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Economic News Release
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Employment Situation News Release

Transmission of material in this news release is embargoed until		USDL-20-1140
8:30 a.m. (EDT) Friday, June 5, 2020

Technical information: 
 Household data:	cpsinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/cps
 Establishment data:	cesinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/ces

Media contact:		(202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov


			  THE EMPLOYMENT SITUATION -- MAY 2020


Total nonfarm payroll employment rose by 2.5 million in May, and the unemployment rate 
declined to 13.3 percent, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. These
improvements in the labor market reflected a limited resumption of economic activity
that had been curtailed in March and April due to the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic
and efforts to contain it. In May, employment rose sharply in leisure and hospitality,
construction, education and health services, and retail trade. By contrast, employment
in government continued to decline sharply.

This news release presents statistics from two monthly surveys. The household survey
measures labor force status, including unemployment, by demographic characteristics.
The establishment survey measures nonfarm employment, hours, and earnings by industry.
For more information about the concepts and statistical methodology used in these two
surveys, see the Technical Note.

Household Survey Data

The unemployment rate declined by 1.4 percentage points to 13.3 percent in May, and
the number of unemployed persons fell by 2.1 million to 21.0 million. Reflecting the
effects of the coronavirus pandemic and efforts to contain it, the unemployment rate
and the number of unemployed persons are up by 9.8 percentage points and 15.2 million,
respectively, since February. (See table A-1. For more information about how the
household survey and its measures were affected by the coronavirus pandemic, see the
box note at the end of the news release.)

Among the major worker groups, the unemployment rates declined in May for adult men
(11.6 percent), adult women (13.9 percent), Whites (12.4 percent), and Hispanics (17.6
percent). The jobless rates for teenagers (29.9 percent), Blacks (16.8 percent), and
Asians (15.0 percent) showed little change over the month. (See tables A-1, A-2, 
and A-3.)

The number of unemployed persons who were on temporary layoff decreased by 2.7 million
in May to 15.3 million, following a sharp increase of 16.2 million in April. Among 
those not on temporary layoff, the number of permanent job losers continued to rise,
increasing by 295,000 in May to 2.3 million. (See table A-11.)

In May, the number of unemployed persons who were jobless less than 5 weeks decreased
by 10.4 million to 3.9 million. These individuals made up 18.5 percent of the
unemployed. The number of unemployed persons who were jobless 5 to 14 weeks rose by
7.8 million to 14.8 million, accounting for about 70.8 percent of the unemployed. The
number of long-term unemployed (those jobless for 27 weeks or more), at 1.2 million,
increased by 225,000 over the month and represented 5.6 percent of the unemployed. 
(See table A-12.)

The labor force participation rate increased by 0.6 percentage point in May to 60.8
percent, following a decrease of 2.5 percentage points in April. Total employment,
as measured by the household survey, rose by 3.8 million in May to 137.2 million, 
following a large decline in April. After an 8.7 percentage-point decline in April,
the employment-population ratio rose by 1.5 percentage points to 52.8 percent in
May. (See table A-1.)

In May, the number of persons who usually work full time increased by 2.2 million
to 116.5 million, and the number who usually work part time rose by 1.6 million to
20.7 million. Part-time workers accounted for about two-fifths of the over-the-month
employment growth. (See table A-9.)

The number of persons employed part time for economic reasons, at 10.6 million, 
changed little in May, but is up by 6.3 million since February. These individuals,
who would have preferred full-time employment, were working part time because their
hours had been reduced or they were unable to find full-time jobs. This group 
includes persons who usually work full time and persons who usually work part time.
(See table A-8.)

The number of persons not in the labor force who currently want a job, at 9.0 
million, declined by 954,000 in May, after increasing by 4.4 million in April. These
individuals were not counted as unemployed because they were not actively looking 
for work during the last 4 weeks or were unavailable to take a job. (See table A-1.)

Persons marginally attached to the labor force--a subset of persons not in the labor
force who currently want a job--numbered 2.4 million in May, little different from 
the prior month. These individuals were not in the labor force, wanted and were 
available for work, and had looked for a job sometime in the prior 12 months but had
not looked for work in the 4 weeks preceding the survey. Discouraged workers, a 
subset of the marginally attached who believed that no jobs were available for them,
numbered 662,000 in May, also little changed from the previous month. (See Summary 
table A.)

Establishment Survey Data

Total nonfarm payroll employment increased by 2.5 million in May, reflecting a 
limited resumption of economic activity that had been curtailed due to the coronavirus
pandemic and efforts to contain it. Employment fell by 1.4 million and 20.7 million,
respectively, in March and April. Despite the over-the-month increase, nonfarm 
employment in May was 13 percent below its February level. Large employment increases
occurred in May in leisure and hospitality, construction, education and health services,
and retail trade. Government employment continued to decline sharply. (See table B-1.
For more information about how the establishment survey and its measures were affected
by the coronavirus pandemic, see the box note at the end of the news release.) 

In May, employment in leisure and hospitality increased by 1.2 million, following losses
of 7.5 million in April and 743,000 in March. Over the month, employment in food 
services and drinking places rose by 1.4 million, accounting for about half of the gain
in total nonfarm employment. May's gain in food services and drinking places followed
steep declines in April and March (-6.1 million combined). In contrast, employment in
the accommodation industry fell in May (-148,000) and has declined by 1.1 million since
February.

Construction employment increased by 464,000 in May, gaining back almost half of 
April's decline (-995,000). Much of the gain occurred in specialty trade contractors
(+325,000), with growth about equally split between the residential and nonresidential
components. Job gains also occurred in construction of buildings (+105,000), largely in
residential building. 

Employment increased by 424,000 in education and health services in May, after a 
decrease of 2.6 million in April. Health care employment increased by 312,000 over the
month, with gains in offices of dentists (+245,000), offices of other health 
practitioners (+73,000), and offices of physicians (+51,000). Elsewhere in health care,
job losses continued in nursing and residential care facilities (-37,000) and hospitals
(-27,000). Employment increased in the social assistance industry (+78,000), reflecting
increases in child day care services (+44,000) and individual and family services 
(+29,000). Employment in private education rose by 33,000 over the month. 

In May, employment in retail trade rose by 368,000, after a loss of 2.3 million in
April. Over-the-month job gains occurred in clothing and clothing accessories stores 
(+95,000), automobile dealers (+85,000), and general merchandise stores (+84,000). By
contrast, job losses continued in electronics and appliance stores (-95,000) and in 
auto parts, accessories, and tire stores (-36,000). 

Employment increased in the other services industry in May (+272,000), following a 
decline of 1.3 million in April. About two-thirds of the May increase occurred in 
personal and laundry services (+182,000).

In May, manufacturing employment rose by 225,000, with gains about evenly split between
the durable and nondurable goods components. In April, manufacturing employment
declined by 1.3 million, with about two-thirds of the loss occurring in the durable 
goods component. Within durable goods, employment gains in May were led by motor
vehicles and parts (+28,000), fabricated metal products (+25,000), and machinery 
(+23,000). Within nondurable goods, job gains occurred in plastics and rubber products
(+30,000) and food manufacturing (+25,000).

Professional and business services added 127,000 jobs in May, after shedding 2.2 million
jobs in April. Over the month, employment rose in services to buildings and dwellings
(+68,000) and temporary help services (+39,000), while employment declined in management
of companies and enterprises (-22,000). 

Financial activities added 33,000 jobs over the month, following a loss of 264,000 jobs
in April. In May, employment gains occurred in real estate and rental and leasing
(+24,000) and in credit intermediation and related activities (+7,000).

Wholesale trade employment was up by 21,000 in May, largely reflecting job gains in its
nondurable goods component (+13,000). In April, wholesale trade employment declined by
383,000.

In May, employment continued to decline in government (-585,000), following a drop of 
963,000 in April. Employment in local government was down by 487,000 in May. Local 
government education accounted for almost two-thirds of the decrease (-310,000), 
reflecting school closures. Employment also continued to decline in state government 
(-84,000), particularly in state education (-63,000).

Employment in information fell by 38,000 in May, following a decline of 272,000 in April.

Mining continued to lose jobs in May (-20,000), with most of the decline occurring in
support activities for mining (-16,000). Mining employment has declined by 77,000 over 
the past 3 months.

Employment in transportation and warehousing decreased in May (-19,000), after an April
decline of 553,000. Air transportation lost 50,000 jobs over the month, following a 
loss of 79,000 jobs in April. In May, employment rose by 12,000 in couriers and 
messengers and 10,000 in transit and ground passenger transportation.

In May, average hourly earnings for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls fell by
29 cents to $29.75, following a gain of $1.35 in April. Average hourly earnings of 
private-sector production and nonsupervisory employees decreased by 14 cents to $25.00
in May. The decreases in average hourly earnings largely reflect job gains among lower-
paid workers; this change put downward pressure on the average hourly earnings estimates.
(See tables B-3 and B-8.)

The average workweek for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls increased by 0.5 hour
to 34.7 hours in May. In manufacturing, the workweek rose by 0.8 hour to 38.9 hours, and
overtime increased by 0.3 hour to 2.4 hours. The average workweek for production and 
nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls increased by 0.6 hour to 34.1 hours.
While employees in most industries saw an increase in their workweeks in May, the 
employment changes, especially in industries with shorter workweeks, complicate monthly
comparisons of the average weekly hours estimates. (See tables B-2 and B-7.)

The change in total nonfarm payroll employment for March was revised down by 492,000,
from -881,000 to -1.4 million, and the change for April was revised down by 150,000,
from -20.5 million to -20.7 million. With these revisions, employment in March and 
April  combined was 642,000 lower than previously reported. (Monthly revisions result
from additional reports received from businesses and government agencies since the last 
published estimates and from the recalculation of seasonal factors. A methodological
change to the establishment survey's birth-death model contributed to the revision for
March. For more information, see the box note at the end of the news release.) After 
revisions, job losses have averaged 6.5 million per month over the past 3 months. 

_____________
The Employment Situation for June is scheduled to be released on Thursday, July 2, 2020,
at 8:30 a.m. (EDT).


  _______________________________________________________________________________________
 |											 |
 |											 |
 |   Coronavirus (COVID-19) Impact on May 2020 Establishment and Household Survey Data   |
 |											 |
 |											 |
 | Data collection for both surveys was affected by the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic. |
 | In the establishment survey, approximately one-fifth of the data is collected at four |
 | regional data collection centers. Although these centers were closed, about three-    |
 | quarters of the interviewers at these centers worked remotely to collect data by      |
 | telephone. Additionally, BLS encouraged businesses to report electronically. The      |
 | collection rate for the establishment survey in May was 69 percent, slightly lower    |
 | than collection rates prior to the pandemic. The household survey is generally        |
 | collected through in-person and telephone interviews, but personal interviews were    |
 | not conducted for the safety of interviewers and respondents. The household survey    |
 | response rate, at 67 percent, was about 15 percentage points lower than in months     |
 | prior to the pandemic. 								 |
 |											 |
 | In the establishment survey, workers who are paid by their employer for all or any    |
 | part of the pay period including the 12th of the month are counted as employed, even  |
 | if they were not actually at their jobs. Workers who are temporarily or permanently   |
 | absent from their jobs and are not being paid are not counted as employed, even if    |
 | they are continuing to receive benefits. 						 |
 |											 |
 | The estimation methods used in the establishment survey were the same for May as they |
 | were for April. However, after further research, BLS extended the modifications that  |
 | were made to the April birth-death model back to March, which accounted for a portion |
 | of the revision to March data. For more information, see 				 |
 | www.bls.gov/cps/employment-situation-covid19-faq-may-2020.pdf.			 |
 |											 |
 | In the household survey, individuals are classified as employed, unemployed, or not   |
 | in the labor force based on their answers to a series of questions about their        |
 | activities during the survey reference week (May 10th through May 16th). Workers who  |
 | indicate they were not working during the entire survey reference week and expect to  |
 | be recalled to their jobs should be classified as unemployed on temporary layoff. In  |
 | May, a large number of persons were classified as unemployed on temporary layoff.     |
 |											 |
 | However, there was also a large number of workers who were classified as employed but |
 | absent from work. As was the case in March and April, household survey interviewers   |
 | were instructed to classify employed persons absent from work due to coronavirus-     |
 | related business closures as unemployed on temporary layoff. However, it is apparent  |
 | that not all such workers were so classified. BLS and the Census Bureau are           |
 | investigating why this misclassification error continues to occur and are taking      |
 | additional steps to address the issue.						 |
 |											 |
 | If the workers who were recorded as employed but absent from work due to "other       |
 | reasons" (over and above the number absent for other reasons in a typical May) had    |
 | been classified as unemployed on temporary layoff, the overall unemployment rate      |
 | would have been about 3 percentage points higher than reported (on a not seasonally   |
 | adjusted basis). However, according to usual practice, the data from the household    |
 | survey are accepted as recorded. To maintain data integrity, no ad hoc actions are    |
 | taken to reclassify survey responses. 						 |
 |											 |
 | More information is available at 							 |
 | www.bls.gov/cps/employment-situation-covid19-faq-may-2020.pdf.			 |
 |											 |
 |_______________________________________________________________________________________|




HOUSEHOLD DATA
Summary table A. Household data, seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Category May
2019
Mar.
2020
Apr.
2020
May
2020
Change from:
Apr.
2020-
May
2020

Employment status

Civilian noninstitutional population

258,861 259,758 259,896 260,047 151

Civilian labor force

162,782 162,913 156,481 158,227 1,746

Participation rate

62.9 62.7 60.2 60.8 0.6

Employed

156,844 155,772 133,403 137,242 3,839

Employment-population ratio

60.6 60.0 51.3 52.8 1.5

Unemployed

5,938 7,140 23,078 20,985 -2,093

Unemployment rate

3.6 4.4 14.7 13.3 -1.4

Not in labor force

96,079 96,845 103,415 101,820 -1,595

Unemployment rates

Total, 16 years and over

3.6 4.4 14.7 13.3 -1.4

Adult men (20 years and over)

3.4 4.0 13.0 11.6 -1.4

Adult women (20 years and over)

3.3 4.0 15.5 13.9 -1.6

Teenagers (16 to 19 years)

12.6 14.3 31.9 29.9 -2.0

White

3.3 4.0 14.2 12.4 -1.8

Black or African American

6.2 6.7 16.7 16.8 0.1

Asian

2.5 4.1 14.5 15.0 0.5

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

4.2 6.0 18.9 17.6 -1.3

Total, 25 years and over

2.9 3.5 13.1 11.6 -1.5

Less than a high school diploma

5.4 6.8 21.2 19.9 -1.3

High school graduates, no college

3.6 4.4 17.3 15.3 -2.0

Some college or associate degree

2.8 3.7 15.0 13.3 -1.7

Bachelor's degree and higher

2.1 2.5 8.4 7.4 -1.0

Reason for unemployment

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

2,674 3,946 20,626 18,291 -2,335

Job leavers

809 727 570 554 -16

Reentrants

1,850 1,778 1,477 1,645 168

New entrants

602 509 389 536 147

Duration of unemployment

Less than 5 weeks

2,158 3,542 14,283 3,875 -10,408

5 to 14 weeks

1,572 1,794 7,004 14,814 7,810

15 to 26 weeks

822 808 833 1,078 245

27 weeks and over

1,298 1,164 939 1,164 225

Employed persons at work part time

Part time for economic reasons

4,375 5,765 10,887 10,633 -254

Slack work or business conditions

2,647 4,043 9,939 9,543 -396

Could only find part-time work

1,341 1,321 697 843 146

Part time for noneconomic reasons

21,415 20,601 12,355 14,394 2,039

Persons not in the labor force

Marginally attached to the labor force

1,475 1,426 2,281 2,394 113

Discouraged workers

388 514 574 662 88

NOTE: Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Summary table B. Establishment data, seasonally adjusted
Category May
2019
Mar.
2020
Apr.
2020(p)
May
2020(p)

EMPLOYMENT BY SELECTED INDUSTRY
(Over-the-month change, in thousands)

Total nonfarm

85 -1,373 -20,687 2,509

Total private

87 -1,356 -19,724 3,094

Goods-producing

11 -119 -2,373 669

Mining and logging

2 -8 -54 -20

Construction

9 -65 -995 464

Manufacturing

0 -46 -1,324 225

Durable goods(1)

0 -27 -907 119

Motor vehicles and parts

-0.1 -5.1 -359.2 27.7

Nondurable goods

0 -19 -417 106

Private service-providing

76 -1,237 -17,351 2,425

Wholesale trade

4.0 -12.0 -382.5 21.4

Retail trade

-12.3 -85.4 -2,285.8 367.8

Transportation and warehousing

3.0 -9.9 -553.3 -19.0

Utilities

1.0 -0.2 -3.6 -2.3

Information

8 -6 -272 -38

Financial activities

6 -18 -264 33

Professional and business services(1)

27 -94 -2,189 127

Temporary help services

-3.6 -51.4 -840.5 39.1

Education and health services(1)

30 -178 -2,590 424

Health care and social assistance

26.1 -134.5 -2,128.5 390.7

Leisure and hospitality

12 -743 -7,539 1,239

Other services

-3 -91 -1,272 272

Government

-2 -17 -963 -585

(3-month average change, in thousands)

Total nonfarm

147 -303 -7,270 -6,517

Total private

135 -319 -6,953 -5,995

WOMEN AND PRODUCTION AND NONSUPERVISORY EMPLOYEES
AS A PERCENT OF ALL EMPLOYEES(2)

Total nonfarm women employees

49.9 50.0 49.2 49.2

Total private women employees

48.5 48.6 47.6 47.6

Total private production and nonsupervisory employees

82.3 82.0 80.3 80.5

HOURS AND EARNINGS
ALL EMPLOYEES

Total private

Average weekly hours

34.4 34.1 34.2 34.7

Average hourly earnings

$27.87 $28.69 $30.04 $29.75

Average weekly earnings

$958.73 $978.33 $1,027.37 $1,032.33

Index of aggregate weekly hours (2007=100)(3)

110.6 109.9 93.3 97.3

Over-the-month percent change

0.1 -1.9 -15.1 4.3

Index of aggregate weekly payrolls (2007=100)(4)

147.3 150.7 134.0 138.4

Over-the-month percent change

0.3 -1.3 -11.1 3.3

DIFFUSION INDEX
(Over 1-month span)(5)

Total private (258 industries)

55.2 21.9 3.9 64.0

Manufacturing (76 industries)

47.4 26.3 3.3 70.4

Footnotes
(1) Includes other industries, not shown separately.
(2) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries.
(3) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding annual average aggregate hours.
(4) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding annual average aggregate weekly payrolls.
(5) Figures are the percent of industries with employment increasing plus one-half of the industries with unchanged employment, where 50 percent indicates an equal balance between industries with increasing and decreasing employment.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2019 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


Frequently Asked Questions about Employment and Unemployment Estimates

1. Why are there two monthly measures of employment?

   The household survey and establishment survey both produce sample-based estimates
   of employment, and both have strengths and limitations. The establishment survey
   employment series has a smaller margin of error on the measurement of month-to-
   month change than the household survey because of its much larger sample size. An
   over-the-month employment change of about 100,000 is statistically significant in
   the establishment survey, while the threshold for a statistically significant change
   in the household survey is about 500,000. However, the household survey has a more
   expansive scope than the establishment survey because it includes self-employed
   workers whose businesses are unincorporated, unpaid family workers, agricultural
   workers, and private household workers, who are excluded by the establishment survey.
   The household survey also provides estimates of employment for demographic groups.
   For more information on the differences between the two surveys, please visit
   https://www.bls.gov/web/empsit/ces_cps_trends.htm.

2. Are undocumented immigrants counted in the surveys?

   It is likely that both surveys include at least some undocumented immigrants. However,
   neither the establishment nor the household survey is designed to identify the legal
   status of workers. Therefore, it is not possible to determine how many are counted in
   either survey. The establishment survey does not collect data on the legal status of
   workers. The household survey does include questions which identify the foreign and
   native born, but it does not include questions about the legal status of the foreign
   born. Data on the foreign and native born are published each month in table A-7 of
   The Employment Situation news release.

3. Why does the establishment survey have revisions?

   The establishment survey revises published estimates to improve its data series by
   incorporating additional information that was not available at the time of the
   initial publication of the estimates. The establishment survey revises its initial
   monthly estimates twice, in the immediately succeeding 2 months, to incorporate
   additional sample receipts from respondents in the survey and recalculated seasonal
   adjustment factors. For more information on the monthly revisions, please visit
   https://www.bls.gov/ces/cesrevinfo.htm.

   On an annual basis, the establishment survey incorporates a benchmark revision that
   re-anchors estimates to nearly complete employment counts available from unemployment
   insurance tax records. The benchmark helps to control for sampling and modeling errors
   in the estimates. For more information on the annual benchmark revision, please visit
   https://www.bls.gov/web/empsit/cesbmart.htm.

4. Does the establishment survey sample include small firms?

   Yes; about 40 percent of the establishment survey sample is comprised of business
   establishments with fewer than 20 employees. The establishment survey sample is
   designed to maximize the reliability of the statewide total nonfarm employment
   estimate; firms from all states, size classes, and industries are appropriately
   sampled to achieve that goal.

5. Does the establishment survey account for employment from new businesses?

   Yes; monthly establishment survey estimates include an adjustment to account for
   the net employment change generated by business births and deaths. The adjustment
   comes from an econometric model that forecasts the monthly net jobs impact of
   business births and deaths based on the actual past values of the net impact that
   can be observed with a lag from the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages. The
   establishment survey uses modeling rather than sampling for this purpose because
   the survey is not immediately able to bring new businesses into the sample. There
   is an unavoidable lag between the birth of a new firm and its appearance on the
   sampling frame and availability for selection. BLS adds new businesses to the survey
   twice a year.

6. Is the count of unemployed persons limited to just those people receiving unemployment
   insurance benefits?

   No; the estimate of unemployment is based on a monthly sample survey of households.
   All persons who are without jobs and are actively seeking and available to work are
   included among the unemployed. (People on temporary layoff are included even if
   they do not actively seek work.) There is no requirement or question relating to
   unemployment insurance benefits in the monthly survey.

7. Does the official unemployment rate exclude people who want a job but are not currently
   looking for work?

   Yes; however, there are separate estimates of persons outside the labor force who
   want a job, including those who are not currently looking because they believe no
   jobs are available (discouraged workers). In addition, alternative measures of labor
   underutilization (some of which include discouraged workers and other groups not
   officially counted as unemployed) are published each month in table A-15 of The
   Employment Situation news release. For more information about these alternative
   measures, please visit https://www.bls.gov/cps/lfcharacteristics.htm#altmeasures.

8. How can unusually severe weather affect employment and hours estimates?

   In the establishment survey, the reference period is the pay period that includes
   the 12th of the month. Unusually severe weather is more likely to have an impact on
   average weekly hours than on employment. Average weekly hours are estimated for paid
   time during the pay period, including pay for holidays, sick leave, or other time off.
   The impact of severe weather on hours estimates typically, but not always, results in
   a reduction in average weekly hours. For example, some employees may be off work for
   part of the pay period and not receive pay for the time missed, while some workers,
   such as those dealing with cleanup or repair, may work extra hours.
   
   Typically, it is not possible to precisely quantify the effect of extreme weather on 
   payroll employment estimates. In order for severe weather conditions to reduce
   employment estimates, employees have to be off work without pay for the entire pay
   period. Employees who receive pay for any part of the pay period, even 1 hour, are
   counted in the payroll employment figures. For more information on how often employees
   are paid, please visit https://www.bls.gov/opub/btn/volume-3/how-frequently-do-private-
   businesses-pay-workers.htm.

   In the household survey, the reference period is generally the calendar week that
   includes the 12th of the month. Persons who miss the entire week's work for weather-
   related events are counted as employed whether or not they are paid for the time
   off. The household survey collects data on the number of persons who had a job but
   were not at work due to bad weather. It also provides a measure of the number of
   persons who usually work full time but had reduced hours due to bad weather. 
   Current and historical data are available on the household survey's most requested
   statistics page, please visit https://data.bls.gov/cgi-bin/surveymost?ln.




Technical Note


   This news release presents statistics from two major surveys, the Current
Population Survey (CPS; household survey) and the Current Employment Statistics
survey (CES; establishment survey). The household survey provides information
on the labor force, employment, and unemployment that appears in the "A" tables,
marked HOUSEHOLD DATA. It is a sample survey of about 60,000 eligible households
conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau for the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS).

   The establishment survey provides information on employment, hours, and
earnings of employees on nonfarm payrolls; the data appear in the "B" tables,
marked ESTABLISHMENT DATA. BLS collects these data each month from the payroll
records of a sample of nonagricultural business establishments. Each month
the CES program surveys about 145,000 businesses and government agencies,
representing approximately 697,000 individual worksites, in order to provide
detailed industry data on employment, hours, and earnings of workers on nonfarm
payrolls. The active sample includes approximately one-third of all nonfarm
payroll jobs.

   For both surveys, the data for a given month relate to a particular week or
pay period. In the household survey, the reference period is generally the
calendar week that contains the 12th day of the month. In the establishment
survey, the reference period is the pay period including the 12th, which may or
may not correspond directly to the calendar week.

Coverage, definitions, and differences between surveys

   Household survey. The sample is selected to reflect the entire civilian 
noninstitutional population. Based on responses to a series of questions on 
work and job search activities, each person 16 years and over in a sample
household is classified as employed, unemployed, or not in the labor force.

   People are classified as employed if they did any work at all as paid employees
during the reference week; worked in their own business, profession, or on their
own farm; or worked without pay at least 15 hours in a family business or farm.
People are also counted as employed if they were temporarily absent from their jobs
because of illness, bad weather, vacation, labor-management disputes, or personal
reasons.

   People are classified as unemployed if they meet all of the following criteria:
they had no employment during the reference week; they were available for work at
that time; and they made specific active efforts to find employment sometime during
the 4-week period ending with the reference week. Persons laid off from a job and
expecting recall need not be looking for work to be counted as unemployed. The
unemployment data derived from the household survey in no way depend upon the
eligibility for or receipt of unemployment insurance benefits.

   The civilian labor force is the sum of employed and unemployed persons.
Those persons not classified as employed or unemployed are not in the labor 
force. The unemployment rate is the number unemployed as a percent of the 
labor force. The labor force participation rate is the labor force as a 
percent of the population, and the employment-population ratio is the 
employed as a percent of the population. Additional information about the 
household survey can be found at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm.

   Establishment survey. The sample establishments are drawn from private
nonfarm businesses such as factories, offices, and stores, as well as
from federal, state, and local government entities. Employees on nonfarm
payrolls are those who worked or received pay for any part of the reference pay
period, including persons on paid leave. Persons are counted in each job
they hold. Hours and earnings data are produced for the private sector for
all employees and for production and nonsupervisory employees. Production
and nonsupervisory employees are defined as production and related employees
in manufacturing and mining and logging, construction workers in construction,
and nonsupervisory employees in private service-providing industries.

   Industries are classified on the basis of an establishment's principal
activity in accordance with the 2017 version of the North American Industry
Classification System. Additional information about the establishment survey
can be found at www.bls.gov/ces/.

   Differences in employment estimates. The numerous conceptual and methodological
differences between the household and establishment surveys result in important
distinctions in the employment estimates derived from the surveys. Among these are:

   --The household survey includes agricultural workers, self-employed workers
     whose businesses are unincorporated, unpaid family workers, and private
     household workers among the employed. These groups are excluded from the
     establishment survey.

   --The household survey includes people on unpaid leave among the employed.
     The establishment survey does not.

   --The household survey is limited to workers 16 years of age and older.
     The establishment survey is not limited by age.

   --The household survey has no duplication of individuals, because
     individuals are counted only once, even if they hold more than one
     job. In the establishment survey, employees working at more than one
     job and thus appearing on more than one payroll are counted separately
     for each appearance.

Seasonal adjustment

   Over the course of a year, the size of the nation's labor force and the levels
of employment and unemployment undergo regularly occurring fluctuations. These 
events may result from seasonal changes in weather, major holidays, and the opening
and closing of schools. The effect of such seasonal variation can be very large.

   Because these seasonal events follow a more or less regular pattern each year,
their influence on the level of a series can be tempered by adjusting for regular
seasonal variation. These adjustments make nonseasonal developments, such as
declines in employment or increases in the participation of women in the labor
force, easier to spot. For example, in the household survey, the large number of
youth entering the labor force each June is likely to obscure any other changes
that have taken place relative to May, making it difficult to determine if the 
level of economic activity has risen or declined. Similarly, in the establishment
survey, payroll employment in education declines by about 20 percent at the end
of the spring term and later rises with the start of the fall term, obscuring the
underlying employment trends in the industry. Because seasonal employment changes
at the end and beginning of the school year can be estimated, the statistics can be
adjusted to make underlying employment patterns more discernable.  The seasonally
adjusted figures provide a more useful tool with which to analyze changes in
month-to-month economic activity.

   Many seasonally adjusted series are independently adjusted in both the household
and establishment surveys. However, the adjusted series for many major estimates,
such as total payroll employment, employment in most major sectors, total employment,
and unemployment are computed by aggregating independently adjusted component series.
For example, total unemployment is derived by summing the adjusted series for four
major age-sex components; this differs from the unemployment estimate that would be
obtained by directly adjusting the total or by combining the duration, reasons, or 
more detailed age categories. Percentage distributions of unemployment by reason and
duration are derived from the sum of the independently seasonally adjusted component
series, and will not necessarily match calculations made using the seasonally adjusted
total unemployment level. Additional information about seasonal adjustment in the 
household survey can be found at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#sa.

   For both the household and establishment surveys, a concurrent seasonal adjustment
methodology is used in which new seasonal factors are calculated each month using all
relevant data, up to and including the data for the current month. In the household
survey, new seasonal factors are used to adjust only the current month's data. In the
establishment survey, however, new seasonal factors are used each month to adjust the
three most recent monthly estimates. The prior 2 months are routinely revised to
incorporate additional sample reports and recalculated seasonal adjustment factors.
In both surveys, 5-year revisions to historical data are made once a year.

Reliability of the estimates

   Statistics based on the household and establishment surveys are subject to both
sampling and nonsampling error. When a sample, rather than the entire population,
is surveyed, there is a chance that the sample estimates may differ from the true
population values they represent. The component of this difference that occurs
because samples differ by chance is known as sampling error, and its variability
is measured by the standard error of the estimate. There is about a 90-percent
chance, or level of confidence, that an estimate based on a sample will differ by
no more than 1.6 standard errors from the true population value because of sampling
error. BLS analyses are generally conducted at the 90-percent level of confidence.

   For example, the confidence interval for the monthly change in total nonfarm
employment from the establishment survey is on the order of plus or minus 110,000.
Suppose the estimate of nonfarm employment increases by 50,000 from one month to
the next. The 90-percent confidence interval on the monthly change would range from
-60,000 to +160,000 (50,000 +/- 110,000). These figures do not mean that the sample
results are off by these magnitudes, but rather that there is about a 90-percent
chance that the true over-the-month change lies within this interval. Since this
range includes values of less than zero, we could not say with confidence that
nonfarm employment had, in fact, increased that month. If, however, the reported
nonfarm employment rise was 250,000, then all of the values within the 90-percent
confidence interval would be greater than zero. In this case, it is likely (at
least a 90-percent chance) that nonfarm employment had, in fact, risen that month.
At an unemployment rate of around 6.0 percent, the 90-percent confidence interval
for the monthly change in unemployment as measured by the household survey is
about +/- 300,000, and for the monthly change in the unemployment rate it is about
+/- 0.2 percentage point.

   In general, estimates involving many individuals or establishments have lower
standard errors (relative to the size of the estimate) than estimates which are based
on a small number of observations. The precision of estimates also is improved when
the data are cumulated over time, such as for quarterly and annual averages.

   The household and establishment surveys are also affected by nonsampling error,
which can occur for many reasons, including the failure to sample a segment of the
population, inability to obtain information for all respondents in the sample,
inability or unwillingness of respondents to provide correct information on a
timely basis, mistakes made by respondents, and errors made in the collection or
processing of the data.

   For example, in the establishment survey, estimates for the most recent 2 months
are based on incomplete returns; for this reason, these estimates are labeled
preliminary in the tables. It is only after two successive revisions to a monthly
estimate, when nearly all sample reports have been received, that the estimate is
considered final.

   Another major source of nonsampling error in the establishment survey is the
inability to capture, on a timely basis, employment generated by new firms. To
correct for this systematic underestimation of employment growth, an estimation
procedure with two components is used to account for business births. The first
component excludes employment losses from business deaths from sample-based
estimation in order to offset the missing employment gains from business births.
This is incorporated into the sample-based estimation procedure by simply not
reflecting sample units going out of business, but imputing to them the same
employment trend as the other firms in the sample. This procedure accounts for
most of the net birth/death employment.

   The second component is an ARIMA time series model designed to estimate the
residual net birth/death employment not accounted for by the imputation. The
historical time series used to create and test the ARIMA model was derived from
the unemployment insurance universe micro-level database, and reflects the actual
residual net of births and deaths over the past 5 years.

   The sample-based estimates from the establishment survey are adjusted once a
year (on a lagged basis) to universe counts of payroll employment obtained from
administrative records of the unemployment insurance program. The difference 
between the March sample-based employment estimates and the March universe counts
is known as a benchmark revision, and serves as a rough proxy for total survey
error. The new benchmarks also incorporate changes in the classification of
industries. Over the past decade, absolute benchmark revisions for total nonfarm
employment have averaged 0.2 percent, with a range from -0.7 percent to 0.3 percent.

Other information

   Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired
individuals upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay
Service: (800) 877-8339.




HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-1. Employment status of the civilian population by sex and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
May
2019
Apr.
2020
May
2020
May
2019
Jan.
2020
Feb.
2020
Mar.
2020
Apr.
2020
May
2020

TOTAL

Civilian noninstitutional population

258,861 259,896 260,047 258,861 259,502 259,628 259,758 259,896 260,047

Civilian labor force

162,655 155,830 157,975 162,782 164,606 164,546 162,913 156,481 158,227

Participation rate

62.8 60.0 60.7 62.9 63.4 63.4 62.7 60.2 60.8

Employed

157,152 133,326 137,461 156,844 158,714 158,759 155,772 133,403 137,242

Employment-population ratio

60.7 51.3 52.9 60.6 61.2 61.1 60.0 51.3 52.8

Unemployed

5,503 22,504 20,514 5,938 5,892 5,787 7,140 23,078 20,985

Unemployment rate

3.4 14.4 13.0 3.6 3.6 3.5 4.4 14.7 13.3

Not in labor force

96,207 104,066 102,072 96,079 94,896 95,082 96,845 103,415 101,820

Persons who currently want a job

5,500 9,761 9,422 5,037 4,904 4,962 5,509 9,916 8,962

Men, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

125,197 125,707 125,782 125,197 125,513 125,575 125,639 125,707 125,782

Civilian labor force

86,532 82,820 83,963 86,412 87,088 87,008 86,123 83,139 83,900

Participation rate

69.1 65.9 66.8 69.0 69.4 69.3 68.5 66.1 66.7

Employed

83,561 71,810 74,004 83,213 83,940 83,871 82,357 71,916 73,702

Employment-population ratio

66.7 57.1 58.8 66.5 66.9 66.8 65.6 57.2 58.6

Unemployed

2,971 11,010 9,959 3,199 3,147 3,137 3,765 11,223 10,199

Unemployment rate

3.4 13.3 11.9 3.7 3.6 3.6 4.4 13.5 12.2

Not in labor force

38,665 42,887 41,818 38,785 38,426 38,568 39,516 42,569 41,881

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

116,752 117,330 117,410 116,752 117,110 117,181 117,254 117,330 117,410

Civilian labor force

83,785 80,379 81,240 83,569 84,087 84,001 83,176 80,461 81,057

Participation rate

71.8 68.5 69.2 71.6 71.8 71.7 70.9 68.6 69.0

Employed

81,192 70,041 72,076 80,761 81,345 81,202 79,832 69,977 71,672

Employment-population ratio

69.5 59.7 61.4 69.2 69.5 69.3 68.1 59.6 61.0

Unemployed

2,594 10,338 9,164 2,808 2,743 2,799 3,344 10,483 9,385

Unemployment rate

3.1 12.9 11.3 3.4 3.3 3.3 4.0 13.0 11.6

Not in labor force

32,967 36,951 36,170 33,184 33,023 33,180 34,078 36,870 36,352

Women, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

133,664 134,189 134,265 133,664 133,988 134,053 134,119 134,189 134,265

Civilian labor force

76,122 73,010 74,011 76,370 77,518 77,538 76,790 73,343 74,327

Participation rate

57.0 54.4 55.1 57.1 57.9 57.8 57.3 54.7 55.4

Employed

73,591 61,516 63,457 73,631 74,774 74,888 73,415 61,487 63,540

Employment-population ratio

55.1 45.8 47.3 55.1 55.8 55.9 54.7 45.8 47.3

Unemployed

2,532 11,494 10,554 2,739 2,744 2,651 3,375 11,855 10,787

Unemployment rate

3.3 15.7 14.3 3.6 3.5 3.4 4.4 16.2 14.5

Not in labor force

57,542 61,179 60,254 57,294 56,470 56,514 57,329 60,847 59,938

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

125,419 125,991 126,072 125,419 125,770 125,841 125,915 125,991 126,072

Civilian labor force

73,263 70,790 71,316 73,439 74,512 74,501 73,840 70,913 71,558

Participation rate

58.4 56.2 56.6 58.6 59.2 59.2 58.6 56.3 56.8

Employed

71,072 60,124 61,630 71,038 72,097 72,179 70,886 59,947 61,638

Employment-population ratio

56.7 47.7 48.9 56.6 57.3 57.4 56.3 47.6 48.9

Unemployed

2,191 10,666 9,686 2,401 2,415 2,323 2,954 10,966 9,920

Unemployment rate

3.0 15.1 13.6 3.3 3.2 3.1 4.0 15.5 13.9

Not in labor force

52,156 55,202 54,755 51,980 51,258 51,340 52,075 55,079 54,514

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian noninstitutional population

16,690 16,574 16,566 16,690 16,622 16,606 16,590 16,574 16,566

Civilian labor force

5,607 4,661 5,419 5,774 6,007 6,043 5,897 5,108 5,612

Participation rate

33.6 28.1 32.7 34.6 36.1 36.4 35.5 30.8 33.9

Employed

4,888 3,161 3,755 5,044 5,273 5,378 5,054 3,479 3,932

Employment-population ratio

29.3 19.1 22.7 30.2 31.7 32.4 30.5 21.0 23.7

Unemployed

718 1,500 1,663 730 734 665 843 1,628 1,681

Unemployment rate

12.8 32.2 30.7 12.6 12.2 11.0 14.3 31.9 29.9

Not in labor force

11,084 11,913 11,147 10,916 10,614 10,562 10,693 11,467 10,953

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-2. Employment status of the civilian population by race, sex, and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, race, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
May
2019
Apr.
2020
May
2020
May
2019
Jan.
2020
Feb.
2020
Mar.
2020
Apr.
2020
May
2020

WHITE

Civilian noninstitutional population

200,658 201,082 201,154 200,658 200,918 200,968 201,023 201,082 201,154

Civilian labor force

126,042 120,795 122,552 126,091 127,288 127,146 126,021 121,242 122,661

Participation rate

62.8 60.1 60.9 62.8 63.4 63.3 62.7 60.3 61.0

Employed

122,269 104,083 107,761 121,970 123,332 123,189 121,042 104,065 107,499

Employment-population ratio

60.9 51.8 53.6 60.8 61.4 61.3 60.2 51.8 53.4

Unemployed

3,773 16,713 14,792 4,121 3,957 3,957 4,979 17,176 15,162

Unemployment rate

3.0 13.8 12.1 3.3 3.1 3.1 4.0 14.2 12.4

Not in labor force

74,616 80,287 78,602 74,568 73,630 73,821 75,002 79,840 78,493

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

66,179 63,595 64,294 65,980 66,279 66,153 65,522 63,645 64,125

Participation rate

72.0 69.0 69.7 71.8 72.0 71.8 71.1 69.1 69.5

Employed

64,412 55,863 57,633 64,041 64,341 64,204 63,120 55,776 57,263

Employment-population ratio

70.1 60.6 62.5 69.7 69.9 69.7 68.5 60.5 62.1

Unemployed

1,767 7,732 6,661 1,938 1,938 1,950 2,402 7,869 6,862

Unemployment rate

2.7 12.2 10.4 2.9 2.9 2.9 3.7 12.4 10.7

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

55,457 53,581 54,129 55,600 56,324 56,247 55,878 53,634 54,294

Participation rate

57.5 55.4 55.9 57.6 58.3 58.2 57.8 55.4 56.1

Employed

53,957 45,735 47,194 53,930 54,807 54,692 53,878 45,563 47,195

Employment-population ratio

55.9 47.3 48.8 55.9 56.7 56.6 55.7 47.1 48.8

Unemployed

1,500 7,846 6,935 1,670 1,517 1,555 2,000 8,071 7,099

Unemployment rate

2.7 14.6 12.8 3.0 2.7 2.8 3.6 15.0 13.1

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

4,407 3,620 4,129 4,511 4,686 4,746 4,621 3,963 4,242

Participation rate

36.0 29.8 34.0 36.8 38.4 39.0 38.0 32.6 34.9

Employed

3,900 2,485 2,934 3,999 4,184 4,294 4,043 2,727 3,041

Employment-population ratio

31.8 20.4 24.1 32.6 34.3 35.2 33.2 22.4 25.0

Unemployed

507 1,135 1,196 513 502 452 578 1,236 1,202

Unemployment rate

11.5 31.3 29.0 11.4 10.7 9.5 12.5 31.2 28.3

BLACK OR AFRICAN AMERICAN

Civilian noninstitutional population

32,984 33,267 33,294 32,984 33,184 33,211 33,238 33,267 33,294

Civilian labor force

20,547 19,425 19,815 20,567 20,790 20,946 20,596 19,487 19,858

Participation rate

62.3 58.4 59.5 62.4 62.6 63.1 62.0 58.6 59.6

Employed

19,335 16,248 16,530 19,302 19,549 19,730 19,208 16,240 16,523

Employment-population ratio

58.6 48.8 49.6 58.5 58.9 59.4 57.8 48.8 49.6

Unemployed

1,212 3,177 3,285 1,265 1,241 1,216 1,387 3,247 3,334

Unemployment rate

5.9 16.4 16.6 6.2 6.0 5.8 6.7 16.7 16.8

Not in labor force

12,437 13,841 13,479 12,417 12,395 12,266 12,642 13,780 13,436

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

9,444 8,856 8,979 9,418 9,445 9,499 9,477 8,880 8,970

Participation rate

68.2 63.2 64.0 68.0 67.6 68.0 67.7 63.4 63.9

Employed

8,887 7,431 7,606 8,840 8,918 8,945 8,812 7,448 7,583

Employment-population ratio

64.2 53.0 54.2 63.8 63.9 64.0 63.0 53.2 54.1

Unemployed

557 1,425 1,373 579 526 554 665 1,432 1,388

Unemployment rate

5.9 16.1 15.3 6.1 5.6 5.8 7.0 16.1 15.5

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

10,446 9,997 10,065 10,480 10,617 10,721 10,374 9,995 10,097

Participation rate

62.7 59.4 59.7 62.9 63.3 63.8 61.7 59.4 59.9

Employed

9,949 8,413 8,439 9,947 10,067 10,207 9,830 8,351 8,426

Employment-population ratio

59.7 50.0 50.1 59.7 60.0 60.8 58.5 49.6 50.0

Unemployed

497 1,584 1,627 533 550 514 543 1,644 1,671

Unemployment rate

4.8 15.8 16.2 5.1 5.2 4.8 5.2 16.4 16.5

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

657 573 771 669 728 725 745 612 791

Participation rate

26.7 23.6 31.8 27.1 29.8 29.8 30.7 25.2 32.7

Employed

499 405 485 516 564 578 566 441 515

Employment-population ratio

20.3 16.7 20.0 20.9 23.1 23.7 23.3 18.2 21.3

Unemployed

158 168 285 153 164 148 180 171 276

Unemployment rate

24.0 29.4 37.0 22.9 22.5 20.4 24.1 28.0 34.9

ASIAN

Civilian noninstitutional population

16,361 16,363 16,385 16,361 16,178 16,421 16,419 16,363 16,385

Civilian labor force

10,290 9,893 9,932 10,317 10,332 10,574 10,470 9,938 9,968

Participation rate

62.9 60.5 60.6 63.1 63.9 64.4 63.8 60.7 60.8

Employed

10,049 8,476 8,462 10,057 10,017 10,312 10,037 8,499 8,475

Employment-population ratio

61.4 51.8 51.6 61.5 61.9 62.8 61.1 51.9 51.7

Unemployed

240 1,418 1,470 260 315 262 433 1,438 1,493

Unemployment rate

2.3 14.3 14.8 2.5 3.0 2.5 4.1 14.5 15.0

Not in labor force

6,072 6,470 6,453 6,045 5,847 5,848 5,948 6,425 6,417

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Estimates for the above race groups will not sum to totals shown in table A-1 because data are not presented for all races. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-3. Employment status of the Hispanic or Latino population by sex and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
May
2019
Apr.
2020
May
2020
May
2019
Jan.
2020
Feb.
2020
Mar.
2020
Apr.
2020
May
2020

HISPANIC OR LATINO ETHNICITY

Civilian noninstitutional population

43,370 43,975 44,053 43,370 43,742 43,820 43,895 43,975 44,053

Civilian labor force

28,680 27,752 28,173 28,704 29,672 29,852 29,443 27,841 28,218

Participation rate

66.1 63.1 64.0 66.2 67.8 68.1 67.1 63.3 64.1

Employed

27,608 22,625 23,321 27,507 28,397 28,531 27,672 22,579 23,241

Employment-population ratio

63.7 51.5 52.9 63.4 64.9 65.1 63.0 51.3 52.8

Unemployed

1,072 5,126 4,852 1,197 1,275 1,322 1,771 5,263 4,977

Unemployment rate

3.7 18.5 17.2 4.2 4.3 4.4 6.0 18.9 17.6

Not in labor force

14,690 16,223 15,880 14,666 14,070 13,968 14,452 16,133 15,834

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

15,732 15,319 15,496 15,728 16,114 16,035 15,844 15,337 15,493

Participation rate

80.4 77.2 77.9 80.3 81.6 81.1 80.0 77.2 77.9

Employed

15,248 12,817 13,217 15,185 15,571 15,519 15,037 12,776 13,154

Employment-population ratio

77.9 64.6 66.5 77.6 78.9 78.5 75.9 64.3 66.1

Unemployed

483 2,502 2,279 543 543 516 807 2,561 2,338

Unemployment rate

3.1 16.3 14.7 3.5 3.4 3.2 5.1 16.7 15.1

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

11,816 11,341 11,490 11,821 12,242 12,441 12,245 11,348 11,510

Participation rate

59.6 56.4 57.0 59.7 61.2 62.1 61.0 56.4 57.1

Employed

11,381 9,090 9,350 11,341 11,701 11,834 11,507 9,060 9,326

Employment-population ratio

57.4 45.2 46.4 57.2 58.5 59.1 57.3 45.0 46.3

Unemployed

436 2,251 2,140 480 541 607 738 2,288 2,184

Unemployment rate

3.7 19.8 18.6 4.1 4.4 4.9 6.0 20.2 19.0

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

1,132 1,092 1,187 1,154 1,316 1,377 1,354 1,157 1,216

Participation rate

28.4 27.3 29.6 29.0 32.9 34.4 33.8 28.9 30.3

Employed

979 719 754 981 1,125 1,177 1,128 743 761

Employment-population ratio

24.6 18.0 18.8 24.6 28.1 29.4 28.2 18.6 19.0

Unemployed

153 373 433 174 191 199 225 414 454

Unemployment rate

13.5 34.2 36.5 15.0 14.5 14.5 16.7 35.8 37.4

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-4. Employment status of the civilian population 25 years and over by educational attainment
[Numbers in thousands]
Educational attainment Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
May
2019
Apr.
2020
May
2020
May
2019
Jan.
2020
Feb.
2020
Mar.
2020
Apr.
2020
May
2020

Less than a high school diploma

Civilian labor force

10,143 8,688 8,450 9,915 9,621 9,710 9,251 8,595 8,212

Participation rate

45.6 43.3 43.1 44.6 45.9 47.8 45.7 42.8 41.9

Employed

9,692 6,872 6,887 9,383 9,090 9,160 8,626 6,774 6,577

Employment-population ratio

43.6 34.2 35.1 42.2 43.4 45.1 42.6 33.7 33.5

Unemployed

451 1,816 1,563 532 531 550 625 1,821 1,634

Unemployment rate

4.4 20.9 18.5 5.4 5.5 5.7 6.8 21.2 19.9

High school graduates, no college(1)

Civilian labor force

35,840 33,203 33,756 35,830 36,230 36,309 35,232 33,252 33,792

Participation rate

57.5 54.5 55.0 57.5 58.7 58.3 57.4 54.6 55.0

Employed

34,664 27,557 28,708 34,552 34,861 34,986 33,687 27,505 28,605

Employment-population ratio

55.6 45.2 46.8 55.4 56.5 56.2 54.9 45.1 46.6

Unemployed

1,176 5,646 5,048 1,278 1,369 1,323 1,545 5,747 5,187

Unemployment rate

3.3 17.0 15.0 3.6 3.8 3.6 4.4 17.3 15.3

Some college or associate degree

Civilian labor force

37,559 35,935 36,278 37,642 37,283 37,325 37,381 35,860 36,381

Participation rate

65.2 62.6 63.1 65.3 64.6 64.8 64.7 62.5 63.3

Employed

36,612 30,634 31,581 36,600 36,243 36,209 36,013 30,485 31,559

Employment-population ratio

63.6 53.4 54.9 63.5 62.8 62.9 62.3 53.1 54.9

Unemployed

947 5,301 4,697 1,042 1,040 1,116 1,368 5,376 4,821

Unemployment rate

2.5 14.8 12.9 2.8 2.8 3.0 3.7 15.0 13.3

Bachelor's degree and higher(2)

Civilian labor force

58,145 60,075 60,269 58,217 60,176 59,894 60,487 60,127 60,442

Participation rate

73.7 71.5 71.7 73.8 73.7 73.1 73.0 71.6 71.9

Employed

57,007 55,151 55,933 56,973 59,002 58,736 59,000 55,084 55,992

Employment-population ratio

72.2 65.7 66.6 72.2 72.3 71.7 71.2 65.6 66.6

Unemployed

1,137 4,924 4,336 1,244 1,174 1,158 1,487 5,043 4,450

Unemployment rate

2.0 8.2 7.2 2.1 2.0 1.9 2.5 8.4 7.4

Footnotes
(1) Includes persons with a high school diploma or equivalent.
(2) Includes persons with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees.

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals for those 25 years and over because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-5. Employment status of the civilian population 18 years and over by veteran status, period of service, and sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, veteran status, and period of service Total Men Women
May
2019
May
2020
May
2019
May
2020
May
2019
May
2020

VETERANS, 18 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

18,870 18,516 16,989 16,615 1,881 1,901

Civilian labor force

9,267 8,934 8,223 7,861 1,044 1,073

Participation rate

49.1 48.2 48.4 47.3 55.5 56.4

Employed

9,014 8,134 7,998 7,145 1,016 989

Employment-population ratio

47.8 43.9 47.1 43.0 54.0 52.0

Unemployed

253 800 225 716 29 84

Unemployment rate

2.7 9.0 2.7 9.1 2.7 7.8

Not in labor force

9,603 9,582 8,766 8,754 837 828

Gulf War-era II veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

4,302 4,511 3,595 3,755 707 756

Civilian labor force

3,464 3,570 2,992 3,088 472 482

Participation rate

80.5 79.1 83.2 82.2 66.7 63.8

Employed

3,367 3,202 2,910 2,768 457 434

Employment-population ratio

78.3 71.0 80.9 73.7 64.6 57.4

Unemployed

97 369 82 320 15 49

Unemployment rate

2.8 10.3 2.8 10.4 3.1 10.1

Not in labor force

838 941 603 667 235 274

Gulf War-era I veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

3,078 3,031 2,562 2,529 516 502

Civilian labor force

2,337 2,252 2,014 1,903 323 349

Participation rate

75.9 74.3 78.6 75.2 62.7 69.6

Employed

2,287 2,144 1,967 1,813 320 331

Employment-population ratio

74.3 70.7 76.8 71.7 62.0 66.0

Unemployed

50 108 47 90 3 18

Unemployment rate

2.1 4.8 2.3 4.7 1.0 5.2

Not in labor force

741 779 548 626 193 153

World War II, Korean War, and Vietnam-era veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

7,263 6,875 7,013 6,635 250 240

Civilian labor force

1,465 1,224 1,406 1,194 60 31

Participation rate

20.2 17.8 20.0 18.0 23.9 12.7

Employed

1,425 1,079 1,369 1,056 56 22

Employment-population ratio

19.6 15.7 19.5 15.9 22.3 9.4

Unemployed

40 145 36 137 4 8

Unemployment rate

2.7 11.9 2.6 11.5 - -

Not in labor force

5,798 5,651 5,607 5,441 190 209

Veterans of other service periods

Civilian noninstitutional population

4,227 4,099 3,819 3,696 408 403

Civilian labor force

2,001 1,887 1,812 1,677 189 210

Participation rate

47.3 46.0 47.4 45.4 46.4 52.2

Employed

1,935 1,710 1,752 1,508 183 201

Employment-population ratio

45.8 41.7 45.9 40.8 44.8 50.0

Unemployed

66 178 60 169 7 9

Unemployment rate

3.3 9.4 3.3 10.1 3.4 4.3

Not in labor force

2,226 2,212 2,007 2,019 219 193

NONVETERANS, 18 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

231,312 232,888 103,735 104,870 127,577 128,018

Civilian labor force

151,517 147,156 77,350 75,234 74,166 71,923

Participation rate

65.5 63.2 74.6 71.7 58.1 56.2

Employed

146,537 128,043 74,764 66,250 71,773 61,793

Employment-population ratio

63.4 55.0 72.1 63.2 56.3 48.3

Unemployed

4,980 19,113 2,586 8,984 2,394 10,129

Unemployment rate

3.3 13.0 3.3 11.9 3.2 14.1

Not in labor force

79,795 85,732 26,384 29,637 53,410 56,095

NOTE: Veterans served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces and were not on active duty at the time of the survey. Nonveterans never served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces. Veterans could have served anywhere in the world during these periods of service: Gulf War era II (September 2001-present), Gulf War era I (August 1990-August 2001), Vietnam era (August 1964-April 1975), Korean War (July 1950-January 1955), World War II (December 1941-December 1946), and other service periods (all other time periods). Veterans who served in more than one wartime period are classified only in the most recent one. Veterans who served during one of the selected wartime periods and another period are classified only in the wartime period. Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria (values not shown where base is less than 75,000). Updated population controls introduced with the release of January 2020 data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-6. Employment status of the civilian population by sex, age, and disability status, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Persons with a disability Persons with no disability
May
2019
May
2020
May
2019
May
2020

TOTAL, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

30,764 29,761 228,097 230,286

Civilian labor force

6,326 6,064 156,328 151,910

Participation rate

20.6 20.4 68.5 66.0

Employed

5,929 4,976 151,223 132,485

Employment-population ratio

19.3 16.7 66.3 57.5

Unemployed

397 1,088 5,106 19,426

Unemployment rate

6.3 17.9 3.3 12.8

Not in labor force

24,438 23,696 71,769 78,376

Men, 16 to 64 years

Civilian labor force

2,707 2,738 77,968 75,633

Participation rate

36.1 36.8 82.8 80.5

Employed

2,514 2,249 75,323 66,766

Employment-population ratio

33.6 30.2 80.0 71.1

Unemployed

193 489 2,645 8,866

Unemployment rate

7.1 17.8 3.4 11.7

Not in labor force

4,781 4,709 16,141 18,313

Women, 16 to 64 years

Civilian labor force

2,371 2,245 69,079 67,264

Participation rate

29.6 31.5 71.5 69.2

Employed

2,238 1,790 66,819 57,888

Employment-population ratio

28.0 25.1 69.1 59.6

Unemployed

133 455 2,260 9,375

Unemployment rate

5.6 20.3 3.3 13.9

Not in labor force

5,633 4,891 27,596 29,943

Both sexes, 65 years and over

Civilian labor force

1,248 1,081 9,282 9,014

Participation rate

8.2 7.1 24.9 23.0

Employed

1,177 937 9,080 7,830

Employment-population ratio

7.7 6.2 24.3 20.0

Unemployed

71 145 202 1,184

Unemployment rate

5.7 13.4 2.2 13.1

Not in labor force

14,024 14,096 28,032 30,120

NOTE: A person with a disability has at least one of the following conditions: is deaf or has serious difficulty hearing; is blind or has serious difficulty seeing even when wearing glasses; has serious difficulty concentrating, remembering, or making decisions because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition; has serious difficulty walking or climbing stairs; has difficulty dressing or bathing; or has difficulty doing errands alone such as visiting a doctor's office or shopping because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-7. Employment status of the civilian population by nativity and sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status and nativity Total Men Women
May
2019
May
2020
May
2019
May
2020
May
2019
May
2020

Foreign born, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

43,408 42,496 20,918 20,354 22,490 22,142

Civilian labor force

28,473 26,622 16,347 15,276 12,126 11,346

Participation rate

65.6 62.6 78.1 75.1 53.9 51.2

Employed

27,678 22,434 15,976 13,178 11,702 9,256

Employment-population ratio

63.8 52.8 76.4 64.7 52.0 41.8

Unemployed

795 4,188 371 2,098 424 2,090

Unemployment rate

2.8 15.7 2.3 13.7 3.5 18.4

Not in labor force

14,935 15,874 4,571 5,078 10,364 10,796

Native born, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

215,453 217,551 104,279 105,428 111,174 112,123

Civilian labor force

134,182 131,353 70,186 68,688 63,996 62,665

Participation rate

62.3 60.4 67.3 65.2 57.6 55.9

Employed

129,474 115,027 67,586 60,826 61,889 54,201

Employment-population ratio

60.1 52.9 64.8 57.7 55.7 48.3

Unemployed

4,707 16,326 2,600 7,861 2,107 8,465

Unemployment rate

3.5 12.4 3.7 11.4 3.3 13.5

Not in labor force

81,271 86,198 34,094 36,740 47,178 49,458

NOTE: The foreign born are those residing in the United States who were not U.S. citizens at birth. That is, they were born outside the United States or one of its outlying areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam, to parents neither of whom was a U.S. citizen. The native born are persons who were born in the United States or one of its outlying areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam or who were born abroad of at least one parent who was a U.S. citizen. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-8. Employed persons by class of worker and part-time status
[In thousands]
Category Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
May
2019
Apr.
2020
May
2020
May
2019
Jan.
2020
Feb.
2020
Mar.
2020
Apr.
2020
May
2020

CLASS OF WORKER

Agriculture and related industries

2,476 2,303 2,365 2,423 2,412 2,466 2,399 2,424 2,341

Wage and salary workers(1)

1,744 1,585 1,568 1,713 1,750 1,829 1,715 1,695 1,568

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

706 693 764 694 647 645 660 701 738

Unpaid family workers

25 25 33 - - - - - -

Nonagricultural industries

154,677 131,023 135,096 154,486 156,337 156,283 153,359 131,052 134,965

Wage and salary workers(1)

145,859 123,485 127,045 145,718 147,467 147,347 144,494 123,401 126,942

Government

20,992 19,485 19,879 20,776 21,390 20,943 21,081 19,156 19,692

Private industries

124,867 104,001 107,166 124,904 126,042 126,282 123,412 104,200 107,228

Private households

807 492 498 - - - - - -

Other industries

124,060 103,509 106,667 124,090 125,234 125,487 122,693 103,713 106,723

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

8,786 7,514 8,010 8,724 8,808 8,897 8,818 7,544 7,945

Unpaid family workers

31 23 41 - - - - - -

PERSONS AT WORK PART TIME(2)

All industries

Part time for economic reasons(3)

4,160 10,684 10,429 4,375 4,182 4,318 5,765 10,887 10,633

Slack work or business conditions

2,490 9,843 9,369 2,647 2,655 2,776 4,043 9,939 9,543

Could only find part-time work

1,383 728 892 1,341 1,294 1,317 1,321 697 843

Part time for noneconomic reasons(4)

21,672 13,149 14,669 21,415 22,154 22,175 20,601 12,355 14,394

Nonagricultural industries

Part time for economic reasons(3)

4,070 10,524 10,286 4,269 4,091 4,225 5,681 10,730 10,485

Slack work or business conditions

2,423 9,694 9,237 2,569 2,580 2,719 3,965 9,780 9,408

Could only find part-time work

1,379 723 888 1,334 1,308 1,313 1,312 695 836

Part time for noneconomic reasons(4)

21,321 12,779 14,289 21,075 21,784 21,770 20,236 11,971 14,009

Footnotes
(1) Includes self-employed workers whose businesses are incorporated.
(2) Refers to those who worked 1 to 34 hours during the survey reference week and excludes employed persons who were absent from their jobs for the entire week.
(3) Refers to those who worked 1 to 34 hours during the reference week for an economic reason such as slack work or unfavorable business conditions, inability to find full-time work, or seasonal declines in demand.
(4) Refers to persons who usually work part time for noneconomic reasons such as childcare problems, family or personal obligations, school or training, retirement or Social Security limits on earnings, and other reasons. This excludes persons who usually work full time but worked only 1 to 34 hours during the reference week for reasons such as vacations, holidays, illness, and bad weather.

- Data not available.
NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-9. Selected employment indicators
[Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
May
2019
Apr.
2020
May
2020
May
2019
Jan.
2020
Feb.
2020
Mar.
2020
Apr.
2020
May
2020

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

157,152 133,326 137,461 156,844 158,714 158,759 155,772 133,403 137,242

16 to 19 years

4,888 3,161 3,755 5,044 5,273 5,378 5,054 3,479 3,932

16 to 17 years

1,601 1,101 1,284 1,711 1,949 1,972 1,800 1,302 1,420

18 to 19 years

3,287 2,060 2,471 3,308 3,311 3,401 3,269 2,154 2,495

20 years and over

152,264 130,165 133,706 151,799 153,441 153,381 150,719 129,924 133,310

20 to 24 years

14,288 9,951 10,596 14,309 14,214 14,278 13,428 10,023 10,608

25 years and over

137,975 120,214 123,109 137,468 139,215 139,188 137,392 119,906 122,691

25 to 54 years

100,933 87,910 90,147 100,662 101,487 101,426 100,313 87,769 89,943

25 to 34 years

35,703 30,456 31,356 35,628 36,129 36,123 35,501 30,453 31,299

35 to 44 years

33,080 29,658 30,163 32,989 33,412 33,402 33,168 29,607 30,088

45 to 54 years

32,150 27,796 28,628 32,045 31,945 31,901 31,644 27,709 28,555

55 years and over

37,042 32,304 32,963 36,806 37,728 37,762 37,079 32,137 32,748

Men, 16 years and over

83,561 71,810 74,004 83,213 83,940 83,871 82,357 71,916 73,702

16 to 19 years

2,370 1,769 1,928 2,452 2,596 2,669 2,525 1,939 2,030

16 to 17 years

799 566 609 843 860 891 817 632 659

18 to 19 years

1,571 1,203 1,319 1,604 1,733 1,784 1,715 1,277 1,355

20 years and over

81,192 70,041 72,076 80,761 81,345 81,202 79,832 69,977 71,672

20 to 24 years

7,313 5,183 5,475 7,291 7,307 7,272 6,818 5,222 5,445

25 years and over

73,879 64,858 66,601 73,507 74,057 73,982 73,159 64,758 66,271

25 to 54 years

53,919 47,282 48,647 53,720 53,840 53,770 53,374 47,236 48,488

25 to 34 years

19,225 16,390 16,869 19,170 19,145 19,175 19,002 16,396 16,822

35 to 44 years

17,837 16,090 16,408 17,760 17,884 17,874 17,790 16,049 16,335

45 to 54 years

16,856 14,803 15,370 16,790 16,810 16,720 16,582 14,792 15,330

55 years and over

19,960 17,575 17,954 19,787 20,217 20,213 19,785 17,522 17,783

Women, 16 years and over

73,591 61,516 63,457 73,631 74,774 74,888 73,415 61,487 63,540

16 to 19 years

2,518 1,392 1,827 2,592 2,677 2,709 2,529 1,541 1,902

16 to 17 years

802 536 675 868 1,089 1,081 983 670 761

18 to 19 years

1,716 856 1,152 1,704 1,578 1,616 1,554 877 1,140

20 years and over

71,072 60,124 61,630 71,038 72,097 72,179 70,886 59,947 61,638

20 to 24 years

6,976 4,768 5,122 7,018 6,907 7,006 6,610 4,801 5,163

25 years and over

64,097 55,356 56,508 63,962 65,158 65,206 64,232 55,147 56,420

25 to 54 years

47,014 40,627 41,499 46,942 47,647 47,657 46,939 40,533 41,455

25 to 34 years

16,477 14,066 14,487 16,458 16,984 16,949 16,499 14,058 14,478

35 to 44 years

15,242 13,568 13,755 15,229 15,528 15,528 15,378 13,558 13,753

45 to 54 years

15,294 12,993 13,257 15,255 15,135 15,180 15,062 12,917 13,225

55 years and over

17,082 14,729 15,009 17,019 17,510 17,549 17,293 14,615 14,964

MARITAL STATUS

Married men, spouse present(1)

46,041 41,843 43,039 45,805 46,257 46,067 45,920 41,683 42,822

Married women, spouse present(1)

36,167 32,034 33,079 36,017 36,869 36,597 36,353 31,860 32,978

Women who maintain families(2)

9,680 7,908 7,768 - - - - - -

FULL- OR PART-TIME STATUS

Full-time workers(3)

130,059 113,656 116,620 129,830 131,099 131,109 129,298 114,322 116,523

Part-time workers(4)

27,093 19,670 20,841 26,974 27,529 27,726 26,553 19,106 20,741

MULTIPLE JOBHOLDERS

Total multiple jobholders

7,857 5,360 5,509 7,937 8,152 8,070 7,268 5,451 5,598

Percent of total employed

5.0 4.0 4.0 5.1 5.1 5.1 4.7 4.1 4.1

SELF-EMPLOYMENT

Self-employed workers, incorporated

6,061 6,405 6,249 - - - - - -

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

9,493 8,207 8,773 9,417 9,455 9,542 9,478 8,245 8,682

Footnotes
(1) Beginning with data for January 2020, refers to persons in both opposite-sex and same-sex married couples. Prior to January 2020, referred to persons in opposite-sex married couples only.
(2) Beginning with data for January 2020, refers to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not a spouse of either sex. Prior to January 2020, referred to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not an opposite-sex spouse.
(3) Employed full-time workers are persons who usually work 35 hours or more per week.
(4) Employed part-time workers are persons who usually work less than 35 hours per week.

- Data not available.
NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-10. Selected unemployment indicators, seasonally adjusted
Characteristic Number of
unemployed persons
(in thousands)
Unemployment rates
May
2019
Apr.
2020
May
2020
May
2019
Jan.
2020
Feb.
2020
Mar.
2020
Apr.
2020
May
2020

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

5,938 23,078 20,985 3.6 3.6 3.5 4.4 14.7 13.3

16 to 19 years

730 1,628 1,681 12.6 12.2 11.0 14.3 31.9 29.9

16 to 17 years

278 496 613 14.0 11.8 9.8 16.4 27.6 30.1

18 to 19 years

447 1,126 1,058 11.9 12.5 12.0 12.8 34.3 29.8

20 years and over

5,208 21,449 19,305 3.3 3.3 3.2 4.0 14.2 12.6

20 to 24 years

1,076 3,466 3,207 7.0 6.6 6.4 8.7 25.7 23.2

25 years and over

4,104 18,008 16,107 2.9 2.9 2.9 3.5 13.1 11.6

25 to 54 years

3,055 12,909 11,708 2.9 3.0 3.0 3.6 12.8 11.5

25 to 34 years

1,304 5,176 4,857 3.5 3.7 3.7 4.1 14.5 13.4

35 to 44 years

909 3,849 3,414 2.7 2.8 2.8 3.4 11.5 10.2

45 to 54 years

843 3,884 3,436 2.6 2.5 2.5 3.2 12.3 10.7

55 years and over

1,037 5,071 4,398 2.7 2.6 2.6 3.3 13.6 11.8

Men, 16 years and over

3,199 11,223 10,199 3.7 3.6 3.6 4.4 13.5 12.2

16 to 19 years

391 739 814 13.8 13.5 11.2 14.3 27.6 28.6

16 to 17 years

156 168 254 15.6 14.4 10.8 14.8 21.0 27.8

18 to 19 years

235 567 555 12.8 12.9 12.0 13.4 30.8 29.1

20 years and over

2,808 10,483 9,385 3.4 3.3 3.3 4.0 13.0 11.6

20 to 24 years

657 1,601 1,576 8.3 6.8 6.7 9.1 23.5 22.4

25 years and over

2,128 8,886 7,814 2.8 2.9 3.0 3.5 12.1 10.5

25 to 54 years

1,608 6,477 5,773 2.9 3.0 3.1 3.5 12.1 10.6

25 to 34 years

680 2,711 2,512 3.4 3.9 3.9 4.2 14.2 13.0

35 to 44 years

478 1,870 1,709 2.6 2.6 2.8 3.2 10.4 9.5

45 to 54 years

450 1,896 1,552 2.6 2.5 2.5 3.1 11.4 9.2

55 years and over

520 2,409 2,040 2.6 2.6 2.7 3.4 12.1 10.3

Women, 16 years and over

2,739 11,855 10,787 3.6 3.5 3.4 4.4 16.2 14.5

16 to 19 years

338 889 867 11.5 11.0 10.8 14.3 36.6 31.3

16 to 17 years

123 328 358 12.4 9.6 8.9 17.8 32.9 32.0

18 to 19 years

212 558 503 11.1 12.1 12.0 12.1 38.9 30.6

20 years and over

2,401 10,966 9,920 3.3 3.2 3.1 4.0 15.5 13.9

20 to 24 years

419 1,865 1,631 5.6 6.5 6.1 8.3 28.0 24.0

25 years and over

1,976 9,122 8,293 3.0 2.9 2.8 3.5 14.2 12.8

25 to 54 years

1,448 6,432 5,934 3.0 3.0 2.9 3.6 13.7 12.5

25 to 34 years

624 2,464 2,346 3.7 3.5 3.4 4.0 14.9 13.9

35 to 44 years

431 1,979 1,705 2.8 2.9 2.8 3.6 12.7 11.0

45 to 54 years

393 1,988 1,884 2.5 2.5 2.6 3.3 13.3 12.5

55 years and over

537 2,671 2,358 3.1 2.4 2.4 3.3 15.5 13.6

MARITAL STATUS

Married men, spouse present(1)

813 4,457 3,858 1.7 1.7 2.0 2.3 9.7 8.3

Married women, spouse present(1)

873 4,811 4,292 2.4 2.1 2.2 3.0 13.1 11.5

Women who maintain families(2)

483 1,495 1,461 4.7 5.4 4.1 5.3 15.9 15.8

FULL- OR PART-TIME STATUS

Full-time workers(3)

4,780 16,885 15,897 3.6 3.5 3.5 4.1 12.9 12.0

Part-time workers(4)

1,173 6,194 5,090 4.2 4.1 3.7 6.1 24.5 19.7

Footnotes
(1) Beginning with data for January 2020, refers to persons in both opposite-sex and same-sex married couples. Prior to January 2020, referred to persons in opposite-sex married couples only.
(2) Data are not seasonally adjusted. Beginning with data for January 2020, refers to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not a spouse of either sex. Prior to January 2020, referred to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not an opposite-sex spouse.
(3) Full-time workers are unemployed persons who have expressed a desire to work full time (35 hours or more per week) or are on layoff from full-time jobs.
(4) Part-time workers are unemployed persons who have expressed a desire to work part time (less than 35 hours per week) or are on layoff from part-time jobs.

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-11. Unemployed persons by reason for unemployment
[Numbers in thousands]
Reason Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
May
2019
Apr.
2020
May
2020
May
2019
Jan.
2020
Feb.
2020
Mar.
2020
Apr.
2020
May
2020

NUMBER OF UNEMPLOYED

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

2,281 20,384 17,834 2,674 2,665 2,723 3,946 20,626 18,291

On temporary layoff

594 17,878 15,034 865 742 801 1,848 18,063 15,343

Not on temporary layoff

1,687 2,506 2,801 1,810 1,923 1,922 2,099 2,563 2,948

Permanent job losers

1,229 1,951 2,206 1,300 1,289 1,279 1,456 2,000 2,295

Persons who completed temporary jobs

458 555 595 510 634 644 643 563 653

Job leavers

774 520 513 809 836 777 727 570 554

Reentrants

1,891 1,329 1,674 1,850 1,838 1,803 1,778 1,477 1,645

New entrants

557 271 492 602 557 505 509 389 536

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

41.5 90.6 86.9 45.1 45.2 46.9 56.7 89.4 87.0

On temporary layoff

10.8 79.4 73.3 14.6 12.6 13.8 26.5 78.3 73.0

Not on temporary layoff

30.7 11.1 13.7 30.5 32.6 33.1 30.2 11.1 14.0

Job leavers

14.1 2.3 2.5 13.6 14.2 13.4 10.5 2.5 2.6

Reentrants

34.4 5.9 8.2 31.2 31.2 31.0 25.5 6.4 7.8

New entrants

10.1 1.2 2.4 10.1 9.4 8.7 7.3 1.7 2.5

UNEMPLOYED AS A PERCENT OF THE
CIVILIAN LABOR FORCE

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

1.4 13.1 11.3 1.6 1.6 1.7 2.4 13.2 11.6

Job leavers

0.5 0.3 0.3 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.4

Reentrants

1.2 0.9 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 0.9 1.0

New entrants

0.3 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.3

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to total unemployed in table A-1 because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-12. Unemployed persons by duration of unemployment
[Numbers in thousands]
Duration Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
May
2019
Apr.
2020
May
2020
May
2019
Jan.
2020
Feb.
2020
Mar.
2020
Apr.
2020
May
2020

NUMBER OF UNEMPLOYED

Less than 5 weeks

2,082 13,880 3,835 2,158 2,059 2,013 3,542 14,283 3,875

5 to 14 weeks

1,261 6,728 14,401 1,572 1,755 1,803 1,794 7,004 14,814

15 weeks and over

2,159 1,897 2,278 2,120 2,053 1,927 1,971 1,772 2,242

15 to 26 weeks

888 968 1,146 822 887 825 808 833 1,078

27 weeks and over

1,271 929 1,132 1,298 1,166 1,102 1,164 939 1,164

Average (mean) duration, in weeks

24.8 7.7 10.9 24.1 21.9 20.9 17.1 6.1 9.9

Median duration, in weeks

9.7 4.0 8.0 9.1 9.3 9.1 7.0 2.0 7.7

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION

Less than 5 weeks

37.8 61.7 18.7 36.9 35.1 35.1 48.5 61.9 18.5

5 to 14 weeks

22.9 29.9 70.2 26.9 29.9 31.4 24.5 30.4 70.8

15 weeks and over

39.2 8.4 11.1 36.2 35.0 33.6 27.0 7.7 10.7

15 to 26 weeks

16.1 4.3 5.6 14.0 15.1 14.4 11.1 3.6 5.2

27 weeks and over

23.1 4.1 5.5 22.2 19.9 19.2 15.9 4.1 5.6

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to total unemployed in table A-1 because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-13. Employed and unemployed persons by occupation, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Occupation Employed Unemployed Unemployment
rates
May
2019
May
2020
May
2019
May
2020
May
2019
May
2020

Total, 16 years and over(1)

157,152 137,461 5,503 20,514 3.4 13.0

Management, professional, and related occupations

63,594 62,330 1,086 4,432 1.7 6.6

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

26,534 26,592 398 1,432 1.5 5.1

Professional and related occupations

37,060 35,738 688 3,000 1.8 7.7

Service occupations

27,390 19,087 1,140 5,884 4.0 23.6

Sales and office occupations

32,997 26,931 1,316 4,360 3.8 13.9

Sales and related occupations

15,429 12,434 582 2,412 3.6 16.2

Office and administrative support occupations

17,568 14,497 735 1,948 4.0 11.8

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

14,355 12,362 560 1,876 3.8 13.2

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

1,330 1,118 93 101 6.6 8.3

Construction and extraction occupations

8,123 6,872 314 1,232 3.7 15.2

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

4,901 4,372 152 543 3.0 11.0

Production, transportation, and material moving
occupations

18,816 16,751 803 3,446 4.1 17.1

Production occupations

8,660 6,868 276 1,228 3.1 15.2

Transportation and material moving occupations

10,156 9,883 527 2,217 4.9 18.3

Footnotes
(1) Persons with no previous work experience and persons whose last job was in the U.S. Armed Forces are included in the unemployed total.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data. Effective with January 2020 data, occupations reflect the introduction of the 2018 Census occupational classification system into the Current Population Survey, or household survey. This classification system is derived from the 2018 Standard Occupational Classification (SOC). No historical data have been revised. Data for 2020 are not strictly comparable with earlier years.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-14. Unemployed persons by industry and class of worker, not seasonally adjusted
Industry and class of worker Number of
unemployed
persons
(in thousands)
Unemployment
rates
May
2019
May
2020
May
2019
May
2020

Total, 16 years and over(1)

5,503 20,514 3.4 13.0

Nonagricultural private wage and salary workers

4,204 17,404 3.3 14.0

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

35 64 5.0 8.4

Construction

294 1,187 3.2 12.7

Manufacturing

369 1,782 2.3 11.6

Durable goods

215 1,243 2.2 13.1

Nondurable goods

154 539 2.5 9.3

Wholesale and retail trade

822 2,895 4.2 15.1

Transportation and utilities

299 1,023 4.1 14.2

Information

77 259 3.0 10.9

Financial activities

162 559 1.7 5.7

Professional and business services

600 1,578 3.4 9.0

Education and health services

609 2,458 2.4 10.1

Leisure and hospitality

745 4,434 5.0 35.9

Other services

194 1,165 2.9 18.4

Agriculture and related private wage and salary workers

99 105 5.4 6.5

Government workers

445 1,598 2.1 7.4

Self-employed workers, unincorporated, and unpaid family workers

198 915 2.0 9.4

Footnotes
(1) Persons with no previous work experience and persons whose last job was in the U.S. Armed Forces are included in the unemployed total.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data. Effective with January 2020 data, industries reflect the introduction of the 2017 Census industry classification system into the Current Population Survey. This industry classification system is derived from the 2017 North American Industry Classification System (NAICS). No historical data have been revised.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-15. Alternative measures of labor underutilization
[Percent]
Measure Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
May
2019
Apr.
2020
May
2020
May
2019
Jan.
2020
Feb.
2020
Mar.
2020
Apr.
2020
May
2020

U-1 Persons unemployed 15 weeks or longer, as a percent of the civilian labor force

1.3 1.2 1.4 1.3 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.1 1.4

U-2 Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs, as a percent of the civilian labor force

1.4 13.1 11.3 1.6 1.6 1.7 2.4 13.2 11.6

U-3 Total unemployed, as a percent of the civilian labor force (official unemployment rate)

3.4 14.4 13.0 3.6 3.6 3.5 4.4 14.7 13.3

U-4 Total unemployed plus discouraged workers, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus discouraged workers

3.6 14.8 13.3 3.9 3.8 3.8 4.7 15.1 13.6

U-5 Total unemployed, plus discouraged workers, plus all other persons marginally attached to the labor force, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force

4.2 15.6 14.2 4.5 4.4 4.4 5.2 16.0 14.6

U-6 Total unemployed, plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force, plus total employed part time for economic reasons, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force

6.7 22.4 20.7 7.2 6.9 7.0 8.7 22.8 21.2

NOTE: Persons marginally attached to the labor force are those who currently are neither working nor looking for work but indicate that they want and are available for a job and have looked for work sometime in the past 12 months. Discouraged workers, a subset of the marginally attached, have given a job-market related reason for not currently looking for work. Persons employed part time for economic reasons are those who want and are available for full-time work but have had to settle for a part-time schedule. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-16. Persons not in the labor force and multiple jobholders by sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Category Total Men Women
May
2019
May
2020
May
2019
May
2020
May
2019
May
2020

NOT IN THE LABOR FORCE

Total not in the labor force

96,207 102,072 38,665 41,818 57,542 60,254

Persons who currently want a job

5,500 9,422 2,762 4,535 2,738 4,886

Marginally attached to the labor force(1)

1,395 2,292 732 1,242 663 1,050

Discouraged workers(2)

338 598 210 341 127 257

Other persons marginally attached to the labor force(3)

1,058 1,694 522 901 536 793

MULTIPLE JOBHOLDERS

Total multiple jobholders(4)

7,857 5,509 3,774 2,703 4,083 2,807

Percent of total employed

5.0 4.0 4.5 3.7 5.5 4.4

Primary job full time, secondary job part time

4,414 3,121 2,328 1,687 2,086 1,434

Primary and secondary jobs both part time

1,990 1,262 690 418 1,299 843

Primary and secondary jobs both full time

325 285 204 193 121 92

Hours vary on primary or secondary job

1,061 805 503 390 558 415

Footnotes
(1) Data refer to persons who want a job, have searched for work during the prior 12 months, and were available to take a job during the reference week, but had not looked for work in the past 4 weeks.
(2) Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for reasons such as thinks no work available, could not find work, lacks schooling or training, employer thinks too young or old, and other types of discrimination.
(3) Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for such reasons as school or family responsibilities, ill health, and transportation problems, as well as a number for whom reason for nonparticipation was not determined.
(4) Includes a small number of persons who work part time on their primary job and full time on their secondary job(s), not shown separately.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-1. Employees on nonfarm payrolls by industry sector and selected industry detail
[In thousands]
Industry Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
May
2019
Mar.
2020
Apr.
2020(p)
May
2020(p)
May
2019
Mar.
2020
Apr.
2020(p)
May
2020(p)
Change from:
Apr.2020 - May2020(p)

Total nonfarm

151,109 150,073 130,411 133,342 150,577 151,090 130,403 132,912 2,509

Total private

128,253 127,009 108,267 111,864 128,026 128,362 108,638 111,732 3,094

Goods-producing

21,089 20,738 18,554 19,418 21,050 21,086 18,713 19,382 669

Mining and logging

739 696 641 631 743 706 652 632 -20

Logging

48.1 52.9 46.6 49.0 49.5 54.5 49.7 50.1 0.4

Mining

690.7 643.2 594.8 581.8 693.3 651.2 602.2 582.3 -19.9

Oil and gas extraction

147.3 155.0 151.4 146.6 147.8 156.4 153.9 147.0 -6.9

Mining, except oil and gas

194.2 184.7 175.5 181.3 192.4 187.7 177.1 179.8 2.7

Coal mining

51.8 49.3 41.5 46.3 51.9 49.3 41.6 46.6 5.0

Metal ore mining

42.6 40.9 40.8 39.1 42.3 41.0 40.9 39.1 -1.8

Nonmetallic mineral mining and quarrying

99.8 94.5 93.2 95.9 98.2 97.4 94.6 94.1 -0.5

Support activities for mining

349.2 303.5 267.9 253.9 353.1 307.1 271.2 255.5 -15.7

Construction

7,540 7,295 6,486 7,110 7,478 7,574 6,579 7,043 464

Construction of buildings

1,647.1 1,636.1 1,439.2 1,564.7 1,650.4 1,677.9 1,461.5 1,566.4 104.9

Residential building

811.4 814.6 706.1 782.3 811.7 837.5 716.9 782.5 65.6

Nonresidential building

835.7 821.5 733.1 782.4 838.7 840.4 744.6 783.9 39.3

Heavy and civil engineering construction

1,106.8 1,007.5 977.3 1,055.9 1,074.3 1,083.4 993.5 1,027.2 33.7

Specialty trade contractors

4,785.9 4,650.9 4,069.4 4,489.3 4,753.1 4,813.0 4,124.1 4,449.4 325.3

Residential specialty trade contractors

2,102.6 2,034.9 1,778.5 1,988.1 2,083.4 2,105.4 1,803.8 1,964.2 160.4

Nonresidential specialty trade contractors

2,683.3 2,616.0 2,290.9 2,501.2 2,669.7 2,707.6 2,320.3 2,485.2 164.9

Manufacturing

12,810 12,747 11,427 11,677 12,829 12,806 11,482 11,707 225

Durable goods

8,052 8,013 7,109 7,234 8,056 8,031 7,124 7,243 119

Wood products

406.1 405.7 372.0 376.0 407.1 409.9 373.4 376.4 3.0

Nonmetallic mineral products

423.8 417.8 376.7 399.9 419.8 425.1 376.4 396.8 20.4

Primary metals

387.8 372.5 341.3 332.5 387.4 371.9 342.5 333.1 -9.4

Fabricated metal products

1,492.2 1,472.0 1,363.5 1,388.8 1,492.0 1,475.0 1,365.3 1,390.1 24.8

Machinery

1,127.7 1,104.0 1,018.6 1,042.5 1,128.2 1,105.4 1,021.2 1,043.8 22.6

Computer and electronic products

1,070.7 1,096.6 1,083.8 1,078.7 1,074.8 1,097.9 1,086.9 1,081.9 -5.0

Computer and peripheral equipment

160.7 169.0 169.8 169.8 161.8 169.4 170.2 170.3 0.1

Communications equipment

82.6 84.6 83.0 81.1 83.3 84.4 83.2 81.3 -1.9

Semiconductors and electronic components

374.4 377.8 373.4 369.5 375.3 377.5 374.3 370.9 -3.4

Electronic instruments

420.1 432.2 425.2 425.1 421.4 433.3 426.2 426.2 0.0

Miscellaneous computer and electronic products

32.9 33.0 32.4 33.2 33.0 33.3 33.0 33.2 0.2

Electrical equipment and appliances

402.6 402.1 383.0 367.5 404.7 404.0 384.6 369.3 -15.3

Transportation equipment(1)

1,734.2 1,741.7 1,335.2 1,360.3 1,736.1 1,737.9 1,337.3 1,363.3 26.0

Motor vehicles and parts(2)

1,002.8 1,000.0 635.9 661.3 1,002.8 993.6 634.4 662.1 27.7

Furniture and related products

388.1 385.2 309.0 330.0 387.7 385.8 309.6 330.5 20.9

Miscellaneous durable goods manufacturing

618.3 615.1 525.7 557.4 617.7 617.7 527.1 558.1 31.0

Nondurable goods

4,758 4,734 4,318 4,443 4,773 4,775 4,358 4,464 106

Food manufacturing

1,619.4 1,625.0 1,526.7 1,558.2 1,636.3 1,649.3 1,555.5 1,580.4 24.9

Textile mills

109.4 104.9 85.3 88.9 110.0 105.2 85.5 88.4 2.9

Textile product mills

113.2 108.6 86.1 98.1 114.0 109.6 86.5 98.2 11.7

Apparel

112.3 103.5 63.4 76.4 111.7 103.8 63.5 76.3 12.8

Paper and paper products

366.6 362.8 355.1 355.4 365.7 363.4 354.9 354.8 -0.1

Printing and related support activities

424.0 411.5 335.3 352.9 425.6 413.2 337.1 353.5 16.4

Petroleum and coal products

117.0 110.3 105.3 106.5 115.7 113.8 106.4 105.3 -1.1

Chemicals

849.1 849.0 829.3 832.3 848.6 849.7 831.4 833.8 2.4

Plastics and rubber products

735.8 744.4 671.3 702.2 734.6 745.3 671.4 701.2 29.8

Miscellaneous nondurable goods manufacturing

310.8 313.7 260.5 272.3 311.2 321.3 265.9 272.3 6.4

Private service-providing

107,164 106,271 89,713 92,446 106,976 107,276 89,925 92,350 2,425

Trade, transportation, and utilities

27,554 27,399 24,283 24,790 27,667 27,723 24,498 24,866 368

Wholesale trade

5,900.7 5,895.9 5,523.3 5,560.7 5,897.7 5,922.2 5,539.7 5,561.1 21.4

Durable goods

3,196.3 3,208.4 3,012.9 3,021.9 3,199.1 3,218.2 3,020.4 3,024.5 4.1

Nondurable goods

2,176.1 2,158.4 2,015.5 2,038.6 2,169.0 2,173.9 2,021.8 2,034.4 12.6

Electronic markets and agents and brokers

528.3 529.1 494.9 500.2 529.6 530.1 497.5 502.2 4.7

Retail trade

15,540.7 15,365.1 13,190.7 13,640.3 15,618.8 15,586.6 13,300.8 13,668.6 367.8

Motor vehicle and parts dealers

2,033.9 2,042.9 1,685.6 1,752.4 2,030.5 2,052.8 1,688.5 1,746.3 57.8

Automobile dealers

1,299.8 1,296.2 1,020.5 1,108.2 1,300.6 1,299.6 1,023.7 1,108.4 84.7

Other motor vehicle dealers

170.0 161.0 121.3 134.7 163.9 165.3 119.9 128.8 8.9

Auto parts, accessories, and tire stores

564.1 585.7 543.8 509.5 566.0 587.9 544.9 509.1 -35.8

Furniture and home furnishings stores

468.2 456.0 246.9 287.9 473.2 458.5 252.5 292.9 40.4

Electronics and appliance stores

472.5 468.1 430.7 335.5 478.1 471.4 434.3 339.6 -94.7

Building material and garden supply stores

1,352.2 1,329.5 1,321.1 1,398.4 1,287.5 1,320.8 1,271.3 1,327.1 55.8

Food and beverage stores

3,058.5 3,046.2 3,025.7 3,087.0 3,070.8 3,078.6 3,049.3 3,092.8 43.5

Health and personal care stores

1,043.5 1,050.7 946.2 925.9 1,049.2 1,056.8 953.2 931.6 -21.6

Gasoline stations

940.5 930.4 890.9 895.0 940.8 942.5 897.7 894.2 -3.5

Clothing and clothing accessories stores

1,261.7 1,224.7 483.8 578.1 1,303.0 1,265.4 500.1 594.9 94.8

Sporting goods, hobby, book, and music stores

530.7 517.0 331.3 367.3 548.0 534.1 342.7 378.9 36.2

General merchandise stores

2,974.2 2,978.6 2,794.2 2,891.9 3,031.4 3,055.3 2,860.6 2,944.6 84.0

Department stores

1,036.8 1,041.4 771.5 817.4 1,077.1 1,081.8 802.0 849.1 47.1

General merchandise stores, including warehouse clubs and supercenters

1,937.4 1,937.2 2,022.7 2,074.5 1,954.3 1,973.5 2,058.6 2,095.5 36.9

Miscellaneous store retailers

844.1 781.7 535.6 601.6 839.6 804.1 543.8 598.3 54.5

Nonstore retailers

560.7 539.3 498.7 519.3 566.7 546.3 506.8 527.4 20.6

Transportation and warehousing

5,564.7 5,592.8 5,029.7 5,050.8 5,601.6 5,668.2 5,114.9 5,095.9 -19.0

Air transportation

501.2 510.7 433.3 384.7 500.1 512.1 433.5 383.2 -50.3

Rail transportation

178.0 159.2 154.9 152.9 177.3 159.4 155.3 153.2 -2.1

Water transportation

67.1 62.0 57.8 57.5 65.8 64.3 59.0 56.8 -2.2

Truck transportation

1,533.7 1,499.4 1,417.0 1,429.1 1,532.4 1,522.6 1,432.8 1,431.6 -1.2

Transit and ground passenger transportation

517.6 515.3 333.4 346.9 499.8 501.8 319.1 329.2 10.1

Pipeline transportation

51.7 51.3 50.5 51.1 51.5 51.4 50.5 51.1 0.6

Scenic and sightseeing transportation

38.3 27.9 11.8 18.7 35.8 35.4 13.0 17.2 4.2

Support activities for transportation

749.8 751.8 670.0 669.9 751.7 754.6 672.0 673.3 1.3

Couriers and messengers

753.6 808.8 786.8 816.2 801.1 850.0 853.6 865.7 12.1

Warehousing and storage

1,173.7 1,206.4 1,114.2 1,123.8 1,186.1 1,216.6 1,126.1 1,134.6 8.5

Utilities

548.2 545.4 539.3 537.9 549.0 545.9 542.3 540.0 -2.3

Information

2,842 2,874 2,613 2,570 2,853 2,888 2,616 2,578 -38

Publishing industries, except Internet

752.2 768.0 741.9 737.0 757.9 771.4 746.7 742.0 -4.7

Motion picture and sound recording industries

444.2 441.8 230.8 219.9 440.1 451.4 226.1 215.4 -10.7

Broadcasting, except Internet

265.7 260.0 245.8 239.3 267.5 259.5 246.2 240.3 -5.9

Telecommunications

712.4 698.4 694.0 683.5 716.3 697.1 695.5 687.7 -7.8

Data processing, hosting and related services

334.5 348.8 344.9 340.2 336.1 349.5 343.4 339.8 -3.6

Other information services

333.2 356.9 355.3 350.1 335.0 359.2 357.8 353.1 -4.7

Financial activities

8,707 8,780 8,518 8,573 8,727 8,827 8,563 8,596 33

Finance and insurance

6,393.2 6,472.7 6,415.0 6,429.7 6,411.8 6,484.0 6,440.3 6,448.7 8.4

Monetary authorities - central bank

19.8 19.6 19.6 19.7 19.8 19.6 19.7 19.7 0.0

Credit intermediation and related
activities

2,638.6 2,674.9 2,637.6 2,650.5 2,646.1 2,680.0 2,647.5 2,654.8 7.3

Depository credit intermediation(1)

1,772.5 1,783.6 1,771.4 1,775.7 1,774.8 1,784.0 1,775.0 1,776.1 1.1

Commercial banking

1,389.7 1,391.5 1,383.8 1,387.7 1,391.0 1,391.6 1,387.1 1,388.3 1.2

Nondepository credit intermediation

568.9 583.9 570.4 574.2 571.9 588.8 576.3 576.9 0.6

Activities related to credit intermediation

297.2 307.4 295.8 300.6 299.3 307.2 296.2 301.8 5.6

Securities, commodity contracts, investments, and funds and trusts

956.6 966.9 961.3 961.1 961.7 971.2 966.8 967.6 0.8

Insurance carriers and related activities

2,778.2 2,811.3 2,796.5 2,798.4 2,784.2 2,813.2 2,806.3 2,806.6 0.3

Real estate and rental and leasing

2,313.8 2,307.6 2,102.5 2,143.7 2,315.0 2,342.8 2,123.0 2,147.1 24.1

Real estate

1,707.3 1,722.7 1,627.5 1,638.6 1,712.3 1,743.6 1,640.2 1,643.6 3.4

Rental and leasing services

583.4 561.6 452.2 482.1 579.5 575.7 459.6 480.4 20.8

Lessors of nonfinancial intangible assets

23.1 23.3 22.8 23.0 23.2 23.5 23.2 23.1 -0.1

Professional and business services

21,239 21,173 19,222 19,384 21,253 21,456 19,267 19,394 127

Professional and technical services

9,442.6 9,717.2 9,199.4 9,133.1 9,502.2 9,698.5 9,159.0 9,198.8 39.8

Legal services

1,143.9 1,154.8 1,088.6 1,094.6 1,147.4 1,160.3 1,094.3 1,097.5 3.2

Accounting and bookkeeping services

977.5 1,143.4 1,056.4 939.1 1,023.9 1,042.8 972.1 985.3 13.2

Architectural and engineering services

1,508.8 1,519.5 1,449.2 1,465.7 1,509.8 1,537.8 1,460.2 1,467.1 6.9

Specialized design services

144.3 142.6 125.9 126.5 143.3 144.0 126.6 126.4 -0.2

Computer systems design and related services

2,191.3 2,225.2 2,163.2 2,153.3 2,193.4 2,249.8 2,170.8 2,158.1 -12.7

Management and technical consulting services

1,513.1 1,539.2 1,468.0 1,479.1 1,518.5 1,557.9 1,478.1 1,485.1 7.0

Scientific research and development services

721.4 746.7 726.6 732.3 722.2 750.9 730.9 734.1 3.2

Advertising and related services

492.9 487.4 448.9 448.0 491.8 489.9 449.9 448.4 -1.5

Other professional and technical services

749.4 758.4 672.6 694.5 751.9 765.1 676.1 696.8 20.7

Management of companies and enterprises

2,418.4 2,432.3 2,339.6 2,328.8 2,420.6 2,445.1 2,353.8 2,332.0 -21.8

Administrative and waste services

9,378.0 9,023.9 7,682.6 7,922.0 9,329.7 9,312.3 7,754.2 7,863.5 109.3

Administrative and support services

8,928.1 8,564.4 7,234.8 7,469.4 8,879.9 8,845.9 7,303.4 7,412.1 108.7

Office administrative services

526.6 525.4 489.2 492.4 525.7 529.5 490.5 491.7 1.2

Facilities support services

163.1 163.8 152.8 150.3 163.6 164.4 153.3 151.0 -2.3

Employment services(1)

3,606.3 3,471.3 2,581.6 2,668.2 3,630.7 3,593.6 2,642.1 2,683.4 41.3

Temporary help services

2,925.3 2,780.6 1,993.2 2,072.9 2,947.2 2,888.4 2,047.9 2,087.0 39.1

Business support services

868.1 861.2 751.9 747.6 882.4 866.0 756.9 757.8 0.9

Travel arrangement and reservation services

221.1 210.9 174.8 170.8 218.4 212.1 174.7 169.3 -5.4

Investigation and security services

956.5 958.4 885.0 886.6 956.9 966.2 890.2 885.7 -4.5

Services to buildings and dwellings

2,246.3 2,035.1 1,911.0 2,056.2 2,167.0 2,173.6 1,908.5 1,976.9 68.4

Other support services

340.1 338.3 288.5 297.3 335.1 340.5 287.2 296.3 9.1

Waste management and remediation services

449.9 459.5 447.8 452.6 449.8 466.4 450.8 451.4 0.6

Education and health services

24,121 24,518 21,985 22,281 24,076 24,408 21,818 22,242 424

Educational services

3,771.1 3,924.3 3,494.1 3,386.7 3,743.4 3,784.8 3,323.4 3,356.8 33.4

Health care and social assistance

20,349.8 20,593.9 18,490.7 18,894.6 20,332.1 20,623.2 18,494.7 18,885.4 390.7

Health care(3)

16,202.0 16,380.7 14,908.6 15,226.9 16,217.2 16,417.1 14,936.6 15,249.0 312.4

Ambulatory health care services

7,666.3 7,749.7 6,520.8 6,906.6 7,664.1 7,766.1 6,529.7 6,905.4 375.7

Offices of physicians

2,660.7 2,690.6 2,427.0 2,481.6 2,663.8 2,695.9 2,432.5 2,483.8 51.3

Offices of dentists

968.3 941.0 434.1 679.4 968.5 942.8 434.7 679.5 244.8

Offices of other health practitioners

966.5 966.6 752.4 829.1 963.4 970.9 754.4 827.5 73.1

Outpatient care centers

958.6 979.2 895.7 905.3 958.3 977.9 895.0 905.8 10.8

Medical and diagnostic laboratories

280.4 287.4 257.1 257.4 281.5 287.8 258.0 258.4 0.4

Home health care services

1,518.7 1,565.5 1,460.9 1,460.4 1,516.1 1,570.7 1,460.7 1,457.7 -3.0

Other ambulatory health care services

313.1 319.4 293.6 293.4 312.4 320.1 294.4 292.7 -1.7

Hospitals

5,167.7 5,262.6 5,131.9 5,094.2 5,181.6 5,265.8 5,138.7 5,112.0 -26.7

Nursing and residential care facilities

3,368.0 3,368.4 3,255.9 3,226.1 3,371.5 3,385.2 3,268.2 3,231.6 -36.6

Nursing care facilities

1,593.8 1,579.7 1,534.3 1,519.1 1,597.1 1,588.4 1,540.9 1,522.9 -18.0

Residential mental health facilities

646.7 651.3 621.7 612.2 646.2 653.2 623.4 612.6 -10.8

Community care facilities for the elderly

963.7 971.7 941.0 935.7 964.2 977.0 944.6 936.3 -8.3

Other residential care facilities

163.8 165.7 158.9 159.1 164.0 166.6 159.3 159.8 0.5

Social assistance

4,147.8 4,213.2 3,582.1 3,667.7 4,114.9 4,206.1 3,558.1 3,636.4 78.3

Individual and family services

2,604.2 2,691.3 2,460.1 2,492.2 2,595.5 2,695.9 2,453.9 2,483.3 29.4

Emergency and other relief services

182.6 185.6 176.2 178.5 182.9 185.6 177.1 179.3 2.2

Vocational rehabilitation services

324.2 318.7 257.6 261.1 323.2 321.2 258.9 261.2 2.3

Child day care services

1,036.8 1,017.6 688.2 735.9 1,013.3 1,003.4 668.2 712.6 44.4

Leisure and hospitality

16,788 15,714 8,520 9,978 16,519 16,124 8,585 9,824 1,239

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

2,499.2 2,233.9 1,125.8 1,207.4 2,418.7 2,420.3 1,154.7 1,172.2 17.5

Performing arts and spectator sports

552.6 463.0 275.2 282.5 518.1 489.7 270.4 265.6 -4.8

Museums, historical sites, and similar institutions

178.0 163.0 124.5 125.9 171.3 173.5 126.4 122.3 -4.1

Amusements, gambling, and recreation

1,768.6 1,607.9 726.1 799.0 1,729.3 1,757.1 757.9 784.3 26.4

Accommodation and food services

14,288.6 13,480.5 7,394.2 8,771.0 14,100.3 13,703.9 7,429.8 8,652.2 1,222.4

Accommodation

2,086.2 1,965.5 1,129.8 1,033.4 2,075.7 2,034.0 1,178.5 1,030.3 -148.2

Food services and drinking places

12,202.4 11,515.0 6,264.4 7,737.6 12,024.6 11,669.9 6,251.3 7,621.9 1,370.6

Other services

5,913 5,813 4,572 4,870 5,881 5,850 4,578 4,850 272

Repair and maintenance

1,354.5 1,358.7 1,139.5 1,222.4 1,344.9 1,361.9 1,136.1 1,213.3 77.2

Personal and laundry services

1,545.0 1,461.4 691.5 881.1 1,526.6 1,475.0 689.9 872.2 182.3

Membership associations and organizations

3,013.7 2,992.8 2,740.7 2,766.7 3,009.4 3,013.3 2,751.9 2,764.6 12.7

Government

22,856 23,064 22,144 21,478 22,551 22,728 21,765 21,180 -585

Federal

2,826.0 2,866.0 2,874.0 2,870.0 2,826.0 2,886.0 2,887.0 2,873.0 -14.0

Federal, except U.S. Postal Service

2,219.2 2,271.0 2,279.0 2,268.7 2,218.7 2,285.7 2,285.8 2,270.5 -15.3

U.S. Postal Service

607.2 595.0 595.2 601.0 607.4 600.5 601.3 602.1 0.8

State government

5,159.0 5,309.0 5,142.0 4,898.0 5,158.0 5,162.0 4,995.0 4,911.0 -84.0

State government education

2,468.6 2,603.9 2,441.4 2,212.2 2,474.2 2,451.2 2,286.9 2,223.6 -63.3

State government, excluding education

2,689.9 2,705.4 2,701.0 2,685.8 2,683.6 2,710.6 2,707.6 2,686.9 -20.7

Local government

14,871.0 14,889.0 14,128.0 13,710.0 14,567.0 14,680.0 13,883.0 13,396.0 -487.0

Local government education

8,301.8 8,356.8 7,916.7 7,590.1 7,992.7 8,041.6 7,592.7 7,282.8 -309.9

Local government, excluding education

6,569.3 6,532.1 6,211.7 6,120.3 6,574.3 6,638.4 6,289.8 6,112.9 -176.9

Footnotes
(1) Includes other industries, not shown separately.
(2) Includes motor vehicles, motor vehicle bodies and trailers, and motor vehicle parts.
(3) Includes ambulatory health care services, hospitals, and nursing and residential care facilities.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2019 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-2. Average weekly hours and overtime of all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry May
2019
Mar.
2020
Apr.
2020(p)
May
2020(p)

AVERAGE WEEKLY HOURS

Total private

34.4 34.1 34.2 34.7

Goods-producing

40.3 40.1 38.2 39.0

Mining and logging

46.3 45.2 43.0 43.0

Construction

39.1 39.1 37.9 38.9

Manufacturing

40.6 40.4 38.1 38.9

Durable goods

41.0 40.7 38.0 39.0

Nondurable goods

39.9 39.8 38.2 38.8

Private service-providing

33.3 32.9 33.4 33.8

Trade, transportation, and utilities

34.3 34.1 33.8 34.3

Wholesale trade

38.9 38.8 37.7 38.0

Retail trade

30.7 30.6 30.5 31.3

Transportation and warehousing

38.6 37.9 37.1 37.7

Utilities

42.1 42.2 42.4 42.2

Information

36.4 36.3 36.5 36.6

Financial activities

37.6 37.6 37.7 37.8

Professional and business services

36.2 36.0 35.9 36.4

Education and health services

33.0 32.9 32.6 32.9

Leisure and hospitality

25.9 24.1 24.2 25.7

Other services

31.9 31.5 32.3 32.7

AVERAGE OVERTIME HOURS

Manufacturing

3.3 3.0 2.1 2.4

Durable goods

3.3 2.9 1.7 2.1

Nondurable goods

3.4 3.3 2.8 3.0

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2019 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-3. Average hourly and weekly earnings of all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Average hourly earnings Average weekly earnings
May
2019
Mar.
2020
Apr.
2020(p)
May
2020(p)
May
2019
Mar.
2020
Apr.
2020(p)
May
2020(p)

Total private

$27.87 $28.69 $30.04 $29.75 $958.73 $978.33 $1,027.37 $1,032.33

Goods-producing

28.89 29.64 30.24 30.09 1,164.27 1,188.56 1,155.17 1,173.51

Mining and logging

33.47 34.75 35.15 35.10 1,549.66 1,570.70 1,511.45 1,509.30

Construction

30.70 31.33 31.37 31.46 1,200.37 1,225.00 1,188.92 1,223.79

Manufacturing

27.57 28.35 29.28 28.96 1,119.34 1,145.34 1,115.57 1,126.54

Durable goods

29.03 29.75 30.78 30.39 1,190.23 1,210.83 1,169.64 1,185.21

Nondurable goods

25.04 25.96 26.83 26.62 999.10 1,033.21 1,024.91 1,032.86

Private service-providing

27.63 28.46 30.00 29.66 920.08 936.33 1,002.00 1,002.51

Trade, transportation, and utilities

24.13 24.75 25.67 25.45 827.66 843.98 867.65 872.94

Wholesale trade

31.30 31.82 32.56 32.62 1,217.57 1,234.62 1,227.51 1,239.56

Retail trade

19.55 20.30 21.10 20.88 600.19 621.18 643.55 653.54

Transportation and warehousing

24.78 25.15 25.75 25.67 956.51 953.19 955.33 967.76

Utilities

41.81 42.53 43.14 42.95 1,760.20 1,794.77 1,829.14 1,812.49

Information

42.00 43.19 43.68 43.46 1,528.80 1,567.80 1,594.32 1,590.64

Financial activities

35.82 36.81 37.33 37.81 1,346.83 1,384.06 1,407.34 1,429.22

Professional and business services

33.52 34.45 35.78 35.45 1,213.42 1,240.20 1,284.50 1,290.38

Education and health services

27.43 27.94 28.29 28.43 905.19 919.23 922.25 935.35

Leisure and hospitality

16.51 16.86 17.95 17.39 427.61 406.33 434.39 446.92

Other services

25.16 25.69 27.47 26.95 802.60 809.24 887.28 881.27

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2019 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-4. Indexes of aggregate weekly hours and payrolls for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
[2007=100]
Industry Index of aggregate weekly hours(1) Index of aggregate weekly payrolls(2)
May
2019
Mar.
2020
Apr.
2020(p)
May
2020(p)
Percent change from:
Apr.
2020 - May
2020(p)
May
2019
Mar.
2020
Apr.
2020(p)
May
2020(p)
Percent change from:
Apr.
2020 - May
2020(p)

Total private

110.6 109.9 93.3 97.3 4.3 147.3 150.7 134.0 138.4 3.3

Goods-producing

96.6 96.3 81.4 86.1 5.8 126.2 129.1 111.3 117.1 5.2

Mining and logging

108.1 100.3 88.1 85.4 -3.1 145.3 139.9 124.3 120.3 -3.2

Construction

100.8 102.1 86.0 94.4 9.8 134.4 139.0 117.2 129.1 10.2

Manufacturing

93.7 93.1 78.7 81.9 4.1 120.1 122.7 107.2 110.3 2.9

Durable goods

93.0 92.0 76.2 79.5 4.3 119.9 121.6 104.2 107.3 3.0

Nondurable goods

95.1 94.9 83.1 86.5 4.1 120.8 125.0 113.1 116.8 3.3

Private service-providing

114.7 113.6 96.7 100.5 3.9 154.0 157.2 141.0 144.9 2.8

Trade, transportation, and utilities

103.5 103.2 90.4 93.1 3.0 134.7 137.7 125.1 127.7 2.1

Wholesale trade

101.2 101.4 92.1 93.2 1.2 132.5 134.9 125.5 127.2 1.4

Retail trade

97.4 96.8 82.4 86.9 5.5 125.8 129.9 114.9 119.9 4.4

Transportation and warehousing

124.2 123.4 109.0 110.4 1.3 156.6 157.9 142.8 144.2 1.0

Utilities

100.0 99.7 99.5 98.6 -0.9 138.1 140.1 141.8 139.9 -1.3

Information

94.8 95.7 87.2 86.2 -1.1 141.8 147.2 135.6 133.3 -1.7

Financial activities

107.5 108.7 105.8 106.5 0.7 150.2 156.1 154.0 157.0 1.9

Professional and business services

120.6 121.1 108.5 110.7 2.0 163.7 168.9 157.1 158.9 1.1

Education and health services

129.7 131.1 116.1 119.5 2.9 171.2 176.2 158.1 163.4 3.4

Leisure and hospitality

122.1 110.9 59.3 72.0 21.4 162.6 150.8 85.8 101.1 17.8

Other services

108.2 106.2 85.3 91.4 7.2 149.2 149.6 128.4 135.1 5.2

Footnotes
(1) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding 2007 annual average aggregate hours. Aggregate hours estimates are the product of estimates of average weekly hours and employment.
(2) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding 2007 annual average aggregate weekly payrolls. Aggregate payrolls estimates are the product of estimates of average hourly earnings, average weekly hours, and employment.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2019 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-5. Employment of women on nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Women employees (in thousands) Percent of all employees
May
2019
Mar.
2020
Apr.
2020(p)
May
2020(p)
May
2019
Mar.
2020
Apr.
2020(p)
May
2020(p)

Total nonfarm

75,094 75,519 64,222 65,365 49.9 50.0 49.2 49.2

Total private

62,082 62,378 51,685 53,189 48.5 48.6 47.6 47.6

Goods-producing

4,698 4,745 4,206 4,340 22.3 22.5 22.5 22.4

Mining and logging

95 95 93 93 12.8 13.5 14.3 14.7

Construction

969 988 892 941 13.0 13.0 13.6 13.4

Manufacturing

3,634 3,662 3,221 3,306 28.3 28.6 28.1 28.2

Durable goods

1,931 1,949 1,720 1,736 24.0 24.3 24.1 24.0

Nondurable goods

1,703 1,713 1,501 1,570 35.7 35.9 34.4 35.2

Private service-providing

57,384 57,633 47,479 48,849 53.6 53.7 52.8 52.9

Trade, transportation, and utilities

11,078 11,088 9,368 9,550 40.0 40.0 38.2 38.4

Wholesale trade

1,774.8 1,784.7 1,635.6 1,654.3 30.1 30.1 29.5 29.7

Retail trade

7,753.9 7,712.6 6,347.3 6,526.8 49.6 49.5 47.7 47.8

Transportation and warehousing

1,417.5 1,458.7 1,253.2 1,236.5 25.3 25.7 24.5 24.3

Utilities

131.7 132.4 132.3 132.3 24.0 24.3 24.4 24.5

Information

1,130 1,147 1,045 1,028 39.6 39.7 39.9 39.9

Financial activities

4,947 4,993 4,859 4,849 56.7 56.6 56.7 56.4

Professional and business services

9,683 9,849 8,731 8,774 45.6 45.9 45.3 45.2

Education and health services

18,614 18,870 16,720 17,071 77.3 77.3 76.6 76.8

Leisure and hospitality

8,788 8,575 4,492 5,119 53.2 53.2 52.3 52.1

Other services

3,144 3,111 2,264 2,458 53.5 53.2 49.5 50.7

Government

13,012 13,141 12,537 12,176 57.7 57.8 57.6 57.5

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2019 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-6. Employment of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
[In thousands]
Industry May
2019
Mar.
2020
Apr.
2020(p)
May
2020(p)

Total private

105,399 105,303 87,268 89,984

Goods-producing

15,084 15,076 13,055 13,592

Mining and logging

548 506 460 442

Construction

5,566 5,640 4,772 5,173

Manufacturing

8,970 8,930 7,823 7,977

Durable goods

5,545 5,510 4,698 4,773

Nondurable goods

3,425 3,420 3,125 3,204

Private service-providing

90,315 90,227 74,213 76,392

Trade, transportation, and utilities

23,416 23,422 20,532 20,836

Wholesale trade

4,739.7 4,738.9 4,388.5 4,400.7

Retail trade

13,343.7 13,297.4 11,300.1 11,607.5

Transportation and warehousing

4,892.7 4,949.6 4,409.6 4,395.4

Utilities

440.0 436.0 433.5 432.1

Information

2,296 2,316 2,073 2,034

Financial activities

6,757 6,823 6,558 6,550

Professional and business services

17,302 17,366 15,300 15,433

Education and health services

21,148 21,397 19,062 19,439

Leisure and hospitality

14,526 14,093 7,020 8,194

Other services

4,870 4,810 3,668 3,906

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2019 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-7. Average weekly hours and overtime of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry May
2019
Mar.
2020
Apr.
2020(p)
May
2020(p)

AVERAGE WEEKLY HOURS

Total private

33.6 33.4 33.5 34.1

Goods-producing

41.1 40.8 38.6 39.6

Mining and logging

46.9 45.1 43.1 43.7

Construction

39.7 39.6 38.2 39.5

Manufacturing

41.5 41.3 38.5 39.4

Durable goods

41.8 41.5 38.2 39.4

Nondurable goods

41.0 41.0 39.0 39.5

Private service-providing

32.4 32.1 32.6 33.1

Trade, transportation, and utilities

33.8 33.9 33.6 34.3

Wholesale trade

38.7 38.4 37.1 37.7

Retail trade

30.2 30.5 30.5 31.4

Transportation and warehousing

37.9 37.9 37.1 38.0

Utilities

42.4 42.6 42.2 41.6

Information

35.4 35.3 35.6 35.9

Financial activities

36.9 36.7 36.9 37.1

Professional and business services

35.4 35.4 35.2 35.7

Education and health services

32.2 32.2 31.8 32.1

Leisure and hospitality

24.6 22.8 22.2 24.1

Other services

30.8 30.5 31.2 31.8

AVERAGE OVERTIME HOURS

Manufacturing

4.2 3.9 2.8 3.2

Durable goods

4.2 3.9 2.5 3.0

Nondurable goods

4.3 3.9 3.2 3.6

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2019 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-8. Average hourly and weekly earnings of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry Average hourly earnings Average weekly earnings
May
2019
Mar.
2020
Apr.
2020(p)
May
2020(p)
May
2019
Mar.
2020
Apr.
2020(p)
May
2020(p)

Total private

$23.42 $24.10 $25.14 $25.00 $786.91 $804.94 $842.19 $852.50

Goods-producing

24.67 25.24 25.23 25.38 1,013.94 1,029.79 973.88 1,005.05

Mining and logging

29.95 30.91 31.17 30.67 1,404.66 1,394.04 1,343.43 1,340.28

Construction

28.49 29.02 28.63 28.98 1,131.05 1,149.19 1,093.67 1,144.71

Manufacturing

22.04 22.60 22.78 22.71 914.66 933.38 877.03 894.77

Durable goods

22.95 23.58 23.62 23.64 959.31 978.57 902.28 931.42

Nondurable goods

20.53 21.00 21.54 21.33 841.73 861.00 840.06 842.54

Private service-providing

23.16 23.86 25.12 24.92 750.38 765.91 818.91 824.85

Trade, transportation, and utilities

20.68 20.97 21.65 21.70 698.98 710.88 727.44 744.31

Wholesale trade

26.06 26.38 26.98 27.10 1,008.52 1,012.99 1,000.96 1,021.67

Retail trade

16.63 17.01 17.63 17.96 502.23 518.81 537.72 563.94

Transportation and warehousing

22.53 22.61 23.00 22.80 853.89 856.92 853.30 866.40

Utilities

37.03 37.77 38.00 37.65 1,570.07 1,609.00 1,603.60 1,566.24

Information

33.62 34.78 35.64 35.29 1,190.15 1,227.73 1,268.78 1,266.91

Financial activities

27.56 28.32 28.75 29.12 1,016.96 1,039.34 1,060.88 1,080.35

Professional and business services

27.63 28.52 29.79 29.64 978.10 1,009.61 1,048.61 1,058.15

Education and health services

24.13 24.85 25.24 25.35 776.99 800.17 802.63 813.74

Leisure and hospitality

14.43 14.60 14.63 14.43 354.98 332.88 324.79 347.76

Other services

21.35 21.92 23.20 22.68 657.58 668.56 723.84 721.22

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2019 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-9. Indexes of aggregate weekly hours and payrolls for production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
[2002=100]
Industry Index of aggregate weekly hours(2) Index of aggregate weekly payrolls(3)
May
2019
Mar.
2020
Apr.
2020(p)
May
2020(p)
Percent change from:
Apr.
2020 - May
2020(p)
May
2019
Mar.
2020
Apr.
2020(p)
May
2020(p)
Percent change from:
Apr.
2020 - May
2020(p)

Total private

118.0 117.2 97.4 102.2 4.9 184.7 188.8 163.7 170.9 4.4

Goods-producing

94.7 94.0 77.0 82.3 6.9 143.1 145.3 119.0 127.8 7.4

Mining and logging

136.6 121.3 105.4 102.6 -2.7 237.9 218.0 191.0 183.1 -4.1

Construction

110.6 111.8 91.3 102.3 12.0 170.2 175.2 141.1 160.1 13.5

Manufacturing

85.5 84.7 69.1 72.1 4.3 123.2 125.1 103.0 107.2 4.1

Durable goods

87.1 85.9 67.4 70.7 4.9 124.8 126.5 99.4 104.3 4.9

Nondurable goods

82.7 82.6 71.8 74.6 3.9 120.0 122.6 109.3 112.4 2.8

Private service-providing

124.7 123.4 103.1 107.7 4.5 198.1 202.0 177.6 184.1 3.7

Trade, transportation, and utilities

110.7 111.0 96.5 99.9 3.5 163.6 166.4 149.3 155.0 3.8

Wholesale trade

108.9 108.0 96.6 98.5 2.0 167.4 168.2 153.9 157.5 2.3

Retail trade

102.0 102.6 87.2 92.2 5.7 145.3 149.6 131.8 141.9 7.7

Transportation and warehousing

140.3 142.0 123.8 126.4 2.1