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Economic News Release
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CPS CPS Program Links
CES CES Program Links

Employment Situation News Release

Transmission of material in this news release is embargoed until	       USDL-23-1196
8:30 a.m. (ET) Friday, June 2, 2023

Technical information:
 Household data:     (202) 691-6378  *  cpsinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/cps
 Establishment data: (202) 691-6555  *  cesinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/ces

Media contact:	     (202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov


                     THE EMPLOYMENT SITUATION -- MAY 2023


Total nonfarm payroll employment increased by 339,000 in May, and the unemployment 
rate rose by 0.3 percentage point to 3.7 percent, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics 
reported today. Job gains occurred in professional and business services, government, 
health care, construction, transportation and warehousing, and social assistance.

This news release presents statistics from two monthly surveys. The household survey 
measures labor force status, including unemployment, by demographic characteristics. 
The establishment survey measures nonfarm employment, hours, and earnings by industry. 
For more information about the concepts and statistical methodology used in these two 
surveys, see the Technical Note.

Household Survey Data

The unemployment rate increased by 0.3 percentage point to 3.7 percent in May, and 
the number of unemployed persons rose by 440,000 to 6.1 million. The unemployment 
rate has ranged from 3.4 percent to 3.7 percent since March 2022. (See table A-1.)

Among the major worker groups, the unemployment rates for adult women (3.3 percent) 
and Blacks (5.6 percent) rose in May. The jobless rates for adult men (3.5 percent), 
teenagers (10.3 percent), Whites (3.3 percent), Asians (2.9 percent), and Hispanics 
(4.0 percent) showed little change over the month. (See tables A-1, A-2, and A-3.)

The number of job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs increased by 
318,000 to 3.0 million in May, offsetting a decrease in the previous month. 
(See table A-11.)

In May, the number of persons jobless less than 5 weeks edged up by 217,000 to
2.1 million, partially offsetting a decrease in the prior month. The number of 
persons jobless 15 to 26 weeks increased by 179,000 to 858,000 in May. The number
of long-term unemployed (those jobless for 27 weeks or more) was essentially 
unchanged at 1.2 million and accounted for 19.8 percent of the total unemployed. 
(See table A-12.)

The labor force participation rate held at 62.6 percent in May, and the 
employment-population ratio, at 60.3 percent, was little changed. 
(See table A-1.)

The number of persons employed part time for economic reasons, at 3.7 million, 
changed little in May. These individuals, who would have preferred full-time 
employment, were working part time because their hours had been reduced or they 
were unable to find full-time jobs. (See table A-8.)

The number of persons not in the labor force who currently want a job was 5.5
million in May, little different from the prior month. These individuals were 
not counted as unemployed because they were not actively looking for work 
during the 4 weeks preceding the survey or were unavailable to take a job. 
(See table A-1.)

Among those not in the labor force who wanted a job, the number of persons 
marginally attached to the labor force was little changed at 1.5 million in 
May. These individuals wanted and were available for work and had looked for 
a job sometime in the prior 12 months but had not looked for work in the 4 
weeks preceding the survey. The number of discouraged workers, a subset of 
the marginally attached who believed that no jobs were available for them, 
was little changed over the month at 422,000. (See Summary table A.)

Establishment Survey Data

Total nonfarm payroll employment increased by 339,000 in May, in line with 
the average monthly gain of 341,000 over the prior 12 months. In May, job 
gains occurred in professional and business services, government, health 
care, construction, transportation and warehousing, and social assistance. 
(See table B-1.) 

In May, professional and business services added 64,000 jobs, following an 
increase of similar size in April. Employment growth continued in 
professional, scientific, and technical services, which added 43,000 jobs 
in May.

Government employment increased by 56,000 in May, compared with the average
monthly gain of 42,000 over the prior 12 months. Employment in government 
is below its pre-pandemic February 2020 level by 209,000, or 0.9 percent.

Health care added 52,000 jobs in May, similar to the average monthly gain 
of 50,000 over the prior 12 months. In May, job growth occurred in 
ambulatory health care services (+24,000), hospitals (+20,000), and 
nursing and residential care facilities (+9,000).

Employment in leisure and hospitality continued to trend up in May 
(+48,000), largely in food services and drinking places (+33,000). 
Leisure and hospitality had added an average of 77,000 jobs per month 
over the prior 12 months. Employment in this industry remains below its 
February 2020 level by 349,000, or 2.1 percent.

In May, construction added 25,000 jobs, including 11,000 jobs in heavy and 
civil engineering construction. Over the prior 12 months, construction had 
added an average of 17,000 jobs per month. 

Employment in transportation and warehousing increased by 24,000 in May. 
Transit and ground passenger transportation added 12,000 jobs, offsetting 
a decrease in the prior month. In May, employment also increased in couriers 
and messengers (+8,000) and air transportation (+3,000). Employment in 
transportation and warehousing has shown no clear trend in recent months.

In May, employment in social assistance rose by 22,000, in line with the 
average monthly gain of 23,000 over the prior 12 months. Over the month, 
individual and family services added 17,000 jobs. 

Employment was little changed over the month in other major industries, 
including mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction; manufacturing; 
wholesale trade; retail trade; information; financial activities; and other 
services.

In May, average hourly earnings for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls
rose by 11 cents, or 0.3 percent, to $33.44. Over the past 12 months, average 
hourly earnings have increased by 4.3 percent. In May, average hourly earnings 
of private-sector production and nonsupervisory employees rose by 13 cents, or 
0.5 percent, to $28.75. (See tables B-3 and B-8.)

The average workweek for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls edged down 
by 0.1 hour to 34.3 hours in May. In manufacturing, the average workweek was 
unchanged at 40.1 hours, and overtime edged up by 0.1 hour to 3.0 hours. The 
average workweek for production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm 
payrolls remained at 33.8 hours. (See tables B-2 and B-7.)

The change in total nonfarm payroll employment for March was revised up by 52,000, 
from +165,000 to +217,000, and the change for April was revised up by 41,000, from 
+253,000 to +294,000. With these revisions, employment in March and April combined 
is 93,000 higher than previously reported. (Monthly revisions result from additional 
reports received from businesses and government agencies since the last published 
estimates and from the recalculation of seasonal factors.)

_____________
The Employment Situation for June is scheduled to be released on Friday, July 7, 
2023, at 8:30 a.m. (ET).




HOUSEHOLD DATA
Summary table A. Household data, seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Category May
2022
Mar.
2023
Apr.
2023
May
2023
Change from:
Apr.
2023-
May
2023

Employment status

Civilian noninstitutional population

263,679 266,272 266,443 266,618 175

Civilian labor force

164,278 166,731 166,688 166,818 130

Participation rate

62.3 62.6 62.6 62.6 0.0

Employed

158,299 160,892 161,031 160,721 -310

Employment-population ratio

60.0 60.4 60.4 60.3 -0.1

Unemployed

5,979 5,839 5,657 6,097 440

Unemployment rate

3.6 3.5 3.4 3.7 0.3

Not in labor force

99,400 99,541 99,755 99,800 45

Unemployment rates

Total, 16 years and over

3.6 3.5 3.4 3.7 0.3

Adult men (20 years and over)

3.4 3.4 3.3 3.5 0.2

Adult women (20 years and over)

3.4 3.1 3.1 3.3 0.2

Teenagers (16 to 19 years)

10.5 9.8 9.2 10.3 1.1

White

3.2 3.2 3.1 3.3 0.2

Black or African American

6.2 5.0 4.7 5.6 0.9

Asian

2.4 2.8 2.8 2.9 0.1

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

4.4 4.6 4.4 4.0 -0.4

Total, 25 years and over

3.0 2.9 2.9 3.0 0.1

Less than a high school diploma

5.2 4.8 5.4 5.7 0.3

High school graduates, no college

3.8 4.0 3.9 3.9 0.0

Some college or associate degree

3.4 3.0 2.9 3.2 0.3

Bachelor's degree and higher

2.0 2.0 1.9 2.1 0.2

Reason for unemployment

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

2,732 2,949 2,642 2,960 318

Job leavers

766 845 790 765 -25

Reentrants

1,944 1,665 1,761 1,821 60

New entrants

530 492 531 508 -23

Duration of unemployment

Less than 5 weeks

2,052 2,272 1,866 2,083 217

5 to 14 weeks

1,771 1,733 1,915 1,865 -50

15 to 26 weeks

687 734 679 858 179

27 weeks and over

1,349 1,104 1,156 1,188 32

Employed persons at work part time

Part time for economic reasons

4,317 4,102 3,903 3,739 -164

Slack work or business conditions

3,000 2,873 2,760 2,582 -178

Could only find part-time work

984 882 817 824 7

Part time for noneconomic reasons

20,822 21,433 21,796 21,864 68

Persons not in the labor force

Marginally attached to the labor force

1,477 1,289 1,480 1,508 28

Discouraged workers

418 351 364 422 58

NOTE: Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Summary table B. Establishment data, seasonally adjusted
Category May
2022
Mar.
2023
Apr.
2023(p)
May
2023(p)

EMPLOYMENT BY SELECTED INDUSTRY
(Over-the-month change, in thousands)

Total nonfarm

364 217 294 339

Total private

343 157 253 283

Goods-producing

61 -19 28 26

Mining and logging

2 2 5 3

Construction

38 -9 13 25

Manufacturing

21 -12 10 -2

Durable goods(1)

8 -5 11 3

Motor vehicles and parts

-6.4 4.8 9.0 6.8

Nondurable goods

13 -7 -1 -5

Private service-providing

282 176 225 257

Wholesale trade

18.3 3.5 2.4 1.1

Retail trade

-51.4 -18.9 10.0 11.6

Transportation and warehousing

45.3 16.2 3.7 24.2

Utilities

0.7 1.7 1.5 0.1

Information

32 3 1 -9

Financial activities

6 -5 25 10

Professional and business services(1)

72 45 65 64

Temporary help services

3.6 -3.3 -6.9 7.7

Private education and health services(1)

76 70 85 97

Health care and social assistance

56.9 55.9 69.1 74.6

Leisure and hospitality

73 46 30 48

Other services

10 14 2 10

Government

21 60 41 56

(3-month average change, in thousands)

Total nonfarm

344 312 253 283

Total private

331 234 201 231

WOMEN AND PRODUCTION AND NONSUPERVISORY EMPLOYEES
AS A PERCENT OF ALL EMPLOYEES(2)

Total nonfarm women employees

49.7 49.8 49.8 49.8

Total private women employees

48.3 48.3 48.3 48.3

Total private production and nonsupervisory employees

81.5 81.4 81.4 81.4

HOURS AND EARNINGS
ALL EMPLOYEES

Total private

Average weekly hours

34.6 34.4 34.4 34.3

Average hourly earnings

$32.06 $33.20 $33.33 $33.44

Average weekly earnings

$1,109.28 $1,142.08 $1,146.55 $1,146.99

Index of aggregate weekly hours (2007=100)(3)

112.8 114.8 115.0 114.9

Over-the-month percent change

0.3 -0.2 0.2 -0.1

Index of aggregate weekly payrolls (2007=100)(4)

173.0 182.2 183.2 183.7

Over-the-month percent change

0.6 0.1 0.5 0.3

DIFFUSION INDEX
(Over 1-month span)(5)

Total private (250 industries)

70.6 57.0 58.8 60.2

Manufacturing (72 industries)

68.1 43.8 44.4 47.2

Footnotes
(1) Includes other industries, not shown separately.
(2) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries.
(3) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding annual average aggregate hours.
(4) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding annual average aggregate weekly payrolls.
(5) Figures are the percent of industries with employment increasing plus one-half of the industries with unchanged employment, where 50 percent indicates an equal balance between industries with increasing and decreasing employment.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2022 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


Frequently Asked Questions about Employment and Unemployment Estimates

1. Why are there two monthly measures of employment?

   The household survey and establishment survey both produce sample-based estimates
   of employment, and both have strengths and limitations. The establishment survey
   employment series has a smaller margin of error on the measurement of month-to-
   month change than the household survey because of its much larger sample size. An
   over-the-month employment change of about 130,000 is statistically significant in
   the establishment survey, while the threshold for a statistically significant change
   in the household survey is about 600,000. However, the household survey has a more
   expansive scope than the establishment survey because it includes self-employed
   workers whose businesses are unincorporated, unpaid family workers, agricultural
   workers, and private household workers, who are excluded by the establishment survey.
   The household survey also provides estimates of employment for demographic groups.
   For more information on the differences between the two surveys, please visit
   www.bls.gov/web/empsit/ces_cps_trends.htm.

2. Are undocumented immigrants counted in the surveys?

   It is likely that both surveys include at least some undocumented immigrants. However,
   neither the establishment nor the household survey is designed to identify the legal
   status of workers. Therefore, it is not possible to determine how many are counted in
   either survey. The establishment survey does not collect data on the legal status of
   workers. The household survey does include questions which identify the foreign and
   native born, but it does not include questions about the legal status of the foreign
   born. Data on the foreign and native born are published each month in table A-7 of
   The Employment Situation news release.

3. Why does the establishment survey have revisions?

   The establishment survey revises published estimates to improve its data series by
   incorporating additional information that was not available at the time of the
   initial publication of the estimates. The establishment survey revises its initial
   monthly estimates twice, in the immediately succeeding 2 months, to incorporate
   additional sample receipts from respondents in the survey and recalculated seasonal
   adjustment factors. For more information on the monthly revisions, please visit
   www.bls.gov/web/empsit/cestn.htm#section7.

   On an annual basis, the establishment survey incorporates a benchmark revision that
   re-anchors estimates to nearly complete employment counts available from unemployment
   insurance tax records. The benchmark helps to control for sampling and modeling errors
   in the estimates. For more information on the annual benchmark revision, please visit
   www.bls.gov/web/empsit/cesbmart.htm.

4. Does the establishment survey sample include small firms?

   Yes; about 40 percent of the establishment survey sample is comprised of business
   establishments with fewer than 20 employees. The establishment survey sample is
   designed to maximize the reliability of the statewide total nonfarm employment
   estimate; firms from all states, size classes, and industries are appropriately
   sampled to achieve that goal.

5. Does the establishment survey account for employment from new businesses?

   Yes; monthly establishment survey estimates include an adjustment to account for
   the net employment change generated by business births and deaths. The adjustment
   comes from an econometric model that forecasts the monthly net jobs impact of
   business births and deaths based on the actual past values of the net impact that
   can be observed with a lag from the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages. The
   establishment survey uses modeling rather than sampling for this purpose because
   the survey is not immediately able to bring new businesses into the sample. There
   is an unavoidable lag between the birth of a new firm and its appearance on the
   sampling frame and availability for selection. BLS adds new businesses to the survey
   twice a year.

6. Is the count of unemployed persons limited to just those people receiving unemployment
   insurance benefits?

   No; the estimate of unemployment is based on a monthly sample survey of households.
   All persons who are without jobs and are actively seeking and available to work are
   included among the unemployed. (People on temporary layoff are included even if
   they do not actively seek work.) There is no requirement or question relating to
   unemployment insurance benefits in the monthly survey.

7. Does the official unemployment rate exclude people who want a job but are not currently
   looking for work?

   Yes; however, there are separate estimates of persons outside the labor force who
   want a job, including those who are not currently looking because they believe no
   jobs are available (discouraged workers). In addition, alternative measures of labor
   underutilization (some of which include discouraged workers and other groups not
   officially counted as unemployed) are published each month in table A-15 of The
   Employment Situation news release. For more information about these alternative
   measures, please visit www.bls.gov/cps/lfcharacteristics.htm#altmeasures.

8. How can unusually severe weather affect employment and hours estimates?

   In the establishment survey, the reference period is the pay period that includes
   the 12th of the month. Unusually severe weather is more likely to have an impact on
   average weekly hours than on employment. Average weekly hours are estimated for paid
   time during the pay period, including pay for holidays, sick leave, or other time off.
   The impact of severe weather on hours estimates typically, but not always, results in
   a reduction in average weekly hours. For example, some employees may be off work for
   part of the pay period and not receive pay for the time missed, while some workers,
   such as those dealing with cleanup or repair, may work extra hours.
   
   Typically, it is not possible to precisely quantify the effect of extreme weather on 
   payroll employment estimates. In order for severe weather conditions to reduce
   employment estimates, employees have to be off work without pay for the entire pay
   period. Employees who receive pay for any part of the pay period, even 1 hour, are
   counted in the payroll employment figures. For more information on how often employees
   are paid, please visit www.bls.gov/ces/publications/length-pay-period.htm.

   In the household survey, the reference period is generally the calendar week that
   includes the 12th of the month. Persons who miss the entire week's work for weather-
   related events are counted as employed whether or not they are paid for the time
   off. The household survey collects data on the number of persons who had a job but
   were not at work due to bad weather. It also provides a measure of the number of
   persons who usually work full time but had reduced hours due to bad weather. 
   Current and historical data are available on the household survey's most requested
   statistics page, please visit data.bls.gov/cgi-bin/surveymost?ln.




Technical Note


   This news release presents statistics from two major surveys, the Current
Population Survey (CPS; household survey) and the Current Employment Statistics
survey (CES; establishment survey). The household survey provides information
on the labor force, employment, and unemployment that appears in the "A" tables,
marked HOUSEHOLD DATA. It is a sample survey of about 60,000 eligible households
conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau for the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS).

   The establishment survey provides information on employment, hours, and
earnings of employees on nonfarm payrolls; the data appear in the "B" tables,
marked ESTABLISHMENT DATA. BLS collects these data each month from the payroll
records of a sample of nonagricultural business establishments. Each month
the CES program surveys about 122,000 businesses and government agencies,
representing approximately 666,000 individual worksites, in order to provide
detailed industry data on employment, hours, and earnings of workers on nonfarm
payrolls. The active sample includes approximately one-third of all nonfarm
payroll jobs.

   For both surveys, the data for a given month relate to a particular week or
pay period. In the household survey, the reference period is generally the
calendar week that contains the 12th day of the month. In the establishment
survey, the reference period is the pay period including the 12th, which may or
may not correspond directly to the calendar week.

Coverage, definitions, and differences between surveys

   Household survey. The sample is selected to reflect the entire civilian 
noninstitutional population. Based on responses to a series of questions on 
work and job search activities, each person 16 years and over in a sample
household is classified as employed, unemployed, or not in the labor force.

   People are classified as employed if they did any work at all as paid employees
during the reference week; worked in their own business, profession, or on their
own farm; or worked without pay at least 15 hours in a family business or farm.
People are also counted as employed if they were temporarily absent from their jobs
because of illness, bad weather, vacation, labor-management disputes, or personal
reasons.

   People are classified as unemployed if they meet all of the following criteria:
they had no employment during the reference week; they were available for work at
that time; and they made specific active efforts to find employment sometime during
the 4-week period ending with the reference week. Persons laid off from a job and
expecting recall need not be looking for work to be counted as unemployed. The
unemployment data derived from the household survey in no way depend upon the
eligibility for or receipt of unemployment insurance benefits.

   The civilian labor force is the sum of employed and unemployed persons.
Those persons not classified as employed or unemployed are not in the labor 
force. The unemployment rate is the number unemployed as a percent of the 
labor force. The labor force participation rate is the labor force as a 
percent of the population, and the employment-population ratio is the 
employed as a percent of the population. Additional information about the 
household survey can be found at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm.

   Establishment survey. The sample establishments are drawn from private
nonfarm businesses such as factories, offices, and stores, as well as
from federal, state, and local government entities. Employees on nonfarm
payrolls are those who worked or received pay for any part of the reference pay
period, including persons on paid leave. Persons are counted in each job
they hold. Hours and earnings data are produced for the private sector for
all employees and for production and nonsupervisory employees. Production
and nonsupervisory employees are defined as production and related employees
in manufacturing and mining and logging, construction workers in construction,
and nonsupervisory employees in private service-providing industries.

   Industries are classified on the basis of an establishment's principal
activity in accordance with the 2022 version of the North American Industry
Classification System. Additional information about the establishment survey
can be found at www.bls.gov/ces/.

   Differences in employment estimates. The numerous conceptual and methodological
differences between the household and establishment surveys result in important
distinctions in the employment estimates derived from the surveys. Among these are:

   --The household survey includes agricultural workers, self-employed workers
     whose businesses are unincorporated, unpaid family workers, and private
     household workers among the employed. These groups are excluded from the
     establishment survey.

   --The household survey includes people on unpaid leave among the employed.
     The establishment survey does not.

   --The household survey is limited to workers 16 years of age and older.
     The establishment survey is not limited by age.

   --The household survey has no duplication of individuals, because
     individuals are counted only once, even if they hold more than one
     job. In the establishment survey, employees working at more than one
     job and thus appearing on more than one payroll are counted separately
     for each appearance.

Seasonal adjustment

   Over the course of a year, the size of the nation's labor force and the levels
of employment and unemployment undergo regularly occurring fluctuations. These 
events may result from seasonal changes in weather, major holidays, and the opening
and closing of schools. The effect of such seasonal variation can be very large.

   Because these seasonal events follow a more or less regular pattern each year,
their influence on the level of a series can be tempered by adjusting for regular
seasonal variation. These adjustments make nonseasonal developments, such as
declines in employment or increases in the participation of women in the labor
force, easier to spot. For example, in the household survey, the large number of
youth entering the labor force each June is likely to obscure any other changes
that have taken place relative to May, making it difficult to determine if the 
level of economic activity has risen or declined. Similarly, in the establishment
survey, payroll employment in education declines by about 20 percent at the end
of the spring term and later rises with the start of the fall term, obscuring the
underlying employment trends in the industry. Because seasonal employment changes
at the end and beginning of the school year can be estimated, the statistics can be
adjusted to make underlying employment patterns more discernable.  The seasonally
adjusted figures provide a more useful tool with which to analyze changes in
month-to-month economic activity.

   Many seasonally adjusted series are independently adjusted in both the household
and establishment surveys. However, the adjusted series for many major estimates,
such as total payroll employment, employment in most major sectors, total employment,
and unemployment are computed by aggregating independently adjusted component series.
For example, total unemployment is derived by summing the adjusted series for four
major age-sex components; this differs from the unemployment estimate that would be
obtained by directly adjusting the total or by combining the duration, reasons, or 
more detailed age categories. Percentage distributions of unemployment by reason and
duration are derived from the sum of the independently seasonally adjusted component
series and will not necessarily match calculations made using the seasonally adjusted
total unemployment level. Additional information about seasonal adjustment in the 
household survey can be found at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#sa.

   For both the household and establishment surveys, a concurrent seasonal adjustment
methodology is used in which new seasonal factors are calculated each month using all
relevant data, up to and including the data for the current month. In the household
survey, new seasonal factors are used to adjust only the current month's data. In the
establishment survey, however, new seasonal factors are used each month to adjust the
three most recent monthly estimates. The prior 2 months are routinely revised to
incorporate additional sample reports and recalculated seasonal adjustment factors.
In both surveys, 5-year revisions to historical data are made once a year.

Reliability of the estimates

   Statistics based on the household and establishment surveys are subject to both
sampling and nonsampling error. When a sample, rather than the entire population,
is surveyed, there is a chance that the sample estimates may differ from the true
population values they represent. The component of this difference that occurs
because samples differ by chance is known as sampling error, and its variability
is measured by the standard error of the estimate. There is about a 90-percent
chance, or level of confidence, that an estimate based on a sample will differ by
no more than 1.6 standard errors from the true population value because of sampling
error. BLS analyses are generally conducted at the 90-percent level of confidence.

   For example, the confidence interval for the monthly change in total nonfarm
employment from the establishment survey is on the order of plus or minus 130,000.
Suppose the estimate of nonfarm employment increases by 50,000 from one month to
the next. The 90-percent confidence interval on the monthly change would range from
-80,000 to +180,000 (50,000 +/- 130,000). These figures do not mean that the sample
results are off by these magnitudes, but rather that there is about a 90-percent
chance that the true over-the-month change lies within this interval. Since this
range includes values of less than zero, we could not say with confidence that
nonfarm employment had, in fact, increased that month. If, however, the reported
nonfarm employment rise was 250,000, then all of the values within the 90-percent
confidence interval would be greater than zero. In this case, it is likely (at
least a 90-percent chance) that nonfarm employment had, in fact, risen that month.
At an unemployment rate of around 6.0 percent, the 90-percent confidence interval
for the monthly change in unemployment as measured by the household survey is
about +/- 300,000, and for the monthly change in the unemployment rate it is about
+/- 0.2 percentage point.

   In general, estimates involving many individuals or establishments have lower
standard errors (relative to the size of the estimate) than estimates which are based
on a small number of observations. The precision of estimates also is improved when
the data are cumulated over time, such as for quarterly and annual averages.

   The household and establishment surveys are also affected by nonsampling error,
which can occur for many reasons, including the failure to sample a segment of the
population, inability to obtain information for all respondents in the sample,
inability or unwillingness of respondents to provide correct information on a
timely basis, mistakes made by respondents, and errors made in the collection or
processing of the data.

   For example, in the establishment survey, estimates for the most recent 2 months
are based on incomplete returns; for this reason, these estimates are labeled
preliminary in the tables. It is only after two successive revisions to a monthly
estimate, when nearly all sample reports have been received, that the estimate is
considered final.

   Another major source of nonsampling error in the establishment survey is the
inability to capture, on a timely basis, employment generated by new firms. To
correct for this systematic underestimation of employment growth, an estimation
procedure with two components is used to account for business births. The first
component excludes employment losses from business deaths from sample-based
estimation in order to offset the missing employment gains from business births.
This is incorporated into the sample-based estimation procedure by simply not
reflecting sample units going out of business, but imputing to them the same
employment trend as the other firms in the sample. This procedure accounts for
most of the net birth/death employment.

   The second component is an ARIMA time series model designed to estimate the
residual net birth/death employment not accounted for by the imputation. The
historical time series used to create and test the ARIMA model was derived from
the unemployment insurance universe micro-level database, and reflects the actual
residual net of births and deaths over the past 5 years.

   The sample-based estimates from the establishment survey are adjusted once a
year (on a lagged basis) to universe counts of payroll employment obtained from
administrative records of the unemployment insurance program. The difference 
between the March sample-based employment estimates and the March universe counts
is known as a benchmark revision, and serves as a rough proxy for total survey
error. The new benchmarks also incorporate changes in the classification of
industries. Over the past decade, absolute benchmark revisions for total nonfarm
employment have averaged 0.1 percent, with a range from -0.3 percent to 0.3 percent.

Other information

   If you are deaf, hard of hearing, or have a speech disability, please dial 7-1-1
to access telecommunications relay services.




HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-1. Employment status of the civilian population by sex and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
May
2022
Apr.
2023
May
2023
May
2022
Jan.
2023
Feb.
2023
Mar.
2023
Apr.
2023
May
2023

TOTAL

Civilian noninstitutional population

263,679 266,443 266,618 263,679 265,962 266,112 266,272 266,443 266,618

Civilian labor force

164,157 166,221 166,702 164,278 165,832 166,251 166,731 166,688 166,818

Participation rate

62.3 62.4 62.5 62.3 62.4 62.5 62.6 62.6 62.6

Employed

158,609 161,075 161,002 158,299 160,138 160,315 160,892 161,031 160,721

Employment-population ratio

60.2 60.5 60.4 60.0 60.2 60.2 60.4 60.4 60.3

Unemployed

5,548 5,146 5,700 5,979 5,694 5,936 5,839 5,657 6,097

Unemployment rate

3.4 3.1 3.4 3.6 3.4 3.6 3.5 3.4 3.7

Not in labor force

99,521 100,222 99,916 99,400 100,130 99,861 99,541 99,755 99,800

Persons who currently want a job

6,180 5,145 6,004 5,678 5,314 5,103 4,925 5,271 5,477

Men, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

128,470 130,234 130,319 128,470 129,998 130,072 130,150 130,234 130,319

Civilian labor force

87,312 88,437 88,701 87,288 88,334 88,474 88,999 88,686 88,704

Participation rate

68.0 67.9 68.1 67.9 67.9 68.0 68.4 68.1 68.1

Employed

84,379 85,534 85,626 84,124 85,186 85,266 85,776 85,611 85,410

Employment-population ratio

65.7 65.7 65.7 65.5 65.5 65.6 65.9 65.7 65.5

Unemployed

2,933 2,903 3,075 3,163 3,147 3,208 3,223 3,075 3,294

Unemployment rate

3.4 3.3 3.5 3.6 3.6 3.6 3.6 3.5 3.7

Not in labor force

41,158 41,797 41,618 41,182 41,665 41,597 41,151 41,548 41,616

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

119,831 121,488 121,565 119,831 121,283 121,346 121,415 121,488 121,565

Civilian labor force

84,273 85,396 85,576 84,165 85,084 85,210 85,696 85,439 85,487

Participation rate

70.3 70.3 70.4 70.2 70.2 70.2 70.6 70.3 70.3

Employed

81,649 82,743 82,810 81,331 82,324 82,407 82,816 82,661 82,526

Employment-population ratio

68.1 68.1 68.1 67.9 67.9 67.9 68.2 68.0 67.9

Unemployed

2,624 2,653 2,765 2,834 2,760 2,803 2,880 2,778 2,961

Unemployment rate

3.1 3.1 3.2 3.4 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.3 3.5

Not in labor force

35,558 36,092 35,989 35,665 36,199 36,136 35,718 36,049 36,078

Women, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

135,209 136,209 136,299 135,209 135,963 136,040 136,122 136,209 136,299

Civilian labor force

76,845 77,784 78,001 76,990 77,498 77,777 77,732 78,002 78,114

Participation rate

56.8 57.1 57.2 56.9 57.0 57.2 57.1 57.3 57.3

Employed

74,230 75,541 75,376 74,174 74,952 75,049 75,115 75,420 75,311

Employment-population ratio

54.9 55.5 55.3 54.9 55.1 55.2 55.2 55.4 55.3

Unemployed

2,615 2,243 2,625 2,816 2,546 2,728 2,617 2,582 2,803

Unemployment rate

3.4 2.9 3.4 3.7 3.3 3.5 3.4 3.3 3.6

Not in labor force

58,364 58,425 58,298 58,218 58,465 58,264 58,390 58,207 58,185

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

126,802 127,761 127,845 126,802 127,546 127,613 127,684 127,761 127,845

Civilian labor force

73,782 74,818 74,941 73,877 74,379 74,606 74,612 74,868 75,005

Participation rate

58.2 58.6 58.6 58.3 58.3 58.5 58.4 58.6 58.7

Employed

71,488 72,824 72,634 71,388 72,104 72,189 72,284 72,575 72,518

Employment-population ratio

56.4 57.0 56.8 56.3 56.5 56.6 56.6 56.8 56.7

Unemployed

2,293 1,994 2,307 2,489 2,275 2,417 2,328 2,293 2,486

Unemployment rate

3.1 2.7 3.1 3.4 3.1 3.2 3.1 3.1 3.3

Not in labor force

53,020 52,943 52,904 52,924 53,167 53,007 53,072 52,893 52,840

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian noninstitutional population

17,046 17,194 17,208 17,046 17,133 17,153 17,173 17,194 17,208

Civilian labor force

6,103 6,007 6,185 6,235 6,368 6,435 6,423 6,382 6,326

Participation rate

35.8 34.9 35.9 36.6 37.2 37.5 37.4 37.1 36.8

Employed

5,472 5,508 5,558 5,579 5,710 5,719 5,792 5,796 5,676

Employment-population ratio

32.1 32.0 32.3 32.7 33.3 33.3 33.7 33.7 33.0

Unemployed

631 499 628 656 658 716 631 586 650

Unemployment rate

10.3 8.3 10.1 10.5 10.3 11.1 9.8 9.2 10.3

Not in labor force

10,943 11,187 11,023 10,811 10,765 10,718 10,750 10,813 10,882

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-2. Employment status of the civilian population by race, sex, and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, race, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
May
2022
Apr.
2023
May
2023
May
2022
Jan.
2023
Feb.
2023
Mar.
2023
Apr.
2023
May
2023

WHITE

Civilian noninstitutional population

203,039 204,261 204,345 203,039 204,062 204,118 204,186 204,261 204,345

Civilian labor force

125,560 126,873 127,111 125,721 126,699 126,756 126,933 127,174 127,273

Participation rate

61.8 62.1 62.2 61.9 62.1 62.1 62.2 62.3 62.3

Employed

121,823 123,300 123,247 121,669 122,776 122,738 122,831 123,224 123,112

Employment-population ratio

60.0 60.4 60.3 59.9 60.2 60.1 60.2 60.3 60.2

Unemployed

3,737 3,574 3,864 4,052 3,924 4,017 4,102 3,950 4,161

Unemployment rate

3.0 2.8 3.0 3.2 3.1 3.2 3.2 3.1 3.3

Not in labor force

77,479 77,388 77,233 77,318 77,362 77,362 77,253 77,087 77,072

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

65,632 66,340 66,450 65,618 66,118 66,083 66,304 66,299 66,433

Participation rate

70.1 70.2 70.3 70.0 70.0 69.9 70.2 70.1 70.2

Employed

63,780 64,496 64,521 63,589 64,210 64,125 64,287 64,363 64,343

Employment-population ratio

68.1 68.2 68.2 67.9 68.0 67.9 68.0 68.1 68.0

Unemployed

1,852 1,844 1,928 2,029 1,908 1,958 2,018 1,936 2,089

Unemployment rate

2.8 2.8 2.9 3.1 2.9 3.0 3.0 2.9 3.1

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

55,208 55,825 55,878 55,299 55,637 55,733 55,656 55,882 55,950

Participation rate

57.0 57.4 57.5 57.1 57.3 57.4 57.3 57.5 57.5

Employed

53,754 54,463 54,379 53,715 54,093 54,142 53,994 54,304 54,323

Employment-population ratio

55.5 56.0 55.9 55.4 55.7 55.7 55.6 55.9 55.9

Unemployed

1,455 1,361 1,499 1,585 1,544 1,591 1,661 1,578 1,627

Unemployment rate

2.6 2.4 2.7 2.9 2.8 2.9 3.0 2.8 2.9

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

4,719 4,709 4,784 4,803 4,944 4,940 4,973 4,993 4,890

Participation rate

37.8 37.7 38.2 38.5 39.6 39.6 39.8 39.9 39.1

Employed

4,289 4,340 4,347 4,366 4,472 4,471 4,550 4,557 4,445

Employment-population ratio

34.4 34.7 34.7 35.0 35.8 35.8 36.4 36.4 35.5

Unemployed

430 369 437 438 472 469 423 436 445

Unemployment rate

9.1 7.8 9.1 9.1 9.5 9.5 8.5 8.7 9.1

BLACK OR AFRICAN AMERICAN

Civilian noninstitutional population

34,079 34,583 34,613 34,079 34,487 34,519 34,550 34,583 34,613

Civilian labor force

21,441 21,756 21,878 21,464 21,697 21,893 22,152 21,790 21,874

Participation rate

62.9 62.9 63.2 63.0 62.9 63.4 64.1 63.0 63.2

Employed

20,147 20,809 20,662 20,125 20,535 20,654 21,037 20,766 20,641

Employment-population ratio

59.1 60.2 59.7 59.1 59.5 59.8 60.9 60.0 59.6

Unemployed

1,294 947 1,216 1,339 1,162 1,239 1,114 1,025 1,234

Unemployment rate

6.0 4.4 5.6 6.2 5.4 5.7 5.0 4.7 5.6

Not in labor force

12,638 12,827 12,735 12,615 12,790 12,626 12,399 12,793 12,738

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

9,993 9,986 10,103 9,975 10,115 10,218 10,400 10,005 10,084

Participation rate

69.0 67.6 68.4 68.9 68.7 69.3 70.5 67.8 68.2

Employed

9,430 9,540 9,536 9,409 9,579 9,700 9,860 9,556 9,519

Employment-population ratio

65.1 64.6 64.5 65.0 65.0 65.8 66.8 64.7 64.4

Unemployed

563 447 567 567 535 518 539 449 565

Unemployment rate

5.6 4.5 5.6 5.7 5.3 5.1 5.2 4.5 5.6

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

10,705 11,082 11,058 10,725 10,804 10,877 10,986 11,054 11,051

Participation rate

62.5 64.1 63.9 62.7 62.6 63.0 63.6 63.9 63.9

Employed

10,115 10,658 10,491 10,095 10,301 10,319 10,522 10,573 10,469

Employment-population ratio

59.1 61.6 60.6 59.0 59.7 59.8 60.9 61.1 60.5

Unemployed

590 423 567 630 504 558 464 481 582

Unemployment rate

5.5 3.8 5.1 5.9 4.7 5.1 4.2 4.4 5.3

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

743 688 717 764 778 797 766 732 740

Participation rate

30.0 27.2 28.3 30.9 31.0 31.7 30.4 29.0 29.2

Employed

602 611 635 622 655 635 655 637 653

Employment-population ratio

24.3 24.2 25.1 25.1 26.1 25.2 26.0 25.2 25.8

Unemployed

140 77 82 142 123 163 111 95 87

Unemployment rate

18.9 11.2 11.4 18.6 15.8 20.4 14.5 12.9 11.7

ASIAN

Civilian noninstitutional population

16,815 17,557 17,511 16,815 17,541 17,444 17,545 17,557 17,511

Civilian labor force

10,854 11,319 11,348 10,916 11,240 11,348 11,390 11,396 11,408

Participation rate

64.5 64.5 64.8 64.9 64.1 65.1 64.9 64.9 65.1

Employed

10,613 11,017 11,034 10,652 10,926 10,962 11,067 11,073 11,073

Employment-population ratio

63.1 62.7 63.0 63.4 62.3 62.8 63.1 63.1 63.2

Unemployed

241 302 315 263 313 386 323 323 335

Unemployment rate

2.2 2.7 2.8 2.4 2.8 3.4 2.8 2.8 2.9

Not in labor force

5,961 6,238 6,163 5,899 6,301 6,096 6,154 6,162 6,104

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Estimates for the above race groups will not sum to totals shown in table A-1 because data are not presented for all races. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-3. Employment status of the Hispanic or Latino population by sex and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
May
2022
Apr.
2023
May
2023
May
2022
Jan.
2023
Feb.
2023
Mar.
2023
Apr.
2023
May
2023

HISPANIC OR LATINO ETHNICITY

Civilian noninstitutional population

46,039 47,288 47,380 46,039 47,010 47,103 47,194 47,288 47,380

Civilian labor force

30,512 31,506 31,612 30,622 31,153 31,444 31,517 31,589 31,690

Participation rate

66.3 66.6 66.7 66.5 66.3 66.8 66.8 66.8 66.9

Employed

29,305 30,234 30,471 29,270 29,737 29,789 30,071 30,185 30,407

Employment-population ratio

63.7 63.9 64.3 63.6 63.3 63.2 63.7 63.8 64.2

Unemployed

1,207 1,273 1,140 1,352 1,416 1,655 1,446 1,404 1,283

Unemployment rate

4.0 4.0 3.6 4.4 4.5 5.3 4.6 4.4 4.0

Not in labor force

15,527 15,782 15,768 15,417 15,857 15,659 15,677 15,699 15,690

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

16,693 16,970 17,113 16,725 16,795 16,882 16,969 16,956 17,123

Participation rate

80.0 79.0 79.5 80.2 78.6 78.8 79.1 78.9 79.5

Employed

16,199 16,316 16,512 16,133 16,073 16,036 16,293 16,260 16,434

Employment-population ratio

77.7 75.9 76.7 77.3 75.2 74.9 76.0 75.7 76.3

Unemployed

494 654 601 592 722 846 676 696 690

Unemployment rate

3.0 3.9 3.5 3.5 4.3 5.0 4.0 4.1 4.0

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

12,430 13,071 13,120 12,472 13,024 13,085 13,069 13,111 13,150

Participation rate

59.4 61.0 61.1 59.6 61.1 61.3 61.1 61.2 61.2

Employed

11,874 12,583 12,707 11,885 12,447 12,460 12,482 12,576 12,700

Employment-population ratio

56.7 58.7 59.2 56.8 58.4 58.4 58.4 58.7 59.1

Unemployed

556 489 413 587 577 626 587 534 450

Unemployment rate

4.5 3.7 3.1 4.7 4.4 4.8 4.5 4.1 3.4

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

1,389 1,465 1,379 1,425 1,334 1,477 1,479 1,522 1,417

Participation rate

32.6 33.6 31.5 33.5 30.8 34.0 34.0 34.9 32.4

Employed

1,231 1,335 1,253 1,252 1,217 1,294 1,296 1,349 1,273

Employment-population ratio

29.0 30.6 28.6 29.4 28.1 29.8 29.8 30.9 29.1

Unemployed

157 130 126 173 116 183 183 174 144

Unemployment rate

11.3 8.9 9.2 12.2 8.7 12.4 12.4 11.4 10.1

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-4. Employment status of the civilian population 25 years and over by educational attainment
[Numbers in thousands]
Educational attainment Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
May
2022
Apr.
2023
May
2023
May
2022
Jan.
2023
Feb.
2023
Mar.
2023
Apr.
2023
May
2023

Less than a high school diploma

Civilian labor force

9,399 9,194 9,381 9,166 8,814 9,165 9,203 9,082 9,140

Participation rate

45.0 46.9 46.9 43.9 46.0 48.3 46.6 46.3 45.7

Employed

8,975 8,705 8,907 8,691 8,417 8,629 8,762 8,595 8,621

Employment-population ratio

43.0 44.4 44.6 41.6 43.9 45.5 44.3 43.8 43.1

Unemployed

425 489 474 475 397 536 441 487 519

Unemployment rate

4.5 5.3 5.1 5.2 4.5 5.8 4.8 5.4 5.7

High school graduates, no college(1)

Civilian labor force

36,088 35,840 36,087 36,040 36,189 35,850 35,680 35,752 36,022

Participation rate

56.8 56.5 56.9 56.7 56.4 56.0 56.1 56.4 56.8

Employed

34,826 34,491 34,767 34,684 34,836 34,574 34,246 34,345 34,611

Employment-population ratio

54.8 54.4 54.9 54.5 54.3 54.0 53.8 54.2 54.6

Unemployed

1,262 1,349 1,320 1,356 1,353 1,276 1,433 1,407 1,411

Unemployment rate

3.5 3.8 3.7 3.8 3.7 3.6 4.0 3.9 3.9

Some college or associate degree

Civilian labor force

35,739 35,685 35,277 35,787 36,082 35,962 35,944 35,668 35,407

Participation rate

63.4 63.0 62.9 63.5 63.5 63.6 63.6 63.0 63.1

Employed

34,600 34,730 34,203 34,570 35,046 34,796 34,877 34,650 34,273

Employment-population ratio

61.4 61.3 61.0 61.3 61.7 61.5 61.8 61.2 61.1

Unemployed

1,139 955 1,073 1,217 1,036 1,167 1,067 1,018 1,134

Unemployment rate

3.2 2.7 3.0 3.4 2.9 3.2 3.0 2.9 3.2

Bachelor's degree and higher(2)

Civilian labor force

62,162 64,050 64,067 62,347 62,854 63,140 63,632 64,077 64,201

Participation rate

73.2 73.2 73.0 73.4 72.7 72.3 73.1 73.3 73.1

Employed

61,069 62,929 62,857 61,125 61,591 61,858 62,355 62,835 62,879

Employment-population ratio

71.9 71.9 71.6 72.0 71.2 70.9 71.6 71.8 71.6

Unemployed

1,093 1,120 1,210 1,222 1,263 1,282 1,278 1,241 1,322

Unemployment rate

1.8 1.7 1.9 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 1.9 2.1

Footnotes
(1) Includes persons with a high school diploma or equivalent.
(2) Includes persons with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees.

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals for those 25 years and over because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-5. Employment status of the civilian population 18 years and over by veteran status, period of service, and sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, veteran status, and period of service Total Men Women
May
2022
May
2023
May
2022
May
2023
May
2022
May
2023

VETERANS, 18 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

18,403 17,940 16,378 15,901 2,025 2,039

Civilian labor force

8,790 8,653 7,605 7,525 1,185 1,128

Participation rate

47.8 48.2 46.4 47.3 58.5 55.3

Employed

8,548 8,437 7,381 7,327 1,168 1,111

Employment-population ratio

46.4 47.0 45.1 46.1 57.7 54.5

Unemployed

242 215 224 198 18 17

Unemployment rate

2.7 2.5 2.9 2.6 1.5 1.5

Not in labor force

9,613 9,287 8,773 8,376 840 911

Gulf War-era II veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

4,936 5,048 4,031 4,132 906 915

Civilian labor force

3,928 3,992 3,292 3,349 636 643

Participation rate

79.6 79.1 81.7 81.0 70.2 70.2

Employed

3,801 3,924 3,180 3,285 621 639

Employment-population ratio

77.0 77.7 78.9 79.5 68.6 69.8

Unemployed

126 68 112 64 15 4

Unemployment rate

3.2 1.7 3.4 1.9 2.3 0.7

Not in labor force

1,009 1,056 739 783 270 272

Gulf War-era I veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

3,182 2,929 2,722 2,481 459 449

Civilian labor force

2,267 2,119 1,955 1,815 312 304

Participation rate

71.3 72.3 71.8 73.2 68.0 67.8

Employed

2,210 2,050 1,900 1,753 310 297

Employment-population ratio

69.5 70.0 69.8 70.7 67.6 66.2

Unemployed

57 69 55 62 2 7

Unemployment rate

2.5 3.3 2.8 3.4 0.7 2.2

Not in labor force

914 810 767 665 147 145

World War II, Korean War, and Vietnam-era veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

6,274 6,009 6,024 5,754 250 255

Civilian labor force

926 828 881 807 44 21

Participation rate

14.8 13.8 14.6 14.0 17.7 8.4

Employed

899 790 855 769 44 21

Employment-population ratio

14.3 13.1 14.2 13.4 17.7 8.4

Unemployed

26 38 26 38 0 0

Unemployment rate

2.8 4.6 3.0 4.7 - -

Not in labor force

5,348 5,181 5,143 4,947 206 234

Veterans of other service periods

Civilian noninstitutional population

4,011 3,954 3,601 3,534 410 420

Civilian labor force

1,669 1,714 1,477 1,554 193 160

Participation rate

41.6 43.3 41.0 44.0 47.0 38.0

Employed

1,637 1,674 1,446 1,520 192 153

Employment-population ratio

40.8 42.3 40.1 43.0 46.8 36.5

Unemployed

32 40 31 34 1 6

Unemployment rate

1.9 2.3 2.1 2.2 0.5 3.8

Not in labor force

2,342 2,240 2,124 1,980 217 260

NONVETERANS, 18 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

236,329 239,361 107,735 109,797 128,593 129,564

Civilian labor force

153,054 155,701 78,607 80,099 74,448 75,602

Participation rate

64.8 65.0 73.0 73.0 57.9 58.4

Employed

147,993 150,450 75,999 77,309 71,995 73,141

Employment-population ratio

62.6 62.9 70.5 70.4 56.0 56.5

Unemployed

5,061 5,251 2,608 2,790 2,453 2,461

Unemployment rate

3.3 3.4 3.3 3.5 3.3 3.3

Not in labor force

83,274 83,660 29,129 29,698 54,146 53,962

NOTE: Veterans served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces and were not on active duty at the time of the survey. Nonveterans never served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces. Veterans could have served anywhere in the world during these periods of service: Gulf War era II (September 2001-present), Gulf War era I (August 1990-August 2001), Vietnam era (August 1964-April 1975), Korean War (July 1950-January 1955), World War II (December 1941-December 1946), and other service periods (all other time periods). Veterans who served in more than one wartime period are classified only in the most recent one. Veterans who served during one of the selected wartime periods and another period are classified only in the wartime period. Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria (values not shown where base is less than 75,000).


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-6. Employment status of the civilian population by sex, age, and disability status, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Persons with a disability Persons with no disability
May
2022
May
2023
May
2022
May
2023

TOTAL, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

32,686 33,295 230,993 233,323

Civilian labor force

7,497 8,098 156,661 158,604

Participation rate

22.9 24.3 67.8 68.0

Employed

6,961 7,463 151,649 153,540

Employment-population ratio

21.3 22.4 65.7 65.8

Unemployed

536 635 5,012 5,064

Unemployment rate

7.1 7.8 3.2 3.2

Not in labor force

25,189 25,197 74,332 74,719

Men, 16 to 64 years

Civilian labor force

3,086 3,330 78,119 79,343

Participation rate

38.3 41.0 82.5 82.7

Employed

2,834 3,075 75,607 76,703

Employment-population ratio

35.2 37.9 79.9 80.0

Unemployed

252 255 2,512 2,640

Unemployment rate

8.2 7.7 3.2 3.3

Not in labor force

4,974 4,785 16,558 16,586

Women, 16 to 64 years

Civilian labor force

3,074 3,320 69,039 69,631

Participation rate

36.2 39.4 71.9 72.4

Employed

2,842 3,022 66,794 67,444

Employment-population ratio

33.5 35.9 69.6 70.2

Unemployed

232 299 2,245 2,187

Unemployment rate

7.5 9.0 3.3 3.1

Not in labor force

5,406 5,105 26,978 26,510

Both sexes, 65 years and over

Civilian labor force

1,337 1,448 9,502 9,631

Participation rate

8.3 8.6 23.6 23.3

Employed

1,285 1,366 9,248 9,393

Employment-population ratio

8.0 8.2 22.9 22.8

Unemployed

52 82 255 238

Unemployment rate

3.9 5.6 2.7 2.5

Not in labor force

14,810 15,307 30,796 31,623

NOTE: A person with a disability has at least one of the following conditions: is deaf or has serious difficulty hearing; is blind or has serious difficulty seeing even when wearing glasses; has serious difficulty concentrating, remembering, or making decisions because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition; has serious difficulty walking or climbing stairs; has difficulty dressing or bathing; or has difficulty doing errands alone such as visiting a doctor's office or shopping because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-7. Employment status of the civilian population by nativity and sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status and nativity Total Men Women
May
2022
May
2023
May
2022
May
2023
May
2022
May
2023

Foreign born, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

45,230 46,769 22,058 22,952 23,172 23,818

Civilian labor force

29,648 31,249 16,949 17,763 12,699 13,486

Participation rate

65.5 66.8 76.8 77.4 54.8 56.6

Employed

28,690 30,259 16,432 17,216 12,258 13,043

Employment-population ratio

63.4 64.7 74.5 75.0 52.9 54.8

Unemployed

958 990 516 547 441 443

Unemployment rate

3.2 3.2 3.0 3.1 3.5 3.3

Not in labor force

15,582 15,520 5,110 5,188 10,473 10,332

Native born, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

218,448 219,849 106,412 107,368 112,037 112,481

Civilian labor force

134,509 135,453 70,364 70,938 64,146 64,516

Participation rate

61.6 61.6 66.1 66.1 57.3 57.4

Employed

129,919 130,744 67,947 68,410 61,972 62,333

Employment-population ratio

59.5 59.5 63.9 63.7 55.3 55.4

Unemployed

4,590 4,710 2,417 2,527 2,173 2,182

Unemployment rate

3.4 3.5 3.4 3.6 3.4 3.4

Not in labor force

83,939 84,396 36,048 36,430 47,891 47,966

NOTE: The foreign born are those residing in the United States who were not U.S. citizens at birth. That is, they were born outside the United States or one of its outlying areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam, to parents neither of whom was a U.S. citizen. The native born are persons who were born in the United States or one of its outlying areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam or who were born abroad of at least one parent who was a U.S. citizen. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-8. Employed persons by class of worker and part-time status
[In thousands]
Category Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
May
2022
Apr.
2023
May
2023
May
2022
Jan.
2023
Feb.
2023
Mar.
2023
Apr.
2023
May
2023

CLASS OF WORKER

Agriculture and related industries

2,399 2,231 2,358 2,339 2,245 2,346 2,226 2,301 2,301

Wage and salary workers(1)

1,574 1,472 1,615 1,544 1,485 1,521 1,509 1,536 1,569

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

801 713 694 775 720 781 666 715 672

Unpaid family workers

24 46 50 - - - - - -

Nonagricultural industries

156,210 158,844 158,644 155,987 157,645 157,743 158,318 158,639 158,416

Wage and salary workers(1)

146,725 149,752 149,753 146,484 148,822 148,723 149,479 149,383 149,512

Government

20,985 21,893 21,487 20,909 21,548 21,501 21,467 21,678 21,434

Private industries

125,740 127,860 128,266 125,592 126,981 126,967 127,750 127,655 128,050

Private households

610 613 643 - - - - - -

Other industries

125,130 127,247 127,624 124,922 126,248 126,261 127,055 126,942 127,337

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

9,410 9,035 8,820 9,280 9,217 9,338 9,173 9,100 8,731

Unpaid family workers

75 57 71 - - - - - -

PERSONS AT WORK PART TIME(2)

All industries

Part time for economic reasons(3)

4,115 3,692 3,535 4,317 4,050 4,067 4,102 3,903 3,739

Slack work or business conditions

2,858 2,612 2,435 3,000 2,685 2,840 2,873 2,760 2,582

Could only find part-time work

1,002 823 835 984 999 859 882 817 824

Part time for noneconomic reasons(4)

20,822 22,453 21,884 20,822 22,083 21,856 21,433 21,796 21,864

Nonagricultural industries

Part time for economic reasons(3)

4,033 3,627 3,518 4,223 3,959 3,964 4,037 3,841 3,725

Slack work or business conditions

2,796 2,570 2,428 2,929 2,646 2,750 2,822 2,715 2,566

Could only find part-time work

993 813 835 974 988 842 872 807 821

Part time for noneconomic reasons(4)

20,447 22,058 21,515 20,453 21,674 21,453 21,069 21,400 21,496

Footnotes
(1) Includes self-employed workers whose businesses are incorporated.
(2) Refers to those who worked 1 to 34 hours during the survey reference week and excludes employed persons who were absent from their jobs for the entire week.
(3) Refers to those who worked 1 to 34 hours during the reference week for an economic reason such as slack work or unfavorable business conditions, inability to find full-time work, or seasonal declines in demand.
(4) Refers to persons who usually work part time for noneconomic reasons such as childcare problems, family or personal obligations, school or training, retirement or Social Security limits on earnings, and other reasons. This excludes persons who usually work full time but worked only 1 to 34 hours during the reference week for reasons such as vacations, holidays, illness, and bad weather.

- Data not available.
NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-9. Selected employment indicators
[Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
May
2022
Apr.
2023
May
2023
May
2022
Jan.
2023
Feb.
2023
Mar.
2023
Apr.
2023
May
2023

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

158,609 161,075 161,002 158,299 160,138 160,315 160,892 161,031 160,721

16 to 19 years

5,472 5,508 5,558 5,579 5,710 5,719 5,792 5,796 5,676

16 to 17 years

2,068 2,027 2,115 2,186 2,265 2,200 2,227 2,209 2,240

18 to 19 years

3,404 3,481 3,443 3,402 3,462 3,534 3,589 3,594 3,450

20 years and over

153,137 155,567 155,445 152,719 154,428 154,597 155,100 155,236 155,045

20 to 24 years

13,667 14,711 14,711 13,766 14,705 14,831 14,896 14,843 14,816

25 years and over

139,471 140,856 140,734 139,050 139,834 139,939 140,372 140,452 140,314

25 to 54 years

101,954 103,484 103,443 101,752 102,366 102,838 103,121 103,220 103,209

25 to 34 years

35,609 35,957 35,897 35,535 35,594 35,799 35,780 35,866 35,814

35 to 44 years

34,773 35,385 35,343 34,683 35,010 35,243 35,492 35,285 35,257

45 to 54 years

31,573 32,142 32,202 31,534 31,762 31,796 31,849 32,069 32,138

55 years and over

37,516 37,372 37,291 37,298 37,468 37,100 37,250 37,232 37,105

Men, 16 years and over

84,379 85,534 85,626 84,124 85,186 85,266 85,776 85,611 85,410

16 to 19 years

2,730 2,791 2,816 2,793 2,862 2,859 2,961 2,951 2,884

16 to 17 years

1,000 1,007 991 1,046 1,039 1,020 1,134 1,079 1,043

18 to 19 years

1,730 1,784 1,825 1,748 1,838 1,851 1,850 1,878 1,844

20 years and over

81,649 82,743 82,810 81,331 82,324 82,407 82,816 82,661 82,526

20 to 24 years

6,991 7,424 7,489 7,011 7,354 7,484 7,687 7,491 7,509

25 years and over

74,658 75,319 75,321 74,426 75,036 75,070 75,249 75,207 75,088

25 to 54 years

54,412 55,247 55,321 54,286 54,708 55,033 55,232 55,184 55,174

25 to 34 years

18,832 19,148 19,184 18,803 18,916 19,167 19,140 19,134 19,145

35 to 44 years

18,708 19,036 19,060 18,646 18,896 18,965 19,115 18,997 18,998

45 to 54 years

16,872 17,062 17,078 16,837 16,896 16,901 16,977 17,053 17,031

55 years and over

20,246 20,072 20,000 20,139 20,328 20,037 20,017 20,023 19,914

Women, 16 years and over

74,230 75,541 75,376 74,174 74,952 75,049 75,115 75,420 75,311

16 to 19 years

2,742 2,716 2,742 2,786 2,848 2,860 2,831 2,845 2,793

16 to 17 years

1,068 1,020 1,124 1,140 1,226 1,179 1,093 1,130 1,196

18 to 19 years

1,674 1,696 1,618 1,654 1,624 1,683 1,738 1,716 1,606

20 years and over

71,488 72,824 72,634 71,388 72,104 72,189 72,284 72,575 72,518

20 to 24 years

6,676 7,287 7,222 6,755 7,351 7,347 7,209 7,353 7,307

25 years and over

64,813 65,537 65,413 64,624 64,798 64,868 65,123 65,245 65,226

25 to 54 years

47,543 48,237 48,121 47,465 47,658 47,805 47,889 48,036 48,035

25 to 34 years

16,777 16,808 16,714 16,731 16,678 16,633 16,640 16,732 16,669

35 to 44 years

16,065 16,349 16,283 16,037 16,114 16,278 16,377 16,288 16,259

45 to 54 years

14,701 15,080 15,124 14,697 14,866 14,895 14,872 15,016 15,107

55 years and over

17,270 17,300 17,291 17,158 17,140 17,063 17,234 17,209 17,191

MARITAL STATUS

Married men, spouse present(1)

45,531 46,330 45,758 45,327 46,119 46,387 46,341 46,124 45,647

Married women, spouse present(1)

36,455 37,358 37,072 36,364 36,490 36,883 36,759 37,140 36,964

Women who maintain families(2)

10,019 9,648 9,683 - - - - - -

FULL- OR PART-TIME STATUS

Full-time workers(3)

132,820 133,886 134,581 132,743 132,577 133,184 134,339 134,500 134,477

Part-time workers(4)

25,789 27,189 26,421 25,770 27,400 27,089 26,747 26,663 26,443

MULTIPLE JOBHOLDERS

Total multiple jobholders

7,313 7,676 7,718 7,334 8,001 7,904 7,979 7,707 7,762

Percent of total employed

4.6 4.8 4.8 4.6 5.0 4.9 5.0 4.8 4.8

SELF-EMPLOYMENT

Self-employed workers, incorporated

6,823 6,404 6,706 - - - - - -

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

10,211 9,748 9,514 10,054 9,937 10,119 9,839 9,815 9,403

Footnotes
(1) Beginning with data for January 2020, refers to persons in both opposite-sex and same-sex married couples. Prior to January 2020, referred to persons in opposite-sex married couples only.
(2) Beginning with data for January 2020, refers to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not a spouse of either sex. Prior to January 2020, referred to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not an opposite-sex spouse.
(3) Employed full-time workers are persons who usually work 35 hours or more per week.
(4) Employed part-time workers are persons who usually work less than 35 hours per week.

- Data not available.
NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-10. Selected unemployment indicators, seasonally adjusted
Characteristic Number of
unemployed persons
(in thousands)
Unemployment rates
May
2022
Apr.
2023
May
2023
May
2022
Jan.
2023
Feb.
2023
Mar.
2023
Apr.
2023
May
2023

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

5,979 5,657 6,097 3.6 3.4 3.6 3.5 3.4 3.7

16 to 19 years

656 586 650 10.5 10.3 11.1 9.8 9.2 10.3

16 to 17 years

251 230 235 10.3 10.9 9.0 9.1 9.4 9.5

18 to 19 years

396 374 407 10.4 10.0 12.1 10.3 9.4 10.6

20 years and over

5,323 5,071 5,447 3.4 3.2 3.3 3.2 3.2 3.4

20 to 24 years

996 843 990 6.7 7.1 6.9 6.5 5.4 6.3

25 years and over

4,268 4,174 4,401 3.0 2.8 2.9 2.9 2.9 3.0

25 to 54 years

3,249 3,281 3,355 3.1 3.0 3.1 2.9 3.1 3.1

25 to 34 years

1,450 1,421 1,441 3.9 3.9 3.9 3.8 3.8 3.9

35 to 44 years

1,045 1,064 1,052 2.9 2.6 2.6 2.5 2.9 2.9

45 to 54 years

755 796 862 2.3 2.3 2.6 2.4 2.4 2.6

55 years and over

1,038 894 1,056 2.7 2.3 2.5 2.6 2.3 2.8

Men, 16 years and over

3,163 3,075 3,294 3.6 3.6 3.6 3.6 3.5 3.7

16 to 19 years

329 297 333 10.6 11.9 12.4 10.4 9.1 10.4

16 to 17 years

105 101 91 9.1 15.0 11.4 9.5 8.6 8.0

18 to 19 years

225 210 239 11.4 10.1 12.9 10.6 10.1 11.5

20 years and over

2,834 2,778 2,961 3.4 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.3 3.5

20 to 24 years

533 477 570 7.1 7.8 7.9 6.9 6.0 7.1

25 years and over

2,242 2,261 2,332 2.9 2.9 2.9 3.0 2.9 3.0

25 to 54 years

1,693 1,783 1,743 3.0 3.1 3.1 3.0 3.1 3.1

25 to 34 years

772 806 744 3.9 4.3 3.9 4.0 4.0 3.7

35 to 44 years

542 561 534 2.8 2.5 2.7 2.8 2.9 2.7

45 to 54 years

379 416 465 2.2 2.2 2.5 2.1 2.4 2.7

55 years and over

549 478 589 2.7 2.4 2.5 2.8 2.3 2.9

Women, 16 years and over

2,816 2,582 2,803 3.7 3.3 3.5 3.4 3.3 3.6

16 to 19 years

327 289 317 10.5 8.7 9.8 9.3 9.2 10.2

16 to 17 years

146 128 144 11.3 7.1 6.8 8.7 10.2 10.7

18 to 19 years

172 164 168 9.4 9.8 11.2 9.9 8.7 9.5

20 years and over

2,489 2,293 2,486 3.4 3.1 3.2 3.1 3.1 3.3

20 to 24 years

463 366 420 6.4 6.3 5.9 6.1 4.7 5.4

25 years and over

2,026 1,913 2,068 3.0 2.7 3.0 2.7 2.8 3.1

25 to 54 years

1,557 1,498 1,612 3.2 2.9 3.0 2.8 3.0 3.2

25 to 34 years

678 615 698 3.9 3.5 3.9 3.4 3.5 4.0

35 to 44 years

503 503 517 3.0 2.7 2.4 2.3 3.0 3.1

45 to 54 years

376 379 397 2.5 2.4 2.8 2.8 2.5 2.6

55 years and over

478 425 460 2.7 2.2 2.7 2.4 2.4 2.6

MARITAL STATUS

Married men, spouse present(1)

914 806 948 2.0 1.8 1.9 1.9 1.7 2.0

Married women, spouse present(1)

840 747 867 2.3 1.9 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.3

Women who maintain families(2)

525 489 468 5.0 3.8 5.0 4.6 4.8 4.6

FULL- OR PART-TIME STATUS

Full-time workers(3)

4,759 4,655 4,953 3.5 3.4 3.5 3.4 3.3 3.6

Part-time workers(4)

1,155 991 1,095 4.3 3.8 4.0 3.9 3.6 4.0

Footnotes
(1) Beginning with data for January 2020, refers to persons in both opposite-sex and same-sex married couples. Prior to January 2020, referred to persons in opposite-sex married couples only.
(2) Data are not seasonally adjusted. Beginning with data for January 2020, refers to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not a spouse of either sex. Prior to January 2020, referred to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not an opposite-sex spouse.
(3) Full-time workers are unemployed persons who have expressed a desire to work full time (35 hours or more per week) or are on layoff from full-time jobs.
(4) Part-time workers are unemployed persons who have expressed a desire to work part time (less than 35 hours per week) or are on layoff from part-time jobs.

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-11. Unemployed persons by reason for unemployment
[Numbers in thousands]
Reason Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
May
2022
Apr.
2023
May
2023
May
2022
Jan.
2023
Feb.
2023
Mar.
2023
Apr.
2023
May
2023

NUMBER OF UNEMPLOYED

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

2,323 2,391 2,610 2,732 2,529 2,752 2,949 2,642 2,960

On temporary layoff

545 568 503 815 734 816 833 709 767

Not on temporary layoff

1,778 1,824 2,107 1,916 1,795 1,935 2,117 1,933 2,193

Permanent job losers

1,304 1,391 1,567 1,375 1,257 1,380 1,552 1,445 1,588

Persons who completed temporary jobs

474 433 540 541 538 555 564 488 605

Job leavers

719 746 715 766 884 891 845 790 765

Reentrants

1,989 1,581 1,880 1,944 1,817 1,847 1,665 1,761 1,821

New entrants

516 428 495 530 531 515 492 531 508

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

41.9 46.5 45.8 45.7 43.9 45.8 49.6 46.2 48.9

On temporary layoff

9.8 11.0 8.8 13.6 12.7 13.6 14.0 12.4 12.7

Not on temporary layoff

32.0 35.4 37.0 32.1 31.2 32.2 35.6 33.8 36.2

Job leavers

13.0 14.5 12.5 12.8 15.3 14.8 14.2 13.8 12.6

Reentrants

35.9 30.7 33.0 32.6 31.5 30.8 28.0 30.8 30.1

New entrants

9.3 8.3 8.7 8.9 9.2 8.6 8.3 9.3 8.4

UNEMPLOYED AS A PERCENT OF THE
CIVILIAN LABOR FORCE

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

1.4 1.4 1.6 1.7 1.5 1.7 1.8 1.6 1.8

Job leavers

0.4 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5

Reentrants

1.2 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.1 1.1 1.0 1.1 1.1

New entrants

0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to total unemployed in table A-1 because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-12. Unemployed persons by duration of unemployment
[Numbers in thousands]
Duration Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
May
2022
Apr.
2023
May
2023
May
2022
Jan.
2023
Feb.
2023
Mar.
2023
Apr.
2023
May
2023

NUMBER OF UNEMPLOYED

Less than 5 weeks

1,994 1,484 2,044 2,052 1,946 2,289 2,272 1,866 2,083

5 to 14 weeks

1,449 1,607 1,536 1,771 1,785 1,845 1,733 1,915 1,865

15 weeks and over

2,105 2,055 2,120 2,035 2,001 1,862 1,838 1,835 2,046

15 to 26 weeks

826 958 992 687 890 805 734 679 858

27 weeks and over

1,279 1,098 1,127 1,349 1,111 1,057 1,104 1,156 1,188

Average (mean) duration, in weeks

23.2 22.4 21.9 22.5 20.4 19.3 19.5 20.9 21.2

Median duration, in weeks

9.4 10.5 9.4 8.7 9.1 8.3 8.1 8.4 8.6

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION

Less than 5 weeks

35.9 28.8 35.9 35.0 33.9 38.2 38.9 33.2 34.8

5 to 14 weeks

26.1 31.2 27.0 30.2 31.1 30.8 29.7 34.1 31.1

15 weeks and over

37.9 39.9 37.2 34.7 34.9 31.1 31.5 32.7 34.1

15 to 26 weeks

14.9 18.6 17.4 11.7 15.5 13.4 12.6 12.1 14.3

27 weeks and over

23.1 21.3 19.8 23.0 19.4 17.6 18.9 20.6 19.8

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to total unemployed in table A-1 because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-13. Employed and unemployed persons by occupation, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Occupation Employed Unemployed Unemployment
rates
May
2022
May
2023
May
2022
May
2023
May
2022
May
2023

Total, 16 years and over(1)

158,609 161,002 5,548 5,700 3.4 3.4

Management, professional, and related occupations

67,652 70,388 1,098 1,281 1.6 1.8

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

28,870 30,830 422 616 1.4 2.0

Professional and related occupations

38,782 39,557 677 665 1.7 1.7

Service occupations

26,025 26,426 1,153 1,264 4.2 4.6

Sales and office occupations

30,434 30,205 1,267 1,102 4.0 3.5

Sales and related occupations

14,477 14,202 633 598 4.2 4.0

Office and administrative support occupations

15,957 16,002 635 504 3.8 3.1

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

14,290 14,363 535 516 3.6 3.5

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

1,002 984 54 51 5.1 4.9

Construction and extraction occupations

8,514 8,437 403 337 4.5 3.8

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

4,774 4,942 78 127 1.6 2.5

Production, transportation, and material moving
occupations

20,209 19,621 968 1,025 4.6 5.0

Production occupations

8,281 8,024 334 341 3.9 4.1

Transportation and material moving occupations

11,928 11,597 634 684 5.0 5.6

Footnotes
(1) Persons with no previous work experience and persons whose last job was in the U.S. Armed Forces are included in the unemployed total.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data. Effective with January 2020 data, occupations reflect the introduction of the 2018 Census occupational classification system into the Current Population Survey, or household survey. This classification system is derived from the 2018 Standard Occupational Classification (SOC). No historical data have been revised. Data for 2020 are not strictly comparable with earlier years.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-14. Unemployed persons by industry and class of worker, not seasonally adjusted
Industry and class of worker Number of
unemployed
persons
(in thousands)
Unemployment
rates
May
2022
May
2023
May
2022
May
2023

Total, 16 years and over(1)

5,548 5,700 3.4 3.4

Nonagricultural private wage and salary workers

4,353 4,483 3.3 3.4

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

24 10 4.1 1.8

Construction

392 355 3.8 3.5

Manufacturing

422 409 2.8 2.7

Durable goods

256 245 2.7 2.5

Nondurable goods

166 164 2.9 3.0

Wholesale and retail trade

819 855 4.2 4.4

Transportation and utilities

348 282 4.1 3.3

Information

70 73 2.9 2.5

Financial activities

193 240 1.9 2.3

Professional and business services

583 750 3.1 3.9

Education and health services

620 595 2.5 2.3

Leisure and hospitality

681 717 5.1 5.2

Other services

200 195 3.1 2.9

Agriculture and related private wage and salary workers

49 75 3.1 4.6

Government workers

356 386 1.7 1.8

Self-employed workers, unincorporated, and unpaid family workers

273 261 2.6 2.6

Footnotes
(1) Persons with no previous work experience and persons whose last job was in the U.S. Armed Forces are included in the unemployed total.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data. Effective with January 2020 data, industries reflect the introduction of the 2017 Census industry classification system into the Current Population Survey. This industry classification system is derived from the 2017 North American Industry Classification System (NAICS). No historical data have been revised.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-15. Alternative measures of labor underutilization
[Percent]
Measure Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
May
2022
Apr.
2023
May
2023
May
2022
Jan.
2023
Feb.
2023
Mar.
2023
Apr.
2023
May
2023

U-1 Persons unemployed 15 weeks or longer, as a percent of the civilian labor force

1.3 1.2 1.3 1.2 1.2 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.2

U-2 Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs, as a percent of the civilian labor force

1.4 1.4 1.6 1.7 1.5 1.7 1.8 1.6 1.8

U-3 Total unemployed, as a percent of the civilian labor force (official unemployment rate)

3.4 3.1 3.4 3.6 3.4 3.6 3.5 3.4 3.7

U-4 Total unemployed plus discouraged workers, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus discouraged workers

3.6 3.3 3.6 3.9 3.6 3.8 3.7 3.6 3.9

U-5 Total unemployed, plus discouraged workers, plus all other persons marginally attached to the labor force, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force

4.2 3.9 4.3 4.5 4.2 4.4 4.2 4.2 4.5

U-6 Total unemployed, plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force, plus total employed part time for economic reasons, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force

6.7 6.1 6.4 7.1 6.6 6.8 6.7 6.6 6.7

NOTE: Persons marginally attached to the labor force are those who currently are neither working nor looking for work but indicate that they want and are available for a job and have looked for work sometime in the past 12 months. Discouraged workers, a subset of the marginally attached, have given a job-market related reason for not currently looking for work. Persons employed part time for economic reasons are those who want and are available for full-time work but have had to settle for a part-time schedule. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-16. Persons not in the labor force and multiple jobholders by sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Category Total Men Women
May
2022
May
2023
May
2022
May
2023
May
2022
May
2023

NOT IN THE LABOR FORCE

Total not in the labor force

99,521 99,916 41,158 41,618 58,364 58,298

Persons who currently want a job

6,180 6,004 2,996 2,902 3,184 3,101

Marginally attached to the labor force(1)

1,417 1,477 758 766 659 711

Discouraged workers(2)

379 396 207 232 172 165

Other persons marginally attached to the labor force(3)

1,038 1,080 551 534 487 547

MULTIPLE JOBHOLDERS

Total multiple jobholders(4)

7,313 7,718 3,545 3,740 3,768 3,978

Percent of total employed

4.6 4.8 4.2 4.4 5.1 5.3

Primary job full time, secondary job part time

4,295 4,480 2,184 2,326 2,112 2,154

Primary and secondary jobs both part time

1,714 1,898 607 717 1,107 1,181

Primary and secondary jobs both full time

372 375 261 204 110 171

Hours vary on primary or secondary job

868 932 462 482 406 451

Footnotes
(1) Data refer to persons who want a job, have searched for work during the prior 12 months, and were available to take a job during the reference week, but had not looked for work in the past 4 weeks.
(2) Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for reasons such as thinks no work available, could not find work, lacks schooling or training, employer thinks too young or old, and other types of discrimination.
(3) Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for such reasons as school or family responsibilities, ill health, and transportation problems, as well as a number for whom reason for nonparticipation was not determined.
(4) Includes a small number of persons who work part time on their primary job and full time on their secondary job(s), not shown separately.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-1. Employees on nonfarm payrolls by industry sector and selected industry detail
[In thousands]
Industry Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
May
2022
Mar.
2023
Apr.
2023(p)
May
2023(p)
May
2022
Mar.
2023
Apr.
2023(p)
May
2023(p)
Change from:
Apr.2023 - May2023(p)

Total nonfarm

152,291 154,440 155,386 156,306 152,042 155,472 155,766 156,105 339

Total private

129,929 131,616 132,483 133,382 129,920 132,907 133,160 133,443 283

Goods-producing

21,148 21,218 21,400 21,566 21,125 21,501 21,529 21,555 26

Mining and logging

597 628 634 640 600 635 640 643 3

Logging

41.7 45.7 43.8 44.4 43.9 46.3 46.6 46.6 0.0

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

555.3 582.3 590.2 595.8 556.1 588.8 593.7 596.5 2.8

Oil and gas extraction

119.2 116.9 117.2 117.8 120.4 117.7 118.4 119.0 0.6

Mining (except oil and gas)

184.0 183.2 186.1 188.7 181.8 187.2 187.3 186.8 -0.5

Coal mining

40.5 41.3 41.4 41.4 40.4 41.2 41.3 41.3 0.0

Metal ore mining

42.9 43.6 43.9 44.1 42.9 43.9 44.0 44.1 0.1

Nonmetallic mineral mining and quarrying

100.6 98.3 100.8 103.2 98.5 102.2 102.0 101.5 -0.5

Support activities for mining

252.1 282.2 286.9 289.3 253.9 283.9 288.0 290.7 2.7

Construction

7,783 7,657 7,824 7,973 7,736 7,890 7,903 7,928 25

Construction of buildings

1,751.4 1,754.9 1,765.4 1,792.0 1,752.6 1,790.4 1,787.7 1,794.3 6.6

Residential building construction

926.6 911.7 917.1 932.8 925.1 931.6 930.2 932.6 2.4

Nonresidential building construction

824.8 843.2 848.3 859.2 827.5 858.8 857.5 861.7 4.2

Heavy and civil engineering construction

1,099.5 1,042.2 1,094.4 1,134.1 1,073.2 1,103.6 1,095.5 1,106.2 10.7

Specialty trade contractors

4,932.5 4,860.1 4,964.2 5,046.8 4,909.7 4,996.1 5,019.9 5,027.2 7.3

Residential specialty trade contractors

2,315.8 2,255.3 2,309.1 2,344.3 2,296.7 2,314.8 2,328.2 2,328.3 0.1

Nonresidential specialty trade contractors

2,616.7 2,604.8 2,655.1 2,702.5 2,613.0 2,681.3 2,691.7 2,698.9 7.2

Manufacturing

12,768 12,933 12,942 12,953 12,789 12,976 12,986 12,984 -2

Durable goods

7,937 8,077 8,088 8,095 7,943 8,092 8,103 8,106 3

Wood product manufacturing

431.5 424.7 422.8 425.0 430.9 426.0 424.2 425.0 0.8

Nonmetallic mineral product manufacturing

421.9 425.5 427.3 430.8 417.4 431.2 429.3 427.5 -1.8

Primary metal manufacturing

359.7 368.2 367.1 368.5 361.1 367.7 367.8 369.8 2.0

Fabricated metal product manufacturing

1,428.1 1,444.7 1,449.8 1,447.4 1,428.8 1,446.0 1,451.1 1,448.8 -2.3

Machinery manufacturing

1,100.9 1,124.9 1,124.0 1,121.1 1,100.7 1,125.0 1,124.2 1,121.8 -2.4

Computer and electronic product manufacturing

1,082.4 1,095.6 1,098.3 1,098.9 1,085.1 1,099.0 1,102.1 1,101.8 -0.3

Computer and peripheral equipment manufacturing

160.3 167.2 167.7 167.3 161.0 168.2 168.5 168.4 -0.1

Communications equipment manufacturing

85.4 84.2 84.3 84.9 85.6 84.1 84.4 84.9 0.5

Semiconductor and other electronic component manufacturing

382.8 388.4 388.4 386.9 384.3 389.3 390.2 388.8 -1.4

Navigational, measuring, electromedical, and control instruments manufacturing

423.0 423.2 425.2 426.7 422.8 424.3 425.7 426.2 0.5

Manufacturing and reproducing magnetic and optical media and audio and video equipment manufacturing

30.9 32.6 32.7 33.1 31.4 33.1 33.3 33.5 0.2

Electrical equipment, appliance, and component manufacturing

402.7 404.5 402.8 405.3 403.6 405.3 403.9 406.0 2.1

Transportation equipment manufacturing(1)

1,699.1 1,790.0 1,799.5 1,806.5 1,706.4 1,790.4 1,801.0 1,811.5 10.5

Motor vehicles and parts(2)

995.9 1,051.2 1,063.4 1,065.5 1,002.2 1,052.1 1,061.1 1,067.9 6.8

Furniture and related product manufacturing

383.7 368.3 366.2 362.2 382.7 368.1 367.2 363.2 -4.0

Miscellaneous manufacturing

626.7 630.9 630.2 629.3 626.5 633.1 632.0 630.2 -1.8

Nondurable goods

4,831 4,856 4,854 4,858 4,846 4,884 4,883 4,878 -5

Food manufacturing

1,677.6 1,716.1 1,712.2 1,710.5 1,695.9 1,729.0 1,729.8 1,729.7 -0.1

Textile mills

99.2 95.4 95.6 93.5 99.0 95.4 95.5 93.5 -2.0

Textile product mills

105.4 102.5 101.0 100.8 105.3 102.2 101.1 100.7 -0.4

Apparel manufacturing

93.4 93.4 94.0 92.8 93.4 93.6 93.5 92.8 -0.7

Paper manufacturing

363.1 356.4 352.9 351.7 362.9 356.0 353.7 352.1 -1.6

Printing and related support activities

380.9 380.8 379.9 378.7 381.4 382.0 381.3 379.3 -2.0

Petroleum and coal products manufacturing

107.6 102.6 105.5 107.3 106.4 105.5 106.3 105.9 -0.4

Chemical manufacturing

899.1 913.7 914.0 916.0 900.8 914.7 916.5 918.2 1.7

Plastics and rubber products manufacturing

756.0 747.1 747.2 748.1 753.6 748.6 747.9 747.2 -0.7

Beverage, tobacco, and leather and allied product manufacturing

348.2 348.1 351.7 358.7 347.2 357.2 357.8 358.1 0.3

Private service-providing

108,781 110,398 111,083 111,816 108,795 111,406 111,631 111,888 257

Trade, transportation, and utilities

28,423 28,588 28,583 28,716 28,634 28,867 28,884 28,921 37

Wholesale trade

5,965.3 6,022.3 6,035.3 6,054.7 5,961.1 6,047.9 6,050.3 6,051.4 1.1

Merchant wholesalers, durable goods

3,287.2 3,333.5 3,335.5 3,347.8 3,285.5 3,342.3 3,342.6 3,347.0 4.4

Merchant wholesalers, nondurable goods

2,159.7 2,166.2 2,174.6 2,186.3 2,157.1 2,180.6 2,180.9 2,183.3 2.4

Wholesale trade agents and brokers

518.4 522.6 525.2 520.6 518.5 525.0 526.8 521.1 -5.7

Retail trade

15,344.5 15,348.2 15,375.5 15,450.9 15,453.2 15,529.2 15,539.2 15,550.8 11.6

Motor vehicle and parts dealers

2,010.9 2,014.8 2,020.4 2,030.9 2,005.0 2,021.3 2,019.0 2,024.9 5.9

Automobile dealers

1,255.0 1,250.4 1,251.1 1,253.9 1,253.5 1,251.7 1,250.9 1,253.1 2.2

Other motor vehicle dealers

178.9 173.5 176.8 182.4 173.9 177.4 176.3 177.5 1.2

Automotive parts, accessories, and tire retailers

577.0 590.9 592.5 594.6 577.6 592.3 591.8 594.4 2.6

Building material and garden equipment and supplies dealers

1,455.4 1,383.1 1,407.7 1,431.7 1,393.7 1,386.7 1,383.3 1,378.5 -4.8

Food and beverage retailers

3,160.1 3,219.1 3,215.4 3,227.5 3,177.4 3,240.8 3,241.4 3,246.5 5.1

Furniture, home furnishings, electronics, and appliance retailers

904.4 866.0 855.6 852.9 912.9 870.9 866.3 862.4 -3.9

Furniture and home furnishings retailers

459.2 443.8 435.7 436.2 463.6 444.6 441.4 440.5 -0.9

Electronics and appliance retailers

445.2 422.2 419.9 416.7 452.9 427.0 426.1 424.1 -2.0

General merchandise retailers

3,072.2 3,099.8 3,099.2 3,096.3 3,166.0 3,145.1 3,156.4 3,166.7 10.3

Department stores

921.7 924.6 920.4 915.6 970.2 958.3 958.8 958.1 -0.7

Warehouse clubs, supercenters, and other general merchandise retailers

2,150.5 2,175.2 2,178.8 2,180.7 2,195.8 2,186.8 2,197.5 2,208.6 11.1

Health and personal care retailers

1,082.8 1,099.9 1,094.5 1,092.9 1,093.0 1,104.2 1,105.0 1,104.5 -0.5

Gasoline stations and fuel dealers

1,032.4 1,047.3 1,061.0 1,065.6 1,033.4 1,060.0 1,069.0 1,066.9 -2.1

Clothing, clothing accessories, shoe, and jewelry retailers

1,109.7 1,121.5 1,114.5 1,126.4 1,141.4 1,161.0 1,157.8 1,159.1 1.3

Sporting goods, hobby, musical instrument, book, and miscellaneous retailers

1,516.6 1,496.7 1,507.2 1,526.7 1,530.4 1,539.2 1,541.0 1,541.3 0.3

Transportation and warehousing

6,561.4 6,664.5 6,617.1 6,655.8 6,667.2 6,735.1 6,738.8 6,763.0 24.2

Air transportation

498.2 533.3 535.2 541.2 496.6 533.8 536.8 539.9 3.1

Rail transportation

146.4 149.8 150.4 150.4 146.7 149.9 150.4 150.3 -0.1

Water transportation

63.5 64.0 65.3 69.1 63.4 66.7 67.3 68.7 1.4

Truck transportation

1,579.7 1,581.6 1,590.1 1,603.2 1,583.8 1,607.6 1,608.6 1,609.2 0.6

Transit and ground passenger transportation

424.4 449.7 435.8 450.4 411.6 436.8 424.8 436.6 11.8

Pipeline transportation

50.5 47.9 48.0 48.2 50.4 48.0 48.1 48.0 -0.1

Scenic and sightseeing transportation

33.8 29.4 32.7 33.8 33.4 34.2 35.3 34.3 -1.0

Support activities for transportation

783.0 811.8 806.2 808.3 789.6 813.8 813.6 815.8 2.2

Couriers and messengers

1,055.4 1,081.7 1,049.5 1,062.6 1,136.2 1,126.1 1,133.0 1,141.2 8.2

Warehousing and storage

1,926.5 1,915.3 1,903.9 1,888.6 1,955.5 1,918.2 1,920.9 1,919.0 -1.9

Utilities

551.5 552.9 554.8 554.9 552.5 554.3 555.8 555.9 0.1

Information

3,056 3,072 3,074 3,066 3,067 3,092 3,093 3,084 -9

Motion picture and sound recording industries

463.2 446.7 455.0 460.8 463.0 460.5 461.9 461.6 -0.3

Publishing industries

933.9 932.9 932.6 926.5 939.7 937.7 938.8 936.3 -2.5

Broadcasting and content providers

355.1 356.7 354.8 354.5 355.7 356.6 355.9 355.5 -0.4

Telecommunications

661.4 652.7 648.8 645.5 664.7 651.9 651.7 649.2 -2.5

Computing infrastructure providers, data processing, web hosting, and related services

460.0 482.7 489.2 488.8 459.8 483.8 489.7 489.0 -0.7

Web search portals, libraries, archives, and other information services

182.1 200.6 193.3 189.9 183.7 201.0 194.8 192.8 -2.0

Financial activities

9,015 9,039 9,075 9,099 9,040 9,095 9,120 9,130 10

Finance and insurance

6,648.2 6,669.9 6,679.3 6,685.3 6,669.8 6,685.6 6,702.7 6,709.8 7.1

Monetary authorities-central bank

21.0 21.8 21.9 21.9 21.2 21.9 22.0 22.0 0.0

Credit intermediation and related
activities

2,697.6 2,666.9 2,665.2 2,662.0 2,701.4 2,669.9 2,671.0 2,668.2 -2.8

Depository credit intermediation(1)

1,751.8 1,786.0 1,784.3 1,777.5 1,753.0 1,785.1 1,786.8 1,780.9 -5.9

Commercial banking

1,359.4 1,377.8 1,376.5 1,368.3 1,361.0 1,375.9 1,377.2 1,371.4 -5.8

Nondepository credit intermediation

611.9 568.0 567.2 570.2 614.6 571.4 570.9 572.8 1.9

Activities related to credit intermediation

333.9 312.9 313.7 314.3 333.9 313.4 313.3 314.5 1.2

Securities, commodity contracts, funds, trusts, and other financial vehicles, investments, and related activities

1,034.7 1,067.6 1,071.0 1,072.8 1,041.7 1,075.7 1,077.7 1,080.4 2.7

Insurance carriers and related activities

2,894.9 2,913.6 2,921.2 2,928.6 2,905.5 2,918.1 2,932.0 2,939.2 7.2

Real estate and rental and leasing

2,366.6 2,369.0 2,395.4 2,413.6 2,370.5 2,409.4 2,417.6 2,420.4 2.8

Real estate

1,808.4 1,822.0 1,841.9 1,845.8 1,814.3 1,847.0 1,854.2 1,855.4 1.2

Rental and leasing services

535.7 524.9 531.2 545.3 533.6 539.9 540.9 542.4 1.5

Lessors of nonfinancial intangible assets (except copyrighted works)

22.5 22.1 22.3 22.5 22.6 22.5 22.5 22.6 0.1

Professional and business services

22,455 22,665 22,889 22,993 22,493 22,924 22,989 23,053 64

Professional, scientific, and technical services

10,400.9 10,778.3 10,854.6 10,808.3 10,465.5 10,784.4 10,829.6 10,872.3 42.7

Legal services

1,173.3 1,169.2 1,171.0 1,173.3 1,178.8 1,177.4 1,179.7 1,180.4 0.7

Accounting, tax preparation, bookkeeping, and payroll services

1,078.2 1,220.4 1,219.0 1,130.5 1,114.0 1,141.7 1,148.8 1,159.6 10.8

Architectural, engineering, and related services

1,587.8 1,642.5 1,654.8 1,670.5 1,594.8 1,666.2 1,670.8 1,677.8 7.0

Specialized design services

152.5 157.4 158.4 159.5 152.3 159.6 159.0 159.1 0.1

Computer systems design and related services

2,452.5 2,470.3 2,502.3 2,503.4 2,450.5 2,488.1 2,501.1 2,503.6 2.5

Management, scientific, and technical consulting services

1,765.1 1,839.0 1,853.8 1,858.2 1,772.6 1,854.3 1,861.1 1,869.3 8.2

Scientific research and development services

883.4 921.5 925.3 929.7 888.3 928.4 931.4 934.5 3.1

Advertising, public relations, and related services

481.5 490.1 492.5 495.6 482.4 492.3 494.0 496.6 2.6

Other professional, scientific, and technical services

826.6 867.9 877.5 887.6 831.8 876.4 883.8 891.3 7.5

Management of companies and enterprises

2,470.6 2,507.5 2,512.2 2,514.7 2,477.3 2,517.3 2,522.5 2,522.4 -0.1

Administrative and support and waste management and remediation services

9,583.2 9,379.1 9,522.4 9,670.2 9,550.1 9,622.1 9,636.4 9,657.9 21.5

Administrative and support services

9,112.5 8,894.6 9,032.6 9,176.0 9,075.5 9,132.0 9,142.2 9,162.1 19.9

Office administrative services

586.9 611.3 618.1 623.9 585.6 618.4 620.9 623.7 2.8

Facilities support services

152.0 161.4 160.5 160.6 153.9 161.0 160.6 162.7 2.1

Employment services(1)

3,870.5 3,741.0 3,724.0 3,784.8 3,898.0 3,827.6 3,825.7 3,835.0 9.3

Temporary help services

3,109.6 2,968.8 2,959.1 3,015.7 3,125.2 3,041.6 3,034.7 3,042.4 7.7

Business support services

795.8 759.5 758.3 757.1 801.2 764.1 762.8 761.6 -1.2

Travel arrangement and reservation services

171.5 176.7 179.7 181.3 170.0 178.8 180.1 180.1 0.0

Investigation and security services

946.8 969.1 975.9 977.8 946.7 972.7 976.2 978.4 2.2

Services to buildings and dwellings

2,256.0 2,138.1 2,277.4 2,351.5 2,186.9 2,267.3 2,275.0 2,280.2 5.2

Other support services

333.0 337.5 338.7 339.0 333.1 342.0 341.0 340.3 -0.7

Waste management and remediation services

470.7 484.5 489.8 494.2 474.6 490.1 494.2 495.8 1.6

Private education and health services

24,196 25,179 25,269 25,274 24,181 25,072 25,157 25,254 97

Private educational services

3,791.4 4,051.7 4,067.7 3,977.2 3,772.2 3,914.4 3,930.3 3,952.6 22.3

Health care and social assistance

20,405.0 21,127.3 21,201.2 21,297.2 20,408.7 21,157.9 21,227.0 21,301.6 74.6

Health care(3)

16,158.3 16,682.2 16,728.1 16,782.3 16,187.9 16,718.0 16,759.8 16,812.2 52.4

Ambulatory health care services

8,062.1 8,315.3 8,347.9 8,373.7 8,064.7 8,329.3 8,353.3 8,377.2 23.9

Offices of physicians

2,790.8 2,859.9 2,878.0 2,886.3 2,792.7 2,866.5 2,879.2 2,887.4 8.2

Offices of dentists

1,003.7 1,027.4 1,032.6 1,040.0 1,004.0 1,030.8 1,035.5 1,039.7 4.2

Offices of other health practitioners

1,076.1 1,118.2 1,123.5 1,125.7 1,076.5 1,122.3 1,124.6 1,127.8 3.2

Outpatient care centers

1,024.9 1,062.0 1,060.5 1,064.6 1,026.3 1,061.5 1,062.5 1,066.3 3.8

Medical and diagnostic laboratories

321.8 321.8 325.3 322.9 321.8 322.5 323.6 323.2 -0.4

Home health care services

1,522.5 1,589.8 1,592.9 1,601.2 1,521.2 1,590.9 1,593.0 1,598.8 5.8

Other ambulatory health care services

322.3 336.2 335.1 333.0 322.2 334.8 335.0 333.9 -1.1

Hospitals

5,114.8 5,263.8 5,266.3 5,279.8 5,132.3 5,270.6 5,279.8 5,299.4 19.6

Nursing and residential care facilities

2,981.4 3,103.1 3,113.9 3,128.8 2,990.9 3,118.1 3,126.7 3,135.6 8.9

Skilled nursing care facilities

1,339.5 1,387.4 1,392.5 1,397.0 1,347.1 1,396.5 1,399.1 1,402.0 2.9

Residential intellectual and developmental disability, mental health, and substance abuse facilities

602.2 622.7 625.1 631.0 602.4 624.5 627.3 631.0 3.7

Continuing care retirement communities and assisted living facilities for the elderly

890.3 937.5 942.3 945.7 891.0 941.5 944.9 946.6 1.7

Other residential care facilities

149.4 155.5 154.0 155.1 150.5 155.7 155.4 156.0 0.6

Social assistance

4,246.7 4,445.1 4,473.1 4,514.9 4,220.8 4,439.9 4,467.2 4,489.4 22.2

Individual and family services

2,808.0 2,952.5 2,979.0 3,004.5 2,800.3 2,954.0 2,978.2 2,995.4 17.2

Community food and housing, and emergency and other relief services

200.7 213.9 213.8 215.0 201.6 212.5 213.4 215.4 2.0

Vocational rehabilitation services

269.4 277.9 278.0 278.7 269.7 279.6 279.4 278.8 -0.6

Child care services

968.6 1,000.8 1,002.3 1,016.7 949.2 993.9 996.2 999.8 3.6

Leisure and hospitality

15,938 16,060 16,366 16,800 15,699 16,518 16,548 16,596 48

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

2,347.0 2,255.9 2,372.6 2,515.9 2,277.8 2,428.1 2,437.6 2,451.3 13.7

Performing arts, spectator sports, and related industries

534.9 491.2 543.4 575.2 503.6 524.5 529.5 540.1 10.6

Museums, historical sites, and similar institutions

158.2 160.9 166.2 173.8 156.9 170.3 171.0 172.1 1.1

Amusement, gambling, and recreation industries

1,653.9 1,603.8 1,663.0 1,766.9 1,617.3 1,733.3 1,737.1 1,739.1 2.0

Accommodation and food services

13,590.6 13,803.7 13,993.1 14,283.7 13,420.7 14,090.0 14,110.6 14,145.0 34.4

Accommodation

1,774.9 1,792.8 1,811.6 1,863.5 1,758.1 1,858.3 1,856.5 1,857.8 1.3

Food services and drinking places

11,815.7 12,010.9 12,181.5 12,420.2 11,662.6 12,231.7 12,254.1 12,287.2 33.1

Other services

5,698 5,795 5,827 5,868 5,681 5,838 5,840 5,850 10

Repair and maintenance

1,392.9 1,425.8 1,436.4 1,447.8 1,388.6 1,433.0 1,437.5 1,442.4 4.9

Personal and laundry services

1,476.6 1,517.4 1,532.2 1,544.2 1,460.0 1,530.4 1,530.0 1,530.6 0.6

Religious, grantmaking, civic, professional, and similar organizations

2,828.7 2,851.5 2,858.6 2,876.0 2,831.9 2,874.9 2,872.5 2,876.7 4.2

Government

22,362 22,824 22,903 22,924 22,122 22,565 22,606 22,662 56

Federal

2,865 2,890 2,902 2,921 2,868 2,906 2,911 2,918 7

Federal, except U.S. Postal Service

2,266.4 2,285.0 2,291.4 2,316.2 2,264.8 2,301.2 2,304.8 2,310.1 5.3

U.S. Postal Service

598.4 604.5 610.7 604.8 603.1 604.4 606.3 607.6 1.3

State government

5,091 5,313 5,348 5,240 5,092 5,195 5,207 5,226 19

State government education

2,443.8 2,638.9 2,662.6 2,541.2 2,444.3 2,512.0 2,520.1 2,529.8 9.7

State government, excluding education

2,646.7 2,674.2 2,685.3 2,699.1 2,647.4 2,682.7 2,687.0 2,696.6 9.6

Local government

14,406 14,621 14,653 14,763 14,162 14,464 14,488 14,518 30

Local government education

8,029.0 8,178.7 8,168.1 8,193.1 7,777.8 7,919.4 7,924.3 7,938.9 14.6

Local government, excluding education

6,376.9 6,442.0 6,485.1 6,570.3 6,384.0 6,545.0 6,563.3 6,578.8 15.5

Footnotes
(1) Includes other industries, not shown separately.
(2) Includes motor vehicle manufacturing, motor vehicle body and trailer manufacturing, and motor vehicle parts manufacturing.
(3) Includes ambulatory health care services, hospitals, and nursing and residential care facilities.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2022 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-2. Average weekly hours and overtime of all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry May
2022
Mar.
2023
Apr.
2023(p)
May
2023(p)

AVERAGE WEEKLY HOURS

Total private

34.6 34.4 34.4 34.3

Goods-producing

40.0 39.9 39.9 39.9

Mining and logging

46.1 46.1 45.9 47.5

Construction

38.9 38.9 38.9 38.8

Manufacturing

40.4 40.3 40.1 40.1

Durable goods

40.7 40.7 40.5 40.6

Nondurable goods

39.8 39.6 39.5 39.3

Private service-providing

33.5 33.3 33.3 33.3

Trade, transportation, and utilities

34.1 34.0 33.9 33.9

Wholesale trade

39.0 38.8 38.8 38.9

Retail trade

30.1 30.1 30.0 30.0

Transportation and warehousing

38.2 38.1 37.9 37.7

Utilities

42.9 42.4 42.3 42.0

Information

36.7 36.2 36.3 36.0

Financial activities

37.5 37.4 37.5 37.5

Professional and business services

36.5 36.4 36.4 36.3

Private education and health services

33.5 33.4 33.3 33.3

Leisure and hospitality

25.8 25.4 25.4 25.4

Other services

32.3 32.3 32.3 32.3

AVERAGE OVERTIME HOURS

Manufacturing

3.3 3.0 2.9 3.0

Durable goods

3.3 3.1 3.1 3.1

Nondurable goods

3.2 2.8 2.7 2.8

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2022 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-3. Average hourly and weekly earnings of all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Average hourly earnings Average weekly earnings
May
2022
Mar.
2023
Apr.
2023(p)
May
2023(p)
May
2022
Mar.
2023
Apr.
2023(p)
May
2023(p)

Total private

$32.06 $33.20 $33.33 $33.44 $1,109.28 $1,142.08 $1,146.55 $1,146.99

Goods-producing

32.32 33.53 33.70 33.81 1,292.80 1,337.85 1,344.63 1,349.02

Mining and logging

35.58 37.28 37.69 37.82 1,640.24 1,718.61 1,729.97 1,796.45

Construction

34.53 35.99 36.14 36.29 1,343.22 1,400.01 1,405.85 1,408.05

Manufacturing

30.86 31.88 32.03 32.11 1,246.74 1,284.76 1,284.40 1,287.61

Durable goods

32.48 33.42 33.58 33.69 1,321.94 1,360.19 1,359.99 1,367.81

Nondurable goods

28.14 29.25 29.39 29.39 1,119.97 1,158.30 1,160.91 1,155.03

Private service-providing

32.00 33.13 33.25 33.36 1,072.00 1,103.23 1,107.23 1,110.89

Trade, transportation, and utilities

27.60 28.66 28.83 28.88 941.16 974.44 977.34 979.03

Wholesale trade

34.75 36.41 36.58 36.61 1,355.25 1,412.71 1,419.30 1,424.13

Retail trade

22.82 23.76 23.85 23.89 686.88 715.18 715.50 716.70

Transportation and warehousing

27.97 28.61 28.88 28.97 1,068.45 1,090.04 1,094.55 1,092.17

Utilities

47.32 49.29 49.52 49.76 2,030.03 2,089.90 2,094.70 2,089.92

Information

46.03 48.06 47.70 48.48 1,689.30 1,739.77 1,731.51 1,745.28

Financial activities

41.18 42.71 42.56 42.78 1,544.25 1,597.35 1,596.00 1,604.25

Professional and business services

38.57 39.95 40.15 40.25 1,407.81 1,454.18 1,461.46 1,461.08

Private education and health services

31.67 32.65 32.77 32.87 1,060.95 1,090.51 1,091.24 1,094.57

Leisure and hospitality

19.98 20.93 21.00 21.07 515.48 531.62 533.40 535.18

Other services

28.39 29.31 29.55 29.66 917.00 946.71 954.47 958.02

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2022 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-4. Indexes of aggregate weekly hours and payrolls for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
[2007=100]
Industry Index of aggregate weekly hours(1) Index of aggregate weekly payrolls(2)
May
2022
Mar.
2023
Apr.
2023(p)
May
2023(p)
Percent change from:
Apr.
2023 - May
2023(p)
May
2022
Mar.
2023
Apr.
2023(p)
May
2023(p)
Percent change from:
Apr.
2023 - May
2023(p)

Total private

112.8 114.8 115.0 114.9 -0.1 173.0 182.2 183.2 183.7 0.3

Goods-producing

96.3 97.7 97.9 98.0 0.1 140.6 148.1 149.1 149.7 0.4

Mining and logging

86.9 92.0 92.3 96.0 4.0 124.2 137.7 139.7 145.7 4.3

Construction

103.7 105.8 106.0 106.0 0.0 155.6 165.4 166.4 167.2 0.5

Manufacturing

93.0 94.1 93.7 93.7 0.0 133.4 139.5 139.5 139.9 0.3

Durable goods

91.0 92.7 92.4 92.7 0.3 131.3 137.6 137.8 138.6 0.6

Nondurable goods

96.3 96.5 96.3 95.7 -0.6 137.5 143.3 143.6 142.7 -0.6

Private service-providing

117.3 119.4 119.7 120.0 0.3 182.5 192.3 193.4 194.5 0.6

Trade, transportation, and utilities

106.7 107.2 107.0 107.1 0.1 158.8 165.7 166.3 166.8 0.3

Wholesale trade

102.6 103.5 103.6 103.8 0.2 149.1 157.6 158.4 159.0 0.4

Retail trade

94.7 95.1 94.9 94.9 0.0 142.9 149.5 149.6 150.0 0.3

Transportation and warehousing

146.3 147.4 146.7 146.5 -0.1 208.2 214.6 215.6 215.9 0.1

Utilities

102.5 101.7 101.7 101.0 -0.7 160.3 165.6 166.4 166.1 -0.2

Information

102.8 102.2 102.6 101.4 -1.2 168.5 174.9 174.2 175.0 0.5

Financial activities

111.0 111.4 112.0 112.2 0.2 178.4 185.6 186.0 187.1 0.6

Professional and business services

128.4 130.5 130.9 130.9 0.0 200.7 211.3 212.9 213.5 0.3

Private education and health services

132.3 136.7 136.8 137.3 0.4 201.5 214.8 215.6 217.1 0.7

Leisure and hospitality

115.6 119.7 119.9 120.3 0.3 186.3 202.1 203.2 204.5 0.6

Other services

105.8 108.7 108.8 108.9 0.1 164.6 174.7 176.2 177.1 0.5

Footnotes
(1) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding 2007 annual average aggregate hours. Aggregate hours estimates are the product of estimates of average weekly hours and employment.
(2) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding 2007 annual average aggregate weekly payrolls. Aggregate payrolls estimates are the product of estimates of average hourly earnings, average weekly hours, and employment.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2022 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-5. Employment of women on nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Women employees (in thousands) Percent of all employees
May
2022
Mar.
2023
Apr.
2023(p)
May
2023(p)
May
2022
Mar.
2023
Apr.
2023(p)
May
2023(p)

Total nonfarm

75,613 77,413 77,568 77,745 49.7 49.8 49.8 49.8

Total private

62,766 64,252 64,373 64,498 48.3 48.3 48.3 48.3

Goods-producing

4,862 4,976 4,984 4,994 23.0 23.1 23.2 23.2

Mining and logging

76 82 82 82 12.7 12.9 12.8 12.8

Construction

1,082 1,119 1,118 1,120 14.0 14.2 14.1 14.1

Manufacturing

3,704 3,775 3,784 3,792 29.0 29.1 29.1 29.2

Durable goods

1,963 2,016 2,022 2,028 24.7 24.9 25.0 25.0

Nondurable goods

1,741 1,759 1,762 1,764 35.9 36.0 36.1 36.2

Private service-providing

57,904 59,276 59,389 59,504 53.2 53.2 53.2 53.2

Trade, transportation, and utilities

11,275 11,357 11,361 11,370 39.4 39.3 39.3 39.3

Wholesale trade

1,820.1 1,865.1 1,862.3 1,855.9 30.5 30.8 30.8 30.7

Retail trade

7,523.7 7,515.3 7,519.3 7,531.8 48.7 48.4 48.4 48.4

Transportation and warehousing

1,791.3 1,830.5 1,833.6 1,836.3 26.9 27.2 27.2 27.2

Utilities

139.6 145.7 146.0 146.4 25.3 26.3 26.3 26.3

Information

1,222 1,254 1,253 1,248 39.8 40.6 40.5 40.5

Financial activities

5,043 5,063 5,077 5,081 55.8 55.7 55.7 55.7

Professional and business services

10,411 10,558 10,575 10,602 46.3 46.1 46.0 46.0

Private education and health services

18,605 19,254 19,325 19,394 76.9 76.8 76.8 76.8

Leisure and hospitality

8,311 8,660 8,662 8,666 52.9 52.4 52.3 52.2

Other services

3,037 3,130 3,136 3,143 53.5 53.6 53.7 53.7

Government

12,847 13,161 13,195 13,247 58.1 58.3 58.4 58.5

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2022 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-6. Employment of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
[In thousands]
Industry May
2022
Mar.
2023
Apr.
2023(p)
May
2023(p)

Total private

105,885 108,166 108,398 108,654

Goods-producing

15,141 15,427 15,450 15,460

Mining and logging

455 480 483 488

Construction

5,711 5,811 5,823 5,821

Manufacturing

8,975 9,136 9,144 9,151

Durable goods

5,496 5,626 5,624 5,634

Nondurable goods

3,479 3,510 3,520 3,517

Private service-providing

90,744 92,739 92,948 93,194

Trade, transportation, and utilities

24,172 24,340 24,364 24,381

Wholesale trade

4,743.1 4,795.1 4,792.4 4,792.3

Retail trade

13,172.7 13,223.1 13,237.4 13,249.6

Transportation and warehousing

5,814.6 5,881.2 5,891.1 5,896.8

Utilities

441.7 440.7 443.4 442.7

Information

2,436 2,469 2,470 2,465

Financial activities

6,805 6,847 6,852 6,854

Professional and business services

18,026 18,221 18,267 18,330

Private education and health services

21,037 21,790 21,878 21,967

Leisure and hospitality

13,666 14,325 14,377 14,452

Other services

4,602 4,747 4,740 4,745

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2022 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-7. Average weekly hours and overtime of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry May
2022
Mar.
2023
Apr.
2023(p)
May
2023(p)

AVERAGE WEEKLY HOURS

Total private

34.1 33.9 33.8 33.8

Goods-producing

40.8 40.4 40.5 40.5

Mining and logging

47.4 47.8 47.7 48.9

Construction

39.7 39.5 39.5 39.4

Manufacturing

41.2 40.6 40.7 40.7

Durable goods

41.5 40.8 40.9 41.0

Nondurable goods

40.7 40.3 40.3 40.2

Private service-providing

32.9 32.8 32.7 32.7

Trade, transportation, and utilities

34.2 34.0 33.9 33.9

Wholesale trade

39.2 38.7 38.8 38.8

Retail trade

30.5 30.3 30.2 30.2

Transportation and warehousing

37.8 37.7 37.5 37.4

Utilities

42.8 42.7 42.6 42.7

Information

36.5 35.8 35.8 35.6

Financial activities

37.2 37.2 37.1 37.2

Professional and business services

36.2 36.3 36.2 36.2

Private education and health services

32.7 32.7 32.6 32.6

Leisure and hospitality

24.6 24.2 24.2 24.2

Other services

31.2 31.2 31.2 31.3

AVERAGE OVERTIME HOURS

Manufacturing

4.1 3.7 3.6 3.6

Durable goods

4.3 3.9 3.8 3.8

Nondurable goods

3.8 3.3 3.4 3.3

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2022 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-8. Average hourly and weekly earnings of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry Average hourly earnings Average weekly earnings
May
2022
Mar.
2023
Apr.
2023(p)
May
2023(p)
May
2022
Mar.
2023
Apr.
2023(p)
May
2023(p)

Total private

$27.39 $28.52 $28.62 $28.75 $934.00 $966.83 $967.36 $971.75

Goods-producing

27.85 29.12 29.22 29.36 1,136.28 1,176.45 1,183.41 1,189.08

Mining and logging

32.28 33.63 33.90 33.71 1,530.07 1,607.51 1,617.03 1,648.42

Construction

32.15 33.79 33.92 34.07 1,276.36 1,334.71 1,339.84 1,342.36

Manufacturing

24.96 25.95 26.03 26.19 1,028.35 1,053.57 1,059.42 1,065.93

Durable goods

26.21 27.09 27.22 27.40 1,087.72 1,105.27 1,113.30 1,123.40

Nondurable goods

22.96 24.09 24.10 24.20 934.47 970.83 971.23 972.84

Private service-providing

27.29 28.39 28.50 28.62 897.84 931.19 931.95 935.87

Trade, transportation, and utilities

23.84 24.95 25.05 25.12 815.33 848.30 849.20 851.57

Wholesale trade

28.94 30.20 30.20 30.26 1,134.45 1,168.74 1,171.76 1,174.09

Retail trade

19.47 20.33 20.37 20.40 593.84 616.00 615.17 616.08

Transportation and warehousing

25.92 27.30 27.55 27.71 979.78 1,029.21 1,033.13 1,036.35

Utilities

42.25 43.72 44.17 44.33 1,808.30 1,866.84 1,881.64 1,892.89

Information

37.69 39.08 39.23 39.44 1,375.69 1,399.06 1,404.43 1,404.06

Financial activities

32.10 33.33 33.35 33.60 1,194.12 1,239.88 1,237.29 1,249.92

Professional and business services

32.29 33.81 33.99 34.12 1,168.90 1,227.30 1,230.44 1,235.14

Private education and health services

28.78 29.77 29.86 29.98 941.11 973.48 973.44 977.35

Leisure and hospitality

17.78 18.48 18.53 18.66 437.39 447.22 448.43 451.57

Other services

24.72 25.17 25.34 25.48 771.26 785.30 790.61 797.52

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2022 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-9. Indexes of aggregate weekly hours and payrolls for production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
[2002=100]
Industry Index of aggregate weekly hours(2) Index of aggregate weekly payrolls(3)
May
2022
Mar.
2023
Apr.
2023(p)
May
2023(p)
Percent change from:
Apr.
2023 - May
2023(p)
May
2022
Mar.
2023
Apr.
2023(p)
May
2023(p)
Percent change from:
Apr.
2023 - May
2023(p)

Total private

120.3 122.2 122.1 122.4 0.2 220.3 232.9 233.5 235.2 0.7

Goods-producing

94.4 95.2 95.6 95.7 0.1 161.0 169.8 171.1 172.0 0.5

Mining and logging

114.6 121.9 122.4 126.8 3.6 215.2 238.5 241.4 248.6 3.0

Construction

113.5 114.9 115.2 114.8 -0.3 197.1 209.7 210.9 211.3 0.2

Manufacturing

84.9 85.1 85.4 85.5 0.1 138.6 144.5 145.4 146.4 0.7

Durable goods

85.7 86.2 86.4 86.8 0.5 140.2 145.8 146.8 148.4 1.1

Nondurable goods

83.4 83.3 83.6 83.3 -0.4 135.4 141.9 142.3 142.5 0.1

Private service-providing

127.2 129.6 129.5 129.8 0.2 238.1 252.4 253.1 254.9 0.7

Trade, transportation, and utilities

115.7 115.8 115.6 115.7 0.1 197.2 206.6 207.0 207.7 0.3

Wholesale trade

110.3 110.1 110.4 110.4 0.0 188.5 196.3 196.7 197.1 0.2

Retail trade

101.9 101.6 101.4 101.5 0.1 170.1 177.1 177.0 177.5 0.3

Transportation and warehousing

166.3 167.8 167.2 166.9 -0.2 274.4 291.6 293.2 294.4 0.4

Utilities

96.7 96.2 96.6 96.7 0.1 170.5 175.6 178.1 178.9 0.4

Information

101.5 100.9 100.9 100.2 -0.7 189.4 195.2 196.0 195.6 -0.2

Financial activities

119.1 119.9 119.6 120.0 0.3 235.3 245.8 245.5 248.1 1.1

Professional and business services

145.7 147.7 147.6 148.1 0.3 279.8 296.9 298.4 300.6 0.7

Private education and health services

146.7 151.9 152.1 152.7 0.4 278.6 298.5 299.7 302.1 0.8

Leisure and hospitality

123.1 127.0 127.4 128.1 0.5 248.6 266.5 268.2 271.5 1.2

Other services

100.7 103.9