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Economic News Release
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CPS CPS Program Links
CES CES Program Links

Employment Situation News Release

Transmission of material in this news release is embargoed until	USDL-22-1082
8:30 a.m. (ET) Friday, June 3, 2022

Technical information: 
Household data:	     (202) 691-6378  *  cpsinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/cps
Establishment data:  (202) 691-6555  *  cesinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/ces

Media contact:	     (202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov

	
                       THE EMPLOYMENT SITUATION -- MAY 2022


Total nonfarm payroll employment rose by 390,000 in May, and the unemployment
rate remained at 3.6 percent, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today.
Notable job gains occurred in leisure and hospitality, in professional and
business services, and in transportation and warehousing. Employment in retail
trade declined.

This news release presents statistics from two monthly surveys. The household
survey measures labor force status, including unemployment, by demographic 
characteristics. The establishment survey measures nonfarm employment, hours,
and earnings by industry. For more information about the concepts and statistical
methodology used in these two surveys, see the Technical Note.

Household Survey Data

In May, the unemployment rate was 3.6 percent for the third month in a row, and
the number of unemployed persons was essentially unchanged at 6.0 million. These
measures are little different from their values in February 2020 (3.5 percent
and 5.7 million, respectively), prior to the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic.
(See table A-1.) 

Among the major worker groups, the unemployment rate for Asians declined to 2.4
percent in May. The jobless rates for adult men (3.4 percent), adult women (3.4
percent), teenagers (10.4 percent), Whites (3.2 percent), Blacks (6.2 percent),
and Hispanics (4.3 percent) showed little or no change over the month. (See
tables A-1, A-2, and A-3.)

Among the unemployed, the number of permanent job losers remained at 1.4 million
in May. The number of persons on temporary layoff was little changed at 810,000.
Both measures are little different from their values in February 2020. (See
table A-11.) 

In May, the number of long-term unemployed (those jobless for 27 weeks or more)
edged down to 1.4 million. This measure is 235,000 higher than in February 2020.
The long-term unemployed accounted for 23.2 percent of all unemployed persons
in May. (See table A-12.) 

Both the labor force participation rate, at 62.3 percent, and the employment-
population ratio, at 60.1 percent, were little changed over the month. Both
measures are 1.1 percentage points below their February 2020 values. (See table
A-1.) 

The number of persons employed part time for economic reasons increased by
295,000 to 4.3 million in May, reflecting an increase in the number of persons
whose hours were cut due to slack work or business conditions. The number of
persons employed part time for economic reasons is little different from its
February 2020 level. These individuals, who would have preferred full-time
employment, were working part time because their hours had been reduced or 
they were unable to find full-time jobs. (See table A-8.) 

The number of persons not in the labor force who currently want a job was 
little changed at 5.7 million in May. This measure remains above its February 
2020 level of 5.0 million. These individuals were not counted as unemployed
because they were not actively looking for work during the 4 weeks preceding
the survey or were unavailable to take a job. (See table A-1.) 

Among those not in the labor force who wanted a job, the number of persons
marginally attached to the labor force, at 1.5 million, changed little in May.
These individuals wanted and were available for work and had looked for a job
sometime in the prior 12 months but had not looked for work in the 4 weeks
preceding the survey. Discouraged workers, a subset of the marginally attached
who believed that no jobs were available for them, numbered 415,000 in May,
also little changed from the prior month. (See Summary table A.) 

Household Survey Supplemental Data 

In May, 7.4 percent of employed persons teleworked because of the coronavirus
pandemic, down from 7.7 percent in the prior month. These data refer to employed
persons who teleworked or worked at home for pay at some point in the 4 weeks
preceding the survey specifically because of the pandemic. 

In May, 1.8 million persons reported that they had been unable to work because
their employer closed or lost business due to the pandemic--that is, they did
not work at all or worked fewer hours at some point in the 4 weeks preceding
the survey due to the pandemic. This measure is little changed from the previous
month. Among those who reported in May that they were unable to work because
of pandemic-related closures or lost business, 19.9 percent received at least
some pay from their employer for the hours not worked, also little different
from the prior month. 

Among those not in the labor force in May, 455,000 persons were prevented from
looking for work due to the pandemic, down from 586,000 in the prior month. (To
be counted as unemployed, by definition, individuals must be either actively
looking for work or on temporary layoff.) 

These supplemental data come from questions added to the household survey
beginning in May 2020 to help gauge the effects of the pandemic on the labor
market. The data are not seasonally adjusted. Tables with estimates from the
supplemental questions for all months are available online at 
www.bls.gov/cps/effects-of-the-coronavirus-covid-19-pandemic.htm. 

Establishment Survey Data

Total nonfarm payroll employment rose by 390,000 in May. Notable job gains 
occurred in leisure and hospitality, in professional and business services,
and in transportation and warehousing. Employment in retail trade declined 
over the month. Nonfarm employment is down by 822,000, or 0.5 percent, from
its pre-pandemic level in February 2020. (See table B-1.)

Employment in leisure and hospitality increased by 84,000 in May, as job
growth continued in food services and drinking places (+46,000) and 
accommodation (+21,000). Employment in leisure and hospitality is down by
1.3 million, or 7.9 percent, compared with February 2020.

Employment in professional and business services rose by 75,000 in May.
Within the industry, job gains occurred in accounting and bookkeeping 
services (+16,000), computer systems design and related services (+13,000),
and scientific research and development services (+6,000). Employment in
professional and business services is 821,000 higher than in February 2020.

In May, transportation and warehousing added 47,000 jobs. Employment rose
in warehousing and storage (+18,000), truck transportation (+13,000), and 
air transportation (+6,000). Employment in transportation and warehousing
is 709,000 above its February 2020 level.

Employment in construction increased by 36,000 in May, following no change
in April. In May, job gains occurred in specialty trade contractors (+17,000)
and heavy and civil engineering construction (+11,000). Construction
employment is 40,000 higher than in February 2020.

In May, employment increased by 36,000 in state government education and
by 33,000 in private education. Employment changed little in local 
government education (+14,000). Compared with February 2020, employment
in state government education is up by 27,000, while employment in private
education has essentially recovered. Employment in local government
education is down by 308,000, or 3.8 percent, compared with February 2020.

Employment in health care rose by 28,000 in May, including a gain in hospitals
(+16,000). Employment in health care overall is 223,000, or 1.3 percent,
lower than in February 2020.

Manufacturing employment continued to trend up in May (+18,000). Job gains
occurred in fabricated metal products (+7,000), wood products (+4,000),
and electronic instruments (+3,000). Employment in manufacturing overall 
is slightly below (-17,000 or -0.1 percent) its February 2020 level. 

Wholesale trade added 14,000 jobs in May, including gains in durable goods 
(+10,000) and electronic markets and agents and brokers (+6,000). Employment
in wholesale trade is down by 41,000, or 0.7 percent, compared with February
2020.

Mining employment increased by 6,000 in May and is 80,000 higher than a recent
low in February 2021. 

Employment in retail trade declined by 61,000 in May but is 159,000 above 
its February 2020 level. Over the month, job losses occurred in general
merchandise stores (-33,000), clothing and clothing accessories stores 
(-9,000), food and beverage stores (-8,000), building material and garden
supply stores (-7,000), and health and personal care stores (-5,000). 

In May, employment showed little change in other major industries, including
information, financial activities, and other services.

Average hourly earnings for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls rose
by 10 cents, or 0.3 percent, to $31.95 in May. Over the past 12 months, average
hourly earnings have increased by 5.2 percent. In May, average hourly earnings
of private-sector production and nonsupervisory employees rose by 15 cents,
or 0.6 percent, to $27.33. (See tables B-3 and B-8.) 

In May, the average workweek for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls 
was 34.6 hours for the third month in a row. In manufacturing, the average 
workweek for all employees was little changed at 40.4 hours, and overtime fell
by 0.1 hour to 3.2 hours. The average workweek for production and nonsupervisory
employees on private nonfarm payrolls remained unchanged at 34.1 hours. (See
tables B-2 and B-7.) 

The change in total nonfarm payroll employment for March was revised down
by 30,000, from +428,000 to +398,000, and the change for April was revised
up by 8,000, from +428,000 to +436,000. With these revisions, employment in
March and April combined is 22,000 lower than previously reported. (Monthly
revisions result from additional reports received from businesses and government
agencies since the last published estimates and from the recalculation of
seasonal factors.)

_____________
The Employment Situation for June is scheduled to be released on Friday,
July 8, 2022, at 8:30 a.m. (ET).




HOUSEHOLD DATA
Summary table A. Household data, seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Category May
2021
Mar.
2022
Apr.
2022
May
2022
Change from:
Apr.
2022-
May
2022

Employment status

Civilian noninstitutional population

261,210 263,444 263,559 263,679 120

Civilian labor force

160,801 164,409 164,046 164,376 330

Participation rate

61.6 62.4 62.2 62.3 0.1

Employed

151,550 158,458 158,105 158,426 321

Employment-population ratio

58.0 60.1 60.0 60.1 0.1

Unemployed

9,251 5,952 5,941 5,950 9

Unemployment rate

5.8 3.6 3.6 3.6 0.0

Not in labor force

100,409 99,035 99,513 99,302 -211

Unemployment rates

Total, 16 years and over

5.8 3.6 3.6 3.6 0.0

Adult men (20 years and over)

5.8 3.4 3.5 3.4 -0.1

Adult women (20 years and over)

5.3 3.3 3.2 3.4 0.2

Teenagers (16 to 19 years)

9.6 10.0 10.2 10.4 0.2

White

5.1 3.2 3.2 3.2 0.0

Black or African American

9.1 6.2 5.9 6.2 0.3

Asian

5.5 2.8 3.1 2.4 -0.7

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

7.1 4.2 4.1 4.3 0.2

Total, 25 years and over

5.1 2.9 3.0 3.0 0.0

Less than a high school diploma

8.9 5.2 5.4 5.2 -0.2

High school graduates, no college

6.9 4.0 3.8 3.8 0.0

Some college or associate degree

6.0 3.0 3.1 3.4 0.3

Bachelor's degree and higher

3.1 2.0 2.0 2.0 0.0

Reason for unemployment

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

5,822 2,831 2,839 2,736 -103

Job leavers

783 787 793 764 -29

Reentrants

2,174 1,985 1,882 1,943 61

New entrants

526 463 515 535 20

Duration of unemployment

Less than 5 weeks

1,974 2,289 2,227 2,066 -161

5 to 14 weeks

2,218 1,684 1,617 1,767 150

15 to 26 weeks

1,230 571 551 661 110

27 weeks and over

3,765 1,428 1,483 1,356 -127

Employed persons at work part time

Part time for economic reasons

5,267 4,170 4,033 4,328 295

Slack work or business conditions

4,016 2,880 2,647 2,996 349

Could only find part-time work

998 1,055 1,071 999 -72

Part time for noneconomic reasons

19,362 20,870 20,826 20,806 -20

Persons not in the labor force

Marginally attached to the labor force

1,946 1,360 1,622 1,472 -150

Discouraged workers

592 373 456 415 -41

NOTE: Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Summary table B. Establishment data, seasonally adjusted
Category May
2021
Mar.
2022
Apr.
2022(p)
May
2022(p)

EMPLOYMENT BY SELECTED INDUSTRY
(Over-the-month change, in thousands)

Total nonfarm

447 398 436 390

Total private

381 385 405 333

Goods-producing

22 85 69 59

Mining and logging

6 5 8 5

Construction

-12 22 0 36

Manufacturing

28 58 61 18

Durable goods(1)

23 41 34 11

Motor vehicles and parts

19.6 18.4 7.5 -3.5

Nondurable goods

5 17 27 7

Private service-providing

359 300 336 274

Wholesale trade

8.5 25.9 22.9 14.1

Retail trade

-25.2 -22.9 12.3 -60.7

Transportation and warehousing

28.8 3.7 46.2 47.0

Utilities

-0.9 -0.5 0.5 0.5

Information

15 18 15 16

Financial activities

0 11 35 8

Professional and business services(1)

80 94 49 75

Temporary help services

25.7 8.2 6.6 19.3

Education and health services(1)

38 51 60 74

Health care and social assistance

15.2 37.8 44.2 42.1

Leisure and hospitality

199 104 83 84

Other services

16 15 13 16

Government

66 13 31 57

(3-month average change, in thousands)

Total nonfarm

471 539 516 408

Total private

414 527 498 374

WOMEN AND PRODUCTION AND NONSUPERVISORY EMPLOYEES
AS A PERCENT OF ALL EMPLOYEES(2)

Total nonfarm women employees

49.8 49.8 49.8 49.8

Total private women employees

48.4 48.3 48.4 48.4

Total private production and nonsupervisory employees

81.4 81.5 81.5 81.5

HOURS AND EARNINGS
ALL EMPLOYEES

Total private

Average weekly hours

34.9 34.6 34.6 34.6

Average hourly earnings

$30.36 $31.75 $31.85 $31.95

Average weekly earnings

$1,059.56 $1,098.55 $1,102.01 $1,105.47

Index of aggregate weekly hours (2007=100)(3)

107.9 111.8 112.1 112.4

Over-the-month percent change

0.3 0.0 0.3 0.3

Index of aggregate weekly payrolls (2007=100)(4)

156.6 169.7 170.7 171.7

Over-the-month percent change

0.8 0.5 0.6 0.6

DIFFUSION INDEX
(Over 1-month span)(5)

Total private (256 industries)

64.5 74.2 72.3 69.3

Manufacturing (74 industries)

55.4 72.3 71.6 66.2

Footnotes
(1) Includes other industries, not shown separately.
(2) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries.
(3) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding annual average aggregate hours.
(4) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding annual average aggregate weekly payrolls.
(5) Figures are the percent of industries with employment increasing plus one-half of the industries with unchanged employment, where 50 percent indicates an equal balance between industries with increasing and decreasing employment.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2021 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


Frequently Asked Questions about Employment and Unemployment Estimates

1. Why are there two monthly measures of employment?

   The household survey and establishment survey both produce sample-based estimates
   of employment, and both have strengths and limitations. The establishment survey
   employment series has a smaller margin of error on the measurement of month-to-
   month change than the household survey because of its much larger sample size. An
   over-the-month employment change of about 100,000 is statistically significant in
   the establishment survey, while the threshold for a statistically significant change
   in the household survey is about 500,000. However, the household survey has a more
   expansive scope than the establishment survey because it includes self-employed
   workers whose businesses are unincorporated, unpaid family workers, agricultural
   workers, and private household workers, who are excluded by the establishment survey.
   The household survey also provides estimates of employment for demographic groups.
   For more information on the differences between the two surveys, please visit
   https://www.bls.gov/web/empsit/ces_cps_trends.htm.

2. Are undocumented immigrants counted in the surveys?

   It is likely that both surveys include at least some undocumented immigrants. However,
   neither the establishment nor the household survey is designed to identify the legal
   status of workers. Therefore, it is not possible to determine how many are counted in
   either survey. The establishment survey does not collect data on the legal status of
   workers. The household survey does include questions which identify the foreign and
   native born, but it does not include questions about the legal status of the foreign
   born. Data on the foreign and native born are published each month in table A-7 of
   The Employment Situation news release.

3. Why does the establishment survey have revisions?

   The establishment survey revises published estimates to improve its data series by
   incorporating additional information that was not available at the time of the
   initial publication of the estimates. The establishment survey revises its initial
   monthly estimates twice, in the immediately succeeding 2 months, to incorporate
   additional sample receipts from respondents in the survey and recalculated seasonal
   adjustment factors. For more information on the monthly revisions, please visit
   https://www.bls.gov/web/empsit/cestn.htm#section7.

   On an annual basis, the establishment survey incorporates a benchmark revision that
   re-anchors estimates to nearly complete employment counts available from unemployment
   insurance tax records. The benchmark helps to control for sampling and modeling errors
   in the estimates. For more information on the annual benchmark revision, please visit
   https://www.bls.gov/web/empsit/cesbmart.htm.

4. Does the establishment survey sample include small firms?

   Yes; about 40 percent of the establishment survey sample is comprised of business
   establishments with fewer than 20 employees. The establishment survey sample is
   designed to maximize the reliability of the statewide total nonfarm employment
   estimate; firms from all states, size classes, and industries are appropriately
   sampled to achieve that goal.

5. Does the establishment survey account for employment from new businesses?

   Yes; monthly establishment survey estimates include an adjustment to account for
   the net employment change generated by business births and deaths. The adjustment
   comes from an econometric model that forecasts the monthly net jobs impact of
   business births and deaths based on the actual past values of the net impact that
   can be observed with a lag from the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages. The
   establishment survey uses modeling rather than sampling for this purpose because
   the survey is not immediately able to bring new businesses into the sample. There
   is an unavoidable lag between the birth of a new firm and its appearance on the
   sampling frame and availability for selection. BLS adds new businesses to the survey
   twice a year.

6. Is the count of unemployed persons limited to just those people receiving unemployment
   insurance benefits?

   No; the estimate of unemployment is based on a monthly sample survey of households.
   All persons who are without jobs and are actively seeking and available to work are
   included among the unemployed. (People on temporary layoff are included even if
   they do not actively seek work.) There is no requirement or question relating to
   unemployment insurance benefits in the monthly survey.

7. Does the official unemployment rate exclude people who want a job but are not currently
   looking for work?

   Yes; however, there are separate estimates of persons outside the labor force who
   want a job, including those who are not currently looking because they believe no
   jobs are available (discouraged workers). In addition, alternative measures of labor
   underutilization (some of which include discouraged workers and other groups not
   officially counted as unemployed) are published each month in table A-15 of The
   Employment Situation news release. For more information about these alternative
   measures, please visit https://www.bls.gov/cps/lfcharacteristics.htm#altmeasures.

8. How can unusually severe weather affect employment and hours estimates?

   In the establishment survey, the reference period is the pay period that includes
   the 12th of the month. Unusually severe weather is more likely to have an impact on
   average weekly hours than on employment. Average weekly hours are estimated for paid
   time during the pay period, including pay for holidays, sick leave, or other time off.
   The impact of severe weather on hours estimates typically, but not always, results in
   a reduction in average weekly hours. For example, some employees may be off work for
   part of the pay period and not receive pay for the time missed, while some workers,
   such as those dealing with cleanup or repair, may work extra hours.
   
   Typically, it is not possible to precisely quantify the effect of extreme weather on 
   payroll employment estimates. In order for severe weather conditions to reduce
   employment estimates, employees have to be off work without pay for the entire pay
   period. Employees who receive pay for any part of the pay period, even 1 hour, are
   counted in the payroll employment figures. For more information on how often employees
   are paid, please visit https://www.bls.gov/opub/btn/volume-3/how-frequently-do-private-
   businesses-pay-workers.htm.

   In the household survey, the reference period is generally the calendar week that
   includes the 12th of the month. Persons who miss the entire week's work for weather-
   related events are counted as employed whether or not they are paid for the time
   off. The household survey collects data on the number of persons who had a job but
   were not at work due to bad weather. It also provides a measure of the number of
   persons who usually work full time but had reduced hours due to bad weather. 
   Current and historical data are available on the household survey's most requested
   statistics page, please visit https://data.bls.gov/cgi-bin/surveymost?ln.




Technical Note


   This news release presents statistics from two major surveys, the Current
Population Survey (CPS; household survey) and the Current Employment Statistics
survey (CES; establishment survey). The household survey provides information
on the labor force, employment, and unemployment that appears in the "A" tables,
marked HOUSEHOLD DATA. It is a sample survey of about 60,000 eligible households
conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau for the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS).

   The establishment survey provides information on employment, hours, and
earnings of employees on nonfarm payrolls; the data appear in the "B" tables,
marked ESTABLISHMENT DATA. BLS collects these data each month from the payroll
records of a sample of nonagricultural business establishments. Each month
the CES program surveys about 131,000 businesses and government agencies,
representing approximately 670,000 individual worksites, in order to provide
detailed industry data on employment, hours, and earnings of workers on nonfarm
payrolls. The active sample includes approximately one-third of all nonfarm
payroll jobs.

   For both surveys, the data for a given month relate to a particular week or
pay period. In the household survey, the reference period is generally the
calendar week that contains the 12th day of the month. In the establishment
survey, the reference period is the pay period including the 12th, which may or
may not correspond directly to the calendar week.

Coverage, definitions, and differences between surveys

   Household survey. The sample is selected to reflect the entire civilian 
noninstitutional population. Based on responses to a series of questions on 
work and job search activities, each person 16 years and over in a sample
household is classified as employed, unemployed, or not in the labor force.

   People are classified as employed if they did any work at all as paid employees
during the reference week; worked in their own business, profession, or on their
own farm; or worked without pay at least 15 hours in a family business or farm.
People are also counted as employed if they were temporarily absent from their jobs
because of illness, bad weather, vacation, labor-management disputes, or personal
reasons.

   People are classified as unemployed if they meet all of the following criteria:
they had no employment during the reference week; they were available for work at
that time; and they made specific active efforts to find employment sometime during
the 4-week period ending with the reference week. Persons laid off from a job and
expecting recall need not be looking for work to be counted as unemployed. The
unemployment data derived from the household survey in no way depend upon the
eligibility for or receipt of unemployment insurance benefits.

   The civilian labor force is the sum of employed and unemployed persons.
Those persons not classified as employed or unemployed are not in the labor 
force. The unemployment rate is the number unemployed as a percent of the 
labor force. The labor force participation rate is the labor force as a 
percent of the population, and the employment-population ratio is the 
employed as a percent of the population. Additional information about the 
household survey can be found at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm.

   Establishment survey. The sample establishments are drawn from private
nonfarm businesses such as factories, offices, and stores, as well as
from federal, state, and local government entities. Employees on nonfarm
payrolls are those who worked or received pay for any part of the reference pay
period, including persons on paid leave. Persons are counted in each job
they hold. Hours and earnings data are produced for the private sector for
all employees and for production and nonsupervisory employees. Production
and nonsupervisory employees are defined as production and related employees
in manufacturing and mining and logging, construction workers in construction,
and nonsupervisory employees in private service-providing industries.

   Industries are classified on the basis of an establishment's principal
activity in accordance with the 2017 version of the North American Industry
Classification System. Additional information about the establishment survey
can be found at www.bls.gov/ces/.

   Differences in employment estimates. The numerous conceptual and methodological
differences between the household and establishment surveys result in important
distinctions in the employment estimates derived from the surveys. Among these are:

   --The household survey includes agricultural workers, self-employed workers
     whose businesses are unincorporated, unpaid family workers, and private
     household workers among the employed. These groups are excluded from the
     establishment survey.

   --The household survey includes people on unpaid leave among the employed.
     The establishment survey does not.

   --The household survey is limited to workers 16 years of age and older.
     The establishment survey is not limited by age.

   --The household survey has no duplication of individuals, because
     individuals are counted only once, even if they hold more than one
     job. In the establishment survey, employees working at more than one
     job and thus appearing on more than one payroll are counted separately
     for each appearance.

Seasonal adjustment

   Over the course of a year, the size of the nation's labor force and the levels
of employment and unemployment undergo regularly occurring fluctuations. These 
events may result from seasonal changes in weather, major holidays, and the opening
and closing of schools. The effect of such seasonal variation can be very large.

   Because these seasonal events follow a more or less regular pattern each year,
their influence on the level of a series can be tempered by adjusting for regular
seasonal variation. These adjustments make nonseasonal developments, such as
declines in employment or increases in the participation of women in the labor
force, easier to spot. For example, in the household survey, the large number of
youth entering the labor force each June is likely to obscure any other changes
that have taken place relative to May, making it difficult to determine if the 
level of economic activity has risen or declined. Similarly, in the establishment
survey, payroll employment in education declines by about 20 percent at the end
of the spring term and later rises with the start of the fall term, obscuring the
underlying employment trends in the industry. Because seasonal employment changes
at the end and beginning of the school year can be estimated, the statistics can be
adjusted to make underlying employment patterns more discernable.  The seasonally
adjusted figures provide a more useful tool with which to analyze changes in
month-to-month economic activity.

   Many seasonally adjusted series are independently adjusted in both the household
and establishment surveys. However, the adjusted series for many major estimates,
such as total payroll employment, employment in most major sectors, total employment,
and unemployment are computed by aggregating independently adjusted component series.
For example, total unemployment is derived by summing the adjusted series for four
major age-sex components; this differs from the unemployment estimate that would be
obtained by directly adjusting the total or by combining the duration, reasons, or 
more detailed age categories. Percentage distributions of unemployment by reason and
duration are derived from the sum of the independently seasonally adjusted component
series, and will not necessarily match calculations made using the seasonally adjusted
total unemployment level. Additional information about seasonal adjustment in the 
household survey can be found at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#sa.

   For both the household and establishment surveys, a concurrent seasonal adjustment
methodology is used in which new seasonal factors are calculated each month using all
relevant data, up to and including the data for the current month. In the household
survey, new seasonal factors are used to adjust only the current month's data. In the
establishment survey, however, new seasonal factors are used each month to adjust the
three most recent monthly estimates. The prior 2 months are routinely revised to
incorporate additional sample reports and recalculated seasonal adjustment factors.
In both surveys, 5-year revisions to historical data are made once a year.

Reliability of the estimates

   Statistics based on the household and establishment surveys are subject to both
sampling and nonsampling error. When a sample, rather than the entire population,
is surveyed, there is a chance that the sample estimates may differ from the true
population values they represent. The component of this difference that occurs
because samples differ by chance is known as sampling error, and its variability
is measured by the standard error of the estimate. There is about a 90-percent
chance, or level of confidence, that an estimate based on a sample will differ by
no more than 1.6 standard errors from the true population value because of sampling
error. BLS analyses are generally conducted at the 90-percent level of confidence.

   For example, the confidence interval for the monthly change in total nonfarm
employment from the establishment survey is on the order of plus or minus 120,000.
Suppose the estimate of nonfarm employment increases by 50,000 from one month to
the next. The 90-percent confidence interval on the monthly change would range from
-70,000 to +170,000 (50,000 +/- 120,000). These figures do not mean that the sample
results are off by these magnitudes, but rather that there is about a 90-percent
chance that the true over-the-month change lies within this interval. Since this
range includes values of less than zero, we could not say with confidence that
nonfarm employment had, in fact, increased that month. If, however, the reported
nonfarm employment rise was 250,000, then all of the values within the 90-percent
confidence interval would be greater than zero. In this case, it is likely (at
least a 90-percent chance) that nonfarm employment had, in fact, risen that month.
At an unemployment rate of around 6.0 percent, the 90-percent confidence interval
for the monthly change in unemployment as measured by the household survey is
about +/- 300,000, and for the monthly change in the unemployment rate it is about
+/- 0.2 percentage point.

   In general, estimates involving many individuals or establishments have lower
standard errors (relative to the size of the estimate) than estimates which are based
on a small number of observations. The precision of estimates also is improved when
the data are cumulated over time, such as for quarterly and annual averages.

   The household and establishment surveys are also affected by nonsampling error,
which can occur for many reasons, including the failure to sample a segment of the
population, inability to obtain information for all respondents in the sample,
inability or unwillingness of respondents to provide correct information on a
timely basis, mistakes made by respondents, and errors made in the collection or
processing of the data.

   For example, in the establishment survey, estimates for the most recent 2 months
are based on incomplete returns; for this reason, these estimates are labeled
preliminary in the tables. It is only after two successive revisions to a monthly
estimate, when nearly all sample reports have been received, that the estimate is
considered final.

   Another major source of nonsampling error in the establishment survey is the
inability to capture, on a timely basis, employment generated by new firms. To
correct for this systematic underestimation of employment growth, an estimation
procedure with two components is used to account for business births. The first
component excludes employment losses from business deaths from sample-based
estimation in order to offset the missing employment gains from business births.
This is incorporated into the sample-based estimation procedure by simply not
reflecting sample units going out of business, but imputing to them the same
employment trend as the other firms in the sample. This procedure accounts for
most of the net birth/death employment.

   The second component is an ARIMA time series model designed to estimate the
residual net birth/death employment not accounted for by the imputation. The
historical time series used to create and test the ARIMA model was derived from
the unemployment insurance universe micro-level database, and reflects the actual
residual net of births and deaths over the past 5 years.

   The sample-based estimates from the establishment survey are adjusted once a
year (on a lagged basis) to universe counts of payroll employment obtained from
administrative records of the unemployment insurance program. The difference 
between the March sample-based employment estimates and the March universe counts
is known as a benchmark revision, and serves as a rough proxy for total survey
error. The new benchmarks also incorporate changes in the classification of
industries. Over the past decade, absolute benchmark revisions for total nonfarm
employment have averaged 0.1 percent, with a range from -0.3 percent to 0.3 percent.

Other information

   If you are deaf, hard of hearing, or have a speech disability, please dial 7-1-1
to access telecommunications relay services.




HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-1. Employment status of the civilian population by sex and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
May
2021
Apr.
2022
May
2022
May
2021
Jan.
2022
Feb.
2022
Mar.
2022
Apr.
2022
May
2022

TOTAL

Civilian noninstitutional population

261,210 263,559 263,679 261,210 263,202 263,324 263,444 263,559 263,679

Civilian labor force

160,607 163,449 164,157 160,801 163,687 163,991 164,409 164,046 164,376

Participation rate

61.5 62.0 62.3 61.6 62.2 62.3 62.4 62.2 62.3

Employed

151,778 157,991 158,609 151,550 157,174 157,722 158,458 158,105 158,426

Employment-population ratio

58.1 59.9 60.2 58.0 59.7 59.9 60.1 60.0 60.1

Unemployed

8,829 5,458 5,548 9,251 6,513 6,270 5,952 5,941 5,950

Unemployment rate

5.5 3.3 3.4 5.8 4.0 3.8 3.6 3.6 3.6

Not in labor force

100,603 100,110 99,521 100,409 99,516 99,333 99,035 99,513 99,302

Persons who currently want a job

7,087 5,712 6,180 6,583 5,704 5,355 5,737 5,859 5,681

Men, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

126,369 128,411 128,470 126,369 128,236 128,296 128,355 128,411 128,470

Civilian labor force

85,329 87,041 87,312 85,307 87,074 87,567 87,660 87,377 87,366

Participation rate

67.5 67.8 68.0 67.5 67.9 68.3 68.3 68.0 68.0

Employed

80,430 83,922 84,379 80,197 83,518 84,247 84,465 84,089 84,218

Employment-population ratio

63.6 65.4 65.7 63.5 65.1 65.7 65.8 65.5 65.6

Unemployed

4,899 3,119 2,933 5,110 3,556 3,320 3,195 3,288 3,148

Unemployment rate

5.7 3.6 3.4 6.0 4.1 3.8 3.6 3.8 3.6

Not in labor force

41,040 41,371 41,158 41,062 41,162 40,729 40,695 41,034 41,104

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

118,059 119,780 119,831 118,059 119,612 119,669 119,726 119,780 119,831

Civilian labor force

82,394 84,157 84,273 82,297 83,967 84,446 84,426 84,295 84,249

Participation rate

69.8 70.3 70.3 69.7 70.2 70.6 70.5 70.4 70.3

Employed

77,786 81,324 81,649 77,489 80,767 81,473 81,554 81,334 81,422

Employment-population ratio

65.9 67.9 68.1 65.6 67.5 68.1 68.1 67.9 67.9

Unemployed

4,608 2,834 2,624 4,808 3,199 2,973 2,872 2,961 2,827

Unemployment rate

5.6 3.4 3.1 5.8 3.8 3.5 3.4 3.5 3.4

Not in labor force

35,665 35,623 35,558 35,762 35,645 35,224 35,300 35,486 35,582

Women, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

134,841 135,148 135,209 134,841 134,966 135,028 135,089 135,148 135,209

Civilian labor force

75,277 76,409 76,845 75,494 76,612 76,425 76,749 76,670 77,010

Participation rate

55.8 56.5 56.8 56.0 56.8 56.6 56.8 56.7 57.0

Employed

71,348 74,069 74,230 71,353 73,656 73,475 73,992 74,017 74,208

Employment-population ratio

52.9 54.8 54.9 52.9 54.6 54.4 54.8 54.8 54.9

Unemployed

3,929 2,339 2,615 4,141 2,957 2,950 2,757 2,653 2,802

Unemployment rate

5.2 3.1 3.4 5.5 3.9 3.9 3.6 3.5 3.6

Not in labor force

59,563 58,739 58,364 59,347 58,354 58,604 58,340 58,479 58,199

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

126,704 126,749 126,802 126,704 126,570 126,631 126,691 126,749 126,802

Civilian labor force

72,323 73,418 73,782 72,499 73,494 73,446 73,695 73,514 73,911

Participation rate

57.1 57.9 58.2 57.2 58.1 58.0 58.2 58.0 58.3

Employed

68,664 71,348 71,488 68,633 70,857 70,775 71,244 71,170 71,432

Employment-population ratio

54.2 56.3 56.4 54.2 56.0 55.9 56.2 56.2 56.3

Unemployed

3,659 2,069 2,293 3,866 2,637 2,671 2,451 2,344 2,479

Unemployment rate

5.1 2.8 3.1 5.3 3.6 3.6 3.3 3.2 3.4

Not in labor force

54,381 53,331 53,020 54,206 53,076 53,185 52,996 53,234 52,891

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian noninstitutional population

16,446 17,030 17,046 16,446 17,020 17,024 17,027 17,030 17,046

Civilian labor force

5,889 5,874 6,103 6,005 6,226 6,100 6,288 6,237 6,216

Participation rate

35.8 34.5 35.8 36.5 36.6 35.8 36.9 36.6 36.5

Employed

5,327 5,319 5,472 5,428 5,550 5,474 5,660 5,601 5,571

Employment-population ratio

32.4 31.2 32.1 33.0 32.6 32.2 33.2 32.9 32.7

Unemployed

562 555 631 578 676 626 629 636 645

Unemployment rate

9.5 9.5 10.3 9.6 10.9 10.3 10.0 10.2 10.4

Not in labor force

10,558 11,156 10,943 10,441 10,795 10,924 10,739 10,793 10,830

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-2. Employment status of the civilian population by race, sex, and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, race, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
May
2021
Apr.
2022
May
2022
May
2021
Jan.
2022
Feb.
2022
Mar.
2022
Apr.
2022
May
2022

WHITE

Civilian noninstitutional population

201,743 202,982 203,039 201,743 202,819 202,875 202,932 202,982 203,039

Civilian labor force

123,766 125,320 125,560 123,915 125,782 126,139 126,364 125,664 125,772

Participation rate

61.3 61.7 61.8 61.4 62.0 62.2 62.3 61.9 61.9

Employed

117,808 121,625 121,823 117,626 121,497 121,967 122,357 121,606 121,724

Employment-population ratio

58.4 59.9 60.0 58.3 59.9 60.1 60.3 59.9 60.0

Unemployed

5,958 3,694 3,737 6,289 4,285 4,172 4,007 4,058 4,048

Unemployment rate

4.8 2.9 3.0 5.1 3.4 3.3 3.2 3.2 3.2

Not in labor force

77,976 77,663 77,479 77,828 77,038 76,736 76,568 77,319 77,267

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

64,589 65,546 65,632 64,544 65,736 65,972 66,059 65,540 65,653

Participation rate

69.8 70.0 70.1 69.7 70.2 70.5 70.6 70.0 70.1

Employed

61,508 63,615 63,780 61,273 63,612 63,995 64,043 63,521 63,620

Employment-population ratio

66.5 67.9 68.1 66.2 68.0 68.4 68.4 67.8 67.9

Unemployed

3,082 1,931 1,852 3,271 2,124 1,977 2,015 2,020 2,033

Unemployment rate

4.8 2.9 2.8 5.1 3.2 3.0 3.1 3.1 3.1

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

54,564 55,143 55,208 54,669 55,169 55,312 55,376 55,215 55,315

Participation rate

56.2 56.9 57.0 56.3 57.0 57.1 57.2 57.0 57.1

Employed

52,105 53,794 53,754 52,072 53,449 53,571 53,803 53,656 53,731

Employment-population ratio

53.6 55.5 55.5 53.6 55.2 55.3 55.6 55.4 55.5

Unemployed

2,459 1,348 1,455 2,597 1,720 1,740 1,572 1,559 1,583

Unemployment rate

4.5 2.4 2.6 4.8 3.1 3.1 2.8 2.8 2.9

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

4,613 4,630 4,719 4,702 4,877 4,855 4,930 4,909 4,804

Participation rate

38.2 37.1 37.8 39.0 39.1 38.9 39.5 39.4 38.5

Employed

4,196 4,216 4,289 4,281 4,435 4,400 4,510 4,429 4,373

Employment-population ratio

34.8 33.8 34.4 35.5 35.6 35.3 36.2 35.5 35.1

Unemployed

417 415 430 421 442 455 420 480 431

Unemployment rate

9.0 9.0 9.1 9.0 9.1 9.4 8.5 9.8 9.0

BLACK OR AFRICAN AMERICAN

Civilian noninstitutional population

33,572 34,055 34,079 33,572 33,978 34,004 34,030 34,055 34,079

Civilian labor force

20,409 21,176 21,441 20,489 21,056 21,145 21,134 21,209 21,475

Participation rate

60.8 62.2 62.9 61.0 62.0 62.2 62.1 62.3 63.0

Employed

18,603 19,992 20,147 18,617 19,597 19,751 19,825 19,963 20,141

Employment-population ratio

55.4 58.7 59.1 55.5 57.7 58.1 58.3 58.6 59.1

Unemployed

1,806 1,184 1,294 1,872 1,459 1,394 1,309 1,246 1,335

Unemployment rate

8.8 5.6 6.0 9.1 6.9 6.6 6.2 5.9 6.2

Not in labor force

13,163 12,880 12,638 13,083 12,922 12,859 12,895 12,846 12,604

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

9,469 9,955 9,993 9,468 9,741 9,966 9,817 9,969 9,983

Participation rate

66.8 68.8 69.0 66.7 67.5 69.0 67.9 68.9 68.9

Employed

8,550 9,343 9,430 8,549 9,051 9,327 9,264 9,360 9,416

Employment-population ratio

60.3 64.5 65.1 60.3 62.7 64.5 64.1 64.7 65.0

Unemployed

920 612 563 920 690 640 553 608 566

Unemployment rate

9.7 6.1 5.6 9.7 7.1 6.4 5.6 6.1 5.7

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

10,260 10,573 10,705 10,321 10,568 10,537 10,569 10,555 10,731

Participation rate

60.4 61.8 62.5 60.7 61.9 61.7 61.8 61.7 62.7

Employed

9,467 10,090 10,115 9,461 9,954 9,897 9,984 10,022 10,102

Employment-population ratio

55.7 59.0 59.1 55.7 58.3 57.9 58.4 58.6 59.0

Unemployed

793 482 590 860 614 640 585 533 629

Unemployment rate

7.7 4.6 5.5 8.3 5.8 6.1 5.5 5.0 5.9

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

679 648 743 700 747 642 749 686 762

Participation rate

28.4 26.2 30.0 29.3 30.2 26.0 30.3 27.7 30.8

Employed

587 558 602 608 592 528 577 581 622

Employment-population ratio

24.6 22.6 24.3 25.4 24.0 21.4 23.3 23.5 25.1

Unemployed

92 89 140 92 155 114 172 104 140

Unemployment rate

13.6 13.8 18.9 13.2 20.7 17.8 22.9 15.2 18.3

ASIAN

Civilian noninstitutional population

16,529 16,826 16,815 16,529 16,903 16,782 16,803 16,826 16,815

Civilian labor force

10,401 10,763 10,854 10,477 10,880 10,555 10,761 10,837 10,912

Participation rate

62.9 64.0 64.5 63.4 64.4 62.9 64.0 64.4 64.9

Employed

9,834 10,453 10,613 9,899 10,492 10,231 10,460 10,504 10,651

Employment-population ratio

59.5 62.1 63.1 59.9 62.1 61.0 62.3 62.4 63.3

Unemployed

567 310 241 578 388 324 300 333 261

Unemployment rate

5.5 2.9 2.2 5.5 3.6 3.1 2.8 3.1 2.4

Not in labor force

6,128 6,064 5,961 6,051 6,022 6,227 6,042 5,989 5,903

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Estimates for the above race groups will not sum to totals shown in table A-1 because data are not presented for all races. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-3. Employment status of the Hispanic or Latino population by sex and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
May
2021
Apr.
2022
May
2022
May
2021
Jan.
2022
Feb.
2022
Mar.
2022
Apr.
2022
May
2022

HISPANIC OR LATINO ETHNICITY

Civilian noninstitutional population

44,786 45,963 46,039 44,786 45,740 45,816 45,888 45,963 46,039

Civilian labor force

29,076 30,311 30,512 29,165 30,390 30,492 30,475 30,376 30,610

Participation rate

64.9 65.9 66.3 65.1 66.4 66.6 66.4 66.1 66.5

Employed

27,105 29,155 29,305 27,086 28,893 29,136 29,209 29,121 29,279

Employment-population ratio

60.5 63.4 63.7 60.5 63.2 63.6 63.7 63.4 63.6

Unemployed

1,971 1,156 1,207 2,080 1,497 1,356 1,265 1,255 1,331

Unemployment rate

6.8 3.8 4.0 7.1 4.9 4.4 4.2 4.1 4.3

Not in labor force

15,709 15,652 15,527 15,620 15,350 15,324 15,414 15,587 15,429

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

16,035 16,634 16,693 16,043 16,586 16,700 16,619 16,604 16,717

Participation rate

79.2 79.9 80.0 79.3 80.0 80.4 79.9 79.7 80.1

Employed

15,063 16,036 16,199 15,020 15,867 16,086 15,979 15,989 16,152

Employment-population ratio

74.4 77.0 77.7 74.2 76.6 77.5 76.8 76.8 77.4

Unemployed

972 598 494 1,023 719 614 640 615 566

Unemployment rate

6.1 3.6 3.0 6.4 4.3 3.7 3.8 3.7 3.4

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

11,848 12,294 12,430 11,887 12,383 12,403 12,477 12,331 12,466

Participation rate

57.8 58.8 59.4 58.0 59.6 59.6 59.8 59.0 59.6

Employed

11,006 11,859 11,874 11,006 11,775 11,802 11,950 11,857 11,876

Employment-population ratio

53.7 56.8 56.7 53.7 56.6 56.7 57.3 56.8 56.8

Unemployed

842 434 556 881 608 601 527 474 591

Unemployment rate

7.1 3.5 4.5 7.4 4.9 4.8 4.2 3.8 4.7

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

1,194 1,384 1,389 1,235 1,421 1,389 1,379 1,441 1,427

Participation rate

29.6 32.6 32.6 30.6 33.6 32.8 32.5 34.0 33.5

Employed

1,037 1,260 1,231 1,061 1,251 1,248 1,280 1,275 1,252

Employment-population ratio

25.7 29.7 29.0 26.3 29.6 29.5 30.2 30.1 29.4

Unemployed

157 124 157 175 170 141 98 165 175

Unemployment rate

13.1 8.9 11.3 14.1 12.0 10.2 7.1 11.5 12.2

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-4. Employment status of the civilian population 25 years and over by educational attainment
[Numbers in thousands]
Educational attainment Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
May
2021
Apr.
2022
May
2022
May
2021
Jan.
2022
Feb.
2022
Mar.
2022
Apr.
2022
May
2022

Less than a high school diploma

Civilian labor force

8,911 9,300 9,399 8,772 8,687 8,962 9,097 9,207 9,194

Participation rate

43.4 44.9 45.0 42.7 44.5 46.8 45.6 44.4 44.0

Employed

8,181 8,808 8,975 7,989 8,142 8,574 8,627 8,713 8,719

Employment-population ratio

39.8 42.5 43.0 38.9 41.7 44.8 43.2 42.0 41.8

Unemployed

730 492 425 783 545 388 470 494 475

Unemployment rate

8.2 5.3 4.5 8.9 6.3 4.3 5.2 5.4 5.2

High school graduates, no college(1)

Civilian labor force

34,921 36,498 36,088 34,990 37,064 36,589 36,847 36,464 36,118

Participation rate

55.5 56.8 56.8 55.6 57.2 56.2 56.8 56.8 56.8

Employed

32,661 35,168 34,826 32,582 35,361 34,953 35,368 35,064 34,760

Employment-population ratio

51.9 54.7 54.8 51.8 54.6 53.7 54.5 54.6 54.7

Unemployed

2,260 1,330 1,262 2,408 1,703 1,636 1,479 1,401 1,358

Unemployment rate

6.5 3.6 3.5 6.9 4.6 4.5 4.0 3.8 3.8

Some college or associate degree

Civilian labor force

35,811 35,628 35,739 35,975 35,320 35,391 35,555 35,540 35,787

Participation rate

63.2 63.5 63.4 63.5 63.1 63.6 63.4 63.4 63.5

Employed

33,812 34,586 34,600 33,830 34,059 34,060 34,480 34,445 34,565

Employment-population ratio

59.7 61.7 61.4 59.7 60.9 61.2 61.5 61.4 61.3

Unemployed

1,999 1,042 1,139 2,145 1,261 1,331 1,075 1,095 1,222

Unemployment rate

5.6 2.9 3.2 6.0 3.6 3.8 3.0 3.1 3.4

Bachelor's degree and higher(2)

Civilian labor force

60,493 61,702 62,162 60,647 61,699 62,003 61,597 61,705 62,295

Participation rate

72.2 72.9 73.2 72.4 72.6 72.4 72.8 72.9 73.3

Employed

58,715 60,579 61,069 58,755 60,294 60,656 60,386 60,459 61,078

Employment-population ratio

70.1 71.6 71.9 70.1 70.9 70.9 71.4 71.5 71.9

Unemployed

1,779 1,123 1,093 1,892 1,404 1,347 1,211 1,247 1,217

Unemployment rate

2.9 1.8 1.8 3.1 2.3 2.2 2.0 2.0 2.0

Footnotes
(1) Includes persons with a high school diploma or equivalent.
(2) Includes persons with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees.

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals for those 25 years and over because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-5. Employment status of the civilian population 18 years and over by veteran status, period of service, and sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, veteran status, and period of service Total Men Women
May
2021
May
2022
May
2021
May
2022
May
2021
May
2022

VETERANS, 18 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

18,850 18,403 16,839 16,378 2,011 2,025

Civilian labor force

9,146 8,790 7,958 7,605 1,188 1,185

Participation rate

48.5 47.8 47.3 46.4 59.1 58.5

Employed

8,767 8,548 7,644 7,381 1,123 1,168

Employment-population ratio

46.5 46.4 45.4 45.1 55.8 57.7

Unemployed

379 242 314 224 65 18

Unemployment rate

4.1 2.7 3.9 2.9 5.5 1.5

Not in labor force

9,704 9,613 8,881 8,773 823 840

Gulf War-era II veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

4,833 4,936 3,985 4,031 848 906

Civilian labor force

3,836 3,928 3,273 3,292 563 636

Participation rate

79.4 79.6 82.1 81.7 66.3 70.2

Employed

3,683 3,801 3,159 3,180 524 621

Employment-population ratio

76.2 77.0 79.3 78.9 61.8 68.6

Unemployed

153 126 114 112 39 15

Unemployment rate

4.0 3.2 3.5 3.4 6.9 2.3

Not in labor force

998 1,009 712 739 286 270

Gulf War-era I veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

3,128 3,182 2,643 2,722 485 459

Civilian labor force

2,304 2,267 1,941 1,955 364 312

Participation rate

73.7 71.3 73.4 71.8 75.0 68.0

Employed

2,215 2,210 1,865 1,900 350 310

Employment-population ratio

70.8 69.5 70.6 69.8 72.2 67.6

Unemployed

89 57 76 55 14 2

Unemployment rate

3.9 2.5 3.9 2.8 3.8 0.7

Not in labor force

823 914 702 767 121 147

World War II, Korean War, and Vietnam-era veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

6,739 6,274 6,478 6,024 261 250

Civilian labor force

1,126 926 1,080 881 45 44

Participation rate

16.7 14.8 16.7 14.6 17.4 17.7

Employed

1,089 899 1,048 855 42 44

Employment-population ratio

16.2 14.3 16.2 14.2 16.0 17.7

Unemployed

36 26 33 26 4 0

Unemployment rate

3.2 2.8 3.0 3.0 - -

Not in labor force

5,613 5,348 5,398 5,143 216 206

Veterans of other service periods

Civilian noninstitutional population

4,150 4,011 3,733 3,601 417 410

Civilian labor force

1,881 1,669 1,664 1,477 216 193

Participation rate

45.3 41.6 44.6 41.0 51.9 47.0

Employed

1,780 1,637 1,572 1,446 208 192

Employment-population ratio

42.9 40.8 42.1 40.1 49.8 46.8

Unemployed

101 32 92 31 9 1

Unemployment rate

5.4 1.9 5.5 2.1 4.1 0.5

Not in labor force

2,269 2,342 2,069 2,124 201 217

NONVETERANS, 18 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

233,681 236,329 105,100 107,735 128,581 128,593

Civilian labor force

149,294 153,054 76,311 78,607 72,983 74,448

Participation rate

63.9 64.8 72.6 73.0 56.8 57.9

Employed

141,045 147,993 71,819 75,999 69,225 71,995

Employment-population ratio

60.4 62.6 68.3 70.5 53.8 56.0

Unemployed

8,249 5,061 4,492 2,608 3,758 2,453

Unemployment rate

5.5 3.3 5.9 3.3 5.1 3.3

Not in labor force

84,387 83,274 28,789 29,129 55,598 54,146

NOTE: Veterans served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces and were not on active duty at the time of the survey. Nonveterans never served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces. Veterans could have served anywhere in the world during these periods of service: Gulf War era II (September 2001-present), Gulf War era I (August 1990-August 2001), Vietnam era (August 1964-April 1975), Korean War (July 1950-January 1955), World War II (December 1941-December 1946), and other service periods (all other time periods). Veterans who served in more than one wartime period are classified only in the most recent one. Veterans who served during one of the selected wartime periods and another period are classified only in the wartime period. Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria (values not shown where base is less than 75,000).


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-6. Employment status of the civilian population by sex, age, and disability status, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Persons with a disability Persons with no disability
May
2021
May
2022
May
2021
May
2022

TOTAL, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

30,888 32,686 230,322 230,993

Civilian labor force

6,375 7,497 154,232 156,661

Participation rate

20.6 22.9 67.0 67.8

Employed

5,723 6,961 146,056 151,649

Employment-population ratio

18.5 21.3 63.4 65.7

Unemployed

653 536 8,176 5,012

Unemployment rate

10.2 7.1 5.3 3.2

Not in labor force

24,513 25,189 76,091 74,332

Men, 16 to 64 years

Civilian labor force

2,625 3,086 76,833 78,119

Participation rate

35.2 38.3 82.0 82.5

Employed

2,304 2,834 72,535 75,607

Employment-population ratio

30.8 35.2 77.4 79.9

Unemployed

321 252 4,297 2,512

Unemployment rate

12.2 8.2 5.6 3.2

Not in labor force

4,843 4,974 16,895 16,558

Women, 16 to 64 years

Civilian labor force

2,640 3,074 68,042 69,039

Participation rate

33.3 36.2 70.8 71.9

Employed

2,373 2,842 64,636 66,794

Employment-population ratio

29.9 33.5 67.2 69.6

Unemployed

267 232 3,406 2,245

Unemployment rate

10.1 7.5 5.0 3.3

Not in labor force

5,286 5,406 28,128 26,978

Both sexes, 65 years and over

Civilian labor force

1,110 1,337 9,357 9,502

Participation rate

7.2 8.3 23.1 23.6

Employed

1,045 1,285 8,885 9,248

Employment-population ratio

6.7 8.0 22.0 22.9

Unemployed

65 52 473 255

Unemployment rate

5.8 3.9 5.1 2.7

Not in labor force

14,384 14,810 31,067 30,796

NOTE: A person with a disability has at least one of the following conditions: is deaf or has serious difficulty hearing; is blind or has serious difficulty seeing even when wearing glasses; has serious difficulty concentrating, remembering, or making decisions because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition; has serious difficulty walking or climbing stairs; has difficulty dressing or bathing; or has difficulty doing errands alone such as visiting a doctor's office or shopping because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-7. Employment status of the civilian population by nativity and sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status and nativity Total Men Women
May
2021
May
2022
May
2021
May
2022
May
2021
May
2022

Foreign born, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

42,869 45,230 20,609 22,058 22,259 23,172

Civilian labor force

27,327 29,648 15,578 16,949 11,749 12,699

Participation rate

63.7 65.5 75.6 76.8 52.8 54.8

Employed

25,789 28,690 14,745 16,432 11,045 12,258

Employment-population ratio

60.2 63.4 71.5 74.5 49.6 52.9

Unemployed

1,537 958 834 516 704 441

Unemployment rate

5.6 3.2 5.4 3.0 6.0 3.5

Not in labor force

15,542 15,582 5,031 5,110 10,511 10,473

Native born, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

218,341 218,448 105,760 106,412 112,581 112,037

Civilian labor force

133,280 134,509 69,751 70,364 63,529 64,146

Participation rate

61.0 61.6 66.0 66.1 56.4 57.3

Employed

125,989 129,919 65,685 67,947 60,303 61,972

Employment-population ratio

57.7 59.5 62.1 63.9 53.6 55.3

Unemployed

7,291 4,590 4,066 2,417 3,226 2,173

Unemployment rate

5.5 3.4 5.8 3.4 5.1 3.4

Not in labor force

85,061 83,939 36,009 36,048 49,052 47,891

NOTE: The foreign born are those residing in the United States who were not U.S. citizens at birth. That is, they were born outside the United States or one of its outlying areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam, to parents neither of whom was a U.S. citizen. The native born are persons who were born in the United States or one of its outlying areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam or who were born abroad of at least one parent who was a U.S. citizen. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-8. Employed persons by class of worker and part-time status
[In thousands]
Category Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
May
2021
Apr.
2022
May
2022
May
2021
Jan.
2022
Feb.
2022
Mar.
2022
Apr.
2022
May
2022

CLASS OF WORKER

Agriculture and related industries

2,337 2,265 2,399 2,291 2,326 2,383 2,378 2,349 2,355

Wage and salary workers(1)

1,543 1,435 1,574 1,527 1,501 1,525 1,571 1,505 1,553

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

756 798 801 732 771 801 758 800 776

Unpaid family workers

37 32 24 - - - - - -

Nonagricultural industries

149,442 155,726 156,210 149,381 154,598 155,094 155,871 155,729 156,183

Wage and salary workers(1)

139,977 146,650 146,725 139,967 145,993 146,263 146,955 146,638 146,455

Government

20,613 21,128 20,985 20,475 21,274 20,971 21,296 20,948 20,885

Private industries

119,364 125,521 125,740 119,334 124,240 124,886 125,204 125,371 125,619

Private households

586 591 610 - - - - - -

Other industries

118,778 124,931 125,130 118,732 123,512 124,144 124,505 124,658 124,955

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

9,370 9,030 9,410 9,265 9,089 9,175 9,260 9,086 9,291

Unpaid family workers

94 46 75 - - - - - -

PERSONS AT WORK PART TIME(2)

All industries

Part time for economic reasons(3)

5,046 3,822 4,115 5,267 3,717 4,135 4,170 4,033 4,328

Slack work or business conditions

3,843 2,500 2,858 4,016 2,430 2,707 2,880 2,647 2,996

Could only find part-time work

1,012 1,077 1,002 998 969 1,060 1,055 1,071 999

Part time for noneconomic reasons(4)

19,364 21,479 20,822 19,362 20,198 20,667 20,870 20,826 20,806

Nonagricultural industries

Part time for economic reasons(3)

5,016 3,777 4,033 5,227 3,620 4,105 4,149 3,996 4,235

Slack work or business conditions

3,819 2,472 2,796 3,983 2,400 2,672 2,842 2,617 2,927

Could only find part-time work

1,012 1,071 993 995 960 1,053 1,049 1,064 988

Part time for noneconomic reasons(4)

18,984 21,092 20,447 18,991 19,839 20,275 20,498 20,435 20,438

Footnotes
(1) Includes self-employed workers whose businesses are incorporated.
(2) Refers to those who worked 1 to 34 hours during the survey reference week and excludes employed persons who were absent from their jobs for the entire week.
(3) Refers to those who worked 1 to 34 hours during the reference week for an economic reason such as slack work or unfavorable business conditions, inability to find full-time work, or seasonal declines in demand.
(4) Refers to persons who usually work part time for noneconomic reasons such as childcare problems, family or personal obligations, school or training, retirement or Social Security limits on earnings, and other reasons. This excludes persons who usually work full time but worked only 1 to 34 hours during the reference week for reasons such as vacations, holidays, illness, and bad weather.

- Data not available.
NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-9. Selected employment indicators
[Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
May
2021
Apr.
2022
May
2022
May
2021
Jan.
2022
Feb.
2022
Mar.
2022
Apr.
2022
May
2022

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

151,778 157,991 158,609 151,550 157,174 157,722 158,458 158,105 158,426

16 to 19 years

5,327 5,319 5,472 5,428 5,550 5,474 5,660 5,601 5,571

16 to 17 years

1,967 2,115 2,068 2,083 2,188 2,295 2,310 2,316 2,194

18 to 19 years

3,361 3,204 3,404 3,357 3,378 3,205 3,392 3,307 3,396

20 years and over

146,451 152,672 153,137 146,122 151,624 152,248 152,798 152,504 152,855

20 to 24 years

13,082 13,532 13,667 13,178 13,756 13,834 13,774 13,673 13,768

25 years and over

133,369 139,140 139,471 133,035 137,840 138,412 139,055 138,737 139,047

25 to 54 years

97,419 101,849 101,954 97,287 100,647 101,109 101,769 101,605 101,734

25 to 34 years

34,470 35,523 35,609 34,436 34,985 35,125 35,367 35,472 35,569

35 to 44 years

32,567 34,696 34,773 32,517 34,147 34,535 34,695 34,612 34,675

45 to 54 years

30,383 31,630 31,573 30,334 31,515 31,448 31,707 31,522 31,490

55 years and over

35,949 37,292 37,516 35,748 37,193 37,304 37,287 37,132 37,313

Men, 16 years and over

80,430 83,922 84,379 80,197 83,518 84,247 84,465 84,089 84,218

16 to 19 years

2,643 2,598 2,730 2,708 2,751 2,774 2,911 2,754 2,795

16 to 17 years

967 1,018 1,000 1,016 1,022 1,131 1,137 1,097 1,054

18 to 19 years

1,677 1,580 1,730 1,695 1,744 1,659 1,804 1,662 1,748

20 years and over

77,786 81,324 81,649 77,489 80,767 81,473 81,554 81,334 81,422

20 to 24 years

6,709 6,887 6,991 6,727 7,032 7,059 6,975 6,958 7,009

25 years and over

71,077 74,436 74,658 70,878 73,752 74,457 74,613 74,340 74,406

25 to 54 years

51,835 54,296 54,412 51,740 53,693 54,227 54,331 54,259 54,258

25 to 34 years

18,382 18,830 18,832 18,371 18,555 18,788 18,782 18,851 18,830

35 to 44 years

17,590 18,636 18,708 17,541 18,420 18,696 18,696 18,605 18,628

45 to 54 years

15,863 16,830 16,872 15,828 16,718 16,743 16,852 16,803 16,800

55 years and over

19,242 20,141 20,246 19,138 20,059 20,230 20,282 20,081 20,147

Women, 16 years and over

71,348 74,069 74,230 71,353 73,656 73,475 73,992 74,017 74,208

16 to 19 years

2,684 2,721 2,742 2,719 2,799 2,699 2,748 2,847 2,776

16 to 17 years

1,000 1,097 1,068 1,067 1,166 1,164 1,173 1,219 1,140

18 to 19 years

1,684 1,624 1,674 1,663 1,634 1,546 1,589 1,645 1,648

20 years and over

68,664 71,348 71,488 68,633 70,857 70,775 71,244 71,170 71,432

20 to 24 years

6,373 6,644 6,676 6,451 6,725 6,775 6,799 6,715 6,759

25 years and over

62,291 64,704 64,813 62,157 64,088 63,955 64,442 64,397 64,641

25 to 54 years

45,584 47,553 47,543 45,547 46,954 46,882 47,438 47,346 47,475

25 to 34 years

16,087 16,693 16,777 16,065 16,430 16,338 16,584 16,621 16,739

35 to 44 years

14,976 16,060 16,065 14,976 15,727 15,838 15,999 16,007 16,047

45 to 54 years

14,520 14,800 14,701 14,506 14,798 14,705 14,855 14,718 14,690

55 years and over

16,707 17,151 17,270 16,610 17,134 17,074 17,004 17,051 17,165

MARITAL STATUS

Married men, spouse present(1)

43,849 45,496 45,531 43,673 45,342 45,648 45,325 45,259 45,306

Married women, spouse present(1)

34,986 36,221 36,455 34,935 35,885 35,870 36,043 35,999 36,356

Women who maintain families(2)

9,711 10,014 10,019 - - - - - -

FULL- OR PART-TIME STATUS

Full-time workers(3)

126,579 131,362 132,820 126,514 131,164 131,806 132,718 132,067 132,800

Part-time workers(4)

25,199 26,629 25,789 25,189 25,817 25,801 25,902 26,091 25,766

MULTIPLE JOBHOLDERS

Total multiple jobholders

7,249 7,532 7,313 7,235 7,486 7,431 7,370 7,539 7,302

Percent of total employed

4.8 4.8 4.6 4.8 4.8 4.7 4.7 4.8 4.6

SELF-EMPLOYMENT

Self-employed workers, incorporated

6,063 6,678 6,823 - - - - - -

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

10,126 9,828 10,211 9,998 9,860 9,976 10,018 9,886 10,067

Footnotes
(1) Beginning with data for January 2020, refers to persons in both opposite-sex and same-sex married couples. Prior to January 2020, referred to persons in opposite-sex married couples only.
(2) Beginning with data for January 2020, refers to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not a spouse of either sex. Prior to January 2020, referred to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not an opposite-sex spouse.
(3) Employed full-time workers are persons who usually work 35 hours or more per week.
(4) Employed part-time workers are persons who usually work less than 35 hours per week.

- Data not available.
NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-10. Selected unemployment indicators, seasonally adjusted
Characteristic Number of
unemployed persons
(in thousands)
Unemployment rates
May
2021
Apr.
2022
May
2022
May
2021
Jan.
2022
Feb.
2022
Mar.
2022
Apr.
2022
May
2022

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

9,251 5,941 5,950 5.8 4.0 3.8 3.6 3.6 3.6

16 to 19 years

578 636 645 9.6 10.9 10.3 10.0 10.2 10.4

16 to 17 years

205 223 248 9.0 11.3 10.2 8.6 8.8 10.2

18 to 19 years

369 442 395 9.9 10.6 10.1 10.9 11.8 10.4

20 years and over

8,673 5,305 5,305 5.6 3.7 3.6 3.4 3.4 3.4

20 to 24 years

1,474 1,016 993 10.1 7.3 7.5 7.5 6.9 6.7

25 years and over

7,135 4,234 4,255 5.1 3.4 3.3 2.9 3.0 3.0

25 to 54 years

5,336 3,190 3,245 5.2 3.5 3.3 3.0 3.0 3.1

25 to 34 years

2,116 1,461 1,451 5.8 4.3 4.1 3.9 4.0 3.9

35 to 44 years

1,715 1,033 1,045 5.0 3.5 3.3 2.8 2.9 2.9

45 to 54 years

1,505 697 749 4.7 2.6 2.5 2.2 2.2 2.3

55 years and over

1,808 1,045 1,031 4.8 3.1 3.0 2.6 2.7 2.7

Men, 16 years and over

5,110 3,288 3,148 6.0 4.1 3.8 3.6 3.8 3.6

16 to 19 years

302 327 322 10.0 11.5 11.1 10.0 10.6 10.3

16 to 17 years

94 120 102 8.5 13.5 9.0 8.7 9.8 8.8

18 to 19 years

215 228 224 11.2 10.2 12.4 10.7 12.1 11.4

20 years and over

4,808 2,961 2,827 5.8 3.8 3.5 3.4 3.5 3.4

20 to 24 years

820 611 530 10.9 8.6 7.8 8.5 8.1 7.0

25 years and over

3,927 2,302 2,239 5.2 3.4 3.2 2.8 3.0 2.9

25 to 54 years

3,009 1,715 1,691 5.5 3.5 3.2 2.9 3.1 3.0

25 to 34 years

1,202 835 773 6.1 4.4 3.9 4.0 4.2 3.9

35 to 44 years

981 538 543 5.3 3.5 3.3 2.8 2.8 2.8

45 to 54 years

826 341 376 5.0 2.4 2.3 1.9 2.0 2.2

55 years and over

918 587 548 4.6 3.2 3.2 2.6 2.8 2.6

Women, 16 years and over

4,141 2,653 2,802 5.5 3.9 3.9 3.6 3.5 3.6

16 to 19 years

276 308 324 9.2 10.2 9.4 10.0 9.8 10.4

16 to 17 years

111 103 146 9.4 9.3 11.2 8.5 7.8 11.4

18 to 19 years

154 214 170 8.5 11.0 7.6 11.2 11.5 9.4

20 years and over

3,866 2,344 2,479 5.3 3.6 3.6 3.3 3.2 3.4

20 to 24 years

655 405 464 9.2 5.9 7.2 6.4 5.7 6.4

25 years and over

3,208 1,932 2,016 4.9 3.4 3.3 3.0 2.9 3.0

25 to 54 years

2,327 1,475 1,554 4.9 3.5 3.5 3.1 3.0 3.2

25 to 34 years

914 626 678 5.4 4.2 4.4 3.9 3.6 3.9

35 to 44 years

734 494 502 4.7 3.5 3.3 2.7 3.0 3.0

45 to 54 years

679 355 373 4.5 2.8 2.7 2.6 2.4 2.5

55 years and over

883 482 480 5.0 3.1 2.9 2.6 2.7 2.7

MARITAL STATUS

Married men, spouse present(1)

1,565 870 911 3.5 2.0 1.9 1.7 1.9 2.0

Married women, spouse present(1)

1,324 778 841 3.7 2.4 2.3 2.1 2.1 2.3

Women who maintain families(2)

687 420 525 6.6 5.0 5.3 4.8 4.0 5.0

FULL- OR PART-TIME STATUS

Full-time workers(3)

7,802 4,729 4,722 5.8 3.9 3.8 3.5 3.5 3.4

Part-time workers(4)

1,365 1,187 1,157 5.1 4.4 4.0 4.2 4.4 4.3

Footnotes
(1) Beginning with data for January 2020, refers to persons in both opposite-sex and same-sex married couples. Prior to January 2020, referred to persons in opposite-sex married couples only.
(2) Data are not seasonally adjusted. Beginning with data for January 2020, refers to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not a spouse of either sex. Prior to January 2020, referred to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not an opposite-sex spouse.
(3) Full-time workers are unemployed persons who have expressed a desire to work full time (35 hours or more per week) or are on layoff from full-time jobs.
(4) Part-time workers are unemployed persons who have expressed a desire to work part time (less than 35 hours per week) or are on layoff from part-time jobs.

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-11. Unemployed persons by reason for unemployment
[Numbers in thousands]
Reason Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
May
2021
Apr.
2022
May
2022
May
2021
Jan.
2022
Feb.
2022
Mar.
2022
Apr.
2022
May
2022

NUMBER OF UNEMPLOYED

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

5,384 2,650 2,323 5,822 3,220 3,044 2,831 2,839 2,736

On temporary layoff

1,562 731 545 1,820 959 888 787 853 810

Not on temporary layoff

3,821 1,919 1,778 4,001 2,261 2,156 2,044 1,987 1,927

Permanent job losers

3,113 1,373 1,304 3,228 1,630 1,583 1,392 1,386 1,386

Persons who completed temporary jobs

709 546 474 773 632 573 652 601 541

Job leavers

737 752 719 783 952 963 787 793 764

Reentrants

2,224 1,654 1,989 2,174 1,959 1,947 1,985 1,882 1,943

New entrants

483 402 516 526 433 417 463 515 535

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

61.0 48.6 41.9 62.6 49.1 47.8 46.7 47.1 45.8

On temporary layoff

17.7 13.4 9.8 19.6 14.6 13.9 13.0 14.1 13.5

Not on temporary layoff

43.3 35.2 32.0 43.0 34.5 33.8 33.7 33.0 32.2

Job leavers

8.4 13.8 13.0 8.4 14.5 15.1 13.0 13.1 12.8

Reentrants

25.2 30.3 35.9 23.4 29.8 30.6 32.7 31.2 32.5

New entrants

5.5 7.4 9.3 5.7 6.6 6.6 7.6 8.5 8.9

UNEMPLOYED AS A PERCENT OF THE
CIVILIAN LABOR FORCE

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

3.4 1.6 1.4 3.6 2.0 1.9 1.7 1.7 1.7

Job leavers

0.5 0.5 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.6 0.5 0.5 0.5

Reentrants

1.4 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.1 1.2

New entrants

0.3 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to total unemployed in table A-1 because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-12. Unemployed persons by duration of unemployment
[Numbers in thousands]
Duration Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
May
2021
Apr.
2022
May
2022
May
2021
Jan.
2022
Feb.
2022
Mar.
2022
Apr.
2022
May
2022

NUMBER OF UNEMPLOYED

Less than 5 weeks

1,963 1,895 1,994 1,974 2,417 2,131 2,289 2,227 2,066

5 to 14 weeks

1,793 1,344 1,449 2,218 1,607 1,800 1,684 1,617 1,767

15 weeks and over

5,073 2,219 2,105 4,995 2,507 2,437 1,999 2,033 2,017

15 to 26 weeks

1,381 814 826 1,230 816 735 571 551 661

27 weeks and over

3,692 1,405 1,279 3,765 1,691 1,702 1,428 1,483 1,356

Average (mean) duration, in weeks

30.7 26.6 23.2 29.4 24.6 26.6 24.2 25.0 22.5

Median duration, in weeks

19.9 10.4 9.4 19.3 10.1 9.6 7.5 7.5 9.6

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION

Less than 5 weeks

22.2 34.7 35.9 21.5 37.0 33.5 38.3 37.9 35.3

5 to 14 weeks

20.3 24.6 26.1 24.1 24.6 28.3 28.2 27.5 30.2

15 weeks and over

57.5 40.7 37.9 54.4 38.4 38.3 33.5 34.6 34.5

15 to 26 weeks

15.6 14.9 14.9 13.4 12.5 11.5 9.6 9.4 11.3

27 weeks and over

41.8 25.7 23.1 41.0 25.9 26.7 23.9 25.2 23.2

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to total unemployed in table A-1 because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-13. Employed and unemployed persons by occupation, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Occupation Employed Unemployed Unemployment
rates
May
2021
May
2022
May
2021
May
2022
May
2021
May
2022

Total, 16 years and over(1)

151,778 158,609 8,829 5,548 5.5 3.4

Management, professional, and related occupations

64,268 67,652 1,879 1,098 2.8 1.6

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

27,876 28,870 833 422 2.9 1.4

Professional and related occupations

36,392 38,782 1,046 677 2.8 1.7

Service occupations

24,023 26,025 1,965 1,153 7.6 4.2

Sales and office occupations

30,363 30,434 1,868 1,267 5.8 4.0

Sales and related occupations

14,265 14,477 980 633 6.4 4.2

Office and administrative support occupations

16,098 15,957 889 635 5.2 3.8

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

14,100 14,290 995 535 6.6 3.6

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

1,155 1,002 109 54 8.6 5.1

Construction and extraction occupations

7,922 8,514 670 403 7.8 4.5

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

5,022 4,774 216 78 4.1 1.6

Production, transportation, and material moving
occupations

19,025 20,209 1,628 968 7.9 4.6

Production occupations

7,769 8,281 529 334 6.4 3.9

Transportation and material moving occupations

11,256 11,928 1,099 634 8.9 5.0

Footnotes
(1) Persons with no previous work experience and persons whose last job was in the U.S. Armed Forces are included in the unemployed total.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data. Effective with January 2020 data, occupations reflect the introduction of the 2018 Census occupational classification system into the Current Population Survey, or household survey. This classification system is derived from the 2018 Standard Occupational Classification (SOC). No historical data have been revised. Data for 2020 are not strictly comparable with earlier years.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-14. Unemployed persons by industry and class of worker, not seasonally adjusted
Industry and class of worker Number of
unemployed
persons
(in thousands)
Unemployment
rates
May
2021
May
2022
May
2021
May
2022

Total, 16 years and over(1)

8,829 5,548 5.5 3.4

Nonagricultural private wage and salary workers

7,154 4,353 5.7 3.3

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

64 24 9.6 4.1

Construction

642 392 6.7 3.8

Manufacturing

705 422 4.8 2.8

Durable goods

467 256 5.0 2.7

Nondurable goods

238 166 4.3 2.9

Wholesale and retail trade

1,301 819 6.6 4.2

Transportation and utilities

566 348 7.2 4.1

Information

157 70 5.8 2.9

Financial activities

292 193 3.0 1.9

Professional and business services

952 583 5.4 3.1

Education and health services

840 620 3.4 2.5

Leisure and hospitality

1,294 681 10.1 5.1

Other services

341 200 5.3 3.1

Agriculture and related private wage and salary workers

138 49 8.4 3.1

Government workers

474 356 2.2 1.7

Self-employed workers, unincorporated, and unpaid family workers

579 273 5.3 2.6

Footnotes
(1) Persons with no previous work experience and persons whose last job was in the U.S. Armed Forces are included in the unemployed total.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data. Effective with January 2020 data, industries reflect the introduction of the 2017 Census industry classification system into the Current Population Survey. This industry classification system is derived from the 2017 North American Industry Classification System (NAICS). No historical data have been revised.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-15. Alternative measures of labor underutilization
[Percent]
Measure Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
May
2021
Apr.
2022
May
2022
May
2021
Jan.
2022
Feb.
2022
Mar.
2022
Apr.
2022
May
2022

U-1 Persons unemployed 15 weeks or longer, as a percent of the civilian labor force

3.2 1.4 1.3 3.1 1.5 1.5 1.2 1.2 1.2

U-2 Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs, as a percent of the civilian labor force

3.4 1.6 1.4 3.6 2.0 1.9 1.7 1.7 1.7

U-3 Total unemployed, as a percent of the civilian labor force (official unemployment rate)

5.5 3.3 3.4 5.8 4.0 3.8 3.6 3.6 3.6

U-4 Total unemployed plus discouraged workers, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus discouraged workers

5.8 3.6 3.6 6.1 4.2 4.1 3.8 3.9 3.9

U-5 Total unemployed, plus discouraged workers, plus all other persons marginally attached to the labor force, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force

6.6 4.3 4.2 6.9 4.9 4.7 4.4 4.6 4.5

U-6 Total unemployed, plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force, plus total employed part time for economic reasons, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force

9.7 6.6 6.7 10.1 7.1 7.2 6.9 7.0 7.1

NOTE: Persons marginally attached to the labor force are those who currently are neither working nor looking for work but indicate that they want and are available for a job and have looked for work sometime in the past 12 months. Discouraged workers, a subset of the marginally attached, have given a job-market related reason for not currently looking for work. Persons employed part time for economic reasons are those who want and are available for full-time work but have had to settle for a part-time schedule. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-16. Persons not in the labor force and multiple jobholders by sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Category Total Men Women
May
2021
May
2022
May
2021
May
2022
May
2021
May
2022

NOT IN THE LABOR FORCE

Total not in the labor force

100,603 99,521 41,040 41,158 59,563 58,364

Persons who currently want a job

7,087 6,180 3,482 2,996 3,605 3,184

Marginally attached to the labor force(1)

1,872 1,417 1,018 758 854 659

Discouraged workers(2)

551 379 317 207 234 172

Other persons marginally attached to the labor force(3)

1,321 1,038 701 551 620 487

MULTIPLE JOBHOLDERS

Total multiple jobholders(4)

7,249 7,313 3,570 3,545 3,679 3,768

Percent of total employed

4.8 4.6 4.4 4.2 5.2 5.1

Primary job full time, secondary job part time

4,041 4,295 2,143 2,184 1,898 2,112

Primary and secondary jobs both part time

1,668 1,714 574 607 1,094 1,107

Primary and secondary jobs both full time

373 372 226 261 147 110

Hours vary on primary or secondary job

1,093 868 592 462 501 406

Footnotes
(1) Data refer to persons who want a job, have searched for work during the prior 12 months, and were available to take a job during the reference week, but had not looked for work in the past 4 weeks.
(2) Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for reasons such as thinks no work available, could not find work, lacks schooling or training, employer thinks too young or old, and other types of discrimination.
(3) Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for such reasons as school or family responsibilities, ill health, and transportation problems, as well as a number for whom reason for nonparticipation was not determined.
(4) Includes a small number of persons who work part time on their primary job and full time on their secondary job(s), not shown separately.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-1. Employees on nonfarm payrolls by industry sector and selected industry detail
[In thousands]
Industry Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
May
2021
Mar.
2022
Apr.
2022(p)
May
2022(p)
May
2021
Mar.
2022
Apr.
2022(p)
May
2022(p)
Change from:
Apr.2022 - May2022(p)

Total nonfarm

145,304 149,905 150,964 151,773 145,141 150,856 151,292 151,682 390

Total private

123,111 127,478 128,463 129,293 123,165 128,680 129,085 129,418 333

Goods-producing

20,220 20,645 20,865 21,076 20,209 20,922 20,991 21,050 59

Mining and logging

556 601 609 614 560 605 613 618 5

Logging

43.7 45.5 40.8 41.7 45.5 45.6 44.4 43.9 -0.5

Mining

512.2 555.1 567.9 572.1 514.5 559.0 568.3 574.1 5.8

Oil and gas extraction

114.8 129.7 136.2 136.5 116.0 130.9 137.3 137.4 0.1

Mining, except oil and gas

175.0 172.9 176.5 179.9 173.7 176.5 176.4 178.7 2.3

Coal mining

36.3 37.0 37.4 37.7 36.3 36.8 37.0 37.7 0.7

Metal ore mining

41.1 42.8 43.1 43.6 41.2 43.0 43.4 43.6 0.2

Nonmetallic mineral mining and quarrying

97.6 93.1 96.0 98.6 96.2 96.7 96.0 97.4 1.4

Support activities for mining

222.4 252.5 255.2 255.7 224.8 251.6 254.6 258.0 3.4

Construction

7,432 7,393 7,554 7,715 7,381 7,628 7,628 7,664 36

Construction of buildings

1,637.1 1,662.6 1,684.4 1,713.2 1,639.6 1,699.7 1,706.9 1,714.3 7.4

Residential building

853.1 873.2 886.2 903.7 853.5 893.3 897.9 902.9 5.0

Nonresidential building

784.0 789.4 798.2 809.5 786.1 806.4 809.0 811.4 2.4

Heavy and civil engineering construction

1,070.2 1,005.1 1,067.9 1,110.2 1,044.1 1,070.8 1,072.5 1,083.8 11.3

Specialty trade contractors

4,725.1 4,725.6 4,802.1 4,891.1 4,697.7 4,857.2 4,848.8 4,866.2 17.4

Residential specialty trade contractors

2,187.5 2,193.4 2,225.3 2,269.2 2,175.9 2,242.8 2,242.8 2,254.5 11.7

Nonresidential specialty trade contractors

2,537.6 2,532.2 2,576.8 2,621.9 2,521.8 2,614.4 2,606.0 2,611.7 5.7

Manufacturing

12,232 12,651 12,702 12,747 12,268 12,689 12,750 12,768 18

Durable goods

7,605 7,873 7,902 7,925 7,616 7,887 7,921 7,932 11

Wood products

402.4 427.2 430.4 432.4 406.5 427.4 431.2 435.0 3.8

Nonmetallic mineral products

402.5 402.6 408.5 415.5 398.2 410.0 408.9 410.8 1.9

Primary metals

347.3 360.1 359.3 361.3 348.4 359.7 360.5 362.2 1.7

Fabricated metal products

1,373.7 1,427.1 1,427.1 1,435.0 1,374.9 1,428.0 1,429.6 1,436.7 7.1

Machinery

1,050.2 1,084.3 1,087.6 1,088.6 1,052.3 1,086.3 1,092.2 1,089.0 -3.2

Computer and electronic products

1,054.2 1,068.3 1,072.3 1,077.5 1,056.3 1,070.2 1,074.8 1,079.2 4.4

Computer and peripheral equipment

156.5 158.8 160.1 160.5 156.9 159.5 160.2 160.8 0.6

Communications equipment

85.4 84.7 84.5 83.9 85.6 84.1 84.5 84.2 -0.3

Semiconductors and electronic components

366.1 375.1 376.2 378.7 367.0 375.5 377.7 379.4 1.7

Electronic instruments

416.3 418.9 419.9 423.9 416.5 419.8 420.5 423.9 3.4

Miscellaneous computer and electronic products

29.9 30.8 31.6 30.5 30.3 31.3 32.0 31.0 -1.0

Electrical equipment and appliances

392.0 407.3 408.5 408.6 393.6 408.2 409.4 410.0 0.6

Transportation equipment(1)

1,606.1 1,677.9 1,692.0 1,683.3 1,608.6 1,674.0 1,693.5 1,685.6 -7.9

Motor vehicles and parts(2)

931.2 989.4 1,002.1 992.3 933.4 989.3 996.8 993.3 -3.5

Furniture and related products

368.9 385.8 382.7 386.0 369.8 387.1 386.1 387.1 1.0

Miscellaneous durable goods manufacturing

607.6 632.4 633.2 636.6 607.7 635.6 634.8 635.9 1.1

Nondurable goods

4,627 4,778 4,800 4,822 4,652 4,802 4,829 4,836 7

Food manufacturing

1,610.1 1,666.8 1,668.0 1,678.1 1,632.1 1,682.5 1,690.2 1,696.3 6.1

Textile mills

97.3 99.6 100.5 100.7 97.0 100.0 101.1 100.4 -0.7

Textile product mills

103.2 106.4 106.0 105.7 103.3 106.1 105.8 105.7 -0.1

Apparel

91.5 94.6 93.7 95.7 91.2 94.9 94.2 95.1 0.9

Paper and paper products

344.5 358.4 358.5 359.2 345.8 357.2 358.4 359.5 1.1

Printing and related support activities

365.4 371.6 375.5 377.1 366.6 373.4 377.8 377.4 -0.4

Petroleum and coal products

106.1 104.2 107.9 108.7 105.2 107.0 108.5 107.7 -0.8

Chemicals

865.2 889.3 890.8 893.9 867.0 888.7 890.7 894.4 3.7

Plastics and rubber products

720.3 744.7 747.9 748.8 720.6 740.8 746.6 746.2 -0.4

Miscellaneous nondurable goods manufacturing

323.5 342.6 350.8 354.1 322.8 351.5 355.9 353.0 -2.9

Private service-providing

102,891 106,833 107,598 108,217 102,956 107,758 108,094 108,368 274

Trade, transportation, and utilities

27,335 28,361 28,357 28,420 27,538 28,569 28,650 28,651 1

Wholesale trade

5,657.1 5,789.3 5,823.6 5,860.6 5,655.6 5,814.7 5,837.6 5,851.7 14.1

Durable goods

3,108.7 3,191.2 3,206.7 3,227.1 3,110.7 3,201.3 3,213.2 3,223.6 10.4

Nondurable goods

2,067.6 2,113.7 2,127.2 2,138.5 2,061.6 2,128.2 2,134.2 2,132.4 -1.8

Electronic markets and agents and brokers

480.8 484.4 489.7 495.0 483.3 485.2 490.2 495.7 5.5

Retail trade

15,227.4 15,669.9 15,658.6 15,641.9 15,313.6 15,804.9 15,817.2 15,756.5 -60.7

Motor vehicle and parts dealers

1,944.8 1,960.1 1,966.9 1,972.5 1,938.5 1,966.8 1,967.3 1,966.4 -0.9

Automobile dealers

1,222.0 1,235.4 1,236.5 1,235.9 1,220.8 1,235.6 1,236.6 1,235.0 -1.6

Other motor vehicle dealers

175.1 167.0 170.1 175.6 169.2 171.5 169.2 169.8 0.6

Auto parts, accessories, and tire stores

547.7 557.7 560.3 561.0 548.6 559.6 561.4 561.5 0.1

Furniture and home furnishings stores

439.6 444.6 436.9 435.2 443.3 445.7 441.7 439.6 -2.1

Electronics and appliance stores

415.3 428.6 427.6 425.8 423.8 432.9 432.7 433.5 0.8

Building material and garden supply stores

1,459.1 1,402.1 1,388.4 1,411.8 1,398.7 1,385.9 1,367.2 1,359.9 -7.3

Food and beverage stores

3,104.9 3,145.7 3,154.9 3,158.6 3,124.4 3,156.9 3,179.1 3,170.8 -8.3

Health and personal care stores

1,024.3 1,067.5 1,058.6 1,049.3 1,030.1 1,071.0 1,062.7 1,057.4 -5.3

Gasoline stations

928.6 953.5 960.9 973.1 933.1 967.7 972.9 975.7 2.8

Clothing and clothing accessories stores

997.6 1,047.1 1,048.3 1,053.3 1,030.7 1,088.9 1,092.9 1,084.1 -8.8

Sporting goods, hobby, book, and music stores

510.6 522.0 523.6 528.4 524.6 539.2 540.4 543.8 3.4

General merchandise stores

2,982.1 3,227.2 3,211.6 3,140.2 3,040.2 3,252.4 3,255.8 3,223.1 -32.7

Department stores

891.2 949.2 937.3 927.4 932.7 975.9 971.7 966.7 -5.0

General merchandise stores, including warehouse clubs and supercenters

2,090.9 2,278.0 2,274.3 2,212.8 2,107.5 2,276.6 2,284.1 2,256.3 -27.8

Miscellaneous store retailers

803.9 830.2 842.7 856.8 798.3 844.7 851.7 850.3 -1.4

Nonstore retailers

616.6 641.3 638.2 636.9 627.9 652.8 652.8 651.9 -0.9

Transportation and warehousing

5,909.1 6,363.8 6,337.7 6,379.0 6,026.6 6,410.6 6,456.8 6,503.8 47.0

Air transportation

463.3 537.9 541.8 549.9 461.7 539.1 543.2 548.9 5.7

Rail transportation

147.0 145.9 146.2 146.2 147.3 145.7 145.9 146.4 0.5

Water transportation

57.0 56.7 58.3 60.5 56.5 58.6 58.8 59.6 0.8

Truck transportation

1,497.6 1,534.6 1,549.5 1,572.0 1,510.9 1,554.0 1,568.0 1,581.3 13.3

Transit and ground passenger transportation

389.5 407.4 408.8 413.7 375.1 394.1 394.7 398.2 3.5

Pipeline transportation

49.7 49.6 50.3 50.2 49.7 49.7 50.3 50.2 -0.1

Scenic and sightseeing transportation

22.0 21.2 22.4 26.8 20.2 25.7 24.9 25.2 0.3

Support activities for transportation

707.4 765.3 768.5 768.6 712.9 766.9 771.3 774.7 3.4

Couriers and messengers

985.8 1,074.1 1,030.7 1,029.7 1,067.6 1,110.2 1,116.0 1,117.9 1.9

Warehousing and storage

1,589.8 1,771.1 1,761.2 1,761.4 1,624.7 1,766.6 1,783.7 1,801.4 17.7

Utilities

541.1 537.7 537.1 538.3 542.3 538.3 538.8 539.3 0.5

Information

2,796 2,926 2,944 2,959 2,803 2,936 2,951 2,967 16

Publishing industries, except Internet

787.9 814.2 816.9 816.4 790.3 814.6 819.1 818.7 -0.4

Motion picture and sound recording industries

354.4 412.1 414.7 428.2 354.8 424.7 420.7 431.3 10.6

Broadcasting, except Internet

235.7 233.6 232.8 233.6 235.9 233.2 233.4 233.5 0.1

Telecommunications

662.5 658.9 662.9 656.4 665.8 656.2 660.3 658.9 -1.4

Data processing, hosting and related services

379.7 405.4 412.2 417.8 379.3 404.7 411.6 416.8 5.2

Other information services

375.3 401.4 404.8 406.3 376.7 402.7 406.2 407.7 1.5

Financial activities

8,720 8,855 8,901 8,920 8,747 8,905 8,940 8,948 8

Finance and insurance

6,487.1 6,554.9 6,577.3 6,563.7 6,507.8 6,562.5 6,589.9 6,583.5 -6.4

Monetary authorities - central bank

20.7 20.7 20.7 20.7 20.8 20.8 20.8 20.8 0.0

Credit intermediation and related
activities

2,700.1 2,714.5 2,715.1 2,710.9 2,705.4 2,716.0 2,717.8 2,716.3 -1.5

Depository credit intermediation(1)

1,742.4 1,732.1 1,726.6 1,728.5 1,741.8 1,731.6 1,729.0 1,728.0 -1.0

Commercial banking

1,362.1 1,341.0 1,335.0 1,333.9 1,360.2 1,339.5 1,337.4 1,333.1 -4.3

Nondepository credit intermediation

628.6 641.9 647.6 645.8 633.4 645.0 649.5 650.4 0.9

Activities related to credit intermediation

329.1 340.5 340.9 336.6 330.3 339.3 339.2 337.9 -1.3

Securities, commodity contracts, investments, and funds and trusts

980.9 1,007.4 1,012.3 1,014.8 986.4 1,013.6 1,018.2 1,019.4 1.2

Insurance carriers and related activities

2,785.4 2,812.3 2,829.2 2,817.3 2,795.2 2,812.1 2,833.1 2,827.0 -6.1

Real estate and rental and leasing

2,233.1 2,300.4 2,323.6 2,356.6 2,239.3 2,342.1 2,350.0 2,364.0 14.0

Real estate

1,728.9 1,769.4 1,784.4 1,799.9 1,735.5 1,795.8 1,801.8 1,809.2 7.4

Rental and leasing services

483.9 510.9 518.1 535.4 483.3 525.8 526.9 533.4 6.5

Lessors of nonfinancial intangible assets

20.3 20.1 21.1 21.3 20.5 20.5 21.3 21.4 0.1

Professional and business services

20,993 21,911 22,100 22,154 21,023 22,090 22,139 22,214 75

Professional and technical services

9,738.6 10,309.5 10,380.6 10,318.3 9,804.9 10,299.9 10,340.1 10,388.3 48.2

Legal services

1,144.5 1,169.8 1,172.8 1,174.0 1,148.8 1,174.9 1,178.2 1,178.8 0.6

Accounting and bookkeeping services

1,013.9 1,165.6 1,160.8 1,066.1 1,049.9 1,078.7 1,086.3 1,101.9 15.6

Architectural and engineering services

1,527.5 1,587.6 1,602.9 1,615.7 1,531.8 1,609.6 1,615.0 1,620.3 5.3

Specialized design services

139.4 146.5 149.4 152.2 139.5 148.8 150.3 151.9 1.6

Computer systems design and related services

2,271.6 2,385.1 2,413.6 2,420.3 2,278.0 2,404.7 2,414.2 2,427.3 13.1

Management and technical consulting services

1,608.1 1,716.7 1,731.7 1,735.2 1,615.4 1,731.8 1,737.4 1,744.2 6.8

Scientific research and development services

812.1 856.3 862.0 867.8 816.4 861.8 866.5 872.5 6.0

Advertising and related services

439.0 476.3 477.0 474.6 440.2 476.7 477.3 475.4 -1.9

Other professional and technical services

782.5 805.6 810.4 812.4 785.0 812.9 814.8 816.0 1.2

Management of companies and enterprises

2,324.6 2,360.1 2,358.9 2,365.3 2,330.8 2,366.9 2,365.1 2,371.9 6.8

Administrative and waste services

8,929.8 9,241.6 9,360.8 9,470.7 8,887.1 9,422.8 9,433.3 9,453.4 20.1

Administrative and support services

8,478.8 8,776.9 8,894.5 9,000.2 8,435.4 8,952.9 8,962.8 8,981.6 18.8

Office administrative services

540.9 572.7 582.4 587.0 539.1 577.1 582.4 584.8 2.4

Facilities support services

155.5 153.5 153.6 149.3 156.2 153.0 154.4 150.8 -3.6

Employment services(1)

3,419.9 3,827.0 3,791.4 3,825.4 3,447.1 3,857.3 3,854.5 3,875.7 21.2

Temporary help services

2,777.3 3,126.3 3,091.5 3,120.7 2,803.2 3,141.4 3,148.0 3,167.3 19.3

Business support services

800.0 786.4 790.6 784.7 814.2 791.1 801.8 800.0 -1.8

Travel arrangement and reservation services

134.7 147.8 151.4 153.8 133.6 150.2 151.8 152.5 0.7

Investigation and security services

914.0 913.0 916.0 917.1 911.3 913.5 913.9 914.7 0.8

Services to buildings and dwellings

2,222.5 2,066.9 2,191.1 2,262.9 2,142.1 2,196.9 2,186.5 2,184.2 -2.3

Other support services

291.3 309.6 318.0 320.0 291.8 313.8 317.5 318.9 1.4

Waste management and remediation services

451.0 464.7 466.3 470.5 451.7 469.9 470.5 471.8 1.3

Education and health services

23,645 24,231 24,314 24,290 23,620 24,124 24,184 24,258 74

Educational services

3,571.4 3,892.9 3,911.7 3,827.0 3,550.6 3,753.5 3,769.3 3,801.8 32.5

Health care and social assistance

20,073.2 20,338.5 20,402.7 20,463.0 20,069.3 20,370.0 20,414.2 20,456.3 42.1

Health care(3)

15,990.8 16,169.4 16,211.3 16,245.0 16,017.8 16,202.8 16,239.6 16,267.9 28.3

Ambulatory health care services

7,847.2 8,076.9 8,107.1 8,120.3 7,846.2 8,091.9 8,113.7 8,120.1 6.4

Offices of physicians

2,728.6 2,798.2 2,810.1 2,819.2 2,728.6 2,803.0 2,811.7 2,817.5 5.8

Offices of dentists

990.7 1,020.4 1,023.9 1,025.5 990.3 1,024.0 1,025.2 1,026.1 0.9

Offices of other health practitioners

1,003.4 1,065.8 1,073.1 1,072.0 1,001.0 1,070.8 1,073.5 1,069.6 -3.9

Outpatient care centers

993.6 1,015.9 1,013.7 1,013.8 993.7 1,013.9 1,014.0 1,015.1 1.1

Medical and diagnostic laboratories

305.7 313.6 316.5 316.6 306.0 313.1 315.1 316.5 1.4

Home health care services

1,513.8 1,546.5 1,553.8 1,557.2 1,515.0 1,551.3 1,558.3 1,559.0 0.7

Other ambulatory health care services

311.4 316.5 316.0 316.0 311.5 315.8 316.0 316.4 0.4

Hospitals

5,110.2 5,134.4 5,137.7 5,145.9 5,127.1 5,137.6 5,144.4 5,160.7 16.3

Nursing and residential care facilities

3,033.4 2,958.1 2,966.5 2,978.8 3,044.5 2,973.3 2,981.5 2,987.1 5.6

Nursing care facilities

1,374.4 1,333.8 1,334.3 1,338.9 1,383.7 1,342.7 1,346.8 1,348.1 1.3

Residential mental health facilities

609.2 593.9 598.5 601.1 609.1 595.2 599.2 600.6 1.4

Community care facilities for the elderly

895.4 874.3 879.2 884.0 896.9 878.8 879.9 882.9 3.0

Other residential care facilities

154.4 156.1 154.5 154.8 154.7 156.7 155.6 155.4 -0.2

Social assistance

4,082.4 4,169.1 4,191.4 4,218.0 4,051.5 4,167.2 4,174.6 4,188.4 13.8

Individual and family services

2,712.2 2,752.7 2,765.8 2,784.0 2,703.2 2,758.1 2,763.0 2,776.0 13.0

Emergency and other relief services

194.0 200.9 201.2 200.3 194.9 199.8 200.9 201.1 0.2

Vocational rehabilitation services

273.2 274.4 275.3 274.6 273.3 277.2 275.4 274.6 -0.8

Child day care services

903.0 941.1 949.1 959.1 880.0 932.1 935.3 936.8 1.5

Leisure and hospitality

14,006 14,942 15,332 15,782 13,830 15,471 15,554 15,638 84

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

1,979.0 2,081.0 2,204.8 2,336.9 1,923.5 2,256.6 2,275.3 2,291.5 16.2

Performing arts and spectator sports

367.8 440.1 491.4 512.2 352.8 473.4 488.1 498.3 10.2

Museums, historical sites, and similar institutions

137.3 144.4 150.9 159.4 136.4 154.6 154.9 158.3 3.4

Amusements, gambling, and recreation

1,473.9 1,496.5 1,562.5 1,665.3 1,434.3 1,628.6 1,632.3 1,634.9 2.6

Accommodation and food services

12,027.4 12,861.3 13,126.8 13,444.7 11,906.4 13,214.2 13,279.1 13,346.6 67.5

Accommodation

1,404.0 1,595.8 1,645.7 1,711.8 1,424.5 1,692.2 1,715.3 1,736.7 21.4

Food services and drinking places

10,623.4 11,265.5 11,481.1 11,732.9 10,481.9 11,522.0 11,563.8 11,609.9 46.1

Other services

5,396 5,607 5,650 5,692 5,395 5,663 5,676 5,692 16

Repair and maintenance

1,333.1 1,406.3 1,416.2 1,427.1 1,327.4 1,413.1 1,416.2 1,422.1 5.9

Personal and laundry services

1,336.8 1,420.7 1,437.7 1,454.1 1,330.3 1,439.8 1,443.2 1,450.0 6.8

Membership associations and organizations

2,726.1 2,780.0 2,796.5 2,810.3 2,737.1 2,809.8 2,816.1 2,820.1 4.0

Government

22,193 22,427 22,501 22,480 21,976 22,176 22,207 22,264 57

Federal

2,888 2,853 2,861 2,879 2,889 2,876 2,875 2,880 5

Federal, except U.S. Postal Service

2,287.9 2,246.4 2,254.0 2,280.8 2,286.8 2,266.8 2,266.8 2,275.9 9.1

U.S. Postal Service

600.3 606.8 606.9 598.4 601.9 609.3 607.7 603.9 -3.8

State government

5,204 5,349 5,376 5,254 5,231 5,213 5,224 5,260 36

State government education

2,517.8 2,730.3 2,747.7 2,626.5 2,545.4 2,587.8 2,596.8 2,633.1 36.3

State government, excluding education

2,686.2 2,618.4 2,628.4 2,627.9 2,685.8 2,625.2 2,627.5 2,626.9 -0.6

Local government

14,101 14,225 14,264 14,347 13,856 14,087 14,108 14,124 16

Local government education

7,788.7 7,961.8 7,969.9 7,982.6 7,540.7 7,727.1 7,742.2 7,756.6 14.4

Local government, excluding education

6,312.6 6,262.8 6,293.6 6,364.4 6,314.8 6,360.3 6,365.8 6,367.0 1.2

Footnotes
(1) Includes other industries, not shown separately.
(2) Includes motor vehicles, motor vehicle bodies and trailers, and motor vehicle parts.
(3) Includes ambulatory health care services, hospitals, and nursing and residential care facilities.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2021 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-2. Average weekly hours and overtime of all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry May
2021
Mar.
2022
Apr.
2022(p)
May
2022(p)

AVERAGE WEEKLY HOURS

Total private

34.9 34.6 34.6 34.6

Goods-producing

40.0 40.1 40.0 40.1

Mining and logging

45.1 45.8 45.1 46.0

Construction

39.0 38.7 38.8 39.0

Manufacturing

40.4 40.7 40.5 40.4

Durable goods

40.6 41.0 40.9 40.7

Nondurable goods

40.1 40.1 39.9 39.9

Private service-providing

33.9 33.6 33.6 33.5

Trade, transportation, and utilities

34.7 34.0 34.0 34.0

Wholesale trade

39.2 39.4 39.2 39.1

Retail trade

30.9 30.2 30.1 30.1

Transportation and warehousing

39.3 37.8 38.1 38.2

Utilities

42.7 42.4 42.4 42.6

Information

37.1 36.9 36.8 36.6

Financial activities

37.6 37.7 37.6 37.5

Professional and business services

36.6 36.7 36.7 36.6

Education and health services

33.4 33.5 33.5 33.5

Leisure and hospitality

26.4 25.9 26.0 25.9

Other services

32.5 32.3 32.3 32.3

AVERAGE OVERTIME HOURS

Manufacturing

3.3 3.4 3.3 3.2

Durable goods

3.2 3.4 3.3 3.2

Nondurable goods

3.4 3.4 3.3 3.3

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2021 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-3. Average hourly and weekly earnings of all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Average hourly earnings Average weekly earnings
May
2021
Mar.
2022
Apr.
2022(p)
May
2022(p)
May
2021
Mar.
2022
Apr.
2022(p)
May
2022(p)

Total private

$30.36 $31.75 $31.85 $31.95 $1,059.56 $1,098.55 $1,102.01 $1,105.47

Goods-producing

30.84 32.03 32.18 32.29 1,233.60 1,284.40 1,287.20 1,294.83

Mining and logging

34.71 35.73 35.39 35.70 1,565.42 1,636.43 1,596.09 1,642.20

Construction

32.74 34.14 34.34 34.56 1,276.86 1,321.22 1,332.39 1,347.84

Manufacturing

29.53 30.62 30.76 30.78 1,193.01 1,246.23 1,245.78 1,243.51

Durable goods

31.01 32.19 32.36 32.41 1,259.01 1,319.79 1,323.52 1,319.09

Nondurable goods

27.08 27.97 28.09 28.05 1,085.91 1,121.60 1,120.79 1,119.20

Private service-providing

30.25 31.69 31.78 31.88 1,025.48 1,064.78 1,067.81 1,067.98

Trade, transportation, and utilities

26.16 27.42 27.47 27.62 907.75 932.28 933.98 939.08

Wholesale trade

33.46 34.70 34.79 34.85 1,311.63 1,367.18 1,363.77 1,362.64

Retail trade

21.82 22.81 22.77 22.85 674.24 688.86 685.38 687.79

Transportation and warehousing

26.19 27.81 27.96 28.23 1,029.27 1,051.22 1,065.28 1,078.39

Utilities

44.66 46.80 46.61 47.31 1,906.98 1,984.32 1,976.26 2,015.41

Information

44.20 45.23 45.37 45.71 1,639.82 1,668.99 1,669.62 1,672.99

Financial activities

40.05 40.99 41.05 40.96 1,505.88 1,545.32 1,543.48 1,536.00

Professional and business services

36.27 38.31 38.55 38.65 1,327.48 1,405.98 1,414.79 1,414.59

Education and health services

29.74 31.27 31.35 31.44 993.32 1,047.55 1,050.23 1,053.24

Leisure and hospitality

18.01 19.66 19.76 19.86 475.46 509.19 513.76 514.37

Other services

27.30 28.11 28.02 28.16 887.25 907.95 905.05 909.57

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2021 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-4. Indexes of aggregate weekly hours and payrolls for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
[2007=100]
Industry Index of aggregate weekly hours(1) Index of aggregate weekly payrolls(2)
May
2021
Mar.
2022
Apr.
2022(p)
May
2022(p)
Percent change from:
Apr.
2022 - May
2022(p)
May
2021
Mar.
2022
Apr.
2022(p)
May
2022(p)
Percent change from:
Apr.
2022 - May
2022(p)

Total private

107.9 111.8 112.1 112.4 0.3 156.6 169.7 170.7 171.7 0.6

Goods-producing

92.1 95.6 95.7 96.2 0.5 128.4 138.4 139.1 140.4 0.9

Mining and logging

79.4 87.1 86.9 89.3 2.8 110.6 124.9 123.4 128.0 3.7

Construction

99.2 101.8 102.0 103.0 1.0 141.2 150.9 152.2 154.7 1.6

Manufacturing

89.2 92.9 92.9 92.8 -0.1 122.4 132.3 132.9 132.8 -0.1

Durable goods

87.1 91.0 91.2 90.9 -0.3 119.9 130.2 131.1 130.8 -0.2

Nondurable goods

93.1 96.1 96.2 96.3 0.1 127.9 136.4 137.1 137.1 0.0

Private service-providing

112.4 116.6 116.9 116.9 0.0 165.2 179.6 180.6 181.1 0.3

Trade, transportation, and utilities

104.3 106.0 106.3 106.3 0.0 147.1 156.7 157.5 158.3 0.5

Wholesale trade

97.8 101.1 100.9 100.9 0.0 136.9 146.7 146.9 147.1 0.1

Retail trade

96.1 96.9 96.7 96.3 -0.4 138.6 146.1 145.5 145.4 -0.1

Transportation and warehousing

136.1 139.2 141.3 142.8 1.1 181.3 197.0 201.1 205.0 1.9

Utilities

100.2 98.7 98.8 99.4 0.6 147.8 152.7 152.2 155.4 2.1

Information

95.0 98.9 99.2 99.2 0.0 149.5 159.3 160.2 161.4 0.7

Financial activities

107.8 110.0 110.1 109.9 -0.2 168.3 175.9 176.4 175.7 -0.4

Professional and business services

120.6 127.1 127.4 127.5 0.1 177.2 197.2 198.9 199.5 0.3

Education and health services

128.8 132.0 132.3 132.7 0.3 184.3 198.5 199.5 200.7 0.6

Leisure and hospitality

104.2 114.3 115.4 115.6 0.2 151.4 181.3 184.0 185.2 0.7

Other services

101.1 105.5 105.7 106.0 0.3 151.3 162.5 162.3 163.6 0.8

Footnotes
(1) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding 2007 annual average aggregate hours. Aggregate hours estimates are the product of estimates of average weekly hours and employment.
(2) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding 2007 annual average aggregate weekly payrolls. Aggregate payrolls estimates are the product of estimates of average hourly earnings, average weekly hours, and employment.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2021 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-5. Employment of women on nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Women employees (in thousands) Percent of all employees
May
2021
Mar.
2022
Apr.
2022(p)
May
2022(p)
May
2021
Mar.
2022
Apr.
2022(p)
May
2022(p)

Total nonfarm

72,298 75,053 75,312 75,493 49.8 49.8 49.8 49.8

Total private

59,637 62,184 62,415 62,601 48.4 48.3 48.4 48.4

Goods-producing

4,595 4,800 4,825 4,847 22.7 22.9 23.0 23.0

Mining and logging

75 79 80 80 13.4 13.1 13.1 12.9

Construction

1,003 1,062 1,062 1,071 13.6 13.9 13.9 14.0

Manufacturing

3,517 3,659 3,683 3,696 28.7 28.8 28.9 28.9

Durable goods

1,864 1,947 1,959 1,963 24.5 24.7 24.7 24.7

Nondurable goods

1,653 1,712 1,724 1,733 35.5 35.7 35.7 35.8

Private service-providing

55,042 57,384 57,590 57,754 53.5 53.3 53.3 53.3

Trade, transportation, and utilities

10,855 11,308 11,343 11,340 39.4 39.6 39.6 39.6

Wholesale trade

1,713.8 1,760.5 1,774.5 1,784.8 30.3 30.3 30.4 30.5

Retail trade

7,456.0 7,700.8 7,707.7 7,678.6 48.7 48.7 48.7 48.7

Transportation and warehousing

1,550.0 1,712.0 1,724.8 1,740.3 25.7 26.7 26.7 26.8

Utilities

135.1 134.9 135.8 136.1 24.9 25.1 25.2 25.2

Information

1,113 1,168 1,173 1,185 39.7 39.8 39.7 39.9

Financial activities

4,927 4,971 4,980 4,989 56.3 55.8 55.7 55.8

Professional and business services

9,721 10,217 10,263 10,280 46.2 46.3 46.4 46.3

Education and health services

18,204 18,530 18,579 18,650 77.1 76.8 76.8 76.9

Leisure and hospitality

7,356 8,179 8,238 8,290 53.2 52.9 53.0 53.0

Other services

2,866 3,011 3,014 3,020 53.1 53.2 53.1 53.1

Government

12,661 12,869 12,897 12,892 57.6 58.0 58.1 57.9

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2021 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-6. Employment of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
[In thousands]
Industry May
2021
Mar.
2022
Apr.
2022(p)
May
2022(p)

Total private

100,217 104,827 105,182 105,420

Goods-producing

14,372 14,992 15,048 15,082

Mining and logging

414 456 459 461

Construction

5,456 5,635 5,638 5,661

Manufacturing

8,502 8,901 8,951 8,960

Durable goods

5,180 5,463 5,488 5,482

Nondurable goods

3,322 3,438 3,463 3,478

Private service-providing

85,845 89,835 90,134 90,338

Trade, transportation, and utilities

23,249 24,113 24,187 24,152

Wholesale trade

4,500.9 4,634.3 4,653.7 4,659.0

Retail trade

13,088.2 13,446.6 13,468.3 13,405.3

Transportation and warehousing

5,228.2 5,603.1 5,635.4 5,658.1

Utilities

431.9 429.1 430.0 429.3

Information

2,214 2,336 2,353 2,360

Financial activities

6,608 6,702 6,722 6,731

Professional and business services

16,863 17,649 17,707 17,770

Education and health services

20,633 20,999 21,035 21,094

Leisure and hospitality

11,940 13,449 13,534 13,619

Other services

4,338 4,587 4,596 4,612

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2021 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-7. Average weekly hours and overtime of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry May
2021
Mar.
2022
Apr.
2022(p)
May
2022(p)

AVERAGE WEEKLY HOURS

Total private

34.3 34.1 34.1 34.1

Goods-producing

40.9 40.9 40.9 41.0

Mining and logging

46.5 47.5 47.1 47.9

Construction

39.6 39.3 39.6 39.9

Manufacturing

41.5 41.5 41.3 41.3

Durable goods

41.6 41.8 41.6 41.4

Nondurable goods

41.4 41.1 40.9 41.0

Private service-providing

33.2 33.0 32.9 33.0

Trade, transportation, and utilities

34.4 34.0 34.1 34.2

Wholesale trade

38.9 39.4 39.3 39.3

Retail trade

30.9 30.5 30.6 30.6

Transportation and warehousing

38.8 37.5 37.7 37.9

Utilities

42.7 42.0 42.5 42.8

Information

36.9 36.6 36.6 36.4

Financial activities

37.4 37.5 37.5 37.3

Professional and business services

36.3 36.4 36.3 36.3

Education and health services

32.7 32.7 32.5 32.7

Leisure and hospitality

25.1 24.8 24.7 24.7

Other services

31.5 31.3 31.3 31.3

AVERAGE OVERTIME HOURS

Manufacturing

4.2 4.2 4.1 4.1

Durable goods

4.3 4.3 4.3 4.3

Nondurable goods

4.1 4.0 3.9 3.9

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2021 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-8. Average hourly and weekly earnings of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry Average hourly earnings Average weekly earnings
May
2021
Mar.
2022
Apr.
2022(p)
May
2022(p)
May
2021
Mar.
2022
Apr.
2022(p)
May
2022(p)

Total private

$25.67 $27.06 $27.18 $27.33 $880.48 $922.75 $926.84 $931.95

Goods-producing

26.31 27.53 27.60 27.84 1,076.08 1,125.98 1,128.84 1,141.44

Mining and logging

30.87 32.32 32.08 32.08 1,435.46 1,535.20 1,510.97 1,536.63

Construction

30.27 31.72 31.75 32.19 1,198.69 1,246.60 1,257.30 1,284.38

Manufacturing

23.64 24.74 24.83 24.94 981.06 1,026.71 1,025.48 1,030.02

Durable goods

24.67 25.89 26.04 26.15 1,026.27 1,082.20 1,083.26 1,082.61

Nondurable goods

22.03 22.90 22.89 23.00 912.04 941.19 936.20 943.00

Private service-providing

25.54 26.96 27.09 27.22 847.93 889.68 891.26 898.26

Trade, transportation, and utilities

22.19 23.60 23.71 23.86 763.34 802.40 808.51 816.01

Wholesale trade

27.50 28.76 28.86 29.08 1,069.75 1,133.14 1,134.20 1,142.84

Retail trade

18.43 19.42 19.47 19.51 569.49 592.31 595.78 597.01

Transportation and warehousing

23.50 25.74 25.94 26.18 911.80 965.25 977.94 992.22

Utilities

39.72 41.38 41.70 41.94 1,696.04 1,737.96 1,772.25 1,795.03

Information

36.90 36.92 36.75 37.10 1,361.61 1,351.27 1,345.05 1,350.44

Financial activities

30.30 31.55 31.75 32.04 1,133.22 1,183.13 1,190.63 1,195.09

Professional and business services

30.33 32.14 32.36 32.44 1,100.98 1,169.90 1,174.67 1,177.57

Education and health services

26.77 28.38 28.54 28.62 875.38 928.03 927.55 935.87

Leisure and hospitality

15.86 17.50 17.58 17.73 398.09 434.00 434.23 437.93

Other services

23.50 24.22 24.30 24.34 740.25 758.09 760.59 761.84

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2021 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-9. Indexes of aggregate weekly hours and payrolls for production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
[2002=100]
Industry Index of aggregate weekly hours(2) Index of aggregate weekly payrolls(3)
May
2021
Mar.
2022
Apr.
2022(p)
May
2022(p)
Percent change from:
Apr.
2022 - May
2022(p)
May
2021
Mar.
2022
Apr.
2022(p)
May
2022(p)
Percent change from:
Apr.
2022 - May
2022(p)

Total private

114.5 119.1 119.5 119.8 0.3 196.5 215.4 217.1 218.8 0.8

Goods-producing

89.8 93.7 94.1 94.5 0.4 144.7 158.0 158.9 161.1 1.4

Mining and logging

102.3 115.1 114.9 117.3 2.1 183.7 216.4 214.3 218.9 2.1

Construction

108.2 110.9 111.8 113.1 1.2 176.8 189.9 191.7 196.6 2.6

Manufacturing

81.0 84.8 84.9 84.9 0.0 125.2 137.2 137.8 138.6 0.6

Durable goods

81.0 85.8 85.8 85.3 -0.6 124.7 138.7 139.4 139.2 -0.1

Nondurable goods

81.0 83.3 83.5 84.0 0.6 126.1 134.7 135.0 136.6 1.2

Private service-providing

121.4 126.3 126.3 127.0 0.6 212.7 233.6 234.8 237.1 1.0

Trade, transportation, and utilities

111.8 114.7 115.3 115.5 0.2 177.4 193.4 195.4 197.0 0.8

Wholesale trade

103.9 108.4 108.5 108.7 0.2 168.7 184.0 184.9 186.5 0.9

Retail trade

102.3 103.8 104.3 103.8 -0.5 161.6 172.7 174.0 173.5 -0.3

Transportation and warehousing

153.5 159.0 160.8 162.3 0.9 229.6 260.5 265.5 270.4 1.8

Utilities

94.3 92.2 93.5 94.0 0.5 156.4 159.2 162.7 164.5 1.1

Information

93.2 97.6 98.3 98.0 -0.3 170.3 178.4 178.8 180.1 0.7

Financial activities

116.3 118.3 118.6 118.2 -0.3 216.8 229.6 231.7 232.9 0.5

Professional and business services

136.9 143.6 143.7 144.2 0.3 246.9 274.5 276.6 278.2 0.6

Education and health services

143.9 146.4 145.8 147.1 0.9 254.2 274.2