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Economic News Release
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CPS CPS Program Links
CES CES Program Links

Employment Situation News Release

Transmission of material in this news release is embargoed until	                 USDL-24-1091
8:30 a.m. (ET) Friday, June 7, 2024

Technical information: 
 Household data:     (202) 691-6378  *  cpsinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/cps
 Establishment data: (202) 691-6555  *  cesinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/ces

Media contact:	     (202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov


                        THE EMPLOYMENT SITUATION -- MAY 2024


Total nonfarm payroll employment increased by 272,000 in May, and the unemployment rate changed 
little at 4.0 percent, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. Employment continued
to trend up in several industries, led by health care; government; leisure and hospitality; and 
professional, scientific, and technical services.

This news release presents statistics from two monthly surveys. The household survey measures 
labor force status, including unemployment, by demographic characteristics. The establishment 
survey measures nonfarm employment, hours, and earnings by industry. For more information about 
the concepts and statistical methodology used in these two surveys, see the Technical Note.

Household Survey Data

Both the unemployment rate, at 4.0 percent, and the number of unemployed people, at 6.6 million, 
changed little in May. A year earlier, the jobless rate was 3.7 percent, and the number of 
unemployed people was 6.1 million. (See table A-1.)

Among the major worker groups, the unemployment rates for adult men (3.8 percent), adult women 
(3.4 percent), teenagers (12.3 percent), Whites (3.5 percent), Blacks (6.1 percent), Asians 
(3.1 percent), and Hispanics (5.0 percent) showed little or no change in May. (See tables A-1, 
A-2, and A-3.)

The number of long-term unemployed (those jobless for 27 weeks or more), at 1.4 million, 
changed little in May. The long-term unemployed accounted for 20.7 percent of all unemployed
people. (See table A-12.)

Both the labor force participation rate, at 62.5 percent, and the employment-population ratio, 
at 60.1 percent, were little changed in May. These measures showed little change over the year. 
(See table A-1.)

The number of people employed part time for economic reasons, at 4.4 million, changed little 
in May. These individuals, who would have preferred full-time employment, were working part 
time because their hours had been reduced or they were unable to find full-time jobs. 
(See table A-8.)

In May, the number of people not in the labor force who currently want a job, at 5.7 million, 
was little changed. These individuals were not counted as unemployed because they were not 
actively looking for work during the 4 weeks preceding the survey or were unavailable to take 
a job. (See table A-1.)

Among those not in the labor force who wanted a job, the number of people marginally attached 
to the labor force, at 1.5 million, was little changed in May. These individuals wanted and 
were available for work and had looked for a job sometime in the prior 12 months but had not 
looked for work in the 4 weeks preceding the survey. The number of discouraged workers, a 
subset of the marginally attached who believed that no jobs were available for them, edged up 
to 462,000 over the month. (See Summary table A.)

Establishment Survey Data

Total nonfarm payroll employment increased by 272,000 in May, higher than the average monthly 
gain of 232,000 over the prior 12 months. In May, employment continued to trend up in several 
industries, led by health care; government; leisure and hospitality; and professional, 
scientific, and technical services. (See table B-1.)

Health care added 68,000 jobs in May, in line with the average monthly gain of 64,000 over 
the prior 12 months. In May, employment growth continued in ambulatory health care services 
(+43,000), hospitals (+15,000), and nursing and residential care facilities (+11,000).

Government employment continued to trend up in May (+43,000), in line with the average 
monthly growth over the prior 12 months (+52,000).

Employment in leisure and hospitality continued to trend up in May (+42,000), similar to the 
average monthly gain over the prior 12 months (+35,000). Employment in food services and 
drinking places continued to trend up over the month (+25,000).

Professional, scientific, and technical services added 32,000 jobs in May, higher than the 
average monthly gain of 19,000 over the prior 12 months. Over the month, employment increased 
in management, scientific, and technical consulting services (+14,000) and in architectural, 
engineering, and related services (+10,000). Specialized design services lost 3,000 jobs.

Social assistance employment continued to trend up in May (+15,000), primarily in individual 
and family services (+11,000). Over the prior 12 months, social assistance had added an average 
of 22,000 jobs per month.

In May, employment in retail trade continued to trend up (+13,000), about in line with the 
average monthly gain over the prior 12 months (+8,000). Building material and garden equipment 
and supplies dealers added 12,000 jobs in May, while job losses occurred in department stores 
(-5,000) and furniture and home furnishings retailers (-4,000).

Employment showed little or no change over the month in other major industries, including mining,
quarrying, and oil and gas extraction; construction; manufacturing; wholesale trade; transportation 
and warehousing; information; financial activities; and other services.

In May, average hourly earnings for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls increased by 14 cents,
or 0.4 percent, to $34.91. Over the past 12 months, average hourly earnings have increased by 4.1 
percent. In May, average hourly earnings of private-sector production and nonsupervisory employees 
increased by 14 cents, or 0.5 percent, to $29.99. (See tables B-3 and B-8.) 

The average workweek for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls remained at 34.3 hours in May. 
In manufacturing, the average workweek was unchanged at 40.1 hours, while overtime edged up to 3.0 
hours. The average workweek for production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls 
edged up by 0.1 hour to 33.8 hours. (See tables B-2 and B-7.) 

The change in total nonfarm payroll employment for March was revised down by 5,000, from +315,000 
to +310,000, and the change for April was revised down by 10,000, from +175,000 to +165,000. With 
these revisions, employment in March and April combined is 15,000 lower than previously reported. 
(Monthly revisions result from additional reports received from businesses and government agencies 
since the last published estimates and from the recalculation of seasonal factors.)

_____________
The Employment Situation for June is scheduled to be released on Friday, July 5, 2024, 
at 8:30 a.m. (ET).




HOUSEHOLD DATA
Summary table A. Household data, seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Category May
2023
Mar.
2024
Apr.
2024
May
2024
Change from:
Apr.
2024-
May
2024

Employment status

Civilian noninstitutional population

266,618 267,884 268,066 268,248 182

Civilian labor force

166,823 167,895 167,982 167,732 -250

Participation rate

62.6 62.7 62.7 62.5 -0.2

Employed

160,707 161,466 161,491 161,083 -408

Employment-population ratio

60.3 60.3 60.2 60.1 -0.1

Unemployed

6,117 6,429 6,492 6,649 157

Unemployment rate

3.7 3.8 3.9 4.0 0.1

Not in labor force

99,795 99,989 100,083 100,516 433

Unemployment rates

Total, 16 years and over

3.7 3.8 3.9 4.0 0.1

Adult men (20 years and over)

3.5 3.3 3.6 3.8 0.2

Adult women (20 years and over)

3.3 3.6 3.5 3.4 -0.1

Teenagers (16 to 19 years)

10.3 12.6 11.7 12.3 0.6

White

3.3 3.4 3.5 3.5 0.0

Black or African American

5.7 6.4 5.6 6.1 0.5

Asian

3.0 2.5 2.8 3.1 0.3

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

4.1 4.5 4.8 5.0 0.2

Total, 25 years and over

3.1 3.1 3.2 3.2 0.0

Less than a high school diploma

5.7 4.9 6.0 5.9 -0.1

High school graduates, no college

3.9 4.1 4.0 4.3 0.3

Some college or associate degree

3.2 3.4 3.3 3.1 -0.2

Bachelor's degree and higher

2.0 2.1 2.2 2.1 -0.1

Reason for unemployment

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

2,999 3,042 3,241 3,220 -21

Job leavers

764 823 785 717 -68

Reentrants

1,851 1,920 1,929 2,046 117

New entrants

527 678 574 630 56

Duration of unemployment

Less than 5 weeks

2,080 2,189 2,262 2,309 47

5 to 14 weeks

1,863 1,979 1,987 1,918 -69

15 to 26 weeks

911 982 869 955 86

27 weeks and over

1,132 1,246 1,250 1,350 100

Employed persons at work part time

Part time for economic reasons

3,737 4,308 4,469 4,419 -50

Slack work or business conditions

2,588 2,972 3,058 3,086 28

Could only find part-time work

847 999 1,134 1,042 -92

Part time for noneconomic reasons

21,831 22,902 22,253 22,662 409

Persons not in the labor force

Marginally attached to the labor force

1,512 1,595 1,565 1,525 -40

Discouraged workers

425 337 362 462 100

NOTE: Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Summary table B. Establishment data, seasonally adjusted
Category May
2023
Mar.
2024
Apr.
2024(p)
May
2024(p)

EMPLOYMENT BY SELECTED INDUSTRY
(Over-the-month change, in thousands)

Total nonfarm

303 310 165 272

Total private

254 232 158 229

Goods-producing

14 33 0 25

Mining and logging

3 2 -6 -4

Construction

16 37 0 21

Manufacturing

-5 -6 6 8

Durable goods(1)

1 -1 2 -2

Motor vehicles and parts

5.7 5.1 -0.3 3.1

Nondurable goods

-6 -5 4 10

Private service-providing

240 199 158 204

Wholesale trade

7.2 9.7 1.4 3.1

Retail trade

13.3 19.3 22.6 12.6

Transportation and warehousing

19.9 5.3 19.5 10.6

Utilities

0.8 -0.9 -0.5 1.3

Information

-3 2 -5 0

Financial activities

13 4 -2 10

Professional and business services(1)

49 17 -1 33

Temporary help services

-3.7 -0.8 -12.3 -14.1

Private education and health services(1)

91 76 106 86

Health care and social assistance

75.9 79.6 100.5 83.5

Leisure and hospitality

39 54 12 42

Other services

10 12 5 6

Government

49 78 7 43

(3-month average change, in thousands)

Total nonfarm

242 267 237 249

Total private

192 203 190 206

WOMEN AND PRODUCTION AND NONSUPERVISORY EMPLOYEES
AS A PERCENT OF ALL EMPLOYEES(2)

Total nonfarm women employees

49.8 49.8 49.8 49.8

Total private women employees

48.4 48.4 48.4 48.3

Total private production and nonsupervisory employees

81.4 81.4 81.4 81.4

HOURS AND EARNINGS
ALL EMPLOYEES

Total private

Average weekly hours

34.4 34.4 34.3 34.3

Average hourly earnings

$33.54 $34.69 $34.77 $34.91

Average weekly earnings

$1,153.78 $1,193.34 $1,192.61 $1,197.41

Index of aggregate weekly hours (2007=100)(3)

114.9 116.4 116.2 116.4

Over-the-month percent change

0.4 0.4 -0.2 0.2

Index of aggregate weekly payrolls (2007=100)(4)

184.3 193.1 193.2 194.3

Over-the-month percent change

0.8 0.8 0.1 0.6

DIFFUSION INDEX
(Over 1-month span)(5)

Total private (250 industries)

58.8 55.4 56.6 63.4

Manufacturing (72 industries)

41.0 34.0 51.4 59.0

Footnotes
(1) Includes other industries, not shown separately.
(2) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries.
(3) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding annual average aggregate hours.
(4) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding annual average aggregate weekly payrolls.
(5) Figures are the percent of industries with employment increasing plus one-half of the industries with unchanged employment, where 50 percent indicates an equal balance between industries with increasing and decreasing employment.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2023 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


Frequently Asked Questions about Employment and Unemployment Estimates

1. Why are there two monthly measures of employment?

   The household survey and establishment survey both produce sample-based estimates
   of employment, and both have strengths and limitations. The establishment survey
   employment series has a smaller margin of error on the measurement of month-to-
   month change than the household survey because of its much larger sample size. An
   over-the-month employment change of about 130,000 is statistically significant in
   the establishment survey, while the threshold for a statistically significant change
   in the household survey is about 600,000. However, the household survey has a more
   expansive scope than the establishment survey because it includes self-employed
   workers whose businesses are unincorporated, unpaid family workers, agricultural
   workers, and private household workers, who are excluded by the establishment survey.
   The household survey also provides estimates of employment for demographic groups.
   For more information on the differences between the two surveys, please visit
   www.bls.gov/web/empsit/ces_cps_trends.htm.

2. Are undocumented immigrants counted in the surveys?

   It is likely that both surveys include at least some undocumented immigrants. However,
   neither the establishment nor the household survey is designed to identify the legal
   status of workers. Therefore, it is not possible to determine how many are counted in
   either survey. The establishment survey does not collect data on the legal status of
   workers. The household survey does include questions which identify the foreign and
   native born, but it does not include questions about the legal status of the foreign
   born. Data on the foreign and native born are published each month in table A-7 of
   The Employment Situation news release.

3. Why does the establishment survey have revisions?

   The establishment survey revises published estimates to improve its data series by
   incorporating additional information that was not available at the time of the
   initial publication of the estimates. The establishment survey revises its initial
   monthly estimates twice, in the immediately succeeding 2 months, to incorporate
   additional sample receipts from respondents in the survey and recalculated seasonal
   adjustment factors. For more information on the monthly revisions, please visit
   www.bls.gov/web/empsit/cestn.htm#section7.

   On an annual basis, the establishment survey incorporates a benchmark revision that
   re-anchors estimates to nearly complete employment counts available from unemployment
   insurance tax records. The benchmark helps to control for sampling and modeling errors
   in the estimates. For more information on the annual benchmark revision, please visit
   www.bls.gov/web/empsit/cesbmart.htm.

4. Does the establishment survey sample include small firms?

   Yes. About 45 percent of the establishment survey sample is comprised of business
   establishments with fewer than 20 employees. The establishment survey sample is
   designed to maximize the reliability of the statewide total nonfarm employment
   estimate; firms from all states, size classes, and industries are appropriately
   sampled to achieve that goal.

5. Does the establishment survey account for employment from new businesses?

   Yes. Monthly establishment survey estimates include an adjustment to account for
   the net employment change generated by business births and deaths. The adjustment
   comes from an econometric model that forecasts the monthly net jobs impact of
   business births and deaths based on the actual past values of the net impact that
   can be observed with a lag from the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages. The
   establishment survey uses modeling rather than sampling for this purpose because
   the survey is not immediately able to bring new businesses into the sample. There
   is an unavoidable lag between the birth of a new firm and its appearance on the
   sampling frame and availability for selection. BLS adds new businesses to the survey
   twice a year.

6. Is the count of unemployed people limited to just those receiving unemployment
   insurance benefits?

   No. The estimate of unemployment is based on a monthly sample survey of households.
   All people who are without jobs and are actively seeking and available to work are
   included among the unemployed. (People on temporary layoff are included even if
   they do not actively seek work.) There is no requirement or question relating to
   unemployment insurance benefits in the monthly survey.

7. Does the official unemployment rate exclude people who want a job but are not currently
   looking for work?

   Yes. However, there are separate estimates of people outside the labor force who
   want a job, including those who are not currently looking because they believe no
   jobs are available (discouraged workers). In addition, alternative measures of labor
   underutilization (some of which include discouraged workers and other groups not
   officially counted as unemployed) are published each month in table A-15 of The
   Employment Situation news release. For more information about these alternative
   measures, please visit www.bls.gov/cps/lfcharacteristics.htm#altmeasures.

8. How can unusually severe weather affect employment and hours estimates?

   In the establishment survey, the reference period is the pay period that includes
   the 12th of the month. Unusually severe weather is more likely to have an impact on
   average weekly hours than on employment. Average weekly hours are estimated for paid
   time during the pay period, including pay for holidays, sick leave, or other time off.
   The impact of severe weather on hours estimates typically, but not always, results in
   a reduction in average weekly hours. For example, some employees may be off work for
   part of the pay period and not receive pay for the time missed, while some workers,
   such as those dealing with cleanup or repair, may work extra hours.
   
   Typically, it is not possible to precisely quantify the effect of extreme weather on 
   payroll employment estimates. In order for severe weather conditions to reduce
   employment estimates, employees have to be off work without pay for the entire pay
   period. Employees who receive pay for any part of the pay period, even 1 hour, are
   counted in the payroll employment figures. For more information on how often employees
   are paid, please visit www.bls.gov/ces/publications/length-pay-period.htm.

   In the household survey, the reference period is generally the calendar week that
   includes the 12th of the month. People who miss the entire week's work for weather-
   related events are counted as employed whether or not they are paid for the time
   off. The household survey collects data on the number of people who had a job but
   were not at work due to bad weather. It also provides a measure of the number of
   people who usually work full time but had reduced hours due to bad weather. 
   
   Current and historical data are available on the household survey's most requested
   statistics page, please visit data.bls.gov/cgi-bin/surveymost?ln.




Technical Note


   This news release presents statistics from two major surveys, the Current
Population Survey (CPS; household survey) and the Current Employment Statistics
survey (CES; establishment survey). The household survey provides information
on the labor force, employment, and unemployment that appears in the "A" tables,
marked HOUSEHOLD DATA. It is a sample survey of about 60,000 eligible households
conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau for the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS).

   The establishment survey provides information on employment, hours, and
earnings of employees on nonfarm payrolls; the data appear in the "B" tables,
marked ESTABLISHMENT DATA. BLS collects these data each month from the payroll
records of a sample of nonagricultural business establishments. Each month
the CES program surveys about 119,000 businesses and government agencies,
representing approximately 629,000 individual worksites, in order to provide
detailed industry data on employment, hours, and earnings of workers on nonfarm
payrolls. The active sample includes approximately one-third of all nonfarm
payroll jobs.

   For both surveys, the data for a given month relate to a particular week or
pay period. In the household survey, the reference period is generally the
calendar week that contains the 12th day of the month. In the establishment
survey, the reference period is the pay period including the 12th, which may or
may not correspond directly to the calendar week.

Coverage, definitions, and differences between surveys

   Household survey. The sample is selected to reflect the entire civilian 
noninstitutional population. Based on responses to a series of questions on 
work and job search activities, each person 16 years and over in a sample
household is classified as employed, unemployed, or not in the labor force.

   People are classified as employed if they did any work at all as paid employees
during the reference week; worked in their own business, profession, or on their
own farm; or worked without pay at least 15 hours in a family business or farm.
People are also counted as employed if they were temporarily absent from their jobs
because of illness, bad weather, vacation, labor-management disputes, or personal
reasons.

   People are classified as unemployed if they meet all of the following criteria:
they had no employment during the reference week; they were available for work at
that time; and they made specific active efforts to find employment sometime during
the 4-week period ending with the reference week. People laid off from a job and
expecting recall need not be looking for work to be counted as unemployed. The
unemployment data derived from the household survey in no way depend upon the
eligibility for or receipt of unemployment insurance benefits.

   The civilian labor force is the sum of the employed and unemployed.
Those people not classified as employed or unemployed are not in the labor 
force. The unemployment rate is the number unemployed as a percent of the 
labor force. The labor force participation rate is the labor force as a 
percent of the population, and the employment-population ratio is the 
employed as a percent of the population. Additional information about the 
household survey can be found at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm.

   Establishment survey. The sample establishments are drawn from private
nonfarm businesses such as factories, offices, and stores, as well as
from federal, state, and local government entities. Employees on nonfarm
payrolls are those who worked or received pay for any part of the reference pay
period, including people on paid leave. People are counted in each job
they hold. Hours and earnings data are produced for the private sector for
all employees and for production and nonsupervisory employees. Production
and nonsupervisory employees are defined as production and related employees
in manufacturing and mining and logging, construction workers in construction,
and nonsupervisory employees in private service-providing industries.

   Industries are classified on the basis of an establishment's principal
activity in accordance with the 2022 version of the North American Industry
Classification System. Additional information about the establishment survey
can be found at www.bls.gov/ces/.

   Differences in employment estimates. The numerous conceptual and methodological
differences between the household and establishment surveys result in important
distinctions in the employment estimates derived from the surveys. Among these are:

   --The household survey includes agricultural workers, self-employed workers
     whose businesses are unincorporated, unpaid family workers, and private
     household workers among the employed. These groups are excluded from the
     establishment survey.

   --The household survey includes people on unpaid leave among the employed.
     The establishment survey does not.

   --The household survey is limited to workers 16 years of age and older.
     The establishment survey is not limited by age.

   --The household survey has no duplication of individuals, because
     individuals are counted only once, even if they hold more than one
     job. In the establishment survey, employees working at more than one
     job and thus appearing on more than one payroll are counted separately
     for each appearance.

Seasonal adjustment

   Over the course of a year, the size of the nation's labor force and the levels
of employment and unemployment undergo regularly occurring fluctuations. These 
events may result from seasonal changes in weather, major holidays, and the opening
and closing of schools. The effect of such seasonal variation can be very large.

   Because these seasonal events follow a more or less regular pattern each year,
their influence on the level of a series can be tempered by adjusting for regular
seasonal variation. These adjustments make nonseasonal developments, such as
declines in employment or increases in the participation of women in the labor
force, easier to spot. For example, in the household survey, the large number of
youth entering the labor force each June is likely to obscure any other changes
that have taken place relative to May, making it difficult to determine if the 
level of economic activity has risen or declined. Similarly, in the establishment
survey, payroll employment in education declines by about 20 percent at the end
of the spring term and later rises with the start of the fall term, obscuring the
underlying employment trends in the industry. Because seasonal employment changes
at the end and beginning of the school year can be estimated, the statistics can be
adjusted to make underlying employment patterns more discernable. The seasonally
adjusted figures provide a more useful tool with which to analyze changes in
month-to-month economic activity.

   Many seasonally adjusted series are independently adjusted in both the household
and establishment surveys. However, the adjusted series for many major estimates,
such as total payroll employment, employment in most major sectors, total employment,
and unemployment are computed by aggregating independently adjusted component series.
For example, total unemployment is derived by summing the adjusted series for four
major age-sex components; this differs from the unemployment estimate that would be
obtained by directly adjusting the total or by combining the duration, reasons, or 
more detailed age categories. Percentage distributions of unemployment by reason and
duration are derived from the sum of the independently seasonally adjusted component
series and will not necessarily match calculations made using the seasonally adjusted
total unemployment level. Additional information about seasonal adjustment in the 
household survey can be found at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#sa.

   For both the household and establishment surveys, a concurrent seasonal adjustment
methodology is used in which new seasonal factors are calculated each month using all
relevant data, up to and including the data for the current month. In the household
survey, new seasonal factors are used to adjust only the current month's data. In the
establishment survey, however, new seasonal factors are used each month to adjust the
three most recent monthly estimates. The prior 2 months are routinely revised to
incorporate additional sample reports and recalculated seasonal adjustment factors.
In both surveys, 5-year revisions to historical data are made once a year.

Reliability of the estimates

   Statistics based on the household and establishment surveys are subject to both
sampling and nonsampling error. When a sample, rather than the entire population,
is surveyed, there is a chance that the sample estimates may differ from the true
population values they represent. The component of this difference that occurs
because samples differ by chance is known as sampling error, and its variability
is measured by the standard error of the estimate. There is about a 90-percent
chance, or level of confidence, that an estimate based on a sample will differ by
no more than 1.6 standard errors from the true population value because of sampling
error. BLS analyses are generally conducted at the 90-percent level of confidence.

   For example, the confidence interval for the monthly change in total nonfarm
employment from the establishment survey is on the order of plus or minus 130,000.
Suppose the estimate of nonfarm employment increases by 50,000 from one month to
the next. The 90-percent confidence interval on the monthly change would range from
-80,000 to +180,000 (50,000 +/- 130,000). These figures do not mean that the sample
results are off by these magnitudes, but rather that there is about a 90-percent
chance that the true over-the-month change lies within this interval. Since this
range includes values of less than zero, we could not say with confidence that
nonfarm employment had, in fact, increased that month. If, however, the reported
nonfarm employment rise was 250,000, then all of the values within the 90-percent
confidence interval would be greater than zero. In this case, it is likely (at
least a 90-percent chance) that nonfarm employment had, in fact, risen that month.
At an unemployment rate of around 6.0 percent, the 90-percent confidence interval
for the monthly change in unemployment as measured by the household survey is
about +/- 300,000, and for the monthly change in the unemployment rate it is about
+/- 0.2 percentage point.

   In general, estimates involving many individuals or establishments have lower
standard errors (relative to the size of the estimate) than estimates which are based
on a small number of observations. The precision of estimates also is improved when
the data are cumulated over time, such as for quarterly and annual averages.

   The household and establishment surveys are also affected by nonsampling error,
which can occur for many reasons, including the failure to sample a segment of the
population, inability to obtain information for all respondents in the sample,
inability or unwillingness of respondents to provide correct information on a
timely basis, mistakes made by respondents, and errors made in the collection or
processing of the data.

   For example, in the establishment survey, estimates for the most recent 2 months
are based on incomplete returns; for this reason, these estimates are labeled
preliminary in the tables. It is only after two successive revisions to a monthly
estimate, when nearly all sample reports have been received, that the estimate is
considered final.

   Another major source of nonsampling error in the establishment survey is the
inability to capture, on a timely basis, employment generated by new firms. To
correct for this systematic underestimation of employment growth, an estimation
procedure with two components is used to account for business births. The first
component excludes employment losses from business deaths from sample-based
estimation in order to offset the missing employment gains from business births.
This is incorporated into the sample-based estimation procedure by simply not
reflecting sample units going out of business, but imputing to them the same
employment trend as the other firms in the sample. This procedure accounts for
most of the net birth/death employment.

   The second component is an ARIMA time series model designed to estimate the
residual net birth/death employment not accounted for by the imputation. The
historical time series used to create and test the ARIMA model was derived from
the unemployment insurance universe micro-level database and reflects the actual
residual net of births and deaths over the past 5 years.

   The sample-based estimates from the establishment survey are adjusted once a
year (on a lagged basis) to universe counts of payroll employment obtained from
administrative records of the unemployment insurance program. The difference 
between the March sample-based employment estimates and the March universe counts
is known as a benchmark revision, and serves as a rough proxy for total survey
error. Benchmarks also incorporate changes in the classification of industries
when necessary. Over the past decade, absolute benchmark revisions for total nonfarm
employment have averaged 0.1 percent, with a range from -0.3 percent to 0.3 percent.

Other information

   If you are deaf, hard of hearing, or have a speech disability, please dial 7-1-1
to access telecommunications relay services.




HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-1. Employment status of the civilian population by sex and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
May
2023
Apr.
2024
May
2024
May
2023
Jan.
2024
Feb.
2024
Mar.
2024
Apr.
2024
May
2024

TOTAL

Civilian noninstitutional population

266,618 268,066 268,248 266,618 267,540 267,711 267,884 268,066 268,248

Civilian labor force

166,702 167,484 167,576 166,823 167,276 167,426 167,895 167,982 167,732

Participation rate

62.5 62.5 62.5 62.6 62.5 62.5 62.7 62.7 62.5

Employed

161,002 161,590 161,341 160,707 161,152 160,968 161,466 161,491 161,083

Employment-population ratio

60.4 60.3 60.1 60.3 60.2 60.1 60.3 60.2 60.1

Unemployed

5,700 5,894 6,235 6,117 6,124 6,458 6,429 6,492 6,649

Unemployment rate

3.4 3.5 3.7 3.7 3.7 3.9 3.8 3.9 4.0

Not in labor force

99,916 100,582 100,672 99,795 100,265 100,285 99,989 100,083 100,516

Persons who currently want a job

6,004 5,502 6,259 5,472 5,793 5,672 5,443 5,637 5,717

Men, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

130,319 130,694 130,782 130,319 130,436 130,520 130,605 130,694 130,782

Civilian labor force

88,701 88,472 88,591 88,689 88,507 88,391 88,812 88,708 88,619

Participation rate

68.1 67.7 67.7 68.1 67.9 67.7 68.0 67.9 67.8

Employed

85,626 85,187 85,076 85,385 85,034 84,993 85,490 85,208 84,882

Employment-population ratio

65.7 65.2 65.1 65.5 65.2 65.1 65.5 65.2 64.9

Unemployed

3,075 3,285 3,515 3,305 3,473 3,398 3,323 3,500 3,737

Unemployment rate

3.5 3.7 4.0 3.7 3.9 3.8 3.7 3.9 4.2

Not in labor force

41,618 42,222 42,191 41,630 41,929 42,129 41,793 41,986 42,163

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

121,565 121,763 121,844 121,565 121,539 121,611 121,685 121,763 121,844

Civilian labor force

85,576 85,347 85,283 85,481 85,364 85,180 85,398 85,382 85,229

Participation rate

70.4 70.1 70.0 70.3 70.2 70.0 70.2 70.1 69.9

Employed

82,810 82,424 82,225 82,520 82,304 82,178 82,543 82,318 81,986

Employment-population ratio

68.1 67.7 67.5 67.9 67.7 67.6 67.8 67.6 67.3

Unemployed

2,765 2,923 3,057 2,962 3,060 3,002 2,855 3,064 3,243

Unemployment rate

3.2 3.4 3.6 3.5 3.6 3.5 3.3 3.6 3.8

Not in labor force

35,989 36,416 36,561 36,084 36,175 36,431 36,287 36,381 36,615

Women, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

136,299 137,372 137,465 136,299 137,104 137,191 137,279 137,372 137,465

Civilian labor force

78,001 79,011 78,985 78,134 78,768 79,035 79,083 79,274 79,113

Participation rate

57.2 57.5 57.5 57.3 57.5 57.6 57.6 57.7 57.6

Employed

75,376 76,403 76,265 75,322 76,118 75,975 75,976 76,283 76,201

Employment-population ratio

55.3 55.6 55.5 55.3 55.5 55.4 55.3 55.5 55.4

Unemployed

2,625 2,609 2,720 2,812 2,650 3,060 3,106 2,991 2,912

Unemployment rate

3.4 3.3 3.4 3.6 3.4 3.9 3.9 3.8 3.7

Not in labor force

58,298 58,361 58,481 58,165 58,336 58,156 58,197 58,098 58,353

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

127,845 128,742 128,830 127,845 128,503 128,581 128,659 128,742 128,830

Civilian labor force

74,941 75,901 75,723 75,030 75,529 75,835 75,792 75,989 75,812

Participation rate

58.6 59.0 58.8 58.7 58.8 59.0 58.9 59.0 58.8

Employed

72,634 73,579 73,338 72,527 73,144 73,182 73,061 73,334 73,226

Employment-population ratio

56.8 57.2 56.9 56.7 56.9 56.9 56.8 57.0 56.8

Unemployed

2,307 2,322 2,385 2,503 2,385 2,653 2,731 2,655 2,586

Unemployment rate

3.1 3.1 3.1 3.3 3.2 3.5 3.6 3.5 3.4

Not in labor force

52,904 52,841 53,106 52,815 52,974 52,746 52,867 52,753 53,018

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian noninstitutional population

17,208 17,561 17,574 17,208 17,498 17,519 17,540 17,561 17,574

Civilian labor force

6,185 6,236 6,570 6,312 6,383 6,411 6,704 6,611 6,692

Participation rate

35.9 35.5 37.4 36.7 36.5 36.6 38.2 37.6 38.1

Employed

5,558 5,587 5,777 5,660 5,704 5,608 5,862 5,839 5,871

Employment-population ratio

32.3 31.8 32.9 32.9 32.6 32.0 33.4 33.2 33.4

Unemployed

628 649 793 652 679 803 842 772 821

Unemployment rate

10.1 10.4 12.1 10.3 10.6 12.5 12.6 11.7 12.3

Not in labor force

11,023 11,326 11,004 10,896 11,115 11,108 10,835 10,950 10,882

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-2. Employment status of the civilian population by race, sex, and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, race, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
May
2023
Apr.
2024
May
2024
May
2023
Jan.
2024
Feb.
2024
Mar.
2024
Apr.
2024
May
2024

WHITE

Civilian noninstitutional population

204,345 204,831 204,917 204,345 204,608 204,677 204,752 204,831 204,917

Civilian labor force

127,111 127,369 127,207 127,282 126,962 127,040 127,596 127,708 127,384

Participation rate

62.2 62.2 62.1 62.3 62.1 62.1 62.3 62.3 62.2

Employed

123,247 123,298 123,061 123,103 122,663 122,685 123,286 123,229 122,922

Employment-population ratio

60.3 60.2 60.1 60.2 60.0 59.9 60.2 60.2 60.0

Unemployed

3,864 4,071 4,145 4,179 4,299 4,356 4,310 4,479 4,462

Unemployment rate

3.0 3.2 3.3 3.3 3.4 3.4 3.4 3.5 3.5

Not in labor force

77,233 77,463 77,711 77,062 77,646 77,637 77,156 77,123 77,533

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

66,450 65,960 65,804 66,430 65,869 65,685 65,963 65,982 65,797

Participation rate

70.3 69.8 69.6 70.2 69.8 69.6 69.8 69.8 69.6

Employed

64,521 63,887 63,762 64,330 63,674 63,658 64,029 63,801 63,588

Employment-population ratio

68.2 67.6 67.5 68.0 67.5 67.4 67.8 67.5 67.3

Unemployed

1,928 2,073 2,042 2,100 2,195 2,027 1,933 2,181 2,208

Unemployment rate

2.9 3.1 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.1 2.9 3.3 3.4

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

55,878 56,561 56,340 55,979 56,219 56,454 56,489 56,622 56,441

Participation rate

57.5 57.9 57.7 57.6 57.6 57.9 57.9 58.0 57.8

Employed

54,379 54,995 54,787 54,349 54,615 54,646 54,677 54,843 54,752

Employment-population ratio

55.9 56.3 56.1 55.9 56.0 56.0 56.0 56.2 56.0

Unemployed

1,499 1,565 1,553 1,629 1,604 1,808 1,811 1,779 1,689

Unemployment rate

2.7 2.8 2.8 2.9 2.9 3.2 3.2 3.1 3.0

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

4,784 4,848 5,062 4,873 4,874 4,902 5,145 5,103 5,146

Participation rate

38.2 38.2 39.8 39.0 38.4 38.6 40.5 40.2 40.5

Employed

4,347 4,416 4,512 4,424 4,374 4,381 4,580 4,584 4,582

Employment-population ratio

34.7 34.8 35.5 35.4 34.5 34.5 36.1 36.1 36.1

Unemployed

437 433 550 450 500 520 565 519 564

Unemployment rate

9.1 8.9 10.9 9.2 10.3 10.6 11.0 10.2 11.0

BLACK OR AFRICAN AMERICAN

Civilian noninstitutional population

34,613 34,918 34,949 34,613 34,813 34,849 34,883 34,918 34,949

Civilian labor force

21,878 22,021 21,999 21,856 22,051 22,190 22,170 22,051 21,986

Participation rate

63.2 63.1 62.9 63.1 63.3 63.7 63.6 63.2 62.9

Employed

20,662 20,892 20,672 20,613 20,887 20,950 20,746 20,812 20,643

Employment-population ratio

59.7 59.8 59.1 59.6 60.0 60.1 59.5 59.6 59.1

Unemployed

1,216 1,128 1,327 1,243 1,164 1,240 1,424 1,239 1,343

Unemployment rate

5.6 5.1 6.0 5.7 5.3 5.6 6.4 5.6 6.1

Not in labor force

12,735 12,897 12,950 12,757 12,762 12,659 12,713 12,867 12,963

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

10,103 10,187 10,164 10,081 10,266 10,344 10,317 10,194 10,150

Participation rate

68.4 68.6 68.4 68.2 69.4 69.8 69.6 68.7 68.3

Employed

9,536 9,670 9,506 9,511 9,717 9,709 9,677 9,661 9,497

Employment-population ratio

64.5 65.2 64.0 64.4 65.7 65.5 65.3 65.1 63.9

Unemployed

567 517 658 570 548 636 640 533 654

Unemployment rate

5.6 5.1 6.5 5.7 5.3 6.1 6.2 5.2 6.4

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

11,058 11,012 11,016 11,035 10,967 11,050 10,999 10,991 10,994

Participation rate

63.9 63.0 63.0 63.8 62.9 63.4 63.0 62.9 62.9

Employed

10,491 10,538 10,459 10,449 10,445 10,568 10,387 10,442 10,421

Employment-population ratio

60.6 60.3 59.8 60.4 59.9 60.6 59.5 59.8 59.6

Unemployed

567 474 557 587 521 482 612 548 572

Unemployment rate

5.1 4.3 5.1 5.3 4.8 4.4 5.6 5.0 5.2

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

717 822 818 740 819 796 854 867 842

Participation rate

28.3 31.5 31.3 29.2 31.6 30.7 32.8 33.2 32.2

Employed

635 684 706 654 724 673 682 709 725

Employment-population ratio

25.1 26.2 27.0 25.8 27.9 25.9 26.2 27.2 27.7

Unemployed

82 138 112 86 95 122 171 158 117

Unemployment rate

11.4 16.8 13.6 11.6 11.6 15.4 20.1 18.2 13.9

ASIAN

Civilian noninstitutional population

17,511 17,816 17,993 17,511 17,930 17,784 17,781 17,816 17,993

Civilian labor force

11,348 11,485 11,734 11,382 11,559 11,472 11,403 11,536 11,754

Participation rate

64.8 64.5 65.2 65.0 64.5 64.5 64.1 64.7 65.3

Employed

11,034 11,182 11,395 11,043 11,223 11,081 11,113 11,214 11,393

Employment-population ratio

63.0 62.8 63.3 63.1 62.6 62.3 62.5 62.9 63.3

Unemployed

315 302 339 338 336 390 290 322 361

Unemployment rate

2.8 2.6 2.9 3.0 2.9 3.4 2.5 2.8 3.1

Not in labor force

6,163 6,331 6,259 6,130 6,372 6,312 6,379 6,280 6,239

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Estimates for the above race groups will not sum to totals shown in table A-1 because data are not presented for all races. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-3. Employment status of the Hispanic or Latino population by sex and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
May
2023
Apr.
2024
May
2024
May
2023
Jan.
2024
Feb.
2024
Mar.
2024
Apr.
2024
May
2024

HISPANIC OR LATINO ETHNICITY

Civilian noninstitutional population

47,380 48,667 48,764 47,380 48,364 48,467 48,565 48,667 48,764

Civilian labor force

31,612 32,757 32,750 31,657 32,318 32,499 32,442 32,777 32,815

Participation rate

66.7 67.3 67.2 66.8 66.8 67.1 66.8 67.3 67.3

Employed

30,471 31,296 31,259 30,374 30,700 30,883 30,994 31,187 31,185

Employment-population ratio

64.3 64.3 64.1 64.1 63.5 63.7 63.8 64.1 64.0

Unemployed

1,140 1,462 1,492 1,283 1,618 1,616 1,448 1,589 1,630

Unemployment rate

3.6 4.5 4.6 4.1 5.0 5.0 4.5 4.8 5.0

Not in labor force

15,768 15,910 16,014 15,722 16,046 15,967 16,123 15,890 15,949

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

17,113 17,548 17,597 17,118 17,372 17,415 17,455 17,532 17,592

Participation rate

79.5 79.8 79.8 79.5 79.5 79.5 79.5 79.7 79.8

Employed

16,512 16,821 16,847 16,436 16,519 16,720 16,800 16,765 16,767

Employment-population ratio

76.7 76.5 76.4 76.3 75.6 76.3 76.5 76.2 76.1

Unemployed

601 727 750 682 852 695 654 766 826

Unemployment rate

3.5 4.1 4.3 4.0 4.9 4.0 3.7 4.4 4.7

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

13,120 13,655 13,549 13,117 13,336 13,535 13,483 13,638 13,582

Participation rate

61.1 61.8 61.2 61.1 60.7 61.5 61.1 61.7 61.3

Employed

12,707 13,078 13,046 12,661 12,759 12,860 12,870 13,016 13,032

Employment-population ratio

59.2 59.2 58.9 59.0 58.1 58.4 58.4 58.9 58.9

Unemployed

413 577 503 456 577 675 612 623 550

Unemployment rate

3.1 4.2 3.7 3.5 4.3 5.0 4.5 4.6 4.1

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

1,379 1,554 1,604 1,422 1,610 1,549 1,504 1,607 1,641

Participation rate

31.5 34.0 35.0 32.5 35.5 34.0 33.0 35.1 35.8

Employed

1,253 1,397 1,366 1,277 1,422 1,304 1,323 1,406 1,386

Employment-population ratio

28.6 30.5 29.8 29.2 31.3 28.6 29.0 30.7 30.2

Unemployed

126 157 238 146 188 246 181 200 254

Unemployment rate

9.2 10.1 14.9 10.2 11.7 15.9 12.0 12.5 15.5

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-4. Employment status of the civilian population 25 years and over by educational attainment
[Numbers in thousands]
Educational attainment Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
May
2023
Apr.
2024
May
2024
May
2023
Jan.
2024
Feb.
2024
Mar.
2024
Apr.
2024
May
2024

Less than a high school diploma

Civilian labor force

9,381 9,117 9,285 9,148 9,271 9,192 8,916 8,990 9,046

Participation rate

46.9 47.5 47.2 45.8 47.1 48.3 46.3 46.8 46.0

Employed

8,907 8,578 8,801 8,625 8,715 8,626 8,483 8,451 8,515

Employment-population ratio

44.6 44.6 44.8 43.1 44.3 45.4 44.1 44.0 43.3

Unemployed

474 539 484 523 556 565 433 539 531

Unemployment rate

5.1 5.9 5.2 5.7 6.0 6.1 4.9 6.0 5.9

High school graduates, no college(1)

Civilian labor force

36,087 36,273 36,391 36,041 35,927 36,474 36,364 36,208 36,340

Participation rate

56.9 56.8 56.9 56.9 57.0 57.0 57.3 56.7 56.8

Employed

34,767 34,890 34,934 34,628 34,385 34,948 34,866 34,757 34,785

Employment-population ratio

54.9 54.6 54.6 54.6 54.6 54.7 54.9 54.4 54.4

Unemployed

1,320 1,383 1,456 1,413 1,543 1,526 1,498 1,451 1,555

Unemployment rate

3.7 3.8 4.0 3.9 4.3 4.2 4.1 4.0 4.3

Some college or associate degree

Civilian labor force

35,277 36,251 35,360 35,457 36,205 36,322 36,147 36,225 35,610

Participation rate

62.9 63.0 62.6 63.2 62.6 63.5 63.2 62.9 63.1

Employed

34,203 35,114 34,328 34,329 35,020 35,178 34,918 35,017 34,517

Employment-population ratio

61.0 61.0 60.8 61.2 60.6 61.5 61.1 60.8 61.1

Unemployed

1,073 1,137 1,032 1,128 1,184 1,144 1,229 1,208 1,092

Unemployment rate

3.0 3.1 2.9 3.2 3.3 3.1 3.4 3.3 3.1

Bachelor's degree and higher(2)

Civilian labor force

64,067 64,406 64,934 64,162 64,195 63,965 64,478 64,449 64,994

Participation rate

73.0 72.8 72.8 73.1 72.7 72.1 72.4 72.8 72.8

Employed

62,857 63,127 63,667 62,849 62,836 62,527 63,095 63,047 63,622

Employment-population ratio

71.6 71.3 71.3 71.6 71.2 70.5 70.8 71.2 71.3

Unemployed

1,210 1,279 1,267 1,313 1,359 1,438 1,383 1,402 1,372

Unemployment rate

1.9 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.1 2.2 2.1

Footnotes
(1) Includes persons with a high school diploma or equivalent.
(2) Includes persons with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees.

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals for those 25 years and over because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-5. Employment status of the civilian population 18 years and over by veteran status, period of service, and sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, veteran status, and period of service Total Men Women
May
2023
May
2024
May
2023
May
2024
May
2023
May
2024

VETERANS, 18 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

17,940 17,606 15,901 15,558 2,039 2,048

Civilian labor force

8,653 8,260 7,525 7,068 1,128 1,192

Participation rate

48.2 46.9 47.3 45.4 55.3 58.2

Employed

8,437 8,030 7,327 6,863 1,111 1,167

Employment-population ratio

47.0 45.6 46.1 44.1 54.5 57.0

Unemployed

215 230 198 205 17 25

Unemployment rate

2.5 2.8 2.6 2.9 1.5 2.1

Not in labor force

9,287 9,346 8,376 8,490 911 856

Gulf War-era II veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

5,048 5,380 4,132 4,443 915 937

Civilian labor force

3,992 4,204 3,349 3,499 643 706

Participation rate

79.1 78.1 81.0 78.7 70.2 75.3

Employed

3,924 4,071 3,285 3,373 639 698

Employment-population ratio

77.7 75.7 79.5 75.9 69.8 74.5

Unemployed

68 133 64 125 4 8

Unemployment rate

1.7 3.2 1.9 3.6 0.7 1.1

Not in labor force

1,056 1,176 783 944 272 231

Gulf War-era I veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

2,929 2,743 2,481 2,285 449 458

Civilian labor force

2,119 1,842 1,815 1,557 304 285

Participation rate

72.3 67.1 73.2 68.1 67.8 62.2

Employed

2,050 1,816 1,753 1,541 297 275

Employment-population ratio

70.0 66.2 70.7 67.4 66.2 60.1

Unemployed

69 25 62 16 7 10

Unemployment rate

3.3 1.4 3.4 1.0 2.2 3.3

Not in labor force

810 901 665 728 145 173

World War II, Korean War, and Vietnam-era veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

6,009 5,679 5,754 5,439 255 240

Civilian labor force

828 708 807 672 21 37

Participation rate

13.8 12.5 14.0 12.3 8.4 15.3

Employed

790 684 769 651 21 33

Employment-population ratio

13.1 12.0 13.4 12.0 8.4 13.6

Unemployed

38 24 38 21 0 4

Unemployment rate

4.6 3.5 4.7 3.1 - -

Not in labor force

5,181 4,971 4,947 4,767 234 203

Veterans of other service periods

Civilian noninstitutional population

3,954 3,804 3,534 3,391 420 413

Civilian labor force

1,714 1,506 1,554 1,341 160 165

Participation rate

43.3 39.6 44.0 39.5 38.0 39.9

Employed

1,674 1,459 1,520 1,298 153 161

Employment-population ratio

42.3 38.3 43.0 38.3 36.5 38.9

Unemployed

40 47 34 43 6 4

Unemployment rate

2.3 3.1 2.2 3.2 3.8 2.5

Not in labor force

2,240 2,298 1,980 2,050 260 248

NONVETERANS, 18 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

239,361 241,504 109,797 110,732 129,564 130,772

Civilian labor force

155,701 156,949 80,099 80,388 75,602 76,561

Participation rate

65.0 65.0 73.0 72.6 58.4 58.5

Employed

150,450 151,271 77,309 77,265 73,141 74,006

Employment-population ratio

62.9 62.6 70.4 69.8 56.5 56.6

Unemployed

5,251 5,678 2,790 3,123 2,461 2,555

Unemployment rate

3.4 3.6 3.5 3.9 3.3 3.3

Not in labor force

83,660 84,555 29,698 30,344 53,962 54,211

NOTE: Veterans served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces and were not on active duty at the time of the survey. Nonveterans never served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces. Veterans could have served anywhere in the world during these periods of service: Gulf War era II (September 2001-present), Gulf War era I (August 1990-August 2001), Vietnam era (August 1964-April 1975), Korean War (July 1950-January 1955), World War II (December 1941-December 1946), and other service periods (all other time periods). Veterans who served in more than one wartime period are classified only in the most recent one. Veterans who served during one of the selected wartime periods and another period are classified only in the wartime period. Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria (values not shown where base is less than 75,000).


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-6. Employment status of the civilian population by sex, age, and disability status, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Persons with a disability Persons with no disability
May
2023
May
2024
May
2023
May
2024

TOTAL, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

33,295 34,058 233,323 234,190

Civilian labor force

8,098 8,517 158,604 159,059

Participation rate

24.3 25.0 68.0 67.9

Employed

7,463 7,878 153,540 153,463

Employment-population ratio

22.4 23.1 65.8 65.5

Unemployed

635 639 5,064 5,595

Unemployment rate

7.8 7.5 3.2 3.5

Not in labor force

25,197 25,541 74,719 75,131

Men, 16 to 64 years

Civilian labor force

3,330 3,643 79,343 78,725

Participation rate

41.0 42.7 82.7 82.7

Employed

3,075 3,312 76,703 75,676

Employment-population ratio

37.9 38.9 80.0 79.5

Unemployed

255 331 2,640 3,048

Unemployment rate

7.7 9.1 3.3 3.9

Not in labor force

4,785 4,880 16,586 16,457

Women, 16 to 64 years

Civilian labor force

3,320 3,432 69,631 70,285

Participation rate

39.4 40.7 72.4 72.8

Employed

3,022 3,178 67,444 67,973

Employment-population ratio

35.9 37.7 70.2 70.4

Unemployed

299 253 2,187 2,312

Unemployment rate

9.0 7.4 3.1 3.3

Not in labor force

5,105 5,001 26,510 26,315

Both sexes, 65 years and over

Civilian labor force

1,448 1,442 9,631 10,049

Participation rate

8.6 8.4 23.3 23.7

Employed

1,366 1,388 9,393 9,813

Employment-population ratio

8.2 8.1 22.8 23.1

Unemployed

82 55 238 235

Unemployment rate

5.6 3.8 2.5 2.3

Not in labor force

15,307 15,659 31,623 32,360

NOTE: A person with a disability has at least one of the following conditions: is deaf or has serious difficulty hearing; is blind or has serious difficulty seeing even when wearing glasses; has serious difficulty concentrating, remembering, or making decisions because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition; has serious difficulty walking or climbing stairs; has difficulty dressing or bathing; or has difficulty doing errands alone such as visiting a doctor's office or shopping because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-7. Employment status of the civilian population by nativity and sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status and nativity Total Men Women
May
2023
May
2024
May
2023
May
2024
May
2023
May
2024

Foreign born, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

46,769 48,311 22,952 23,616 23,818 24,695

Civilian labor force

31,249 31,989 17,763 18,238 13,486 13,751

Participation rate

66.8 66.2 77.4 77.2 56.6 55.7

Employed

30,259 30,896 17,216 17,581 13,043 13,315

Employment-population ratio

64.7 64.0 75.0 74.4 54.8 53.9

Unemployed

990 1,093 547 657 443 436

Unemployment rate

3.2 3.4 3.1 3.6 3.3 3.2

Not in labor force

15,520 16,322 5,188 5,377 10,332 10,945

Native born, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

219,849 219,937 107,368 107,167 112,481 112,770

Civilian labor force

135,453 135,587 70,938 70,353 64,516 65,234

Participation rate

61.6 61.6 66.1 65.6 57.4 57.8

Employed

130,744 130,445 68,410 67,495 62,333 62,950

Employment-population ratio

59.5 59.3 63.7 63.0 55.4 55.8

Unemployed

4,710 5,141 2,527 2,857 2,182 2,284

Unemployment rate

3.5 3.8 3.6 4.1 3.4 3.5

Not in labor force

84,396 84,350 36,430 36,814 47,966 47,536

NOTE: The foreign born are those residing in the United States who were not U.S. citizens at birth. That is, they were born outside the United States or one of its outlying areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam, to parents neither of whom was a U.S. citizen. The native born are persons who were born in the United States or one of its outlying areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam or who were born abroad of at least one parent who was a U.S. citizen. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-8. Employed persons by class of worker and part-time status
[In thousands]
Category Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
May
2023
Apr.
2024
May
2024
May
2023
Jan.
2024
Feb.
2024
Mar.
2024
Apr.
2024
May
2024

CLASS OF WORKER

Agriculture and related industries

2,358 2,187 2,283 2,293 2,184 2,201 2,217 2,246 2,221

Wage and salary workers(1)

1,615 1,496 1,545 1,567 1,489 1,524 1,507 1,555 1,504

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

694 657 680 670 687 649 654 657 657

Unpaid family workers

50 34 59 - - - - - -

Nonagricultural industries

158,644 159,403 159,058 158,491 158,735 158,601 158,970 159,161 158,919

Wage and salary workers(1)

149,753 150,119 149,507 149,626 149,741 149,321 149,513 149,831 149,413

Government

21,487 21,883 21,710 21,404 21,490 21,142 21,436 21,616 21,613

Private industries

128,266 128,236 127,797 128,149 128,407 128,256 128,092 128,170 127,746

Private households

643 620 617 - - - - - -

Other industries

127,624 127,616 127,180 127,458 127,521 127,392 127,331 127,493 127,072

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

8,820 9,241 9,502 8,737 9,087 9,377 9,522 9,295 9,408

Unpaid family workers

71 43 49 - - - - - -

PERSONS AT WORK PART TIME(2)

All industries

Part time for economic reasons(3)

3,535 4,267 4,217 3,737 4,422 4,376 4,308 4,469 4,419

Slack work or business conditions

2,435 2,910 2,937 2,588 2,994 2,863 2,972 3,058 3,086

Could only find part-time work

835 1,146 1,025 847 1,026 1,104 999 1,134 1,042

Part time for noneconomic reasons(4)

21,884 22,913 22,754 21,831 22,156 22,309 22,902 22,253 22,662

Nonagricultural industries

Part time for economic reasons(3)

3,518 4,200 4,152 3,706 4,371 4,300 4,255 4,404 4,340

Slack work or business conditions

2,428 2,856 2,892 2,574 2,959 2,803 2,949 3,010 3,036

Could only find part-time work

835 1,146 1,014 844 1,018 1,098 980 1,132 1,028

Part time for noneconomic reasons(4)

21,515 22,575 22,382 21,456 21,793 21,951 22,523 21,906 22,285

Footnotes
(1) Includes self-employed workers whose businesses are incorporated.
(2) Refers to those who worked 1 to 34 hours during the survey reference week and excludes employed persons who were absent from their jobs for the entire week.
(3) Refers to those who worked 1 to 34 hours during the reference week for an economic reason such as slack work or unfavorable business conditions, inability to find full-time work, or seasonal declines in demand.
(4) Refers to persons who usually work part time for noneconomic reasons such as childcare problems, family or personal obligations, school or training, retirement or Social Security limits on earnings, and other reasons. This excludes persons who usually work full time but worked only 1 to 34 hours during the reference week for reasons such as vacations, holidays, illness, and bad weather.

- Data not available.
NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-9. Selected employment indicators
[Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
May
2023
Apr.
2024
May
2024
May
2023
Jan.
2024
Feb.
2024
Mar.
2024
Apr.
2024
May
2024

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

161,002 161,590 161,341 160,707 161,152 160,968 161,466 161,491 161,083

16 to 19 years

5,558 5,587 5,777 5,660 5,704 5,608 5,862 5,839 5,871

16 to 17 years

2,115 1,949 2,040 2,231 2,292 2,035 2,146 2,116 2,153

18 to 19 years

3,443 3,637 3,738 3,448 3,428 3,595 3,756 3,727 3,733

20 years and over

155,445 156,003 155,564 155,047 155,448 155,360 155,604 155,652 155,212

20 to 24 years

14,711 14,295 13,833 14,798 14,562 14,192 14,287 14,419 13,945

25 years and over

140,734 141,709 141,730 140,369 140,972 141,300 141,485 141,328 141,385

25 to 54 years

103,443 104,119 104,148 103,209 103,489 103,717 103,669 103,832 103,919

25 to 34 years

35,897 35,732 35,767 35,813 35,700 35,672 35,667 35,638 35,694

35 to 44 years

35,343 36,319 36,207 35,261 35,818 36,117 36,123 36,197 36,121

45 to 54 years

32,202 32,069 32,174 32,136 31,970 31,928 31,879 31,997 32,105

55 years and over

37,291 37,589 37,582 37,160 37,484 37,582 37,816 37,497 37,466

Men, 16 years and over

85,626 85,187 85,076 85,385 85,034 84,993 85,490 85,208 84,882

16 to 19 years

2,816 2,763 2,851 2,865 2,730 2,815 2,947 2,890 2,896

16 to 17 years

991 942 948 1,038 1,063 939 1,022 1,000 996

18 to 19 years

1,825 1,822 1,903 1,838 1,679 1,900 1,964 1,901 1,915

20 years and over

82,810 82,424 82,225 82,520 82,304 82,178 82,543 82,318 81,986

20 to 24 years

7,489 7,315 7,088 7,502 7,320 7,107 7,222 7,381 7,110

25 years and over

75,321 75,109 75,137 75,091 75,093 75,239 75,496 75,012 74,943

25 to 54 years

55,321 55,093 55,106 55,167 55,008 55,126 55,179 55,027 54,970

25 to 34 years

19,184 18,914 18,903 19,139 18,948 18,945 18,957 18,893 18,872

35 to 44 years

19,060 19,271 19,267 19,000 19,109 19,266 19,332 19,234 19,210

45 to 54 years

17,078 16,908 16,935 17,027 16,951 16,916 16,890 16,900 16,888

55 years and over

20,000 20,016 20,032 19,924 20,085 20,112 20,316 19,985 19,973

Women, 16 years and over

75,376 76,403 76,265 75,322 76,118 75,975 75,976 76,283 76,201

16 to 19 years

2,742 2,823 2,926 2,795 2,974 2,793 2,915 2,949 2,975

16 to 17 years

1,124 1,008 1,091 1,193 1,229 1,096 1,124 1,116 1,158

18 to 19 years

1,618 1,815 1,835 1,610 1,749 1,694 1,793 1,827 1,818

20 years and over

72,634 73,579 73,338 72,527 73,144 73,182 73,061 73,334 73,226

20 to 24 years

7,222 6,980 6,746 7,296 7,241 7,085 7,065 7,038 6,835

25 years and over

65,413 66,599 66,593 65,278 65,879 66,061 65,989 66,316 66,442

25 to 54 years

48,121 49,026 49,042 48,042 48,480 48,591 48,490 48,805 48,950

25 to 34 years

16,714 16,818 16,864 16,674 16,752 16,727 16,710 16,745 16,822

35 to 44 years

16,283 17,048 16,940 16,260 16,709 16,851 16,791 16,963 16,910

45 to 54 years

15,124 15,161 15,238 15,108 15,019 15,013 14,989 15,096 15,217

55 years and over

17,291 17,573 17,551 17,236 17,399 17,470 17,500 17,511 17,492

MARITAL STATUS

Married men, spouse present(1)

45,758 45,700 45,752 45,719 45,672 45,387 45,962 45,547 45,712

Married women, spouse present(1)

37,072 37,117 37,123 36,973 37,033 36,822 37,069 36,906 37,020

Women who maintain families(2)

9,683 9,935 9,950 - - - - - -

FULL- OR PART-TIME STATUS

Full-time workers(3)

134,581 133,351 133,402 134,427 133,133 132,946 132,940 133,889 133,264

Part-time workers(4)

26,421 28,239 27,939 26,493 27,890 27,941 28,632 27,718 28,004

MULTIPLE JOBHOLDERS

Total multiple jobholders

7,718 8,349 8,352 7,770 8,272 8,259 8,476 8,383 8,399

Percent of total employed

4.8 5.2 5.2 4.8 5.1 5.1 5.2 5.2 5.2

SELF-EMPLOYMENT

Self-employed workers, incorporated

6,706 6,686 6,787 - - - - - -

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

9,514 9,897 10,181 9,408 9,774 10,026 10,176 9,952 10,065

Footnotes
(1) Beginning with data for January 2020, refers to persons in both opposite-sex and same-sex married couples. Prior to January 2020, referred to persons in opposite-sex married couples only.
(2) Beginning with data for January 2020, refers to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not a spouse of either sex. Prior to January 2020, referred to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not an opposite-sex spouse.
(3) Employed full-time workers are persons who usually work 35 hours or more per week.
(4) Employed part-time workers are persons who usually work less than 35 hours per week.

- Data not available.
NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-10. Selected unemployment indicators, seasonally adjusted
Characteristic Number of
unemployed persons
(in thousands)
Unemployment rates
May
2023
Apr.
2024
May
2024
May
2023
Jan.
2024
Feb.
2024
Mar.
2024
Apr.
2024
May
2024

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

6,117 6,492 6,649 3.7 3.7 3.9 3.8 3.9 4.0

16 to 19 years

652 772 821 10.3 10.6 12.5 12.6 11.7 12.3

16 to 17 years

240 306 338 9.7 10.0 12.5 14.1 12.6 13.6

18 to 19 years

410 474 481 10.6 10.8 12.2 11.5 11.3 11.4

20 years and over

5,465 5,720 5,828 3.4 3.4 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.6

20 to 24 years

996 1,033 1,189 6.3 5.9 7.2 7.1 6.7 7.9

25 years and over

4,438 4,630 4,605 3.1 3.2 3.2 3.1 3.2 3.2

25 to 54 years

3,382 3,462 3,568 3.2 3.3 3.3 3.2 3.2 3.3

25 to 34 years

1,462 1,424 1,511 3.9 3.9 4.3 4.1 3.8 4.1

35 to 44 years

1,054 1,104 1,225 2.9 3.0 2.9 2.6 3.0 3.3

45 to 54 years

866 935 833 2.6 2.7 2.6 2.9 2.8 2.5

55 years and over

1,059 1,163 1,044 2.8 2.9 2.8 2.6 3.0 2.7

Men, 16 years and over

3,305 3,500 3,737 3.7 3.9 3.8 3.7 3.9 4.2

16 to 19 years

343 436 495 10.7 13.2 12.3 13.7 13.1 14.6

16 to 17 years

94 159 198 8.3 15.1 11.6 14.1 13.8 16.6

18 to 19 years

240 279 286 11.5 12.1 12.5 13.2 12.8 13.0

20 years and over

2,962 3,064 3,243 3.5 3.6 3.5 3.3 3.6 3.8

20 to 24 years

576 524 646 7.1 7.0 7.9 7.1 6.6 8.3

25 years and over

2,363 2,516 2,570 3.1 3.3 3.2 3.0 3.2 3.3

25 to 54 years

1,771 1,882 2,013 3.1 3.4 3.3 3.1 3.3 3.5

25 to 34 years

767 785 858 3.9 4.0 4.2 4.1 4.0 4.3

35 to 44 years

537 598 683 2.7 3.3 3.0 2.2 3.0 3.4

45 to 54 years

468 499 472 2.7 2.7 2.6 3.0 2.9 2.7

55 years and over

591 633 556 2.9 3.2 2.8 2.6 3.1 2.7

Women, 16 years and over

2,812 2,991 2,912 3.6 3.4 3.9 3.9 3.8 3.7

16 to 19 years

309 336 326 10.0 8.2 12.7 11.4 10.2 9.9

16 to 17 years

147 147 140 10.9 5.0 13.1 14.2 11.6 10.8

18 to 19 years

170 195 195 9.6 9.6 11.8 9.7 9.6 9.7

20 years and over

2,503 2,655 2,586 3.3 3.2 3.5 3.6 3.5 3.4

20 to 24 years

421 509 543 5.5 4.9 6.4 7.1 6.7 7.4

25 years and over

2,075 2,114 2,035 3.1 3.0 3.2 3.2 3.1 3.0

25 to 54 years

1,611 1,580 1,555 3.2 3.1 3.3 3.4 3.1 3.1

25 to 34 years

695 639 653 4.0 3.9 4.4 4.0 3.7 3.7

35 to 44 years

517 505 542 3.1 2.7 2.8 3.1 2.9 3.1

45 to 54 years

398 436 361 2.6 2.8 2.6 2.8 2.8 2.3

55 years and over

465 524 481 2.6 2.5 2.9 2.6 2.9 2.7

MARITAL STATUS

Married men, spouse present(1)

949 979 880 2.0 2.1 1.9 1.8 2.1 1.9

Married women, spouse present(1)

881 890 808 2.3 2.0 2.0 2.3 2.4 2.1

Women who maintain families(2)

468 506 454 4.6 5.4 5.5 5.3 4.8 4.4

FULL- OR PART-TIME STATUS

Full-time workers(3)

5,000 5,257 5,439 3.6 3.6 3.9 3.7 3.8 3.9

Part-time workers(4)

1,099 1,222 1,178 4.0 4.2 3.9 4.4 4.2 4.0

Footnotes
(1) Beginning with data for January 2020, refers to persons in both opposite-sex and same-sex married couples. Prior to January 2020, referred to persons in opposite-sex married couples only.
(2) Data are not seasonally adjusted. Beginning with data for January 2020, refers to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not a spouse of either sex. Prior to January 2020, referred to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not an opposite-sex spouse.
(3) Full-time workers are unemployed persons who have expressed a desire to work full time (35 hours or more per week) or are on layoff from full-time jobs.
(4) Part-time workers are unemployed persons who have expressed a desire to work part time (less than 35 hours per week) or are on layoff from part-time jobs.

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-11. Unemployed persons by reason for unemployment
[Numbers in thousands]
Reason Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
May
2023
Apr.
2024
May
2024
May
2023
Jan.
2024
Feb.
2024
Mar.
2024
Apr.
2024
May
2024

NUMBER OF UNEMPLOYED

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

2,610 2,973 2,836 2,999 3,028 3,216 3,042 3,241 3,220

On temporary layoff

503 688 556 782 876 827 779 871 836

Not on temporary layoff

2,107 2,286 2,279 2,218 2,151 2,389 2,263 2,370 2,384

Permanent job losers

1,567 1,728 1,724 1,612 1,556 1,730 1,655 1,756 1,764

Persons who completed temporary jobs

540 558 555 605 595 659 607 615 620

Job leavers

715 744 670 764 794 711 823 785 717

Reentrants

1,880 1,723 2,105 1,851 1,834 1,946 1,920 1,929 2,046

New entrants

495 453 624 527 550 611 678 574 630

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

45.8 50.5 45.5 48.8 48.8 49.6 47.1 49.6 48.7

On temporary layoff

8.8 11.7 8.9 12.7 14.1 12.8 12.1 13.3 12.6

Not on temporary layoff

37.0 38.8 36.6 36.1 34.7 36.8 35.0 36.3 36.0

Job leavers

12.5 12.6 10.7 12.4 12.8 11.0 12.7 12.0 10.8

Reentrants

33.0 29.2 33.8 30.1 29.5 30.0 29.7 29.5 30.9

New entrants

8.7 7.7 10.0 8.6 8.9 9.4 10.5 8.8 9.5

UNEMPLOYED AS A PERCENT OF THE
CIVILIAN LABOR FORCE

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

1.6 1.8 1.7 1.8 1.8 1.9 1.8 1.9 1.9

Job leavers

0.4 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.4

Reentrants

1.1 1.0 1.3 1.1 1.1 1.2 1.1 1.1 1.2

New entrants

0.3 0.3 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.4 0.3 0.4

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to total unemployed in table A-1 because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-12. Unemployed persons by duration of unemployment
[Numbers in thousands]
Duration Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
May
2023
Apr.
2024
May
2024
May
2023
Jan.
2024
Feb.
2024
Mar.
2024
Apr.
2024
May
2024

NUMBER OF UNEMPLOYED

Less than 5 weeks

2,044 1,888 2,275 2,080 2,140 2,326 2,189 2,262 2,309

5 to 14 weeks

1,536 1,670 1,578 1,863 1,848 1,933 1,979 1,987 1,918

15 weeks and over

2,120 2,336 2,382 2,043 2,144 2,176 2,228 2,119 2,305

15 to 26 weeks

992 1,064 1,049 911 867 974 982 869 955

27 weeks and over

1,127 1,271 1,333 1,132 1,277 1,203 1,246 1,250 1,350

Average (mean) duration, in weeks

21.9 21.4 22.0 21.2 20.8 20.9 21.6 19.9 21.2

Median duration, in weeks

9.4 10.5 9.3 8.9 9.6 9.3 9.5 8.7 8.9

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION

Less than 5 weeks

35.9 32.0 36.5 34.7 34.9 36.1 34.2 35.5 35.3

5 to 14 weeks

27.0 28.3 25.3 31.1 30.1 30.0 30.9 31.2 29.4

15 weeks and over

37.2 39.6 38.2 34.1 35.0 33.8 34.8 33.3 35.3

15 to 26 weeks

17.4 18.1 16.8 15.2 14.1 15.1 15.3 13.6 14.6

27 weeks and over

19.8 21.6 21.4 18.9 20.8 18.7 19.5 19.6 20.7

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to total unemployed in table A-1 because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-13. Employed and unemployed persons by occupation, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Occupation Employed Unemployed Unemployment
rates
May
2023
May
2024
May
2023
May
2024
May
2023
May
2024

Total, 16 years and over(1)

161,002 161,341 5,700 6,235 3.4 3.7

Management, professional, and related occupations

70,388 70,897 1,281 1,423 1.8 2.0

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

30,830 30,910 616 631 2.0 2.0

Professional and related occupations

39,557 39,987 665 792 1.7 1.9

Service occupations

26,426 26,837 1,264 1,405 4.6 5.0

Sales and office occupations

30,205 29,579 1,102 1,048 3.5 3.4

Sales and related occupations

14,202 14,129 598 566 4.0 3.8

Office and administrative support occupations

16,002 15,451 504 482 3.1 3.0

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

14,363 14,235 516 656 3.5 4.4

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

984 916 51 110 4.9 10.7

Construction and extraction occupations

8,437 8,382 337 415 3.8 4.7

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

4,942 4,937 127 131 2.5 2.6

Production, transportation, and material moving
occupations

19,621 19,792 1,025 1,057 5.0 5.1

Production occupations

8,024 8,080 341 352 4.1 4.2

Transportation and material moving occupations

11,597 11,712 684 705 5.6 5.7

Footnotes
(1) Persons with no previous work experience and persons whose last job was in the U.S. Armed Forces are included in the unemployed total.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data. Effective with January 2020 data, occupations reflect the introduction of the 2018 Census occupational classification system into the Current Population Survey, or household survey. This classification system is derived from the 2018 Standard Occupational Classification (SOC). No historical data have been revised. Data for 2020 are not strictly comparable with earlier years.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-14. Unemployed persons by industry and class of worker, not seasonally adjusted
Industry and class of worker Number of
unemployed
persons
(in thousands)
Unemployment
rates
May
2023
May
2024
May
2023
May
2024

Total, 16 years and over(1)

5,700 6,235 3.4 3.7

Nonagricultural private wage and salary workers

4,483 4,872 3.4 3.7

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

10 19 1.8 3.1

Construction

355 406 3.5 3.9

Manufacturing

409 398 2.7 2.7

Durable goods

245 188 2.5 2.0

Nondurable goods

164 210 3.0 3.9

Wholesale and retail trade

855 718 4.4 3.7

Transportation and utilities

282 413 3.3 5.0

Information

73 119 2.5 4.7

Financial activities

240 286 2.3 2.8

Professional and business services

750 726 3.9 3.7

Education and health services

595 745 2.3 2.9

Leisure and hospitality

717 824 5.2 5.9

Other services

195 219 2.9 3.4

Agriculture and related private wage and salary workers

75 116 4.6 7.3

Government workers

386 410 1.8 1.8

Self-employed workers, unincorporated, and unpaid family workers

261 212 2.6 2.0

Footnotes
(1) Persons with no previous work experience and persons whose last job was in the U.S. Armed Forces are included in the unemployed total.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data. Effective with January 2020 data, industries reflect the introduction of the 2017 Census industry classification system into the Current Population Survey. This industry classification system is derived from the 2017 North American Industry Classification System (NAICS). No historical data have been revised.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-15. Alternative measures of labor underutilization
[Percent]
Measure Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
May
2023
Apr.
2024
May
2024
May
2023
Jan.
2024
Feb.
2024
Mar.
2024
Apr.
2024
May
2024

U-1 Persons unemployed 15 weeks or longer, as a percent of the civilian labor force

1.3 1.4 1.4 1.2 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.4

U-2 Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs, as a percent of the civilian labor force

1.6 1.8 1.7 1.8 1.8 1.9 1.8 1.9 1.9

U-3 Total unemployed, as a percent of the civilian labor force (official unemployment rate)

3.4 3.5 3.7 3.7 3.7 3.9 3.8 3.9 4.0

U-4 Total unemployed plus discouraged workers, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus discouraged workers

3.6 3.7 4.0 3.9 3.9 4.1 4.0 4.1 4.2

U-5 Total unemployed, plus discouraged workers, plus all other persons marginally attached to the labor force, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force

4.3 4.4 4.6 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.7 4.8 4.8

U-6 Total unemployed, plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force, plus total employed part time for economic reasons, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force

6.4 6.9 7.1 6.8 7.2 7.3 7.3 7.4 7.4

NOTE: Persons marginally attached to the labor force are those who currently are neither working nor looking for work but indicate that they want and are available for a job and have looked for work sometime in the past 12 months. Discouraged workers, a subset of the marginally attached, have given a job-market related reason for not currently looking for work. Persons employed part time for economic reasons are those who want and are available for full-time work but have had to settle for a part-time schedule. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-16. Persons not in the labor force and multiple jobholders by sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Category Total Men Women
May
2023
May
2024
May
2023
May
2024
May
2023
May
2024

NOT IN THE LABOR FORCE

Total not in the labor force

99,916 100,672 41,618 42,191 58,298 58,481

Persons who currently want a job

6,004 6,259 2,902 3,096 3,101 3,163

Marginally attached to the labor force(1)

1,477 1,481 766 796 711 685

Discouraged workers(2)

396 445 232 273 165 172

Other persons marginally attached to the labor force(3)

1,080 1,036 534 523 547 513

MULTIPLE JOBHOLDERS

Total multiple jobholders(4)

7,718 8,352 3,740 4,144 3,978 4,208

Percent of total employed

4.8 5.2 4.4 4.9 5.3 5.5

Primary job full time, secondary job part time

4,480 4,736 2,326 2,570 2,154 2,165

Primary and secondary jobs both part time

1,898 2,058 717 758 1,181 1,300

Primary and secondary jobs both full time

375 395 204 195 171 200

Hours vary on primary or secondary job

932 1,080 482 586 451 494

Footnotes
(1) Data refer to persons who want a job, have searched for work during the prior 12 months, and were available to take a job during the reference week, but had not looked for work in the past 4 weeks.
(2) Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for reasons such as thinks no work available, could not find work, lacks schooling or training, employer thinks too young or old, and other types of discrimination.
(3) Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for such reasons as school or family responsibilities, ill health, and transportation problems, as well as a number for whom reason for nonparticipation was not determined.
(4) Includes a small number of persons who work part time on their primary job and full time on their secondary job(s), not shown separately.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-1. Employees on nonfarm payrolls by industry sector and selected industry detail
[In thousands]
Industry Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
May
2023
Mar.
2024
Apr.
2024(p)
May
2024(p)
May
2023
Mar.
2024
Apr.
2024(p)
May
2024(p)
Change from:
Apr.2024 - May2024(p)

Total nonfarm

156,132 157,210 158,001 158,918 155,787 158,106 158,271 158,543 272

Total private

133,170 133,630 134,405 135,315 133,085 134,837 134,995 135,224 229

Goods-producing

21,574 21,515 21,656 21,851 21,555 21,801 21,801 21,826 25

Mining and logging

640 640 633 633 642 643 637 633 -4

Logging

42.7 41.4 38.8 37.9 44.9 42.2 41.6 40.8 -0.8

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

597.7 598.2 594.3 594.8 597.3 601.2 595.7 592.3 -3.4

Oil and gas extraction

116.5 118.6 117.7 119.1 117.7 119.4 118.9 119.9 1.0

Mining (except oil and gas)

188.6 186.2 188.7 190.7 186.7 189.9 190.1 190.1 0.0

Coal mining

42.8 42.9 44.1 43.9 42.7 42.8 43.9 43.8 -0.1

Metal ore mining

43.6 42.9 42.9 43.2 43.5 43.2 43.1 43.2 0.1

Nonmetallic mineral mining and quarrying

102.2 100.4 101.7 103.6 100.5 103.8 103.0 103.1 0.1

Support activities for mining

292.6 293.4 287.9 285.0 292.9 291.9 286.7 282.3 -4.4

Construction

8,024 7,971 8,116 8,278 7,977 8,207 8,207 8,228 21

Construction of buildings

1,796.8 1,830.5 1,843.7 1,867.1 1,797.7 1,862.5 1,863.8 1,870.3 6.5

Residential building construction

925.1 929.2 935.2 949.3 922.6 946.3 946.2 949.7 3.5

Nonresidential building construction

871.7 901.3 908.5 917.8 875.1 916.2 917.6 920.6 3.0

Heavy and civil engineering construction

1,130.6 1,082.8 1,131.8 1,173.6 1,100.9 1,145.2 1,143.9 1,145.0 1.1

Specialty trade contractors

5,096.4 5,057.2 5,140.6 5,237.4 5,078.2 5,199.1 5,199.4 5,212.4 13.0

Residential specialty trade contractors

2,374.5 2,342.6 2,382.9 2,421.7 2,363.9 2,409.2 2,408.7 2,408.7 0.0

Nonresidential specialty trade contractors

2,721.9 2,714.6 2,757.7 2,815.7 2,714.3 2,789.9 2,790.7 2,803.7 13.0

Manufacturing

12,910 12,904 12,907 12,940 12,936 12,951 12,957 12,965 8

Durable goods

8,072 8,119 8,119 8,125 8,085 8,140 8,142 8,140 -2

Wood product manufacturing

419.0 413.0 413.4 415.1 418.3 414.5 415.0 416.2 1.2

Nonmetallic mineral product manufacturing

418.3 414.1 418.6 423.0 417.7 420.7 422.0 421.0 -1.0

Primary metal manufacturing

372.5 370.0 370.3 370.7 374.4 370.5 371.3 370.9 -0.4

Fabricated metal product manufacturing

1,448.9 1,467.2 1,464.7 1,466.4 1,450.5 1,468.3 1,467.7 1,466.7 -1.0

Machinery manufacturing

1,130.6 1,132.7 1,135.0 1,137.6 1,132.1 1,136.2 1,138.4 1,138.6 0.2

Computer and electronic product manufacturing

1,105.9 1,099.4 1,097.7 1,098.5 1,108.3 1,103.2 1,101.8 1,102.8 1.0

Computer and peripheral equipment manufacturing

162.8 159.6 160.2 160.0 163.6 160.8 161.1 161.5 0.4

Communications equipment manufacturing

85.8 85.4 85.3 85.7 86.0 85.5 85.6 86.4 0.8

Semiconductor and other electronic component manufacturing

394.5 390.7 389.7 390.9 395.6 391.5 391.0 391.7 0.7

Navigational, measuring, electromedical, and control instruments manufacturing

431.3 433.2 431.9 431.1 431.3 434.4 433.1 432.4 -0.7

Manufacturing and reproducing magnetic and optical media and audio and video equipment manufacturing

31.5 30.5 30.6 30.8 31.8 30.9 31.0 30.8 -0.2

Electrical equipment, appliance, and component manufacturing

415.2 411.5 411.3 409.0 416.1 412.2 412.4 410.9 -1.5

Transportation equipment manufacturing(1)

1,777.7 1,839.4 1,840.2 1,839.2 1,785.6 1,841.1 1,843.5 1,848.2 4.7

Motor vehicles and parts(2)

1,036.5 1,068.8 1,068.0 1,066.0 1,039.7 1,067.3 1,067.0 1,070.1 3.1

Furniture and related product manufacturing

358.3 347.6 344.1 343.3 356.6 347.3 344.5 342.3 -2.2

Miscellaneous manufacturing

625.2 624.4 623.9 622.1 625.8 626.1 625.0 622.1 -2.9

Nondurable goods

4,838 4,785 4,788 4,815 4,851 4,811 4,815 4,825 10

Food manufacturing

1,712.4 1,720.8 1,720.8 1,728.1 1,726.6 1,732.0 1,735.5 1,738.9 3.4

Textile mills

90.5 89.2 89.4 89.5 90.7 89.5 89.3 89.8 0.5

Textile product mills

99.8 94.9 95.1 95.1 99.5 94.7 95.1 95.4 0.3

Apparel manufacturing

91.0 83.5 83.7 84.7 90.6 84.2 83.8 84.2 0.4

Paper manufacturing

357.0 349.6 348.0 347.9 357.5 349.2 348.8 348.3 -0.5

Printing and related support activities

371.1 363.9 364.6 363.5 371.9 365.1 365.3 364.5 -0.8

Petroleum and coal products manufacturing

109.8 108.1 108.9 110.8 108.3 110.6 109.5 109.5 0.0

Chemical manufacturing

903.6 900.1 896.7 903.9 905.1 899.7 899.0 903.1 4.1

Plastics and rubber products manufacturing

740.0 724.9 725.4 727.8 738.8 726.1 727.2 727.6 0.4

Beverage, tobacco, and leather and allied product manufacturing

362.9 349.9 354.9 364.1 361.5 359.8 361.9 363.8 1.9

Private service-providing

111,596 112,115 112,749 113,464 111,530 113,036 113,194 113,398 204

Trade, transportation, and utilities

28,699 28,702 28,735 28,892 28,875 28,962 29,005 29,032 27

Wholesale trade

6,106.8 6,134.1 6,142.2 6,167.9 6,102.4 6,158.9 6,160.3 6,163.4 3.1

Merchant wholesalers, durable goods

3,387.5 3,413.9 3,416.5 3,433.9 3,386.1 3,423.6 3,426.9 3,432.6 5.7

Merchant wholesalers, nondurable goods

2,210.9 2,209.4 2,213.8 2,223.9 2,207.0 2,221.9 2,219.6 2,218.2 -1.4

Wholesale trade agents and brokers

508.4 510.8 511.9 510.1 509.3 513.4 513.8 512.6 -1.2

Retail trade

15,514.8 15,492.6 15,534.1 15,617.8 15,599.3 15,662.0 15,684.6 15,697.2 12.6

Motor vehicle and parts dealers

2,041.2 2,065.0 2,073.5 2,076.5 2,035.5 2,072.7 2,075.5 2,075.4 -0.1

Automobile dealers

1,272.1 1,294.9 1,298.2 1,299.9 1,271.2 1,296.4 1,298.9 1,300.5 1.6

Other motor vehicle dealers

184.4 168.6 170.9 173.0 179.2 172.3 170.9 168.5 -2.4

Automotive parts, accessories, and tire retailers

584.7 601.5 604.4 603.6 585.0 604.0 605.8 606.4 0.6

Building material and garden equipment and supplies dealers

1,457.5 1,359.9 1,399.9 1,444.3 1,401.6 1,373.1 1,379.6 1,391.7 12.1

Food and beverage retailers

3,218.7 3,243.1 3,238.4 3,251.9 3,234.8 3,262.9 3,264.9 3,270.9 6.0

Furniture, home furnishings, electronics, and appliance retailers

842.6 819.0 812.1 804.7 851.8 822.6 821.4 816.5 -4.9

Furniture and home furnishings retailers

427.2 422.4 420.0 414.7 432.4 422.5 423.9 420.0 -3.9

Electronics and appliance retailers

415.4 396.6 392.1 390.0 419.4 400.0 397.5 396.5 -1.0

General merchandise retailers

3,170.1 3,223.2 3,226.6 3,225.5 3,241.8 3,268.9 3,277.3 3,271.3 -6.0

Department stores

939.2 941.5 942.1 938.0 980.3 968.2 972.9 968.1 -4.8

Warehouse clubs, supercenters, and other general merchandise retailers

2,230.9 2,281.7 2,284.5 2,287.5 2,261.5 2,300.7 2,304.4 2,303.2 -1.2

Health and personal care retailers

1,089.4 1,090.4 1,087.9 1,086.6 1,097.9 1,093.7 1,096.8 1,097.5 0.7

Gasoline stations and fuel dealers

1,055.7 1,066.8 1,073.8 1,080.7 1,057.1 1,077.7 1,081.1 1,081.7 0.6

Clothing, clothing accessories, shoe, and jewelry retailers

1,115.9 1,109.8 1,103.0 1,111.1 1,146.0 1,145.2 1,143.0 1,147.2 4.2

Sporting goods, hobby, musical instrument, book, and miscellaneous retailers

1,523.7 1,515.4 1,518.9 1,536.5 1,532.8 1,545.2 1,545.0 1,545.0 0.0

Transportation and warehousing

6,504.2 6,489.0 6,473.2 6,519.3 6,599.0 6,553.4 6,572.9 6,583.5 10.6

Air transportation

547.6 571.7 571.8 575.6 546.5 572.6 573.8 576.4 2.6

Rail transportation

153.0 153.2 153.2 153.2 152.8 153.0 153.0 152.9 -0.1

Water transportation

71.5 71.8 73.4 76.4 71.2 73.9 74.5 75.0 0.5

Truck transportation

1,576.2 1,531.6 1,538.6 1,548.0 1,579.7 1,556.4 1,555.5 1,550.1 -5.4

Transit and ground passenger transportation

443.6 447.6 450.0 452.3 429.4 433.9 436.5 437.7 1.2

Pipeline transportation

51.5 53.0 53.3 53.8 51.5 53.0 53.2 53.5 0.3

Scenic and sightseeing transportation

29.7 27.2 28.7 36.8 29.7 33.3 33.4 35.9 2.5

Support activities for transportation

816.9 837.1 837.1 846.1 821.8 838.9 842.7 847.6 4.9

Couriers and messengers

1,020.6 1,031.2 1,010.9 1,024.9 1,093.6 1,072.5 1,078.9 1,082.3 3.4

Warehousing and storage

1,793.6 1,764.6 1,756.2 1,752.2 1,822.8 1,765.9 1,771.4 1,772.1 0.7

Utilities

573.3 586.6 585.4 587.2 574.3 587.4 586.9 588.2 1.3

Information

3,039 3,003 2,996 2,995 3,050 3,019 3,014 3,014 0

Motion picture and sound recording industries

442.0 433.7 435.9 445.1 438.4 443.7 440.3 441.9 1.6

Publishing industries

939.9 922.4 923.8 922.1 946.1 929.9 932.6 933.0 0.4

Broadcasting and content providers

349.2 341.2 340.3 339.4 349.6 341.1 340.9 340.4 -0.5

Telecommunications

645.7 632.7 625.0 618.9 649.5 630.3 627.3 624.7 -2.6

Computing infrastructure providers, data processing, web hosting, and related services

486.2 495.4 495.2 495.0 488.0 497.0 497.0 498.3 1.3

Web search portals, libraries, archives, and other information services

176.3 177.2 176.2 174.4 177.9 177.2 176.3 176.1 -0.2

Financial activities

9,164 9,170 9,174 9,200 9,192 9,226 9,224 9,234 10

Finance and insurance

6,715.0 6,709.8 6,707.7 6,711.1 6,736.5 6,726.9 6,731.4 6,735.9 4.5

Monetary authorities-central bank

22.5 22.5 22.5 22.5 22.7 22.6 22.7 22.7 0.0

Credit intermediation and related
activities

2,635.7 2,591.0 2,584.5 2,584.1 2,639.3 2,592.8 2,590.4 2,590.1 -0.3

Depository credit intermediation(1)

1,798.5 1,781.4 1,775.6 1,772.5 1,802.3 1,780.5 1,778.9 1,777.6 -1.3

Commercial banking

1,393.7 1,371.8 1,365.8 1,362.6 1,395.4 1,370.2 1,367.6 1,365.8 -1.8

Nondepository credit intermediation

539.8 524.5 524.7 526.6 539.9 527.0 526.6 526.8 0.2

Activities related to credit intermediation

297.4 285.1 284.2 285.0 297.1 285.4 284.8 285.7 0.9

Securities, commodity contracts, funds, trusts, and other financial vehicles, investments, and related activities

1,092.4 1,101.4 1,103.0 1,101.2 1,099.4 1,109.6 1,110.2 1,110.2 0.0

Insurance carriers and related activities

2,964.4 2,994.9 2,997.7 3,003.3 2,975.1 3,001.9 3,008.1 3,012.9 4.8

Real estate and rental and leasing

2,449.2 2,460.4 2,466.3 2,488.7 2,455.9 2,499.4 2,492.1 2,497.8 5.7

Real estate

1,844.1 1,857.5 1,862.8 1,876.9 1,852.6 1,880.2 1,875.8 1,884.1 8.3

Rental and leasing services

582.2 579.8 580.2 588.4 580.3 595.7 592.8 590.2 -2.6

Lessors of nonfinancial intangible assets (except copyrighted works)

22.9 23.1 23.3 23.4 23.0 23.5 23.5 23.5 0.0

Professional and business services

22,872 22,727 22,907 22,987 22,876 22,953 22,952 22,985 33

Professional, scientific, and technical services

10,756.8 10,963.4 11,010.3 10,972.3 10,810.4 10,977.6 10,990.5 11,022.9 32.4

Legal services

1,173.1 1,176.4 1,179.5 1,181.2 1,178.4 1,186.4 1,188.6 1,189.0 0.4

Accounting, tax preparation, bookkeeping, and payroll services

1,129.8 1,241.9 1,236.9 1,154.3 1,152.9 1,163.9 1,165.3 1,172.9 7.6

Architectural, engineering, and related services

1,652.1 1,665.8 1,673.5 1,696.6 1,658.3 1,690.3 1,690.9 1,700.8 9.9

Specialized design services

152.1 152.0 153.3 150.2 152.0 153.9 153.6 150.8 -2.8

Computer systems design and related services

2,492.4 2,515.2 2,538.9 2,539.7 2,494.3 2,536.6 2,539.1 2,541.5 2.4

Management, scientific, and technical consulting services

1,855.9 1,877.9 1,883.9 1,900.7 1,862.1 1,895.7 1,896.1 1,910.0 13.9

Scientific research and development services

929.3 949.4 951.2 953.5 933.5 955.7 957.1 957.2 0.1

Advertising, public relations, and related services

503.1 517.2 523.0 521.0 504.6 519.5 524.0 521.8 -2.2

Other professional, scientific, and technical services

869.0 867.6 870.1 875.1 874.2 875.6 875.8 879.0 3.2

Management of companies and enterprises

2,550.5 2,549.2 2,547.1 2,550.2 2,560.5 2,557.8 2,556.6 2,557.6 1.0

Administrative and support and waste management and remediation services

9,565.1 9,214.3 9,349.6 9,464.0 9,504.7 9,417.7 9,404.5 9,404.5 0.0

Administrative and support services

9,066.7 8,705.9 8,835.3 8,946.3 9,004.8 8,902.7 8,886.8 8,884.3 -2.5

Office administrative services

617.1 628.6 629.6 630.0 616.1 634.2 632.2 634.1 1.9

Facilities support services

166.0 176.1 180.0 182.1 169.2 177.1 179.9 182.2 2.3

Employment services(1)

3,682.7 3,484.2 3,477.5 3,503.9 3,689.7 3,533.0 3,522.8 3,506.2 -16.6

Temporary help services

2,914.3 2,716.2 2,705.7 2,723.9 2,918.4 2,755.0 2,742.7 2,728.6 -14.1

Business support services

744.4 710.3 704.6 699.8 749.6 715.5 709.6 710.0 0.4

Travel arrangement and reservation services

189.6 194.7 192.9 195.0 188.5 196.4 193.9 194.0 0.1

Investigation and security services

1,002.8 1,012.7 1,012.3 1,019.7 1,002.6 1,018.1 1,014.2 1,020.5 6.3

Services to buildings and dwellings

2,324.9 2,158.9 2,291.3 2,367.2 2,251.5 2,283.6 2,287.1 2,292.3 5.2

Other support services

339.2 340.4 347.1 348.6 337.6 344.8 347.1 345.0 -2.1

Waste management and remediation services

498.4 508.4 514.3 517.7 499.9 515.0 517.7 520.2 2.5

Private education and health services

25,210 26,182 26,297 26,269 25,200 26,087 26,193 26,279 86

Private educational services

3,856.9 3,992.7 4,018.2 3,888.4 3,822.0 3,856.7 3,862.8 3,864.8 2.0

Health care and social assistance

21,353.3 22,188.8 22,279.2 22,380.1 21,378.4 22,230.0 22,330.5 22,414.0 83.5

Health care(3)

16,792.4 17,451.2 17,501.3 17,571.6 16,836.7 17,490.0 17,550.3 17,618.6 68.3

Ambulatory health care services

8,391.8 8,699.6 8,729.7 8,780.7 8,404.6 8,719.6 8,749.6 8,792.3 42.7

Offices of physicians

2,892.1 2,997.9 3,003.6 3,018.6 2,897.2 3,007.0 3,012.2 3,025.6 13.4

Offices of dentists

1,028.5 1,026.6 1,026.6 1,034.9 1,027.8 1,031.5 1,031.3 1,034.9 3.6

Offices of other health practitioners

1,146.9 1,190.6 1,198.0 1,204.9 1,146.9 1,195.4 1,200.9 1,206.1 5.2

Outpatient care centers

1,049.7 1,081.3 1,081.8 1,083.4 1,053.5 1,079.8 1,083.8 1,086.5 2.7

Medical and diagnostic laboratories

319.1 322.7 323.9 321.2 319.4 323.2 322.6 322.1 -0.5

Home health care services

1,609.4 1,724.8 1,739.3 1,763.5 1,613.4 1,727.7 1,741.9 1,761.5 19.6

Other ambulatory health care services

346.1 355.7 356.5 354.2 346.5 355.1 357.0 355.6 -1.4

Hospitals

5,282.0 5,506.6 5,514.8 5,520.8 5,304.8 5,512.4 5,530.8 5,545.8 15.0

Nursing and residential care facilities

3,118.6 3,245.0 3,256.8 3,270.1 3,127.3 3,258.0 3,269.9 3,280.5 10.6

Skilled nursing care facilities

1,398.7 1,454.3 1,458.4 1,457.6 1,405.5 1,462.3 1,466.5 1,466.4 -0.1

Residential intellectual and developmental disability, mental health, and substance abuse facilities

631.3 660.3 663.8 668.9 631.6 662.9 666.4 670.0 3.6

Continuing care retirement communities and assisted living facilities for the elderly

932.8 969.1 972.7 981.4 933.3 971.5 974.1 981.8 7.7

Other residential care facilities

155.8 161.3 161.9 162.2 156.9 161.3 162.9 162.3 -0.6

Social assistance

4,560.9 4,737.6 4,777.9 4,808.5 4,541.7 4,740.0 4,780.2 4,795.4 15.2

Individual and family services

3,012.1 3,161.4 3,196.3 3,211.8 3,007.2 3,166.0 3,198.4 3,209.5 11.1

Community food and housing, and emergency and other relief services

217.7 225.1 227.8 228.7 218.3 224.1 227.7 228.7 1.0

Vocational rehabilitation services

279.0 287.2 288.5 290.9 279.1 288.0 289.2 289.7 0.5

Child care services

1,052.1 1,063.9 1,065.3 1,077.1 1,037.1 1,061.9 1,064.9 1,067.5 2.6

Leisure and hospitality

16,782 16,478 16,750 17,194 16,528 16,893 16,905 16,947 42

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

2,571.0 2,483.3 2,579.8 2,722.0 2,510.4 2,645.1 2,645.0 2,661.6 16.6

Performing arts, spectator sports, and related industries

599.9 592.7 641.2 665.1 573.4 626.8 624.6 631.2 6.6

Museums, historical sites, and similar institutions

174.2 168.6 174.7 181.8 171.8 177.3 178.1 177.9 -0.2

Amusement, gambling, and recreation industries

1,796.9 1,722.0 1,763.9 1,875.1 1,765.2 1,841.0 1,842.3 1,852.5 10.2

Accommodation and food services

14,210.5 13,994.5 14,169.8 14,471.8 14,017.1 14,247.7 14,260.2 14,285.5 25.3

Accommodation

1,881.7 1,848.5 1,879.9 1,944.6 1,874.3 1,922.0 1,925.3 1,926.0 0.7

Food services and drinking places

12,328.8 12,146.0 12,289.9 12,527.2 12,142.8 12,325.7 12,334.9 12,359.5 24.6

Other services

5,830 5,853 5,890 5,927 5,809 5,896 5,901 5,907 6

Repair and maintenance

1,454.5 1,473.8 1,481.4 1,487.4 1,447.6 1,481.2 1,481.8 1,482.8 1.0

Personal and laundry services

1,539.9 1,535.8 1,552.0 1,567.0 1,526.5 1,549.8 1,551.7 1,553.2 1.5

Religious, grantmaking, civic, professional, and similar organizations

2,835.1 2,843.6 2,856.2 2,872.5 2,835.2 2,864.5 2,867.8 2,871.0 3.2

Government

22,962 23,580 23,596 23,603 22,702 23,269 23,276 23,319 43

Federal

2,915 2,981 2,986 2,996 2,914 2,993 2,995 2,999 4

Federal, except U.S. Postal Service

2,310.7 2,372.6 2,375.1 2,389.4 2,307.9 2,385.9 2,388.6 2,392.0 3.4

U.S. Postal Service

603.8 608.2 610.8 606.4 606.3 607.0 606.3 607.0 0.7

State government

5,286 5,588 5,605 5,478 5,280 5,444 5,450 5,455 5

State government education

2,576.1 2,810.3 2,821.3 2,679.9 2,568.9 2,658.6 2,663.2 2,662.5 -0.7

State government, excluding education

2,709.8 2,778.1 2,783.4 2,797.8 2,711.3 2,785.8 2,787.0 2,792.4 5.4

Local government

14,761 15,011 15,005 15,129 14,508 14,832 14,831 14,865 34

Local government education

8,212.8 8,358.8 8,336.7 8,356.1 7,945.8 8,075.9 8,080.0 8,089.8 9.8

Local government, excluding education

6,548.6 6,651.8 6,668.1 6,772.9 6,561.7 6,756.5 6,751.0 6,774.7 23.7

Footnotes
(1) Includes other industries, not shown separately.
(2) Includes motor vehicle manufacturing, motor vehicle body and trailer manufacturing, and motor vehicle parts manufacturing.
(3) Includes ambulatory health care services, hospitals, and nursing and residential care facilities.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2023 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-2. Average weekly hours and overtime of all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry May
2023
Mar.
2024
Apr.
2024(p)
May
2024(p)

AVERAGE WEEKLY HOURS

Total private

34.4 34.4 34.3 34.3

Goods-producing

39.9 39.9 39.7 39.8

Mining and logging

45.7 45.3 44.3 44.3

Construction

38.9 39.3 38.7 39.0

Manufacturing

40.1 40.0 40.1 40.1

Durable goods

40.7 40.5 40.5 40.5

Nondurable goods

39.3 39.2 39.3 39.4

Private service-providing

33.3 33.3 33.2 33.2

Trade, transportation, and utilities

33.8 33.9 33.7 33.8

Wholesale trade

38.9 39.2 39.2 39.3

Retail trade

29.9 29.7 29.5 29.6

Transportation and warehousing

37.8 38.3 37.9 37.8

Utilities

42.0 42.0 42.1 42.3

Information

36.2 36.5 36.3 36.3

Financial activities

37.4 37.5 37.5 37.5

Professional and business services

36.5 36.5 36.5 36.5

Private education and health services

33.4 33.2 33.2 33.2

Leisure and hospitality

25.3 25.5 25.4 25.4

Other services

32.3 32.4 32.3 32.3

AVERAGE OVERTIME HOURS

Manufacturing

3.0 2.9 2.9 3.0

Durable goods

3.1 3.0 3.0 3.0

Nondurable goods

2.8 2.8 2.8 2.9

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2023 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-3. Average hourly and weekly earnings of all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Average hourly earnings Average weekly earnings
May
2023
Mar.
2024
Apr.
2024(p)
May
2024(p)
May
2023
Mar.
2024
Apr.
2024(p)
May
2024(p)

Total private

$33.54 $34.69 $34.77 $34.91 $1,153.78 $1,193.34 $1,192.61 $1,197.41

Goods-producing

33.85 35.37 35.45 35.58 1,350.62 1,411.26 1,407.37 1,416.08

Mining and logging

38.05 39.24 39.67 39.62 1,738.89 1,777.57 1,757.38 1,755.17

Construction

36.26 37.79 37.99 38.06 1,410.51 1,485.15 1,470.21 1,484.34

Manufacturing

32.18 33.65 33.67 33.83 1,290.42 1,346.00 1,350.17 1,356.58

Durable goods

33.78 35.54 35.54 35.75 1,374.85 1,439.37 1,439.37 1,447.88

Nondurable goods

29.42 30.36 30.39 30.49 1,156.21 1,190.11 1,194.33 1,201.31

Private service-providing

33.47 34.53 34.61 34.76 1,114.55 1,149.85 1,149.05 1,154.03

Trade, transportation, and utilities

28.89 29.83 29.86 29.97 976.48 1,011.24 1,006.28 1,012.99

Wholesale trade

36.54 37.57 37.62 37.81 1,421.41 1,472.74 1,474.70 1,485.93

Retail trade

23.78 24.33 24.32 24.42 711.02 722.60 717.44 722.83

Transportation and warehousing

29.14 30.51 30.55 30.60 1,101.49 1,168.53 1,157.85 1,156.68

Utilities

49.72 50.83 50.98 51.08 2,088.24 2,134.86 2,146.26 2,160.68

Information

48.22 49.33 49.27 49.41 1,745.56 1,800.55 1,788.50 1,793.58

Financial activities

43.00 45.10 45.29 45.47 1,608.20 1,691.25 1,698.38 1,705.13

Professional and business services

40.28 41.67 41.81 42.01 1,470.22 1,520.96 1,526.07 1,533.37

Private education and health services

33.04 33.88 33.93 34.09 1,103.54 1,124.82 1,126.48 1,131.79

Leisure and hospitality

21.16 21.90 21.92 22.02 535.35 558.45 556.77 559.31

Other services

30.17 31.07 31.19 31.38 974.49 1,006.67 1,007.44 1,013.57

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2023 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-4. Indexes of aggregate weekly hours and payrolls for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
[2007=100]
Industry Index of aggregate weekly hours(1) Index of aggregate weekly payrolls(2)
May
2023
Mar.
2024
Apr.
2024(p)
May
2024(p)
Percent change from:
Apr.
2024 - May
2024(p)
May
2023
Mar.
2024
Apr.
2024(p)
May
2024(p)
Percent change from:
Apr.
2024 - May
2024(p)

Total private

114.9 116.4 116.2 116.4 0.2 184.3 193.1 193.2 194.3 0.6

Goods-producing

98.0 99.1 98.6 99.0 0.4 149.9 158.4 158.0 159.2 0.8

Mining and logging

92.2 91.5 88.7 88.1 -0.7 140.8 144.2 141.2 140.2 -0.7

Construction

107.0 111.2 109.5 110.6 1.0 168.5 182.6 180.7 182.9 1.2

Manufacturing

93.3 93.2 93.5 93.5 0.0 139.7 145.8 146.4 147.1 0.5

Durable goods

92.6 92.8 92.8 92.8 0.0 139.0 146.5 146.5 147.4 0.6

Nondurable goods

95.2 94.1 94.5 94.9 0.4 142.1 145.0 145.6 146.8 0.8

Private service-providing

119.6 121.2 121.0 121.2 0.2 194.5 203.4 203.5 204.8 0.6

Trade, transportation, and utilities

106.6 107.3 106.8 107.2 0.4 166.1 172.6 172.0 173.3 0.8

Wholesale trade

104.7 106.5 106.5 106.8 0.3 160.0 167.4 167.6 169.0 0.8

Retail trade

94.9 94.7 94.2 94.6 0.4 149.3 152.3 151.4 152.7 0.9

Transportation and warehousing

143.3 144.2 143.1 143.0 -0.1 212.5 223.8 222.5 222.6 0.0

Utilities

104.4 106.7 106.9 107.6 0.7 171.4 179.3 180.1 181.7 0.9

Information

100.9 100.7 99.9 99.9 0.0 173.1 176.8 175.3 175.8 0.3

Financial activities

112.6 113.3 113.3 113.4 0.1 188.9 199.4 200.2 201.2 0.5

Professional and business services

130.6 131.1 131.1 131.3 0.2 213.1 221.2 222.0 223.4 0.6

Private education and health services

137.4 141.4 142.0 142.5 0.4 218.5 230.5 231.8 233.6 0.8

Leisure and hospitality

119.3 122.9 122.5 122.8 0.2 203.7 217.2 216.7 218.2 0.7

Other services

108.2 110.1 109.9 110.0 0.1 178.9 187.6 187.9 189.2 0.7

Footnotes
(1) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding 2007 annual average aggregate hours. Aggregate hours estimates are the product of estimates of average weekly hours and employment.
(2) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding 2007 annual average aggregate weekly payrolls. Aggregate payrolls estimates are the product of estimates of average hourly earnings, average weekly hours, and employment.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2023 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-5. Employment of women on nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Women employees (in thousands) Percent of all employees
May
2023
Mar.
2024
Apr.
2024(p)
May
2024(p)
May
2023
Mar.
2024
Apr.
2024(p)
May
2024(p)

Total nonfarm

77,606 78,808 78,898 78,998 49.8 49.8 49.8 49.8

Total private

64,363 65,230 65,307 65,376 48.4 48.4 48.4 48.3

Goods-producing

4,973 5,013 5,015 5,019 23.1 23.0 23.0 23.0

Mining and logging

82 86 87 88 12.8 13.4 13.7 13.9

Construction

1,125 1,168 1,169 1,172 14.1 14.2 14.2 14.2

Manufacturing

3,766 3,759 3,759 3,759 29.1 29.0 29.0 29.0

Durable goods

2,020 2,021 2,019 2,016 25.0 24.8 24.8 24.8

Nondurable goods

1,746 1,738 1,740 1,743 36.0 36.1 36.1 36.1

Private service-providing

59,390 60,217 60,292 60,357 53.3 53.3 53.3 53.2

Trade, transportation, and utilities

11,344 11,275 11,298 11,292 39.3 38.9 39.0 38.9

Wholesale trade

1,867.4 1,870.0 1,875.6 1,876.1 30.6 30.4 30.4 30.4

Retail trade

7,543.5 7,524.0 7,532.1 7,526.6 48.4 48.0 48.0 47.9

Transportation and warehousing

1,783.1 1,725.9 1,736.3 1,735.4 27.0 26.3 26.4 26.4

Utilities

150.2 155.2 154.0 153.8 26.2 26.4 26.2 26.1

Information

1,232 1,213 1,210 1,204 40.4 40.2 40.1 39.9

Financial activities

5,111 5,133 5,130 5,136 55.6 55.6 55.6 55.6

Professional and business services

10,537 10,561 10,560 10,580 46.1 46.0 46.0 46.0

Private education and health services

19,376 20,046 20,111 20,170 76.9 76.8 76.8 76.8

Leisure and hospitality

8,694 8,844 8,833 8,820 52.6 52.4 52.3 52.0

Other services

3,096 3,145 3,150 3,155 53.3 53.3 53.4 53.4

Government

13,243 13,578 13,591 13,622 58.3 58.4 58.4 58.4

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2023 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-6. Employment of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
[In thousands]
Industry May
2023
Mar.
2024
Apr.
2024(p)
May
2024(p)

Total private

108,310 109,757 109,852 110,009

Goods-producing

15,448 15,529 15,513 15,529

Mining and logging

489 505 497 488

Construction

5,866 5,993 5,997 6,018

Manufacturing

9,093 9,031 9,019 9,023

Durable goods

5,598 5,557 5,549 5,542

Nondurable goods

3,495 3,474 3,470 3,481

Private service-providing

92,862 94,228 94,339 94,480

Trade, transportation, and utilities

24,317 24,442 24,476 24,497

Wholesale trade

4,830.6 4,857.3 4,850.7 4,852.6

Retail trade

13,292.0 13,385.8 13,411.9 13,420.3

Transportation and warehousing

5,737.5 5,730.9 5,745.6 5,755.1

Utilities

456.9 468.1 467.8 469.4

Information

2,436 2,423 2,411 2,410

Financial activities

6,902 6,961 6,961 6,968

Professional and business services

18,128 18,110 18,112 18,150

Private education and health services

21,929 22,757 22,848 22,928

Leisure and hospitality

14,423 14,747 14,733 14,723

Other services

4,727 4,788 4,798 4,804

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2023 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-7. Average weekly hours and overtime of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry May
2023
Mar.
2024
Apr.
2024(p)
May
2024(p)

AVERAGE WEEKLY HOURS

Total private

33.8 33.8 33.7 33.8

Goods-producing

40.5 40.6 40.3 40.6

Mining and logging

48.0 47.6 47.0 47.4

Construction

39.4 40.0 39.3 39.8

Manufacturing

40.8 40.7 40.6 40.8

Durable goods

41.1 41.0 40.9 41.0

Nondurable goods

40.3 40.2 40.3 40.6

Private service-providing

32.7 32.7 32.6 32.6

Trade, transportation, and utilities

33.9 33.9 33.9 33.9

Wholesale trade

38.8 39.1 39.1 39.2

Retail trade

30.3 30.2 30.1 30.1

Transportation and warehousing

37.6 37.6 37.6 37.6

Utilities

42.5 42.4 42.3 42.5

Information

35.7 35.9 35.8 35.9

Financial activities

37.1 36.9 37.0 37.0

Professional and business services

36.3 36.4 36.4 36.4

Private education and health services

32.6 32.4 32.3 32.3

Leisure and hospitality

24.2 24.3 24.1 24.2

Other services

31.3 31.4 31.3 31.2

AVERAGE OVERTIME HOURS

Manufacturing

3.6 3.5 3.6 3.6

Durable goods

3.8 3.5 3.5 3.5

Nondurable goods

3.4 3.6 3.7 3.8

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2023 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-8. Average hourly and weekly earnings of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry Average hourly earnings Average weekly earnings
May
2023
Mar.
2024
Apr.
2024(p)
May
2024(p)
May
2023
Mar.
2024
Apr.
2024(p)
May
2024(p)

Total private

$28.79 $29.79 $29.85 $29.99 $973.10 $1,006.90 $1,005.95 $1,013.66

Goods-producing

29.34 30.79 30.82 30.91 1,188.27 1,250.07 1,242.05 1,254.95

Mining and logging

34.26 36.20 36.26 36.12 1,644.48 1,723.12 1,704.22 1,712.09

Construction

33.98 35.35 35.41 35.45 1,338.81 1,414.00 1,391.61 1,410.91

Manufacturing

26.14 27.46 27.53 27.64 1,066.51 1,117.62 1,117.72 1,127.71

Durable goods

27.30 28.88 28.99 29.12 1,122.03 1,184.08 1,185.69 1,193.92

Nondurable goods

24.24 25.13 25.16 25.26 976.87 1,010.23 1,013.95 1,025.56

Private service-providing

28.67 29.58 29.65 29.80 937.51 967.27 966.59 971.48

Trade, transportation, and utilities

25.16 25.95 25.96 26.04 852.92 879.71 880.04 882.76

Wholesale trade

30.28 31.19 31.29 31.37 1,174.86 1,219.53 1,223.44 1,229.70

Retail trade

20.44 20.90 20.84 20.92 619.33 631.18 627.28 629.69

Transportation and warehousing

27.78 29.03 29.08 29.14 1,044.53 1,091.53 1,093.41 1,095.66

Utilities

44.34 45.14 45.29 45.36 1,884.45 1,913.94 1,915.77 1,927.80

Information

39.63 40.74 40.53 40.55 1,414.79 1,462.57 1,450.97 1,455.75

Financial activities

33.57 35.41 35.52 35.75 1,245.45 1,306.63 1,314.24 1,322.75

Professional and business services

34.05 35.09 35.19 35.38 1,236.02 1,277.28 1,280.92 1,287.83

Private education and health services

30.16 30.94 31.00 31.20 983.22 1,002.46 1,001.30 1,007.76

Leisure and hospitality

18.61 19.32 19.41 19.51 450.36 469.48 467.78 472.14

Other services

25.99 26.81 26.97 27.06 813.49 841.83 844.16 844.27

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2023 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-9. Indexes of aggregate weekly hours and payrolls for production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
[2002=100]
Industry Index of aggregate weekly hours(2) Index of aggregate weekly payrolls(3)
May
2023
Mar.
2024
Apr.
2024(p)
May
2024(p)
Percent change from:
Apr.
2024 - May
2024(p)
May
2023
Mar.
2024
Apr.
2024(p)
May
2024(p)
Percent change from:
Apr.
2024 - May
2024(p)

Total private

122.0 123.6 123.4 123.9 0.4 234.7 246.1 246.1 248.4 0.9

Goods-producing

95.6 96.3 95.5 96.3 0.8 171.8 181.6 180.3 182.3 1.1

Mining and logging

124.7 127.7 124.1 122.9 -1.0 248.5 268.9 261.8 258.2 -1.4

Construction

115.7 120.0 118.0 119.9 1.6 212.3 229.1 225.6 229.6 1.8

Manufacturing

85.2 84.4 84.1 84.5 0.5 145.6 151.5 151.3 152.8 1.0

Durable goods

86.4 85.6 85.3 85.4 0.1 147.3 154.3 154.3 155.2 0.6

Nondurable goods

83.0 82.3 82.4 83.3 1.1 142.1 146.1 146.5 148.6 1.4

Private service-providing

129.4 131.3 131.0 131.2 0.2 254.4 266.4 266.5 268.2 0.6

Trade, transportation, and utilities

115.4 116.0 116.1 116.2 0.1 207.5 215.1 215.5 216.3 0.4

Wholesale trade

111.2 112.7 112.6 112.9 0.3 198.8 207.5 207.9 209.0 0.5

Retail trade

102.1 102.5 102.4 102.4 0.0 179.0 183.7 182.9 183.7 0.4

Transportation and warehousing

163.3 163.1 163.5 163.8 0.2 288.7 301.3 302.6 303.8 0.4

Utilities

99.3 101.5 101.2 102.0 0.8 183.8 191.2 191.3 193.2 1.0

Information