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Economic News Release
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CPS CPS Program Links
CES CES Program Links

Employment Situation News Release

Transmission of material in this news release is embargoed until	          USDL-24-1270
8:30 a.m. (ET) Friday, July 5, 2024

Technical information: 
 Household data:      (202) 691-6378  *  cpsinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/cps
 Establishment data:  (202) 691-6555  *  cesinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/ces

Media contact:	      (202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov


                         THE EMPLOYMENT SITUATION -- JUNE 2024


Total nonfarm payroll employment increased by 206,000 in June, and the unemployment rate
changed little at 4.1 percent, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. Job
gains occurred in government, health care, social assistance, and construction. 

This news release presents statistics from two monthly surveys. The household survey
measures labor force status, including unemployment, by demographic characteristics. The
establishment survey measures nonfarm employment, hours, and earnings by industry. For
more information about the concepts and statistical methodology used in these two surveys,
see the Technical Note.

Household Survey Data

Both the unemployment rate, at 4.1 percent, and the number of unemployed people, at 6.8
million, changed little in June. These measures are higher than a year earlier, when the
jobless rate was 3.6 percent and the number of unemployed people was 6.0 million. (See
table A-1.)

Among the major worker groups, the unemployment rates for adult women (3.7 percent) and
Asians (4.1 percent) increased in June. The jobless rates for adult men (3.8 percent),
teenagers (12.1 percent), Whites (3.5 percent), Blacks (6.3 percent), and Hispanics
(4.9 percent) showed little or no change over the month. (See tables A-1, A-2, and A-3.) 

The number of long-term unemployed (those jobless for 27 weeks or more) rose by 166,000
to 1.5 million in June. This measure is up from 1.1 million a year earlier. The long-term
unemployed accounted for 22.2 percent of all unemployed people in June. (See table A-12.) 

The labor force participation rate changed little at 62.6 percent in June, and the
employment-population ratio held at 60.1 percent. These measures showed little or no change
over the year. (See table A-1.) 

The number of people employed part time for economic reasons, at 4.2 million, changed little
in June. These individuals, who would have preferred full-time employment, were working part
time because their hours had been reduced or they were unable to find full-time jobs. (See
table A-8.) 

The number of people not in the labor force who currently want a job declined by 483,000 to
5.2 million in June. These individuals were not counted as unemployed because they were not
actively looking for work during the 4 weeks preceding the survey or were unavailable to take
a job. (See table A-1.) 

Among those not in the labor force who wanted a job, the number of people marginally attached
to the labor force, at 1.5 million, was essentially unchanged in June. These individuals
wanted and were available for work and had looked for a job sometime in the prior 12 months
but had not looked for work in the 4 weeks preceding the survey. The number of discouraged
workers, a subset of the marginally attached who believed that no jobs were available for
them, edged down to 365,000 in June. (See Summary table A.)

Establishment Survey Data

Total nonfarm payroll employment increased by 206,000 in June, similar to the average monthly
gain of 220,000 over the prior 12 months. In June, job gains occurred in government, health
care, social assistance, and construction. (See table B-1.)

Government employment rose by 70,000 in June, higher than the average monthly gain of 49,000
over the prior 12 months. Over the month, employment increased in local government, excluding
education (+34,000) and in state government (+26,000).

Health care added 49,000 jobs in June, lower than the average monthly gain of 64,000 over the
prior 12 months. In June, employment rose in ambulatory health care services (+22,000) and 
hospitals (+22,000).

Employment in social assistance increased by 34,000 in June, primarily in individual and
family services (+26,000). Over the prior 12 months, social assistance had added an average of
22,000 jobs per month.

Construction added 27,000 jobs in June, higher than the average monthly gain of 20,000 over
the prior 12 months. 

Retail trade employment changed little in June (-9,000), after trending up earlier in the
year. Furniture, home furnishings, electronics, and appliance retailers lost 6,000 jobs over
the month, while warehouse clubs, supercenters, and other general merchandise retailers gained
5,000 jobs.

Employment in professional and business services changed little in June (-17,000) and has
shown little change over the year. Temporary help services employment declined by 49,000 over
the month and is down by 515,000 since reaching a peak in March 2022. Employment in 
professional, scientific, and technical services continued to trend up in June (+24,000). 

Employment showed little change over the month in other major industries, including mining,
quarrying, and oil and gas extraction; manufacturing; wholesale trade; transportation and
warehousing; information; financial activities; leisure and hospitality; and other services.

In June, average hourly earnings for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls increased by
10 cents, or 0.3 percent, to $35.00. Over the past 12 months, average hourly earnings have
increased by 3.9 percent. In June, average hourly earnings of private-sector production and
nonsupervisory employees increased by 10 cents, or 0.3 percent, to $30.05. (See tables B-3 
and B-8.) 

In June, the average workweek for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls was 34.3 hours
for the third consecutive month. In manufacturing, the average workweek was unchanged at 40.2
hours, and overtime remained at 3.0 hours. The average workweek for production and
nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls edged down by 0.1 hour to 33.7 hours.
(See tables B-2 and B-7.) 

The change in total nonfarm payroll employment for April was revised down by 57,000, from
+165,000 to +108,000, and the change for May was revised down by 54,000, from +272,000 to
+218,000. With these revisions, employment in April and May combined is 111,000 lower than
previously reported. (Monthly revisions result from additional reports received from 
businesses and government agencies since the last published estimates and from the 
recalculation of seasonal factors.)

_____________
The Employment Situation for July is scheduled to be released on Friday, August 2, 2024,
at 8:30 a.m. (ET).


 ____________________________________________________________________________________________
|											     |
|             2024 Preliminary Benchmark Revision to Establishment Survey Data		     |
|                             to be released on August 21, 2024				     |
|											     |
| Each year, the establishment survey estimates are benchmarked to comprehensive counts	     |
| of employment from the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages (QCEW) for the month of    |
| March. These counts are derived from state unemployment insurance (UI) tax records that    |
| nearly all employers are required to file. At 10:00 a.m. (ET) on August 21, 2024, the	     |
| Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) will release the preliminary estimate of the upcoming     |
| annual benchmark revision to the establishment survey data. This is the same day that	     |
| the first-quarter 2024 data from QCEW will be issued. Preliminary benchmark revisions	     |
| for all major industry sectors, as well as total nonfarm and total private employment,     |
| will be available at www.bls.gov/web/empsit/cesprelbmk.htm.				     |
|											     |
| The final benchmark revision will be issued with the publication of the January 2025	     |
| Employment Situation news release in February 2025.					     |
|____________________________________________________________________________________________|




HOUSEHOLD DATA
Summary table A. Household data, seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Category June
2023
Apr.
2024
May
2024
June
2024
Change from:
May
2024-
June
2024

Employment status

Civilian noninstitutional population

266,801 268,066 268,248 268,438 190

Civilian labor force

167,000 167,982 167,732 168,009 277

Participation rate

62.6 62.7 62.5 62.6 0.1

Employed

161,004 161,491 161,083 161,199 116

Employment-population ratio

60.3 60.2 60.1 60.1 0.0

Unemployed

5,997 6,492 6,649 6,811 162

Unemployment rate

3.6 3.9 4.0 4.1 0.1

Not in labor force

99,801 100,083 100,516 100,429 -87

Unemployment rates

Total, 16 years and over

3.6 3.9 4.0 4.1 0.1

Adult men (20 years and over)

3.4 3.6 3.8 3.8 0.0

Adult women (20 years and over)

3.1 3.5 3.4 3.7 0.3

Teenagers (16 to 19 years)

11.2 11.7 12.3 12.1 -0.2

White

3.1 3.5 3.5 3.5 0.0

Black or African American

6.0 5.6 6.1 6.3 0.2

Asian

3.1 2.8 3.1 4.1 1.0

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

4.2 4.8 5.0 4.9 -0.1

Total, 25 years and over

3.0 3.2 3.2 3.3 0.1

Less than a high school diploma

6.0 6.0 5.9 5.9 0.0

High school graduates, no college

3.9 4.0 4.3 4.2 -0.1

Some college or associate degree

3.0 3.3 3.1 3.4 0.3

Bachelor's degree and higher

2.0 2.2 2.1 2.4 0.3

Reason for unemployment

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

2,790 3,241 3,220 3,176 -44

Job leavers

796 785 717 752 35

Reentrants

1,776 1,929 2,046 2,094 48

New entrants

559 574 630 708 78

Duration of unemployment

Less than 5 weeks

2,065 2,262 2,309 2,128 -181

5 to 14 weeks

1,850 1,987 1,918 2,102 184

15 to 26 weeks

905 869 955 1,087 132

27 weeks and over

1,117 1,250 1,350 1,516 166

Employed persons at work part time

Part time for economic reasons

4,198 4,469 4,419 4,220 -199

Slack work or business conditions

2,930 3,058 3,086 2,832 -254

Could only find part-time work

963 1,134 1,042 1,144 102

Part time for noneconomic reasons

21,312 22,253 22,662 22,341 -321

Persons not in the labor force

Marginally attached to the labor force

1,432 1,565 1,525 1,508 -17

Discouraged workers

311 362 462 365 -97

NOTE: Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Summary table B. Establishment data, seasonally adjusted
Category June
2023
Apr.
2024
May
2024(p)
June
2024(p)

EMPLOYMENT BY SELECTED INDUSTRY
(Over-the-month change, in thousands)

Total nonfarm

240 108 218 206

Total private

185 108 193 136

Goods-producing

42 -3 12 19

Mining and logging

0 -5 -4 0

Construction

33 -5 16 27

Manufacturing

9 7 0 -8

Durable goods(1)

19 3 -5 -10

Motor vehicles and parts

4.4 2.2 5.3 5.9

Nondurable goods

-10 4 5 2

Private service-providing

143 111 181 117

Wholesale trade

1.4 6.5 1.5 14.2

Retail trade

-5.5 14.2 7.1 -8.5

Transportation and warehousing

-12.1 20.8 12.2 7.3

Utilities

0.9 0.0 1.3 0.9

Information

-7 -3 5 6

Financial activities

9 -3 12 9

Professional and business services(1)

7 -17 31 -17

Temporary help services

-28.3 -23.7 -15.9 -48.9

Private education and health services(1)

77 98 81 82

Health care and social assistance

74.9 98.4 82.9 82.4

Leisure and hospitality

60 -9 22 7

Other services

12 4 8 16

Government

55 0 25 70

(3-month average change, in thousands)

Total nonfarm

274 218 212 177

Total private

223 174 178 146

WOMEN AND PRODUCTION AND NONSUPERVISORY EMPLOYEES
AS A PERCENT OF ALL EMPLOYEES(2)

Total nonfarm women employees

49.8 49.8 49.8 49.8

Total private women employees

48.4 48.4 48.4 48.4

Total private production and nonsupervisory employees

81.3 81.4 81.4 81.4

HOURS AND EARNINGS
ALL EMPLOYEES

Total private

Average weekly hours

34.4 34.3 34.3 34.3

Average hourly earnings

$33.70 $34.75 $34.90 $35.00

Average weekly earnings

$1,159.28 $1,191.93 $1,197.07 $1,200.50

Index of aggregate weekly hours (2007=100)(3)

115.1 116.2 116.4 116.5

Over-the-month percent change

0.2 -0.2 0.2 0.1

Index of aggregate weekly payrolls (2007=100)(4)

185.4 193.0 194.2 194.9

Over-the-month percent change

0.6 -0.1 0.6 0.4

DIFFUSION INDEX
(Over 1-month span)(5)

Total private (250 industries)

57.2 55.4 56.4 59.6

Manufacturing (72 industries)

52.8 54.2 48.6 45.8

Footnotes
(1) Includes other industries, not shown separately.
(2) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries.
(3) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding annual average aggregate hours.
(4) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding annual average aggregate weekly payrolls.
(5) Figures are the percent of industries with employment increasing plus one-half of the industries with unchanged employment, where 50 percent indicates an equal balance between industries with increasing and decreasing employment.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2023 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


Frequently Asked Questions about Employment and Unemployment Estimates

1. Why are there two monthly measures of employment?

   The household survey and establishment survey both produce sample-based estimates
   of employment, and both have strengths and limitations. The establishment survey
   employment series has a smaller margin of error on the measurement of month-to-
   month change than the household survey because of its much larger sample size. An
   over-the-month employment change of about 130,000 is statistically significant in
   the establishment survey, while the threshold for a statistically significant change
   in the household survey is about 600,000. However, the household survey has a more
   expansive scope than the establishment survey because it includes self-employed
   workers whose businesses are unincorporated, unpaid family workers, agricultural
   workers, and private household workers, who are excluded by the establishment survey.
   The household survey also provides estimates of employment for demographic groups.
   For more information on the differences between the two surveys, please visit
   www.bls.gov/web/empsit/ces_cps_trends.htm.

2. Are undocumented immigrants counted in the surveys?

   It is likely that both surveys include at least some undocumented immigrants. However,
   neither the establishment nor the household survey is designed to identify the legal
   status of workers. Therefore, it is not possible to determine how many are counted in
   either survey. The establishment survey does not collect data on the legal status of
   workers. The household survey does include questions which identify the foreign and
   native born, but it does not include questions about the legal status of the foreign
   born. Data on the foreign and native born are published each month in table A-7 of
   The Employment Situation news release.

3. Why does the establishment survey have revisions?

   The establishment survey revises published estimates to improve its data series by
   incorporating additional information that was not available at the time of the
   initial publication of the estimates. The establishment survey revises its initial
   monthly estimates twice, in the immediately succeeding 2 months, to incorporate
   additional sample receipts from respondents in the survey and recalculated seasonal
   adjustment factors. For more information on the monthly revisions, please visit
   www.bls.gov/web/empsit/cestn.htm#section7.

   On an annual basis, the establishment survey incorporates a benchmark revision that
   re-anchors estimates to nearly complete employment counts available from unemployment
   insurance tax records. The benchmark helps to control for sampling and modeling errors
   in the estimates. For more information on the annual benchmark revision, please visit
   www.bls.gov/web/empsit/cesbmart.htm.

4. Does the establishment survey sample include small firms?

   Yes. About 45 percent of the establishment survey sample is comprised of business
   establishments with fewer than 20 employees. The establishment survey sample is
   designed to maximize the reliability of the statewide total nonfarm employment
   estimate; firms from all states, size classes, and industries are appropriately
   sampled to achieve that goal.

5. Does the establishment survey account for employment from new businesses?

   Yes. Monthly establishment survey estimates include an adjustment to account for
   the net employment change generated by business births and deaths. The adjustment
   comes from an econometric model that forecasts the monthly net jobs impact of
   business births and deaths based on the actual past values of the net impact that
   can be observed with a lag from the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages. The
   establishment survey uses modeling rather than sampling for this purpose because
   the survey is not immediately able to bring new businesses into the sample. There
   is an unavoidable lag between the birth of a new firm and its appearance on the
   sampling frame and availability for selection. BLS adds new businesses to the survey
   twice a year.

6. Is the count of unemployed people limited to just those receiving unemployment
   insurance benefits?

   No. The estimate of unemployment is based on a monthly sample survey of households.
   All people who are without jobs and are actively seeking and available to work are
   included among the unemployed. (People on temporary layoff are included even if
   they do not actively seek work.) There is no requirement or question relating to
   unemployment insurance benefits in the monthly survey.

7. Does the official unemployment rate exclude people who want a job but are not currently
   looking for work?

   Yes. However, there are separate estimates of people outside the labor force who
   want a job, including those who are not currently looking because they believe no
   jobs are available (discouraged workers). In addition, alternative measures of labor
   underutilization (some of which include discouraged workers and other groups not
   officially counted as unemployed) are published each month in table A-15 of The
   Employment Situation news release. For more information about these alternative
   measures, please visit www.bls.gov/cps/lfcharacteristics.htm#altmeasures.

8. How can unusually severe weather affect employment and hours estimates?

   In the establishment survey, the reference period is the pay period that includes
   the 12th of the month. Unusually severe weather is more likely to have an impact on
   average weekly hours than on employment. Average weekly hours are estimated for paid
   time during the pay period, including pay for holidays, sick leave, or other time off.
   The impact of severe weather on hours estimates typically, but not always, results in
   a reduction in average weekly hours. For example, some employees may be off work for
   part of the pay period and not receive pay for the time missed, while some workers,
   such as those dealing with cleanup or repair, may work extra hours.
   
   Typically, it is not possible to precisely quantify the effect of extreme weather on 
   payroll employment estimates. In order for severe weather conditions to reduce
   employment estimates, employees have to be off work without pay for the entire pay
   period. Employees who receive pay for any part of the pay period, even 1 hour, are
   counted in the payroll employment figures. For more information on how often employees
   are paid, please visit www.bls.gov/ces/publications/length-pay-period.htm.

   In the household survey, the reference period is generally the calendar week that
   includes the 12th of the month. People who miss the entire week's work for weather-
   related events are counted as employed whether or not they are paid for the time
   off. The household survey collects data on the number of people who had a job but
   were not at work due to bad weather. It also provides a measure of the number of
   people who usually work full time but had reduced hours due to bad weather. 
   
   Current and historical data are available on the household survey's most requested
   statistics page, please visit data.bls.gov/cgi-bin/surveymost?ln.




Technical Note


   This news release presents statistics from two major surveys, the Current
Population Survey (CPS; household survey) and the Current Employment Statistics
survey (CES; establishment survey). The household survey provides information
on the labor force, employment, and unemployment that appears in the "A" tables,
marked HOUSEHOLD DATA. It is a sample survey of about 60,000 eligible households
conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau for the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS).

   The establishment survey provides information on employment, hours, and
earnings of employees on nonfarm payrolls; the data appear in the "B" tables,
marked ESTABLISHMENT DATA. BLS collects these data each month from the payroll
records of a sample of nonagricultural business establishments. Each month
the CES program surveys about 119,000 businesses and government agencies,
representing approximately 629,000 individual worksites, in order to provide
detailed industry data on employment, hours, and earnings of workers on nonfarm
payrolls. The active sample includes approximately one-third of all nonfarm
payroll jobs.

   For both surveys, the data for a given month relate to a particular week or
pay period. In the household survey, the reference period is generally the
calendar week that contains the 12th day of the month. In the establishment
survey, the reference period is the pay period including the 12th, which may or
may not correspond directly to the calendar week.

Coverage, definitions, and differences between surveys

   Household survey. The sample is selected to reflect the entire civilian 
noninstitutional population. Based on responses to a series of questions on 
work and job search activities, each person 16 years and over in a sample
household is classified as employed, unemployed, or not in the labor force.

   People are classified as employed if they did any work at all as paid employees
during the reference week; worked in their own business, profession, or on their
own farm; or worked without pay at least 15 hours in a family business or farm.
People are also counted as employed if they were temporarily absent from their jobs
because of illness, bad weather, vacation, labor-management disputes, or personal
reasons.

   People are classified as unemployed if they meet all of the following criteria:
they had no employment during the reference week; they were available for work at
that time; and they made specific active efforts to find employment sometime during
the 4-week period ending with the reference week. People laid off from a job and
expecting recall need not be looking for work to be counted as unemployed. The
unemployment data derived from the household survey in no way depend upon the
eligibility for or receipt of unemployment insurance benefits.

   The civilian labor force is the sum of the employed and unemployed.
Those people not classified as employed or unemployed are not in the labor 
force. The unemployment rate is the number unemployed as a percent of the 
labor force. The labor force participation rate is the labor force as a 
percent of the population, and the employment-population ratio is the 
employed as a percent of the population. Additional information about the 
household survey can be found at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm.

   Establishment survey. The sample establishments are drawn from private
nonfarm businesses such as factories, offices, and stores, as well as
from federal, state, and local government entities. Employees on nonfarm
payrolls are those who worked or received pay for any part of the reference pay
period, including people on paid leave. People are counted in each job
they hold. Hours and earnings data are produced for the private sector for
all employees and for production and nonsupervisory employees. Production
and nonsupervisory employees are defined as production and related employees
in manufacturing and mining and logging, construction workers in construction,
and nonsupervisory employees in private service-providing industries.

   Industries are classified on the basis of an establishment's principal
activity in accordance with the 2022 version of the North American Industry
Classification System. Additional information about the establishment survey
can be found at www.bls.gov/ces/.

   Differences in employment estimates. The numerous conceptual and methodological
differences between the household and establishment surveys result in important
distinctions in the employment estimates derived from the surveys. Among these are:

   --The household survey includes agricultural workers, self-employed workers
     whose businesses are unincorporated, unpaid family workers, and private
     household workers among the employed. These groups are excluded from the
     establishment survey.

   --The household survey includes people on unpaid leave among the employed.
     The establishment survey does not.

   --The household survey is limited to workers 16 years of age and older.
     The establishment survey is not limited by age.

   --The household survey has no duplication of individuals, because
     individuals are counted only once, even if they hold more than one
     job. In the establishment survey, employees working at more than one
     job and thus appearing on more than one payroll are counted separately
     for each appearance.

Seasonal adjustment

   Over the course of a year, the size of the nation's labor force and the levels
of employment and unemployment undergo regularly occurring fluctuations. These 
events may result from seasonal changes in weather, major holidays, and the opening
and closing of schools. The effect of such seasonal variation can be very large.

   Because these seasonal events follow a more or less regular pattern each year,
their influence on the level of a series can be tempered by adjusting for regular
seasonal variation. These adjustments make nonseasonal developments, such as
declines in employment or increases in the participation of women in the labor
force, easier to spot. For example, in the household survey, the large number of
youth entering the labor force each June is likely to obscure any other changes
that have taken place relative to May, making it difficult to determine if the 
level of economic activity has risen or declined. Similarly, in the establishment
survey, payroll employment in education declines by about 20 percent at the end
of the spring term and later rises with the start of the fall term, obscuring the
underlying employment trends in the industry. Because seasonal employment changes
at the end and beginning of the school year can be estimated, the statistics can be
adjusted to make underlying employment patterns more discernable. The seasonally
adjusted figures provide a more useful tool with which to analyze changes in
month-to-month economic activity.

   Many seasonally adjusted series are independently adjusted in both the household
and establishment surveys. However, the adjusted series for many major estimates,
such as total payroll employment, employment in most major sectors, total employment,
and unemployment are computed by aggregating independently adjusted component series.
For example, total unemployment is derived by summing the adjusted series for four
major age-sex components; this differs from the unemployment estimate that would be
obtained by directly adjusting the total or by combining the duration, reasons, or 
more detailed age categories. Percentage distributions of unemployment by reason and
duration are derived from the sum of the independently seasonally adjusted component
series and will not necessarily match calculations made using the seasonally adjusted
total unemployment level. Additional information about seasonal adjustment in the 
household survey can be found at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#sa.

   For both the household and establishment surveys, a concurrent seasonal adjustment
methodology is used in which new seasonal factors are calculated each month using all
relevant data, up to and including the data for the current month. In the household
survey, new seasonal factors are used to adjust only the current month's data. In the
establishment survey, however, new seasonal factors are used each month to adjust the
three most recent monthly estimates. The prior 2 months are routinely revised to
incorporate additional sample reports and recalculated seasonal adjustment factors.
In both surveys, 5-year revisions to historical data are made once a year.

Reliability of the estimates

   Statistics based on the household and establishment surveys are subject to both
sampling and nonsampling error. When a sample, rather than the entire population,
is surveyed, there is a chance that the sample estimates may differ from the true
population values they represent. The component of this difference that occurs
because samples differ by chance is known as sampling error, and its variability
is measured by the standard error of the estimate. There is about a 90-percent
chance, or level of confidence, that an estimate based on a sample will differ by
no more than 1.6 standard errors from the true population value because of sampling
error. BLS analyses are generally conducted at the 90-percent level of confidence.

   For example, the confidence interval for the monthly change in total nonfarm
employment from the establishment survey is on the order of plus or minus 130,000.
Suppose the estimate of nonfarm employment increases by 50,000 from one month to
the next. The 90-percent confidence interval on the monthly change would range from
-80,000 to +180,000 (50,000 +/- 130,000). These figures do not mean that the sample
results are off by these magnitudes, but rather that there is about a 90-percent
chance that the true over-the-month change lies within this interval. Since this
range includes values of less than zero, we could not say with confidence that
nonfarm employment had, in fact, increased that month. If, however, the reported
nonfarm employment rise was 250,000, then all of the values within the 90-percent
confidence interval would be greater than zero. In this case, it is likely (at
least a 90-percent chance) that nonfarm employment had, in fact, risen that month.
At an unemployment rate of around 6.0 percent, the 90-percent confidence interval
for the monthly change in unemployment as measured by the household survey is
about +/- 300,000, and for the monthly change in the unemployment rate it is about
+/- 0.2 percentage point.

   In general, estimates involving many individuals or establishments have lower
standard errors (relative to the size of the estimate) than estimates which are based
on a small number of observations. The precision of estimates also is improved when
the data are cumulated over time, such as for quarterly and annual averages.

   The household and establishment surveys are also affected by nonsampling error,
which can occur for many reasons, including the failure to sample a segment of the
population, inability to obtain information for all respondents in the sample,
inability or unwillingness of respondents to provide correct information on a
timely basis, mistakes made by respondents, and errors made in the collection or
processing of the data.

   For example, in the establishment survey, estimates for the most recent 2 months
are based on incomplete returns; for this reason, these estimates are labeled
preliminary in the tables. It is only after two successive revisions to a monthly
estimate, when nearly all sample reports have been received, that the estimate is
considered final.

   Another major source of nonsampling error in the establishment survey is the
inability to capture, on a timely basis, employment generated by new firms. To
correct for this systematic underestimation of employment growth, an estimation
procedure with two components is used to account for business births. The first
component excludes employment losses from business deaths from sample-based
estimation in order to offset the missing employment gains from business births.
This is incorporated into the sample-based estimation procedure by simply not
reflecting sample units going out of business, but imputing to them the same
employment trend as the other firms in the sample. This procedure accounts for
most of the net birth/death employment.

   The second component is an ARIMA time series model designed to estimate the
residual net birth/death employment not accounted for by the imputation. The
historical time series used to create and test the ARIMA model was derived from
the unemployment insurance universe micro-level database and reflects the actual
residual net of births and deaths over the past 5 years.

   The sample-based estimates from the establishment survey are adjusted once a
year (on a lagged basis) to universe counts of payroll employment obtained from
administrative records of the unemployment insurance program. The difference 
between the March sample-based employment estimates and the March universe counts
is known as a benchmark revision, and serves as a rough proxy for total survey
error. Benchmarks also incorporate changes in the classification of industries
when necessary. Over the past decade, absolute benchmark revisions for total nonfarm
employment have averaged 0.1 percent, with a range from -0.3 percent to 0.3 percent.

Other information

   If you are deaf, hard of hearing, or have a speech disability, please dial 7-1-1
to access telecommunications relay services.




HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-1. Employment status of the civilian population by sex and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
June
2023
May
2024
June
2024
June
2023
Feb.
2024
Mar.
2024
Apr.
2024
May
2024
June
2024

TOTAL

Civilian noninstitutional population

266,801 268,248 268,438 266,801 267,711 267,884 268,066 268,248 268,438

Civilian labor force

167,910 167,576 169,007 167,000 167,426 167,895 167,982 167,732 168,009

Participation rate

62.9 62.5 63.0 62.6 62.5 62.7 62.7 62.5 62.6

Employed

161,559 161,341 161,774 161,004 160,968 161,466 161,491 161,083 161,199

Employment-population ratio

60.6 60.1 60.3 60.3 60.1 60.3 60.2 60.1 60.1

Unemployed

6,351 6,235 7,233 5,997 6,458 6,429 6,492 6,649 6,811

Unemployment rate

3.8 3.7 4.3 3.6 3.9 3.8 3.9 4.0 4.1

Not in labor force

98,891 100,672 99,431 99,801 100,285 99,989 100,083 100,516 100,429

Persons who currently want a job

5,846 6,259 5,655 5,383 5,672 5,443 5,637 5,717 5,234

Men, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

130,408 130,782 130,875 130,408 130,520 130,605 130,694 130,782 130,875

Civilian labor force

89,503 88,591 89,900 88,848 88,391 88,812 88,708 88,619 89,171

Participation rate

68.6 67.7 68.7 68.1 67.7 68.0 67.9 67.8 68.1

Employed

86,140 85,076 86,182 85,518 84,993 85,490 85,208 84,882 85,514

Employment-population ratio

66.1 65.1 65.9 65.6 65.1 65.5 65.2 64.9 65.3

Unemployed

3,363 3,515 3,719 3,330 3,398 3,323 3,500 3,737 3,657

Unemployment rate

3.8 4.0 4.1 3.7 3.8 3.7 3.9 4.2 4.1

Not in labor force

40,905 42,191 40,974 41,560 42,129 41,793 41,986 42,163 41,704

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

121,646 121,844 121,929 121,646 121,611 121,685 121,763 121,844 121,929

Civilian labor force

85,895 85,283 85,994 85,776 85,180 85,398 85,382 85,229 85,846

Participation rate

70.6 70.0 70.5 70.5 70.0 70.2 70.1 69.9 70.4

Employed

83,068 82,225 82,865 82,836 82,178 82,543 82,318 81,986 82,618

Employment-population ratio

68.3 67.5 68.0 68.1 67.6 67.8 67.6 67.3 67.8

Unemployed

2,827 3,057 3,129 2,941 3,002 2,855 3,064 3,243 3,227

Unemployment rate

3.3 3.6 3.6 3.4 3.5 3.3 3.6 3.8 3.8

Not in labor force

35,750 36,561 35,935 35,869 36,431 36,287 36,381 36,615 36,083

Women, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

136,393 137,465 137,564 136,393 137,191 137,279 137,372 137,465 137,564

Civilian labor force

78,407 78,985 79,107 78,152 79,035 79,083 79,274 79,113 78,838

Participation rate

57.5 57.5 57.5 57.3 57.6 57.6 57.7 57.6 57.3

Employed

75,419 76,265 75,592 75,486 75,975 75,976 76,283 76,201 75,684

Employment-population ratio

55.3 55.5 55.0 55.3 55.4 55.3 55.5 55.4 55.0

Unemployed

2,987 2,720 3,515 2,667 3,060 3,106 2,991 2,912 3,154

Unemployment rate

3.8 3.4 4.4 3.4 3.9 3.9 3.8 3.7 4.0

Not in labor force

57,986 58,481 58,457 58,241 58,156 58,197 58,098 58,353 58,725

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

127,932 128,830 128,922 127,932 128,581 128,659 128,742 128,830 128,922

Civilian labor force

74,722 75,723 75,336 74,963 75,835 75,792 75,989 75,812 75,587

Participation rate

58.4 58.8 58.4 58.6 59.0 58.9 59.0 58.8 58.6

Employed

72,171 73,338 72,339 72,605 73,182 73,061 73,334 73,226 72,798

Employment-population ratio

56.4 56.9 56.1 56.8 56.9 56.8 57.0 56.8 56.5

Unemployed

2,551 2,385 2,997 2,358 2,653 2,731 2,655 2,586 2,788

Unemployment rate

3.4 3.1 4.0 3.1 3.5 3.6 3.5 3.4 3.7

Not in labor force

53,210 53,106 53,585 52,969 52,746 52,867 52,753 53,018 53,335

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian noninstitutional population

17,223 17,574 17,588 17,223 17,519 17,540 17,561 17,574 17,588

Civilian labor force

7,293 6,570 7,676 6,261 6,411 6,704 6,611 6,692 6,577

Participation rate

42.3 37.4 43.6 36.4 36.6 38.2 37.6 38.1 37.4

Employed

6,320 5,777 6,569 5,563 5,608 5,862 5,839 5,871 5,782

Employment-population ratio

36.7 32.9 37.3 32.3 32.0 33.4 33.2 33.4 32.9

Unemployed

973 793 1,107 698 803 842 772 821 795

Unemployment rate

13.3 12.1 14.4 11.2 12.5 12.6 11.7 12.3 12.1

Not in labor force

9,931 11,004 9,912 10,962 11,108 10,835 10,950 10,882 11,011

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-2. Employment status of the civilian population by race, sex, and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, race, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
June
2023
May
2024
June
2024
June
2023
Feb.
2024
Mar.
2024
Apr.
2024
May
2024
June
2024

WHITE

Civilian noninstitutional population

204,433 204,917 205,010 204,433 204,677 204,752 204,831 204,917 205,010

Civilian labor force

127,942 127,207 128,224 127,358 127,040 127,596 127,708 127,384 127,552

Participation rate

62.6 62.1 62.5 62.3 62.1 62.3 62.3 62.2 62.2

Employed

123,760 123,061 123,477 123,422 122,685 123,286 123,229 122,922 123,095

Employment-population ratio

60.5 60.1 60.2 60.4 59.9 60.2 60.2 60.0 60.0

Unemployed

4,182 4,145 4,747 3,936 4,356 4,310 4,479 4,462 4,457

Unemployment rate

3.3 3.3 3.7 3.1 3.4 3.4 3.5 3.5 3.5

Not in labor force

76,491 77,711 76,786 77,075 77,637 77,156 77,123 77,533 77,457

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

66,596 65,804 66,275 66,507 65,685 65,963 65,982 65,797 66,154

Participation rate

70.4 69.6 70.1 70.3 69.6 69.8 69.8 69.6 70.0

Employed

64,668 63,762 64,203 64,498 63,658 64,029 63,801 63,588 64,011

Employment-population ratio

68.3 67.5 67.9 68.2 67.4 67.8 67.5 67.3 67.7

Unemployed

1,928 2,042 2,072 2,008 2,027 1,933 2,181 2,208 2,143

Unemployment rate

2.9 3.1 3.1 3.0 3.1 2.9 3.3 3.4 3.2

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

55,784 56,340 55,969 56,068 56,454 56,489 56,622 56,441 56,268

Participation rate

57.3 57.7 57.3 57.6 57.9 57.9 58.0 57.8 57.6

Employed

54,176 54,787 54,059 54,606 54,646 54,677 54,843 54,752 54,505

Employment-population ratio

55.7 56.1 55.3 56.1 56.0 56.0 56.2 56.0 55.8

Unemployed

1,608 1,553 1,910 1,462 1,808 1,811 1,779 1,689 1,763

Unemployment rate

2.9 2.8 3.4 2.6 3.2 3.2 3.1 3.0 3.1

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

5,562 5,062 5,979 4,784 4,902 5,145 5,103 5,146 5,131

Participation rate

44.4 39.8 47.0 38.2 38.6 40.5 40.2 40.5 40.4

Employed

4,916 4,512 5,214 4,318 4,381 4,580 4,584 4,582 4,580

Employment-population ratio

39.3 35.5 41.0 34.5 34.5 36.1 36.1 36.1 36.0

Unemployed

646 550 765 466 520 565 519 564 551

Unemployment rate

11.6 10.9 12.8 9.7 10.6 11.0 10.2 11.0 10.7

BLACK OR AFRICAN AMERICAN

Civilian noninstitutional population

34,644 34,949 34,982 34,644 34,849 34,883 34,918 34,949 34,982

Civilian labor force

21,886 21,999 22,126 21,705 22,190 22,170 22,051 21,986 21,942

Participation rate

63.2 62.9 63.3 62.7 63.7 63.6 63.2 62.9 62.7

Employed

20,495 20,672 20,654 20,411 20,950 20,746 20,812 20,643 20,570

Employment-population ratio

59.2 59.1 59.0 58.9 60.1 59.5 59.6 59.1 58.8

Unemployed

1,392 1,327 1,472 1,294 1,240 1,424 1,239 1,343 1,372

Unemployment rate

6.4 6.0 6.7 6.0 5.6 6.4 5.6 6.1 6.3

Not in labor force

12,757 12,950 12,856 12,938 12,659 12,713 12,867 12,963 13,040

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

10,128 10,164 10,328 10,073 10,344 10,317 10,194 10,150 10,269

Participation rate

68.5 68.4 69.5 68.1 69.8 69.6 68.7 68.3 69.1

Employed

9,547 9,506 9,715 9,478 9,709 9,677 9,661 9,497 9,643

Employment-population ratio

64.5 64.0 65.3 64.1 65.5 65.3 65.1 63.9 64.9

Unemployed

581 658 613 596 636 640 533 654 626

Unemployment rate

5.7 6.5 5.9 5.9 6.1 6.2 5.2 6.4 6.1

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

10,881 11,016 10,911 10,880 11,050 10,999 10,991 10,994 10,906

Participation rate

62.8 63.0 62.4 62.8 63.4 63.0 62.9 62.9 62.3

Employed

10,260 10,459 10,244 10,295 10,568 10,387 10,442 10,421 10,289

Employment-population ratio

59.2 59.8 58.5 59.4 60.6 59.5 59.8 59.6 58.8

Unemployed

621 557 667 585 482 612 548 572 617

Unemployment rate

5.7 5.1 6.1 5.4 4.4 5.6 5.0 5.2 5.7

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

877 818 888 752 796 854 867 842 767

Participation rate

34.6 31.3 33.9 29.7 30.7 32.8 33.2 32.2 29.3

Employed

688 706 695 639 673 682 709 725 637

Employment-population ratio

27.1 27.0 26.6 25.2 25.9 26.2 27.2 27.7 24.3

Unemployed

189 112 192 114 122 171 158 117 130

Unemployment rate

21.6 13.6 21.7 15.1 15.4 20.1 18.2 13.9 16.9

ASIAN

Civilian noninstitutional population

17,491 17,993 18,052 17,491 17,784 17,781 17,816 17,993 18,052

Civilian labor force

11,495 11,734 11,955 11,444 11,472 11,403 11,536 11,754 11,888

Participation rate

65.7 65.2 66.2 65.4 64.5 64.1 64.7 65.3 65.9

Employed

11,104 11,395 11,428 11,084 11,081 11,113 11,214 11,393 11,400

Employment-population ratio

63.5 63.3 63.3 63.4 62.3 62.5 62.9 63.3 63.2

Unemployed

391 339 527 360 390 290 322 361 488

Unemployment rate

3.4 2.9 4.4 3.1 3.4 2.5 2.8 3.1 4.1

Not in labor force

5,997 6,259 6,097 6,047 6,312 6,379 6,280 6,239 6,163

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Estimates for the above race groups will not sum to totals shown in table A-1 because data are not presented for all races. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-3. Employment status of the Hispanic or Latino population by sex and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
June
2023
May
2024
June
2024
June
2023
Feb.
2024
Mar.
2024
Apr.
2024
May
2024
June
2024

HISPANIC OR LATINO ETHNICITY

Civilian noninstitutional population

47,473 48,764 48,864 47,473 48,467 48,565 48,667 48,764 48,864

Civilian labor force

32,063 32,750 33,173 31,942 32,499 32,442 32,777 32,815 33,002

Participation rate

67.5 67.2 67.9 67.3 67.1 66.8 67.3 67.3 67.5

Employed

30,684 31,259 31,531 30,588 30,883 30,994 31,187 31,185 31,388

Employment-population ratio

64.6 64.1 64.5 64.4 63.7 63.8 64.1 64.0 64.2

Unemployed

1,379 1,492 1,642 1,354 1,616 1,448 1,589 1,630 1,614

Unemployment rate

4.3 4.6 4.9 4.2 5.0 4.5 4.8 5.0 4.9

Not in labor force

15,410 16,014 15,691 15,531 15,967 16,123 15,890 15,949 15,862

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

17,212 17,597 17,800 17,199 17,415 17,455 17,532 17,592 17,769

Participation rate

79.8 79.8 80.6 79.7 79.5 79.5 79.7 79.8 80.5

Employed

16,647 16,847 17,118 16,571 16,720 16,800 16,765 16,767 17,023

Employment-population ratio

77.2 76.4 77.5 76.8 76.3 76.5 76.2 76.1 77.1

Unemployed

565 750 682 627 695 654 766 826 746

Unemployment rate

3.3 4.3 3.8 3.6 4.0 3.7 4.4 4.7 4.2

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

13,191 13,549 13,566 13,205 13,535 13,483 13,638 13,582 13,555

Participation rate

61.3 61.2 61.1 61.4 61.5 61.1 61.7 61.3 61.1

Employed

12,618 13,046 12,932 12,660 12,860 12,870 13,016 13,032 12,951

Employment-population ratio

58.6 58.9 58.3 58.8 58.4 58.4 58.9 58.9 58.4

Unemployed

572 503 634 545 675 612 623 550 604

Unemployment rate

4.3 3.7 4.7 4.1 5.0 4.5 4.6 4.1 4.5

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

1,660 1,604 1,807 1,538 1,549 1,504 1,607 1,641 1,678

Participation rate

37.9 35.0 39.3 35.1 34.0 33.0 35.1 35.8 36.5

Employed

1,419 1,366 1,481 1,357 1,304 1,323 1,406 1,386 1,414

Employment-population ratio

32.4 29.8 32.2 30.9 28.6 29.0 30.7 30.2 30.8

Unemployed

242 238 326 181 246 181 200 254 264

Unemployment rate

14.5 14.9 18.1 11.8 15.9 12.0 12.5 15.5 15.7

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-4. Employment status of the civilian population 25 years and over by educational attainment
[Numbers in thousands]
Educational attainment Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
June
2023
May
2024
June
2024
June
2023
Feb.
2024
Mar.
2024
Apr.
2024
May
2024
June
2024

Less than a high school diploma

Civilian labor force

9,391 9,285 9,346 9,201 9,192 8,916 8,990 9,046 9,145

Participation rate

47.7 47.2 48.0 46.7 48.3 46.3 46.8 46.0 47.0

Employed

8,884 8,801 8,849 8,645 8,626 8,483 8,451 8,515 8,604

Employment-population ratio

45.1 44.8 45.4 43.9 45.4 44.1 44.0 43.3 44.2

Unemployed

507 484 497 556 565 433 539 531 541

Unemployment rate

5.4 5.2 5.3 6.0 6.1 4.9 6.0 5.9 5.9

High school graduates, no college(1)

Civilian labor force

35,780 36,391 35,951 36,049 36,474 36,364 36,208 36,340 36,235

Participation rate

56.5 56.9 56.6 57.0 57.0 57.3 56.7 56.8 57.0

Employed

34,441 34,934 34,494 34,646 34,948 34,866 34,757 34,785 34,709

Employment-population ratio

54.4 54.6 54.3 54.8 54.7 54.9 54.4 54.4 54.6

Unemployed

1,339 1,456 1,457 1,403 1,526 1,498 1,451 1,555 1,526

Unemployment rate

3.7 4.0 4.1 3.9 4.2 4.1 4.0 4.3 4.2

Some college or associate degree

Civilian labor force

35,572 35,360 35,473 35,587 36,322 36,147 36,225 35,610 35,569

Participation rate

62.5 62.6 62.5 62.5 63.5 63.2 62.9 63.1 62.7

Employed

34,475 34,328 34,244 34,504 35,178 34,918 35,017 34,517 34,353

Employment-population ratio

60.5 60.8 60.3 60.6 61.5 61.1 60.8 61.1 60.5

Unemployed

1,096 1,032 1,229 1,082 1,144 1,229 1,208 1,092 1,216

Unemployment rate

3.1 2.9 3.5 3.0 3.1 3.4 3.3 3.1 3.4

Bachelor's degree and higher(2)

Civilian labor force

63,652 64,934 64,855 64,205 63,965 64,478 64,449 64,994 65,352

Participation rate

72.7 72.8 72.3 73.3 72.1 72.4 72.8 72.8 72.8

Employed

62,310 63,667 63,198 62,945 62,527 63,095 63,047 63,622 63,800

Employment-population ratio

71.2 71.3 70.4 71.9 70.5 70.8 71.2 71.3 71.1

Unemployed

1,342 1,267 1,657 1,259 1,438 1,383 1,402 1,372 1,552

Unemployment rate

2.1 2.0 2.6 2.0 2.2 2.1 2.2 2.1 2.4

Footnotes
(1) Includes persons with a high school diploma or equivalent.
(2) Includes persons with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees.

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals for those 25 years and over because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-5. Employment status of the civilian population 18 years and over by veteran status, period of service, and sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, veteran status, and period of service Total Men Women
June
2023
June
2024
June
2023
June
2024
June
2023
June
2024

VETERANS, 18 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

17,920 17,582 15,879 15,532 2,041 2,050

Civilian labor force

8,576 8,295 7,486 7,151 1,090 1,145

Participation rate

47.9 47.2 47.1 46.0 53.4 55.8

Employed

8,346 8,060 7,278 6,952 1,067 1,108

Employment-population ratio

46.6 45.8 45.8 44.8 52.3 54.0

Unemployed

230 236 208 199 22 37

Unemployment rate

2.7 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.1 3.2

Not in labor force

9,344 9,287 8,393 8,381 951 905

Gulf War-era II veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

5,040 5,252 4,123 4,343 917 909

Civilian labor force

3,973 4,163 3,354 3,507 620 656

Participation rate

78.8 79.3 81.3 80.7 67.6 72.2

Employed

3,872 4,008 3,255 3,372 617 636

Employment-population ratio

76.8 76.3 78.9 77.6 67.3 70.0

Unemployed

102 155 99 135 3 20

Unemployment rate

2.6 3.7 2.9 3.8 0.5 3.1

Not in labor force

1,066 1,089 769 836 297 253

Gulf War-era I veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

2,949 2,885 2,499 2,395 450 490

Civilian labor force

2,073 1,920 1,790 1,612 283 308

Participation rate

70.3 66.5 71.6 67.3 63.0 62.8

Employed

2,028 1,891 1,758 1,594 270 296

Employment-population ratio

68.8 65.5 70.4 66.6 60.0 60.4

Unemployed

45 29 31 18 13 12

Unemployment rate

2.2 1.5 1.7 1.1 4.8 3.8

Not in labor force

876 965 710 783 166 183

World War II, Korean War, and Vietnam-era veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

5,987 5,653 5,733 5,414 254 239

Civilian labor force

849 697 820 675 29 22

Participation rate

14.2 12.3 14.3 12.5 11.6 9.1

Employed

819 683 789 662 29 22

Employment-population ratio

13.7 12.1 13.8 12.2 11.6 9.1

Unemployed

30 14 30 14 0 0

Unemployment rate

3.6 1.9 3.7 2.0 - -

Not in labor force

5,138 4,956 4,913 4,739 225 217

Veterans of other service periods

Civilian noninstitutional population

3,944 3,792 3,524 3,380 420 412

Civilian labor force

1,680 1,516 1,523 1,357 157 159

Participation rate

42.6 40.0 43.2 40.1 37.4 38.6

Employed

1,627 1,478 1,476 1,324 151 154

Employment-population ratio

41.2 39.0 41.9 39.2 35.9 37.5

Unemployed

53 38 47 33 6 5

Unemployment rate

3.2 2.5 3.1 2.4 3.9 3.0

Not in labor force

2,264 2,276 2,001 2,023 263 253

NONVETERANS, 18 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

239,520 241,546 109,818 110,669 129,702 130,877

Civilian labor force

156,449 157,713 80,623 81,265 75,826 76,448

Participation rate

65.3 65.3 73.4 73.4 58.5 58.4

Employed

150,762 151,212 77,719 77,978 73,043 73,234

Employment-population ratio

62.9 62.6 70.8 70.5 56.3 56.0

Unemployed

5,687 6,501 2,904 3,287 2,783 3,214

Unemployment rate

3.6 4.1 3.6 4.0 3.7 4.2

Not in labor force

83,071 83,833 29,195 29,404 53,876 54,429

NOTE: Veterans served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces and were not on active duty at the time of the survey. Nonveterans never served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces. Veterans could have served anywhere in the world during these periods of service: Gulf War era II (September 2001-present), Gulf War era I (August 1990-August 2001), Vietnam era (August 1964-April 1975), Korean War (July 1950-January 1955), World War II (December 1941-December 1946), and other service periods (all other time periods). Veterans who served in more than one wartime period are classified only in the most recent one. Veterans who served during one of the selected wartime periods and another period are classified only in the wartime period. Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria (values not shown where base is less than 75,000).


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-6. Employment status of the civilian population by sex, age, and disability status, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Persons with a disability Persons with no disability
June
2023
June
2024
June
2023
June
2024

TOTAL, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

34,152 33,685 232,649 234,753

Civilian labor force

8,193 8,247 159,717 160,760

Participation rate

24.0 24.5 68.7 68.5

Employed

7,638 7,586 153,921 154,188

Employment-population ratio

22.4 22.5 66.2 65.7

Unemployed

555 662 5,796 6,572

Unemployment rate

6.8 8.0 3.6 4.1

Not in labor force

25,960 25,438 72,931 73,994

Men, 16 to 64 years

Civilian labor force

3,360 3,574 80,084 80,056

Participation rate

39.9 43.8 83.8 83.8

Employed

3,138 3,285 77,113 76,801

Employment-population ratio

37.3 40.3 80.6 80.4

Unemployed

221 289 2,971 3,254

Unemployment rate

6.6 8.1 3.7 4.1

Not in labor force

5,052 4,586 15,531 15,502

Women, 16 to 64 years

Civilian labor force

3,348 3,293 70,132 70,662

Participation rate

39.5 39.0 73.0 73.1

Employed

3,112 2,958 67,547 67,631

Employment-population ratio

36.7 35.0 70.3 70.0

Unemployed

235 335 2,585 3,031

Unemployment rate

7.0 10.2 3.7 4.3

Not in labor force

5,124 5,149 25,942 25,987

Both sexes, 65 years and over

Civilian labor force

1,485 1,380 9,502 10,042

Participation rate

8.6 8.1 23.2 23.6

Employed

1,387 1,343 9,262 9,756

Employment-population ratio

8.0 7.9 22.6 22.9

Unemployed

99 37 240 286

Unemployment rate

6.6 2.7 2.5 2.8

Not in labor force

15,784 15,703 31,458 32,504

NOTE: A person with a disability has at least one of the following conditions: is deaf or has serious difficulty hearing; is blind or has serious difficulty seeing even when wearing glasses; has serious difficulty concentrating, remembering, or making decisions because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition; has serious difficulty walking or climbing stairs; has difficulty dressing or bathing; or has difficulty doing errands alone such as visiting a doctor's office or shopping because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-7. Employment status of the civilian population by nativity and sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status and nativity Total Men Women
June
2023
June
2024
June
2023
June
2024
June
2023
June
2024

Foreign born, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

45,873 48,099 22,463 23,476 23,409 24,623

Civilian labor force

30,730 32,224 17,508 18,318 13,222 13,906

Participation rate

67.0 67.0 77.9 78.0 56.5 56.5

Employed

29,710 30,867 17,042 17,575 12,668 13,292

Employment-population ratio

64.8 64.2 75.9 74.9 54.1 54.0

Unemployed

1,020 1,357 466 743 555 614

Unemployment rate

3.3 4.2 2.7 4.1 4.2 4.4

Not in labor force

15,142 15,875 4,955 5,158 10,187 10,717

Native born, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

220,928 220,339 107,945 107,399 112,984 112,940

Civilian labor force

137,180 136,783 71,995 71,582 65,185 65,200

Participation rate

62.1 62.1 66.7 66.7 57.7 57.7

Employed

131,849 130,906 69,097 68,607 62,752 62,300

Employment-population ratio

59.7 59.4 64.0 63.9 55.5 55.2

Unemployed

5,331 5,877 2,898 2,976 2,433 2,901

Unemployment rate

3.9 4.3 4.0 4.2 3.7 4.4

Not in labor force

83,749 83,556 35,950 35,817 47,799 47,740

NOTE: The foreign born are those residing in the United States who were not U.S. citizens at birth. That is, they were born outside the United States or one of its outlying areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam, to parents neither of whom was a U.S. citizen. The native born are persons who were born in the United States or one of its outlying areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam or who were born abroad of at least one parent who was a U.S. citizen. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-8. Employed persons by class of worker and part-time status
[In thousands]
Category Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
June
2023
May
2024
June
2024
June
2023
Feb.
2024
Mar.
2024
Apr.
2024
May
2024
June
2024

CLASS OF WORKER

Agriculture and related industries

2,398 2,283 2,513 2,299 2,201 2,217 2,246 2,221 2,379

Wage and salary workers(1)

1,650 1,545 1,779 1,584 1,524 1,507 1,555 1,504 1,666

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

712 680 694 673 649 654 657 657 655

Unpaid family workers

36 59 40 - - - - - -

Nonagricultural industries

159,161 159,058 159,261 158,886 158,601 158,970 159,161 158,919 158,984

Wage and salary workers(1)

150,021 149,507 150,084 149,799 149,321 149,513 149,831 149,413 149,846

Government

21,022 21,710 21,069 21,522 21,142 21,436 21,616 21,613 21,560

Private industries

128,999 127,797 129,015 128,265 128,256 128,092 128,170 127,746 128,300

Private households

641 617 612 - - - - - -

Other industries

128,358 127,180 128,403 127,634 127,392 127,331 127,493 127,072 127,646

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

9,055 9,502 9,126 8,922 9,377 9,522 9,295 9,408 9,025

Unpaid family workers

84 49 51 - - - - - -

PERSONS AT WORK PART TIME(2)

All industries

Part time for economic reasons(3)

4,403 4,217 4,421 4,198 4,376 4,308 4,469 4,419 4,220

Slack work or business conditions

2,955 2,937 2,853 2,930 2,863 2,972 3,058 3,086 2,832

Could only find part-time work

974 1,025 1,181 963 1,104 999 1,134 1,042 1,144

Part time for noneconomic reasons(4)

20,354 22,754 21,341 21,312 22,309 22,902 22,253 22,662 22,341

Nonagricultural industries

Part time for economic reasons(3)

4,337 4,152 4,350 4,121 4,300 4,255 4,404 4,340 4,138

Slack work or business conditions

2,910 2,892 2,806 2,879 2,803 2,949 3,010 3,036 2,778

Could only find part-time work

970 1,014 1,171 958 1,098 980 1,132 1,028 1,134

Part time for noneconomic reasons(4)

20,004 22,382 20,952 20,951 21,951 22,523 21,906 22,285 21,947

Footnotes
(1) Includes self-employed workers whose businesses are incorporated.
(2) Refers to those who worked 1 to 34 hours during the survey reference week and excludes employed persons who were absent from their jobs for the entire week.
(3) Refers to those who worked 1 to 34 hours during the reference week for an economic reason such as slack work or unfavorable business conditions, inability to find full-time work, or seasonal declines in demand.
(4) Refers to persons who usually work part time for noneconomic reasons such as childcare problems, family or personal obligations, school or training, retirement or Social Security limits on earnings, and other reasons. This excludes persons who usually work full time but worked only 1 to 34 hours during the reference week for reasons such as vacations, holidays, illness, and bad weather.

- Data not available.
NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-9. Selected employment indicators
[Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
June
2023
May
2024
June
2024
June
2023
Feb.
2024
Mar.
2024
Apr.
2024
May
2024
June
2024

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

161,559 161,341 161,774 161,004 160,968 161,466 161,491 161,083 161,199

16 to 19 years

6,320 5,777 6,569 5,563 5,608 5,862 5,839 5,871 5,782

16 to 17 years

2,451 2,040 2,502 2,175 2,035 2,146 2,116 2,153 2,207

18 to 19 years

3,868 3,738 4,067 3,379 3,595 3,756 3,727 3,733 3,556

20 years and over

155,239 155,564 155,205 155,441 155,360 155,604 155,652 155,212 155,417

20 to 24 years

15,130 13,833 14,420 14,730 14,192 14,287 14,419 13,945 14,050

25 years and over

140,110 141,730 140,784 140,662 141,300 141,485 141,328 141,385 141,364

25 to 54 years

103,108 104,148 103,600 103,372 103,717 103,669 103,832 103,919 103,874

25 to 34 years

35,712 35,767 35,593 35,758 35,672 35,667 35,638 35,694 35,645

35 to 44 years

35,267 36,207 36,023 35,382 36,117 36,123 36,197 36,121 36,147

45 to 54 years

32,130 32,174 31,984 32,232 31,928 31,879 31,997 32,105 32,081

55 years and over

37,002 37,582 37,185 37,290 37,582 37,816 37,497 37,466 37,491

Men, 16 years and over

86,140 85,076 86,182 85,518 84,993 85,490 85,208 84,882 85,514

16 to 19 years

3,072 2,851 3,317 2,682 2,815 2,947 2,890 2,896 2,896

16 to 17 years

1,142 948 1,251 976 939 1,022 1,000 996 1,061

18 to 19 years

1,930 1,903 2,065 1,696 1,900 1,964 1,901 1,915 1,818

20 years and over

83,068 82,225 82,865 82,836 82,178 82,543 82,318 81,986 82,618

20 to 24 years

7,784 7,088 7,461 7,534 7,107 7,222 7,381 7,110 7,218

25 years and over

75,284 75,137 75,404 75,245 75,239 75,496 75,012 74,943 75,358

25 to 54 years

55,342 55,106 55,397 55,255 55,126 55,179 55,027 54,970 55,294

25 to 34 years

19,161 18,903 19,021 19,135 18,945 18,957 18,893 18,872 18,992

35 to 44 years

19,169 19,267 19,344 19,133 19,266 19,332 19,234 19,210 19,304

45 to 54 years

17,012 16,935 17,033 16,986 16,916 16,890 16,900 16,888 16,998

55 years and over

19,942 20,032 20,006 19,990 20,112 20,316 19,985 19,973 20,063

Women, 16 years and over

75,419 76,265 75,592 75,486 75,975 75,976 76,283 76,201 75,684

16 to 19 years

3,248 2,926 3,252 2,880 2,793 2,915 2,949 2,975 2,886

16 to 17 years

1,309 1,091 1,250 1,199 1,096 1,124 1,116 1,158 1,145

18 to 19 years

1,939 1,835 2,002 1,683 1,694 1,793 1,827 1,818 1,739

20 years and over

72,171 73,338 72,339 72,605 73,182 73,061 73,334 73,226 72,798

20 to 24 years

7,345 6,746 6,959 7,196 7,085 7,065 7,038 6,835 6,833

25 years and over

64,826 66,593 65,380 65,417 66,061 65,989 66,316 66,442 66,007

25 to 54 years

47,766 49,042 48,202 48,117 48,591 48,490 48,805 48,950 48,579

25 to 34 years

16,551 16,864 16,572 16,623 16,727 16,710 16,745 16,822 16,653

35 to 44 years

16,097 16,940 16,679 16,249 16,851 16,791 16,963 16,910 16,843

45 to 54 years

15,118 15,238 14,951 15,245 15,013 14,989 15,096 15,217 15,083

55 years and over

17,060 17,551 17,178 17,300 17,470 17,500 17,511 17,492 17,427

MARITAL STATUS

Married men, spouse present(1)

45,696 45,752 45,752 45,898 45,387 45,962 45,547 45,712 45,902

Married women, spouse present(1)

36,422 37,123 36,522 36,857 36,822 37,069 36,906 37,020 36,964

Women who maintain families(2)

9,950 9,950 9,888 - - - - - -

FULL- OR PART-TIME STATUS

Full-time workers(3)

135,860 133,402 134,301 134,787 132,946 132,940 133,889 133,264 133,236

Part-time workers(4)

25,699 27,939 27,472 26,248 27,941 28,632 27,718 28,004 28,054

MULTIPLE JOBHOLDERS

Total multiple jobholders

7,880 8,352 8,194 8,021 8,259 8,476 8,383 8,399 8,340

Percent of total employed

4.9 5.2 5.1 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.2 5.2 5.2

SELF-EMPLOYMENT

Self-employed workers, incorporated

6,836 6,787 6,974 - - - - - -

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

9,767 10,181 9,820 9,595 10,026 10,176 9,952 10,065 9,681

Footnotes
(1) Beginning with data for January 2020, refers to persons in both opposite-sex and same-sex married couples. Prior to January 2020, referred to persons in opposite-sex married couples only.
(2) Beginning with data for January 2020, refers to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not a spouse of either sex. Prior to January 2020, referred to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not an opposite-sex spouse.
(3) Employed full-time workers are persons who usually work 35 hours or more per week.
(4) Employed part-time workers are persons who usually work less than 35 hours per week.

- Data not available.
NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-10. Selected unemployment indicators, seasonally adjusted
Characteristic Number of
unemployed persons
(in thousands)
Unemployment rates
June
2023
May
2024
June
2024
June
2023
Feb.
2024
Mar.
2024
Apr.
2024
May
2024
June
2024

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

5,997 6,649 6,811 3.6 3.9 3.8 3.9 4.0 4.1

16 to 19 years

698 821 795 11.2 12.5 12.6 11.7 12.3 12.1

16 to 17 years

277 338 317 11.3 12.5 14.1 12.6 13.6 12.6

18 to 19 years

403 481 475 10.7 12.2 11.5 11.3 11.4 11.8

20 years and over

5,298 5,828 6,016 3.3 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.6 3.7

20 to 24 years

957 1,189 1,136 6.1 7.2 7.1 6.7 7.9 7.5

25 years and over

4,325 4,605 4,875 3.0 3.2 3.1 3.2 3.2 3.3

25 to 54 years

3,330 3,568 3,783 3.1 3.3 3.2 3.2 3.3 3.5

25 to 34 years

1,467 1,511 1,656 3.9 4.3 4.1 3.8 4.1 4.4

35 to 44 years

1,075 1,225 1,244 2.9 2.9 2.6 3.0 3.3 3.3

45 to 54 years

788 833 883 2.4 2.6 2.9 2.8 2.5 2.7

55 years and over

977 1,044 1,078 2.6 2.8 2.6 3.0 2.7 2.8

Men, 16 years and over

3,330 3,737 3,657 3.7 3.8 3.7 3.9 4.2 4.1

16 to 19 years

390 495 430 12.7 12.3 13.7 13.1 14.6 12.9

16 to 17 years

161 198 149 14.1 11.6 14.1 13.8 16.6 12.3

18 to 19 years

207 286 279 10.9 12.5 13.2 12.8 13.0 13.3

20 years and over

2,941 3,243 3,227 3.4 3.5 3.3 3.6 3.8 3.8

20 to 24 years

550 646 624 6.8 7.9 7.1 6.6 8.3 8.0

25 years and over

2,344 2,570 2,574 3.0 3.2 3.0 3.2 3.3 3.3

25 to 54 years

1,726 2,013 1,991 3.0 3.3 3.1 3.3 3.5 3.5

25 to 34 years

800 858 847 4.0 4.2 4.1 4.0 4.3 4.3

35 to 44 years

488 683 658 2.5 3.0 2.2 3.0 3.4 3.3

45 to 54 years

438 472 486 2.5 2.6 3.0 2.9 2.7 2.8

55 years and over

618 556 583 3.0 2.8 2.6 3.1 2.7 2.8

Women, 16 years and over

2,667 2,912 3,154 3.4 3.9 3.9 3.8 3.7 4.0

16 to 19 years

309 326 365 9.7 12.7 11.4 10.2 9.9 11.2

16 to 17 years

117 140 168 8.9 13.1 14.2 11.6 10.8 12.8

18 to 19 years

196 195 196 10.4 11.8 9.7 9.6 9.7 10.1

20 years and over

2,358 2,586 2,788 3.1 3.5 3.6 3.5 3.4 3.7

20 to 24 years

407 543 512 5.4 6.4 7.1 6.7 7.4 7.0

25 years and over

1,981 2,035 2,302 2.9 3.2 3.2 3.1 3.0 3.4

25 to 54 years

1,604 1,555 1,792 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.1 3.1 3.6

25 to 34 years

666 653 810 3.9 4.4 4.0 3.7 3.7 4.6

35 to 44 years

587 542 586 3.5 2.8 3.1 2.9 3.1 3.4

45 to 54 years

351 361 396 2.2 2.6 2.8 2.8 2.3 2.6

55 years and over

377 481 514 2.1 2.9 2.6 2.9 2.7 2.9

MARITAL STATUS

Married men, spouse present(1)

838 880 905 1.8 1.9 1.8 2.1 1.9 1.9

Married women, spouse present(1)

815 808 870 2.2 2.0 2.3 2.4 2.1 2.3

Women who maintain families(2)

501 454 653 4.8 5.5 5.3 4.8 4.4 6.2

FULL- OR PART-TIME STATUS

Full-time workers(3)

4,859 5,439 5,557 3.5 3.9 3.7 3.8 3.9 4.0

Part-time workers(4)

1,095 1,178 1,218 4.0 3.9 4.4 4.2 4.0 4.2

Footnotes
(1) Beginning with data for January 2020, refers to persons in both opposite-sex and same-sex married couples. Prior to January 2020, referred to persons in opposite-sex married couples only.
(2) Data are not seasonally adjusted. Beginning with data for January 2020, refers to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not a spouse of either sex. Prior to January 2020, referred to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not an opposite-sex spouse.
(3) Full-time workers are unemployed persons who have expressed a desire to work full time (35 hours or more per week) or are on layoff from full-time jobs.
(4) Part-time workers are unemployed persons who have expressed a desire to work part time (less than 35 hours per week) or are on layoff from part-time jobs.

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-11. Unemployed persons by reason for unemployment
[Numbers in thousands]
Reason Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
June
2023
May
2024
June
2024
June
2023
Feb.
2024
Mar.
2024
Apr.
2024
May
2024
June
2024

NUMBER OF UNEMPLOYED

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

2,817 2,836 3,199 2,790 3,216 3,042 3,241 3,220 3,176

On temporary layoff

850 556 873 781 827 779 871 836 813

Not on temporary layoff

1,968 2,279 2,326 2,009 2,389 2,263 2,370 2,384 2,362

Permanent job losers

1,439 1,724 1,641 1,443 1,730 1,655 1,756 1,764 1,643

Persons who completed temporary jobs

528 555 685 566 659 607 615 620 719

Job leavers

772 670 730 796 711 823 785 717 752

Reentrants

1,934 2,105 2,307 1,776 1,946 1,920 1,929 2,046 2,094

New entrants

828 624 997 559 611 678 574 630 708

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

44.4 45.5 44.2 47.1 49.6 47.1 49.6 48.7 47.2

On temporary layoff

13.4 8.9 12.1 13.2 12.8 12.1 13.3 12.6 12.1

Not on temporary layoff

31.0 36.6 32.2 33.9 36.8 35.0 36.3 36.0 35.1

Job leavers

12.2 10.7 10.1 13.4 11.0 12.7 12.0 10.8 11.2

Reentrants

30.4 33.8 31.9 30.0 30.0 29.7 29.5 30.9 31.1

New entrants

13.0 10.0 13.8 9.4 9.4 10.5 8.8 9.5 10.5

UNEMPLOYED AS A PERCENT OF THE
CIVILIAN LABOR FORCE

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

1.7 1.7 1.9 1.7 1.9 1.8 1.9 1.9 1.9

Job leavers

0.5 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.4 0.4

Reentrants

1.2 1.3 1.4 1.1 1.2 1.1 1.1 1.2 1.2

New entrants

0.5 0.4 0.6 0.3 0.4 0.4 0.3 0.4 0.4

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to total unemployed in table A-1 because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-12. Unemployed persons by duration of unemployment
[Numbers in thousands]
Duration Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
June
2023
May
2024
June
2024
June
2023
Feb.
2024
Mar.
2024
Apr.
2024
May
2024
June
2024

NUMBER OF UNEMPLOYED

Less than 5 weeks

2,788 2,275 2,834 2,065 2,326 2,189 2,262 2,309 2,128

5 to 14 weeks

1,667 1,578 1,920 1,850 1,933 1,979 1,987 1,918 2,102

15 weeks and over

1,896 2,382 2,479 2,022 2,176 2,228 2,119 2,305 2,603

15 to 26 weeks

845 1,049 1,016 905 974 982 869 955 1,087

27 weeks and over

1,051 1,333 1,464 1,117 1,203 1,246 1,250 1,350 1,516

Average (mean) duration, in weeks

19.3 22.0 19.3 20.7 20.9 21.6 19.9 21.2 20.7

Median duration, in weeks

6.4 9.3 7.5 8.8 9.3 9.5 8.7 8.9 9.8

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION

Less than 5 weeks

43.9 36.5 39.2 34.8 36.1 34.2 35.5 35.3 31.1

5 to 14 weeks

26.2 25.3 26.5 31.2 30.0 30.9 31.2 29.4 30.8

15 weeks and over

29.8 38.2 34.3 34.1 33.8 34.8 33.3 35.3 38.1

15 to 26 weeks

13.3 16.8 14.0 15.2 15.1 15.3 13.6 14.6 15.9

27 weeks and over

16.6 21.4 20.2 18.8 18.7 19.5 19.6 20.7 22.2

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to total unemployed in table A-1 because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-13. Employed and unemployed persons by occupation, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Occupation Employed Unemployed Unemployment
rates
June
2023
June
2024
June
2023
June
2024
June
2023
June
2024

Total, 16 years and over(1)

161,559 161,774 6,351 7,233 3.8 4.3

Management, professional, and related occupations

69,956 71,002 1,609 1,887 2.2 2.6

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

30,881 31,193 600 705 1.9 2.2

Professional and related occupations

39,075 39,808 1,009 1,182 2.5 2.9

Service occupations

27,041 26,851 1,222 1,418 4.3 5.0

Sales and office occupations

30,135 29,679 1,094 1,129 3.5 3.7

Sales and related occupations

14,218 14,111 589 666 4.0 4.5

Office and administrative support occupations

15,917 15,568 506 463 3.1 2.9

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

14,596 14,363 498 579 3.3 3.9

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

1,041 1,083 55 54 5.0 4.7

Construction and extraction occupations

8,597 8,506 340 400 3.8 4.5

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

4,958 4,774 103 125 2.0 2.5

Production, transportation, and material moving
occupations

19,832 19,879 1,080 1,219 5.2 5.8

Production occupations

8,269 8,127 360 382 4.2 4.5

Transportation and material moving occupations

11,563 11,751 720 837 5.9 6.7

Footnotes
(1) Persons with no previous work experience and persons whose last job was in the U.S. Armed Forces are included in the unemployed total.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data. Effective with January 2020 data, occupations reflect the introduction of the 2018 Census occupational classification system into the Current Population Survey, or household survey. This classification system is derived from the 2018 Standard Occupational Classification (SOC). No historical data have been revised. Data for 2020 are not strictly comparable with earlier years.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-14. Unemployed persons by industry and class of worker, not seasonally adjusted
Industry and class of worker Number of
unemployed
persons
(in thousands)
Unemployment
rates
June
2023
June
2024
June
2023
June
2024

Total, 16 years and over(1)

6,351 7,233 3.8 4.3

Nonagricultural private wage and salary workers

4,449 5,173 3.3 3.9

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

7 7 1.3 1.3

Construction

381 345 3.6 3.3

Manufacturing

396 469 2.6 3.1

Durable goods

238 278 2.4 2.8

Nondurable goods

158 191 2.9 3.6

Wholesale and retail trade

855 988 4.4 5.1

Transportation and utilities

263 378 3.1 4.5

Information

85 147 3.1 5.9

Financial activities

226 274 2.2 2.7

Professional and business services

628 738 3.3 3.7

Education and health services

733 823 2.8 3.1

Leisure and hospitality

735 743 5.1 5.2

Other services

140 263 2.1 3.9

Agriculture and related private wage and salary workers

85 77 5.1 4.3

Government workers

649 631 3.0 2.9

Self-employed workers, unincorporated, and unpaid family workers

340 356 3.3 3.5

Footnotes
(1) Persons with no previous work experience and persons whose last job was in the U.S. Armed Forces are included in the unemployed total.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data. Effective with January 2020 data, industries reflect the introduction of the 2017 Census industry classification system into the Current Population Survey. This industry classification system is derived from the 2017 North American Industry Classification System (NAICS). No historical data have been revised.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-15. Alternative measures of labor underutilization
[Percent]
Measure Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
June
2023
May
2024
June
2024
June
2023
Feb.
2024
Mar.
2024
Apr.
2024
May
2024
June
2024

U-1 Persons unemployed 15 weeks or longer, as a percent of the civilian labor force

1.1 1.4 1.5 1.2 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.4 1.5

U-2 Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs, as a percent of the civilian labor force

1.7 1.7 1.9 1.7 1.9 1.8 1.9 1.9 1.9

U-3 Total unemployed, as a percent of the civilian labor force (official unemployment rate)

3.8 3.7 4.3 3.6 3.9 3.8 3.9 4.0 4.1

U-4 Total unemployed plus discouraged workers, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus discouraged workers

4.0 4.0 4.5 3.8 4.1 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3

U-5 Total unemployed, plus discouraged workers, plus all other persons marginally attached to the labor force, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force

4.6 4.6 5.1 4.4 4.7 4.7 4.8 4.8 4.9

U-6 Total unemployed, plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force, plus total employed part time for economic reasons, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force

7.2 7.1 7.7 6.9 7.3 7.3 7.4 7.4 7.4

NOTE: Persons marginally attached to the labor force are those who currently are neither working nor looking for work but indicate that they want and are available for a job and have looked for work sometime in the past 12 months. Discouraged workers, a subset of the marginally attached, have given a job-market related reason for not currently looking for work. Persons employed part time for economic reasons are those who want and are available for full-time work but have had to settle for a part-time schedule. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-16. Persons not in the labor force and multiple jobholders by sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Category Total Men Women
June
2023
June
2024
June
2023
June
2024
June
2023
June
2024

NOT IN THE LABOR FORCE

Total not in the labor force

98,891 99,431 40,905 40,974 57,986 58,457

Persons who currently want a job

5,846 5,655 2,682 2,850 3,164 2,805

Marginally attached to the labor force(1)

1,479 1,548 759 941 721 607

Discouraged workers(2)

320 369 185 238 134 131

Other persons marginally attached to the labor force(3)

1,159 1,179 573 703 586 476

MULTIPLE JOBHOLDERS

Total multiple jobholders(4)

7,880 8,194 3,873 3,893 4,007 4,302

Percent of total employed

4.9 5.1 4.5 4.5 5.3 5.7

Primary job full time, secondary job part time

4,670 4,714 2,488 2,438 2,182 2,276

Primary and secondary jobs both part time

1,747 1,999 637 675 1,111 1,324

Primary and secondary jobs both full time

389 367 217 195 172 172

Hours vary on primary or secondary job

994 1,064 509 565 485 499

Footnotes
(1) Data refer to persons who want a job, have searched for work during the prior 12 months, and were available to take a job during the reference week, but had not looked for work in the past 4 weeks.
(2) Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for reasons such as thinks no work available, could not find work, lacks schooling or training, employer thinks too young or old, and other types of discrimination.
(3) Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for such reasons as school or family responsibilities, ill health, and transportation problems, as well as a number for whom reason for nonparticipation was not determined.
(4) Includes a small number of persons who work part time on their primary job and full time on their secondary job(s), not shown separately.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-1. Employees on nonfarm payrolls by industry sector and selected industry detail
[In thousands]
Industry Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
June
2023
Apr.
2024
May
2024(p)
June
2024(p)
June
2023
Apr.
2024
May
2024(p)
June
2024(p)
Change from:
May2024 - June2024(p)

Total nonfarm

156,842 158,001 158,845 159,392 156,027 158,214 158,432 158,638 206

Total private

134,233 134,404 135,287 136,190 133,270 134,945 135,138 135,274 136

Goods-producing

21,860 21,656 21,834 22,085 21,597 21,798 21,810 21,829 19

Mining and logging

647 633 632 638 642 638 634 634 0

Logging

44.2 38.8 37.4 39.2 44.3 41.4 40.2 39.7 -0.5

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

603.0 594.1 594.5 599.0 597.8 596.4 593.7 594.0 0.3

Oil and gas extraction

117.0 117.7 118.9 121.9 116.9 119.0 120.1 121.4 1.3

Mining (except oil and gas)

190.5 188.7 190.9 192.4 187.1 189.8 189.9 189.8 -0.1

Coal mining

43.2 44.0 43.9 44.4 43.0 43.8 43.9 44.4 0.5

Metal ore mining

43.8 43.0 43.2 43.4 43.4 43.1 43.2 43.3 0.1

Nonmetallic mineral mining and quarrying

103.5 101.7 103.8 104.6 100.7 102.8 102.8 102.1 -0.7

Support activities for mining

295.5 287.7 284.7 284.7 293.8 287.6 283.7 282.8 -0.9

Construction

8,195 8,112 8,266 8,427 8,010 8,202 8,218 8,245 27

Construction of buildings

1,839.0 1,843.1 1,863.6 1,906.1 1,810.6 1,863.9 1,869.3 1,878.1 8.8

Residential building construction

943.8 935.4 947.8 964.8 929.7 946.2 948.7 951.8 3.1

Nonresidential building construction

895.2 907.7 915.8 941.3 880.9 917.7 920.6 926.3 5.7

Heavy and civil engineering construction

1,158.7 1,129.7 1,172.6 1,199.0 1,111.5 1,142.5 1,144.9 1,151.2 6.3

Specialty trade contractors

5,197.0 5,138.7 5,229.7 5,322.1 5,088.1 5,196.0 5,203.8 5,215.4 11.6

Residential specialty trade contractors

2,428.5 2,381.0 2,421.0 2,462.6 2,373.5 2,406.4 2,405.8 2,408.2 2.4

Nonresidential specialty trade contractors

2,768.5 2,757.7 2,808.7 2,859.5 2,714.6 2,789.6 2,798.0 2,807.2 9.2

Manufacturing

13,018 12,911 12,936 13,020 12,945 12,958 12,958 12,950 -8

Durable goods

8,151 8,123 8,128 8,175 8,104 8,143 8,138 8,128 -10

Wood product manufacturing

419.4 413.8 414.9 419.8 417.1 415.4 416.4 418.1 1.7

Nonmetallic mineral product manufacturing

425.5 418.5 423.6 429.7 420.2 422.2 421.7 423.0 1.3

Primary metal manufacturing

376.2 372.9 372.2 375.1 375.7 373.7 372.7 373.1 0.4

Fabricated metal product manufacturing

1,461.3 1,464.6 1,464.8 1,465.4 1,453.9 1,466.4 1,462.7 1,456.2 -6.5

Machinery manufacturing

1,145.6 1,134.6 1,136.4 1,138.7 1,135.8 1,136.7 1,135.7 1,129.2 -6.5

Computer and electronic product manufacturing

1,118.2 1,096.6 1,096.5 1,106.6 1,110.6 1,100.7 1,101.1 1,100.3 -0.8

Computer and peripheral equipment manufacturing

164.6 160.2 159.0 160.1 163.8 160.8 160.5 160.0 -0.5

Communications equipment manufacturing

87.6 84.6 85.1 85.7 86.5 84.9 85.7 85.0 -0.7

Semiconductor and other electronic component manufacturing

397.9 389.5 390.7 395.2 394.8 391.0 391.7 392.0 0.3

Navigational, measuring, electromedical, and control instruments manufacturing

436.5 431.7 430.8 434.1 434.4 433.0 432.3 432.3 0.0

Manufacturing and reproducing magnetic and optical media and audio and video equipment manufacturing

31.6 30.6 30.9 31.5 31.2 31.0 30.9 31.0 0.1

Electrical equipment, appliance, and component manufacturing

415.8 411.4 408.9 408.3 412.6 412.2 409.7 406.9 -2.8

Transportation equipment manufacturing(1)

1,797.9 1,842.6 1,843.2 1,861.0 1,793.0 1,845.8 1,851.8 1,856.5 4.7

Motor vehicles and parts(2)

1,043.5 1,069.7 1,070.3 1,080.8 1,044.1 1,069.5 1,074.8 1,080.7 5.9

Furniture and related product manufacturing

360.8 344.1 343.6 346.6 358.5 345.3 343.3 344.0 0.7

Miscellaneous manufacturing

630.0 624.0 623.4 624.1 626.5 624.6 622.6 620.4 -2.2

Nondurable goods

4,867 4,788 4,808 4,845 4,841 4,815 4,820 4,822 2

Food manufacturing

1,725.0 1,720.1 1,725.7 1,741.3 1,722.3 1,734.7 1,737.4 1,740.5 3.1

Textile mills

91.1 89.3 90.0 90.2 90.5 89.3 90.1 89.6 -0.5

Textile product mills

98.4 95.7 96.0 95.1 98.2 95.5 96.1 95.6 -0.5

Apparel manufacturing

91.0 83.7 84.4 85.0 90.2 83.8 84.0 83.8 -0.2

Paper manufacturing

356.8 347.9 344.2 348.9 356.2 348.7 346.1 348.4 2.3

Printing and related support activities

369.8 363.9 363.0 363.4 369.3 364.6 363.6 362.6 -1.0

Petroleum and coal products manufacturing

111.7 109.0 110.9 112.1 108.9 109.6 109.5 109.6 0.1

Chemical manufacturing

907.5 897.3 900.8 905.6 902.6 899.1 901.1 901.7 0.6

Plastics and rubber products manufacturing

743.4 725.5 727.8 728.7 740.1 726.7 726.9 724.4 -2.5

Beverage, tobacco, and leather and allied product manufacturing

371.9 355.5 365.5 374.9 362.4 362.5 364.8 365.8 1.0

Private service-providing

112,373 112,748 113,453 114,105 111,673 113,147 113,328 113,445 117

Trade, transportation, and utilities

28,802 28,740 28,885 29,018 28,860 29,003 29,025 29,039 14

Wholesale trade

6,135.1 6,147.4 6,164.8 6,213.0 6,103.8 6,165.4 6,166.9 6,181.1 14.2

Merchant wholesalers, durable goods

3,398.8 3,418.5 3,430.9 3,460.6 3,385.8 3,429.5 3,434.9 3,447.2 12.3

Merchant wholesalers, nondurable goods

2,226.3 2,215.9 2,222.0 2,237.6 2,208.7 2,221.0 2,217.7 2,219.2 1.5

Wholesale trade agents and brokers

510.0 513.0 511.9 514.8 509.3 514.9 514.3 514.7 0.4

Retail trade

15,590.4 15,531.9 15,609.5 15,686.2 15,593.8 15,676.2 15,683.3 15,674.8 -8.5

Motor vehicle and parts dealers

2,054.9 2,074.1 2,077.3 2,088.1 2,040.2 2,075.7 2,075.5 2,075.4 -0.1

Automobile dealers

1,277.2 1,298.7 1,301.3 1,308.0 1,272.9 1,299.7 1,302.0 1,305.1 3.1

Other motor vehicle dealers

188.2 170.9 174.5 177.0 179.0 170.8 169.3 168.1 -1.2

Automotive parts, accessories, and tire retailers

589.5 604.5 601.5 603.1 588.2 605.2 604.2 602.2 -2.0

Building material and garden equipment and supplies dealers

1,454.2 1,399.8 1,441.0 1,433.1 1,400.1 1,377.7 1,386.0 1,383.6 -2.4

Food and beverage retailers

3,241.4 3,238.0 3,249.3 3,266.4 3,232.5 3,261.1 3,263.8 3,262.0 -1.8

Furniture, home furnishings, electronics, and appliance retailers

838.4 811.0 801.7 798.3 847.9 818.7 813.5 807.9 -5.6

Furniture and home furnishings retailers

427.3 418.8 414.9 413.8 431.7 422.5 420.0 417.5 -2.5

Electronics and appliance retailers

411.1 392.2 386.8 384.5 416.2 396.2 393.6 390.4 -3.2

General merchandise retailers

3,186.9 3,226.8 3,224.9 3,249.8 3,246.8 3,279.9 3,276.9 3,282.1 5.2

Department stores

942.2 942.1 937.4 947.6 974.8 973.7 971.2 971.0 -0.2

Warehouse clubs, supercenters, and other general merchandise retailers

2,244.7 2,284.7 2,287.5 2,302.2 2,272.0 2,306.2 2,305.7 2,311.0 5.3

Health and personal care retailers

1,090.9 1,088.4 1,087.4 1,088.2 1,100.6 1,097.3 1,098.4 1,099.5 1.1

Gasoline stations and fuel dealers

1,068.8 1,072.3 1,079.8 1,092.8 1,059.8 1,079.8 1,080.6 1,081.1 0.5

Clothing, clothing accessories, shoe, and jewelry retailers

1,124.1 1,103.5 1,110.2 1,126.9 1,137.9 1,142.5 1,145.8 1,144.0 -1.8

Sporting goods, hobby, musical instrument, book, and miscellaneous retailers

1,530.8 1,518.0 1,537.9 1,542.6 1,528.0 1,543.5 1,542.8 1,539.2 -3.6

Transportation and warehousing

6,498.8 6,474.4 6,523.0 6,526.6 6,586.9 6,574.2 6,586.4 6,593.7 7.3

Air transportation

555.0 571.9 574.0 581.2 549.6 573.7 575.6 577.8 2.2

Rail transportation

153.0 153.2 152.8 152.8 152.6 153.2 153.0 153.3 0.3

Water transportation

73.7 73.8 76.5 78.6 70.8 74.9 75.4 76.1 0.7

Truck transportation

1,590.2 1,538.2 1,546.4 1,559.4 1,578.7 1,554.8 1,548.7 1,548.6 -0.1

Transit and ground passenger transportation

417.5 450.0 455.0 432.1 429.2 437.1 440.3 442.9 2.6

Pipeline transportation

51.9 53.3 53.8 54.1 51.8 53.3 53.6 54.0 0.4

Scenic and sightseeing transportation

35.0 28.7 37.4 42.2 29.8 33.0 35.3 35.2 -0.1

Support activities for transportation

815.9 838.5 845.7 846.3 821.6 843.4 847.4 850.1 2.7

Couriers and messengers

1,027.4 1,010.5 1,024.4 1,030.7 1,090.4 1,079.5 1,083.3 1,084.2 0.9

Warehousing and storage

1,779.2 1,756.3 1,757.0 1,749.2 1,812.4 1,771.3 1,773.8 1,771.5 -2.3

Utilities

577.6 585.8 587.8 591.7 575.2 587.4 588.7 589.6 0.9

Information

3,063 2,996 3,002 3,033 3,043 3,016 3,021 3,027 6

Motion picture and sound recording industries

440.6 435.7 450.7 461.4 429.2 441.8 447.4 452.2 4.8

Publishing industries

955.2 923.2 921.8 935.9 950.1 932.4 933.1 933.3 0.2

Broadcasting and content providers

347.7 340.3 339.2 338.3 347.0 340.8 340.2 339.7 -0.5

Telecommunications

651.4 624.6 623.0 625.1 649.5 628.0 627.5 626.2 -1.3

Computing infrastructure providers, data processing, web hosting, and related services

491.2 495.5 493.2 494.9 490.3 496.9 496.7 497.7 1.0

Web search portals, libraries, archives, and other information services

177.2 176.2 174.1 177.3 176.5 176.5 176.3 177.4 1.1

Financial activities

9,246 9,174 9,202 9,277 9,201 9,223 9,235 9,244 9

Finance and insurance

6,755.7 6,707.9 6,711.6 6,755.2 6,740.1 6,732.4 6,738.0 6,745.8 7.8

Monetary authorities-central bank

22.8 22.5 22.5 22.9 22.7 22.7 22.7 22.8 0.1

Credit intermediation and related
activities

2,646.6 2,584.1 2,583.3 2,590.6 2,638.3 2,589.6 2,588.4 2,584.5 -3.9

Depository credit intermediation(1)

1,809.6 1,775.5 1,772.9 1,779.2 1,804.6 1,778.7 1,777.1 1,773.9 -3.2

Commercial banking

1,402.8 1,365.8 1,362.9 1,367.0 1,399.2 1,367.5 1,365.8 1,363.2 -2.6

Nondepository credit intermediation

541.3 524.1 525.3 526.0 538.9 525.9 525.5 524.4 -1.1

Activities related to credit intermediation

295.7 284.5 285.1 285.4 294.8 285.1 285.9 286.2 0.3

Securities, commodity contracts, funds, trusts, and other financial vehicles, investments, and related activities

1,108.9 1,104.3 1,105.7 1,117.8 1,104.5 1,111.9 1,114.1 1,117.1 3.0

Insurance carriers and related activities

2,977.4 2,997.0 3,000.1 3,023.9 2,974.6 3,008.2 3,012.8 3,021.4 8.6

Real estate and rental and leasing

2,490.7 2,465.6 2,490.2 2,521.4 2,460.9 2,490.6 2,496.6 2,497.7 1.1

Real estate

1,863.6 1,862.4 1,877.1 1,892.5 1,851.6 1,874.6 1,882.3 1,882.8 0.5

Rental and leasing services

604.0 579.9 589.7 605.3 586.5 592.6 590.9 591.7 0.8

Lessors of nonfinancial intangible assets (except copyrighted works)

23.1 23.3 23.4 23.6 22.8 23.4 23.4 23.2 -0.2

Professional and business services

22,962 22,903 22,996 23,028 22,883 22,936 22,967 22,950 -17

Professional, scientific, and technical services

10,835.6 11,007.5 10,975.3 11,048.9 10,831.7 10,990.0 11,026.7 11,050.9 24.2

Legal services

1,197.4 1,178.8 1,181.9 1,201.6 1,182.9 1,188.2 1,189.2 1,190.6 1.4

Accounting, tax preparation, bookkeeping, and payroll services

1,119.1 1,236.4 1,153.6 1,147.9 1,153.4 1,167.0 1,176.3 1,180.9 4.6

Architectural, engineering, and related services

1,688.5 1,673.0 1,698.4 1,727.8 1,667.0 1,690.9 1,702.4 1,707.3 4.9

Specialized design services

154.4 153.0 150.6 150.8 153.3 153.3 151.2 150.8 -0.4

Computer systems design and related services

2,492.4 2,539.6 2,539.4 2,542.5 2,499.5 2,540.4 2,543.0 2,550.4 7.4

Management, scientific, and technical consulting services

1,867.0 1,882.2 1,893.3 1,899.7 1,869.9 1,892.9 1,900.6 1,902.7 2.1

Scientific research and development services

942.9 951.3 954.9 968.5 933.0 957.5 958.5 960.1 1.6

Advertising, public relations, and related services

508.4 523.0 523.5 526.6 507.1 523.8 523.6 524.3 0.7

Other professional, scientific, and technical services

865.5 870.2 879.7 883.5 865.7 875.9 881.9 883.8 1.9

Management of companies and enterprises

2,572.4 2,544.7 2,546.3 2,571.1 2,560.2 2,555.0 2,555.7 2,557.6 1.9

Administrative and support and waste management and remediation services

9,553.6 9,350.6 9,473.9 9,407.8 9,491.2 9,390.5 9,384.5 9,341.5 -43.0

Administrative and support services

9,048.9 8,836.3 8,954.8 8,882.3 8,990.8 8,872.9 8,864.0 8,820.1 -43.9

Office administrative services

620.1 630.0 629.5 632.6 617.5 632.2 632.8 633.6 0.8

Facilities support services

169.1 179.9 180.2 181.6 170.3 179.5 180.9 181.8 0.9

Employment services(1)

3,605.8 3,480.1 3,515.2 3,390.5 3,663.6 3,510.0 3,489.8 3,444.2 -45.6

Temporary help services

2,834.3 2,708.3 2,734.6 2,610.8 2,890.1 2,731.3 2,715.4 2,666.5 -48.9

Business support services

740.0 703.3 697.7 696.7 748.2 708.3 708.1 705.3 -2.8

Travel arrangement and reservation services

192.3 193.0 195.4 193.9 189.1 193.7 193.7 192.0 -1.7

Investigation and security services

1,008.7 1,012.3 1,019.6 1,019.1 1,010.7 1,013.7 1,019.2 1,020.1 0.9

Services to buildings and dwellings

2,373.6 2,291.2 2,368.2 2,421.6 2,254.1 2,289.3 2,295.8 2,301.8 6.0

Other support services

339.3 346.5 349.0 346.3 337.3 346.2 343.6 341.3 -2.3

Waste management and remediation services

504.7 514.3 519.1 525.5 500.4 517.6 520.5 521.4 0.9

Private education and health services

25,079 26,295 26,253 26,130 25,277 26,185 26,266 26,348 82

Private educational services

3,627.0 4,015.7 3,878.2 3,652.3 3,823.3 3,857.0 3,855.0 3,854.3 -0.7

Health care and social assistance

21,452.3 22,279.1 22,374.8 22,477.6 21,453.3 22,328.4 22,411.3 22,493.7 82.4

Health care(3)

16,889.9 17,503.1 17,561.8 17,641.2 16,899.6 17,548.8 17,608.4 17,657.0 48.6

Ambulatory health care services

8,421.6 8,731.4 8,776.7 8,797.8 8,435.0 8,749.3 8,787.4 8,809.4 22.0

Offices of physicians

2,902.8 3,004.9 3,015.6 3,028.1 2,910.3 3,013.7 3,024.4 3,036.2 11.8

Offices of dentists

1,029.8 1,027.4 1,035.7 1,043.0 1,026.9 1,032.1 1,036.4 1,040.8 4.4

Offices of other health practitioners

1,150.3 1,199.1 1,206.7 1,210.2 1,152.1 1,202.4 1,208.2 1,214.3 6.1

Outpatient care centers

1,051.9 1,081.6 1,080.7 1,086.1 1,056.1 1,083.6 1,085.3 1,089.6 4.3

Medical and diagnostic laboratories

320.7 324.5 322.0 319.9 320.6 322.8 322.2 321.0 -1.2

Home health care services

1,621.6 1,737.2 1,761.4 1,755.7 1,622.5 1,737.6 1,755.0 1,751.5 -3.5

Other ambulatory health care services

344.5 356.7 354.6 354.8 346.4 357.1 355.9 356.0 0.1

Hospitals

5,319.0 5,516.2 5,517.8 5,557.0 5,323.9 5,532.3 5,544.6 5,566.3 21.7

Nursing and residential care facilities

3,149.3 3,255.5 3,267.3 3,286.4 3,140.7 3,267.2 3,276.4 3,281.3 4.9

Skilled nursing care facilities

1,417.3 1,458.8 1,458.8 1,471.6 1,412.6 1,466.9 1,467.4 1,470.7 3.3

Residential intellectual and developmental disability, mental health, and substance abuse facilities

636.1 663.4 667.8 671.4 635.4 665.6 668.4 669.4 1.0

Continuing care retirement communities and assisted living facilities for the elderly

938.2 971.7 979.0 978.0 935.7 971.8 978.0 976.0 -2.0

Other residential care facilities

157.7 161.6 161.7 165.4 157.0 162.8 162.7 165.2 2.5

Social assistance

4,562.4 4,776.0 4,813.0 4,836.4 4,553.7 4,779.6 4,802.9 4,836.7 33.8

Individual and family services

3,029.9 3,194.5 3,213.6 3,244.3 3,025.2 3,197.2 3,215.0 3,241.4 26.4

Community food and housing, and emergency and other relief services

220.7 227.9 229.2 232.2 220.6 228.1 229.5 231.5 2.0

Vocational rehabilitation services

284.0 287.7 289.9 292.3 280.6 288.5 289.1 289.7 0.6

Child care services

1,027.8 1,065.9 1,080.3 1,067.6 1,027.4 1,065.8 1,069.3 1,074.1 4.8

Leisure and hospitality

17,320 16,753 17,187 17,623 16,588 16,884 16,906 16,913 7

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

2,825.1 2,584.1 2,724.9 2,938.3 2,529.6 2,643.9 2,656.2 2,664.7 8.5

Performing arts, spectator sports, and related industries

615.0 639.5 655.4 660.8 582.6 621.2 623.4 626.3 2.9

Museums, historical sites, and similar institutions

184.8 174.7 181.4 190.7 172.2 178.4 178.5 179.0 0.5

Amusement, gambling, and recreation industries

2,025.3 1,769.9 1,888.1 2,086.8 1,774.8 1,844.3 1,854.3 1,859.4 5.1

Accommodation and food services

14,494.6 14,168.6 14,461.9 14,684.8 14,058.7 14,239.8 14,250.2 14,247.8 -2.4

Accommodation

2,009.7 1,876.6 1,938.3 2,045.8 1,886.9 1,921.3 1,920.5 1,921.2 0.7

Food services and drinking places

12,484.9 12,292.0 12,523.6 12,639.0 12,171.8 12,318.5 12,329.7 12,326.6 -3.1

Other services

5,901 5,887 5,928 5,996 5,821 5,900 5,908 5,924 16

Repair and maintenance

1,465.5 1,481.2 1,487.7 1,492.0 1,451.2 1,481.2 1,481.9 1,482.6 0.7

Personal and laundry services

1,553.5 1,549.9 1,565.5 1,568.0 1,532.4 1,549.5 1,551.4 1,553.1 1.7

Religious, grantmaking, civic, professional, and similar organizations

2,882.3 2,856.2 2,874.8 2,936.0 2,837.4 2,869.6 2,875.0 2,888.7 13.7

Government

22,609 23,597 23,558 23,202 22,757 23,269 23,294 23,364 70

Federal

2,924 2,986 2,993 2,998 2,920 2,993 2,996 3,001 5

Federal, except U.S. Postal Service

2,321.4 2,375.1 2,386.5 2,393.6 2,313.4 2,387.1 2,389.3 2,393.4 4.1

U.S. Postal Service

602.7 610.8 606.4 603.9 606.9 606.3 607.0 607.4 0.4

State government

5,052 5,604 5,444 5,208 5,301 5,448 5,439 5,465 26

State government education

2,314.5 2,820.5 2,646.3 2,381.3 2,578.8 2,658.5 2,642.0 2,654.6 12.6

State government, excluding education

2,737.6 2,783.6 2,798.1 2,826.7 2,721.8 2,789.4 2,797.0 2,810.0 13.0

Local government

14,633 15,007 15,121 14,996 14,536 14,828 14,859 14,898 39

Local government education

7,870.5 8,338.4 8,352.6 8,020.1 7,955.5 8,074.9 8,080.9 8,085.5 4.6

Local government, excluding education

6,762.2 6,668.1 6,768.8 6,975.7 6,580.4 6,753.5 6,778.1 6,812.2 34.1

Footnotes
(1) Includes other industries, not shown separately.
(2) Includes motor vehicle manufacturing, motor vehicle body and trailer manufacturing, and motor vehicle parts manufacturing.
(3) Includes ambulatory health care services, hospitals, and nursing and residential care facilities.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2023 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-2. Average weekly hours and overtime of all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry June
2023
Apr.
2024
May
2024(p)
June
2024(p)

AVERAGE WEEKLY HOURS

Total private

34.4 34.3 34.3 34.3

Goods-producing

39.9 39.7 39.9 40.0

Mining and logging

45.7 44.5 44.6 44.8

Construction

39.0 38.7 39.0 39.3

Manufacturing

40.1 40.1 40.2 40.2

Durable goods

40.7 40.6 40.6 40.6

Nondurable goods

39.2 39.3 39.5 39.5

Private service-providing

33.3 33.2 33.2 33.2

Trade, transportation, and utilities

33.9 33.7 33.7 33.7

Wholesale trade

38.8 39.1 39.2 39.0

Retail trade

29.9 29.5 29.5 29.5

Transportation and warehousing

38.1 37.9 37.8 37.9

Utilities

42.4 42.2 42.3 41.9

Information

36.5 36.3 36.4 36.6

Financial activities

37.4 37.5 37.6 37.6

Professional and business services

36.5 36.5 36.4 36.4

Private education and health services

33.3 33.2 33.2 33.1

Leisure and hospitality

25.4 25.4 25.4 25.4

Other services

32.3 32.3 32.3 32.3

AVERAGE OVERTIME HOURS

Manufacturing

2.9 3.0 3.0 3.0

Durable goods

3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0

Nondurable goods

2.8 2.9 2.9 2.9

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2023 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-3. Average hourly and weekly earnings of all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Average hourly earnings Average weekly earnings
June
2023
Apr.
2024
May
2024(p)
June
2024(p)
June
2023
Apr.
2024
May
2024(p)
June
2024(p)

Total private

$33.70 $34.75 $34.90 $35.00 $1,159.28 $1,191.93 $1,197.07 $1,200.50

Goods-producing

34.05 35.45 35.57 35.73 1,358.60 1,407.37 1,419.24 1,429.20

Mining and logging

38.05 39.74 39.73 39.85 1,738.89 1,768.43 1,771.96 1,785.28

Construction

36.38 37.98 38.04 38.15 1,418.82 1,469.83 1,483.56 1,499.30

Manufacturing

32.43 33.66 33.82 34.00 1,300.44 1,349.77 1,359.56 1,366.80

Durable goods

33.96 35.54 35.73 35.99 1,382.17 1,442.92 1,450.64 1,461.19

Nondurable goods

29.78 30.39 30.51 30.57 1,167.38 1,194.33 1,205.15 1,207.52

Private service-providing

33.62 34.59 34.74 34.84 1,119.55 1,148.39 1,153.37 1,156.69

Trade, transportation, and utilities

29.08 29.84 29.95 29.97 985.81 1,005.61 1,009.32 1,009.99

Wholesale trade

36.86 37.56 37.66 37.67 1,430.17 1,468.60 1,476.27 1,469.13

Retail trade

23.89 24.30 24.43 24.46 714.31 716.85 720.69 721.57

Transportation and warehousing

29.34 30.54 30.60 30.69 1,117.85 1,157.47 1,156.68 1,163.15

Utilities

49.91 50.95 51.02 50.83 2,116.18 2,150.09 2,158.15 2,129.78

Information

48.23 49.17 49.27 49.34 1,760.40 1,784.87 1,793.43 1,805.84

Financial activities

43.26 45.24 45.46 45.48 1,617.92 1,696.50 1,709.30 1,710.05

Professional and business services

40.48 41.81 42.00 42.23 1,477.52 1,526.07 1,528.80 1,537.17

Private education and health services

33.13 33.92 34.07 34.16 1,103.23 1,126.14 1,131.12 1,130.70

Leisure and hospitality

21.25 21.92 22.00 22.06 539.75 556.77 558.80 560.32

Other services

30.34 31.19 31.40 31.44 979.98 1,007.44 1,014.22 1,015.51

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2023 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-4. Indexes of aggregate weekly hours and payrolls for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
[2007=100]
Industry Index of aggregate weekly hours(1) Index of aggregate weekly payrolls(2)
June
2023
Apr.
2024
May
2024(p)
June
2024(p)
Percent change from:
May
2024 - June
2024(p)
June
2023
Apr.
2024
May
2024(p)
June
2024(p)
Percent change from:
May
2024 - June
2024(p)

Total private

115.1 116.2 116.4 116.5 0.1 185.4 193.0 194.2 194.9 0.4

Goods-producing

98.2 98.6 99.1 99.5 0.4 151.1 158.0 159.4 160.6 0.8

Mining and logging

92.2 89.2 88.9 89.3 0.4 140.8 142.3 141.7 142.8 0.8

Construction

107.7 109.4 110.5 111.7 1.1 170.2 180.6 182.6 185.2 1.4

Manufacturing

93.4 93.5 93.7 93.7 0.0 140.8 146.3 147.4 148.1 0.5

Durable goods

92.9 93.1 93.0 92.9 -0.1 140.1 146.9 147.6 148.5 0.6

Nondurable goods

94.7 94.5 95.0 95.1 0.1 143.1 145.6 147.1 147.5 0.3

Private service-providing

119.7 120.9 121.1 121.3 0.2 195.6 203.3 204.5 205.3 0.4

Trade, transportation, and utilities

106.9 106.8 106.9 106.9 0.0 167.6 171.8 172.6 172.8 0.1

Wholesale trade

104.5 106.3 106.6 106.3 -0.3 161.1 167.1 168.0 167.6 -0.2

Retail trade

94.9 94.1 94.2 94.1 -0.1 149.9 151.2 152.1 152.2 0.1

Transportation and warehousing

144.2 143.2 143.1 143.6 0.3 215.2 222.4 222.7 224.2 0.7

Utilities

105.5 107.2 107.7 106.9 -0.7 174.0 180.5 181.6 179.5 -1.2

Information

101.5 100.0 100.4 101.2 0.8 174.2 175.1 176.2 177.8 0.9

Financial activities

112.7 113.3 113.7 113.9 0.2 190.2 199.9 201.7 202.0 0.1

Professional and business services

130.7 131.0 130.8 130.7 -0.1 214.3 221.8 222.5 223.6 0.5

Private education and health services

137.4 142.0 142.4 142.4 0.0 219.1 231.6 233.4 234.0 0.3

Leisure and hospitality

120.2 122.4 122.5 122.6 0.1 206.1 216.4 217.5 218.2 0.3

Other services

108.4 109.9 110.0 110.3 0.3 180.3 187.8 189.4 190.1 0.4

Footnotes
(1) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding 2007 annual average aggregate hours. Aggregate hours estimates are the product of estimates of average weekly hours and employment.
(2) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding 2007 annual average aggregate weekly payrolls. Aggregate payrolls estimates are the product of estimates of average hourly earnings, average weekly hours, and employment.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2023 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-5. Employment of women on nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Women employees (in thousands) Percent of all employees
June
2023
Apr.
2024
May
2024(p)
June
2024(p)
June
2023
Apr.
2024
May
2024(p)
June
2024(p)

Total nonfarm

77,724 78,860 78,938 79,043 49.8 49.8 49.8 49.8

Total private

64,444 65,278 65,340 65,420 48.4 48.4 48.4 48.4

Goods-producing

4,984 5,011 5,014 5,022 23.1 23.0 23.0 23.0

Mining and logging

83 87 87 87 12.9 13.6 13.7 13.7

Construction

1,135 1,168 1,172 1,180 14.2 14.2 14.3 14.3

Manufacturing

3,766 3,756 3,755 3,755 29.1 29.0 29.0 29.0

Durable goods

2,022 2,018 2,015 2,013 25.0 24.8 24.8 24.8

Nondurable goods

1,744 1,738 1,740 1,742 36.0 36.1 36.1 36.1

Private service-providing

59,460 60,267 60,326 60,398 53.2 53.3 53.2 53.2

Trade, transportation, and utilities

11,327 11,292 11,287 11,297 39.2 38.9 38.9 38.9

Wholesale trade

1,874.1 1,870.3 1,869.9 1,871.9 30.7 30.3 30.3 30.3

Retail trade

7,529.2 7,528.4 7,522.3 7,526.3 48.3 48.0 48.0 48.0

Transportation and warehousing

1,772.8 1,739.3 1,740.5 1,744.0 26.9 26.5 26.4 26.4

Utilities

150.4 154.1 154.0 155.0 26.1 26.2 26.2 26.3

Information

1,231 1,210 1,203 1,206 40.5 40.1 39.8 39.8

Financial activities

5,112 5,130 5,137 5,140 55.6 55.6 55.6 55.6

Professional and business services

10,526 10,542 10,556 10,525 46.0 46.0 46.0 45.9

Private education and health services

19,449 20,114 20,174 20,265 76.9 76.8 76.8 76.9

Leisure and hospitality

8,708 8,829 8,812 8,801 52.5 52.3 52.1 52.0

Other services

3,107 3,150 3,157 3,164 53.4 53.4 53.4 53.4

Government

13,280 13,582 13,598 13,623 58.4 58.4 58.4 58.3

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2023 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-6. Employment of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
[In thousands]
Industry June
2023
Apr.
2024
May
2024(p)
June
2024(p)

Total private

108,406 109,854 110,001 110,127

Goods-producing

15,468 15,520 15,535 15,562

Mining and logging

490 498 491 491

Construction

5,883 5,995 6,010 6,023

Manufacturing

9,095 9,027 9,034 9,048

Durable goods

5,606 5,551 5,548 5,549

Nondurable goods

3,489 3,476 3,486 3,499

Private service-providing

92,938 94,334 94,466 94,565

Trade, transportation, and utilities

24,295 24,483 24,497 24,525

Wholesale trade

4,825.5 4,859.1 4,856.9 4,877.1

Retail trade

13,279.8 13,409.3 13,414.8 13,422.5

Transportation and warehousing

5,733.3 5,746.9 5,756.4 5,755.8

Utilities

456.8 468.0 469.3 469.4

Information

2,430 2,411 2,417 2,423

Financial activities

6,912 6,959 6,965 6,969

Professional and business services

18,107 18,094 18,117 18,080

Private education and health services

22,002 22,840 22,914 22,990

Leisure and hospitality

14,456 14,748 14,747 14,757

Other services

4,736 4,799 4,809 4,821

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2023 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-7. Average weekly hours and overtime of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry June
2023
Apr.
2024
May
2024(p)
June
2024(p)

AVERAGE WEEKLY HOURS

Total private

33.8 33.7 33.8 33.7

Goods-producing

40.6 40.3 40.7 40.8

Mining and logging

47.7 47.1 47.3 47.2

Construction

39.6 39.3 39.8 40.0

Manufacturing

40.8 40.6 40.9 41.0

Durable goods

41.2 40.9 41.1 41.2

Nondurable goods

40.1 40.3 40.7 40.6

Private service-providing

32.7 32.6 32.6 32.6

Trade, transportation, and utilities

34.0 33.8 33.9 33.9

Wholesale trade

38.8 39.0 39.1 39.0

Retail trade

30.4 30.1 30.2 30.3

Transportation and warehousing

37.6 37.4 37.5 37.3

Utilities

42.3 42.3 42.6 42.5

Information

35.9 35.8 36.0 35.7

Financial activities

37.1 37.0 37.0 36.9

Professional and business services

36.3 36.3 36.3 36.4

Private education and health services

32.5 32.3 32.3 32.2

Leisure and hospitality

24.2 24.1 24.2 24.1

Other services

31.3 31.3 31.3 31.2

AVERAGE OVERTIME HOURS

Manufacturing

3.6 3.6 3.6 3.6

Durable goods

3.8 3.5 3.5 3.6

Nondurable goods

3.4 3.7 3.8 3.7

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2023 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-8. Average hourly and weekly earnings of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry Average hourly earnings Average weekly earnings
June
2023
Apr.
2024
May
2024(p)
June
2024(p)
June
2023
Apr.
2024
May
2024(p)
June
2024(p)

Total private

$28.90 $29.83 $29.95 $30.05 $976.82 $1,005.27 $1,012.31 $1,012.69

Goods-producing

29.53 30.83 30.93 31.08 1,198.92 1,242.45 1,258.85 1,268.06

Mining and logging

34.52 36.29 36.31 36.38 1,646.60 1,709.26 1,717.46 1,717.14

Construction

34.09 35.41 35.47 35.64 1,349.96 1,391.61 1,411.71 1,425.60

Manufacturing

26.36 27.55 27.65 27.79 1,075.49 1,118.53 1,130.89 1,139.39

Durable goods

27.50 28.99 29.11 29.27 1,133.00 1,185.69 1,196.42 1,205.92

Nondurable goods

24.47 25.20 25.30 25.40 981.25 1,015.56 1,029.71 1,031.24

Private service-providing

28.77 29.63 29.75 29.83 940.78 965.94 969.85 972.46

Trade, transportation, and utilities

25.22 25.90 25.96 26.03 857.48 875.42 880.04 882.42

Wholesale trade

30.41 31.21 31.23 31.26 1,179.91 1,217.19 1,221.09 1,219.14

Retail trade

20.49 20.82 20.91 20.98 622.90 626.68 631.48 635.69

Transportation and warehousing

27.89 28.99 29.01 29.19 1,048.66 1,084.23 1,087.88 1,088.79

Utilities

44.17 45.27 45.25 45.23 1,868.39 1,914.92 1,927.65 1,922.28

Information

39.65 40.62 40.77 41.07 1,423.44 1,454.20 1,467.72 1,466.20

Financial activities

33.72 35.49 35.70 35.85 1,251.01 1,313.13 1,320.90 1,322.87

Professional and business services

34.15 35.16 35.33 35.42 1,239.65 1,276.31 1,282.48 1,289.29

Private education and health services

30.27 31.02 31.18 31.25 983.78 1,001.95 1,007.11 1,006.25

Leisure and hospitality

18.76 19.38 19.46 19.51 453.99 467.06 470.93 470.19

Other services

26.11 26.97 27.03 27.10 817.24 844.16 846.04 845.52

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2023 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-9. Indexes of aggregate weekly hours and payrolls for production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
[2002=100]
Industry Index of aggregate weekly hours(2) Index of aggregate weekly payrolls(3)
June
2023
Apr.
2024
May
2024(p)
June
2024(p)
Percent change from:
May
2024 - June
2024(p)
June
2023
Apr.
2024
May
2024(p)
June
2024(p)
Percent change from:
May
2024 - June
2024(p)

Total private

122.1 123.4 123.9 123.7 -0.2 235.8 246.0 248.0 248.4 0.2

Goods-producing

96.0 95.6 96.6 97.0 0.4 173.5 180.4 183.0 184.6 0.9

Mining and logging

124.2 124.6 123.4 123.2 -0.2 249.4 263.1 260.6 260.6 0.0

Construction

116.6 118.0 119.8 120.6 0.7 214.7 225.6 229.4 232.1 1.2

Manufacturing

85.2 84.1 84.8 85.2 0.5 146.8 151.6 153.4 154.8 0.9

Durable goods

86.8 85.3 85.7 85.9 0.2 149.0 154.4 155.7 156.9 0.8

Nondurable goods

82.4 82.5 83.6 83.7 0.1 142.5 147.0 149.4 150.2 0.5

Private service-providing

129.5 131.0 131.2 131.3 0.1 255.5 266.3 267.7 268.7 0.4

Trade, transportation, and utilities

115.6 115.8 116.2 116.4 0.2 208.4 214.4 215.7 216.5 0.4

Wholesale trade

111.1 112.5 112.7 112.9 0.2 199.4 207.2 207.7 208.3 0.3

Retail trade

102.4 102.3 102.7 103.1 0.4 179.8 182.7 184.2 185.5 0.7

Transportation and warehousing

163.1 162.7 163.4 162.5 -0.6 289.6 300.2 301.7 301.9 0.1

Utilities