Department of Labor Logo United States Department of Labor
Dot gov

The .gov means it's official.
Federal government websites often end in .gov or .mil. Before sharing sensitive information, make sure you're on a federal government site.

Https

The site is secure.
The https:// ensures that you are connecting to the official website and that any information you provide is encrypted and transmitted securely.

Economic News Release
PRINT:Print
CPS CPS Program Links
CES CES Program Links

Employment Situation News Release

Transmission of material in this news release is embargoed until	       USDL-21-0980
8:30 a.m. (ET) Friday, June 4, 2021

Technical information: 
 Household data:	cpsinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/cps
 Establishment data:	cesinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/ces

Media contact:		(202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov

	
			THE EMPLOYMENT SITUATION -- MAY 2021


Total nonfarm payroll employment rose by 559,000 in May, and the unemployment rate 
declined by 0.3 percentage point to 5.8 percent, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics
reported today. Notable job gains occurred in leisure and hospitality, in public and 
private education, and in health care and social assistance.

This news release presents statistics from two monthly surveys. The household survey
measures labor force status, including unemployment, by demographic characteristics. The
establishment survey measures nonfarm employment, hours, and earnings by industry. For
more information about the concepts and statistical methodology used in these two surveys,
see the Technical Note.

Household Survey Data

In May, the unemployment rate declined by 0.3 percentage point to 5.8 percent, and the 
number of unemployed persons fell by 496,000 to 9.3 million. These measures are down
considerably from their recent highs in April 2020 but remain well above their levels 
prior to the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic (3.5 percent and 5.7 million, respectively, 
in February 2020). (See table A-1. See the box note at the end of this news release for 
more information about how the household survey and its measures were affected by the 
coronavirus pandemic.)

Among the major worker groups, the unemployment rates declined in May for teenagers (9.6
percent), Whites (5.1 percent), and Hispanics (7.3 percent). The jobless rates for adult 
men (5.9 percent), adult women (5.4 percent), Blacks (9.1 percent), and Asians (5.5
percent) showed little change in May. (See tables A-1, A-2, and A-3.)

Among the unemployed, the number of persons on temporary layoff declined by 291,000 to 1.8
million in May. This measure is down considerably from the recent high of 18.0 million in
April 2020 but is 1.1 million higher than in February 2020. The number of permanent job 
losers decreased by 295,000 to 3.2 million in May but is 1.9 million higher than in 
February 2020. (See table A-11.)

In May, the number of persons jobless less than 5 weeks declined by 391,000 to 2.0 
million. The number of long-term unemployed (those jobless for 27 weeks or more) declined
by 431,000 to 3.8 million in May but is 2.6 million higher than in February 2020. These 
long-term unemployed accounted for 40.9 percent of the total unemployed in May. 
(See table A-12.)

The labor force participation rate was little changed at 61.6 percent in May and has 
remained within a narrow range of 61.4 percent to 61.7 percent since June 2020. The 
participation rate is 1.7 percentage points lower than in February 2020. The employment-
population ratio, at 58.0 percent, was also little changed in May but is up by 0.6 
percentage point since December 2020. However, this measure is 3.1 percentage points below
its February 2020 level. (See table A-1.)

The number of persons employed part time for economic reasons was essentially unchanged at
5.3 million in May but is 873,000 higher than in February 2020. These individuals, who 
would have preferred full-time employment, were working part time because their hours had 
been reduced or they were unable to find full-time jobs. (See table A-8.)

In May, the number of persons not in the labor force who currently want a job was 
essentially unchanged over the month at 6.6 million but is up by 1.6 million since
February 2020. These individuals were not counted as unemployed because they were not
actively looking for work during the last 4 weeks or were unavailable to take a job. 
(See table A-1.)

Among those not in the labor force who currently want a job, the number of persons 
marginally attached to the labor force, at 2.0 million, changed little in May but is up
by 518,000 since February 2020. These individuals wanted and were available for work and 
had looked for a job sometime in the prior 12 months but had not looked for work in the 4
weeks preceding the survey. The number of discouraged workers, a subset of the marginally
attached who believed that no jobs were available for them, was 600,000 in May, little 
changed from the previous month but 199,000 higher than in February 2020. (See Summary
table A.)

Household Survey Supplemental Data

In May, 16.6 percent of employed persons teleworked because of the coronavirus pandemic, 
down from 18.3 percent in the prior month. These data refer to employed persons who 
teleworked or worked at home for pay at some point in the last 4 weeks specifically 
because of the pandemic.

In May, 7.9 million persons reported that they had been unable to work because their 
employer closed or lost business due to the pandemic--that is, they did not work at all or
worked fewer hours at some point in the last 4 weeks due to the pandemic. This measure is 
down from 9.4 million in the previous month. Among those who reported in May that they 
were unable to work because of pandemic-related closures or lost business, 9.3 percent 
received at least some pay from their employer for the hours not worked, unchanged from 
the previous month.

Among those not in the labor force in May, 2.5 million persons were prevented from looking
for work due to the pandemic. This measure is down from 2.8 million the month before. (To
be counted as unemployed, by definition, individuals must be either actively looking for 
work or on temporary layoff.)

These supplemental data come from questions added to the household survey beginning in May
2020 to help gauge the effects of the pandemic on the labor market. The data are not 
seasonally adjusted. Tables with estimates from the supplemental questions for all months
are available online at www.bls.gov/cps/effects-of-the-coronavirus-covid-19-pandemic.htm.

Establishment Survey Data

Total nonfarm payroll employment increased by 559,000 in May, following increases of 
278,000 in April and 785,000 in March. In May, nonfarm payroll employment is down by 7.6
million, or 5.0 percent, from its pre-pandemic level in February 2020. Notable job gains
occurred in leisure and hospitality, in public and private education, and in health care 
and social assistance in May. (See table B-1. See the box note at the end of this news 
release for more information about how the establishment survey and its measures were 
affected by the coronavirus pandemic.)

In May, employment in leisure and hospitality increased by 292,000, as pandemic-related 
restrictions continued to ease in some parts of the country. Nearly two-thirds of the 
increase was in food services and drinking places (+186,000). Employment also rose in 
amusements, gambling, and recreation (+58,000) and in accommodation (+35,000). Employment
in leisure and hospitality is down by 2.5 million, or 15.0 percent, from its level in 
February 2020.

In May, employment increased in public and private education, reflecting the continued
resumption of in-person learning and other school-related activities in some parts of 
the country. Employment rose by 53,000 in local government education, by 50,000 in state
government education, and by 41,000 in private education. However, employment is down 
from February 2020 levels in local government education (-556,000), state government 
education (-244,000), and private education (-293,000).

Health care and social assistance added 46,000 jobs in May. Employment in health care 
continued to trend up (+23,000), reflecting a gain in ambulatory health care services 
(+22,000). Social assistance added 23,000 jobs over the month, largely in child day care
services (+18,000). Compared with February 2020, employment is down by 508,000 in health
care and by 257,000 in social assistance. 

Employment in information rose by 29,000 over the month but is down by 193,000 since 
February 2020. In May, job gains occurred in motion picture and sound recording 
industries (+14,000). 

Manufacturing employment rose by 23,000 in May. A job gain in motor vehicles and parts
(+25,000) followed a loss in April (-38,000). Employment in manufacturing is down by 
509,000 from its level in February 2020.

Transportation and warehousing added 23,000 jobs in May. Employment increased in 
support activities for transportation (+10,000) and in air transportation (+9,000). 
Since February 2020, employment in transportation and warehousing is down by 100,000. 

Employment in wholesale trade increased by 20,000 in May, mostly in the durable goods
component (+14,000). Employment in wholesale trade is down by 211,000 since February 
2020.

Construction employment edged down in May (-20,000), reflecting a job loss in 
nonresidential specialty trade contractors (-17,000). Employment in construction is 
225,000 lower than in February 2020.

Employment in professional and business services changed little in May (+35,000). Within
the industry, employment continued to trend up in accounting and bookkeeping services 
(+14,000). Employment in temporary help services changed little over the month (+4,000),
following a large decline in April (-116,000). Overall, employment in professional and
business services is down by 708,000 since February 2020.

Employment in retail trade changed little in May (-6,000). Clothing and clothing 
accessories stores added 11,000 jobs. Employment in food and beverage stores decreased
by 26,000, following a decline of 47,000 in April. Employment in retail trade is 411,000
below its February 2020 level.

In May, employment changed little in other major industries, including mining, financial
activities, and other services. 

Average hourly earnings for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls increased by 15 
cents to $30.33 in May, following an increase of 21 cents in April. Average hourly 
earnings of private-sector production and nonsupervisory employees rose by 14 cents to
$25.60 in May, following an increase of 19 cents in April. The data for the last 2 
months suggest that the rising demand for labor associated with the recovery from the 
pandemic may have put upward pressure on wages. However, because average hourly 
earnings vary widely across industries, the large employment fluctuations since 
February 2020 complicate the analysis of recent trends in average hourly earnings. 
(See tables B-3 and B-8.)

In May, the average workweek for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls was 34.9 
hours for the third month in a row. In manufacturing, the average workweek rose by 0.1
hour to 40.5 hours, and overtime increased by 0.1 hour to 3.3 hours. The average 
workweek for production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls 
declined by 0.1 hour to 34.3 hours. (See tables B-2 and B-7.)

The change in total nonfarm payroll employment for March was revised up by 15,000, from
+770,000 to +785,000, and the change for April was revised up by 12,000, from +266,000 to
+278,000. With these revisions, employment in March and April combined is 27,000 higher 
than previously reported. (Monthly revisions result from additional reports received from
businesses and government agencies since the last published estimates and from the 
recalculation of seasonal factors.) 

_____________
The Employment Situation for June is scheduled to be released on Friday, July 2, 2021,
at 8:30 a.m. (ET).


 _______________________________________________________________________________________
|											|
|                Coronavirus (COVID-19) Impact on May 2021 Household and                |
|				Establishment Survey Data               		|
|											|
| Data collection for both surveys was affected by the pandemic. In the establishment 	|
| survey, more data continued to be collected by web than in months prior to the 	|
| pandemic. In the household survey, for the safety of both interviewers and 		|
| respondents, in-person interviews were conducted only when telephone interviews could |
| not be done. 										|
|											|
| As in previous months, some workers affected by the pandemic who should have been 	|
| classified as unemployed on temporary layoff were instead misclassified as employed 	|
| but not at work. However, the share of responses that may have been misclassified was |
| highest in the early months of the pandemic and has been considerably lower in recent |
| months. Since March 2020, BLS has published an estimate of what the unemployment rate |
| might have been had misclassified workers been included among the unemployed. 	|
| Repeating this same approach, the seasonally adjusted unemployment rate in May 2021 	|
| would have been 0.3 percentage point higher than reported. However, this represents 	|
| the upper bound of our estimate of misclassification and probably overstates the size |
| of the misclassification error. 							|
|											|
| More information about the impact of the pandemic on the two surveys is available at  |
| www.bls.gov/covid19/employment-situation-covid19-faq-may-2021.htm.			|
|_______________________________________________________________________________________|




HOUSEHOLD DATA
Summary table A. Household data, seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Category May
2020
Mar.
2021
Apr.
2021
May
2021
Change from:
Apr.
2021-
May
2021

Employment status

Civilian noninstitutional population

260,047 261,003 261,103 261,210 107

Civilian labor force

158,200 160,558 160,988 160,935 -53

Participation rate

60.8 61.5 61.7 61.6 -0.1

Employed

137,224 150,848 151,176 151,620 444

Employment-population ratio

52.8 57.8 57.9 58.0 0.1

Unemployed

20,975 9,710 9,812 9,316 -496

Unemployment rate

13.3 6.0 6.1 5.8 -0.3

Not in labor force

101,847 100,445 100,115 100,275 160

Unemployment rates

Total, 16 years and over

13.3 6.0 6.1 5.8 -0.3

Adult men (20 years and over)

11.6 5.8 6.1 5.9 -0.2

Adult women (20 years and over)

13.9 5.7 5.6 5.4 -0.2

Teenagers (16 to 19 years)

29.6 13.0 12.3 9.6 -2.7

White

12.3 5.4 5.3 5.1 -0.2

Black or African American

16.7 9.6 9.7 9.1 -0.6

Asian

14.9 6.0 5.7 5.5 -0.2

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

17.6 7.9 7.9 7.3 -0.6

Total, 25 years and over

11.6 5.3 5.3 5.1 -0.2

Less than a high school diploma

19.6 8.2 9.3 9.1 -0.2

High school graduates, no college

15.3 6.7 6.9 6.8 -0.1

Some college or associate degree

13.2 5.9 5.8 5.9 0.1

Bachelor's degree and higher

7.4 3.7 3.5 3.2 -0.3

Reason for unemployment

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

18,270 6,226 6,387 5,841 -546

Job leavers

561 777 824 778 -46

Reentrants

1,613 2,253 2,072 2,149 77

New entrants

539 497 625 525 -100

Duration of unemployment

Less than 5 weeks

3,875 2,177 2,414 2,023 -391

5 to 14 weeks

14,804 1,941 1,939 2,126 187

15 to 26 weeks

997 1,391 1,203 1,262 59

27 weeks and over

1,203 4,218 4,183 3,752 -431

Employed persons at work part time

Part time for economic reasons

10,633 5,826 5,243 5,271 28

Slack work or business conditions

9,570 4,629 3,997 4,069 72

Could only find part-time work

833 984 974 966 -8

Part time for noneconomic reasons

14,455 19,102 19,057 19,160 103

Persons not in the labor force

Marginally attached to the labor force

2,392 1,853 1,856 1,955 99

Discouraged workers

652 523 565 600 35

NOTE: Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Summary table B. Establishment data, seasonally adjusted
Category May
2020
Mar.
2021
Apr.
2021(p)
May
2021(p)

EMPLOYMENT BY SELECTED INDUSTRY
(Over-the-month change, in thousands)

Total nonfarm

2,833 785 278 559

Total private

3,345 724 219 492

Goods-producing

691 159 -36 3

Mining and logging

-21 15 1 0

Construction

469 93 -5 -20

Manufacturing

243 51 -32 23

Durable goods(1)

139 28 -31 18

Motor vehicles and parts

37.6 -0.3 -37.7 24.8

Nondurable goods

104 23 -1 5

Private service-providing

2,654 565 255 489

Wholesale trade

22.6 18.9 6.2 19.9

Retail trade

408.8 41.9 -30.2 -5.8

Transportation and warehousing

-9.5 42.7 -52.7 22.9

Utilities

-1.5 0.6 0.6 -0.2

Information

-39 5 9 29

Financial activities

17 13 16 -1

Professional and business services(1)

165 74 -81 35

Temporary help services

49.1 -5.8 -115.8 4.4

Education and health services(1)

385 104 25 87

Health care and social assistance

367.3 51.3 35.6 45.8

Leisure and hospitality

1,455 227 328 292

Other services

250 37 35 10

Government

-512 61 59 67

(3-month average change, in thousands)

Total nonfarm

-6,510 518 533 541

Total private

-6,003 489 522 478

WOMEN AND PRODUCTION AND NONSUPERVISORY EMPLOYEES
AS A PERCENT OF ALL EMPLOYEES(2)

Total nonfarm women employees

49.1 49.7 49.8 49.8

Total private women employees

47.6 48.4 48.4 48.4

Total private production and nonsupervisory employees

80.6 81.4 81.3 81.4

HOURS AND EARNINGS
ALL EMPLOYEES

Total private

Average weekly hours

34.7 34.9 34.9 34.9

Average hourly earnings

$29.74 $29.97 $30.18 $30.33

Average weekly earnings

$1,031.98 $1,045.95 $1,053.28 $1,058.52

Index of aggregate weekly hours (2007=100)(3)

97.3 107.3 107.5 108.0

Over-the-month percent change

4.6 1.4 0.2 0.5

Index of aggregate weekly payrolls (2007=100)(4)

138.3 153.8 155.2 156.6

Over-the-month percent change

3.4 1.4 0.9 0.9

DIFFUSION INDEX
(Over 1-month span)(5)

Total private (257 industries)

63.2 73.0 60.9 62.3

Manufacturing (75 industries)

69.3 75.3 58.7 57.3

Footnotes
(1) Includes other industries, not shown separately.
(2) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries.
(3) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding annual average aggregate hours.
(4) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding annual average aggregate weekly payrolls.
(5) Figures are the percent of industries with employment increasing plus one-half of the industries with unchanged employment, where 50 percent indicates an equal balance between industries with increasing and decreasing employment.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2020 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


Frequently Asked Questions about Employment and Unemployment Estimates

1. Why are there two monthly measures of employment?

   The household survey and establishment survey both produce sample-based estimates
   of employment, and both have strengths and limitations. The establishment survey
   employment series has a smaller margin of error on the measurement of month-to-
   month change than the household survey because of its much larger sample size. An
   over-the-month employment change of about 100,000 is statistically significant in
   the establishment survey, while the threshold for a statistically significant change
   in the household survey is about 500,000. However, the household survey has a more
   expansive scope than the establishment survey because it includes self-employed
   workers whose businesses are unincorporated, unpaid family workers, agricultural
   workers, and private household workers, who are excluded by the establishment survey.
   The household survey also provides estimates of employment for demographic groups.
   For more information on the differences between the two surveys, please visit
   https://www.bls.gov/web/empsit/ces_cps_trends.htm.

2. Are undocumented immigrants counted in the surveys?

   It is likely that both surveys include at least some undocumented immigrants. However,
   neither the establishment nor the household survey is designed to identify the legal
   status of workers. Therefore, it is not possible to determine how many are counted in
   either survey. The establishment survey does not collect data on the legal status of
   workers. The household survey does include questions which identify the foreign and
   native born, but it does not include questions about the legal status of the foreign
   born. Data on the foreign and native born are published each month in table A-7 of
   The Employment Situation news release.

3. Why does the establishment survey have revisions?

   The establishment survey revises published estimates to improve its data series by
   incorporating additional information that was not available at the time of the
   initial publication of the estimates. The establishment survey revises its initial
   monthly estimates twice, in the immediately succeeding 2 months, to incorporate
   additional sample receipts from respondents in the survey and recalculated seasonal
   adjustment factors. For more information on the monthly revisions, please visit
   https://www.bls.gov/ces/cesrevinfo.htm.

   On an annual basis, the establishment survey incorporates a benchmark revision that
   re-anchors estimates to nearly complete employment counts available from unemployment
   insurance tax records. The benchmark helps to control for sampling and modeling errors
   in the estimates. For more information on the annual benchmark revision, please visit
   https://www.bls.gov/web/empsit/cesbmart.htm.

4. Does the establishment survey sample include small firms?

   Yes; about 40 percent of the establishment survey sample is comprised of business
   establishments with fewer than 20 employees. The establishment survey sample is
   designed to maximize the reliability of the statewide total nonfarm employment
   estimate; firms from all states, size classes, and industries are appropriately
   sampled to achieve that goal.

5. Does the establishment survey account for employment from new businesses?

   Yes; monthly establishment survey estimates include an adjustment to account for
   the net employment change generated by business births and deaths. The adjustment
   comes from an econometric model that forecasts the monthly net jobs impact of
   business births and deaths based on the actual past values of the net impact that
   can be observed with a lag from the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages. The
   establishment survey uses modeling rather than sampling for this purpose because
   the survey is not immediately able to bring new businesses into the sample. There
   is an unavoidable lag between the birth of a new firm and its appearance on the
   sampling frame and availability for selection. BLS adds new businesses to the survey
   twice a year.

6. Is the count of unemployed persons limited to just those people receiving unemployment
   insurance benefits?

   No; the estimate of unemployment is based on a monthly sample survey of households.
   All persons who are without jobs and are actively seeking and available to work are
   included among the unemployed. (People on temporary layoff are included even if
   they do not actively seek work.) There is no requirement or question relating to
   unemployment insurance benefits in the monthly survey.

7. Does the official unemployment rate exclude people who want a job but are not currently
   looking for work?

   Yes; however, there are separate estimates of persons outside the labor force who
   want a job, including those who are not currently looking because they believe no
   jobs are available (discouraged workers). In addition, alternative measures of labor
   underutilization (some of which include discouraged workers and other groups not
   officially counted as unemployed) are published each month in table A-15 of The
   Employment Situation news release. For more information about these alternative
   measures, please visit https://www.bls.gov/cps/lfcharacteristics.htm#altmeasures.

8. How can unusually severe weather affect employment and hours estimates?

   In the establishment survey, the reference period is the pay period that includes
   the 12th of the month. Unusually severe weather is more likely to have an impact on
   average weekly hours than on employment. Average weekly hours are estimated for paid
   time during the pay period, including pay for holidays, sick leave, or other time off.
   The impact of severe weather on hours estimates typically, but not always, results in
   a reduction in average weekly hours. For example, some employees may be off work for
   part of the pay period and not receive pay for the time missed, while some workers,
   such as those dealing with cleanup or repair, may work extra hours.
   
   Typically, it is not possible to precisely quantify the effect of extreme weather on 
   payroll employment estimates. In order for severe weather conditions to reduce
   employment estimates, employees have to be off work without pay for the entire pay
   period. Employees who receive pay for any part of the pay period, even 1 hour, are
   counted in the payroll employment figures. For more information on how often employees
   are paid, please visit https://www.bls.gov/opub/btn/volume-3/how-frequently-do-private-
   businesses-pay-workers.htm.

   In the household survey, the reference period is generally the calendar week that
   includes the 12th of the month. Persons who miss the entire week's work for weather-
   related events are counted as employed whether or not they are paid for the time
   off. The household survey collects data on the number of persons who had a job but
   were not at work due to bad weather. It also provides a measure of the number of
   persons who usually work full time but had reduced hours due to bad weather. 
   Current and historical data are available on the household survey's most requested
   statistics page, please visit https://data.bls.gov/cgi-bin/surveymost?ln.




Technical Note


   This news release presents statistics from two major surveys, the Current
Population Survey (CPS; household survey) and the Current Employment Statistics
survey (CES; establishment survey). The household survey provides information
on the labor force, employment, and unemployment that appears in the "A" tables,
marked HOUSEHOLD DATA. It is a sample survey of about 60,000 eligible households
conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau for the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS).

   The establishment survey provides information on employment, hours, and
earnings of employees on nonfarm payrolls; the data appear in the "B" tables,
marked ESTABLISHMENT DATA. BLS collects these data each month from the payroll
records of a sample of nonagricultural business establishments. Each month
the CES program surveys about 144,000 businesses and government agencies,
representing approximately 697,000 individual worksites, in order to provide
detailed industry data on employment, hours, and earnings of workers on nonfarm
payrolls. The active sample includes approximately one-third of all nonfarm
payroll jobs.

   For both surveys, the data for a given month relate to a particular week or
pay period. In the household survey, the reference period is generally the
calendar week that contains the 12th day of the month. In the establishment
survey, the reference period is the pay period including the 12th, which may or
may not correspond directly to the calendar week.

Coverage, definitions, and differences between surveys

   Household survey. The sample is selected to reflect the entire civilian 
noninstitutional population. Based on responses to a series of questions on 
work and job search activities, each person 16 years and over in a sample
household is classified as employed, unemployed, or not in the labor force.

   People are classified as employed if they did any work at all as paid employees
during the reference week; worked in their own business, profession, or on their
own farm; or worked without pay at least 15 hours in a family business or farm.
People are also counted as employed if they were temporarily absent from their jobs
because of illness, bad weather, vacation, labor-management disputes, or personal
reasons.

   People are classified as unemployed if they meet all of the following criteria:
they had no employment during the reference week; they were available for work at
that time; and they made specific active efforts to find employment sometime during
the 4-week period ending with the reference week. Persons laid off from a job and
expecting recall need not be looking for work to be counted as unemployed. The
unemployment data derived from the household survey in no way depend upon the
eligibility for or receipt of unemployment insurance benefits.

   The civilian labor force is the sum of employed and unemployed persons.
Those persons not classified as employed or unemployed are not in the labor 
force. The unemployment rate is the number unemployed as a percent of the 
labor force. The labor force participation rate is the labor force as a 
percent of the population, and the employment-population ratio is the 
employed as a percent of the population. Additional information about the 
household survey can be found at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm.

   Establishment survey. The sample establishments are drawn from private
nonfarm businesses such as factories, offices, and stores, as well as
from federal, state, and local government entities. Employees on nonfarm
payrolls are those who worked or received pay for any part of the reference pay
period, including persons on paid leave. Persons are counted in each job
they hold. Hours and earnings data are produced for the private sector for
all employees and for production and nonsupervisory employees. Production
and nonsupervisory employees are defined as production and related employees
in manufacturing and mining and logging, construction workers in construction,
and nonsupervisory employees in private service-providing industries.

   Industries are classified on the basis of an establishment's principal
activity in accordance with the 2017 version of the North American Industry
Classification System. Additional information about the establishment survey
can be found at www.bls.gov/ces/.

   Differences in employment estimates. The numerous conceptual and methodological
differences between the household and establishment surveys result in important
distinctions in the employment estimates derived from the surveys. Among these are:

   --The household survey includes agricultural workers, self-employed workers
     whose businesses are unincorporated, unpaid family workers, and private
     household workers among the employed. These groups are excluded from the
     establishment survey.

   --The household survey includes people on unpaid leave among the employed.
     The establishment survey does not.

   --The household survey is limited to workers 16 years of age and older.
     The establishment survey is not limited by age.

   --The household survey has no duplication of individuals, because
     individuals are counted only once, even if they hold more than one
     job. In the establishment survey, employees working at more than one
     job and thus appearing on more than one payroll are counted separately
     for each appearance.

Seasonal adjustment

   Over the course of a year, the size of the nation's labor force and the levels
of employment and unemployment undergo regularly occurring fluctuations. These 
events may result from seasonal changes in weather, major holidays, and the opening
and closing of schools. The effect of such seasonal variation can be very large.

   Because these seasonal events follow a more or less regular pattern each year,
their influence on the level of a series can be tempered by adjusting for regular
seasonal variation. These adjustments make nonseasonal developments, such as
declines in employment or increases in the participation of women in the labor
force, easier to spot. For example, in the household survey, the large number of
youth entering the labor force each June is likely to obscure any other changes
that have taken place relative to May, making it difficult to determine if the 
level of economic activity has risen or declined. Similarly, in the establishment
survey, payroll employment in education declines by about 20 percent at the end
of the spring term and later rises with the start of the fall term, obscuring the
underlying employment trends in the industry. Because seasonal employment changes
at the end and beginning of the school year can be estimated, the statistics can be
adjusted to make underlying employment patterns more discernable.  The seasonally
adjusted figures provide a more useful tool with which to analyze changes in
month-to-month economic activity.

   Many seasonally adjusted series are independently adjusted in both the household
and establishment surveys. However, the adjusted series for many major estimates,
such as total payroll employment, employment in most major sectors, total employment,
and unemployment are computed by aggregating independently adjusted component series.
For example, total unemployment is derived by summing the adjusted series for four
major age-sex components; this differs from the unemployment estimate that would be
obtained by directly adjusting the total or by combining the duration, reasons, or 
more detailed age categories. Percentage distributions of unemployment by reason and
duration are derived from the sum of the independently seasonally adjusted component
series, and will not necessarily match calculations made using the seasonally adjusted
total unemployment level. Additional information about seasonal adjustment in the 
household survey can be found at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#sa.

   For both the household and establishment surveys, a concurrent seasonal adjustment
methodology is used in which new seasonal factors are calculated each month using all
relevant data, up to and including the data for the current month. In the household
survey, new seasonal factors are used to adjust only the current month's data. In the
establishment survey, however, new seasonal factors are used each month to adjust the
three most recent monthly estimates. The prior 2 months are routinely revised to
incorporate additional sample reports and recalculated seasonal adjustment factors.
In both surveys, 5-year revisions to historical data are made once a year.

Reliability of the estimates

   Statistics based on the household and establishment surveys are subject to both
sampling and nonsampling error. When a sample, rather than the entire population,
is surveyed, there is a chance that the sample estimates may differ from the true
population values they represent. The component of this difference that occurs
because samples differ by chance is known as sampling error, and its variability
is measured by the standard error of the estimate. There is about a 90-percent
chance, or level of confidence, that an estimate based on a sample will differ by
no more than 1.6 standard errors from the true population value because of sampling
error. BLS analyses are generally conducted at the 90-percent level of confidence.

   For example, the confidence interval for the monthly change in total nonfarm
employment from the establishment survey is on the order of plus or minus 110,000.
Suppose the estimate of nonfarm employment increases by 50,000 from one month to
the next. The 90-percent confidence interval on the monthly change would range from
-60,000 to +160,000 (50,000 +/- 110,000). These figures do not mean that the sample
results are off by these magnitudes, but rather that there is about a 90-percent
chance that the true over-the-month change lies within this interval. Since this
range includes values of less than zero, we could not say with confidence that
nonfarm employment had, in fact, increased that month. If, however, the reported
nonfarm employment rise was 250,000, then all of the values within the 90-percent
confidence interval would be greater than zero. In this case, it is likely (at
least a 90-percent chance) that nonfarm employment had, in fact, risen that month.
At an unemployment rate of around 6.0 percent, the 90-percent confidence interval
for the monthly change in unemployment as measured by the household survey is
about +/- 300,000, and for the monthly change in the unemployment rate it is about
+/- 0.2 percentage point.

   In general, estimates involving many individuals or establishments have lower
standard errors (relative to the size of the estimate) than estimates which are based
on a small number of observations. The precision of estimates also is improved when
the data are cumulated over time, such as for quarterly and annual averages.

   The household and establishment surveys are also affected by nonsampling error,
which can occur for many reasons, including the failure to sample a segment of the
population, inability to obtain information for all respondents in the sample,
inability or unwillingness of respondents to provide correct information on a
timely basis, mistakes made by respondents, and errors made in the collection or
processing of the data.

   For example, in the establishment survey, estimates for the most recent 2 months
are based on incomplete returns; for this reason, these estimates are labeled
preliminary in the tables. It is only after two successive revisions to a monthly
estimate, when nearly all sample reports have been received, that the estimate is
considered final.

   Another major source of nonsampling error in the establishment survey is the
inability to capture, on a timely basis, employment generated by new firms. To
correct for this systematic underestimation of employment growth, an estimation
procedure with two components is used to account for business births. The first
component excludes employment losses from business deaths from sample-based
estimation in order to offset the missing employment gains from business births.
This is incorporated into the sample-based estimation procedure by simply not
reflecting sample units going out of business, but imputing to them the same
employment trend as the other firms in the sample. This procedure accounts for
most of the net birth/death employment.

   The second component is an ARIMA time series model designed to estimate the
residual net birth/death employment not accounted for by the imputation. The
historical time series used to create and test the ARIMA model was derived from
the unemployment insurance universe micro-level database, and reflects the actual
residual net of births and deaths over the past 5 years.

   The sample-based estimates from the establishment survey are adjusted once a
year (on a lagged basis) to universe counts of payroll employment obtained from
administrative records of the unemployment insurance program. The difference 
between the March sample-based employment estimates and the March universe counts
is known as a benchmark revision, and serves as a rough proxy for total survey
error. The new benchmarks also incorporate changes in the classification of
industries. Over the past decade, absolute benchmark revisions for total nonfarm
employment have averaged 0.2 percent, with a range from -0.7 percent to 0.3 percent.

Other information

   Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired
individuals upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay
Service: (800) 877-8339.




HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-1. Employment status of the civilian population by sex and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
May
2020
Apr.
2021
May
2021
May
2020
Jan.
2021
Feb.
2021
Mar.
2021
Apr.
2021
May
2021

TOTAL

Civilian noninstitutional population

260,047 261,103 261,210 260,047 260,851 260,918 261,003 261,103 261,210

Civilian labor force

157,975 160,379 160,607 158,200 160,161 160,211 160,558 160,988 160,935

Participation rate

60.7 61.4 61.5 60.8 61.4 61.4 61.5 61.7 61.6

Employed

137,461 151,160 151,778 137,224 150,031 150,239 150,848 151,176 151,620

Employment-population ratio

52.9 57.9 58.1 52.8 57.5 57.6 57.8 57.9 58.0

Unemployed

20,514 9,220 8,829 20,975 10,130 9,972 9,710 9,812 9,316

Unemployment rate

13.0 5.7 5.5 13.3 6.3 6.2 6.0 6.1 5.8

Not in labor force

102,072 100,723 100,603 101,847 100,690 100,708 100,445 100,115 100,275

Persons who currently want a job

9,422 6,466 7,087 8,917 6,957 6,933 6,850 6,647 6,600

Men, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

125,782 126,316 126,369 125,782 126,192 126,224 126,266 126,316 126,369

Civilian labor force

83,963 85,112 85,329 83,895 85,149 85,061 84,917 85,410 85,210

Participation rate

66.8 67.4 67.5 66.7 67.5 67.4 67.3 67.6 67.4

Employed

74,004 79,965 80,430 73,694 79,714 79,666 79,681 80,017 80,062

Employment-population ratio

58.8 63.3 63.6 58.6 63.2 63.1 63.1 63.3 63.4

Unemployed

9,959 5,146 4,899 10,200 5,434 5,395 5,236 5,394 5,148

Unemployment rate

11.9 6.0 5.7 12.2 6.4 6.3 6.2 6.3 6.0

Not in labor force

41,818 41,204 41,040 41,887 41,043 41,163 41,349 40,905 41,159

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

117,410 118,003 118,059 117,410 117,864 117,902 117,949 118,003 118,059

Civilian labor force

81,240 82,275 82,394 81,073 82,173 82,095 81,978 82,333 82,182

Participation rate

69.2 69.7 69.8 69.1 69.7 69.6 69.5 69.8 69.6

Employed

72,076 77,447 77,786 71,668 77,204 77,193 77,194 77,348 77,340

Employment-population ratio

61.4 65.6 65.9 61.0 65.5 65.5 65.4 65.5 65.5

Unemployed

9,164 4,828 4,608 9,405 4,969 4,902 4,784 4,985 4,842

Unemployment rate

11.3 5.9 5.6 11.6 6.0 6.0 5.8 6.1 5.9

Not in labor force

36,170 35,728 35,665 36,337 35,691 35,807 35,972 35,670 35,877

Women, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

134,265 134,787 134,841 134,265 134,660 134,694 134,737 134,787 134,841

Civilian labor force

74,011 75,268 75,277 74,305 75,012 75,149 75,641 75,577 75,725

Participation rate

55.1 55.8 55.8 55.3 55.7 55.8 56.1 56.1 56.2

Employed

63,457 71,195 71,348 63,530 70,316 70,572 71,167 71,159 71,557

Employment-population ratio

47.3 52.8 52.9 47.3 52.2 52.4 52.8 52.8 53.1

Unemployed

10,554 4,073 3,929 10,775 4,696 4,577 4,474 4,418 4,168

Unemployment rate

14.3 5.4 5.2 14.5 6.3 6.1 5.9 5.8 5.5

Not in labor force

60,254 59,519 59,563 59,960 59,648 59,545 59,096 59,210 59,116

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

126,072 126,648 126,704 126,072 126,507 126,546 126,594 126,648 126,704

Civilian labor force

71,316 72,378 72,323 71,548 72,147 72,173 72,668 72,503 72,707

Participation rate

56.6 57.1 57.1 56.8 57.0 57.0 57.4 57.2 57.4

Employed

61,630 68,605 68,664 61,630 67,851 67,928 68,513 68,430 68,811

Employment-population ratio

48.9 54.2 54.2 48.9 53.6 53.7 54.1 54.0 54.3

Unemployed

9,686 3,773 3,659 9,918 4,296 4,245 4,155 4,073 3,895

Unemployment rate

13.6 5.2 5.1 13.9 6.0 5.9 5.7 5.6 5.4

Not in labor force

54,755 54,271 54,381 54,524 54,360 54,373 53,926 54,145 53,998

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian noninstitutional population

16,566 16,451 16,446 16,566 16,481 16,470 16,460 16,451 16,446

Civilian labor force

5,419 5,727 5,889 5,579 5,841 5,942 5,913 6,152 6,046

Participation rate

32.7 34.8 35.8 33.7 35.4 36.1 35.9 37.4 36.8

Employed

3,755 5,108 5,327 3,926 4,975 5,118 5,142 5,398 5,468

Employment-population ratio

22.7 31.1 32.4 23.7 30.2 31.1 31.2 32.8 33.2

Unemployed

1,663 618 562 1,653 865 825 771 754 578

Unemployment rate

30.7 10.8 9.5 29.6 14.8 13.9 13.0 12.3 9.6

Not in labor force

11,147 10,725 10,558 10,987 10,640 10,528 10,547 10,300 10,400

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-2. Employment status of the civilian population by race, sex, and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, race, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
May
2020
Apr.
2021
May
2021
May
2020
Jan.
2021
Feb.
2021
Mar.
2021
Apr.
2021
May
2021

WHITE

Civilian noninstitutional population

201,154 201,687 201,743 201,154 201,588 201,606 201,642 201,687 201,743

Civilian labor force

122,552 123,638 123,766 122,702 123,727 123,737 123,819 123,964 123,897

Participation rate

60.9 61.3 61.3 61.0 61.4 61.4 61.4 61.5 61.4

Employed

107,761 117,458 117,808 107,550 116,699 116,859 117,166 117,358 117,553

Employment-population ratio

53.6 58.2 58.4 53.5 57.9 58.0 58.1 58.2 58.3

Unemployed

14,792 6,180 5,958 15,152 7,027 6,878 6,653 6,606 6,344

Unemployment rate

12.1 5.0 4.8 12.3 5.7 5.6 5.4 5.3 5.1

Not in labor force

78,602 78,049 77,976 78,453 77,862 77,869 77,823 77,723 77,845

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

64,294 64,600 64,589 64,221 64,550 64,434 64,289 64,593 64,492

Participation rate

69.7 69.8 69.8 69.7 69.8 69.7 69.5 69.8 69.7

Employed

57,633 61,269 61,508 57,340 60,988 60,989 60,935 61,155 61,182

Employment-population ratio

62.5 66.2 66.5 62.2 66.0 66.0 65.9 66.1 66.1

Unemployed

6,661 3,331 3,082 6,881 3,561 3,446 3,353 3,439 3,311

Unemployment rate

10.4 5.2 4.8 10.7 5.5 5.3 5.2 5.3 5.1

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

54,129 54,576 54,564 54,250 54,529 54,599 54,911 54,603 54,698

Participation rate

55.9 56.2 56.2 56.0 56.2 56.3 56.6 56.2 56.3

Employed

47,194 52,147 52,105 47,155 51,739 51,782 52,155 51,965 52,079

Employment-population ratio

48.8 53.7 53.6 48.7 53.3 53.4 53.7 53.5 53.6

Unemployed

6,935 2,429 2,459 7,094 2,790 2,817 2,756 2,638 2,618

Unemployment rate

12.8 4.5 4.5 13.1 5.1 5.2 5.0 4.8 4.8

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

4,129 4,462 4,613 4,231 4,648 4,704 4,619 4,768 4,707

Participation rate

34.0 37.0 38.2 34.8 38.4 38.9 38.2 39.5 39.0

Employed

2,934 4,043 4,196 3,054 3,972 4,088 4,076 4,238 4,292

Employment-population ratio

24.1 33.5 34.8 25.1 32.8 33.8 33.7 35.1 35.6

Unemployed

1,196 420 417 1,176 676 616 543 530 415

Unemployment rate

29.0 9.4 9.0 27.8 14.5 13.1 11.8 11.1 8.8

BLACK OR AFRICAN AMERICAN

Civilian noninstitutional population

33,294 33,551 33,572 33,294 33,493 33,511 33,530 33,551 33,572

Civilian labor force

19,815 20,488 20,409 19,848 20,189 20,154 20,362 20,544 20,439

Participation rate

59.5 61.1 60.8 59.6 60.3 60.1 60.7 61.2 60.9

Employed

16,530 18,555 18,603 16,525 18,323 18,159 18,412 18,546 18,584

Employment-population ratio

49.6 55.3 55.4 49.6 54.7 54.2 54.9 55.3 55.4

Unemployed

3,285 1,932 1,806 3,323 1,866 1,995 1,951 1,998 1,854

Unemployment rate

16.6 9.4 8.8 16.7 9.2 9.9 9.6 9.7 9.1

Not in labor force

13,479 13,064 13,163 13,446 13,305 13,357 13,168 13,007 13,133

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

8,979 9,450 9,469 8,973 9,348 9,340 9,430 9,465 9,460

Participation rate

64.0 66.7 66.8 64.0 66.1 66.0 66.6 66.8 66.7

Employed

7,606 8,478 8,550 7,593 8,468 8,383 8,501 8,498 8,533

Employment-population ratio

54.2 59.8 60.3 54.1 59.9 59.2 60.0 59.9 60.1

Unemployed

1,373 973 920 1,380 880 957 928 967 927

Unemployment rate

15.3 10.3 9.7 15.4 9.4 10.2 9.8 10.2 9.8

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

10,065 10,315 10,260 10,106 10,138 10,127 10,181 10,315 10,293

Participation rate

59.7 60.7 60.4 60.0 59.8 59.7 60.0 60.7 60.6

Employed

8,439 9,487 9,467 8,433 9,274 9,225 9,294 9,429 9,448

Employment-population ratio

50.1 55.9 55.7 50.1 54.7 54.4 54.8 55.5 55.6

Unemployed

1,627 828 793 1,674 864 902 887 887 844

Unemployment rate

16.2 8.0 7.7 16.6 8.5 8.9 8.7 8.6 8.2

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

771 723 679 768 703 687 752 764 686

Participation rate

31.8 30.2 28.4 31.7 29.3 28.7 31.4 32.0 28.7

Employed

485 591 587 500 581 551 616 620 603

Employment-population ratio

20.0 24.7 24.6 20.6 24.2 23.0 25.7 25.9 25.2

Unemployed

285 132 92 268 122 136 136 144 83

Unemployment rate

37.0 18.2 13.6 35.0 17.3 19.8 18.1 18.9 12.1

ASIAN

Civilian noninstitutional population

16,385 16,532 16,529 16,385 16,423 16,588 16,532 16,532 16,529

Civilian labor force

9,932 10,294 10,401 10,007 10,317 10,315 10,422 10,375 10,471

Participation rate

60.6 62.3 62.9 61.1 62.8 62.2 63.0 62.8 63.4

Employed

8,462 9,722 9,834 8,519 9,631 9,792 9,799 9,786 9,890

Employment-population ratio

51.6 58.8 59.5 52.0 58.6 59.0 59.3 59.2 59.8

Unemployed

1,470 571 567 1,488 686 523 623 589 581

Unemployment rate

14.8 5.6 5.5 14.9 6.6 5.1 6.0 5.7 5.5

Not in labor force

6,453 6,238 6,128 6,378 6,106 6,273 6,110 6,157 6,057

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Estimates for the above race groups will not sum to totals shown in table A-1 because data are not presented for all races. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-3. Employment status of the Hispanic or Latino population by sex and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
May
2020
Apr.
2021
May
2021
May
2020
Jan.
2021
Feb.
2021
Mar.
2021
Apr.
2021
May
2021

HISPANIC OR LATINO ETHNICITY

Civilian noninstitutional population

44,053 44,719 44,786 44,053 44,521 44,587 44,651 44,719 44,786

Civilian labor force

28,173 29,110 29,076 28,252 28,920 29,174 29,273 29,199 29,243

Participation rate

64.0 65.1 64.9 64.1 65.0 65.4 65.6 65.3 65.3

Employed

23,321 26,922 27,105 23,283 26,437 26,701 26,975 26,889 27,110

Employment-population ratio

52.9 60.2 60.5 52.9 59.4 59.9 60.4 60.1 60.5

Unemployed

4,852 2,189 1,971 4,969 2,482 2,473 2,298 2,310 2,133

Unemployment rate

17.2 7.5 6.8 17.6 8.6 8.5 7.9 7.9 7.3

Not in labor force

15,880 15,609 15,709 15,801 15,601 15,413 15,378 15,520 15,543

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

15,496 16,094 16,035 15,507 15,789 15,952 16,007 16,086 16,079

Participation rate

77.9 79.6 79.2 78.0 78.5 79.2 79.3 79.6 79.5

Employed

13,217 14,928 15,063 13,167 14,578 14,727 14,804 14,882 15,006

Employment-population ratio

66.5 73.9 74.4 66.2 72.5 73.1 73.4 73.6 74.1

Unemployed

2,279 1,166 972 2,340 1,211 1,224 1,203 1,204 1,073

Unemployment rate

14.7 7.2 6.1 15.1 7.7 7.7 7.5 7.5 6.7

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

11,490 11,768 11,848 11,531 11,779 11,794 11,909 11,790 11,928

Participation rate

57.0 57.5 57.8 57.2 57.8 57.8 58.3 57.6 58.2

Employed

9,350 10,923 11,006 9,350 10,743 10,792 11,035 10,909 11,043

Employment-population ratio

46.4 53.3 53.7 46.4 52.7 52.9 54.0 53.3 53.8

Unemployed

2,140 845 842 2,181 1,036 1,002 874 881 884

Unemployment rate

18.6 7.2 7.1 18.9 8.8 8.5 7.3 7.5 7.4

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

1,187 1,249 1,194 1,214 1,352 1,428 1,356 1,323 1,236

Participation rate

29.6 31.0 29.6 30.3 33.6 35.4 33.6 32.8 30.6

Employed

754 1,071 1,037 766 1,116 1,182 1,135 1,098 1,061

Employment-population ratio

18.8 26.5 25.7 19.1 27.7 29.3 28.2 27.2 26.3

Unemployed

433 178 157 447 236 247 221 225 175

Unemployment rate

36.5 14.3 13.1 36.8 17.4 17.3 16.3 17.0 14.2

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-4. Employment status of the civilian population 25 years and over by educational attainment
[Numbers in thousands]
Educational attainment Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
May
2020
Apr.
2021
May
2021
May
2020
Jan.
2021
Feb.
2021
Mar.
2021
Apr.
2021
May
2021

Less than a high school diploma

Civilian labor force

8,450 9,039 8,911 8,297 9,169 8,942 8,936 9,020 8,790

Participation rate

43.1 44.3 43.4 42.3 44.9 45.9 44.4 44.2 42.8

Employed

6,887 8,205 8,181 6,668 8,337 8,035 8,204 8,185 7,993

Employment-population ratio

35.1 40.2 39.8 34.0 40.8 41.2 40.8 40.1 38.9

Unemployed

1,563 835 730 1,629 832 907 731 835 797

Unemployment rate

18.5 9.2 8.2 19.6 9.1 10.1 8.2 9.3 9.1

High school graduates, no college(1)

Civilian labor force

33,756 34,768 34,921 33,766 34,506 34,462 34,278 34,704 34,930

Participation rate

55.0 55.4 55.5 55.0 55.2 54.7 54.8 55.3 55.5

Employed

28,708 32,451 32,661 28,589 32,051 31,977 31,984 32,307 32,543

Employment-population ratio

46.8 51.7 51.9 46.6 51.3 50.8 51.1 51.5 51.7

Unemployed

5,048 2,317 2,260 5,177 2,455 2,485 2,295 2,397 2,388

Unemployment rate

15.0 6.7 6.5 15.3 7.1 7.2 6.7 6.9 6.8

Some college or associate degree

Civilian labor force

36,278 35,627 35,811 36,452 35,440 35,450 35,771 35,485 35,917

Participation rate

63.1 63.2 63.2 63.4 62.3 62.7 63.3 63.0 63.4

Employed

31,581 33,622 33,812 31,637 33,257 33,360 33,677 33,422 33,808

Employment-population ratio

54.9 59.7 59.7 55.0 58.4 59.0 59.6 59.3 59.7

Unemployed

4,697 2,005 1,999 4,815 2,183 2,089 2,094 2,063 2,108

Unemployment rate

12.9 5.6 5.6 13.2 6.2 5.9 5.9 5.8 5.9

Bachelor's degree and higher(2)

Civilian labor force

60,269 60,786 60,493 60,478 60,391 60,744 60,835 60,804 60,727

Participation rate

71.7 72.1 72.2 72.0 72.2 71.8 72.0 72.2 72.5

Employed

55,933 58,757 58,715 56,014 57,969 58,417 58,612 58,662 58,802

Employment-population ratio

66.6 69.7 70.1 66.7 69.3 69.1 69.4 69.6 70.2

Unemployed

4,336 2,030 1,779 4,464 2,422 2,327 2,224 2,142 1,925

Unemployment rate

7.2 3.3 2.9 7.4 4.0 3.8 3.7 3.5 3.2

Footnotes
(1) Includes persons with a high school diploma or equivalent.
(2) Includes persons with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees.

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals for those 25 years and over because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-5. Employment status of the civilian population 18 years and over by veteran status, period of service, and sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, veteran status, and period of service Total Men Women
May
2020
May
2021
May
2020
May
2021
May
2020
May
2021

VETERANS, 18 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

18,516 18,850 16,615 16,839 1,901 2,011

Civilian labor force

8,934 9,146 7,861 7,958 1,073 1,188

Participation rate

48.2 48.5 47.3 47.3 56.4 59.1

Employed

8,134 8,767 7,145 7,644 989 1,123

Employment-population ratio

43.9 46.5 43.0 45.4 52.0 55.8

Unemployed

800 379 716 314 84 65

Unemployment rate

9.0 4.1 9.1 3.9 7.8 5.5

Not in labor force

9,582 9,704 8,754 8,881 828 823

Gulf War-era II veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

4,511 4,833 3,755 3,985 756 848

Civilian labor force

3,570 3,836 3,088 3,273 482 563

Participation rate

79.1 79.4 82.2 82.1 63.8 66.3

Employed

3,202 3,683 2,768 3,159 434 524

Employment-population ratio

71.0 76.2 73.7 79.3 57.4 61.8

Unemployed

369 153 320 114 49 39

Unemployment rate

10.3 4.0 10.4 3.5 10.1 6.9

Not in labor force

941 998 667 712 274 286

Gulf War-era I veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

3,031 3,128 2,529 2,643 502 485

Civilian labor force

2,252 2,304 1,903 1,941 349 364

Participation rate

74.3 73.7 75.2 73.4 69.6 75.0

Employed

2,144 2,215 1,813 1,865 331 350

Employment-population ratio

70.7 70.8 71.7 70.6 66.0 72.2

Unemployed

108 89 90 76 18 14

Unemployment rate

4.8 3.9 4.7 3.9 5.2 3.8

Not in labor force

779 823 626 702 153 121

World War II, Korean War, and Vietnam-era veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

6,875 6,739 6,635 6,478 240 261

Civilian labor force

1,224 1,126 1,194 1,080 31 45

Participation rate

17.8 16.7 18.0 16.7 12.7 17.4

Employed

1,079 1,089 1,056 1,048 22 42

Employment-population ratio

15.7 16.2 15.9 16.2 9.4 16.0

Unemployed

145 36 137 33 8 4

Unemployment rate

11.9 3.2 11.5 3.0 - -

Not in labor force

5,651 5,613 5,441 5,398 209 216

Veterans of other service periods

Civilian noninstitutional population

4,099 4,150 3,696 3,733 403 417

Civilian labor force

1,887 1,881 1,677 1,664 210 216

Participation rate

46.0 45.3 45.4 44.6 52.2 51.9

Employed

1,710 1,780 1,508 1,572 201 208

Employment-population ratio

41.7 42.9 40.8 42.1 50.0 49.8

Unemployed

178 101 169 92 9 9

Unemployment rate

9.4 5.4 10.1 5.5 4.3 4.1

Not in labor force

2,212 2,269 2,019 2,069 193 201

NONVETERANS, 18 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

232,888 233,681 104,870 105,100 128,018 128,581

Civilian labor force

147,156 149,294 75,234 76,311 71,923 72,983

Participation rate

63.2 63.9 71.7 72.6 56.2 56.8

Employed

128,043 141,045 66,250 71,819 61,793 69,225

Employment-population ratio

55.0 60.4 63.2 68.3 48.3 53.8

Unemployed

19,113 8,249 8,984 4,492 10,129 3,758

Unemployment rate

13.0 5.5 11.9 5.9 14.1 5.1

Not in labor force

85,732 84,387 29,637 28,789 56,095 55,598

NOTE: Veterans served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces and were not on active duty at the time of the survey. Nonveterans never served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces. Veterans could have served anywhere in the world during these periods of service: Gulf War era II (September 2001-present), Gulf War era I (August 1990-August 2001), Vietnam era (August 1964-April 1975), Korean War (July 1950-January 1955), World War II (December 1941-December 1946), and other service periods (all other time periods). Veterans who served in more than one wartime period are classified only in the most recent one. Veterans who served during one of the selected wartime periods and another period are classified only in the wartime period. Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria (values not shown where base is less than 75,000). Updated population controls introduced with the release of January 2021 data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-6. Employment status of the civilian population by sex, age, and disability status, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Persons with a disability Persons with no disability
May
2020
May
2021
May
2020
May
2021

TOTAL, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

29,761 30,888 230,286 230,322

Civilian labor force

6,064 6,375 151,910 154,232

Participation rate

20.4 20.6 66.0 67.0

Employed

4,976 5,723 132,485 146,056

Employment-population ratio

16.7 18.5 57.5 63.4

Unemployed

1,088 653 19,426 8,176

Unemployment rate

17.9 10.2 12.8 5.3

Not in labor force

23,696 24,513 78,376 76,091

Men, 16 to 64 years

Civilian labor force

2,738 2,625 75,633 76,833

Participation rate

36.8 35.2 80.5 82.0

Employed

2,249 2,304 66,766 72,535

Employment-population ratio

30.2 30.8 71.1 77.4

Unemployed

489 321 8,866 4,297

Unemployment rate

17.8 12.2 11.7 5.6

Not in labor force

4,709 4,843 18,313 16,895

Women, 16 to 64 years

Civilian labor force

2,245 2,640 67,264 68,042

Participation rate

31.5 33.3 69.2 70.8

Employed

1,790 2,373 57,888 64,636

Employment-population ratio

25.1 29.9 59.6 67.2

Unemployed

455 267 9,375 3,406

Unemployment rate

20.3 10.1 13.9 5.0

Not in labor force

4,891 5,286 29,943 28,128

Both sexes, 65 years and over

Civilian labor force

1,081 1,110 9,014 9,357

Participation rate

7.1 7.2 23.0 23.1

Employed

937 1,045 7,830 8,885

Employment-population ratio

6.2 6.7 20.0 22.0

Unemployed

145 65 1,184 473

Unemployment rate

13.4 5.8 13.1 5.1

Not in labor force

14,096 14,384 30,120 31,067

NOTE: A person with a disability has at least one of the following conditions: is deaf or has serious difficulty hearing; is blind or has serious difficulty seeing even when wearing glasses; has serious difficulty concentrating, remembering, or making decisions because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition; has serious difficulty walking or climbing stairs; has difficulty dressing or bathing; or has difficulty doing errands alone such as visiting a doctor's office or shopping because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-7. Employment status of the civilian population by nativity and sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status and nativity Total Men Women
May
2020
May
2021
May
2020
May
2021
May
2020
May
2021

Foreign born, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

42,496 42,869 20,354 20,609 22,142 22,259

Civilian labor force

26,622 27,327 15,276 15,578 11,346 11,749

Participation rate

62.6 63.7 75.1 75.6 51.2 52.8

Employed

22,434 25,789 13,178 14,745 9,256 11,045

Employment-population ratio

52.8 60.2 64.7 71.5 41.8 49.6

Unemployed

4,188 1,537 2,098 834 2,090 704

Unemployment rate

15.7 5.6 13.7 5.4 18.4 6.0

Not in labor force

15,874 15,542 5,078 5,031 10,796 10,511

Native born, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

217,551 218,341 105,428 105,760 112,123 112,581

Civilian labor force

131,353 133,280 68,688 69,751 62,665 63,529

Participation rate

60.4 61.0 65.2 66.0 55.9 56.4

Employed

115,027 125,989 60,826 65,685 54,201 60,303

Employment-population ratio

52.9 57.7 57.7 62.1 48.3 53.6

Unemployed

16,326 7,291 7,861 4,066 8,465 3,226

Unemployment rate

12.4 5.5 11.4 5.8 13.5 5.1

Not in labor force

86,198 85,061 36,740 36,009 49,458 49,052

NOTE: The foreign born are those residing in the United States who were not U.S. citizens at birth. That is, they were born outside the United States or one of its outlying areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam, to parents neither of whom was a U.S. citizen. The native born are persons who were born in the United States or one of its outlying areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam or who were born abroad of at least one parent who was a U.S. citizen. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-8. Employed persons by class of worker and part-time status
[In thousands]
Category Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
May
2020
Apr.
2021
May
2021
May
2020
Jan.
2021
Feb.
2021
Mar.
2021
Apr.
2021
May
2021

CLASS OF WORKER

Agriculture and related industries

2,365 2,196 2,337 2,303 2,466 2,308 2,228 2,292 2,293

Wage and salary workers(1)

1,568 1,466 1,543 1,551 1,552 1,519 1,518 1,527 1,534

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

764 674 756 745 827 712 635 688 737

Unpaid family workers

33 56 37 - - - - - -

Nonagricultural industries

135,096 148,964 149,442 134,904 147,535 147,895 148,598 148,942 149,397

Wage and salary workers(1)

127,046 139,929 139,977 126,840 138,941 139,243 139,382 139,825 139,799

Government

19,951 20,640 20,613 19,749 20,689 20,829 20,644 20,410 20,454

Private industries

107,095 119,289 119,364 107,048 118,102 118,151 118,616 119,548 119,449

Private households

498 602 586 - - - - - -

Other industries

106,597 118,686 118,778 106,551 117,532 117,451 117,896 118,995 118,901

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

8,008 8,960 9,370 7,928 8,721 8,787 9,241 8,962 9,265

Unpaid family workers

41 75 94 - - - - - -

PERSONS AT WORK PART TIME(2)

All industries

Part time for economic reasons(3)

10,429 5,031 5,046 10,633 5,954 6,088 5,826 5,243 5,271

Slack work or business conditions

9,369 3,866 3,843 9,570 4,756 4,723 4,629 3,997 4,069

Could only find part-time work

892 984 1,012 833 986 1,166 984 974 966

Part time for noneconomic reasons(4)

14,669 19,836 19,364 14,455 18,519 18,369 19,102 19,057 19,160

Nonagricultural industries

Part time for economic reasons(3)

10,286 4,968 5,016 10,486 5,824 5,986 5,804 5,178 5,231

Slack work or business conditions

9,237 3,812 3,819 9,433 4,691 4,661 4,592 3,949 4,039

Could only find part-time work

888 979 1,012 826 986 1,154 982 970 963

Part time for noneconomic reasons(4)

14,289 19,501 18,984 14,073 18,112 17,998 18,726 18,713 18,774

Footnotes
(1) Includes self-employed workers whose businesses are incorporated.
(2) Refers to those who worked 1 to 34 hours during the survey reference week and excludes employed persons who were absent from their jobs for the entire week.
(3) Refers to those who worked 1 to 34 hours during the reference week for an economic reason such as slack work or unfavorable business conditions, inability to find full-time work, or seasonal declines in demand.
(4) Refers to persons who usually work part time for noneconomic reasons such as childcare problems, family or personal obligations, school or training, retirement or Social Security limits on earnings, and other reasons. This excludes persons who usually work full time but worked only 1 to 34 hours during the reference week for reasons such as vacations, holidays, illness, and bad weather.

- Data not available.
NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-9. Selected employment indicators
[Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
May
2020
Apr.
2021
May
2021
May
2020
Jan.
2021
Feb.
2021
Mar.
2021
Apr.
2021
May
2021

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

137,461 151,160 151,778 137,224 150,031 150,239 150,848 151,176 151,620

16 to 19 years

3,755 5,108 5,327 3,926 4,975 5,118 5,142 5,398 5,468

16 to 17 years

1,284 1,879 1,967 1,425 1,784 1,868 1,923 2,057 2,080

18 to 19 years

2,471 3,229 3,361 2,501 3,222 3,245 3,256 3,337 3,380

20 years and over

133,706 146,051 146,451 133,298 145,055 145,121 145,706 145,778 146,151

20 to 24 years

10,596 13,018 13,082 10,651 13,216 13,216 13,150 13,118 13,157

25 years and over

123,109 133,034 133,369 122,631 131,689 131,789 132,492 132,540 132,898

25 to 54 years

90,147 97,234 97,419 89,925 96,307 96,461 96,856 96,952 97,172

25 to 34 years

31,356 34,377 34,470 31,307 33,884 33,988 34,099 34,319 34,406

35 to 44 years

30,163 32,491 32,567 30,099 32,162 32,146 32,406 32,407 32,491

45 to 54 years

28,628 30,366 30,383 28,520 30,261 30,327 30,351 30,226 30,275

55 years and over

32,963 35,800 35,949 32,706 35,382 35,328 35,636 35,588 35,726

Men, 16 years and over

74,004 79,965 80,430 73,694 79,714 79,666 79,681 80,017 80,062

16 to 19 years

1,928 2,518 2,643 2,026 2,510 2,474 2,488 2,669 2,722

16 to 17 years

609 919 967 670 892 938 879 970 1,013

18 to 19 years

1,319 1,599 1,677 1,355 1,634 1,550 1,632 1,680 1,707

20 years and over

72,076 77,447 77,786 71,668 77,204 77,193 77,194 77,348 77,340

20 to 24 years

5,475 6,712 6,709 5,474 6,810 6,763 6,711 6,770 6,719

25 years and over

66,601 70,735 71,077 66,296 70,317 70,329 70,499 70,562 70,798

25 to 54 years

48,647 51,680 51,835 48,482 51,368 51,436 51,542 51,616 51,664

25 to 34 years

16,869 18,328 18,382 16,842 18,133 18,145 18,229 18,339 18,352

35 to 44 years

16,408 17,532 17,590 16,349 17,358 17,390 17,468 17,477 17,525

45 to 54 years

15,370 15,820 15,863 15,292 15,876 15,901 15,845 15,801 15,787

55 years and over

17,954 19,055 19,242 17,813 18,950 18,892 18,957 18,946 19,134

Women, 16 years and over

63,457 71,195 71,348 63,530 70,316 70,572 71,167 71,159 71,557

16 to 19 years

1,827 2,590 2,684 1,900 2,465 2,644 2,654 2,729 2,746

16 to 17 years

675 960 1,000 755 892 930 1,044 1,087 1,067

18 to 19 years

1,152 1,630 1,684 1,147 1,588 1,695 1,624 1,656 1,673

20 years and over

61,630 68,605 68,664 61,630 67,851 67,928 68,513 68,430 68,811

20 to 24 years

5,122 6,305 6,373 5,177 6,406 6,453 6,440 6,348 6,438

25 years and over

56,508 62,299 62,291 56,335 61,371 61,460 61,993 61,978 62,100

25 to 54 years

41,499 45,554 45,584 41,443 44,939 45,024 45,314 45,336 45,508

25 to 34 years

14,487 16,049 16,087 14,465 15,751 15,843 15,870 15,980 16,054

35 to 44 years

13,755 14,959 14,976 13,750 14,804 14,756 14,938 14,930 14,966

45 to 54 years

13,257 14,546 14,520 13,228 14,384 14,426 14,506 14,425 14,488

55 years and over

15,009 16,745 16,707 14,892 16,432 16,436 16,679 16,642 16,592

MARITAL STATUS

Married men, spouse present(1)

43,039 43,977 43,849 42,823 43,819 44,033 43,695 43,805 43,647

Married women, spouse present(1)

33,079 35,192 34,986 33,019 34,668 34,803 34,910 35,013 34,950

Women who maintain families(2)

7,768 9,420 9,711 - - - - - -

FULL- OR PART-TIME STATUS

Full-time workers(3)

116,620 125,635 126,579 116,545 124,990 124,868 125,803 126,161 126,384

Part-time workers(4)

20,841 25,524 25,199 20,819 24,627 25,109 25,078 25,024 25,202

MULTIPLE JOBHOLDERS

Total multiple jobholders

5,509 6,883 7,249 5,564 6,623 6,678 6,817 6,916 7,269

Percent of total employed

4.0 4.6 4.8 4.1 4.4 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.8

SELF-EMPLOYMENT

Self-employed workers, incorporated

6,249 6,196 6,063 - - - - - -

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

8,772 9,634 10,126 8,673 9,548 9,498 9,876 9,651 10,002

Footnotes
(1) Beginning with data for January 2020, refers to persons in both opposite-sex and same-sex married couples. Prior to January 2020, referred to persons in opposite-sex married couples only.
(2) Beginning with data for January 2020, refers to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not a spouse of either sex. Prior to January 2020, referred to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not an opposite-sex spouse.
(3) Employed full-time workers are persons who usually work 35 hours or more per week.
(4) Employed part-time workers are persons who usually work less than 35 hours per week.

- Data not available.
NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-10. Selected unemployment indicators, seasonally adjusted
Characteristic Number of
unemployed persons
(in thousands)
Unemployment rates
May
2020
Apr.
2021
May
2021
May
2020
Jan.
2021
Feb.
2021
Mar.
2021
Apr.
2021
May
2021

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

20,975 9,812 9,316 13.3 6.3 6.2 6.0 6.1 5.8

16 to 19 years

1,653 754 578 29.6 14.8 13.9 13.0 12.3 9.6

16 to 17 years

582 261 203 29.0 15.9 14.8 12.6 11.3 8.9

18 to 19 years

1,047 497 355 29.5 14.2 13.7 13.3 13.0 9.5

20 years and over

19,323 9,058 8,738 12.7 6.0 5.9 5.8 5.8 5.6

20 to 24 years

3,192 1,535 1,477 23.1 9.7 9.6 10.3 10.5 10.1

25 years and over

16,029 7,477 7,169 11.6 5.7 5.6 5.3 5.3 5.1

25 to 54 years

11,653 5,600 5,354 11.5 5.8 5.7 5.5 5.5 5.2

25 to 34 years

4,839 2,365 2,127 13.4 6.8 6.4 6.7 6.4 5.8

35 to 44 years

3,385 1,673 1,707 10.1 5.7 5.7 5.1 4.9 5.0

45 to 54 years

3,429 1,561 1,520 10.7 4.9 4.9 4.5 4.9 4.8

55 years and over

4,395 1,878 1,834 11.8 5.3 5.3 4.5 5.0 4.9

Men, 16 years and over

10,200 5,394 5,148 12.2 6.4 6.3 6.2 6.3 6.0

16 to 19 years

796 409 306 28.2 15.7 16.6 15.4 13.3 10.1

16 to 17 years

244 126 88 26.7 15.0 15.7 14.0 11.5 8.0

18 to 19 years

549 275 215 28.8 16.0 17.6 16.1 14.1 11.2

20 years and over

9,405 4,985 4,842 11.6 6.0 6.0 5.8 6.1 5.9

20 to 24 years

1,567 883 826 22.3 10.0 10.1 10.9 11.5 10.9

25 years and over

7,761 4,073 3,940 10.5 5.8 5.6 5.2 5.5 5.3

25 to 54 years

5,731 3,031 3,013 10.6 5.9 5.6 5.5 5.5 5.5

25 to 34 years

2,491 1,313 1,207 12.9 7.0 6.6 6.7 6.7 6.2

35 to 44 years

1,690 843 968 9.4 5.8 5.6 5.1 4.6 5.2

45 to 54 years

1,550 875 838 9.2 4.7 4.6 4.5 5.2 5.0

55 years and over

2,030 1,043 927 10.2 5.4 5.6 4.5 5.2 4.6

Women, 16 years and over

10,775 4,418 4,168 14.5 6.3 6.1 5.9 5.8 5.5

16 to 19 years

857 345 272 31.1 14.0 11.2 10.7 11.2 9.0

16 to 17 years

339 136 115 31.0 16.8 13.9 11.5 11.1 9.7

18 to 19 years

497 221 140 30.3 12.3 9.7 10.3 11.8 7.7

20 years and over

9,918 4,073 3,895 13.9 6.0 5.9 5.7 5.6 5.4

20 to 24 years

1,625 652 651 23.9 9.5 9.1 9.5 9.3 9.2

25 years and over

8,268 3,404 3,229 12.8 5.6 5.5 5.3 5.2 4.9

25 to 54 years

5,922 2,569 2,341 12.5 5.8 5.7 5.5 5.4 4.9

25 to 34 years

2,348 1,052 920 14.0 6.6 6.2 6.8 6.2 5.4

35 to 44 years

1,695 830 739 11.0 5.6 5.7 5.2 5.3 4.7

45 to 54 years

1,879 687 682 12.4 5.1 5.3 4.5 4.5 4.5

55 years and over

2,352 848 882 13.6 5.1 5.1 4.6 4.9 5.0

MARITAL STATUS

Married men, spouse present(1)

3,850 1,738 1,581 8.2 3.9 3.8 3.2 3.8 3.5

Married women, spouse present(1)

4,281 1,392 1,340 11.5 4.4 4.3 3.8 3.8 3.7

Women who maintain families(2)

1,461 746 687 15.8 8.3 7.7 8.0 7.3 6.6

FULL- OR PART-TIME STATUS

Full-time workers(3)

15,779 8,221 7,815 11.9 6.4 6.3 6.1 6.1 5.8

Part-time workers(4)

5,066 1,515 1,361 19.6 6.4 6.0 5.8 5.7 5.1

Footnotes
(1) Beginning with data for January 2020, refers to persons in both opposite-sex and same-sex married couples. Prior to January 2020, referred to persons in opposite-sex married couples only.
(2) Data are not seasonally adjusted. Beginning with data for January 2020, refers to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not a spouse of either sex. Prior to January 2020, referred to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not an opposite-sex spouse.
(3) Full-time workers are unemployed persons who have expressed a desire to work full time (35 hours or more per week) or are on layoff from full-time jobs.
(4) Part-time workers are unemployed persons who have expressed a desire to work part time (less than 35 hours per week) or are on layoff from part-time jobs.

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-11. Unemployed persons by reason for unemployment
[Numbers in thousands]
Reason Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
May
2020
Apr.
2021
May
2021
May
2020
Jan.
2021
Feb.
2021
Mar.
2021
Apr.
2021
May
2021

NUMBER OF UNEMPLOYED

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

17,834 6,092 5,384 18,270 6,997 6,586 6,226 6,387 5,841

On temporary layoff

15,034 1,944 1,562 15,297 2,746 2,229 2,026 2,114 1,823

Not on temporary layoff

2,801 4,148 3,821 2,974 4,251 4,357 4,200 4,273 4,019

Permanent job losers

2,206 3,438 3,113 2,306 3,503 3,497 3,432 3,529 3,234

Persons who completed temporary jobs

595 710 709 668 749 860 768 744 785

Job leavers

513 775 737 561 653 701 777 824 778

Reentrants

1,674 1,896 2,224 1,613 1,963 2,124 2,253 2,072 2,149

New entrants

492 457 483 539 542 582 497 625 525

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

86.9 66.1 61.0 87.1 68.9 65.9 63.8 64.5 62.9

On temporary layoff

73.3 21.1 17.7 72.9 27.0 22.3 20.8 21.3 19.6

Not on temporary layoff

13.7 45.0 43.3 14.2 41.9 43.6 43.1 43.1 43.2

Job leavers

2.5 8.4 8.4 2.7 6.4 7.0 8.0 8.3 8.4

Reentrants

8.2 20.6 25.2 7.7 19.3 21.3 23.1 20.9 23.1

New entrants

2.4 5.0 5.5 2.6 5.3 5.8 5.1 6.3 5.7

UNEMPLOYED AS A PERCENT OF THE
CIVILIAN LABOR FORCE

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

11.3 3.8 3.4 11.5 4.4 4.1 3.9 4.0 3.6

Job leavers

0.3 0.5 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.5

Reentrants

1.1 1.2 1.4 1.0 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.3 1.3

New entrants

0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.3 0.4 0.3

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to total unemployed in table A-1 because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-12. Unemployed persons by duration of unemployment
[Numbers in thousands]
Duration Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
May
2020
Apr.
2021
May
2021
May
2020
Jan.
2021
Feb.
2021
Mar.
2021
Apr.
2021
May
2021

NUMBER OF UNEMPLOYED

Less than 5 weeks

3,835 2,028 1,963 3,875 2,278 2,185 2,177 2,414 2,023

5 to 14 weeks

14,401 1,665 1,793 14,804 2,528 2,254 1,941 1,939 2,126

15 weeks and over

2,278 5,527 5,073 2,200 5,369 5,555 5,609 5,386 5,013

15 to 26 weeks

1,146 1,426 1,381 997 1,346 1,407 1,391 1,203 1,262

27 weeks and over

1,132 4,101 3,692 1,203 4,023 4,148 4,218 4,183 3,752

Average (mean) duration, in weeks

10.9 30.4 30.7 10.4 26.0 27.6 29.7 28.8 29.9

Median duration, in weeks

8.0 22.2 19.9 7.5 15.3 18.3 19.7 19.8 19.3

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION

Less than 5 weeks

18.7 22.0 22.2 18.6 22.4 21.9 22.4 24.8 22.1

5 to 14 weeks

70.2 18.1 20.3 70.9 24.8 22.6 20.0 19.9 23.2

15 weeks and over

11.1 59.9 57.5 10.5 52.8 55.6 57.7 55.3 54.7

15 to 26 weeks

5.6 15.5 15.6 4.8 13.2 14.1 14.3 12.4 13.8

27 weeks and over

5.5 44.5 41.8 5.8 39.5 41.5 43.4 43.0 40.9

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to total unemployed in table A-1 because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-13. Employed and unemployed persons by occupation, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Occupation Employed Unemployed Unemployment
rates
May
2020
May
2021
May
2020
May
2021
May
2020
May
2021

Total, 16 years and over(1)

137,461 151,778 20,514 8,829 13.0 5.5

Management, professional, and related occupations

62,374 64,268 4,440 1,879 6.6 2.8

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

26,598 27,876 1,437 833 5.1 2.9

Professional and related occupations

35,776 36,392 3,003 1,046 7.7 2.8

Service occupations

19,086 24,023 5,881 1,965 23.6 7.6

Sales and office occupations

26,904 30,363 4,356 1,868 13.9 5.8

Sales and related occupations

12,434 14,265 2,412 980 16.2 6.4

Office and administrative support occupations

14,471 16,098 1,943 889 11.8 5.2

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

12,363 14,100 1,876 995 13.2 6.6

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

1,119 1,155 101 109 8.3 8.6

Construction and extraction occupations

6,872 7,922 1,232 670 15.2 7.8

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

4,372 5,022 543 216 11.0 4.1

Production, transportation, and material moving
occupations

16,733 19,025 3,446 1,628 17.1 7.9

Production occupations

6,850 7,769 1,228 529 15.2 6.4

Transportation and material moving occupations

9,883 11,256 2,217 1,099 18.3 8.9

Footnotes
(1) Persons with no previous work experience and persons whose last job was in the U.S. Armed Forces are included in the unemployed total.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data. Effective with January 2020 data, occupations reflect the introduction of the 2018 Census occupational classification system into the Current Population Survey, or household survey. This classification system is derived from the 2018 Standard Occupational Classification (SOC). No historical data have been revised. Data for 2020 are not strictly comparable with earlier years.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-14. Unemployed persons by industry and class of worker, not seasonally adjusted
Industry and class of worker Number of
unemployed
persons
(in thousands)
Unemployment
rates
May
2020
May
2021
May
2020
May
2021

Total, 16 years and over(1)

20,514 8,829 13.0 5.5

Nonagricultural private wage and salary workers

17,399 7,154 14.0 5.7

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

64 64 8.4 9.6

Construction

1,187 642 12.7 6.7

Manufacturing

1,782 705 11.6 4.8

Durable goods

1,243 467 13.1 5.0

Nondurable goods

539 238 9.3 4.3

Wholesale and retail trade

2,895 1,301 15.1 6.6

Transportation and utilities

1,018 566 14.2 7.2

Information

259 157 10.9 5.8

Financial activities

559 292 5.7 3.0

Professional and business services

1,578 952 9.0 5.4

Education and health services

2,458 840 10.1 3.4

Leisure and hospitality

4,434 1,294 35.9 10.1

Other services

1,165 341 18.4 5.3

Agriculture and related private wage and salary workers

105 138 6.5 8.4

Government workers

1,603 474 7.4 2.2

Self-employed workers, unincorporated, and unpaid family workers

915 579 9.4 5.3

Footnotes
(1) Persons with no previous work experience and persons whose last job was in the U.S. Armed Forces are included in the unemployed total.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data. Effective with January 2020 data, industries reflect the introduction of the 2017 Census industry classification system into the Current Population Survey. This industry classification system is derived from the 2017 North American Industry Classification System (NAICS). No historical data have been revised.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-15. Alternative measures of labor underutilization
[Percent]
Measure Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
May
2020
Apr.
2021
May
2021
May
2020
Jan.
2021
Feb.
2021
Mar.
2021
Apr.
2021
May
2021

U-1 Persons unemployed 15 weeks or longer, as a percent of the civilian labor force

1.4 3.4 3.2 1.4 3.4 3.5 3.5 3.3 3.1

U-2 Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs, as a percent of the civilian labor force

11.3 3.8 3.4 11.5 4.4 4.1 3.9 4.0 3.6

U-3 Total unemployed, as a percent of the civilian labor force (official unemployment rate)

13.0 5.7 5.5 13.3 6.3 6.2 6.0 6.1 5.8

U-4 Total unemployed plus discouraged workers, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus discouraged workers

13.3 6.1 5.8 13.6 6.7 6.5 6.4 6.4 6.1

U-5 Total unemployed, plus discouraged workers, plus all other persons marginally attached to the labor force, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force

14.2 6.8 6.6 14.6 7.4 7.3 7.1 7.2 6.9

U-6 Total unemployed, plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force, plus total employed part time for economic reasons, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force

20.7 9.9 9.7 21.2 11.1 11.1 10.7 10.4 10.2

NOTE: Persons marginally attached to the labor force are those who currently are neither working nor looking for work but indicate that they want and are available for a job and have looked for work sometime in the past 12 months. Discouraged workers, a subset of the marginally attached, have given a job-market related reason for not currently looking for work. Persons employed part time for economic reasons are those who want and are available for full-time work but have had to settle for a part-time schedule. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-16. Persons not in the labor force and multiple jobholders by sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Category Total Men Women
May
2020
May
2021
May
2020
May
2021
May
2020
May
2021

NOT IN THE LABOR FORCE

Total not in the labor force

102,072 100,603 41,818 41,040 60,254 59,563

Persons who currently want a job

9,422 7,087 4,535 3,482 4,886 3,605

Marginally attached to the labor force(1)

2,292 1,872 1,242 1,018 1,050 854

Discouraged workers(2)

598 551 341 317 257 234

Other persons marginally attached to the labor force(3)

1,694 1,321 901 701 793 620

MULTIPLE JOBHOLDERS

Total multiple jobholders(4)

5,509 7,249 2,703 3,570 2,807 3,679

Percent of total employed

4.0 4.8 3.7 4.4 4.4 5.2

Primary job full time, secondary job part time

3,121 4,041 1,687 2,143 1,434 1,898

Primary and secondary jobs both part time

1,262 1,668 418 574 843 1,094

Primary and secondary jobs both full time

285 373 193 226 92 147

Hours vary on primary or secondary job

805 1,093 390 592 415 501

Footnotes
(1) Data refer to persons who want a job, have searched for work during the prior 12 months, and were available to take a job during the reference week, but had not looked for work in the past 4 weeks.
(2) Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for reasons such as thinks no work available, could not find work, lacks schooling or training, employer thinks too young or old, and other types of discrimination.
(3) Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for such reasons as school or family responsibilities, ill health, and transportation problems, as well as a number for whom reason for nonparticipation was not determined.
(4) Includes a small number of persons who work part time on their primary job and full time on their secondary job(s), not shown separately.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-1. Employees on nonfarm payrolls by industry sector and selected industry detail
[In thousands]
Industry Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
May
2020
Mar.
2021
Apr.
2021(p)
May
2021(p)
May
2020
Mar.
2021
Apr.
2021(p)
May
2021(p)
Change from:
Apr.2021 - May2021(p)

Total nonfarm

133,419 143,315 144,412 145,385 132,994 144,057 144,335 144,894 559

Total private

111,800 121,421 122,408 123,413 111,680 122,515 122,734 123,226 492

Goods-producing

19,301 20,080 20,208 20,368 19,262 20,360 20,324 20,327 3

Mining and logging

602 610 611 615 601 613 614 614 0

Logging

44.0 44.3 41.5 41.7 45.1 44.9 44.2 43.1 -1.1

Mining

557.5 565.2 569.4 573.5 556.0 567.7 569.4 570.6 1.2

Oil and gas extraction

132.1 133.5 134.2 133.8 133.1 135.2 136.7 135.5 -1.2

Mining, except oil and gas

176.4 178.0 180.6 181.7 175.3 180.2 182.2 180.1 -2.1

Coal mining

39.7 43.4 42.3 41.9 40.4 43.2 42.4 42.4 0.0

Metal ore mining

40.7 41.7 41.7 41.9 40.5 41.6 41.6 41.8 0.2

Nonmetallic mineral mining and quarrying

96.0 92.9 96.6 97.9 94.4 95.4 98.2 95.9 -2.3

Support activities for mining

249.0 253.7 254.6 258.0 247.6 252.3 250.5 255.0 4.5

Construction

7,070 7,203 7,370 7,484 7,004 7,448 7,443 7,423 -20

Construction of buildings

1,557.9 1,651.7 1,663.4 1,687.7 1,559.5 1,683.1 1,682.9 1,687.8 4.9

Residential building

776.7 854.0 857.6 872.7 776.6 869.9 867.8 872.2 4.4

Nonresidential building

781.2 797.7 805.8 815.0 782.9 813.2 815.1 815.6 0.5

Heavy and civil engineering construction

1,064.5 982.8 1,053.1 1,085.3 1,037.9 1,058.8 1,065.4 1,059.9 -5.5

Specialty trade contractors

4,447.2 4,568.4 4,653.8 4,710.6 4,406.8 4,706.0 4,694.4 4,675.1 -19.3

Residential specialty trade contractors

1,992.8 2,100.1 2,139.5 2,167.9 1,968.1 2,154.7 2,146.7 2,144.2 -2.5

Nonresidential specialty trade contractors

2,454.4 2,468.3 2,514.3 2,542.7 2,438.7 2,551.3 2,547.7 2,530.9 -16.8

Manufacturing

11,629 12,267 12,227 12,269 11,657 12,299 12,267 12,290 23

Durable goods

7,195 7,630 7,599 7,622 7,201 7,636 7,605 7,623 18

Wood products

384.6 402.7 402.2 401.6 383.9 404.3 401.8 401.7 -0.1

Nonmetallic mineral products

387.8 389.0 397.3 399.4 384.6 397.1 398.0 395.8 -2.2

Primary metals

339.6 349.5 350.1 353.2 339.7 348.2 349.8 352.0 2.2

Fabricated metal products

1,370.2 1,397.9 1,395.2 1,397.2 1,370.9 1,396.5 1,392.2 1,395.7 3.5

Machinery

1,037.7 1,059.8 1,059.6 1,056.3 1,037.9 1,059.3 1,061.2 1,056.5 -4.7

Computer and electronic products

1,060.1 1,080.7 1,080.0 1,082.6 1,064.1 1,080.7 1,082.7 1,085.5 2.8

Computer and peripheral equipment

161.7 163.4 164.7 164.5 162.2 163.8 164.6 164.7 0.1

Communications equipment

83.9 86.5 84.7 85.2 84.1 85.8 84.9 85.5 0.6

Semiconductors and electronic components

365.8 370.5 368.7 370.9 368.0 370.6 371.0 372.5 1.5

Electronic instruments

417.4 426.6 428.0 428.1 418.1 426.3 427.7 428.6 0.9

Miscellaneous computer and electronic products

31.3 33.7 33.9 33.9 31.6 34.2 34.5 34.2 -0.3

Electrical equipment and appliances

369.4 372.6 375.9 378.5 371.0 373.5 377.1 379.9 2.8

Transportation equipment(1)

1,368.4 1,615.3 1,569.1 1,577.4 1,371.0 1,610.9 1,571.1 1,580.1 9.0

Motor vehicles and parts(2)

661.9 916.2 870.4 889.6 663.9 904.0 866.3 891.1 24.8

Furniture and related products

332.5 351.3 350.2 351.9 332.5 351.8 350.8 352.0 1.2

Miscellaneous durable goods manufacturing

544.9 611.6 619.3 623.7 545.8 613.9 620.6 624.0 3.4

Nondurable goods

4,434 4,637 4,628 4,647 4,456 4,663 4,662 4,667 5

Food manufacturing

1,560.3 1,626.1 1,613.7 1,618.5 1,581.9 1,640.1 1,637.8 1,640.1 2.3

Textile mills

87.6 96.3 95.2 96.5 87.3 96.5 95.3 95.9 0.6

Textile product mills

99.5 106.7 106.0 105.6 99.8 107.1 106.6 105.9 -0.7

Apparel

80.4 91.0 92.6 94.2 80.2 91.7 92.6 93.4 0.8

Paper and paper products

353.1 357.1 354.3 351.7 352.5 356.2 353.8 351.7 -2.1

Printing and related support activities

360.7 372.0 369.4 372.0 361.9 374.2 372.0 373.2 1.2

Petroleum and coal products

105.1 99.5 100.7 102.8 103.9 102.6 102.0 101.6 -0.4

Chemicals

832.1 852.7 856.5 852.4 833.4 850.6 854.0 852.9 -1.1

Plastics and rubber products

681.7 728.1 725.8 728.3 681.2 727.8 727.1 727.5 0.4

Miscellaneous nondurable goods manufacturing

273.3 307.1 313.3 325.3 273.4 315.9 320.8 324.9 4.1

Private service-providing

92,499 101,341 102,200 103,045 92,418 102,155 102,410 102,899 489

Trade, transportation, and utilities

24,830 26,897 26,852 27,009 24,934 27,186 27,109 27,146 37

Wholesale trade

5,507.6 5,632.9 5,649.3 5,685.1 5,508.6 5,658.0 5,664.2 5,684.1 19.9

Durable goods

3,004.9 3,094.3 3,097.9 3,116.4 3,008.2 3,102.6 3,105.3 3,119.2 13.9

Nondurable goods

2,026.0 2,061.2 2,073.5 2,090.1 2,022.1 2,076.3 2,080.1 2,086.3 6.2

Electronic markets and agents and brokers

476.7 477.4 477.9 478.6 478.3 479.1 478.8 478.6 -0.2

Retail trade

13,600.0 15,041.2 15,049.3 15,123.1 13,644.1 15,234.6 15,204.4 15,198.6 -5.8

Motor vehicle and parts dealers

1,754.0 1,959.9 1,970.2 1,981.5 1,748.2 1,969.0 1,971.2 1,975.0 3.8

Automobile dealers

1,112.0 1,246.1 1,246.0 1,250.0 1,111.9 1,249.8 1,248.2 1,250.0 1.8

Other motor vehicle dealers

136.5 154.5 163.8 169.5 130.8 158.5 161.8 163.0 1.2

Auto parts, accessories, and tire stores

505.5 559.3 560.4 562.0 505.5 560.7 561.2 562.0 0.8

Furniture and home furnishings stores

294.0 441.5 439.6 439.9 297.1 443.9 446.0 445.1 -0.9

Electronics and appliance stores

347.5 416.2 416.8 412.6 352.0 416.4 416.3 415.4 -0.9

Building material and garden supply stores

1,381.5 1,377.6 1,402.5 1,426.3 1,321.6 1,377.9 1,372.1 1,374.0 1.9

Food and beverage stores

3,079.0 3,128.5 3,089.4 3,077.9 3,088.8 3,160.5 3,113.7 3,087.7 -26.0

Health and personal care stores

872.8 992.5 1,007.6 993.7 878.2 997.7 1,005.5 998.4 -7.1

Gasoline stations

899.3 930.0 927.9 939.4 898.0 940.1 933.8 938.7 4.9

Clothing and clothing accessories stores

559.0 955.5 960.7 976.0 576.1 986.8 996.2 1,006.7 10.5

Sporting goods, hobby, book, and music stores

362.6 464.3 468.5 468.9 376.5 470.6 479.3 477.4 -1.9

General merchandise stores

2,860.8 2,996.8 2,976.4 2,990.2 2,915.3 3,071.9 3,064.7 3,065.5 0.8

Department stores

773.3 947.4 944.6 949.0 806.9 978.9 978.0 983.5 5.5

General merchandise stores, including warehouse clubs and supercenters

2,087.5 2,049.4 2,031.8 2,041.2 2,108.5 2,093.0 2,086.7 2,082.0 -4.7

Miscellaneous store retailers

635.0 778.2 790.9 815.9 629.6 794.8 798.9 804.9 6.0

Nonstore retailers

554.5 600.2 598.8 600.8 562.7 605.0 606.7 609.8 3.1

Transportation and warehousing

5,181.9 5,683.6 5,614.7 5,661.3 5,239.0 5,753.1 5,700.4 5,723.3 22.9

Air transportation

390.1 411.1 417.5 428.2 388.6 412.6 418.2 426.7 8.5

Rail transportation

147.4 143.0 143.4 143.4 148.2 142.8 143.2 144.1 0.9

Water transportation

60.2 59.1 59.8 60.3 59.5 60.7 60.3 59.6 -0.7

Truck transportation

1,426.7 1,460.6 1,467.8 1,478.6 1,429.1 1,481.0 1,481.6 1,479.7 -1.9

Transit and ground passenger transportation

319.4 395.9 398.3 405.6 301.3 382.5 383.5 387.6 4.1

Pipeline transportation

51.3 49.0 48.9 49.0 51.3 49.0 49.0 49.0 0.0

Scenic and sightseeing transportation

18.0 22.1 26.3 29.6 16.6 28.0 30.1 27.3 -2.8

Support activities for transportation

662.5 698.7 696.9 704.9 665.3 701.8 697.3 707.5 10.2

Couriers and messengers

862.1 1,033.0 959.2 968.5 926.4 1,084.0 1,030.2 1,033.0 2.8

Warehousing and storage

1,244.2 1,411.1 1,396.6 1,393.2 1,252.7 1,410.7 1,407.0 1,408.8 1.8

Utilities

540.6 539.3 538.3 539.0 542.0 539.8 540.4 540.2 -0.2

Information

2,585 2,675 2,693 2,716 2,594 2,683 2,692 2,721 29

Publishing industries, except Internet

750.0 764.6 763.3 766.2 755.4 768.7 768.3 771.5 3.2

Motion picture and sound recording industries

205.3 263.3 274.1 287.9 203.1 269.1 270.9 284.8 13.9

Broadcasting, except Internet

238.0 241.1 239.1 241.0 239.0 239.7 239.1 242.4 3.3

Telecommunications

690.2 685.3 681.8 681.4 693.8 683.2 682.7 683.9 1.2

Data processing, hosting and related services

353.8 357.2 366.4 364.9 352.9 356.3 361.4 362.6 1.2

Other information services

347.9 363.9 368.2 374.4 350.2 365.5 369.5 375.4 5.9

Financial activities

8,593 8,750 8,770 8,782 8,613 8,787 8,803 8,802 -1

Finance and insurance

6,457.2 6,541.1 6,532.8 6,520.0 6,474.3 6,543.4 6,545.2 6,536.5 -8.7

Monetary authorities - central bank

20.1 20.1 20.2 20.1 20.1 20.2 20.2 20.2 0.0

Credit intermediation and related
activities

2,637.7 2,668.4 2,670.5 2,662.9 2,641.4 2,666.0 2,671.6 2,665.2 -6.4

Depository credit intermediation(1)

1,772.0 1,739.4 1,736.1 1,730.9 1,772.1 1,738.6 1,737.9 1,732.0 -5.9

Commercial banking

1,388.1 1,354.1 1,349.9 1,344.3 1,387.0 1,354.8 1,354.8 1,343.7 -11.1

Nondepository credit intermediation

567.4 608.0 611.6 611.8 568.6 606.7 611.2 610.7 -0.5

Activities related to credit intermediation

298.3 321.0 322.8 320.2 300.8 320.7 322.5 322.5 0.0

Securities, commodity contracts, investments, and funds and trusts

958.2 974.0 978.8 981.6 964.2 978.1 983.7 986.2 2.5

Insurance carriers and related activities

2,841.2 2,878.6 2,863.3 2,855.4 2,848.6 2,879.1 2,869.7 2,864.9 -4.8

Real estate and rental and leasing

2,135.7 2,208.8 2,236.9 2,262.0 2,138.8 2,243.7 2,257.6 2,265.1 7.5

Real estate

1,647.0 1,703.6 1,720.7 1,731.4 1,651.8 1,725.9 1,733.3 1,736.5 3.2

Rental and leasing services

466.3 483.3 494.3 508.6 464.6 495.6 502.1 506.5 4.4

Lessors of nonfinancial intangible assets

22.4 21.9 21.9 22.0 22.4 22.2 22.2 22.1 -0.1

Professional and business services

19,238 20,549 20,704 20,766 19,247 20,807 20,726 20,761 35

Professional and technical services

9,142.8 9,682.7 9,751.9 9,677.8 9,212.9 9,650.2 9,699.4 9,725.4 26.0

Legal services

1,095.1 1,123.3 1,131.2 1,135.5 1,097.9 1,128.2 1,136.8 1,138.5 1.7

Accounting and bookkeeping services

933.4 1,122.9 1,116.9 1,009.3 987.0 1,020.9 1,029.4 1,043.5 14.1

Architectural and engineering services

1,476.3 1,520.2 1,537.5 1,549.8 1,477.6 1,538.3 1,549.8 1,551.5 1.7

Specialized design services

123.1 133.6 135.3 138.1 122.7 134.9 135.7 137.0 1.3

Computer systems design and related services

2,159.3 2,212.5 2,225.2 2,224.6 2,164.0 2,232.0 2,230.6 2,230.0 -0.6

Management and technical consulting services

1,481.4 1,575.6 1,596.9 1,598.7 1,486.5 1,593.7 1,603.2 1,603.2 0.0

Scientific research and development services

743.0 796.9 803.9 809.6 744.2 797.7 805.0 810.2 5.2

Advertising and related services

440.2 438.0 439.8 439.9 440.5 440.3 441.5 440.3 -1.2

Other professional and technical services

691.0 759.7 765.2 772.3 692.5 764.2 767.4 771.2 3.8

Management of companies and enterprises

2,310.2 2,331.5 2,332.2 2,331.2 2,312.8 2,339.6 2,341.4 2,332.2 -9.2

Administrative and waste services

7,784.8 8,534.9 8,619.7 8,756.5 7,720.8 8,817.0 8,685.5 8,703.5 18.0

Administrative and support services

7,345.1 8,092.1 8,175.0 8,308.4 7,282.1 8,367.9 8,237.8 8,255.6 17.8

Office administrative services

510.1 539.3 546.0 552.3 509.5 543.1 546.4 550.6 4.2

Facilities support services

149.0 153.4 151.2 153.4 149.5 153.0 152.2 153.6 1.4

Employment services(1)

2,527.2 3,276.7 3,216.1 3,263.5 2,536.6 3,398.2 3,272.1 3,279.6 7.5

Temporary help services

1,981.9 2,654.4 2,592.1 2,635.9 1,995.9 2,762.1 2,646.3 2,650.7 4.4

Business support services

762.0 793.7 775.9 771.2 772.1 798.7 780.4 781.4 1.0

Travel arrangement and reservation services

164.4 147.6 151.0 153.4 163.0 148.5 150.7 152.1 1.4

Investigation and security services

873.5 903.4 911.3 906.4 872.8 910.5 916.7 905.7 -11.0

Services to buildings and dwellings

2,074.6 1,984.3 2,125.3 2,209.7 1,995.3 2,120.5 2,122.2 2,135.0 12.8

Other support services

284.3 293.7 298.2 298.5 283.3 295.4 297.1 297.6 0.5

Waste management and remediation services

439.7 442.8 444.7 448.1 438.7 449.1 447.7 447.9 0.2

Education and health services

22,153 23,518 23,594 23,567 22,107 23,396 23,421 23,508 87

Educational services

3,304.9 3,598.9 3,616.1 3,521.6 3,271.5 3,455.7 3,445.0 3,485.7 40.7

Health care and social assistance

18,848.3 19,918.9 19,978.1 20,045.6 18,835.8 19,940.5 19,976.1 20,021.9 45.8

Health care(3)

15,166.4 15,923.1 15,937.2 15,972.2 15,187.0 15,953.6 15,961.7 15,984.2 22.5

Ambulatory health care services

6,923.2 7,731.8 7,767.5 7,802.4 6,922.2 7,748.2 7,775.9 7,797.9 22.0

Offices of physicians

2,485.3 2,671.6 2,683.9 2,688.9 2,487.5 2,676.4 2,689.9 2,691.7 1.8

Offices of dentists

688.7 996.7 1,001.7 1,008.6 689.2 999.0 1,002.0 1,006.7 4.7

Offices of other health practitioners

828.6 956.5 970.4 981.1 826.9 961.0 971.8 979.4 7.6

Outpatient care centers

926.0 999.9 1,001.6 1,006.2 926.4 999.0 1,001.3 1,005.2 3.9

Medical and diagnostic laboratories

261.2 292.5 293.6 295.9 262.2 292.7 294.0 296.0 2.0

Home health care services

1,437.9 1,498.6 1,500.6 1,505.7 1,435.3 1,504.1 1,501.2 1,503.4 2.2

Other ambulatory health care services

295.5 316.0 315.7 316.0 294.7 316.0 315.7 315.5 -0.2

Hospitals

5,055.6 5,147.3 5,140.0 5,135.1 5,072.4 5,145.6 5,144.2 5,147.1 2.9

Nursing and residential care facilities

3,187.6 3,044.0 3,029.7 3,034.7 3,192.4 3,059.8 3,041.6 3,039.2 -2.4

Nursing care facilities

1,499.2 1,392.8 1,376.5 1,380.6 1,502.6 1,400.5 1,382.8 1,383.8 1.0

Residential mental health facilities

606.0 607.7 607.6 606.5 606.4 609.5 609.5 607.0 -2.5

Community care facilities for the elderly

925.6 893.1 896.2 899.0 925.9 898.5 899.5 899.2 -0.3

Other residential care facilities

156.8 150.4 149.4 148.6 157.5 151.3 149.8 149.2 -0.6

Social assistance

3,681.9 3,995.8 4,040.9 4,073.4 3,648.8 3,986.9 4,014.4 4,037.7 23.3

Individual and family services

2,515.1 2,638.0 2,662.3 2,666.9 2,504.9 2,642.1 2,655.0 2,656.0 1.0

Emergency and other relief services

178.8 185.0 183.9 186.5 179.4 184.6 184.9 186.9 2.0

Vocational rehabilitation services

259.9 276.6 281.5 284.3 260.0 277.9 280.9 282.9 2.0

Child day care services

728.1 896.2 913.2 935.7 704.5 882.3 893.6 911.9 18.3

Leisure and hospitality

10,303 13,448 14,020 14,599 10,146 13,757 14,085 14,377 292

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

1,261.9 1,676.5 1,850.7 2,026.6 1,224.1 1,795.8 1,899.2 1,970.9 71.7

Performing arts and spectator sports

281.8 326.7 370.0 396.7 266.2 346.3 362.2 375.2 13.0

Museums, historical sites, and similar institutions

124.8 123.1 131.5 138.9 121.3 131.0 134.3 135.1 0.8

Amusements, gambling, and recreation

855.3 1,226.7 1,349.2 1,491.0 836.6 1,318.5 1,402.7 1,460.6 57.9

Accommodation and food services

9,041.4 11,771.7 12,169.1 12,572.0 8,922.1 11,960.8 12,185.6 12,406.2 220.6

Accommodation

1,090.1 1,435.6 1,502.8 1,578.9 1,089.6 1,486.6 1,543.9 1,578.5 34.6

Food services and drinking places

7,951.3 10,336.1 10,666.3 10,993.1 7,832.5 10,474.2 10,641.7 10,827.7 186.0

Other services

4,797 5,504 5,567 5,606 4,777 5,539 5,574 5,584 10

Repair and maintenance

1,202.5 1,320.8 1,339.0 1,343.3 1,194.4 1,323.6 1,337.4 1,336.6 -0.8

Personal and laundry services

853.8 1,327.7 1,354.6 1,373.7 845.4 1,340.3 1,352.2 1,360.4 8.2

Membership associations and organizations

2,740.2 2,855.5 2,872.9 2,888.6 2,737.5 2,874.6 2,884.8 2,886.5 1.7

Government

21,619 21,894 22,004 21,972 21,314 21,542 21,601 21,668 67

Federal

2,875 2,861 2,886 2,887 2,877 2,888 2,898 2,887 -11

Federal, except U.S. Postal Service

2,273.8 2,256.9 2,273.2 2,286.6 2,273.5 2,276.9 2,282.6 2,287.1 4.5

U.S. Postal Service

600.9 603.8 613.2 599.9 603.0 611.4 614.9 600.2 -14.7

State government

5,027 5,130 5,146 5,017 5,031 4,967 4,978 5,023 45

State government education

2,337.9 2,459.7 2,470.7 2,349.2 2,340.9 2,291.3 2,302.1 2,352.1 50.0

State government, excluding education

2,688.6 2,670.6 2,675.6 2,667.8 2,689.7 2,675.8 2,676.2 2,671.3 -4.9

Local government

13,717 13,903 13,972 14,068 13,406 13,687 13,725 13,758 33

Local government education

7,589.5 7,706.6 7,742.5 7,781.0 7,280.4 7,389.0 7,420.2 7,473.2 53.0

Local government, excluding education

6,127.0 6,196.8 6,229.0 6,287.0 6,125.5 6,298.0 6,304.9 6,285.1 -19.8

Footnotes
(1) Includes other industries, not shown separately.
(2) Includes motor vehicles, motor vehicle bodies and trailers, and motor vehicle parts.
(3) Includes ambulatory health care services, hospitals, and nursing and residential care facilities.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2020 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-2. Average weekly hours and overtime of all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry May
2020
Mar.
2021
Apr.
2021(p)
May
2021(p)

AVERAGE WEEKLY HOURS

Total private

34.7 34.9 34.9 34.9

Goods-producing

38.9 40.2 40.1 40.1

Mining and logging

43.0 45.5 45.2 44.8

Construction

38.8 39.4 39.1 39.0

Manufacturing

38.8 40.5 40.4 40.5

Durable goods

38.8 40.7 40.6 40.7

Nondurable goods

38.7 40.0 40.2 40.2

Private service-providing

33.8 33.8 33.9 33.8

Trade, transportation, and utilities

34.4 34.5 34.7 34.7

Wholesale trade

38.0 39.1 39.2 39.2

Retail trade

31.3 30.8 31.0 30.9

Transportation and warehousing

37.9 39.2 39.5 39.4

Utilities

42.3 42.7 42.5 42.6

Information

36.6 37.1 37.3 37.5

Financial activities

37.7 37.7 37.6 37.6

Professional and business services

36.5 36.8 36.8 36.7

Education and health services

32.9 33.4 33.3 33.3

Leisure and hospitality

25.9 26.2 26.7 26.6

Other services

32.7 32.4 32.3 32.4

AVERAGE OVERTIME HOURS

Manufacturing

2.4 3.2 3.2 3.3

Durable goods

2.0 3.1 3.1 3.2

Nondurable goods

3.1 3.4 3.4 3.4

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2020 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-3. Average hourly and weekly earnings of all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Average hourly earnings Average weekly earnings
May
2020
Mar.
2021
Apr.
2021(p)
May
2021(p)
May
2020
Mar.
2021
Apr.
2021(p)
May
2021(p)

Total private

$29.74 $29.97 $30.18 $30.33 $1,031.98 $1,045.95 $1,053.28 $1,058.52

Goods-producing

30.15 30.47 30.70 30.85 1,172.84 1,224.89 1,231.07 1,237.09

Mining and logging

34.87 34.55 35.15 34.64 1,499.41 1,572.03 1,588.78 1,551.87

Construction

31.50 32.28 32.59 32.79 1,222.20 1,271.83 1,274.27 1,278.81

Manufacturing

29.06 29.18 29.35 29.52 1,127.53 1,181.79 1,185.74 1,195.56

Durable goods

30.55 30.70 30.92 31.07 1,185.34 1,249.49 1,255.35 1,264.55

Nondurable goods

26.65 26.65 26.77 26.95 1,031.36 1,066.00 1,076.15 1,083.39

Private service-providing

29.64 29.85 30.05 30.21 1,001.83 1,008.93 1,018.70 1,021.10

Trade, transportation, and utilities

25.34 25.79 26.02 26.17 871.70 889.76 902.89 908.10

Wholesale trade

32.44 33.18 33.30 33.49 1,232.72 1,297.34 1,305.36 1,312.81

Retail trade

20.77 21.46 21.67 21.76 650.10 660.97 671.77 672.38

Transportation and warehousing

25.62 25.68 26.07 26.28 971.00 1,006.66 1,029.77 1,035.43

Utilities

43.09 44.20 44.37 44.41 1,822.71 1,887.34 1,885.73 1,891.87

Information

43.62 43.83 44.28 44.43 1,596.49 1,626.09 1,651.64 1,666.13

Financial activities

37.65 39.80 39.96 40.19 1,419.41 1,500.46 1,502.50 1,511.14

Professional and business services

35.51 35.90 36.13 36.54 1,296.12 1,321.12 1,329.58 1,341.02

Education and health services

28.52 29.16 29.52 29.41 938.31 973.94 983.02 979.35

Leisure and hospitality

17.44 17.60 17.86 18.09 451.70 461.12 476.86 481.19

Other services

27.50 26.80 26.99 27.28 899.25 868.32 871.78 883.87

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2020 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-4. Indexes of aggregate weekly hours and payrolls for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
[2007=100]
Industry Index of aggregate weekly hours(1) Index of aggregate weekly payrolls(2)
May
2020
Mar.
2021
Apr.
2021(p)
May
2021(p)
Percent change from:
Apr.
2021 - May
2021(p)
May
2020
Mar.
2021
Apr.
2021(p)
May
2021(p)
Percent change from:
Apr.
2021 - May
2021(p)

Total private

97.3 107.3 107.5 108.0 0.5 138.3 153.8 155.2 156.6 0.9

Goods-producing

85.4 93.2 92.9 92.9 0.0 116.3 128.4 128.8 129.5 0.5

Mining and logging

81.2 87.6 87.2 86.4 -0.9 113.7 121.6 123.1 120.2 -2.4

Construction

93.7 101.2 100.3 99.8 -0.5 128.2 141.9 142.1 142.2 0.1

Manufacturing

81.4 89.6 89.2 89.5 0.3 110.0 121.6 121.7 122.9 1.0

Durable goods

78.7 87.5 86.9 87.4 0.6 106.7 119.3 119.4 120.5 0.9

Nondurable goods

86.1 93.1 93.5 93.6 0.1 116.4 125.9 127.1 128.1 0.8

Private service-providing

100.6 111.2 111.8 112.0 0.2 144.9 161.3 163.3 164.4 0.7

Trade, transportation, and utilities

93.6 102.3 102.6 102.8 0.2 127.9 142.3 144.0 145.1 0.8

Wholesale trade

92.3 97.6 97.9 98.3 0.4 125.3 135.4 136.4 137.7 1.0

Retail trade

86.7 95.3 95.7 95.4 -0.3 119.0 135.1 137.1 137.1 0.0

Transportation and warehousing

114.1 129.6 129.4 129.6 0.2 148.7 169.3 171.6 173.2 0.9

Utilities

99.2 99.7 99.4 99.6 0.2 141.2 145.6 145.7 146.1 0.3

Information

86.7 90.9 91.7 93.2 1.6 134.7 141.9 144.6 147.4 1.9

Financial activities

106.4 108.5 108.5 108.4 -0.1 156.2 168.5 169.0 170.0 0.6

Professional and business services

110.1 120.1 119.6 119.5 -0.1 158.4 174.5 175.0 176.8 1.0

Education and health services

118.8 127.6 127.3 127.8 0.4 162.9 179.0 180.9 180.9 0.0

Leisure and hospitality

75.0 102.8 107.3 109.1 1.7 105.5 146.0 154.6 159.3 3.0

Other services

90.1 103.5 103.8 104.3 0.5 135.7 152.0 153.6 156.0 1.6

Footnotes
(1) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding 2007 annual average aggregate hours. Aggregate hours estimates are the product of estimates of average weekly hours and employment.
(2) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding 2007 annual average aggregate weekly payrolls. Aggregate payrolls estimates are the product of estimates of average hourly earnings, average weekly hours, and employment.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2020 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-5. Employment of women on nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Women employees (in thousands) Percent of all employees
May
2020
Mar.
2021
Apr.
2021(p)
May
2021(p)
May
2020
Mar.
2021
Apr.
2021(p)
May
2021(p)

Total nonfarm

65,348 71,634 71,821 72,135 49.1 49.7 49.8 49.8

Total private

53,135 59,242 59,375 59,647 47.6 48.4 48.4 48.4

Goods-producing

4,308 4,619 4,621 4,637 22.4 22.7 22.7 22.8

Mining and logging

88 85 84 89 14.6 13.9 13.7 14.5

Construction

932 999 1,006 1,013 13.3 13.4 13.5 13.6

Manufacturing

3,288 3,535 3,531 3,535 28.2 28.7 28.8 28.8

Durable goods

1,724 1,866 1,865 1,873 23.9 24.4 24.5 24.6

Nondurable goods

1,564 1,669 1,666 1,662 35.1 35.8 35.7 35.6

Private service-providing

48,827 54,623 54,754 55,010 52.8 53.5 53.5 53.5

Trade, transportation, and utilities

9,529 10,686 10,651 10,660 38.2 39.3 39.3 39.3

Wholesale trade

1,626.9 1,696.7 1,700.9 1,714.4 29.5 30.0 30.0 30.2

Retail trade

6,493.6 7,390.8 7,366.8 7,357.3 47.6 48.5 48.5 48.4

Transportation and warehousing

1,275.3 1,465.0 1,448.8 1,453.7 24.3 25.5 25.4 25.4

Utilities

132.9 133.8 134.3 134.2 24.5 24.8 24.9 24.8

Information

1,031 1,066 1,074 1,076 39.7 39.7 39.9 39.5

Financial activities

4,868 4,963 4,963 4,932 56.5 56.5 56.4 56.0

Professional and business services

8,712 9,600 9,569 9,582 45.3 46.1 46.2 46.2

Education and health services

16,980 18,047 18,082 18,155 76.8 77.1 77.2 77.2

Leisure and hospitality

5,285 7,323 7,467 7,639 52.1 53.2 53.0 53.1

Other services

2,422 2,938 2,948 2,966 50.7 53.0 52.9 53.1

Government

12,213 12,392 12,446 12,488 57.3 57.5 57.6 57.6

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2020 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-6. Employment of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
[In thousands]
Industry May
2020
Mar.
2021
Apr.
2021(p)
May
2021(p)

Total private

90,011 99,770 99,797 100,250

Goods-producing

13,537 14,472 14,375 14,447

Mining and logging

420 443 444 450

Construction

5,155 5,515 5,461 5,467

Manufacturing

7,962 8,514 8,470 8,530

Durable goods

4,762 5,181 5,139 5,188

Nondurable goods

3,200 3,333 3,331 3,342

Private service-providing

76,474 85,298 85,422 85,803

Trade, transportation, and utilities

20,901 22,940 22,846 22,908

Wholesale trade

4,367.5 4,500.7 4,493.6 4,517.8

Retail trade

11,578.6 12,993.1 12,955.9 12,955.0

Transportation and warehousing

4,521.9 5,017.1 4,965.1 5,003.6

Utilities

432.8 428.6 430.9 431.4

Information

2,047 2,129 2,138 2,147

Financial activities

6,585 6,657 6,662 6,638

Professional and business services

15,307 16,762 16,636 16,639

Education and health services

19,314 20,478 20,502 20,577

Leisure and hospitality

8,478 11,844 12,126 12,370

Other services

3,842 4,488 4,512 4,524

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2020 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-7. Average weekly hours and overtime of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry May
2020
Mar.
2021
Apr.
2021(p)
May
2021(p)

AVERAGE WEEKLY HOURS

Total private

34.1 34.4 34.4 34.3

Goods-producing

39.6 41.2 41.1 41.0

Mining and logging

43.9 46.9 46.7 46.2

Construction

39.4 40.1 39.8 39.6

Manufacturing

39.4 41.7 41.6 41.6

Durable goods

39.5 41.9 41.7 41.8

Nondurable goods

39.4 41.3 41.4 41.4

Private service-providing

33.1 33.2 33.3 33.2

Trade, transportation, and utilities

34.3 34.6 34.6 34.5

Wholesale trade

37.6 38.9 38.9 38.8

Retail trade

31.3 31.1 31.1 31.1

Transportation and warehousing

37.9 38.9 39.1 38.9

Utilities

41.9 42.7 42.6 42.5

Information

35.9 36.2 36.7 37.4

Financial activities

37.0 37.4 37.5 37.5

Professional and business services

35.8 36.3 36.4 36.4

Education and health services

32.1 32.7 32.6 32.6

Leisure and hospitality

24.3 24.8 25.3 25.1

Other services

31.8 31.4 31.4 31.4

AVERAGE OVERTIME HOURS

Manufacturing

3.1 4.1 4.1 4.2

Durable goods

2.9 4.2 4.1 4.2

Nondurable goods

3.5 4.0 4.2 4.3

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2020 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-8. Average hourly and weekly earnings of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry Average hourly earnings Average weekly earnings
May
2020
Mar.
2021
Apr.
2021(p)
May
2021(p)
May
2020
Mar.
2021
Apr.
2021(p)
May
2021(p)

Total private

$25.01 $25.27 $25.46 $25.60 $852.84 $869.29 $875.82 $878.08

Goods-producing

25.39 26.00 26.18 26.24 1,005.44 1,071.20 1,076.00 1,075.84

Mining and logging

30.59 30.68 31.24 31.06 1,342.90 1,438.89 1,458.91 1,434.97

Construction

28.98 29.84 30.20 30.25 1,141.81 1,196.58 1,201.96 1,197.90

Manufacturing

22.76 23.33 23.41 23.52 896.74 972.86 973.86 978.43

Durable goods

23.64 24.33 24.43 24.54 933.78 1,019.43 1,018.73 1,025.77

Nondurable goods

21.45 21.76 21.83 21.93 845.13 898.69 903.76 907.90

Private service-providing

24.93 25.12 25.30 25.46 825.18 833.98 842.49 845.27

Trade, transportation, and utilities

21.63 21.81 22.02 22.20 741.91 754.63 761.89 765.90

Wholesale trade

26.94 27.35 27.40 27.57 1,012.94 1,063.92 1,065.86 1,069.72

Retail trade

17.85 18.06 18.38 18.41 558.71 561.67 571.62 572.55

Transportation and warehousing

22.83 22.90 23.06 23.62 865.26 890.81 901.65 918.82

Utilities

37.83 39.83 39.55 39.21 1,585.08 1,700.74 1,684.83 1,666.43

Information

35.55 36.88 37.08 36.99 1,276.25 1,335.06 1,360.84 1,383.43

Financial activities

29.12 29.99 30.05 30.57 1,077.44 1,121.63 1,126.88 1,146.38

Professional and business services

29.68 30.01 30.21 30.41 1,062.54 1,089.36 1,099.64 1,106.92

Education and health services

25.41 26.20 26.50 26.49 815.66 856.74 863.90 863.57

Leisure and hospitality

14.58 15.26 15.68 15.87 354.29 378.45 396.70 398.34

Other services

23.21 22.99 22.99 23.15 738.08 721.89 721.89 726.91

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2020 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-9. Indexes of aggregate weekly hours and payrolls for production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
[2002=100]
Industry Index of aggregate weekly hours(2) Index of aggregate weekly payrolls(3)
May
2020
Mar.
2021
Apr.
2021(p)
May
2021(p)
Percent change from:
Apr.
2021 - May
2021(p)
May
2020
Mar.
2021
Apr.
2021(p)
May
2021(p)
Percent change from:
Apr.
2021 - May
2021(p)

Total private

102.3 114.4 114.4 114.6 0.2 171.0 193.2 194.7 196.1 0.7

Goods-producing

81.9 91.1 90.3 90.5 0.2 127.4 145.1 144.7 145.4 0.5

Mining and logging

98.0 110.4 110.2 110.5 0.3 174.3 197.0 200.2 199.6 -0.3

Construction

101.7 110.7 108.8 108.4 -0.4 159.1 178.4 177.5 177.1 -0.2

Manufacturing

72.0 81.5 80.9 81.5 0.7 107.2 124.3 123.8 125.3 1.2

Durable goods

70.7 81.6 80.5 81.5 1.2 104.3 123.9 122.8 124.8 1.6

Nondurable goods

74.3 81.1 81.3 81.5 0.2 112.6 124.7 125.3 126.3 0.8

Private service-providing

107.9 120.7 121.2 121.4 0.2 184.4 207.9 210.3 212.0 0.8

Trade, transportation, and utilities

100.3 111.0 110.5 110.5 0.0 155.0 173.0 174.0 175.3 0.7

Wholesale trade

97.5 103.9 103.7 104.0 0.3 155.0 167.7 167.8 169.3 0.9

Retail trade

91.7 102.3 102.0 102.0 0.0 140.3 158.3 160.6 160.8 0.1

Transportation and warehousing

129.7 147.7 146.9 147.3 0.3 188.5 215.3 215.7 221.5 2.7

Utilities

92.7 93.6 93.9 93.8 -0.1 146.4 155.6 155.0 153.5 -1.0

Information

83.9 88.0 89.6 91.6 2.2 147.6 160.6 164.4 167.8