,928 83,309 83,200 83,199 83,234

Participation rate

71.6 71.8 71.9 71.5 71.7 72.0 71.8 71.8 71.7

Employed

79,126 80,242 80,698 78,794 79,705 80,213 80,113 80,111 80,329

Employment-population ratio

69.0 69.2 69.6 68.7 68.9 69.3 69.2 69.1 69.2

Unemployed

3,004 2,983 2,761 3,120 3,223 3,096 3,087 3,088 2,905

Unemployment rate

3.7 3.6 3.3 3.8 3.9 3.7 3.7 3.7 3.5

Not in labor force

32,497 32,697 32,559 32,712 32,741 32,440 32,632 32,723 32,783

Women, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

131,647 132,853 132,944 131,647 132,607 132,684 132,766 132,853 132,944

Civilian labor force

74,972 75,314 75,456 74,877 75,183 75,654 75,594 75,375 75,382

Participation rate

56.9 56.7 56.8 56.9 56.7 57.0 56.9 56.7 56.7

Employed

71,835 72,738 72,907 71,620 72,157 72,530 72,548 72,569 72,690

Employment-population ratio

54.6 54.8 54.8 54.4 54.4 54.7 54.6 54.6 54.7

Unemployed

3,136 2,576 2,549 3,257 3,027 3,124 3,046 2,805 2,692

Unemployment rate

4.2 3.4 3.4 4.3 4.0 4.1 4.0 3.7 3.6

Not in labor force

56,675 57,539 57,488 56,770 57,423 57,030 57,172 57,479 57,562

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

123,386 124,579 124,674 123,386 124,328 124,407 124,491 124,579 124,674

Civilian labor force

72,085 72,573 72,599 71,979 72,210 72,565 72,610 72,498 72,493

Participation rate

58.4 58.3 58.2 58.3 58.1 58.3 58.3 58.2 58.1

Employed

69,340 70,266 70,341 69,087 69,583 69,828 69,916 69,992 70,077

Employment-population ratio

56.2 56.4 56.4 56.0 56.0 56.1 56.2 56.2 56.2

Unemployed

2,745 2,307 2,258 2,892 2,627 2,737 2,695 2,506 2,415

Unemployment rate

3.8 3.2 3.1 4.0 3.6 3.8 3.7 3.5 3.3

Not in labor force

51,300 52,006 52,075 51,407 52,118 51,842 51,880 52,081 52,181

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian noninstitutional population

16,754 16,771 16,763 16,754 16,783 16,778 16,774 16,771 16,763

Civilian labor force

5,764 5,482 5,707 5,836 5,977 6,048 5,952 5,831 5,812

Participation rate

34.4 32.7 34.0 34.8 35.6 36.0 35.5 34.8 34.7

Employed

4,941 4,840 4,970 5,010 5,143 5,174 5,149 5,078 5,068

Employment-population ratio

29.5 28.9 29.7 29.9 30.6 30.8 30.7 30.3 30.2

Unemployed

823 642 737 825 834 874 803 752 745

Unemployment rate

14.3 11.7 12.9 14.1 13.9 14.4 13.5 12.9 12.8

Not in labor force

10,991 11,290 11,056 10,919 10,806 10,731 10,822 10,941 10,951

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-2. Employment status of the civilian population by race, sex, and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, race, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
May
2017
Apr.
2018
May
2018
May
2017
Jan.
2018
Feb.
2018
Mar.
2018
Apr.
2018
May
2018

WHITE

Civilian noninstitutional population

198,775 199,950 200,039 198,775 199,738 199,799 199,871 199,950 200,039

Civilian labor force

124,722 125,488 125,848 124,529 125,334 125,930 125,714 125,731 125,688

Participation rate

62.7 62.8 62.9 62.6 62.7 63.0 62.9 62.9 62.8

Employed

120,375 121,358 121,788 119,895 120,886 121,274 121,236 121,233 121,303

Employment-population ratio

60.6 60.7 60.9 60.3 60.5 60.7 60.7 60.6 60.6

Unemployed

4,346 4,130 4,060 4,634 4,447 4,656 4,478 4,498 4,385

Unemployment rate

3.5 3.3 3.2 3.7 3.5 3.7 3.6 3.6 3.5

Not in labor force

74,053 74,462 74,191 74,246 74,405 73,869 74,157 74,219 74,350

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

65,380 65,988 66,049 65,216 65,732 65,948 65,928 65,982 65,890

Participation rate

72.0 72.1 72.1 71.8 71.9 72.1 72.1 72.1 72.0

Employed

63,293 63,848 64,113 62,983 63,510 63,683 63,734 63,746 63,785

Employment-population ratio

69.7 69.8 70.0 69.3 69.5 69.6 69.7 69.7 69.7

Unemployed

2,087 2,140 1,936 2,233 2,222 2,265 2,194 2,235 2,106

Unemployment rate

3.2 3.2 2.9 3.4 3.4 3.4 3.3 3.4 3.2

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

54,933 55,210 55,277 54,834 54,896 55,243 55,176 55,179 55,197

Participation rate

57.5 57.4 57.5 57.4 57.2 57.5 57.4 57.4 57.4

Employed

53,169 53,641 53,681 52,930 53,255 53,448 53,385 53,429 53,450

Employment-population ratio

55.6 55.8 55.8 55.4 55.5 55.7 55.6 55.6 55.6

Unemployed

1,764 1,568 1,595 1,904 1,641 1,795 1,791 1,750 1,747

Unemployment rate

3.2 2.8 2.9 3.5 3.0 3.3 3.2 3.2 3.2

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

4,408 4,290 4,522 4,478 4,705 4,738 4,610 4,570 4,601

Participation rate

35.7 34.8 36.7 36.3 38.1 38.4 37.4 37.1 37.3

Employed

3,914 3,868 3,994 3,981 4,121 4,143 4,117 4,057 4,068

Employment-population ratio

31.7 31.4 32.4 32.3 33.4 33.6 33.4 32.9 33.0

Unemployed

495 421 528 497 584 595 492 512 533

Unemployment rate

11.2 9.8 11.7 11.1 12.4 12.6 10.7 11.2 11.6

BLACK OR AFRICAN AMERICAN

Civilian noninstitutional population

32,193 32,672 32,704 32,193 32,575 32,607 32,638 32,672 32,704

Civilian labor force

20,082 20,172 20,292 20,088 20,211 20,495 20,466 20,220 20,296

Participation rate

62.4 61.7 62.0 62.4 62.0 62.9 62.7 61.9 62.1

Employed

18,593 18,953 19,145 18,560 18,663 19,087 19,051 18,892 19,092

Employment-population ratio

57.8 58.0 58.5 57.7 57.3 58.5 58.4 57.8 58.4

Unemployed

1,489 1,219 1,147 1,528 1,548 1,408 1,415 1,328 1,204

Unemployment rate

7.4 6.0 5.7 7.6 7.7 6.9 6.9 6.6 5.9

Not in labor force

12,111 12,500 12,412 12,105 12,364 12,112 12,172 12,452 12,408

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

9,103 9,248 9,407 9,093 9,254 9,438 9,314 9,257 9,382

Participation rate

67.8 67.6 68.7 67.7 67.9 69.2 68.2 67.7 68.5

Employed

8,511 8,681 8,840 8,477 8,564 8,880 8,749 8,663 8,792

Employment-population ratio

63.3 63.5 64.6 63.1 62.9 65.1 64.1 63.3 64.2

Unemployed

593 567 567 616 690 558 564 594 590

Unemployment rate

6.5 6.1 6.0 6.8 7.5 5.9 6.1 6.4 6.3

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

10,178 10,239 10,207 10,207 10,197 10,254 10,337 10,229 10,233

Participation rate

62.7 62.1 61.8 62.8 62.0 62.3 62.7 62.0 62.0

Employed

9,497 9,764 9,757 9,504 9,524 9,622 9,713 9,707 9,754

Employment-population ratio

58.5 59.2 59.1 58.5 57.9 58.5 59.0 58.9 59.1

Unemployed

681 475 450 703 673 632 624 522 479

Unemployment rate

6.7 4.6 4.4 6.9 6.6 6.2 6.0 5.1 4.7

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

801 685 678 788 759 803 816 734 681

Participation rate

31.9 27.4 27.1 31.4 30.3 32.0 32.6 29.3 27.3

Employed

586 508 548 579 575 584 588 521 547

Employment-population ratio

23.3 20.3 21.9 23.1 22.9 23.3 23.5 20.8 21.9

Unemployed

215 177 130 209 185 219 227 213 135

Unemployment rate

26.8 25.8 19.2 26.5 24.3 27.2 27.9 29.0 19.8

ASIAN

Civilian noninstitutional population

15,433 15,933 15,874 15,433 15,731 15,792 15,983 15,933 15,874

Civilian labor force

9,818 10,034 9,932 9,817 9,885 9,908 10,092 10,034 9,932

Participation rate

63.6 63.0 62.6 63.6 62.8 62.7 63.1 63.0 62.6

Employed

9,479 9,765 9,732 9,466 9,584 9,617 9,780 9,755 9,720

Employment-population ratio

61.4 61.3 61.3 61.3 60.9 60.9 61.2 61.2 61.2

Unemployed

339 269 201 351 300 291 313 280 212

Unemployment rate

3.5 2.7 2.0 3.6 3.0 2.9 3.1 2.8 2.1

Not in labor force

5,615 5,898 5,941 5,616 5,846 5,884 5,891 5,898 5,942

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Estimates for the above race groups will not sum to totals shown in table A-1 because data are not presented for all races. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-3. Employment status of the Hispanic or Latino population by sex and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
May
2017
Apr.
2018
May
2018
May
2017
Jan.
2018
Feb.
2018
Mar.
2018
Apr.
2018
May
2018

HISPANIC OR LATINO ETHNICITY

Civilian noninstitutional population

41,241 42,507 42,592 41,241 42,249 42,335 42,419 42,507 42,592

Civilian labor force

27,218 28,193 28,209 27,230 27,826 28,021 27,922 28,229 28,205

Participation rate

66.0 66.3 66.2 66.0 65.9 66.2 65.8 66.4 66.2

Employed

25,939 26,970 26,954 25,827 26,432 26,646 26,500 26,860 26,827

Employment-population ratio

62.9 63.4 63.3 62.6 62.6 62.9 62.5 63.2 63.0

Unemployed

1,279 1,223 1,255 1,403 1,393 1,375 1,421 1,368 1,378

Unemployment rate

4.7 4.3 4.4 5.2 5.0 4.9 5.1 4.8 4.9

Not in labor force

14,024 14,314 14,383 14,011 14,423 14,315 14,497 14,278 14,387

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

14,932 15,517 15,444 14,934 15,320 15,319 15,370 15,535 15,444

Participation rate

80.4 80.9 80.3 80.4 80.4 80.2 80.3 81.0 80.3

Employed

14,357 14,949 14,903 14,302 14,659 14,723 14,688 14,901 14,845

Employment-population ratio

77.3 77.9 77.5 77.0 76.9 77.1 76.7 77.7 77.2

Unemployed

575 568 541 632 661 595 682 635 599

Unemployment rate

3.9 3.7 3.5 4.2 4.3 3.9 4.4 4.1 3.9

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

11,066 11,437 11,535 11,054 11,257 11,410 11,230 11,398 11,507

Participation rate

58.7 59.0 59.3 58.7 58.4 59.1 58.0 58.8 59.2

Employed

10,512 10,929 10,990 10,454 10,737 10,815 10,677 10,856 10,917

Employment-population ratio

55.8 56.3 56.5 55.5 55.7 56.0 55.2 56.0 56.2

Unemployed

554 508 545 600 520 595 553 541 590

Unemployment rate

5.0 4.4 4.7 5.4 4.6 5.2 4.9 4.7 5.1

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

1,220 1,239 1,231 1,242 1,249 1,292 1,321 1,296 1,254

Participation rate

31.8 31.6 31.3 32.4 32.0 33.0 33.7 33.0 31.9

Employed

1,070 1,091 1,061 1,071 1,036 1,108 1,135 1,103 1,065

Employment-population ratio

27.9 27.8 27.0 27.9 26.5 28.3 29.0 28.1 27.1

Unemployed

150 148 169 172 213 184 186 192 189

Unemployment rate

12.3 11.9 13.7 13.8 17.0 14.2 14.1 14.8 15.1

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-4. Employment status of the civilian population 25 years and over by educational attainment
[Numbers in thousands]
Educational attainment Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
May
2017
Apr.
2018
May
2018
May
2017
Jan.
2018
Feb.
2018
Mar.
2018
Apr.
2018
May
2018

Less than a high school diploma

Civilian labor force

10,620 10,438 10,519 10,327 10,274 10,258 10,234 10,285 10,242

Participation rate

46.5 46.6 46.4 45.2 44.8 46.8 45.7 45.9 45.2

Employed

10,038 9,836 10,035 9,684 9,715 9,673 9,666 9,683 9,688

Employment-population ratio

43.9 43.9 44.2 42.4 42.3 44.1 43.2 43.3 42.7

Unemployed

582 603 484 643 559 584 568 602 554

Unemployment rate

5.5 5.8 4.6 6.2 5.4 5.7 5.5 5.9 5.4

High school graduates, no college(1)

Civilian labor force

36,127 35,538 35,886 35,982 35,735 36,092 35,863 35,468 35,702

Participation rate

57.9 57.0 57.5 57.7 57.5 57.5 57.1 56.9 57.2

Employed

34,535 34,086 34,585 34,296 34,134 34,487 34,305 33,940 34,306

Employment-population ratio

55.4 54.7 55.4 55.0 54.9 55.0 54.6 54.5 54.9

Unemployed

1,592 1,451 1,301 1,685 1,601 1,604 1,559 1,528 1,395

Unemployment rate

4.4 4.1 3.6 4.7 4.5 4.4 4.3 4.3 3.9

Some college or associate degree

Civilian labor force

37,187 38,056 37,732 37,425 37,863 37,573 37,589 37,944 37,921

Participation rate

65.4 65.6 65.4 65.9 66.0 65.5 65.6 65.5 65.7

Employed

35,786 36,818 36,596 35,929 36,566 36,248 36,241 36,629 36,694

Employment-population ratio

63.0 63.5 63.4 63.2 63.7 63.2 63.2 63.2 63.6

Unemployed

1,401 1,238 1,135 1,496 1,297 1,325 1,348 1,315 1,228

Unemployment rate

3.8 3.3 3.0 4.0 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.5 3.2

Bachelor's degree and higher(2)

Civilian labor force

55,146 56,823 56,850 55,089 55,922 56,669 56,785 56,794 56,739

Participation rate

74.0 74.2 74.2 73.9 73.4 73.7 74.2 74.2 74.1

Employed

53,978 55,735 55,809 53,812 54,720 55,386 55,534 55,616 55,593

Employment-population ratio

72.4 72.8 72.8 72.2 71.8 72.0 72.6 72.6 72.6

Unemployed

1,168 1,088 1,040 1,277 1,202 1,283 1,252 1,178 1,147

Unemployment rate

2.1 1.9 1.8 2.3 2.1 2.3 2.2 2.1 2.0

Footnotes
(1) Includes persons with a high school diploma or equivalent.
(2) Includes persons with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-5. Employment status of the civilian population 18 years and over by veteran status, period of service, and sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, veteran status, and period of service Total Men Women
May
2017
May
2018
May
2017
May
2018
May
2017
May
2018

VETERANS, 18 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

20,593 19,247 18,565 17,384 2,028 1,863

Civilian labor force

10,036 9,388 8,868 8,291 1,169 1,097

Participation rate

48.7 48.8 47.8 47.7 57.6 58.9

Employed

9,697 9,065 8,573 7,997 1,123 1,068

Employment-population ratio

47.1 47.1 46.2 46.0 55.4 57.3

Unemployed

340 323 294 294 45 29

Unemployment rate

3.4 3.4 3.3 3.5 3.9 2.7

Not in labor force

10,557 9,859 9,697 9,093 859 766

Gulf War-era II veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

4,156 4,143 3,397 3,448 759 695

Civilian labor force

3,300 3,296 2,760 2,799 540 497

Participation rate

79.4 79.5 81.3 81.2 71.1 71.4

Employed

3,149 3,158 2,628 2,686 521 472

Employment-population ratio

75.8 76.2 77.4 77.9 68.6 67.9

Unemployed

151 138 132 113 19 25

Unemployment rate

4.6 4.2 4.8 4.0 3.5 5.0

Not in labor force

856 847 637 649 220 199

Gulf War-era I veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

3,279 3,074 2,811 2,579 468 495

Civilian labor force

2,560 2,369 2,218 2,026 343 343

Participation rate

78.1 77.1 78.9 78.6 73.2 69.2

Employed

2,494 2,325 2,171 1,983 323 341

Employment-population ratio

76.1 75.6 77.2 76.9 69.0 69.0

Unemployed

66 44 46 43 20 1

Unemployment rate

2.6 1.9 2.1 2.1 5.8 0.3

Not in labor force

719 705 594 553 125 152

World War II, Korean War, and Vietnam-era veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

8,106 7,679 7,813 7,418 293 261

Civilian labor force

1,828 1,609 1,783 1,556 45 53

Participation rate

22.5 20.9 22.8 21.0 15.3 20.2

Employed

1,766 1,540 1,721 1,488 45 53

Employment-population ratio

21.8 20.1 22.0 20.1 15.3 20.2

Unemployed

62 68 62 68 0 0

Unemployment rate

3.4 4.3 3.5 4.4 - -

Not in labor force

6,278 6,070 6,030 5,862 248 208

Veterans of other service periods

Civilian noninstitutional population

5,052 4,351 4,544 3,939 508 412

Civilian labor force

2,349 2,115 2,107 1,909 242 205

Participation rate

46.5 48.6 46.4 48.5 47.6 49.9

Employed

2,288 2,042 2,053 1,840 235 202

Employment-population ratio

45.3 46.9 45.2 46.7 46.3 49.0

Unemployed

61 73 54 69 7 4

Unemployment rate

2.6 3.5 2.6 3.6 2.7 1.8

Not in labor force

2,703 2,236 2,437 2,030 266 207

NONVETERANS, 18 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

225,332 229,354 100,141 102,624 125,191 126,731

Civilian labor force

147,854 150,404 75,159 77,026 72,695 73,378

Participation rate

65.6 65.6 75.1 75.1 58.1 57.9

Employed

141,908 145,268 72,152 74,297 69,755 70,972

Employment-population ratio

63.0 63.3 72.1 72.4 55.7 56.0

Unemployed

5,946 5,136 3,007 2,730 2,939 2,406

Unemployment rate

4.0 3.4 4.0 3.5 4.0 3.3

Not in labor force

77,478 78,950 24,982 25,597 52,496 53,353

NOTE: Veterans served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces and were not on active duty at the time of the survey. Nonveterans never served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces. Veterans could have served anywhere in the world during these periods of service: Gulf War era II (September 2001-present), Gulf War era I (August 1990-August 2001), Vietnam era (August 1964-April 1975), Korean War (July 1950-January 1955), World War II (December 1941-December 1946), and other service periods (all other time periods). Veterans who served in more than one wartime period are classified only in the most recent one. Veterans who served during one of the selected wartime periods and another period are classified only in the wartime period. Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria (values not shown where base is less than 75,000).


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-6. Employment status of the civilian population by sex, age, and disability status, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Persons with a disability Persons with no disability
May
2017
May
2018
May
2017
May
2018

TOTAL, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

30,732 30,424 224,035 227,030

Civilian labor force

6,326 6,128 153,653 155,637

Participation rate

20.6 20.1 68.6 68.6

Employed

5,722 5,697 147,685 150,313

Employment-population ratio

18.6 18.7 65.9 66.2

Unemployed

604 431 5,968 5,324

Unemployment rate

9.5 7.0 3.9 3.4

Not in labor force

24,406 24,296 70,382 71,393

Men, 16 to 64 years

Civilian labor force

2,722 2,584 76,969 78,114

Participation rate

34.4 34.5 82.6 83.0

Employed

2,457 2,362 73,958 75,311

Employment-population ratio

31.0 31.6 79.4 80.0

Unemployed

265 222 3,011 2,803

Unemployment rate

9.7 8.6 3.9 3.6

Not in labor force

5,194 4,900 16,160 16,035

Women, 16 to 64 years

Civilian labor force

2,565 2,396 68,046 68,564

Participation rate

31.0 30.0 70.8 70.8

Employed

2,279 2,225 65,362 66,301

Employment-population ratio

27.5 27.9 68.0 68.5

Unemployed

286 170 2,684 2,263

Unemployment rate

11.2 7.1 3.9 3.3

Not in labor force

5,716 5,578 28,042 28,239

Both sexes, 65 years and over

Civilian labor force

1,039 1,148 8,637 8,960

Participation rate

7.2 7.7 24.8 24.8

Employed

986 1,110 8,364 8,701

Employment-population ratio

6.8 7.4 24.0 24.1

Unemployed

53 39 273 259

Unemployment rate

5.1 3.4 3.2 2.9

Not in labor force

13,495 13,818 26,181 27,120

NOTE: A person with a disability has at least one of the following conditions: is deaf or has serious difficulty hearing; is blind or has serious difficulty seeing even when wearing glasses; has serious difficulty concentrating, remembering, or making decisions because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition; has serious difficulty walking or climbing stairs; has difficulty dressing or bathing; or has difficulty doing errands alone such as visiting a doctor's office or shopping because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-7. Employment status of the civilian population by nativity and sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status and nativity Total Men Women
May
2017
May
2018
May
2017
May
2018
May
2017
May
2018

Foreign born, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

41,390 42,732 20,132 20,682 21,259 22,050

Civilian labor force

27,315 27,923 15,737 16,088 11,578 11,835

Participation rate

66.0 65.3 78.2 77.8 54.5 53.7

Employed

26,290 27,086 15,258 15,674 11,031 11,412

Employment-population ratio

63.5 63.4 75.8 75.8 51.9 51.8

Unemployed

1,025 837 479 414 547 423

Unemployment rate

3.8 3.0 3.0 2.6 4.7 3.6

Not in labor force

14,075 14,809 4,395 4,594 9,680 10,215

Native born, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

213,377 214,722 102,989 103,827 110,388 110,895

Civilian labor force

132,664 133,842 69,271 70,221 63,393 63,621

Participation rate

62.2 62.3 67.3 67.6 57.4 57.4

Employed

127,117 128,924 66,314 67,428 60,804 61,495

Employment-population ratio

59.6 60.0 64.4 64.9 55.1 55.5

Unemployed

5,547 4,919 2,957 2,792 2,590 2,126

Unemployment rate

4.2 3.7 4.3 4.0 4.1 3.3

Not in labor force

80,713 80,880 33,718 33,606 46,995 47,273

NOTE: The foreign born are those residing in the United States who were not U.S. citizens at birth. That is, they were born outside the United States or one of its outlying areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam, to parents neither of whom was a U.S. citizen. The native born are persons who were born in the United States or one of its outlying areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam or who were born abroad of at least one parent who was a U.S. citizen. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-8. Employed persons by class of worker and part-time status
[In thousands]
Category Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
May
2017
Apr.
2018
May
2018
May
2017
Jan.
2018
Feb.
2018
Mar.
2018
Apr.
2018
May
2018

CLASS OF WORKER

Agriculture and related industries

2,564 2,230 2,412 2,478 2,513 2,474 2,314 2,294 2,345

Wage and salary workers(1)

1,676 1,438 1,604 1,637 1,712 1,679 1,495 1,517 1,573

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

865 759 776 822 781 768 803 745 742

Unpaid family workers

23 33 32 - - - - - -

Nonagricultural industries

150,843 153,119 153,598 150,516 151,894 152,713 152,747 152,889 153,211

Wage and salary workers(1)

142,130 144,009 144,424 141,928 142,828 143,656 143,688 143,785 144,124

Government

21,015 21,453 21,253 20,800 20,815 20,986 20,957 21,222 21,045

Private industries

121,115 122,556 123,170 121,101 122,022 122,693 122,761 122,616 123,090

Private households

655 780 773 - - - - - -

Other industries

120,460 121,776 122,398 120,440 121,349 121,957 121,977 121,858 122,319

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

8,660 9,039 9,112 8,589 8,991 8,944 8,990 8,995 9,013

Unpaid family workers

53 70 61 - - - - - -

PERSONS AT WORK PART TIME(2)

All industries

Part time for economic reasons(3)

5,038 4,734 4,739 5,268 4,989 5,160 5,019 4,985 4,948

Slack work or business conditions

2,921 2,867 2,875 3,058 3,009 3,302 3,005 2,994 3,004

Could only find part-time work

1,860 1,573 1,542 1,764 1,663 1,541 1,625 1,586 1,480

Part time for noneconomic reasons(4)

21,373 22,132 21,433 21,018 20,867 21,061 21,399 21,258 21,095

Nonagricultural industries

Part time for economic reasons(3)

4,994 4,631 4,677 5,202 4,926 5,091 4,944 4,898 4,872

Slack work or business conditions

2,900 2,799 2,831 3,017 2,965 3,258 2,940 2,923 2,948

Could only find part-time work

1,853 1,559 1,529 1,754 1,659 1,533 1,619 1,575 1,464

Part time for noneconomic reasons(4)

21,060 21,763 21,074 20,703 20,434 20,641 20,999 20,891 20,766

Footnotes
(1) Includes self-employed workers whose businesses are incorporated.
(2) Refers to those who worked 1 to 34 hours during the survey reference week and excludes employed persons who were absent from their jobs for the entire week.
(3) Refers to those who worked 1 to 34 hours during the reference week for an economic reason such as slack work or unfavorable business conditions, inability to find full-time work, or seasonal declines in demand.
(4) Refers to persons who usually work part time for noneconomic reasons such as childcare problems, family or personal obligations, school or training, retirement or Social Security limits on earnings, and other reasons. This excludes persons who usually work full time but worked only 1 to 34 hours during the reference week for reasons such as vacations, holidays, illness, and bad weather.

- Data not available.
NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-9. Selected employment indicators
[Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
May
2017
Apr.
2018
May
2018
May
2017
Jan.
2018
Feb.
2018
Mar.
2018
Apr.
2018
May
2018

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

153,407 155,348 156,009 152,892 154,430 155,215 155,178 155,181 155,474

16 to 19 years

4,941 4,840 4,970 5,010 5,143 5,174 5,149 5,078 5,068

16 to 17 years

1,802 1,642 1,676 1,885 1,915 1,915 1,892 1,838 1,771

18 to 19 years

3,138 3,198 3,294 3,145 3,221 3,293 3,261 3,257 3,285

20 years and over

148,466 150,508 151,039 147,882 149,287 150,041 150,028 150,102 150,406

20 to 24 years

14,130 14,034 14,014 14,183 14,153 14,213 14,334 14,172 14,069

25 years and over

134,337 136,475 137,025 133,714 135,129 135,856 135,779 135,906 136,373

25 to 54 years

98,867 100,206 100,445 98,523 99,674 100,120 100,051 99,965 100,105

25 to 34 years

34,291 35,157 35,353 34,180 34,768 34,975 35,106 35,083 35,221

35 to 44 years

31,929 32,670 32,596 31,821 32,380 32,503 32,462 32,614 32,492

45 to 54 years

32,647 32,379 32,496 32,522 32,526 32,642 32,484 32,268 32,392

55 years and over

35,469 36,269 36,580 35,191 35,455 35,735 35,728 35,941 36,268

Men, 16 years and over

81,572 82,610 83,103 81,272 82,274 82,685 82,630 82,611 82,784

16 to 19 years

2,446 2,368 2,405 2,477 2,569 2,472 2,517 2,500 2,455

16 to 17 years

846 774 809 881 920 872 891 858 849

18 to 19 years

1,600 1,594 1,596 1,613 1,638 1,617 1,639 1,651 1,610

20 years and over

79,126 80,242 80,698 78,794 79,705 80,213 80,113 80,111 80,329

20 to 24 years

7,344 7,204 7,208 7,338 7,339 7,392 7,445 7,291 7,205

25 years and over

71,782 73,038 73,489 71,444 72,388 72,822 72,707 72,840 73,131

25 to 54 years

52,874 53,721 53,915 52,685 53,441 53,764 53,647 53,686 53,728

25 to 34 years

18,426 18,944 19,052 18,372 18,773 18,925 18,942 18,946 18,992

35 to 44 years

17,247 17,667 17,711 17,176 17,447 17,592 17,576 17,644 17,634

45 to 54 years

17,201 17,110 17,152 17,136 17,221 17,247 17,130 17,096 17,101

55 years and over

18,909 19,317 19,574 18,760 18,947 19,058 19,060 19,154 19,403

Women, 16 years and over

71,835 72,738 72,907 71,620 72,157 72,530 72,548 72,569 72,690

16 to 19 years

2,495 2,472 2,565 2,533 2,574 2,702 2,632 2,578 2,613

16 to 17 years

956 868 867 1,004 995 1,044 1,001 980 922

18 to 19 years

1,538 1,603 1,698 1,531 1,583 1,676 1,622 1,606 1,675

20 years and over

69,340 70,266 70,341 69,087 69,583 69,828 69,916 69,992 70,077

20 to 24 years

6,786 6,829 6,805 6,845 6,814 6,821 6,889 6,882 6,864

25 years and over

62,555 63,437 63,536 62,270 62,742 63,033 63,071 63,067 63,243

25 to 54 years

45,994 46,485 46,530 45,838 46,233 46,356 46,404 46,280 46,377

25 to 34 years

15,865 16,213 16,301 15,807 15,995 16,050 16,164 16,137 16,229

35 to 44 years

14,682 15,003 14,885 14,645 14,933 14,911 14,886 14,970 14,858

45 to 54 years

15,447 15,269 15,343 15,386 15,305 15,395 15,354 15,172 15,291

55 years and over

16,561 16,952 17,006 16,432 16,508 16,677 16,667 16,787 16,865

MARITAL STATUS

Married men, spouse present(1)

45,968 46,195 46,281 45,753 45,714 45,863 45,865 45,995 46,041

Married women, spouse present(1)

36,275 36,386 36,236 36,072 35,768 35,632 35,564 36,140 35,978

Women who maintain families(2)

9,470 9,492 9,608 - - - - - -

FULL- OR PART-TIME STATUS

Full-time workers(3)

125,911 127,340 129,014 125,621 127,016 127,745 127,434 127,753 128,657

Part-time workers(4)

27,496 28,008 26,996 27,340 27,271 27,548 27,858 27,508 26,883

MULTIPLE JOBHOLDERS

Total multiple jobholders

7,584 7,637 7,411 7,556 7,845 7,864 7,609 7,667 7,442

Percent of total employed

4.9 4.9 4.8 4.9 5.1 5.1 4.9 4.9 4.8

SELF-EMPLOYMENT

Self-employed workers, incorporated

5,742 5,787 5,696 - - - - - -

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

9,525 9,798 9,889 9,411 9,773 9,713 9,793 9,741 9,755

Footnotes
(1) Refers to persons in opposite-sex married couples only.
(2) Refers to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not an opposite-sex spouse.
(3) Employed full-time workers are persons who usually work 35 hours or more per week.
(4) Employed part-time workers are persons who usually work less than 35 hours per week.

- Data not available.
NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-10. Selected unemployment indicators, seasonally adjusted
Characteristic Number of
unemployed persons
(in thousands)
Unemployment rates
May
2017
Apr.
2018
May
2018
May
2017
Jan.
2018
Feb.
2018
Mar.
2018
Apr.
2018
May
2018

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

6,837 6,346 6,065 4.3 4.1 4.1 4.1 3.9 3.8

16 to 19 years

825 752 745 14.1 13.9 14.4 13.5 12.9 12.8

16 to 17 years

284 294 307 13.1 15.0 15.5 14.9 13.8 14.8

18 to 19 years

542 473 454 14.7 13.3 13.7 12.6 12.7 12.2

20 years and over

6,012 5,594 5,321 3.9 3.8 3.7 3.7 3.6 3.4

20 to 24 years

1,021 1,018 1,073 6.7 7.4 6.8 6.6 6.7 7.1

25 years and over

5,028 4,613 4,261 3.6 3.4 3.4 3.4 3.3 3.0

25 to 54 years

3,924 3,543 3,252 3.8 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.4 3.1

25 to 34 years

1,744 1,627 1,405 4.9 4.3 4.4 4.2 4.4 3.8

35 to 44 years

1,097 995 950 3.3 3.1 3.1 3.2 3.0 2.8

45 to 54 years

1,083 921 897 3.2 3.0 2.9 2.9 2.8 2.7

55 years and over

1,117 1,105 1,039 3.1 3.0 3.2 3.2 3.0 2.8

Men, 16 years and over

3,581 3,541 3,373 4.2 4.3 4.2 4.1 4.1 3.9

16 to 19 years

461 453 468 15.7 14.5 16.4 15.2 15.3 16.0

16 to 17 years

140 178 187 13.7 13.0 17.1 16.1 17.2 18.0

18 to 19 years

322 283 285 16.6 14.9 16.1 14.5 14.6 15.1

20 years and over

3,120 3,088 2,905 3.8 3.9 3.7 3.7 3.7 3.5

20 to 24 years

637 605 618 8.0 8.2 7.6 7.5 7.7 7.9

25 years and over

2,537 2,506 2,325 3.4 3.4 3.3 3.3 3.3 3.1

25 to 54 years

1,967 1,869 1,715 3.6 3.4 3.2 3.4 3.4 3.1

25 to 34 years

890 911 742 4.6 4.1 4.1 4.1 4.6 3.8

35 to 44 years

538 482 487 3.0 3.1 2.7 3.0 2.7 2.7

45 to 54 years

539 476 486 3.0 3.1 2.8 2.9 2.7 2.8

55 years and over

570 637 610 2.9 3.3 3.5 3.2 3.2 3.0

Women, 16 years and over

3,257 2,805 2,692 4.3 4.0 4.1 4.0 3.7 3.6

16 to 19 years

365 299 277 12.6 13.4 12.5 11.8 10.4 9.6

16 to 17 years

144 116 120 12.5 16.7 14.0 13.8 10.6 11.6

18 to 19 years

220 191 169 12.6 11.7 11.4 10.6 10.6 9.2

20 years and over

2,892 2,506 2,415 4.0 3.6 3.8 3.7 3.5 3.3

20 to 24 years

384 413 454 5.3 6.5 6.0 5.7 5.7 6.2

25 years and over

2,491 2,107 1,936 3.8 3.3 3.5 3.5 3.2 3.0

25 to 54 years

1,956 1,673 1,537 4.1 3.6 3.8 3.6 3.5 3.2

25 to 34 years

854 716 664 5.1 4.7 4.7 4.3 4.2 3.9

35 to 44 years

558 513 462 3.7 3.1 3.5 3.4 3.3 3.0

45 to 54 years

544 445 411 3.4 2.8 3.0 3.0 2.8 2.6

55 years and over

577 483 465 3.4 2.5 2.8 3.2 2.8 2.7

MARITAL STATUS

Married men, spouse present(1)

1,089 997 905 2.3 2.3 2.1 2.1 2.1 1.9

Married women, spouse present(1)

952 903 857 2.6 2.4 2.7 2.6 2.4 2.3

Women who maintain families(2)

688 548 470 6.8 6.5 6.2 5.6 5.5 4.7

FULL- OR PART-TIME STATUS

Full-time workers(3)

5,494 5,193 4,937 4.2 4.0 4.1 4.0 3.9 3.7

Part-time workers(4)

1,373 1,200 1,166 4.8 4.7 4.5 4.5 4.2 4.2

Footnotes
(1) Refers to persons in opposite-sex couples only.
(2) Data are not seasonally adjusted. Refers to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not an opposite-sex spouse.
(3) Full-time workers are unemployed persons who have expressed a desire to work full time (35 hours or more per week) or are on layoff from full-time jobs.
(4) Part-time workers are unemployed persons who have expressed a desire to work part time (less than 35 hours per week) or are on layoff from part-time jobs.

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-11. Unemployed persons by reason for unemployment
[Numbers in thousands]
Reason Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
May
2017
Apr.
2018
May
2018
May
2017
Jan.
2018
Feb.
2018
Mar.
2018
Apr.
2018
May
2018

NUMBER OF UNEMPLOYED

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

3,017 2,805 2,493 3,333 3,273 3,279 3,146 2,958 2,854

On temporary layoff

575 713 533 816 912 878 865 862 803

Not on temporary layoff

2,442 2,092 1,960 2,517 2,361 2,401 2,281 2,096 2,052

Permanent job losers

1,699 1,415 1,380 1,751 1,652 1,709 1,645 1,418 1,439

Persons who completed temporary jobs

743 677 580 766 709 692 637 678 612

Job leavers

741 761 801 798 716 780 864 815 852

Reentrants

2,187 1,836 1,933 2,100 1,958 1,948 1,967 2,009 1,882

New entrants

628 530 529 658 645 704 625 623 571

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

45.9 47.3 43.3 48.4 49.6 48.9 47.7 46.2 46.3

On temporary layoff

8.7 12.0 9.3 11.8 13.8 13.1 13.1 13.5 13.0

Not on temporary layoff

37.2 35.3 34.1 36.5 35.8 35.8 34.6 32.7 33.3

Job leavers

11.3 12.8 13.9 11.6 10.9 11.6 13.1 12.7 13.8

Reentrants

33.3 31.0 33.6 30.5 29.7 29.0 29.8 31.4 30.6

New entrants

9.5 8.9 9.2 9.6 9.8 10.5 9.5 9.7 9.3

UNEMPLOYED AS A PERCENT OF THE
CIVILIAN LABOR FORCE

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

1.9 1.7 1.5 2.1 2.0 2.0 1.9 1.8 1.8

Job leavers

0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5

Reentrants

1.4 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2

New entrants

0.4 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-12. Unemployed persons by duration of unemployment
[Numbers in thousands]
Duration Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
May
2017
Apr.
2018
May
2018
May
2017
Jan.
2018
Feb.
2018
Mar.
2018
Apr.
2018
May
2018

NUMBER OF UNEMPLOYED

Less than 5 weeks

2,106 1,782 1,950 2,123 2,280 2,508 2,287 2,115 2,034

5 to 14 weeks

1,592 1,666 1,568 1,958 1,943 1,906 2,009 2,017 1,945

15 weeks and over

2,874 2,483 2,237 2,788 2,402 2,330 2,202 2,329 2,166

15 to 26 weeks

1,213 1,158 1,066 1,123 981 934 880 1,036 977

27 weeks and over

1,661 1,325 1,171 1,665 1,421 1,397 1,322 1,293 1,189

Average (mean) duration, in weeks

25.7 24.2 21.8 24.8 24.1 22.9 24.1 23.1 21.3

Median duration, in weeks

11.3 11.9 9.9 10.4 9.4 9.3 9.1 9.8 9.2

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION

Less than 5 weeks

32.0 30.1 33.9 30.9 34.4 37.2 35.2 32.7 33.1

5 to 14 weeks

24.2 28.1 27.3 28.5 29.3 28.3 30.9 31.2 31.7

15 weeks and over

43.7 41.9 38.9 40.6 36.3 34.6 33.9 36.0 35.2

15 to 26 weeks

18.5 19.5 18.5 16.3 14.8 13.8 13.5 16.0 15.9

27 weeks and over

25.3 22.3 20.3 24.2 21.5 20.7 20.3 20.0 19.4

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-13. Employed and unemployed persons by occupation, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Occupation Employed Unemployed Unemployment
rates
May
2017
May
2018
May
2017
May
2018
May
2017
May
2018

Total, 16 years and over(1)

153,407 156,009 6,572 5,756 4.1 3.6

Management, professional, and related occupations

61,174 62,360 1,208 1,083 1.9 1.7

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

25,319 25,784 463 448 1.8 1.7

Professional and related occupations

35,855 36,576 745 635 2.0 1.7

Service occupations

27,001 27,710 1,529 1,241 5.4 4.3

Sales and office occupations

33,015 33,165 1,394 1,297 4.1 3.8

Sales and related occupations

15,510 15,769 733 695 4.5 4.2

Office and administrative support occupations

17,506 17,396 660 602 3.6 3.3

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

14,402 14,299 854 685 5.6 4.6

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

1,245 1,056 81 92 6.1 8.0

Construction and extraction occupations

8,235 8,218 562 471 6.4 5.4

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

4,921 5,025 211 122 4.1 2.4

Production, transportation, and material moving
occupations

17,815 18,475 944 898 5.0 4.6

Production occupations

8,670 8,633 416 396 4.6 4.4

Transportation and material moving occupations

9,144 9,842 527 502 5.5 4.9

Footnotes
(1) Persons with no previous work experience and persons whose last job was in the U.S. Armed Forces are included in the unemployed total.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-14. Unemployed persons by industry and class of worker, not seasonally adjusted
Industry and class of worker Number of
unemployed
persons
(in thousands)
Unemployment
rates
May
2017
May
2018
May
2017
May
2018

Total, 16 years and over(1)

6,572 5,756 4.1 3.6

Nonagricultural private wage and salary workers

5,074 4,467 4.0 3.5

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

20 23 2.5 3.0

Construction

502 415 5.3 4.4

Manufacturing

504 546 3.2 3.4

Durable goods

327 340 3.3 3.4

Nondurable goods

178 206 3.1 3.5

Wholesale and retail trade

916 885 4.7 4.5

Transportation and utilities

262 223 4.2 3.2

Information

123 100 4.7 3.5

Financial activities

232 167 2.3 1.7

Professional and business services

690 669 4.1 4.0

Education and health services

675 563 2.8 2.3

Leisure and hospitality

905 706 6.3 4.9

Other services

245 171 3.6 2.5

Agriculture and related private wage and salary workers

103 95 6.0 5.8

Government workers

471 425 2.2 2.0

Self-employed workers, unincorporated, and unpaid family workers

297 239 3.0 2.3

Footnotes
(1) Persons with no previous work experience and persons whose last job was in the U.S. Armed Forces are included in the unemployed total.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-15. Alternative measures of labor underutilization
[Percent]
Measure Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
May
2017
Apr.
2018
May
2018
May
2017
Jan.
2018
Feb.
2018
Mar.
2018
Apr.
2018
May
2018

U-1 Persons unemployed 15 weeks or longer, as a percent of the civilian labor force

1.8 1.5 1.4 1.7 1.5 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.3

U-2 Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs, as a percent of the civilian labor force

1.9 1.7 1.5 2.1 2.0 2.0 1.9 1.8 1.8

U-3 Total unemployed, as a percent of the civilian labor force (official unemployment rate)

4.1 3.7 3.6 4.3 4.1 4.1 4.1 3.9 3.8

U-4 Total unemployed plus discouraged workers, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus discouraged workers

4.3 3.9 3.8 4.5 4.4 4.4 4.3 4.2 4.0

U-5 Total unemployed, plus discouraged workers, plus all other persons marginally attached to the labor force, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force

5.0 4.5 4.4 5.2 5.1 5.1 4.9 4.7 4.6

U-6 Total unemployed, plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force, plus total employed part time for economic reasons, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force

8.1 7.4 7.3 8.4 8.2 8.2 8.0 7.8 7.6

NOTE: Persons marginally attached to the labor force are those who currently are neither working nor looking for work but indicate that they want and are available for a job and have looked for work sometime in the past 12 months. Discouraged workers, a subset of the marginally attached, have given a job-market related reason for not currently looking for work. Persons employed part time for economic reasons are those who want and are available for full-time work but have had to settle for a part-time schedule. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-16. Persons not in the labor force and multiple jobholders by sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Category Total Men Women
May
2017
May
2018
May
2017
May
2018
May
2017
May
2018

NOT IN THE LABOR FORCE

Total not in the labor force

94,788 95,689 38,113 38,201 56,675 57,488

Persons who currently want a job

5,976 5,696 2,801 2,646 3,175 3,050

Marginally attached to the labor force(1)

1,475 1,455 761 776 714 679

Discouraged workers(2)

355 378 191 257 163 120

Other persons marginally attached to the labor force(3)

1,121 1,077 570 519 551 559

MULTIPLE JOBHOLDERS

Total multiple jobholders(4)

7,584 7,411 3,831 3,687 3,752 3,724

Percent of total employed

4.9 4.8 4.7 4.4 5.2 5.1

Primary job full time, secondary job part time

4,136 4,062 2,295 2,252 1,840 1,811

Primary and secondary jobs both part time

2,067 1,951 715 673 1,352 1,279

Primary and secondary jobs both full time

301 294 217 178 84 116

Hours vary on primary or secondary job

1,029 1,073 580 569 449 504

Footnotes
(1) Data refer to persons who want a job, have searched for work during the prior 12 months, and were available to take a job during the reference week, but had not looked for work in the past 4 weeks.
(2) Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for reasons such as thinks no work available, could not find work, lacks schooling or training, employer thinks too young or old, and other types of discrimination.
(3) Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for such reasons as school or family responsibilities, ill health, and transportation problems, as well as a number for whom reason for nonparticipation was not determined.
(4) Includes a small number of persons who work part time on their primary job and full time on their secondary job(s), not shown separately.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-1. Employees on nonfarm payrolls by industry sector and selected industry detail
[In thousands]
Industry Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
May
2017
Mar.
2018
Apr.
2018(p)
May
2018(p)
May
2017
Mar.
2018
Apr.
2018(p)
May
2018(p)
Change from:
Apr.2018 - May2018(p)

Total nonfarm

146,937 147,384 148,366 149,309 146,299 148,280 148,439 148,662 223

Total private

124,287 124,688 125,659 126,650 123,994 125,956 126,118 126,336 218

Goods-producing

20,051 20,177 20,403 20,664 20,013 20,516 20,569 20,616 47

Mining and logging

672 712 721 732 675 722 729 733 4

Logging

48.9 48.6 47.6 47.2 50.0 50.0 50.0 48.5 -1.5

Mining

622.9 663.2 673.0 684.4 625.3 671.6 679.3 684.8 5.5

Oil and gas extraction

144.3 148.8 149.1 150.7 145.4 149.6 150.7 151.5 0.8

Mining, except oil and gas

186.3 182.0 185.3 190.2 184.4 186.9 186.7 188.3 1.6

Coal mining

51.6 51.9 52.8 52.9 51.9 52.3 52.9 53.2 0.3

Metal ore mining

38.2 38.5 38.3 38.6 38.4 38.8 38.8 38.8 0.0

Nonmetallic mineral mining and quarrying

96.5 91.6 94.2 98.7 94.1 95.9 95.0 96.2 1.2

Support activities for mining

292.3 332.4 338.6 343.5 295.5 335.1 341.9 345.0 3.1

Construction

6,990 6,889 7,083 7,281 6,924 7,164 7,185 7,210 25

Construction of buildings

1,535.4 1,546.6 1,576.2 1,600.1 1,534.7 1,587.1 1,598.0 1,598.2 0.2

Residential building

746.7 758.1 776.0 791.8 746.9 781.9 786.2 790.8 4.6

Nonresidential building

788.7 788.5 800.2 808.3 787.8 805.2 811.8 807.4 -4.4

Heavy and civil engineering construction

1,021.4 930.8 989.2 1,040.4 992.7 1,005.2 1,004.9 1,009.9 5.0

Specialty trade contractors

4,432.7 4,411.1 4,517.3 4,640.8 4,396.8 4,571.4 4,581.8 4,602.3 20.5

Residential specialty trade contractors

1,954.2 1,940.1 1,983.8 2,041.9 1,930.6 2,013.2 2,013.3 2,019.0 5.7

Nonresidential specialty trade contractors

2,478.5 2,471.0 2,533.5 2,598.9 2,466.2 2,558.2 2,568.5 2,583.3 14.8

Manufacturing

12,389 12,576 12,599 12,651 12,414 12,630 12,655 12,673 18

Durable goods

7,711 7,869 7,887 7,916 7,717 7,883 7,902 7,917 15

Wood products

396.7 401.6 402.5 406.5 396.4 404.6 404.5 405.8 1.3

Nonmetallic mineral products

413.9 413.4 420.0 424.0 409.4 420.1 420.8 419.5 -1.3

Primary metals

370.8 380.0 380.0 379.1 371.2 379.8 380.0 379.5 -0.5

Fabricated metal products

1,423.3 1,471.9 1,476.5 1,480.9 1,423.3 1,473.8 1,476.7 1,479.1 2.4

Machinery

1,073.4 1,105.3 1,112.4 1,118.4 1,076.6 1,107.3 1,115.3 1,121.1 5.8

Computer and electronic products

1,036.3 1,059.0 1,058.2 1,062.1 1,038.0 1,060.5 1,061.4 1,063.6 2.2

Computer and peripheral equipment

157.5 168.9 169.0 169.1 158.1 169.1 169.5 169.6 0.1

Communications equipment

86.4 86.1 85.3 85.8 86.6 86.3 85.5 85.8 0.3

Semiconductors and electronic components

359.9 367.4 367.7 368.5 360.4 367.9 368.6 369.1 0.5

Electronic instruments

398.9 404.4 404.6 406.8 399.2 404.7 405.9 407.1 1.2

Miscellaneous computer and electronic products

33.6 32.2 31.6 31.9 33.7 32.4 32.0 31.9 -0.1

Electrical equipment and appliances

382.8 398.8 400.0 401.9 384.3 399.8 401.6 403.4 1.8

Transportation equipment(1)

1,630.1 1,654.3 1,652.7 1,653.8 1,632.0 1,649.7 1,653.4 1,654.8 1.4

Motor vehicles and parts(2)

954.7 966.8 963.0 957.0 954.4 960.8 961.1 956.7 -4.4

Furniture and related products

394.0 391.2 389.6 391.9 394.4 392.0 391.2 392.3 1.1

Miscellaneous durable goods manufacturing

589.7 593.7 595.4 597.0 591.0 595.8 597.1 597.6 0.5

Nondurable goods

4,678 4,707 4,712 4,735 4,697 4,747 4,753 4,756 3

Food manufacturing

1,579.8 1,607.1 1,606.4 1,614.4 1,600.0 1,631.1 1,632.8 1,635.7 2.9

Textile mills

112.3 111.1 111.2 112.2 112.1 111.3 111.6 112.0 0.4

Textile product mills

115.2 111.5 110.6 109.9 115.2 111.9 111.0 110.1 -0.9

Apparel

120.5 116.8 117.6 116.2 121.0 116.9 117.9 116.4 -1.5

Paper and paper products

369.1 372.8 373.3 374.4 368.8 373.2 373.3 373.5 0.2

Printing and related support activities

439.7 434.8 432.9 433.3 439.9 435.5 434.1 433.5 -0.6

Petroleum and coal products

115.4 111.7 113.8 116.0 114.6 115.1 115.3 115.2 -0.1

Chemicals

820.1 823.4 824.6 824.9 820.6 824.5 826.3 826.3 0.0

Plastics and rubber products

713.8 724.4 725.6 728.9 711.9 725.2 726.5 727.5 1.0

Miscellaneous nondurable goods manufacturing

291.6 293.5 296.4 305.0 292.8 302.7 303.7 305.7 2.0

Private service-providing

104,236 104,511 105,256 105,986 103,981 105,440 105,549 105,720 171

Trade, transportation, and utilities

27,340 27,422 27,493 27,694 27,439 27,736 27,736 27,789 53

Wholesale trade

5,893.4 5,940.8 5,936.3 5,960.2 5,886.9 5,962.0 5,950.6 5,954.8 4.2

Durable goods

2,957.2 3,000.2 3,001.5 3,008.7 2,955.7 3,006.6 3,007.1 3,007.3 0.2

Nondurable goods

2,048.8 2,042.5 2,042.1 2,053.3 2,043.8 2,054.5 2,047.3 2,049.0 1.7

Electronic markets and agents and brokers

887.4 898.1 892.7 898.2 887.4 900.9 896.2 898.5 2.3

Retail trade

15,769.0 15,701.0 15,771.7 15,899.5 15,845.2 15,930.4 15,939.2 15,970.3 31.1

Motor vehicle and parts dealers

2,011.3 2,016.5 2,023.4 2,033.4 2,004.0 2,025.4 2,025.4 2,026.4 1.0

Automobile dealers

1,295.8 1,302.7 1,302.4 1,305.5 1,294.9 1,305.7 1,305.4 1,305.0 -0.4

Other motor vehicle dealers

162.2 153.4 157.3 162.2 156.2 157.1 156.5 156.3 -0.2

Auto parts, accessories, and tire stores

553.3 560.4 563.7 565.7 552.9 562.6 563.5 565.1 1.6

Furniture and home furnishings stores

469.2 478.2 476.4 477.1 475.2 482.8 482.8 483.3 0.5

Electronics and appliance stores

498.1 494.7 493.3 493.0 509.6 498.8 500.3 501.4 1.1

Building material and garden supply stores

1,335.9 1,323.0 1,360.3 1,391.5 1,265.8 1,317.9 1,313.2 1,319.2 6.0

Food and beverage stores

3,080.3 3,062.3 3,068.6 3,092.0 3,086.3 3,094.7 3,097.3 3,098.1 0.8

Health and personal care stores

1,065.2 1,055.3 1,050.5 1,050.7 1,069.6 1,059.0 1,057.2 1,056.4 -0.8

Gasoline stations

933.6 927.8 929.8 941.8 930.6 938.0 937.5 938.8 1.3

Clothing and clothing accessories stores

1,343.0 1,322.9 1,317.6 1,334.2 1,385.0 1,369.9 1,366.3 1,372.8 6.5

Sporting goods, hobby, book, and music stores

581.3 570.0 573.6 576.9 602.1 594.4 596.5 597.8 1.3

General merchandise stores

3,057.5 3,058.8 3,073.5 3,085.8 3,117.5 3,127.8 3,136.4 3,149.8 13.4

Department stores

1,131.8 1,130.8 1,131.6 1,135.0 1,172.6 1,170.1 1,170.2 1,177.8 7.6

General merchandise stores, including warehouse clubs and supercenters

1,925.7 1,928.0 1,941.9 1,950.8 1,944.9 1,957.7 1,966.2 1,972.1 5.9

Miscellaneous store retailers

833.6 806.9 818.0 837.8 829.5 829.8 831.1 832.2 1.1

Nonstore retailers

560.0 584.6 586.7 585.3 570.0 591.9 595.2 594.1 -1.1

Transportation and warehousing

5,124.6 5,227.4 5,231.3 5,280.2 5,153.0 5,289.0 5,290.6 5,309.3 18.7

Air transportation

492.7 499.3 501.3 503.9 490.5 501.4 502.0 502.0 0.0

Rail transportation

217.1 211.3 212.5 212.5 216.9 212.2 212.3 212.3 0.0

Water transportation

66.1 62.3 64.2 65.7 65.6 64.3 64.8 65.2 0.4

Truck transportation

1,451.1 1,453.8 1,458.1 1,475.9 1,453.2 1,477.2 1,470.8 1,477.4 6.6

Transit and ground passenger transportation

511.6 509.5 509.0 513.0 493.5 495.7 495.1 495.2 0.1

Pipeline transportation

48.1 47.6 46.8 47.0 48.1 47.6 47.0 47.0 0.0

Scenic and sightseeing transportation

39.4 29.2 31.1 37.7 36.2 37.1 35.3 34.9 -0.4

Support activities for transportation

685.5 706.1 705.7 705.0 687.7 708.3 706.2 706.8 0.6

Couriers and messengers

637.2 700.2 691.0 699.7 674.5 725.6 732.5 737.3 4.8

Warehousing and storage

975.8 1,008.1 1,011.6 1,019.8 986.8 1,019.6 1,024.6 1,031.2 6.6

Utilities

553.4 552.6 554.1 553.6 554.0 554.1 555.5 554.4 -1.1

Information

2,789 2,755 2,763 2,771 2,794 2,765 2,769 2,775 6

Publishing industries, except Internet

720.1 712.5 709.0 710.2 724.6 714.8 712.7 714.7 2.0

Motion picture and sound recording industries

430.4 401.7 419.3 427.7 425.4 408.0 416.1 421.4 5.3

Broadcasting, except Internet

264.2 263.7 263.1 260.5 265.3 262.5 262.7 261.6 -1.1

Telecommunications

779.4 766.2 758.7 757.5 781.2 766.2 762.2 760.3 -1.9

Data processing, hosting and related services

316.5 325.6 326.4 326.3 316.5 326.5 326.8 326.4 -0.4

Other information services

278.7 285.0 286.2 289.1 280.5 286.6 288.4 290.6 2.2

Financial activities

8,419 8,503 8,509 8,545 8,434 8,548 8,551 8,559 8

Finance and insurance

6,242.7 6,300.3 6,294.8 6,306.4 6,257.1 6,312.9 6,314.4 6,319.3 4.9

Monetary authorities - central bank

18.9 18.9 18.9 19.0 19.0 19.0 19.0 19.1 0.1

Credit intermediation and related
activities

2,641.8 2,655.3 2,655.7 2,662.1 2,646.2 2,661.4 2,663.4 2,666.0 2.6

Depository credit intermediation(1)

1,714.4 1,716.6 1,717.3 1,722.6 1,713.9 1,718.4 1,720.4 1,721.9 1.5

Commercial banking

1,325.0 1,322.4 1,323.3 1,326.3 1,324.8 1,322.8 1,324.8 1,326.3 1.5

Nondepository credit intermediation

618.3 623.2 624.3 626.2 622.6 626.8 628.5 630.4 1.9

Activities related to credit intermediation

309.1 315.5 314.1 313.3 309.7 316.3 314.6 313.7 -0.9

Securities, commodity contracts, investments, and funds and trusts

932.0 957.5 958.7 957.7 937.1 961.0 962.5 962.1 -0.4

Insurance carriers and related activities

2,650.0 2,668.6 2,661.5 2,667.6 2,654.8 2,671.5 2,669.5 2,672.1 2.6

Real estate and rental and leasing

2,176.6 2,202.6 2,213.7 2,238.1 2,176.4 2,234.8 2,236.2 2,239.2 3.0

Real estate

1,587.6 1,605.8 1,612.6 1,623.1 1,590.0 1,622.7 1,623.5 1,626.1 2.6

Rental and leasing services

564.9 572.4 576.9 590.4 562.3 587.5 588.2 588.5 0.3

Lessors of nonfinancial intangible assets

24.1 24.4 24.2 24.6 24.1 24.6 24.5 24.6 0.1

Professional and business services

20,417 20,576 20,815 20,908 20,408 20,817 20,860 20,891 31

Professional and technical services

8,920.5 9,172.4 9,217.6 9,131.8 8,980.2 9,143.0 9,163.5 9,186.1 22.6

Legal services

1,134.0 1,130.7 1,131.5 1,133.1 1,136.6 1,135.6 1,135.8 1,135.6 -0.2

Accounting and bookkeeping services

943.9 1,087.8 1,080.7 955.2 991.9 988.6 991.9 999.3 7.4

Architectural and engineering services

1,429.5 1,443.7 1,455.0 1,465.4 1,429.4 1,461.6 1,464.8 1,465.6 0.8

Specialized design services

139.1 135.8 137.2 137.7 138.7 137.3 137.3 137.3 0.0

Computer systems design and related services

2,030.1 2,067.6 2,085.3 2,095.3 2,035.0 2,085.7 2,092.1 2,098.7 6.6

Management and technical consulting services

1,394.5 1,419.7 1,430.9 1,440.5 1,396.8 1,436.1 1,439.4 1,443.4 4.0

Scientific research and development services

657.0 666.6 669.8 673.2 656.5 670.0 672.2 672.7 0.5

Advertising and related services

490.4 495.0 496.5 497.3 491.8 496.9 497.3 497.6 0.3

Other professional and technical services

702.0 725.5 730.7 734.1 703.6 731.1 732.8 735.8 3.0

Management of companies and enterprises

2,287.0 2,308.2 2,306.3 2,322.7 2,290.6 2,316.6 2,318.3 2,325.9 7.6

Administrative and waste services

9,209.3 9,095.0 9,291.3 9,453.6 9,136.7 9,357.1 9,378.4 9,378.6 0.2

Administrative and support services

8,796.2 8,677.9 8,869.0 9,026.6 8,724.5 8,933.9 8,953.1 8,952.9 -0.2

Office administrative services

507.6 518.1 519.9 524.1 507.2 520.3 521.5 523.8 2.3

Facilities support services

150.0 155.1 155.0 154.8 150.0 155.0 155.0 155.0 0.0

Employment services(1)

3,587.4 3,587.9 3,641.1 3,698.9 3,588.6 3,699.2 3,710.7 3,700.4 -10.3

Temporary help services

2,926.5 2,917.9 2,963.6 3,012.9 2,930.1 3,015.6 3,024.8 3,017.0 -7.8

Business support services

894.1 908.5 901.0 900.0 906.1 911.5 909.1 911.8 2.7

Travel arrangement and reservation services

220.0 215.8 218.1 219.4 218.2 217.0 217.6 217.6 0.0

Investigation and security services

912.7 926.8 931.9 937.7 914.7 933.9 936.0 939.2 3.2

Services to buildings and dwellings

2,200.6 2,030.1 2,163.4 2,252.6 2,117.9 2,160.3 2,165.2 2,167.8 2.6

Other support services

323.8 335.6 338.6 339.1 321.8 336.7 337.9 337.3 -0.6

Waste management and remediation services

413.1 417.1 422.3 427.0 412.2 423.2 425.3 425.7 0.4

Education and health services

23,195 23,634 23,695 23,632 23,122 23,491 23,524 23,563 39

Educational services

3,711.8 3,869.0 3,882.0 3,759.2 3,660.6 3,697.7 3,701.8 3,708.9 7.1

Health care and social assistance

19,483.3 19,765.2 19,813.1 19,872.4 19,461.6 19,792.8 19,821.9 19,853.6 31.7

Health care(3)

15,660.0 15,902.3 15,933.1 15,975.7 15,677.8 15,943.9 15,966.9 15,995.8 28.9

Ambulatory health care services

7,262.0 7,416.0 7,442.3 7,469.9 7,264.4 7,439.8 7,454.9 7,472.8 17.9

Offices of physicians

2,571.5 2,620.6 2,627.8 2,632.8 2,576.6 2,627.1 2,633.6 2,637.9 4.3

Offices of dentists

931.2 936.2 938.6 942.7 931.0 940.5 941.2 942.7 1.5

Offices of other health practitioners

887.2 912.6 920.9 926.2 884.8 916.9 921.4 923.8 2.4

Outpatient care centers

889.3 923.8 924.3 929.5 889.6 924.0 925.5 930.0 4.5

Medical and diagnostic laboratories

266.7 277.1 277.1 277.7 267.9 277.3 277.2 278.6 1.4

Home health care services

1,411.5 1,437.3 1,445.2 1,453.8 1,409.2 1,444.2 1,447.1 1,451.2 4.1

Other ambulatory health care services

304.6 308.4 308.4 307.2 305.3 309.9 308.8 308.6 -0.2

Hospitals

5,054.1 5,149.4 5,150.8 5,153.5 5,067.6 5,152.1 5,161.2 5,167.4 6.2

Nursing and residential care facilities

3,343.9 3,336.9 3,340.0 3,352.3 3,345.8 3,352.0 3,350.8 3,355.6 4.8

Nursing care facilities

1,627.4 1,606.6 1,606.7 1,612.4 1,629.7 1,615.4 1,612.4 1,615.0 2.6

Residential mental health facilities

629.7 630.3 631.6 632.5 629.5 631.5 632.3 632.7 0.4

Community care facilities for the elderly

919.7 929.0 929.9 934.4 918.9 932.5 933.6 934.6 1.0

Other residential care facilities

167.1 171.0 171.8 173.0 167.8 172.6 172.5 173.4 0.9

Social assistance

3,823.3 3,862.9 3,880.0 3,896.7 3,783.8 3,848.9 3,855.0 3,857.8 2.8

Individual and family services

2,352.5 2,398.7 2,412.2 2,420.2 2,338.6 2,398.0 2,404.8 2,405.2 0.4

Emergency and other relief services

167.9 172.2 170.7 171.7 168.1 171.4 170.3 171.9 1.6

Vocational rehabilitation services

342.7 343.5 344.1 346.0 342.8 346.6 345.8 346.1 0.3

Child day care services

960.2 948.5 953.0 958.8 934.4 933.0 934.1 934.5 0.4

Leisure and hospitality

16,285 15,822 16,137 16,547 16,019 16,248 16,260 16,281 21

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

2,403.6 2,167.5 2,278.1 2,431.7 2,321.4 2,345.1 2,344.3 2,347.8 3.5

Performing arts and spectator sports

519.6 469.0 511.6 532.5 490.4 494.5 497.2 501.9 4.7

Museums, historical sites, and similar institutions

172.1 161.7 169.2 174.9 165.6 171.2 172.3 168.7 -3.6

Amusements, gambling, and recreation

1,711.9 1,536.8 1,597.3 1,724.3 1,665.4 1,679.4 1,674.8 1,677.2 2.4

Accommodation and food services

13,881.2 13,654.6 13,858.4 14,115.2 13,697.9 13,902.4 13,915.5 13,932.9 17.4

Accommodation

2,005.1 1,954.2 1,978.3 2,023.8 2,003.4 2,020.8 2,022.4 2,022.2 -0.2

Food services and drinking places

11,876.1 11,700.4 11,880.1 12,091.4 11,694.5 11,881.6 11,893.1 11,910.7 17.6

Other services

5,791 5,799 5,844 5,889 5,765 5,835 5,849 5,862 13

Repair and maintenance

1,316.0 1,312.8 1,321.5 1,330.0 1,306.4 1,314.1 1,317.3 1,320.6 3.3

Personal and laundry services

1,490.9 1,496.7 1,521.2 1,537.0 1,477.6 1,511.1 1,518.5 1,523.6 5.1

Membership associations and organizations

2,983.6 2,989.7 3,001.1 3,021.8 2,981.2 3,009.6 3,012.7 3,017.4 4.7

Government

22,650 22,696 22,707 22,659 22,305 22,324 22,321 22,326 5

Federal

2,806.0 2,775.0 2,784.0 2,782.0 2,807.0 2,791.0 2,789.0 2,786.0 -3.0

Federal, except U.S. Postal Service

2,189.2 2,169.8 2,175.6 2,178.4 2,190.0 2,183.5 2,182.6 2,179.8 -2.8

U.S. Postal Service

616.5 604.9 608.4 603.9 616.7 607.2 606.5 605.8 -0.7

State government

5,174.0 5,271.0 5,273.0 5,132.0 5,149.0 5,114.0 5,110.0 5,112.0 2.0

State government education

2,494.6 2,611.2 2,611.1 2,460.8 2,473.2 2,449.4 2,445.6 2,444.8 -0.8

State government, excluding education

2,678.9 2,659.8 2,661.7 2,671.4 2,675.5 2,664.9 2,664.1 2,667.4 3.3

Local government

14,670.0 14,650.0 14,650.0 14,745.0 14,349.0 14,419.0 14,422.0 14,428.0 6.0

Local government education

8,240.2 8,274.2 8,252.2 8,266.0 7,913.2 7,936.7 7,940.2 7,942.3 2.1

Local government, excluding education

6,429.9 6,375.8 6,397.5 6,479.2 6,435.6 6,481.8 6,481.7 6,485.6 3.9

Footnotes
(1) Includes other industries, not shown separately.
(2) Includes motor vehicles, motor vehicle bodies and trailers, and motor vehicle parts.
(3) Includes ambulatory health care services, hospitals, and nursing and residential care facilities.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2017 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-2. Average weekly hours and overtime of all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry May
2017
Mar.
2018
Apr.
2018(p)
May
2018(p)

AVERAGE WEEKLY HOURS

Total private

34.4 34.5 34.5 34.5

Goods-producing

40.4 40.5 40.7 40.6

Mining and logging

45.5 45.9 45.8 46.1

Construction

39.2 39.3 39.5 39.6

Manufacturing

40.7 40.9 41.0 40.8

Durable goods

41.3 41.3 41.5 41.2

Nondurable goods

39.8 40.2 40.2 40.2

Private service-providing

33.2 33.4 33.3 33.3

Trade, transportation, and utilities

34.4 34.5 34.4 34.5

Wholesale trade

39.0 39.1 38.9 39.1

Retail trade

31.0 31.2 31.0 31.1

Transportation and warehousing

38.7 38.7 38.8 38.7

Utilities

42.0 42.1 42.2 42.1

Information

36.2 36.0 36.1 36.0

Financial activities

37.4 37.6 37.5 37.5

Professional and business services

36.1 36.2 36.1 36.2

Education and health services

32.8 33.0 33.0 33.0

Leisure and hospitality

26.0 26.1 26.0 26.1

Other services

31.8 31.7 31.7 31.7

AVERAGE OVERTIME HOURS

Manufacturing

3.3 3.6 3.7 3.5

Durable goods

3.3 3.6 3.7 3.5

Nondurable goods

3.3 3.5 3.6 3.5

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2017 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-3. Average hourly and weekly earnings of all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Average hourly earnings Average weekly earnings
May
2017
Mar.
2018
Apr.
2018(p)
May
2018(p)
May
2017
Mar.
2018
Apr.
2018(p)
May
2018(p)

Total private

$26.21 $26.80 $26.84 $26.92 $901.62 $924.60 $925.98 $928.74

Goods-producing

27.45 27.96 28.05 28.07 1,108.98 1,132.38 1,141.64 1,139.64

Mining and logging

31.80 32.52 32.54 32.54 1,446.90 1,492.67 1,490.33 1,500.09

Construction

28.72 29.43 29.63 29.65 1,125.82 1,156.60 1,170.39 1,174.14

Manufacturing

26.51 26.87 26.90 26.90 1,078.96 1,098.98 1,102.90 1,097.52

Durable goods

27.76 28.15 28.22 28.24 1,146.49 1,162.60 1,171.13 1,163.49

Nondurable goods

24.39 24.68 24.64 24.62 970.72 992.14 990.53 989.72

Private service-providing

25.92 26.53 26.56 26.64 860.54 886.10 884.45 887.11

Trade, transportation, and utilities

22.70 23.13 23.17 23.24 780.88 797.99 797.05 801.78

Wholesale trade

29.94 30.30 30.24 30.43 1,167.66 1,184.73 1,176.34 1,189.81

Retail trade

18.12 18.47 18.58 18.64 561.72 576.26 575.98 579.70

Transportation and warehousing

23.77 24.31 24.29 24.30 919.90 940.80 942.45 940.41

Utilities

38.95 40.24 40.34 40.14 1,635.90 1,694.10 1,702.35 1,689.89

Information

38.13 39.15 39.31 39.40 1,380.31 1,409.40 1,419.09 1,418.40

Financial activities

32.94 34.40 34.29 34.77 1,231.96 1,293.44 1,285.88 1,303.88

Professional and business services

31.46 32.12 32.17 32.18 1,135.71 1,162.74 1,161.34 1,164.92

Education and health services

26.27 26.81 26.79 26.90 861.66 884.73 884.07 887.70

Leisure and hospitality

15.47 15.79 15.86 15.86 402.22 412.12 412.36 413.95

Other services

23.71 24.28 24.34 24.37 753.98 769.68 771.58 772.53

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2017 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-4. Indexes of aggregate weekly hours and payrolls for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
[2007=100]
Industry Index of aggregate weekly hours(1) Index of aggregate weekly payrolls(2)
May
2017
Mar.
2018
Apr.
2018(p)
May
2018(p)
Percent change from:
Apr.
2018 - May
2018(p)
May
2017
Mar.
2018
Apr.
2018(p)
May
2018(p)
Percent change from:
Apr.
2018 - May
2018(p)

Total private

107.1 109.1 109.2 109.4 0.2 134.1 139.7 140.1 140.8 0.5

Goods-producing

92.1 94.7 95.4 95.4 0.0 114.3 119.6 120.9 121.0 0.1

Mining and logging

96.5 104.1 104.9 106.2 1.2 123.2 136.0 137.1 138.7 1.2

Construction

93.6 97.1 97.8 98.4 0.6 116.8 124.1 126.0 126.8 0.6

Manufacturing

90.9 92.9 93.3 93.0 -0.3 112.1 116.1 116.8 116.4 -0.3

Durable goods

89.7 91.7 92.3 91.8 -0.5 110.6 114.6 115.7 115.2 -0.4

Nondurable goods

93.3 95.3 95.4 95.4 0.0 115.5 119.3 119.2 119.2 0.0

Private service-providing

111.1 113.3 113.1 113.3 0.2 139.9 146.1 146.0 146.6 0.4

Trade, transportation, and utilities

102.7 104.1 103.8 104.3 0.5 125.4 129.6 129.4 130.4 0.8

Wholesale trade

100.2 101.7 101.0 101.6 0.6 125.2 128.6 127.5 129.0 1.2

Retail trade

99.8 101.0 100.4 100.9 0.5 119.5 123.3 123.3 124.3 0.8

Transportation and warehousing

114.1 117.1 117.5 117.6 0.1 137.7 144.5 144.8 145.0 0.1

Utilities

100.7 100.9 101.4 101.0 -0.4 129.6 134.2 135.2 133.9 -1.0

Information

92.4 90.9 91.3 91.2 -0.1 125.4 126.7 127.8 128.0 0.2

Financial activities

103.3 105.3 105.0 105.1 0.1 132.7 141.2 140.5 142.6 1.5

Professional and business services

115.9 118.5 118.4 118.9 0.4 147.7 154.2 154.4 155.1 0.5

Education and health services

123.8 126.6 126.8 127.0 0.2 156.5 163.3 163.4 164.3 0.6

Leisure and hospitality

118.8 121.0 120.6 121.2 0.5 148.3 154.1 154.3 155.1 0.5

Other services

105.7 106.6 106.9 107.1 0.2 137.4 141.9 142.6 143.1 0.4

Footnotes
(1) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding 2007 annual average aggregate hours. Aggregate hours estimates are the product of estimates of average weekly hours and employment.
(2) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding 2007 annual average aggregate weekly payrolls. Aggregate payrolls estimates are the product of estimates of average hourly earnings, average weekly hours, and employment.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2017 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-5. Employment of women on nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Women employees (in thousands) Percent of all employees
May
2017
Mar.
2018
Apr.
2018(p)
May
2018(p)
May
2017
Mar.
2018
Apr.
2018(p)
May
2018(p)

Total nonfarm

72,476 73,522 73,626 73,801 49.5 49.6 49.6 49.6

Total private

59,684 60,676 60,778 60,930 48.1 48.2 48.2 48.2

Goods-producing

4,385 4,520 4,533 4,551 21.9 22.0 22.0 22.1

Mining and logging

92 93 93 94 13.6 12.9 12.8 12.8

Construction

874 916 918 920 12.6 12.8 12.8 12.8

Manufacturing

3,419 3,511 3,522 3,537 27.5 27.8 27.8 27.9

Durable goods

1,805 1,850 1,855 1,858 23.4 23.5 23.5 23.5

Nondurable goods

1,614 1,661 1,667 1,679 34.4 35.0 35.1 35.3

Private service-providing

55,299 56,156 56,245 56,379 53.2 53.3 53.3 53.3

Trade, transportation, and utilities

11,058 11,126 11,132 11,149 40.3 40.1 40.1 40.1

Wholesale trade

1,737.4 1,773.3 1,769.2 1,767.3 29.5 29.7 29.7 29.7

Retail trade

7,937.7 7,928.3 7,937.3 7,952.1 50.1 49.8 49.8 49.8

Transportation and warehousing

1,255.8 1,295.9 1,296.8 1,300.8 24.4 24.5 24.5 24.5

Utilities

127.4 128.1 128.7 128.6 23.0 23.1 23.2 23.2

Information

1,113 1,093 1,092 1,098 39.8 39.5 39.4 39.6

Financial activities

4,766 4,822 4,830 4,836 56.5 56.4 56.5 56.5

Professional and business services

9,186 9,406 9,437 9,460 45.0 45.2 45.2 45.3

Education and health services

17,808 18,092 18,116 18,157 77.0 77.0 77.0 77.1

Leisure and hospitality

8,324 8,522 8,539 8,563 52.0 52.4 52.5 52.6

Other services

3,044 3,095 3,099 3,116 52.8 53.0 53.0 53.2

Government

12,792 12,846 12,848 12,871 57.4 57.5 57.6 57.7

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2017 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-6. Employment of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
[In thousands]
Industry May
2017
Mar.
2018
Apr.
2018(p)
May
2018(p)

Total private

102,186 103,768 103,897 104,064

Goods-producing

14,402 14,758 14,796 14,838

Mining and logging

490 536 542 546

Construction

5,200 5,359 5,367 5,390

Manufacturing

8,712 8,863 8,887 8,902

Durable goods

5,296 5,417 5,439 5,454

Nondurable goods

3,416 3,446 3,448 3,448

Private service-providing

87,784 89,010 89,101 89,226

Trade, transportation, and utilities

23,109 23,438 23,443 23,475

Wholesale trade

4,720.1 4,784.5 4,770.4 4,774.8

Retail trade

13,472.0 13,615.0 13,628.3 13,644.2

Transportation and warehousing

4,472.0 4,593.1 4,598.9 4,610.9

Utilities

445.1 445.1 445.4 445.0

Information

2,252 2,223 2,230 2,233

Financial activities

6,555 6,628 6,624 6,626

Professional and business services

16,687 16,956 16,997 17,037

Education and health services

20,305 20,638 20,665 20,690

Leisure and hospitality

14,104 14,299 14,301 14,319

Other services

4,772 4,828 4,841 4,846

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2017 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-7. Average weekly hours and overtime of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry May
2017
Mar.
2018
Apr.
2018(p)
May
2018(p)

AVERAGE WEEKLY HOURS

Total private

33.6 33.7 33.8 33.8

Goods-producing

41.3 41.6 41.8 41.7

Mining and logging

46.1 47.0 47.1 47.7

Construction

39.9 40.0 40.2 40.3

Manufacturing

41.9 42.2 42.4 42.2

Durable goods

42.4 42.5 42.7 42.3

Nondurable goods

41.1 41.7 41.9 41.9

Private service-providing

32.4 32.4 32.4 32.5

Trade, transportation, and utilities

33.7 33.9 33.9 33.9

Wholesale trade

38.9 38.9 38.9 39.0

Retail trade

30.1 30.4 30.3 30.4

Transportation and warehousing

38.3 38.2 38.3 38.2

Utilities

42.3 42.8 43.0 42.8

Information

35.8 35.9 35.9 35.6

Financial activities

37.0 36.9 37.0 37.0

Professional and business services

35.4 35.3 35.3 35.3

Education and health services

32.2 32.3 32.3 32.3

Leisure and hospitality

24.8 24.9 24.9 24.9

Other services

30.7 30.7 30.7 30.7

AVERAGE OVERTIME HOURS

Manufacturing

4.3 4.6 4.8 4.6

Durable goods

4.4 4.7 4.9 4.6

Nondurable goods

4.1 4.5 4.6 4.5

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2017 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-8. Average hourly and weekly earnings of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry Average hourly earnings Average weekly earnings
May
2017
Mar.
2018
Apr.
2018(p)
May
2018(p)
May
2017
Mar.
2018
Apr.
2018(p)
May
2018(p)

Total private

$21.98 $22.46 $22.52 $22.59 $738.53 $756.90 $761.18 $763.54

Goods-producing

23.05 23.72 23.81 23.83 951.97 986.75 995.26 993.71

Mining and logging

27.26 27.83 27.94 28.01 1,256.69 1,308.01 1,315.97 1,336.08

Construction

26.54 27.36 27.49 27.50 1,058.95 1,094.40 1,105.10 1,108.25

Manufacturing

20.80 21.36 21.43 21.41 871.52 901.39 908.63 903.50

Durable goods

21.78 22.29 22.39 22.36 923.47 947.33 956.05 945.83

Nondurable goods

19.22 19.88 19.89 19.91 789.94 829.00 833.39 834.23

Private service-providing

21.75 22.19 22.24 22.32 704.70 718.96 720.58 725.40

Trade, transportation, and utilities

19.28 19.68 19.76 19.87 649.74 667.15 669.86 673.59

Wholesale trade

24.59 24.87 24.91 25.11 956.55 967.44 969.00 979.29

Retail trade

15.26 15.69 15.81 15.93 459.33 476.98 479.04 484.27

Transportation and warehousing

21.23 21.74 21.79 21.79 813.11 830.47 834.56 832.38

Utilities

36.18 36.80 36.47 36.53 1,530.41 1,575.04 1,568.21 1,563.48

Information

30.70 31.49 31.29 31.73 1,099.06 1,130.49 1,123.31 1,129.59

Financial activities

26.48 26.84 26.89 26.95 979.76 990.40 994.93 997.15

Professional and business services

25.90 26.49 26.54 26.60 916.86 935.10 936.86 938.98

Education and health services

23.00 23.43 23.45 23.54 740.60 756.79 757.44 760.34

Leisure and hospitality

13.37 13.68 13.73 13.78 331.58 340.63 341.88 343.12

Other services

19.94 20.49 20.53 20.56 612.16 629.04 630.27 631.19

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2017 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-9. Indexes of aggregate weekly hours and payrolls for production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
[2002=100]
Industry Index of aggregate weekly hours(2) Index of aggregate weekly payrolls(3)
May
2017
Mar.
2018
Apr.
2018(p)
May
2018(p)
Percent change from:
Apr.
2018 - May
2018(p)
May
2017
Mar.
2018
Apr.
2018(p)
May
2018(p)
Percent change from:
Apr.
2018 - May
2018(p)

Total private

114.4 116.5 117.0 117.2 0.2 168.0 174.9 176.1 176.9 0.5

Goods-producing

90.9 93.8 94.5 94.6 0.1 128.3 136.3 137.8 138.0 0.1

Mining and logging

120.0 133.9 135.7 138.4 2.0 190.3 216.7 220.4 225.5 2.3

Construction

103.9 107.3 108.0 108.8 0.7 148.9 158.6 160.4 161.5 0.7

Manufacturing

83.8 85.9 86.5 86.2 -0.3 114.0 119.9 121.2 120.7 -0.4

Durable goods

84.4 86.5 87.3 86.7 -0.7 114.8 120.4 122.0 121.0 -0.8

Nondurable goods

82.7 84.7 85.1 85.1 0.0 112.4 118.9 119.6 119.8 0.2

Private service-providing

121.1 122.8 122.9 123.5 0.5 180.7 186.9 187.5 189.0 0.8

Trade, transportation, and utilities

108.6 110.8 110.8 110.9 0.1 149.3 155.5 156.2 157.3 0.7

Wholesale trade

108.1 109.6 109.3 109.7 0.4 156.6 160.6 160.4 162.2 1.1

Retail trade

102.6 104.8 104.5 105.0 0.5 134.2 140.9 141.6 143.3 1.2

Transportation and warehousing

128.9 132.1 132.6 132.6 0.0 173.6 182.1 183.3 183.3 0.0

Utilities

96.3 97.4 97.9 97.4 -0.5 145.4 149.6 149.1 148.5 -0.4

Information

92.0 91.1 91.4 90.7 -0.8 139.8 142.0 141.5 142.5 0.7

Financial activities

114.2 115.1 115.4 115.4 0.0 186.0 190.1 190.9 191.4 0.3

Professional and business services

132.4 134.1 134.5 134.8 0.2 204.0 211.5 212.4 213.4 0.5

Education and health services

139.4 142.1 142.3 142.5 0.1 211.6 219.8 220.3 221.4 0.5

Leisure and hospitality

128.1 130.4 130.4 130.6 0.2 194.5 202.6 203.4 204.4 0.5

Other services

102.7 103.9 104.2 104.3 0.1 149.3 155.2 155.9 156.3 0.3

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(2) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding 2002 annual average aggregate hours. Aggregate hours estimates are the product of estimates of average weekly hours and employment.
(3) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding 2002 annual average aggregate weekly payrolls. Aggregate payrolls estimates are the product of estimates of average hourly earnings, average weekly hours, and employment.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2017 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


Last Modified Date: June 01, 2018