Employment Situation News Release

Transmission of material in this news release is embargoed until	  USDL-19-0904
8:30 a.m. (EDT) Friday, June 7, 2019

Technical information: 
 Household data:	(202) 691-6378  *  cpsinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/cps
 Establishment data:	(202) 691-6555  *  cesinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/ces

Media contact:	        (202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov

	
              THE EMPLOYMENT SITUATION -- MAY 2019


Total nonfarm payroll employment edged up in May (+75,000), and the
unemployment rate remained at 3.6 percent, the U.S. Bureau of Labor
Statistics reported today. Employment continued to trend up in
professional and business services and in health care.

This news release presents statistics from two monthly surveys. The
household survey measures labor force status, including unemployment,
by demographic characteristics. The establishment survey measures
nonfarm employment, hours, and earnings by industry. For more
information about the concepts and statistical methodology used in
these two surveys, see the Technical Note.

Household Survey Data

The unemployment rate remained at 3.6 percent in May, and the number
of unemployed persons was little changed at 5.9 million. (See table
A-1.)

Among the major worker groups, the unemployment rates for adult men
(3.3 percent), adult women (3.2 percent), teenagers (12.7 percent),
Whites (3.3 percent), Blacks (6.2 percent), Asians (2.5 percent),
and Hispanics (4.2 percent) showed little or no change in May. (See
tables A-1, A-2, and A-3.)

In May, the number of persons unemployed less than 5 weeks increased
by 243,000 to 2.1 million, following a decline in April. The number
of long-term unemployed (those jobless for 27 weeks or more), at 1.3
million, changed little over the month and accounted for 22.4 percent
of the unemployed. (See table A-12.)

Both the labor force participation rate, at 62.8 percent, and the
employment-population ratio, at 60.6 percent, were unchanged in May.
(See table A-1.)

The number of persons employed part time for economic reasons
(sometimes referred to as involuntary part-time workers) declined
by 299,000 in May to 4.4 million. These individuals, who would have
preferred full-time employment, were working part time because their
hours had been reduced or they were unable to find full-time jobs.
Over the past 12 months, the number of involuntary part-time workers
has declined by 565,000. (See table A-8.)

In May, 1.4 million persons were marginally attached to the labor
force, little changed from a year earlier. (Data are not seasonally
adjusted.) These individuals were not in the labor force, wanted and
were available for work, and had looked for a job sometime in the
prior 12 months. They were not counted as unemployed because they had
not searched for work in the 4 weeks preceding the survey. (See table
A-16.)

Among the marginally attached, there were 338,000 discouraged workers
in May, little changed from a year earlier. (Data are not seasonally
adjusted.) Discouraged workers are persons not currently looking for
work because they believe no jobs are available for them. The remaining
1.1 million persons marginally attached to the labor force in May had
not searched for work for reasons such as school attendance or family
responsibilities. (See table A-16.)

Establishment Survey Data

Total nonfarm payroll employment edged up in May (+75,000). Monthly
job gains have averaged 164,000 in 2019, compared with an average gain
of 223,000 per month in 2018. In May, employment continued to trend up
in professional and business services and in health care. (See table
B-1.)

Employment in professional and business services continued to trend up
over the month (+33,000) and has increased by 498,000 over the past 12
months.

Employment in health care continued its upward trend in May (+16,000).
The industry has added 391,000 jobs over the past 12 months.

Construction employment changed little in May (+4,000), following an
increase of 30,000 in April. The industry has added 215,000 jobs over 
the past 12 months.

Employment showed little change in May in other major industries,
including mining, manufacturing, wholesale trade, retail trade,
transportation and warehousing, information, financial activities,
leisure and hospitality, and government.    

In May, average hourly earnings for all employees on private nonfarm
payrolls increased by 6 cents to $27.83. Over the year, average hourly
earnings have increased by 3.1 percent. Average hourly earnings of
private-sector production and nonsupervisory employees increased by
7 cents to $23.38 in May. (See tables B-3 and B-8.)

The average workweek for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls was
unchanged at 34.4 hours in May. In manufacturing, the average workweek
and overtime hours were unchanged at 40.6 hours and 3.4 hours, respectively.
The average workweek for production and nonsupervisory employees on private
nonfarm payrolls edged down by 0.1 hour to 33.6 hours. (See tables B-2
and B-7.)

The change in total nonfarm payroll employment for March was revised down
from +189,000 to +153,000, and the change for April was revised down from
+263,000 to +224,000. With these revisions, employment gains in March and
April combined were 75,000 less than previously reported. (Monthly revisions
result from additional reports received from businesses and government
agencies since the last published estimates and from the recalculation of
seasonal factors.) After revisions, job gains have averaged 151,000 per
month over the last 3 months.

_____________
The Employment Situation for June is scheduled to be released on
Friday, July 5, 2019, at 8:30 a.m. (EDT).




HOUSEHOLD DATA
Summary table A. Household data, seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Category May
2018
Mar.
2019
Apr.
2019
May
2019
Change from:
Apr.
2019-
May
2019

Employment status

Civilian noninstitutional population

257,454 258,537 258,693 258,861 168

Civilian labor force

161,667 162,960 162,470 162,646 176

Participation rate

62.8 63.0 62.8 62.8 0.0

Employed

155,539 156,748 156,645 156,758 113

Employment-population ratio

60.4 60.6 60.6 60.6 0.0

Unemployed

6,128 6,211 5,824 5,888 64

Unemployment rate

3.8 3.8 3.6 3.6 0.0

Not in labor force

95,787 95,577 96,223 96,215 -8

Unemployment rates

Total, 16 years and over

3.8 3.8 3.6 3.6 0.0

Adult men (20 years and over)

3.6 3.6 3.4 3.3 -0.1

Adult women (20 years and over)

3.3 3.3 3.1 3.2 0.1

Teenagers (16 to 19 years)

12.7 12.8 13.0 12.7 -0.3

White

3.5 3.4 3.1 3.3 0.2

Black or African American

5.9 6.7 6.7 6.2 -0.5

Asian

2.2 3.1 2.2 2.5 0.3

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

4.9 4.7 4.2 4.2 0.0

Total, 25 years and over

3.1 3.1 2.9 2.9 0.0

Less than a high school diploma

5.5 5.9 5.4 5.4 0.0

High school graduates, no college

3.9 3.7 3.5 3.5 0.0

Some college or associate degree

3.2 3.4 3.1 2.8 -0.3

Bachelor's degree and higher

2.0 2.0 2.1 2.1 0.0

Reason for unemployment

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

2,882 2,837 2,651 2,664 13

Job leavers

844 779 737 803 66

Reentrants

1,868 2,007 1,926 1,870 -56

New entrants

569 614 530 599 69

Duration of unemployment

Less than 5 weeks

2,019 2,126 1,904 2,147 243

5 to 14 weeks

1,906 1,815 1,842 1,559 -283

15 to 26 weeks

967 950 854 799 -55

27 weeks and over

1,197 1,305 1,230 1,298 68

Employed persons at work part time

Part time for economic reasons

4,920 4,499 4,654 4,355 -299

Slack work or business conditions

2,992 2,909 2,891 2,646 -245

Could only find part-time work

1,478 1,329 1,446 1,339 -107

Part time for noneconomic reasons

21,134 21,297 21,322 21,366 44

Persons not in the labor force (not seasonally adjusted)

Marginally attached to the labor force

1,455 1,357 1,417 1,395 -

Discouraged workers

378 412 454 338 -

- Over-the-month changes are not displayed for not seasonally adjusted data.
NOTE: Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Summary table B. Establishment data, seasonally adjusted
Category May
2018
Mar.
2019
Apr.
2019(p)
May
2019(p)

EMPLOYMENT BY SELECTED INDUSTRY
(Over-the-month change, in thousands)

Total nonfarm

270 153 224 75

Total private

264 153 205 90

Goods-producing

63 13 35 8

Mining and logging

5 1 0 1

Construction

37 15 30 4

Manufacturing

21 -3 5 3

Durable goods(1)

14 -6 2 4

Motor vehicles and parts

-5.7 -6.6 -1.9 2.8

Nondurable goods

7 3 3 -1

Private service-providing

201 140 170 82

Wholesale trade

5.8 0.1 10.8 7.1

Retail trade

18.3 -14.8 -13.6 -7.6

Transportation and warehousing

18.3 -3.3 6.7 -0.2

Utilities

-1.4 1.1 -2.7 0.4

Information

2 4 -10 -5

Financial activities

15 11 13 2

Professional and business services(1)

51 19 62 33

Temporary help services

1.4 -10.5 9.9 5.1

Education and health services(1)

39 72 73 27

Health care and social assistance

36.7 67.3 55.9 24.0

Leisure and hospitality

38 32 17 26

Other services

15 19 14 -1

Government

6 0 19 -15

(3-month average change, in thousands)

Total nonfarm

216 174 144 151

Total private

207 165 135 149

WOMEN AND PRODUCTION AND NONSUPERVISORY EMPLOYEES
AS A PERCENT OF ALL EMPLOYEES(2)

Total nonfarm women employees

49.6 49.8 49.8 49.9

Total private women employees

48.2 48.4 48.4 48.5

Total private production and nonsupervisory employees

82.4 82.4 82.3 82.3

HOURS AND EARNINGS
ALL EMPLOYEES

Total private

Average weekly hours

34.5 34.5 34.4 34.4

Average hourly earnings

$26.99 $27.71 $27.77 $27.83

Average weekly earnings

$931.16 $956.00 $955.29 $957.35

Index of aggregate weekly hours (2007=100)(3)

109.4 111.1 110.9 111.0

Over-the-month percent change

0.2 0.5 -0.2 0.1

Index of aggregate weekly payrolls (2007=100)(4)

141.1 147.1 147.3 147.7

Over-the-month percent change

0.5 0.5 0.1 0.3

DIFFUSION INDEX
(Over 1-month span)(5)

Total private (258 industries)

67.1 58.1 59.9 54.8

Manufacturing (76 industries)

63.8 53.9 50.7 52.0

Footnotes
(1) Includes other industries, not shown separately.
(2) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries.
(3) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding annual average aggregate hours.
(4) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding annual average aggregate weekly payrolls.
(5) Figures are the percent of industries with employment increasing plus one-half of the industries with unchanged employment, where 50 percent indicates an equal balance between industries with increasing and decreasing employment.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2018 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


Frequently Asked Questions about Employment and Unemployment Estimates

1. Why are there two monthly measures of employment?

   The household survey and establishment survey both produce sample-based estimates
   of employment, and both have strengths and limitations. The establishment survey
   employment series has a smaller margin of error on the measurement of month-to-
   month change than the household survey because of its much larger sample size. An
   over-the-month employment change of about 100,000 is statistically significant in
   the establishment survey, while the threshold for a statistically significant change
   in the household survey is about 500,000. However, the household survey has a more
   expansive scope than the establishment survey because it includes self-employed
   workers whose businesses are unincorporated, unpaid family workers, agricultural
   workers, and private household workers, who are excluded by the establishment survey.
   The household survey also provides estimates of employment for demographic groups.
   For more information on the differences between the two surveys, please visit
   https://www.bls.gov/web/empsit/ces_cps_trends.htm.

2. Are undocumented immigrants counted in the surveys?

   It is likely that both surveys include at least some undocumented immigrants. However,
   neither the establishment nor the household survey is designed to identify the legal
   status of workers. Therefore, it is not possible to determine how many are counted in
   either survey. The establishment survey does not collect data on the legal status of
   workers. The household survey does include questions which identify the foreign and
   native born, but it does not include questions about the legal status of the foreign
   born. Data on the foreign and native born are published each month in table A-7 of
   The Employment Situation news release.

3. Why does the establishment survey have revisions?

   The establishment survey revises published estimates to improve its data series by
   incorporating additional information that was not available at the time of the
   initial publication of the estimates. The establishment survey revises its initial
   monthly estimates twice, in the immediately succeeding 2 months, to incorporate
   additional sample receipts from respondents in the survey and recalculated seasonal
   adjustment factors. For more information on the monthly revisions, please visit
   https://www.bls.gov/ces/cesrevinfo.htm.

   On an annual basis, the establishment survey incorporates a benchmark revision that
   re-anchors estimates to nearly complete employment counts available from unemployment
   insurance tax records. The benchmark helps to control for sampling and modeling errors
   in the estimates. For more information on the annual benchmark revision, please visit
   https://www.bls.gov/web/empsit/cesbmart.htm.

4. Does the establishment survey sample include small firms?

   Yes; about 40 percent of the establishment survey sample is comprised of business
   establishments with fewer than 20 employees. The establishment survey sample is
   designed to maximize the reliability of the statewide total nonfarm employment
   estimate; firms from all states, size classes, and industries are appropriately
   sampled to achieve that goal.

5. Does the establishment survey account for employment from new businesses?

   Yes; monthly establishment survey estimates include an adjustment to account for
   the net employment change generated by business births and deaths. The adjustment
   comes from an econometric model that forecasts the monthly net jobs impact of
   business births and deaths based on the actual past values of the net impact that
   can be observed with a lag from the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages. The
   establishment survey uses modeling rather than sampling for this purpose because
   the survey is not immediately able to bring new businesses into the sample. There
   is an unavoidable lag between the birth of a new firm and its appearance on the
   sampling frame and availability for selection. BLS adds new businesses to the survey
   twice a year.

6. Is the count of unemployed persons limited to just those people receiving unemployment
   insurance benefits?

   No; the estimate of unemployment is based on a monthly sample survey of households.
   All persons who are without jobs and are actively seeking and available to work are
   included among the unemployed. (People on temporary layoff are included even if
   they do not actively seek work.) There is no requirement or question relating to
   unemployment insurance benefits in the monthly survey.

7. Does the official unemployment rate exclude people who want a job but are not currently
   looking for work?

   Yes; however, there are separate estimates of persons outside the labor force who
   want a job, including those who are not currently looking because they believe no
   jobs are available (discouraged workers). In addition, alternative measures of labor
   underutilization (some of which include discouraged workers and other groups not
   officially counted as unemployed) are published each month in table A-15 of The
   Employment Situation news release. For more information about these alternative
   measures, please visit https://www.bls.gov/cps/lfcharacteristics.htm#altmeasures.

8. How can unusually severe weather affect employment and hours estimates?

   In the establishment survey, the reference period is the pay period that includes
   the 12th of the month. Unusually severe weather is more likely to have an impact on
   average weekly hours than on employment. Average weekly hours are estimated for paid
   time during the pay period, including pay for holidays, sick leave, or other time off.
   The impact of severe weather on hours estimates typically, but not always, results in
   a reduction in average weekly hours. For example, some employees may be off work for
   part of the pay period and not receive pay for the time missed, while some workers,
   such as those dealing with cleanup or repair, may work extra hours.
   
   Typically, it is not possible to precisely quantify the effect of extreme weather on 
   payroll employment estimates. In order for severe weather conditions to reduce
   employment estimates, employees have to be off work without pay for the entire pay
   period. Employees who receive pay for any part of the pay period, even 1 hour, are
   counted in the payroll employment figures. For more information on how often employees
   are paid, please visit https://www.bls.gov/opub/btn/volume-3/how-frequently-do-private-
   businesses-pay-workers.htm.

   In the household survey, the reference period is generally the calendar week that
   includes the 12th of the month. Persons who miss the entire week's work for weather-
   related events are counted as employed whether or not they are paid for the time
   off. The household survey collects data on the number of persons who had a job but
   were not at work due to bad weather. It also provides a measure of the number of
   persons who usually work full time but had reduced hours due to bad weather. 
   Current and historical data are available on the household survey's most requested
   statistics page, please visit https://data.bls.gov/cgi-bin/surveymost?ln.




Technical Note


   This news release presents statistics from two major surveys, the Current
Population Survey (CPS; household survey) and the Current Employment Statistics
survey (CES; establishment survey). The household survey provides information
on the labor force, employment, and unemployment that appears in the "A" tables,
marked HOUSEHOLD DATA. It is a sample survey of about 60,000 eligible households
conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau for the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS).

   The establishment survey provides information on employment, hours, and
earnings of employees on nonfarm payrolls; the data appear in the "B" tables,
marked ESTABLISHMENT DATA. BLS collects these data each month from the payroll
records of a sample of nonagricultural business establishments. Each month
the CES program surveys about 142,000 businesses and government agencies,
representing approximately 689,000 individual worksites, in order to provide
detailed industry data on employment, hours, and earnings of workers on nonfarm
payrolls. The active sample includes approximately one-third of all nonfarm
payroll employees.

   For both surveys, the data for a given month relate to a particular week or
pay period. In the household survey, the reference period is generally the
calendar week that contains the 12th day of the month. In the establishment
survey, the reference period is the pay period including the 12th, which may or
may not correspond directly to the calendar week.

Coverage, definitions, and differences between surveys

   Household survey. The sample is selected to reflect the entire civilian 
noninstitutional population. Based on responses to a series of questions on 
work and job search activities, each person 16 years and over in a sample
household is classified as employed, unemployed, or not in the labor force.

   People are classified as employed if they did any work at all as paid employees
during the reference week; worked in their own business, profession, or on their
own farm; or worked without pay at least 15 hours in a family business or farm.
People are also counted as employed if they were temporarily absent from their jobs
because of illness, bad weather, vacation, labor-management disputes, or personal
reasons.

   People are classified as unemployed if they meet all of the following criteria:
they had no employment during the reference week; they were available for work at
that time; and they made specific efforts to find employment sometime during the
4-week period ending with the reference week. Persons laid off from a job and
expecting recall need not be looking for work to be counted as unemployed. The
unemployment data derived from the household survey in no way depend upon the
eligibility for or receipt of unemployment insurance benefits.

   The civilian labor force is the sum of employed and unemployed persons.
Those persons not classified as employed or unemployed are not in the labor 
force. The unemployment rate is the number unemployed as a percent of the 
labor force. The labor force participation rate is the labor force as a 
percent of the population, and the employment-population ratio is the 
employed as a percent of the population. Additional information about the 
household survey can be found at https://www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm.

   Establishment survey. The sample establishments are drawn from private
nonfarm businesses such as factories, offices, and stores, as well as
from federal, state, and local government entities. Employees on nonfarm
payrolls are those who worked or received pay for any part of the reference pay
period, including persons on paid leave. Persons are counted in each job
they hold. Hours and earnings data are produced for the private sector for
all employees and for production and nonsupervisory employees. Production
and nonsupervisory employees are defined as production and related employees
in manufacturing and mining and logging, construction workers in construction,
and nonsupervisory employees in private service-providing industries.

   Industries are classified on the basis of an establishment's principal
activity in accordance with the 2017 version of the North American Industry
Classification System. Additional information about the establishment survey
can be found at https://www.bls.gov/ces/.

   Differences in employment estimates. The numerous conceptual and methodological
differences between the household and establishment  surveys result in important
distinctions in the employment estimates derived from the surveys. Among these are:

   --The household survey includes agricultural workers, self-employed workers
     whose businesses are unincorporated, unpaid family workers, and private
     household workers among the employed. These groups are excluded from the
     establishment survey.

   --The household survey includes people on unpaid leave among the employed.
     The establishment survey does not.

   --The household survey is limited to workers 16 years of age and older.
     The establishment survey is not limited by age.

   --The household survey has no duplication of individuals, because
     individuals are counted only once, even if they hold more than one
     job. In the establishment survey, employees working at more than one
     job and thus appearing on more than one payroll are counted separately
     for each appearance.

Seasonal adjustment

   Over the course of a year, the size of the nation's labor force and the levels
of employment and unemployment undergo regularly occurring fluctuations. These 
events may result from seasonal changes in weather, major holidays, and the opening
and closing of schools. The effect of such seasonal variation can be very large.

   Because these seasonal events follow a more or less regular pattern each year,
their influence on the level of a series can be tempered by adjusting for regular
seasonal variation. These adjustments make nonseasonal developments, such as
declines in employment or increases in the participation of women in the labor
force, easier to spot. For example, in the household survey, the large number of
youth entering the labor force each June is likely to obscure any other changes
that have taken place relative to May, making it difficult to determine if the 
level of economic activity has risen or declined. Similarly, in the establishment
survey, payroll employment in education declines by about 20 percent at the end
of the spring term and later rises with the start of the fall term, obscuring the
underlying employment trends in the industry. Because seasonal employment changes
at the end and beginning of the school year can be estimated, the statistics can be
adjusted to make underlying employment patterns more discernable.  The seasonally
adjusted figures provide a more useful tool with which to analyze changes in
month-to-month economic activity.

   Many seasonally adjusted series are independently adjusted in both the household
and establishment surveys. However, the adjusted series for many major estimates,
such as total payroll employment, employment in most major sectors, total employment,
and unemployment are computed by aggregating independently adjusted component series.
For example, total unemployment is derived by summing the adjusted series for four
major age-sex components; this differs from the unemployment estimate that would be
obtained by directly adjusting the total or by combining
the duration, reasons, or more detailed age categories.

   For both the household and establishment surveys, a concurrent seasonal adjustment
methodology is used in which new seasonal factors are calculated each month using all
relevant data, up to and including the data for the current month. In the household
survey, new seasonal factors are used to adjust only the current month's data. In the
establishment survey, however, new seasonal factors are used each month to adjust the
three most recent monthly estimates. The prior 2 months are routinely revised to
incorporate additional sample reports and recalculated seasonal adjustment factors.
In both surveys, 5-year revisions to historical data are made once a year.

Reliability of the estimates

   Statistics based on the household and establishment surveys are subject to both
sampling and nonsampling error. When a sample, rather than the entire population,
is surveyed, there is a chance that the sample estimates may differ from the true
population values they represent. The component of this difference that occurs
because samples differ by chance is known as sampling error, and its variability
is measured by the standard error of the estimate. There is about a 90-percent
chance, or level of confidence, that an estimate based on a sample will differ by
no more than 1.6 standard errors from the true population value because of sampling
error. BLS analyses are generally conducted at the 90-percent level of confidence.

   For example, the confidence interval for the monthly change in total nonfarm
employment from the establishment survey is on the order of plus or minus 110,000.
Suppose the estimate of nonfarm employment increases by 50,000 from one month to
the next. The 90-percent confidence interval on the monthly change would range from
-60,000 to +160,000 (50,000 +/- 110,000). These figures do not mean that the sample
results are off by these magnitudes, but rather that there is about a 90-percent
chance that the true over-the-month change lies within this interval. Since this
range includes values of less than zero, we could not say with confidence that
nonfarm employment had, in fact, increased that month. If, however, the reported
nonfarm employment rise was 250,000, then all of the values within the 90- percent
confidence interval would be greater than zero. In this case, it is likely (at
least a 90-percent chance) that nonfarm employment had, in fact, risen that month.
At an unemployment rate of around 6.0 percent, the 90-percent confidence interval
for the monthly change in unemployment as measured by the household survey is
about +/- 300,000, and for the monthly change in the unemployment rate it is about
+/- 0.2 percentage point.

   In general, estimates involving many individuals or establishments have lower
standard errors (relative to the size of the estimate) than estimates which are based
on a small number of observations. The precision of estimates also is improved when
the data are cumulated over time, such as for quarterly and annual averages.

   The household and establishment surveys are also affected by nonsampling error,
which can occur for many reasons, including the failure to sample a segment of the
population, inability to obtain information for all respondents in the sample,
inability or unwillingness of respondents to provide correct information on a
timely basis, mistakes made by respondents, and errors made in the collection or
processing of the data.

   For example, in the establishment survey, estimates for the most recent 2 months
are based on incomplete returns; for this reason, these estimates are labeled
preliminary in the tables. It is only after two successive revisions to a monthly
estimate, when nearly all sample reports have been received, that the estimate is
considered final.

   Another major source of nonsampling error in the establishment survey is the
inability to capture, on a timely basis, employment generated by new firms. To
correct for this systematic underestimation of employment growth, an estimation
procedure with two components is used to account for business births. The first
component excludes employment losses from business deaths from sample-based
estimation in order to offset the missing employment gains from business births.
This is incorporated into the sample-based estimation procedure by simply not
reflecting sample units going out of business, but imputing to them the same
employment trend as the other firms in the sample. This procedure accounts for
most of the net birth/death employment.

   The second component is an ARIMA time series model designed to estimate the
residual net birth/death employment not accounted for by the imputation. The
historical time series used to create and test the ARIMA model was derived from
the unemployment insurance universe micro- level database, and reflects the actual
residual net of births and deaths over the past 5 years.

   The sample-based estimates from the establishment survey are adjusted once a
year (on a lagged basis) to universe counts of payroll employment obtained from
administrative records of the unemployment insurance program. The difference 
between the March sample-based employment estimates and the March universe counts
is known as a benchmark revision, and serves as a rough proxy for total survey
error. The new benchmarks also incorporate changes in the classification of
industries. Over the past decade, absolute benchmark revisions for total nonfarm
employment have averaged 0.3 percent, with a range from -0.7 percent to 0.6 percent.

Other information

   Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired
individuals upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay
Service: (800) 877-8339.




HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-1. Employment status of the civilian population by sex and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
May
2018
Apr.
2019
May
2019
May
2018
Jan.
2019
Feb.
2019
Mar.
2019
Apr.
2019
May
2019

TOTAL

Civilian noninstitutional population

257,454 258,693 258,861 257,454 258,239 258,392 258,537 258,693 258,861

Civilian labor force

161,765 162,097 162,655 161,667 163,229 163,184 162,960 162,470 162,646

Participation rate

62.8 62.7 62.8 62.8 63.2 63.2 63.0 62.8 62.8

Employed

156,009 156,710 157,152 155,539 156,694 156,949 156,748 156,645 156,758

Employment-population ratio

60.6 60.6 60.7 60.4 60.7 60.7 60.6 60.6 60.6

Unemployed

5,756 5,387 5,503 6,128 6,535 6,235 6,211 5,824 5,888

Unemployment rate

3.6 3.3 3.4 3.8 4.0 3.8 3.8 3.6 3.6

Not in labor force

95,689 96,596 96,207 95,787 95,010 95,208 95,577 96,223 96,215

Persons who currently want a job

5,696 4,951 5,500 5,211 5,254 5,222 5,227 5,121 5,045

Men, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

124,509 125,114 125,197 124,509 124,890 124,965 125,037 125,114 125,197

Civilian labor force

86,309 86,027 86,532 86,170 86,577 86,439 86,442 86,179 86,377

Participation rate

69.3 68.8 69.1 69.2 69.3 69.2 69.1 68.9 69.0

Employed

83,103 82,963 83,561 82,754 83,031 83,095 83,034 82,959 83,192

Employment-population ratio

66.7 66.3 66.7 66.5 66.5 66.5 66.4 66.3 66.4

Unemployed

3,206 3,064 2,971 3,416 3,545 3,343 3,408 3,221 3,185

Unemployment rate

3.7 3.6 3.4 4.0 4.1 3.9 3.9 3.7 3.7

Not in labor force

38,201 39,087 38,665 38,340 38,313 38,527 38,595 38,935 38,820

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

116,017 116,665 116,752 116,017 116,436 116,513 116,586 116,665 116,752

Civilian labor force

83,458 83,415 83,785 83,257 83,599 83,632 83,573 83,373 83,561

Participation rate

71.9 71.5 71.8 71.8 71.8 71.8 71.7 71.5 71.6

Employed

80,698 80,711 81,192 80,299 80,472 80,712 80,564 80,576 80,766

Employment-population ratio

69.6 69.2 69.5 69.2 69.1 69.3 69.1 69.1 69.2

Unemployed

2,761 2,703 2,594 2,958 3,126 2,920 3,009 2,797 2,795

Unemployment rate

3.3 3.2 3.1 3.6 3.7 3.5 3.6 3.4 3.3

Not in labor force

32,559 33,251 32,967 32,760 32,837 32,881 33,013 33,292 33,191

Women, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

132,944 133,579 133,664 132,944 133,350 133,427 133,500 133,579 133,664

Civilian labor force

75,456 76,069 76,122 75,497 76,652 76,746 76,518 76,291 76,269

Participation rate

56.8 56.9 57.0 56.8 57.5 57.5 57.3 57.1 57.1

Employed

72,907 73,747 73,591 72,785 73,663 73,854 73,715 73,687 73,566

Employment-population ratio

54.8 55.2 55.1 54.7 55.2 55.4 55.2 55.2 55.0

Unemployed

2,549 2,323 2,532 2,712 2,990 2,892 2,803 2,604 2,703

Unemployment rate

3.4 3.1 3.3 3.6 3.9 3.8 3.7 3.4 3.5

Not in labor force

57,488 57,510 57,542 57,448 56,697 56,681 56,982 57,288 57,395

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

124,674 125,332 125,419 124,674 125,099 125,177 125,252 125,332 125,419

Civilian labor force

72,599 73,382 73,263 72,590 73,691 73,760 73,525 73,419 73,347

Participation rate

58.2 58.5 58.4 58.2 58.9 58.9 58.7 58.6 58.5

Employed

70,341 71,327 71,072 70,161 71,049 71,221 71,072 71,131 70,981

Employment-population ratio

56.4 56.9 56.7 56.3 56.8 56.9 56.7 56.8 56.6

Unemployed

2,258 2,055 2,191 2,429 2,642 2,540 2,453 2,288 2,366

Unemployment rate

3.1 2.8 3.0 3.3 3.6 3.4 3.3 3.1 3.2

Not in labor force

52,075 51,950 52,156 52,084 51,408 51,417 51,727 51,913 52,071

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian noninstitutional population

16,763 16,696 16,690 16,763 16,704 16,702 16,698 16,696 16,690

Civilian labor force

5,707 5,300 5,607 5,820 5,939 5,792 5,862 5,678 5,738

Participation rate

34.0 31.7 33.6 34.7 35.6 34.7 35.1 34.0 34.4

Employed

4,970 4,672 4,888 5,079 5,172 5,017 5,113 4,938 5,011

Employment-population ratio

29.7 28.0 29.3 30.3 31.0 30.0 30.6 29.6 30.0

Unemployed

737 628 718 741 767 776 748 740 726

Unemployment rate

12.9 11.9 12.8 12.7 12.9 13.4 12.8 13.0 12.7

Not in labor force

11,056 11,395 11,084 10,943 10,765 10,909 10,837 11,018 10,953

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-2. Employment status of the civilian population by race, sex, and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, race, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
May
2018
Apr.
2019
May
2019
May
2018
Jan.
2019
Feb.
2019
Mar.
2019
Apr.
2019
May
2019

WHITE

Civilian noninstitutional population

200,039 200,576 200,658 200,039 200,382 200,447 200,508 200,576 200,658

Civilian labor force

125,848 125,627 126,042 125,689 126,351 126,313 126,404 125,900 125,980

Participation rate

62.9 62.6 62.8 62.8 63.1 63.0 63.0 62.8 62.8

Employed

121,788 122,036 122,269 121,298 121,880 122,168 122,143 121,944 121,883

Employment-population ratio

60.9 60.8 60.9 60.6 60.8 60.9 60.9 60.8 60.7

Unemployed

4,060 3,591 3,773 4,392 4,471 4,144 4,261 3,957 4,097

Unemployment rate

3.2 2.9 3.0 3.5 3.5 3.3 3.4 3.1 3.3

Not in labor force

74,191 74,950 74,616 74,349 74,030 74,134 74,104 74,676 74,678

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

66,049 65,852 66,179 65,844 66,051 66,052 66,014 65,802 65,973

Participation rate

72.1 71.7 72.0 71.9 72.0 72.0 71.9 71.6 71.8

Employed

64,113 64,014 64,412 63,738 63,890 64,088 63,936 63,896 64,042

Employment-population ratio

70.0 69.7 70.1 69.6 69.6 69.8 69.6 69.6 69.7

Unemployed

1,936 1,838 1,767 2,106 2,161 1,964 2,078 1,906 1,931

Unemployment rate

2.9 2.8 2.7 3.2 3.3 3.0 3.1 2.9 2.9

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

55,277 55,639 55,457 55,253 55,740 55,814 55,806 55,671 55,526

Participation rate

57.5 57.7 57.5 57.5 57.8 57.9 57.9 57.7 57.5

Employed

53,681 54,309 53,957 53,496 53,959 54,151 54,140 54,133 53,869

Employment-population ratio

55.8 56.3 55.9 55.6 56.0 56.2 56.1 56.1 55.8

Unemployed

1,595 1,330 1,500 1,756 1,781 1,663 1,666 1,538 1,657

Unemployment rate

2.9 2.4 2.7 3.2 3.2 3.0 3.0 2.8 3.0

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

4,522 4,136 4,407 4,593 4,560 4,447 4,585 4,427 4,482

Participation rate

36.7 33.8 36.0 37.3 37.2 36.3 37.4 36.1 36.6

Employed

3,994 3,713 3,900 4,063 4,031 3,929 4,067 3,915 3,972

Employment-population ratio

32.4 30.3 31.8 33.0 32.9 32.0 33.2 31.9 32.4

Unemployed

528 423 507 529 530 518 517 512 510

Unemployment rate

11.7 10.2 11.5 11.5 11.6 11.6 11.3 11.6 11.4

BLACK OR AFRICAN AMERICAN

Civilian noninstitutional population

32,704 32,955 32,984 32,704 32,868 32,897 32,925 32,955 32,984

Civilian labor force

20,292 20,537 20,547 20,294 20,628 20,575 20,432 20,589 20,562

Participation rate

62.0 62.3 62.3 62.1 62.8 62.5 62.1 62.5 62.3

Employed

19,145 19,262 19,335 19,096 19,220 19,137 19,073 19,219 19,280

Employment-population ratio

58.5 58.4 58.6 58.4 58.5 58.2 57.9 58.3 58.5

Unemployed

1,147 1,275 1,212 1,198 1,408 1,437 1,359 1,370 1,282

Unemployment rate

5.7 6.2 5.9 5.9 6.8 7.0 6.7 6.7 6.2

Not in labor force

12,412 12,418 12,437 12,410 12,240 12,322 12,493 12,366 12,421

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

9,407 9,449 9,444 9,380 9,367 9,414 9,399 9,456 9,422

Participation rate

68.7 68.3 68.2 68.5 67.9 68.2 68.0 68.3 68.0

Employed

8,840 8,827 8,887 8,790 8,705 8,734 8,753 8,811 8,833

Employment-population ratio

64.6 63.8 64.2 64.2 63.1 63.3 63.3 63.7 63.8

Unemployed

567 622 557 590 662 680 646 645 589

Unemployment rate

6.0 6.6 5.9 6.3 7.1 7.2 6.9 6.8 6.3

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

10,207 10,406 10,446 10,235 10,419 10,366 10,316 10,411 10,469

Participation rate

61.8 62.5 62.7 62.0 62.8 62.4 62.0 62.5 62.8

Employed

9,757 9,907 9,949 9,755 9,847 9,822 9,777 9,859 9,934

Employment-population ratio

59.1 59.5 59.7 59.1 59.3 59.1 58.8 59.2 59.6

Unemployed

450 499 497 481 572 544 539 552 535

Unemployment rate

4.4 4.8 4.8 4.7 5.5 5.3 5.2 5.3 5.1

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

678 681 657 680 842 795 717 722 671

Participation rate

27.1 27.6 26.7 27.2 34.0 32.1 29.0 29.2 27.2

Employed

548 527 499 552 669 582 542 549 513

Employment-population ratio

21.9 21.3 20.3 22.1 27.0 23.5 21.9 22.2 20.8

Unemployed

130 155 158 128 173 213 174 173 158

Unemployment rate

19.2 22.7 24.0 18.8 20.6 26.8 24.3 24.0 23.5

ASIAN

Civilian noninstitutional population

15,874 16,290 16,361 15,874 16,034 16,055 16,245 16,290 16,361

Civilian labor force

9,932 10,166 10,290 9,941 10,298 10,369 10,402 10,180 10,304

Participation rate

62.6 62.4 62.9 62.6 64.2 64.6 64.0 62.5 63.0

Employed

9,732 9,954 10,049 9,727 9,978 10,045 10,082 9,957 10,046

Employment-population ratio

61.3 61.1 61.4 61.3 62.2 62.6 62.1 61.1 61.4

Unemployed

201 212 240 214 321 324 320 223 258

Unemployment rate

2.0 2.1 2.3 2.2 3.1 3.1 3.1 2.2 2.5

Not in labor force

5,941 6,124 6,072 5,933 5,736 5,686 5,843 6,110 6,058

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Estimates for the above race groups will not sum to totals shown in table A-1 because data are not presented for all races. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-3. Employment status of the Hispanic or Latino population by sex and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
May
2018
Apr.
2019
May
2019
May
2018
Jan.
2019
Feb.
2019
Mar.
2019
Apr.
2019
May
2019

HISPANIC OR LATINO ETHNICITY

Civilian noninstitutional population

42,592 43,289 43,370 42,592 43,044 43,127 43,205 43,289 43,370

Civilian labor force

28,209 28,474 28,680 28,207 28,985 28,724 28,929 28,546 28,689

Participation rate

66.2 65.8 66.1 66.2 67.3 66.6 67.0 65.9 66.2

Employed

26,954 27,415 27,608 26,834 27,579 27,480 27,566 27,348 27,493

Employment-population ratio

63.3 63.3 63.7 63.0 64.1 63.7 63.8 63.2 63.4

Unemployed

1,255 1,059 1,072 1,373 1,406 1,245 1,363 1,198 1,196

Unemployment rate

4.4 3.7 3.7 4.9 4.9 4.3 4.7 4.2 4.2

Not in labor force

14,383 14,814 14,690 14,385 14,060 14,403 14,277 14,743 14,681

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

15,444 15,595 15,732 15,439 15,699 15,675 15,832 15,611 15,731

Participation rate

80.3 79.8 80.4 80.3 80.8 80.5 81.2 79.9 80.4

Employed

14,903 15,074 15,248 14,843 15,066 15,117 15,187 15,028 15,188

Employment-population ratio

77.5 77.2 77.9 77.2 77.6 77.7 77.9 76.9 77.6

Unemployed

541 521 483 596 633 557 646 583 543

Unemployment rate

3.5 3.3 3.1 3.9 4.0 3.6 4.1 3.7 3.4

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

11,535 11,776 11,816 11,519 11,968 11,798 11,839 11,762 11,810

Participation rate

59.3 59.6 59.6 59.3 60.9 59.9 60.0 59.5 59.6

Employed

10,990 11,381 11,381 10,930 11,396 11,331 11,321 11,330 11,330

Employment-population ratio

56.5 57.6 57.4 56.2 58.0 57.5 57.4 57.3 57.2

Unemployed

545 395 436 589 572 466 518 432 480

Unemployment rate

4.7 3.4 3.7 5.1 4.8 4.0 4.4 3.7 4.1

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

1,231 1,103 1,132 1,250 1,318 1,252 1,257 1,172 1,149

Participation rate

31.3 27.7 28.4 31.8 33.3 31.6 31.7 29.5 28.9

Employed

1,061 961 979 1,061 1,117 1,031 1,058 989 975

Employment-population ratio

27.0 24.2 24.6 27.0 28.2 26.0 26.6 24.9 24.5

Unemployed

169 142 153 189 201 221 199 183 174

Unemployment rate

13.7 12.9 13.5 15.1 15.2 17.6 15.9 15.6 15.1

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-4. Employment status of the civilian population 25 years and over by educational attainment
[Numbers in thousands]
Educational attainment Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
May
2018
Apr.
2019
May
2019
May
2018
Jan.
2019
Feb.
2019
Mar.
2019
Apr.
2019
May
2019

Less than a high school diploma

Civilian labor force

10,519 10,081 10,143 10,250 10,065 10,267 10,142 9,996 9,915

Participation rate

46.4 45.7 45.6 45.2 45.2 47.0 46.1 45.3 44.6

Employed

10,035 9,554 9,692 9,691 9,489 9,720 9,548 9,460 9,383

Employment-population ratio

44.2 43.3 43.6 42.7 42.6 44.5 43.4 42.8 42.2

Unemployed

484 527 451 559 576 548 594 536 533

Unemployment rate

4.6 5.2 4.4 5.5 5.7 5.3 5.9 5.4 5.4

High school graduates, no college(1)

Civilian labor force

35,886 35,900 35,840 35,771 36,301 36,230 35,983 35,901 35,781

Participation rate

57.5 57.9 57.5 57.3 58.5 58.2 57.9 57.9 57.4

Employed

34,585 34,729 34,664 34,376 34,937 34,863 34,654 34,662 34,522

Employment-population ratio

55.4 56.0 55.6 55.1 56.3 56.0 55.8 55.9 55.4

Unemployed

1,301 1,172 1,176 1,395 1,363 1,367 1,329 1,239 1,259

Unemployment rate

3.6 3.3 3.3 3.9 3.8 3.8 3.7 3.5 3.5

Some college or associate degree

Civilian labor force

37,732 37,494 37,559 37,852 37,339 37,213 37,268 37,290 37,614

Participation rate

65.4 64.9 65.2 65.6 65.5 65.3 65.2 64.6 65.3

Employed

36,596 36,405 36,612 36,630 36,071 36,040 36,012 36,141 36,569

Employment-population ratio

63.4 63.0 63.6 63.5 63.2 63.3 63.0 62.6 63.5

Unemployed

1,135 1,089 947 1,223 1,268 1,173 1,256 1,149 1,045

Unemployment rate

3.0 2.9 2.5 3.2 3.4 3.2 3.4 3.1 2.8

Bachelor's degree and higher(2)

Civilian labor force

56,850 58,335 58,145 56,786 58,472 58,497 58,593 58,381 58,217

Participation rate

74.2 73.8 73.7 74.1 74.0 73.5 73.7 73.9 73.8

Employed

55,809 57,235 57,007 55,645 57,078 57,220 57,409 57,179 56,980

Employment-population ratio

72.8 72.4 72.2 72.6 72.2 71.9 72.2 72.3 72.2

Unemployed

1,040 1,099 1,137 1,141 1,395 1,277 1,184 1,202 1,237

Unemployment rate

1.8 1.9 2.0 2.0 2.4 2.2 2.0 2.1 2.1

Footnotes
(1) Includes persons with a high school diploma or equivalent.
(2) Includes persons with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-5. Employment status of the civilian population 18 years and over by veteran status, period of service, and sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, veteran status, and period of service Total Men Women
May
2018
May
2019
May
2018
May
2019
May
2018
May
2019

VETERANS, 18 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

19,247 18,870 17,384 16,989 1,863 1,881

Civilian labor force

9,388 9,267 8,291 8,223 1,097 1,044

Participation rate

48.8 49.1 47.7 48.4 58.9 55.5

Employed

9,065 9,014 7,997 7,998 1,068 1,016

Employment-population ratio

47.1 47.8 46.0 47.1 57.3 54.0

Unemployed

323 253 294 225 29 29

Unemployment rate

3.4 2.7 3.5 2.7 2.7 2.7

Not in labor force

9,859 9,603 9,093 8,766 766 837

Gulf War-era II veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

4,143 4,302 3,448 3,595 695 707

Civilian labor force

3,296 3,464 2,799 2,992 497 472

Participation rate

79.5 80.5 81.2 83.2 71.4 66.7

Employed

3,158 3,367 2,686 2,910 472 457

Employment-population ratio

76.2 78.3 77.9 80.9 67.9 64.6

Unemployed

138 97 113 82 25 15

Unemployment rate

4.2 2.8 4.0 2.8 5.0 3.1

Not in labor force

847 838 649 603 199 235

Gulf War-era I veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

3,074 3,078 2,579 2,562 495 516

Civilian labor force

2,369 2,337 2,026 2,014 343 323

Participation rate

77.1 75.9 78.6 78.6 69.2 62.7

Employed

2,325 2,287 1,983 1,967 341 320

Employment-population ratio

75.6 74.3 76.9 76.8 69.0 62.0

Unemployed

44 50 43 47 1 3

Unemployment rate

1.9 2.1 2.1 2.3 0.3 1.0

Not in labor force

705 741 553 548 152 193

World War II, Korean War, and Vietnam-era veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

7,679 7,263 7,418 7,013 261 250

Civilian labor force

1,609 1,465 1,556 1,406 53 60

Participation rate

20.9 20.2 21.0 20.0 20.2 23.9

Employed

1,540 1,425 1,488 1,369 53 56

Employment-population ratio

20.1 19.6 20.1 19.5 20.2 22.3

Unemployed

68 40 68 36 0 4

Unemployment rate

4.3 2.7 4.4 2.6 - -

Not in labor force

6,070 5,798 5,862 5,607 208 190

Veterans of other service periods

Civilian noninstitutional population

4,351 4,227 3,939 3,819 412 408

Civilian labor force

2,115 2,001 1,909 1,812 205 189

Participation rate

48.6 47.3 48.5 47.4 49.9 46.4

Employed

2,042 1,935 1,840 1,752 202 183

Employment-population ratio

46.9 45.8 46.7 45.9 49.0 44.8

Unemployed

73 66 69 60 4 7

Unemployment rate

3.5 3.3 3.6 3.3 1.8 3.4

Not in labor force

2,236 2,226 2,030 2,007 207 219

NONVETERANS, 18 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

229,354 231,312 102,624 103,735 126,731 127,577

Civilian labor force

150,404 151,517 77,026 77,350 73,378 74,166

Participation rate

65.6 65.5 75.1 74.6 57.9 58.1

Employed

145,268 146,537 74,297 74,764 70,972 71,773

Employment-population ratio

63.3 63.4 72.4 72.1 56.0 56.3

Unemployed

5,136 4,980 2,730 2,586 2,406 2,394

Unemployment rate

3.4 3.3 3.5 3.3 3.3 3.2

Not in labor force

78,950 79,795 25,597 26,384 53,353 53,410

NOTE: Veterans served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces and were not on active duty at the time of the survey. Nonveterans never served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces. Veterans could have served anywhere in the world during these periods of service: Gulf War era II (September 2001-present), Gulf War era I (August 1990-August 2001), Vietnam era (August 1964-April 1975), Korean War (July 1950-January 1955), World War II (December 1941-December 1946), and other service periods (all other time periods). Veterans who served in more than one wartime period are classified only in the most recent one. Veterans who served during one of the selected wartime periods and another period are classified only in the wartime period. Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria (values not shown where base is less than 75,000).


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-6. Employment status of the civilian population by sex, age, and disability status, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Persons with a disability Persons with no disability
May
2018
May
2019
May
2018
May
2019

TOTAL, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

30,424 30,764 227,030 228,097

Civilian labor force

6,128 6,326 155,637 156,328

Participation rate

20.1 20.6 68.6 68.5

Employed

5,697 5,929 150,313 151,223

Employment-population ratio

18.7 19.3 66.2 66.3

Unemployed

431 397 5,324 5,106

Unemployment rate

7.0 6.3 3.4 3.3

Not in labor force

24,296 24,438 71,393 71,769

Men, 16 to 64 years

Civilian labor force

2,584 2,707 78,114 77,968

Participation rate

34.5 36.1 83.0 82.8

Employed

2,362 2,514 75,311 75,323

Employment-population ratio

31.6 33.6 80.0 80.0

Unemployed

222 193 2,803 2,645

Unemployment rate

8.6 7.1 3.6 3.4

Not in labor force

4,900 4,781 16,035 16,141

Women, 16 to 64 years

Civilian labor force

2,396 2,371 68,564 69,079

Participation rate

30.0 29.6 70.8 71.5

Employed

2,225 2,238 66,301 66,819

Employment-population ratio

27.9 28.0 68.5 69.1

Unemployed

170 133 2,263 2,260

Unemployment rate

7.1 5.6 3.3 3.3

Not in labor force

5,578 5,633 28,239 27,596

Both sexes, 65 years and over

Civilian labor force

1,148 1,248 8,960 9,282

Participation rate

7.7 8.2 24.8 24.9

Employed

1,110 1,177 8,701 9,080

Employment-population ratio

7.4 7.7 24.1 24.3

Unemployed

39 71 259 202

Unemployment rate

3.4 5.7 2.9 2.2

Not in labor force

13,818 14,024 27,120 28,032

NOTE: A person with a disability has at least one of the following conditions: is deaf or has serious difficulty hearing; is blind or has serious difficulty seeing even when wearing glasses; has serious difficulty concentrating, remembering, or making decisions because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition; has serious difficulty walking or climbing stairs; has difficulty dressing or bathing; or has difficulty doing errands alone such as visiting a doctor's office or shopping because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-7. Employment status of the civilian population by nativity and sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status and nativity Total Men Women
May
2018
May
2019
May
2018
May
2019
May
2018
May
2019

Foreign born, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

42,732 43,408 20,682 20,918 22,050 22,490

Civilian labor force

27,923 28,473 16,088 16,347 11,835 12,126

Participation rate

65.3 65.6 77.8 78.1 53.7 53.9

Employed

27,086 27,678 15,674 15,976 11,412 11,702

Employment-population ratio

63.4 63.8 75.8 76.4 51.8 52.0

Unemployed

837 795 414 371 423 424

Unemployment rate

3.0 2.8 2.6 2.3 3.6 3.5

Not in labor force

14,809 14,935 4,594 4,571 10,215 10,364

Native born, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

214,722 215,453 103,827 104,279 110,895 111,174

Civilian labor force

133,842 134,182 70,221 70,186 63,621 63,996

Participation rate

62.3 62.3 67.6 67.3 57.4 57.6

Employed

128,924 129,474 67,428 67,586 61,495 61,889

Employment-population ratio

60.0 60.1 64.9 64.8 55.5 55.7

Unemployed

4,919 4,707 2,792 2,600 2,126 2,107

Unemployment rate

3.7 3.5 4.0 3.7 3.3 3.3

Not in labor force

80,880 81,271 33,606 34,094 47,273 47,178

NOTE: The foreign born are those residing in the United States who were not U.S. citizens at birth. That is, they were born outside the United States or one of its outlying areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam, to parents neither of whom was a U.S. citizen. The native born are persons who were born in the United States or one of its outlying areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam or who were born abroad of at least one parent who was a U.S. citizen. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-8. Employed persons by class of worker and part-time status
[In thousands]
Category Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
May
2018
Apr.
2019
May
2019
May
2018
Jan.
2019
Feb.
2019
Mar.
2019
Apr.
2019
May
2019

CLASS OF WORKER

Agriculture and related industries

2,412 2,281 2,476 2,353 2,576 2,510 2,332 2,394 2,432

Wage and salary workers(1)

1,604 1,571 1,744 1,579 1,778 1,741 1,687 1,687 1,724

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

776 687 706 744 787 764 644 690 690

Unpaid family workers

32 23 25 - - - - - -

Nonagricultural industries

153,598 154,429 154,677 153,127 154,177 154,446 154,358 154,271 154,314

Wage and salary workers(1)

144,424 145,849 145,859 144,115 145,251 145,674 145,609 145,675 145,590

Government

21,253 21,189 20,992 20,992 20,614 20,588 20,677 20,831 20,730

Private industries

123,170 124,661 124,867 123,080 124,657 125,042 124,948 124,892 124,870

Private households

773 825 807 - - - - - -

Other industries

122,398 123,835 124,060 122,316 123,861 124,243 124,153 124,075 124,064

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

9,112 8,543 8,786 9,013 8,855 8,780 8,727 8,569 8,711

Unpaid family workers

61 37 31 - - - - - -

PERSONS AT WORK PART TIME(2)

All industries

Part time for economic reasons(3)

4,739 4,483 4,160 4,920 5,147 4,310 4,499 4,654 4,355

Slack work or business conditions

2,875 2,782 2,490 2,992 3,451 2,792 2,909 2,891 2,646

Could only find part-time work

1,542 1,473 1,383 1,478 1,419 1,347 1,329 1,446 1,339

Part time for noneconomic reasons(4)

21,433 22,160 21,672 21,134 20,949 21,153 21,297 21,322 21,366

Nonagricultural industries

Part time for economic reasons(3)

4,677 4,424 4,070 4,835 5,079 4,244 4,439 4,589 4,241

Slack work or business conditions

2,831 2,750 2,423 2,937 3,418 2,763 2,854 2,865 2,565

Could only find part-time work

1,529 1,461 1,379 1,464 1,401 1,339 1,327 1,437 1,333

Part time for noneconomic reasons(4)

21,074 21,830 21,321 20,804 20,548 20,761 20,995 20,985 21,038

Footnotes
(1) Includes self-employed workers whose businesses are incorporated.
(2) Refers to those who worked 1 to 34 hours during the survey reference week and excludes employed persons who were absent from their jobs for the entire week.
(3) Refers to those who worked 1 to 34 hours during the reference week for an economic reason such as slack work or unfavorable business conditions, inability to find full-time work, or seasonal declines in demand.
(4) Refers to persons who usually work part time for noneconomic reasons such as childcare problems, family or personal obligations, school or training, retirement or Social Security limits on earnings, and other reasons. This excludes persons who usually work full time but worked only 1 to 34 hours during the reference week for reasons such as vacations, holidays, illness, and bad weather.

- Data not available.
NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-9. Selected employment indicators
[Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
May
2018
Apr.
2019
May
2019
May
2018
Jan.
2019
Feb.
2019
Mar.
2019
Apr.
2019
May
2019

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

156,009 156,710 157,152 155,539 156,694 156,949 156,748 156,645 156,758

16 to 19 years

4,970 4,672 4,888 5,079 5,172 5,017 5,113 4,938 5,011

16 to 17 years

1,676 1,543 1,601 1,771 1,674 1,756 1,759 1,723 1,704

18 to 19 years

3,294 3,129 3,287 3,301 3,459 3,249 3,356 3,198 3,294

20 years and over

151,039 152,038 152,264 150,460 151,522 151,932 151,635 151,707 151,747

20 to 24 years

14,014 14,114 14,288 14,060 13,911 14,018 14,064 14,192 14,303

25 years and over

137,025 137,923 137,975 136,379 137,605 137,942 137,685 137,481 137,369

25 to 54 years

100,445 100,890 100,933 100,096 100,787 100,840 100,792 100,687 100,636

25 to 34 years

35,353 35,602 35,703 35,231 35,665 35,584 35,695 35,582 35,616

35 to 44 years

32,596 33,001 33,080 32,488 32,902 33,101 32,855 32,918 32,961

45 to 54 years

32,496 32,287 32,150 32,377 32,221 32,156 32,241 32,187 32,059

55 years and over

36,580 37,033 37,042 36,283 36,817 37,102 36,893 36,794 36,733

Men, 16 years and over

83,103 82,963 83,561 82,754 83,031 83,095 83,034 82,959 83,192

16 to 19 years

2,405 2,252 2,370 2,455 2,559 2,384 2,470 2,383 2,426

16 to 17 years

809 821 799 846 805 860 882 893 841

18 to 19 years

1,596 1,430 1,571 1,614 1,735 1,535 1,594 1,486 1,590

20 years and over

80,698 80,711 81,192 80,299 80,472 80,712 80,564 80,576 80,766

20 to 24 years

7,208 7,161 7,313 7,199 7,101 7,148 7,120 7,203 7,285

25 years and over

73,489 73,551 73,879 73,112 73,398 73,566 73,520 73,379 73,477

25 to 54 years

53,915 53,870 53,919 53,699 53,808 53,858 53,968 53,813 53,727

25 to 34 years

19,052 19,170 19,225 18,992 19,132 19,119 19,314 19,186 19,181

35 to 44 years

17,711 17,815 17,837 17,630 17,772 17,899 17,720 17,768 17,753

45 to 54 years

17,152 16,884 16,856 17,077 16,904 16,840 16,933 16,859 16,793

55 years and over

19,574 19,681 19,960 19,414 19,591 19,708 19,553 19,566 19,750

Women, 16 years and over

72,907 73,747 73,591 72,785 73,663 73,854 73,715 73,687 73,566

16 to 19 years

2,565 2,420 2,518 2,624 2,613 2,633 2,643 2,555 2,585

16 to 17 years

867 721 802 925 869 896 877 830 863

18 to 19 years

1,698 1,699 1,716 1,687 1,723 1,714 1,762 1,712 1,704

20 years and over

70,341 71,327 71,072 70,161 71,049 71,221 71,072 71,131 70,981

20 to 24 years

6,805 6,954 6,976 6,861 6,810 6,870 6,944 6,989 7,018

25 years and over

63,536 64,373 64,097 63,266 64,206 64,377 64,164 64,102 63,891

25 to 54 years

46,530 47,020 47,014 46,397 46,979 46,983 46,824 46,874 46,908

25 to 34 years

16,301 16,432 16,477 16,238 16,533 16,465 16,381 16,396 16,434

35 to 44 years

14,885 15,186 15,242 14,859 15,130 15,202 15,135 15,150 15,208

45 to 54 years

15,343 15,402 15,294 15,300 15,317 15,316 15,308 15,327 15,266

55 years and over

17,006 17,352 17,082 16,869 17,227 17,394 17,340 17,228 16,983

MARITAL STATUS

Married men, spouse present(1)

46,281 45,927 46,041 46,014 45,819 45,893 45,867 45,734 45,789

Married women, spouse present(1)

36,236 36,414 36,167 35,963 36,504 36,574 36,566 36,206 35,971

Women who maintain families(2)

9,608 9,698 9,680 - - - - - -

FULL- OR PART-TIME STATUS

Full-time workers(3)

129,014 129,212 130,059 128,623 129,837 130,159 129,969 129,778 129,695

Part-time workers(4)

26,996 27,498 27,093 26,879 26,752 26,878 26,938 26,915 26,981

MULTIPLE JOBHOLDERS

Total multiple jobholders

7,411 7,765 7,857 7,416 7,850 7,641 7,853 7,798 7,855

Percent of total employed

4.8 5.0 5.0 4.8 5.0 4.9 5.0 5.0 5.0

SELF-EMPLOYMENT

Self-employed workers, incorporated

5,696 6,094 6,061 - - - - - -

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

9,889 9,230 9,493 9,757 9,642 9,544 9,371 9,259 9,401

Footnotes
(1) Refers to persons in opposite-sex married couples only.
(2) Refers to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not an opposite-sex spouse.
(3) Employed full-time workers are persons who usually work 35 hours or more per week.
(4) Employed part-time workers are persons who usually work less than 35 hours per week.

- Data not available.
NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-10. Selected unemployment indicators, seasonally adjusted
Characteristic Number of
unemployed persons
(in thousands)
Unemployment rates
May
2018
Apr.
2019
May
2019
May
2018
Jan.
2019
Feb.
2019
Mar.
2019
Apr.
2019
May
2019

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

6,128 5,824 5,888 3.8 4.0 3.8 3.8 3.6 3.6

16 to 19 years

741 740 726 12.7 12.9 13.4 12.8 13.0 12.7

16 to 17 years

303 273 279 14.6 14.4 16.0 12.6 13.7 14.1

18 to 19 years

447 451 443 11.9 12.2 12.2 12.7 12.4 11.9

20 years and over

5,387 5,085 5,161 3.5 3.7 3.5 3.5 3.2 3.3

20 to 24 years

1,068 993 1,077 7.1 7.6 7.2 7.2 6.5 7.0

25 years and over

4,291 4,132 4,060 3.1 3.3 3.1 3.1 2.9 2.9

25 to 54 years

3,251 3,159 3,027 3.1 3.3 3.2 3.2 3.0 2.9

25 to 34 years

1,408 1,434 1,302 3.8 3.9 4.0 4.0 3.9 3.5

35 to 44 years

953 898 895 2.8 2.9 2.6 2.8 2.7 2.6

45 to 54 years

891 827 830 2.7 2.9 2.9 2.9 2.5 2.5

55 years and over

1,034 978 1,031 2.8 3.2 2.7 2.7 2.6 2.7

Men, 16 years and over

3,416 3,221 3,185 4.0 4.1 3.9 3.9 3.7 3.7

16 to 19 years

458 424 390 15.7 14.1 15.1 13.9 15.1 13.9

16 to 17 years

181 127 154 17.7 15.6 18.0 11.7 12.5 15.5

18 to 19 years

277 297 232 14.6 13.1 14.0 14.7 16.6 12.8

20 years and over

2,958 2,797 2,795 3.6 3.7 3.5 3.6 3.4 3.3

20 to 24 years

614 601 658 7.9 8.4 7.6 8.8 7.7 8.3

25 years and over

2,331 2,226 2,124 3.1 3.3 3.1 3.1 2.9 2.8

25 to 54 years

1,723 1,703 1,604 3.1 3.3 3.2 3.2 3.1 2.9

25 to 34 years

748 719 680 3.8 4.0 3.9 3.7 3.6 3.4

35 to 44 years

491 497 478 2.7 2.9 2.6 2.8 2.7 2.6

45 to 54 years

484 487 447 2.8 2.9 3.0 2.9 2.8 2.6

55 years and over

607 522 520 3.0 3.3 2.8 2.8 2.6 2.6

Women, 16 years and over

2,712 2,604 2,703 3.6 3.9 3.8 3.7 3.4 3.5

16 to 19 years

283 316 336 9.7 11.7 11.8 11.7 11.0 11.5

16 to 17 years

121 146 125 11.6 13.3 14.0 13.5 15.0 12.6

18 to 19 years

170 154 210 9.2 11.2 10.6 10.7 8.3 11.0

20 years and over

2,429 2,288 2,366 3.3 3.6 3.4 3.3 3.1 3.2

20 to 24 years

454 392 420 6.2 6.7 6.8 5.5 5.3 5.6

25 years and over

1,960 1,906 1,936 3.0 3.2 3.1 3.1 2.9 2.9

25 to 54 years

1,528 1,456 1,423 3.2 3.3 3.2 3.3 3.0 2.9

25 to 34 years

659 715 622 3.9 3.9 4.2 4.3 4.2 3.6

35 to 44 years

462 401 418 3.0 2.9 2.6 2.7 2.6 2.7

45 to 54 years

407 340 383 2.6 3.0 2.8 2.8 2.2 2.4

55 years and over

468 468 548 2.7 2.9 2.6 2.6 2.6 3.1

MARITAL STATUS

Married men, spouse present(1)

897 821 793 1.9 2.1 1.9 1.9 1.8 1.7

Married women, spouse present(1)

864 668 873 2.3 2.4 2.3 2.4 1.8 2.4

Women who maintain families(2)

470 501 483 4.7 5.4 4.9 4.7 4.9 4.7

FULL- OR PART-TIME STATUS

Full-time workers(3)

4,964 4,680 4,735 3.7 4.0 3.8 3.7 3.5 3.5

Part-time workers(4)

1,158 1,163 1,170 4.1 4.2 4.1 4.3 4.1 4.2

Footnotes
(1) Refers to persons in opposite-sex couples only.
(2) Data are not seasonally adjusted. Refers to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not an opposite-sex spouse.
(3) Full-time workers are unemployed persons who have expressed a desire to work full time (35 hours or more per week) or are on layoff from full-time jobs.
(4) Part-time workers are unemployed persons who have expressed a desire to work part time (less than 35 hours per week) or are on layoff from part-time jobs.

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-11. Unemployed persons by reason for unemployment
[Numbers in thousands]
Reason Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
May
2018
Apr.
2019
May
2019
May
2018
Jan.
2019
Feb.
2019
Mar.
2019
Apr.
2019
May
2019

NUMBER OF UNEMPLOYED

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

2,493 2,484 2,281 2,882 3,082 2,857 2,837 2,651 2,664

On temporary layoff

533 574 594 829 937 820 878 717 869

Not on temporary layoff

1,960 1,910 1,687 2,054 2,144 2,037 1,960 1,934 1,795

Permanent job losers

1,380 1,287 1,229 1,438 1,427 1,300 1,379 1,302 1,289

Persons who completed temporary jobs

580 623 458 616 717 737 580 632 506

Job leavers

801 685 774 844 805 840 779 737 803

Reentrants

1,933 1,761 1,891 1,868 1,945 1,905 2,007 1,926 1,870

New entrants

529 457 557 569 606 623 614 530 599

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

43.3 46.1 41.5 46.8 47.9 45.9 45.5 45.4 44.9

On temporary layoff

9.3 10.6 10.8 13.4 14.6 13.2 14.1 12.3 14.6

Not on temporary layoff

34.1 35.5 30.7 33.3 33.3 32.7 31.4 33.1 30.2

Job leavers

13.9 12.7 14.1 13.7 12.5 13.5 12.5 12.6 13.5

Reentrants

33.6 32.7 34.4 30.3 30.2 30.6 32.2 33.0 31.5

New entrants

9.2 8.5 10.1 9.2 9.4 10.0 9.8 9.1 10.1

UNEMPLOYED AS A PERCENT OF THE
CIVILIAN LABOR FORCE

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

1.5 1.5 1.4 1.8 1.9 1.8 1.7 1.6 1.6

Job leavers

0.5 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5

Reentrants

1.2 1.1 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.1

New entrants

0.3 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.3 0.4

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-12. Unemployed persons by duration of unemployment
[Numbers in thousands]
Duration Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
May
2018
Apr.
2019
May
2019
May
2018
Jan.
2019
Feb.
2019
Mar.
2019
Apr.
2019
May
2019

NUMBER OF UNEMPLOYED

Less than 5 weeks

1,950 1,585 2,082 2,019 2,325 2,194 2,126 1,904 2,147

5 to 14 weeks

1,568 1,572 1,261 1,906 2,013 1,810 1,815 1,842 1,559

15 weeks and over

2,237 2,231 2,159 2,164 2,153 2,214 2,256 2,084 2,097

15 to 26 weeks

1,066 997 888 967 902 942 950 854 799

27 weeks and over

1,171 1,234 1,271 1,197 1,252 1,271 1,305 1,230 1,298

Average (mean) duration, in weeks

21.8 24.2 24.8 21.3 20.5 21.7 22.2 22.9 24.1

Median duration, in weeks

9.9 11.2 9.7 9.3 8.9 9.3 9.6 9.4 9.1

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION

Less than 5 weeks

33.9 29.4 37.8 33.2 35.8 35.3 34.3 32.7 37.0

5 to 14 weeks

27.3 29.2 22.9 31.3 31.0 29.1 29.3 31.6 26.9

15 weeks and over

38.9 41.4 39.2 35.5 33.2 35.6 36.4 35.7 36.1

15 to 26 weeks

18.5 18.5 16.1 15.9 13.9 15.2 15.3 14.6 13.8

27 weeks and over

20.3 22.9 23.1 19.7 19.3 20.4 21.1 21.1 22.4

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-13. Employed and unemployed persons by occupation, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Occupation Employed Unemployed Unemployment
rates
May
2018
May
2019
May
2018
May
2019
May
2018
May
2019

Total, 16 years and over(1)

156,009 157,152 5,756 5,503 3.6 3.4

Management, professional, and related occupations

62,360 63,594 1,083 1,086 1.7 1.7

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

25,784 26,534 448 398 1.7 1.5

Professional and related occupations

36,576 37,060 635 688 1.7 1.8

Service occupations

27,710 27,390 1,241 1,140 4.3 4.0

Sales and office occupations

33,165 32,997 1,297 1,316 3.8 3.8

Sales and related occupations

15,769 15,429 695 582 4.2 3.6

Office and administrative support occupations

17,396 17,568 602 735 3.3 4.0

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

14,299 14,355 685 560 4.6 3.8

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

1,056 1,330 92 93 8.0 6.6

Construction and extraction occupations

8,218 8,123 471 314 5.4 3.7

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

5,025 4,901 122 152 2.4 3.0

Production, transportation, and material moving
occupations

18,475 18,816 898 803 4.6 4.1

Production occupations

8,633 8,660 396 276 4.4 3.1

Transportation and material moving occupations

9,842 10,156 502 527 4.9 4.9

Footnotes
(1) Persons with no previous work experience and persons whose last job was in the U.S. Armed Forces are included in the unemployed total.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-14. Unemployed persons by industry and class of worker, not seasonally adjusted
Industry and class of worker Number of
unemployed
persons
(in thousands)
Unemployment
rates
May
2018
May
2019
May
2018
May
2019

Total, 16 years and over(1)

5,756 5,503 3.6 3.4

Nonagricultural private wage and salary workers

4,467 4,204 3.5 3.3

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

23 35 3.0 5.0

Construction

415 294 4.4 3.2

Manufacturing

546 369 3.4 2.3

Durable goods

340 215 3.4 2.2

Nondurable goods

206 154 3.5 2.5

Wholesale and retail trade

885 822 4.5 4.2

Transportation and utilities

223 299 3.2 4.1

Information

100 77 3.5 3.0

Financial activities

167 162 1.7 1.7

Professional and business services

669 600 4.0 3.4

Education and health services

563 609 2.3 2.4

Leisure and hospitality

706 745 4.9 5.0

Other services

171 194 2.5 2.9

Agriculture and related private wage and salary workers

95 99 5.8 5.4

Government workers

425 445 2.0 2.1

Self-employed workers, unincorporated, and unpaid family workers

239 198 2.3 2.0

Footnotes
(1) Persons with no previous work experience and persons whose last job was in the U.S. Armed Forces are included in the unemployed total.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-15. Alternative measures of labor underutilization
[Percent]
Measure Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
May
2018
Apr.
2019
May
2019
May
2018
Jan.
2019
Feb.
2019
Mar.
2019
Apr.
2019
May
2019

U-1 Persons unemployed 15 weeks or longer, as a percent of the civilian labor force

1.4 1.4 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.4 1.4 1.3 1.3

U-2 Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs, as a percent of the civilian labor force

1.5 1.5 1.4 1.8 1.9 1.8 1.7 1.6 1.6

U-3 Total unemployed, as a percent of the civilian labor force (official unemployment rate)

3.6 3.3 3.4 3.8 4.0 3.8 3.8 3.6 3.6

U-4 Total unemployed plus discouraged workers, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus discouraged workers

3.8 3.6 3.6 4.0 4.3 4.1 4.1 3.9 3.8

U-5 Total unemployed, plus discouraged workers, plus all other persons marginally attached to the labor force, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force

4.4 4.2 4.2 4.6 4.9 4.7 4.6 4.4 4.4

U-6 Total unemployed, plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force, plus total employed part time for economic reasons, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force

7.3 6.9 6.7 7.7 8.1 7.3 7.3 7.3 7.1

NOTE: Persons marginally attached to the labor force are those who currently are neither working nor looking for work but indicate that they want and are available for a job and have looked for work sometime in the past 12 months. Discouraged workers, a subset of the marginally attached, have given a job-market related reason for not currently looking for work. Persons employed part time for economic reasons are those who want and are available for full-time work but have had to settle for a part-time schedule. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-16. Persons not in the labor force and multiple jobholders by sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Category Total Men Women
May
2018
May
2019
May
2018
May
2019
May
2018
May
2019

NOT IN THE LABOR FORCE

Total not in the labor force

95,689 96,207 38,201 38,665 57,488 57,542

Persons who currently want a job

5,696 5,500 2,646 2,762 3,050 2,738

Marginally attached to the labor force(1)

1,455 1,395 776 732 679 663

Discouraged workers(2)

378 338 257 210 120 127

Other persons marginally attached to the labor force(3)

1,077 1,058 519 522 559 536

MULTIPLE JOBHOLDERS

Total multiple jobholders(4)

7,411 7,857 3,687 3,774 3,724 4,083

Percent of total employed

4.8 5.0 4.4 4.5 5.1 5.5

Primary job full time, secondary job part time

4,062 4,414 2,252 2,328 1,811 2,086

Primary and secondary jobs both part time

1,951 1,990 673 690 1,279 1,299

Primary and secondary jobs both full time

294 325 178 204 116 121

Hours vary on primary or secondary job

1,073 1,061 569 503 504 558

Footnotes
(1) Data refer to persons who want a job, have searched for work during the prior 12 months, and were available to take a job during the reference week, but had not looked for work in the past 4 weeks.
(2) Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for reasons such as thinks no work available, could not find work, lacks schooling or training, employer thinks too young or old, and other types of discrimination.
(3) Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for such reasons as school or family responsibilities, ill health, and transportation problems, as well as a number for whom reason for nonparticipation was not determined.
(4) Includes a small number of persons who work part time on their primary job and full time on their secondary job(s), not shown separately.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-1. Employees on nonfarm payrolls by industry sector and selected industry detail
[In thousands]
Industry Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
May
2018
Mar.
2019
Apr.
2019(p)
May
2019(p)
May
2018
Mar.
2019
Apr.
2019(p)
May
2019(p)
Change from:
Apr.2019 - May2019(p)

Total nonfarm

149,360 149,864 150,942 151,629 148,745 150,796 151,020 151,095 75

Total private

126,610 126,994 128,013 128,791 126,318 128,286 128,491 128,581 90

Goods-producing

20,697 20,698 20,908 21,111 20,650 21,035 21,070 21,078 8

Mining and logging

725 746 747 751 728 756 756 757 1

Logging

48.6 45.1 43.4 45.1 49.6 46.5 45.7 46.1 0.4

Mining

675.9 700.9 703.6 706.0 678.0 709.8 710.6 710.7 0.1

Oil and gas extraction

143.9 151.9 154.0 154.8 144.6 152.8 155.1 155.4 0.3

Mining, except oil and gas

193.2 191.3 193.8 196.7 191.5 195.8 195.5 195.6 0.1

Coal mining

51.9 52.6 52.4 52.8 52.0 52.9 52.4 52.9 0.5

Metal ore mining

41.4 40.9 41.2 41.2 41.6 41.1 41.5 41.0 -0.5

Nonmetallic mineral mining and quarrying

99.9 97.8 100.2 102.7 97.9 101.8 101.7 101.6 -0.1

Support activities for mining

338.8 357.7 355.8 354.5 341.9 361.2 360.0 359.7 -0.3

Construction

7,336 7,174 7,379 7,539 7,267 7,448 7,478 7,482 4

Construction of buildings

1,621.0 1,616.6 1,629.2 1,648.5 1,619.0 1,655.5 1,650.6 1,650.8 0.2

Residential building

801.8 814.3 819.0 830.1 800.4 835.4 829.3 829.2 -0.1

Nonresidential building

819.2 802.3 810.2 818.4 818.6 820.1 821.3 821.6 0.3

Heavy and civil engineering construction

1,077.0 1,001.4 1,071.5 1,113.2 1,048.7 1,076.2 1,088.1 1,078.7 -9.4

Specialty trade contractors

4,637.9 4,555.6 4,678.2 4,777.2 4,599.2 4,716.4 4,739.6 4,752.5 12.9

Residential specialty trade contractors

2,044.0 1,990.6 2,036.8 2,086.1 2,021.0 2,061.5 2,066.0 2,071.3 5.3

Nonresidential specialty trade contractors

2,593.9 2,565.0 2,641.4 2,691.1 2,578.2 2,654.9 2,673.6 2,681.2 7.6

Manufacturing

12,636 12,778 12,782 12,821 12,655 12,831 12,836 12,839 3

Durable goods

7,914 8,038 8,038 8,059 7,917 8,054 8,056 8,060 4

Wood products

407.1 405.3 408.5 408.0 406.5 408.6 410.2 408.4 -1.8

Nonmetallic mineral products

417.4 406.9 413.5 418.8 413.6 414.5 414.5 414.1 -0.4

Primary metals

375.8 383.4 381.5 382.0 376.3 383.2 381.7 381.5 -0.2

Fabricated metal products

1,461.7 1,481.4 1,481.3 1,484.3 1,461.8 1,484.4 1,483.6 1,482.8 -0.8

Machinery

1,116.4 1,140.9 1,136.9 1,140.2 1,117.7 1,142.1 1,139.6 1,141.0 1.4

Computer and electronic products

1,050.7 1,073.4 1,072.7 1,074.8 1,052.5 1,074.4 1,075.9 1,077.5 1.6

Computer and peripheral equipment

155.5 159.8 158.9 159.8 155.9 160.0 159.5 160.7 1.2

Communications equipment

85.6 86.1 86.3 85.2 85.6 86.1 86.5 85.9 -0.6

Semiconductors and electronic components

368.1 375.8 374.6 375.0 368.8 375.6 375.4 375.5 0.1

Electronic instruments

407.8 418.7 420.0 421.3 408.3 419.3 421.0 421.9 0.9

Miscellaneous computer and electronic products

33.7 33.0 32.9 33.5 33.8 33.4 33.4 33.6 0.2

Electrical equipment and appliances

396.7 401.5 401.5 400.5 398.1 402.7 402.8 401.9 -0.9

Transportation equipment(1)

1,685.9 1,739.3 1,735.2 1,738.1 1,688.4 1,734.8 1,737.0 1,741.0 4.0

Motor vehicles and parts(2)

988.3 1,004.0 997.7 996.9 989.3 998.9 997.0 999.8 2.8

Furniture and related products

394.5 393.9 393.7 394.4 394.6 394.7 394.9 394.3 -0.6

Miscellaneous durable goods manufacturing

607.4 612.1 613.2 618.0 607.8 614.7 615.4 617.2 1.8

Nondurable goods

4,722 4,740 4,744 4,762 4,738 4,777 4,780 4,779 -1

Food manufacturing

1,597.2 1,611.7 1,611.9 1,617.1 1,617.1 1,634.6 1,636.4 1,635.6 -0.8

Textile mills

112.8 112.6 113.4 111.9 112.3 112.6 113.5 112.8 -0.7

Textile product mills

115.7 113.9 114.2 113.1 115.7 114.5 114.4 113.9 -0.5

Apparel

115.0 107.7 108.2 108.0 115.0 107.8 107.9 107.6 -0.3

Paper and paper products

366.6 370.4 369.4 371.0 365.8 370.8 370.1 370.4 0.3

Printing and related support activities

431.0 420.8 419.2 419.7 431.2 422.0 421.1 421.1 0.0

Petroleum and coal products

116.3 113.1 115.1 117.7 115.4 116.7 116.8 117.1 0.3

Chemicals

833.0 855.8 855.3 857.8 834.4 856.0 857.3 857.8 0.5

Plastics and rubber products

732.1 735.4 735.4 738.7 730.1 736.0 735.9 736.3 0.4

Miscellaneous nondurable goods manufacturing

301.9 298.4 301.5 307.0 301.4 305.7 306.9 306.8 -0.1

Private service-providing

105,913 106,296 107,105 107,680 105,668 107,251 107,421 107,503 82

Trade, transportation, and utilities

27,541 27,491 27,562 27,686 27,630 27,810 27,811 27,811 0

Wholesale trade

5,829.0 5,895.7 5,917.7 5,938.2 5,827.2 5,921.7 5,932.5 5,939.6 7.1

Durable goods

3,136.4 3,195.2 3,204.1 3,212.3 3,137.7 3,204.8 3,211.9 3,217.6 5.7

Nondurable goods

2,150.7 2,150.4 2,161.7 2,174.0 2,146.8 2,164.3 2,166.0 2,168.7 2.7

Electronic markets and agents and brokers

541.9 550.1 551.9 551.9 542.7 552.6 554.6 553.3 -1.3

Retail trade

15,797.2 15,576.6 15,625.1 15,693.8 15,856.3 15,801.8 15,788.2 15,780.6 -7.6

Motor vehicle and parts dealers

2,021.3 2,032.3 2,047.4 2,049.5 2,015.1 2,041.8 2,048.5 2,047.4 -1.1

Automobile dealers

1,296.2 1,304.5 1,309.3 1,307.2 1,296.2 1,307.7 1,311.8 1,309.6 -2.2

Other motor vehicle dealers

163.6 153.7 161.8 165.9 157.9 157.9 160.9 160.1 -0.8

Auto parts, accessories, and tire stores

561.5 574.1 576.3 576.4 560.9 576.3 575.8 577.7 1.9

Furniture and home furnishings stores

474.0 484.9 481.5 481.0 480.0 488.2 487.3 487.2 -0.1

Electronics and appliance stores

488.0 468.5 466.4 463.6 496.0 472.3 471.6 470.3 -1.3

Building material and garden supply stores

1,384.3 1,310.8 1,348.6 1,370.1 1,311.1 1,303.6 1,301.1 1,302.2 1.1

Food and beverage stores

3,079.0 3,087.5 3,091.2 3,102.7 3,084.7 3,115.9 3,116.7 3,115.4 -1.3

Health and personal care stores

1,055.3 1,035.9 1,037.9 1,036.3 1,060.4 1,042.1 1,045.6 1,042.4 -3.2

Gasoline stations

935.0 934.8 936.7 947.3 932.2 944.7 944.6 946.0 1.4

Clothing and clothing accessories stores

1,335.1 1,303.8 1,297.5 1,286.6 1,372.3 1,347.6 1,343.8 1,331.1 -12.7

Sporting goods, hobby, book, and music stores

582.8 546.5 542.2 546.1 598.7 563.0 558.1 557.4 -0.7

General merchandise stores

3,043.1 2,981.8 2,980.9 2,996.6 3,102.3 3,063.1 3,052.5 3,058.7 6.2

Department stores

1,109.5 1,084.5 1,080.3 1,078.2 1,150.4 1,127.0 1,122.5 1,121.0 -1.5

General merchandise stores, including warehouse clubs and supercenters

1,933.6 1,897.3 1,900.6 1,918.4 1,951.9 1,936.1 1,930.0 1,937.6 7.6

Miscellaneous store retailers

837.7 814.5 821.7 840.4 832.5 837.5 836.1 839.2 3.1

Nonstore retailers

561.6 575.3 573.1 573.6 571.0 582.0 582.3 583.3 1.0

Transportation and warehousing

5,359.7 5,465.6 5,468.2 5,502.0 5,390.5 5,531.6 5,538.3 5,538.1 -0.2

Air transportation

501.2 513.2 513.5 515.2 499.5 514.4 513.9 513.9 0.0

Rail transportation

214.2 211.2 210.1 210.1 213.9 212.1 210.6 209.5 -1.1

Water transportation

65.5 62.4 63.6 66.0 64.8 64.7 64.4 65.0 0.6

Truck transportation

1,483.2 1,493.7 1,503.4 1,517.8 1,484.8 1,516.0 1,516.1 1,516.4 0.3

Transit and ground passenger transportation

501.8 502.0 506.4 506.3 485.1 488.7 492.3 489.6 -2.7

Pipeline transportation

48.6 47.0 47.1 48.1 48.7 47.1 47.4 47.9 0.5

Scenic and sightseeing transportation

37.5 26.9 30.2 34.1 34.2 33.7 34.3 32.4 -1.9

Support activities for transportation

706.3 717.3 717.1 717.2 708.6 719.2 718.6 719.3 0.7

Couriers and messengers

680.1 719.3 702.9 710.0 718.2 750.8 751.7 753.9 2.2

Warehousing and storage

1,121.3 1,172.6 1,173.9 1,177.2 1,132.7 1,184.9 1,189.0 1,190.2 1.2

Utilities

555.0 553.5 550.5 551.8 555.8 554.7 552.0 552.4 0.4

Information

2,826 2,803 2,795 2,782 2,831 2,812 2,802 2,797 -5

Publishing industries, except Internet

727.3 731.1 732.0 731.9 731.8 733.9 735.6 736.5 0.9

Motion picture and sound recording industries

445.6 417.1 420.4 418.3 440.0 422.4 417.6 415.8 -1.8

Broadcasting, except Internet

269.3 270.3 267.7 266.3 270.3 269.4 267.9 268.8 0.9

Telecommunications

751.9 730.0 714.5 712.9 754.9 729.2 719.5 717.8 -1.7

Data processing, hosting and related services

331.5 332.4 331.8 331.3 330.6 332.7 332.2 332.3 0.1

Other information services

300.3 322.5 328.1 321.2 303.0 324.2 328.7 326.1 -2.6

Financial activities

8,541 8,590 8,605 8,632 8,556 8,637 8,650 8,652 2

Finance and insurance

6,299.0 6,313.1 6,310.7 6,310.9 6,311.4 6,327.7 6,331.4 6,328.9 -2.5

Monetary authorities - central bank

19.4 19.6 19.6 19.6 19.5 19.7 19.7 19.7 0.0

Credit intermediation and related
activities

2,646.2 2,622.6 2,620.2 2,623.3 2,649.2 2,631.6 2,630.9 2,630.6 -0.3

Depository credit intermediation(1)

1,717.1 1,709.2 1,705.6 1,707.0 1,716.1 1,710.8 1,709.5 1,708.7 -0.8

Commercial banking

1,324.1 1,310.9 1,305.2 1,305.8 1,322.8 1,310.7 1,307.4 1,306.5 -0.9

Nondepository credit intermediation

621.5 607.7 608.9 612.6 624.8 614.2 615.0 616.2 1.2

Activities related to credit intermediation

307.6 305.7 305.7 303.7 308.2 306.6 306.4 305.8 -0.6

Securities, commodity contracts, investments, and funds and trusts

948.4 964.9 966.8 962.4 953.8 968.1 970.2 966.6 -3.6

Insurance carriers and related activities

2,685.0 2,706.0 2,704.1 2,705.6 2,688.9 2,708.3 2,710.6 2,712.0 1.4

Real estate and rental and leasing

2,241.9 2,277.2 2,294.6 2,321.1 2,244.3 2,309.6 2,318.1 2,323.4 5.3

Real estate

1,650.0 1,677.2 1,689.0 1,699.9 1,654.7 1,694.0 1,701.2 1,705.7 4.5

Rental and leasing services

568.3 577.3 582.7 598.2 566.1 592.5 593.8 594.7 0.9

Lessors of nonfinancial intangible assets

23.6 22.7 22.9 23.0 23.5 23.1 23.1 23.0 -0.1

Professional and business services

20,941 21,067 21,343 21,422 20,929 21,332 21,394 21,427 33

Professional and technical services

9,205.5 9,539.3 9,579.8 9,500.2 9,261.0 9,509.3 9,529.3 9,550.6 21.3

Legal services

1,137.6 1,137.8 1,135.7 1,139.1 1,140.0 1,142.8 1,141.0 1,143.0 2.0

Accounting and bookkeeping services

965.7 1,145.7 1,133.0 1,004.2 1,012.2 1,042.2 1,043.7 1,045.5 1.8

Architectural and engineering services

1,467.3 1,490.5 1,500.7 1,514.5 1,468.4 1,509.2 1,512.6 1,516.2 3.6

Specialized design services

144.0 148.2 150.7 150.5 143.6 149.5 150.3 149.4 -0.9

Computer systems design and related services

2,107.6 2,161.6 2,191.1 2,205.1 2,110.6 2,182.2 2,197.8 2,206.2 8.4

Management and technical consulting services

1,472.4 1,503.8 1,514.0 1,518.3 1,474.0 1,520.4 1,521.8 1,521.6 -0.2

Scientific research and development services

685.2 715.8 718.3 722.8 685.5 719.3 721.8 722.7 0.9

Advertising and related services

491.8 488.2 486.2 490.5 491.3 490.0 486.8 489.1 2.3

Other professional and technical services

733.9 747.7 750.1 755.2 735.3 753.6 753.4 757.0 3.6

Management of companies and enterprises

2,367.7 2,395.9 2,399.3 2,400.4 2,369.4 2,405.5 2,408.9 2,405.6 -3.3

Administrative and waste services

9,367.3 9,132.2 9,363.9 9,521.8 9,298.8 9,416.9 9,455.8 9,470.6 14.8

Administrative and support services

8,928.9 8,686.6 8,912.9 9,067.8 8,862.3 8,965.0 9,001.9 9,017.2 15.3

Office administrative services

513.9 521.9 528.1 532.4 513.7 525.3 528.9 530.8 1.9

Facilities support services

152.7 155.5 154.3 155.8 152.8 155.8 154.7 156.1 1.4

Employment services(1)

3,658.5 3,579.4 3,641.0 3,699.6 3,665.8 3,706.1 3,716.2 3,724.1 7.9

Temporary help services

2,993.4 2,921.7 2,973.3 3,021.4 3,000.5 3,030.0 3,039.9 3,045.0 5.1

Business support services

885.0 887.2 885.4 881.9 897.0 891.1 894.6 896.9 2.3

Travel arrangement and reservation services

222.1 214.2 215.6 218.1 220.0 215.5 215.2 215.8 0.6

Investigation and security services

943.8 945.9 953.4 958.6 944.6 953.7 957.2 959.3 2.1

Services to buildings and dwellings

2,225.3 2,049.6 2,197.3 2,278.9 2,142.8 2,183.5 2,198.3 2,197.5 -0.8

Other support services

327.6 332.9 337.8 342.5 325.5 333.9 336.9 336.7 -0.2

Waste management and remediation services

438.4 445.6 451.0 454.0 436.5 451.9 453.9 453.4 -0.5

Education and health services

23,646 24,208 24,316 24,234 23,581 24,071 24,144 24,171 27

Educational services

3,753.4 3,919.7 3,953.5 3,819.3 3,707.7 3,760.1 3,776.8 3,780.4 3.6

Health care and social assistance

19,892.2 20,287.8 20,362.2 20,414.2 19,873.6 20,310.9 20,366.8 20,390.8 24.0

Health care(3)

15,943.9 16,276.9 16,310.1 16,339.8 15,962.6 16,309.8 16,337.4 16,353.1 15.7

Ambulatory health care services

7,477.7 7,686.6 7,710.7 7,734.9 7,478.0 7,702.8 7,718.5 7,730.7 12.2

Offices of physicians

2,612.9 2,661.4 2,665.3 2,676.9 2,616.9 2,667.2 2,671.1 2,679.0 7.9

Offices of dentists

949.7 980.8 982.0 982.6 950.7 983.4 984.2 985.0 0.8

Offices of other health practitioners

927.1 957.4 963.9 971.6 924.6 961.7 964.3 967.0 2.7

Outpatient care centers

930.1 967.6 967.1 968.9 930.2 966.3 967.5 967.7 0.2

Medical and diagnostic laboratories

275.1 287.7 288.8 288.7 276.4 287.8 288.7 289.8 1.1

Home health care services

1,472.0 1,521.6 1,532.1 1,535.2 1,468.9 1,526.3 1,531.6 1,531.6 0.0

Other ambulatory health care services

310.8 310.1 311.5 311.0 310.2 310.2 311.0 310.5 -0.5

Hospitals

5,112.8 5,217.3 5,219.7 5,216.1 5,128.5 5,220.0 5,228.6 5,231.6 3.0

Nursing and residential care facilities

3,353.4 3,373.0 3,379.7 3,388.8 3,356.1 3,387.0 3,390.3 3,390.8 0.5

Nursing care facilities

1,606.0 1,601.2 1,600.5 1,605.2 1,608.8 1,608.7 1,606.4 1,606.4 0.0

Residential mental health facilities

642.2 649.9 650.1 651.9 642.0 651.4 651.0 650.9 -0.1

Community care facilities for the elderly

939.4 952.2 959.8 961.3 938.8 956.1 963.1 963.1 0.0

Other residential care facilities

165.8 169.7 169.3 170.4 166.5 170.7 169.9 170.4 0.5

Social assistance

3,948.3 4,010.9 4,052.1 4,074.4 3,911.0 4,001.1 4,029.4 4,037.7 8.3

Individual and family services

2,458.1 2,512.4 2,549.2 2,562.4 2,446.3 2,516.5 2,544.8 2,551.8 7.0

Emergency and other relief services

172.5 176.8 176.4 176.2 172.9 176.1 176.5 176.6 0.1

Vocational rehabilitation services

329.8 328.4 326.5 328.0 329.6 331.2 328.3 327.8 -0.5

Child day care services

987.9 993.3 1,000.0 1,007.8 962.2 977.2 979.7 981.5 1.8

Leisure and hospitality

16,552 16,260 16,561 16,969 16,300 16,678 16,695 16,721 26

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

2,460.1 2,300.0 2,399.8 2,546.6 2,379.4 2,472.9 2,469.4 2,473.3 3.9

Performing arts and spectator sports

535.4 492.3 533.7 558.4 504.5 518.2 517.4 524.4 7.0

Museums, historical sites, and similar institutions

173.8 164.4 172.5 182.0 168.0 174.7 175.8 175.4 -0.4

Amusements, gambling, and recreation

1,750.9 1,643.3 1,693.6 1,806.2 1,706.9 1,780.0 1,776.2 1,773.5 -2.7

Accommodation and food services

14,091.9 13,959.8 14,161.5 14,422.4 13,920.5 14,205.3 14,225.2 14,247.3 22.1

Accommodation

2,028.2 1,979.0 1,998.3 2,055.8 2,025.1 2,046.7 2,045.8 2,051.0 5.2

Food services and drinking places

12,063.7 11,980.8 12,163.2 12,366.6 11,895.4 12,158.6 12,179.4 12,196.3 16.9

Other services

5,866 5,877 5,923 5,955 5,841 5,911 5,925 5,924 -1

Repair and maintenance

1,339.5 1,347.4 1,358.5 1,360.9 1,330.4 1,347.8 1,353.3 1,350.4 -2.9

Personal and laundry services

1,518.5 1,517.9 1,538.8 1,553.2 1,505.1 1,532.3 1,536.0 1,536.9 0.9

Membership associations and organizations

3,008.2 3,011.7 3,025.7 3,041.1 3,005.0 3,030.7 3,035.9 3,036.6 0.7

Government

22,750 22,870 22,929 22,838 22,427 22,510 22,529 22,514 -15

Federal

2,788.0 2,782.0 2,802.0 2,812.0 2,793.0 2,803.0 2,811.0 2,815.0 4.0

Federal, except U.S. Postal Service

2,183.6 2,176.2 2,197.2 2,203.3 2,187.0 2,196.2 2,204.6 2,206.0 1.4

U.S. Postal Service

604.2 605.6 604.8 608.2 606.1 607.2 606.3 608.5 2.2

State government

5,178.0 5,342.0 5,347.0 5,175.0 5,168.0 5,184.0 5,178.0 5,168.0 -10.0

State government education

2,481.9 2,650.1 2,654.1 2,476.3 2,475.5 2,486.2 2,485.2 2,476.9 -8.3

State government, excluding education

2,696.3 2,691.8 2,693.0 2,699.0 2,692.7 2,697.5 2,692.7 2,691.3 -1.4

Local government

14,784.0 14,746.0 14,780.0 14,851.0 14,466.0 14,523.0 14,540.0 14,531.0 -9.0

Local government education

8,273.4 8,311.1 8,312.0 8,303.4 7,956.5 7,983.8 7,992.4 7,986.3 -6.1

Local government, excluding education

6,510.8 6,434.6 6,468.0 6,547.6 6,509.9 6,539.2 6,548.0 6,544.9 -3.1

Footnotes
(1) Includes other industries, not shown separately.
(2) Includes motor vehicles, motor vehicle bodies and trailers, and motor vehicle parts.
(3) Includes ambulatory health care services, hospitals, and nursing and residential care facilities.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2018 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-2. Average weekly hours and overtime of all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry May
2018
Mar.
2019
Apr.
2019(p)
May
2019(p)

AVERAGE WEEKLY HOURS

Total private

34.5 34.5 34.4 34.4

Goods-producing

40.6 40.4 40.3 40.3

Mining and logging

46.1 46.4 46.7 46.3

Construction

39.5 39.4 39.1 39.1

Manufacturing

40.8 40.7 40.6 40.6

Durable goods

41.2 41.1 41.0 41.0

Nondurable goods

40.2 40.1 40.0 39.9

Private service-providing

33.3 33.3 33.3 33.3

Trade, transportation, and utilities

34.5 34.2 34.3 34.2

Wholesale trade

39.1 39.0 39.0 38.9

Retail trade

31.0 30.6 30.7 30.7

Transportation and warehousing

38.9 38.7 38.7 38.5

Utilities

42.0 42.2 41.8 42.1

Information

36.0 36.2 36.2 36.4

Financial activities

37.6 37.7 37.7 37.6

Professional and business services

36.2 36.3 36.2 36.3

Education and health services

33.0 33.0 33.0 33.0

Leisure and hospitality

26.1 26.1 26.0 25.9

Other services

31.7 31.9 31.8 31.8

AVERAGE OVERTIME HOURS

Manufacturing

3.4 3.4 3.4 3.4

Durable goods

3.4 3.4 3.4 3.3

Nondurable goods

3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2018 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-3. Average hourly and weekly earnings of all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Average hourly earnings Average weekly earnings
May
2018
Mar.
2019
Apr.
2019(p)
May
2019(p)
May
2018
Mar.
2019
Apr.
2019(p)
May
2019(p)

Total private

$26.99 $27.71 $27.77 $27.83 $931.16 $956.00 $955.29 $957.35

Goods-producing

28.13 28.74 28.81 28.89 1,142.08 1,161.10 1,161.04 1,164.27

Mining and logging

32.26 33.09 33.44 33.51 1,487.19 1,535.38 1,561.65 1,551.51

Construction

29.72 30.48 30.60 30.68 1,173.94 1,200.91 1,196.46 1,199.59

Manufacturing

26.97 27.47 27.49 27.57 1,100.38 1,118.03 1,116.09 1,119.34

Durable goods

28.32 28.92 28.96 29.04 1,166.78 1,188.61 1,187.36 1,190.64

Nondurable goods

24.67 24.97 24.96 25.02 991.73 1,001.30 998.40 998.30

Private service-providing

26.72 27.47 27.52 27.58 889.78 914.75 916.42 918.41

Trade, transportation, and utilities

23.24 24.03 24.01 24.12 801.78 821.83 823.54 824.90

Wholesale trade

30.31 31.32 31.17 31.38 1,185.12 1,221.48 1,215.63 1,220.68

Retail trade

18.70 19.41 19.46 19.47 579.70 593.95 597.42 597.73

Transportation and warehousing

24.30 24.65 24.70 24.87 945.27 953.96 955.89 957.50

Utilities

40.25 41.90 41.58 41.84 1,690.50 1,768.18 1,738.04 1,761.46

Information

39.55 41.69 41.65 41.63 1,423.80 1,509.18 1,507.73 1,515.33

Financial activities

34.67 35.58 35.80 35.92 1,303.59 1,341.37 1,349.66 1,350.59

Professional and business services

32.40 33.27 33.36 33.42 1,172.88 1,207.70 1,207.63 1,213.15

Education and health services

26.95 27.48 27.50 27.48 889.35 906.84 907.50 906.84

Leisure and hospitality

15.89 16.39 16.43 16.50 414.73 427.78 427.18 427.35

Other services

24.51 24.84 24.89 24.92 776.97 792.40 791.50 792.46

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2018 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-4. Indexes of aggregate weekly hours and payrolls for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
[2007=100]
Industry Index of aggregate weekly hours(1) Index of aggregate weekly payrolls(2)
May
2018
Mar.
2019
Apr.
2019(p)
May
2019(p)
Percent change from:
Apr.
2019 - May
2019(p)
May
2018
Mar.
2019
Apr.
2019(p)
May
2019(p)
Percent change from:
Apr.
2019 - May
2019(p)

Total private

109.4 111.1 110.9 111.0 0.1 141.1 147.1 147.3 147.7 0.3

Goods-producing

95.5 96.8 96.7 96.8 0.1 121.4 125.8 126.0 126.4 0.3

Mining and logging

105.5 110.2 110.9 110.1 -0.7 136.6 146.4 148.9 148.2 -0.5

Construction

98.9 101.2 100.8 100.8 0.0 127.8 134.0 134.0 134.4 0.3

Manufacturing

92.9 93.9 93.8 93.8 0.0 116.5 120.0 119.9 120.2 0.3

Durable goods

91.8 93.2 93.0 93.0 0.0 115.5 119.7 119.6 120.0 0.3

Nondurable goods

95.1 95.6 95.4 95.2 -0.2 119.0 121.1 120.9 120.8 -0.1

Private service-providing

113.2 114.9 115.1 115.2 0.1 147.0 153.4 153.9 154.4 0.3

Trade, transportation, and utilities

103.9 103.7 104.0 103.7 -0.3 130.2 134.3 134.6 134.8 0.1

Wholesale trade

100.5 101.9 102.1 101.9 -0.2 127.4 133.5 133.1 133.8 0.5

Retail trade

99.8 98.2 98.4 98.4 0.0 123.4 125.9 126.6 126.6 0.0

Transportation and warehousing

119.9 122.4 122.5 121.9 -0.5 147.7 153.0 153.5 153.8 0.2

Utilities

101.0 101.3 99.8 100.6 0.8 134.3 140.2 137.1 139.1 1.5

Information

93.1 93.0 92.6 93.0 0.4 131.1 138.0 137.4 137.8 0.3

Financial activities

105.4 106.6 106.8 106.5 -0.3 142.5 148.0 149.1 149.3 0.1

Professional and business services

118.8 121.4 121.4 122.0 0.5 155.8 163.6 164.0 165.0 0.6

Education and health services

127.1 129.7 130.1 130.2 0.1 164.7 171.5 172.1 172.2 0.1

Leisure and hospitality

121.4 124.2 123.9 123.6 -0.2 155.6 164.2 164.2 164.5 0.2

Other services

106.8 108.7 108.6 108.6 0.0 143.4 148.0 148.2 148.3 0.1

Footnotes
(1) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding 2007 annual average aggregate hours. Aggregate hours estimates are the product of estimates of average weekly hours and employment.
(2) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding 2007 annual average aggregate weekly payrolls. Aggregate payrolls estimates are the product of estimates of average hourly earnings, average weekly hours, and employment.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2018 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-5. Employment of women on nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Women employees (in thousands) Percent of all employees
May
2018
Mar.
2019
Apr.
2019(p)
May
2019(p)
May
2018
Mar.
2019
Apr.
2019(p)
May
2019(p)

Total nonfarm

73,837 75,119 75,254 75,339 49.6 49.8 49.8 49.9

Total private

60,931 62,125 62,247 62,340 48.2 48.4 48.4 48.5

Goods-producing

4,557 4,690 4,697 4,708 22.1 22.3 22.3 22.3

Mining and logging

93 97 97 98 12.8 12.8 12.8 12.9

Construction

927 965 965 973 12.8 13.0 12.9 13.0

Manufacturing

3,537 3,628 3,635 3,637 27.9 28.3 28.3 28.3

Durable goods

1,866 1,926 1,930 1,936 23.6 23.9 24.0 24.0

Nondurable goods

1,671 1,702 1,705 1,701 35.3 35.6 35.7 35.6

Private service-providing

56,374 57,435 57,550 57,632 53.4 53.6 53.6 53.6

Trade, transportation, and utilities

11,096 11,148 11,153 11,160 40.2 40.1 40.1 40.1

Wholesale trade

1,727.0 1,778.6 1,789.4 1,794.2 29.6 30.0 30.2 30.2

Retail trade

7,905.6 7,846.5 7,834.0 7,833.8 49.9 49.7 49.6 49.6

Transportation and warehousing

1,334.7 1,390.0 1,398.0 1,399.7 24.8 25.1 25.2 25.3

Utilities

129.1 132.5 131.9 132.0 23.2 23.9 23.9 23.9

Information

1,117 1,118 1,116 1,105 39.5 39.8 39.8 39.5

Financial activities

4,841 4,888 4,890 4,888 56.6 56.6 56.5 56.5

Professional and business services

9,479 9,701 9,727 9,756 45.3 45.5 45.5 45.5

Education and health services

18,178 18,585 18,640 18,676 77.1 77.2 77.2 77.3

Leisure and hospitality

8,559 8,839 8,860 8,884 52.5 53.0 53.1 53.1

Other services

3,104 3,156 3,164 3,163 53.1 53.4 53.4 53.4

Government

12,906 12,994 13,007 12,999 57.5 57.7 57.7 57.7

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2018 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-6. Employment of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
[In thousands]
Industry May
2018
Mar.
2019
Apr.
2019(p)
May
2019(p)

Total private

104,103 105,675 105,811 105,878

Goods-producing

14,840 15,102 15,103 15,100

Mining and logging

540 563 560 558

Construction

5,430 5,542 5,560 5,565

Manufacturing

8,870 8,997 8,983 8,977

Durable goods

5,436 5,554 5,546 5,548

Nondurable goods

3,434 3,443 3,437 3,429

Private service-providing

89,263 90,573 90,708 90,778

Trade, transportation, and utilities

23,384 23,531 23,517 23,532

Wholesale trade

4,678.4 4,761.6 4,771.0 4,774.9

Retail trade

13,569.9 13,498.3 13,469.0 13,476.4

Transportation and warehousing

4,689.7 4,828.6 4,835.1 4,838.3

Utilities

445.5 442.3 441.5 442.1

Information

2,277 2,261 2,257 2,250

Financial activities

6,627 6,692 6,701 6,704

Professional and business services

17,073 17,407 17,452 17,463

Education and health services

20,718 21,135 21,195 21,219

Leisure and hospitality

14,350 14,653 14,678 14,708

Other services

4,834 4,894 4,908 4,902

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2018 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-7. Average weekly hours and overtime of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry May
2018
Mar.
2019
Apr.
2019(p)
May
2019(p)

AVERAGE WEEKLY HOURS

Total private

33.8 33.7 33.7 33.6

Goods-producing

41.6 41.2 41.1 41.1

Mining and logging

47.4 47.0 47.3 46.9

Construction

40.3 39.9 39.6 39.7

Manufacturing

42.0 41.7 41.6 41.6

Durable goods

42.2 42.0 42.0 41.9

Nondurable goods

41.7 41.2 41.1 41.1

Private service-providing

32.5 32.5 32.4 32.4

Trade, transportation, and utilities

34.0 33.9 33.9 33.8

Wholesale trade

39.0 38.8 38.7 38.7

Retail trade

30.4 30.4 30.5 30.3

Transportation and warehousing

38.5 37.9 37.9 37.8

Utilities

42.7 42.5 42.2 42.3

Information

35.5 35.5 35.4 35.4

Financial activities

37.0 37.0 37.0 37.0

Professional and business services

35.3 35.4 35.5 35.5

Education and health services

32.3 32.3 32.2 32.2

Leisure and hospitality

24.9 24.9 24.7 24.8

Other services

30.8 30.8 30.7 30.7

AVERAGE OVERTIME HOURS

Manufacturing

4.5 4.4 4.3 4.3

Durable goods

4.5 4.4 4.3 4.2

Nondurable goods

4.5 4.4 4.4 4.4

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2018 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-8. Average hourly and weekly earnings of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry Average hourly earnings Average weekly earnings
May
2018
Mar.
2019
Apr.
2019(p)
May
2019(p)
May
2018
Mar.
2019
Apr.
2019(p)
May
2019(p)

Total private

$22.62 $23.25 $23.31 $23.38 $764.56 $783.53 $785.55 $785.57

Goods-producing

23.87 24.53 24.59 24.65 992.99 1,010.64 1,010.65 1,013.12

Mining and logging

27.93 29.39 29.93 29.70 1,323.88 1,381.33 1,415.69 1,392.93

Construction

27.54 28.31 28.42 28.49 1,109.86 1,129.57 1,125.43 1,131.05

Manufacturing

21.43 21.96 21.96 22.03 900.06 915.73 913.54 916.45

Durable goods

22.39 22.91 22.88 22.94 944.86 962.22 960.96 961.19

Nondurable goods

19.90 20.40 20.44 20.53 829.83 840.48 840.08 843.78

Private service-providing

22.35 22.98 23.04 23.11 726.38 746.85 746.50 748.76

Trade, transportation, and utilities

19.83 20.50 20.55 20.65 674.22 694.95 696.65 697.97

Wholesale trade

25.00 26.11 26.03 26.12 975.00 1,013.07 1,007.36 1,010.84

Retail trade

15.93 16.39 16.50 16.53 484.27 498.26 503.25 500.86

Transportation and warehousing

21.76 22.37 22.45 22.64 837.76 847.82 850.86 855.79

Utilities

36.49 36.76 36.85 37.07 1,558.12 1,562.30 1,555.07 1,568.06

Information

31.63 33.28 33.32 33.45 1,122.87 1,181.44 1,179.53 1,184.13

Financial activities

26.89 27.39 27.54 27.73 994.93 1,013.43 1,018.98 1,026.01

Professional and business services

26.70 27.39 27.44 27.53 942.51 969.61 974.12 977.32

Education and health services

23.57 24.11 24.15 24.16 761.31 778.75 777.63 777.95

Leisure and hospitality

13.79 14.35 14.38 14.44 343.37 357.32 355.19 358.11

Other services

20.71 21.03 21.08 21.12 637.87 647.72 647.16 648.38

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2018 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-9. Indexes of aggregate weekly hours and payrolls for production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
[2002=100]
Industry Index of aggregate weekly hours(2) Index of aggregate weekly payrolls(3)
May
2018
Mar.
2019
Apr.
2019(p)
May
2019(p)
Percent change from:
Apr.
2019 - May
2019(p)
May
2018
Mar.
2019
Apr.
2019(p)
May
2019(p)
Percent change from:
Apr.
2019 - May
2019(p)

Total private

117.2 118.7 118.8 118.5 -0.3 177.2 184.4 185.1 185.2 0.1

Goods-producing

94.3 95.1 94.9 94.8 -0.1 137.9 142.8 142.8 143.1 0.2

Mining and logging

136.0 140.6 140.8 139.1 -1.2 220.9 240.4 245.0 240.2 -2.0

Construction

109.6 110.7 110.2 110.6 0.4 162.9 169.3 169.2 170.2 0.6

Manufacturing

85.5 86.1 85.8 85.7 -0.1 119.9 123.7 123.2 123.5 0.2

Durable goods

86.2 87.6 87.5 87.3 -0.2 120.5 125.3 125.0 125.1 0.1

Nondurable goods

84.4 83.6 83.2 83.0 -0.2 118.7 120.5 120.2 120.5 0.2

Private service-providing

123.5 125.4 125.2 125.3 0.1 189.4 197.6 197.8 198.5 0.4

Trade, transportation, and utilities

111.0 111.4 111.3 111.1 -0.2 157.2 163.0 163.3 163.7 0.2

Wholesale trade

108.3 109.6 109.6 109.7 0.1 159.8 169.0 168.4 169.1 0.4

Retail trade

104.4 103.8 104.0 103.3 -0.7 142.5 145.8 147.0 146.4 -0.4

Transportation and warehousing

135.8 137.6 137.8 137.6 -0.1 187.4 195.3 196.2 197.5 0.7

Utilities

97.3 96.1 95.3 95.6 0.3 148.2 147.5 146.6 148.0 1.0

Information

92.3 91.6 91.2 90.9 -0.3 144.5 150.9 150.4 150.5 0.1

Financial activities

115.4 116.6 116.7 116.8 0.1 191.0 196.4 197.8 199.2 0.7

Professional and business services

134.8 137.8 138.5 138.6 0.1 214.0 224.4 226.0 226.9 0.4

Education and health services

142.7 145.6 145.5 145.7 0.1 222.0 231.6 231.9 232.3 0.2

Leisure and hospitality

130.9 133.6 132.8 133.6 0.6 205.0 217.8 216.9 219.1 1.0

Other services

104.4 105.7 105.7 105.5 -0.2 157.6 162.0 162.3 162.4 0.1

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(2) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding 2002 annual average aggregate hours. Aggregate hours estimates are the product of estimates of average weekly hours and employment.
(3) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding 2002 annual average aggregate weekly payrolls. Aggregate payrolls estimates are the product of estimates of average hourly earnings, average weekly hours, and employment.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2018 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


Last Modified Date: June 07, 2019