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Economic News Release
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CPS CPS Program Links
CES CES Program Links

Employment Situation News Release

Transmission of material in this news release is embargoed until	       USDL-23-1498
8:30 a.m. (ET) Friday, July 7, 2023

Technical information: 
 Household data:     (202) 691-6378  *  cpsinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/cps
 Establishment data: (202) 691-6555  *  cesinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/ces

Media contact:	     (202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov


                     THE EMPLOYMENT SITUATION -- JUNE 2023


Total nonfarm payroll employment increased by 209,000 in June, and the unemployment 
rate changed little at 3.6 percent, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. 
Employment continued to trend up in government, health care, social assistance, and 
construction.
 
This news release presents statistics from two monthly surveys. The household survey 
measures labor force status, including unemployment, by demographic characteristics. 
The establishment survey measures nonfarm employment, hours, and earnings by industry. 
For more information about the concepts and statistical methodology used in these two 
surveys, see the Technical Note.

Household Survey Data

Both the unemployment rate, at 3.6 percent, and the number of unemployed persons, at 6.0 
million, changed little in June. The unemployment rate has ranged from 3.4 percent to 3.7
percent since March 2022. (See table A-1.)

Among the major worker groups, the unemployment rate for Whites declined to 3.1 percent 
in June. The jobless rates for adult men (3.4 percent), adult women (3.1 percent), 
teenagers (11.0 percent), Blacks (6.0 percent), Asians (3.2 percent), and Hispanics 
(4.3 percent) showed little change over the month. (See tables A-1, A-2, and A-3.)

The number of long-term unemployed (those jobless for 27 weeks or more), at 1.1 million, 
changed little in June and accounted for 18.5 percent of the total unemployed. 
(See table A-12.)

In June, the labor force participation rate was 62.6 percent for the fourth consecutive 
month, and the employment-population ratio, at 60.3 percent, was unchanged over the month.
(See table A-1.)

The number of persons employed part time for economic reasons increased by 452,000 to 
4.2 million in June, partially reflecting an increase in the number of persons whose 
hours were cut due to slack work or business conditions. Persons employed part time 
for economic reasons are individuals who would have preferred full-time employment but
were working part time because their hours had been reduced or they were unable to 
find full-time jobs. (See table A-8.)

The number of persons not in the labor force who currently want a job was 5.4 million 
in June, little changed from the prior month. These individuals were not counted as 
unemployed because they were not actively looking for work during the 4 weeks preceding 
the survey or were unavailable to take a job. (See table A-1.)

Among those not in the labor force who wanted a job, the number of persons marginally 
attached to the labor force was little changed at 1.4 million in June. These individuals
wanted and were available for work and had looked for a job sometime in the prior 12
months but had not looked for work in the 4 weeks preceding the survey. The number of 
discouraged workers, a subset of the marginally attached who believed that no jobs were 
available for them, decreased by 112,000 to 310,000 in June. (See Summary table A.)

Establishment Survey Data

Total nonfarm payroll employment increased by 209,000 in June, as employment in 
government, health care, social assistance, and construction continued to trend up.
Nonfarm employment has grown by an average of 278,000 per month over the first 6 months 
of 2023, lower than the average of 399,000 per month in 2022. (See table B-1.) 

Employment in government increased by 60,000 in June. Employment continued to trend up
in state government (+27,000) and local government (+32,000). Overall, government has 
added an average of 63,000 jobs per month thus far in 2023, more than twice the average 
of 23,000 per month in 2022. However, government employment is below its pre-pandemic 
February 2020 level by 161,000, or 0.7 percent.

Health care added 41,000 jobs in June. Job growth occurred in hospitals (+15,000),
nursing and residential care facilities (+12,000), and home health care services 
(+9,000). Offices of dentists lost 7,000 jobs. Health care has added an average of 
42,000 jobs per month thus far this year, similar to the average gain of 46,000 per
month in 2022. 

Social assistance added 24,000 jobs in June, mostly in individual and family services
(+18,000). Job growth in social assistance has averaged 22,000 per month thus far in 
2023, in line with the average of 19,000 per month in 2022.

Employment in construction continued to trend up in June (+23,000). Employment in the 
industry has increased by an average of 15,000 per month thus far this year, compared 
with an average of 22,000 per month in 2022. In June, employment in residential specialty
trade contractors continued to trend up (+10,000).

Employment in professional and business services changed little in June (+21,000). 
Monthly job growth in the industry has averaged 40,000 thus far in 2023, down from 
62,000 per month in 2022. Employment in professional, scientific, and technical 
services continued to trend up over the month (+23,000). 

In June, employment in leisure and hospitality was little changed (+21,000). This 
marks the third consecutive month of little employment change for this industry. 
Employment in the industry remains below its February 2020 level by 369,000, or 2.2 
percent. 

Retail trade employment changed little in June (-11,000). Employment continued to 
decline in building material and garden equipment and supplies dealers (-10,000) and 
in furniture, home furnishings, electronics, and appliance retailers (-5,000). Motor
vehicle and parts dealers added 6,000 jobs. Overall, employment in retail trade has 
shown little net change over the year. 

Employment in transportation and warehousing changed little in June (-7,000) and has
shown no clear trend in recent months. Over the month, employment edged down in couriers 
and messengers (-7,000) and in warehousing and storage (-7,000), while air transportation 
added 3,000 jobs.   

Employment showed little or no change over the month in other major industries, including 
mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction; manufacturing; wholesale trade; information; 
financial activities; and other services. 

In June, average hourly earnings for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls rose by
12 cents, or 0.4 percent, to $33.58. Over the past 12 months, average hourly earnings 
have increased by 4.4 percent. In June, average hourly earnings of private-sector production
and nonsupervisory employees rose by 11 cents, or 0.4 percent, to $28.83. 
(See tables B-3 and B-8.)

The average workweek for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls edged up by 0.1 hour to 
34.4 hours in June. In manufacturing, the average workweek was unchanged at 40.1 hours, and 
overtime was unchanged at 3.0 hours. The average workweek for production and nonsupervisory 
employees on private nonfarm payrolls remained at 33.8 hours. (See tables B-2 and B-7.)

The change in total nonfarm payroll employment for April was revised down by 77,000, from
+294,000 to +217,000, and the change for May was revised down by 33,000, from +339,000 to 
+306,000. With these revisions, employment in April and May combined is 110,000 lower than
previously reported. (Monthly revisions result from additional reports received from 
businesses and government agencies since the last published estimates and from the 
recalculation of seasonal factors.)

____________
The Employment Situation for July is scheduled to be released on Friday, August 4, 2023, 
at 8:30 a.m. (ET).


 _______________________________________________________________________________________
|											|
|	2023 Preliminary Benchmark Revision to Establishment Survey Data                |
|                       to be released on August 23, 2023		                |
|											|
| Each year, the establishment survey estimates are benchmarked to comprehensive counts | 
| of employment from the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages (QCEW) for the month 	|
| of March. These counts are derived from state unemployment insurance (UI) tax records	|
| that nearly all employers are required to file. At 10:00 a.m. (ET) on August 23, 2023,| 
| the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) will release the preliminary estimate of the 	|
| upcoming annual benchmark revision to the establishment survey data. This is the same | 
| day that the first-quarter 2023 data from QCEW will be issued. Preliminary benchmark 	|
| revisions for all major industry sectors, as well as total nonfarm and total private  |
| employment, will be available at www.bls.gov/web/empsit/cesprelbmk.htm.	        |
|											|
| The final benchmark revision will be issued with the publication of the January 2024  |
| Employment Situation news release in February 2024.					|
|_______________________________________________________________________________________|




HOUSEHOLD DATA
Summary table A. Household data, seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Category June
2022
Apr.
2023
May
2023
June
2023
Change from:
May
2023-
June
2023

Employment status

Civilian noninstitutional population

263,835 266,443 266,618 266,801 183

Civilian labor force

164,002 166,688 166,818 166,951 133

Participation rate

62.2 62.6 62.6 62.6 0.0

Employed

158,057 161,031 160,721 160,994 273

Employment-population ratio

59.9 60.4 60.3 60.3 0.0

Unemployed

5,945 5,657 6,097 5,957 -140

Unemployment rate

3.6 3.4 3.7 3.6 -0.1

Not in labor force

99,833 99,755 99,800 99,850 50

Unemployment rates

Total, 16 years and over

3.6 3.4 3.7 3.6 -0.1

Adult men (20 years and over)

3.4 3.3 3.5 3.4 -0.1

Adult women (20 years and over)

3.3 3.1 3.3 3.1 -0.2

Teenagers (16 to 19 years)

11.0 9.2 10.3 11.0 0.7

White

3.3 3.1 3.3 3.1 -0.2

Black or African American

5.9 4.7 5.6 6.0 0.4

Asian

3.0 2.8 2.9 3.2 0.3

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

4.3 4.4 4.0 4.3 0.3

Total, 25 years and over

3.0 2.9 3.0 3.0 0.0

Less than a high school diploma

5.7 5.4 5.7 6.0 0.3

High school graduates, no college

3.6 3.9 3.9 3.9 0.0

Some college or associate degree

3.1 2.9 3.2 3.1 -0.1

Bachelor's degree and higher

2.1 1.9 2.1 2.0 -0.1

Reason for unemployment

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

2,633 2,642 2,960 2,900 -60

Job leavers

833 790 765 794 29

Reentrants

1,979 1,761 1,821 1,745 -76

New entrants

466 531 508 558 50

Duration of unemployment

Less than 5 weeks

2,259 1,866 2,083 2,068 -15

5 to 14 weeks

1,576 1,915 1,865 1,889 24

15 to 26 weeks

777 679 858 917 59

27 weeks and over

1,337 1,156 1,188 1,105 -83

Employed persons at work part time

Part time for economic reasons

3,631 3,903 3,739 4,191 452

Slack work or business conditions

2,380 2,760 2,582 2,890 308

Could only find part-time work

910 817 824 948 124

Part time for noneconomic reasons

20,655 21,796 21,864 21,267 -597

Persons not in the labor force

Marginally attached to the labor force

1,506 1,480 1,508 1,435 -73

Discouraged workers

369 364 422 310 -112

NOTE: Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Summary table B. Establishment data, seasonally adjusted
Category June
2022
Apr.
2023
May
2023(p)
June
2023(p)

EMPLOYMENT BY SELECTED INDUSTRY
(Over-the-month change, in thousands)

Total nonfarm

370 217 306 209

Total private

382 179 259 149

Goods-producing

50 25 23 29

Mining and logging

7 5 3 -1

Construction

13 11 23 23

Manufacturing

30 9 -3 7

Durable goods(1)

11 13 4 15

Motor vehicles and parts

4.9 9.0 6.2 4.3

Nondurable goods

19 -4 -7 -8

Private service-providing

332 154 236 120

Wholesale trade

5.2 -1.5 4.2 -3.6

Retail trade

14.1 -2.0 23.0 -11.2

Transportation and warehousing

17.0 -15.1 16.9 -6.9

Utilities

0.4 1.7 0.9 -0.3

Information

22 3 0 0

Financial activities

3 27 12 10

Professional and business services(1)

89 48 61 21

Temporary help services

-6.9 -20.5 3.0 -12.6

Private education and health services(1)

96 77 80 73

Health care and social assistance

80.2 67.0 64.8 65.2

Leisure and hospitality

75 11 26 21

Other services

10 5 12 17

Government

-12 38 47 60

(3-month average change, in thousands)

Total nonfarm

329 227 247 244

Total private

317 176 198 196

WOMEN AND PRODUCTION AND NONSUPERVISORY EMPLOYEES
AS A PERCENT OF ALL EMPLOYEES(2)

Total nonfarm women employees

49.8 49.8 49.8 49.9

Total private women employees

48.3 48.4 48.4 48.4

Total private production and nonsupervisory employees

81.5 81.4 81.4 81.4

HOURS AND EARNINGS
ALL EMPLOYEES

Total private

Average weekly hours

34.6 34.4 34.3 34.4

Average hourly earnings

$32.18 $33.34 $33.46 $33.58

Average weekly earnings

$1,113.43 $1,146.90 $1,147.68 $1,155.15

Index of aggregate weekly hours (2007=100)(3)

113.2 114.9 114.8 115.3

Over-the-month percent change

0.4 0.1 -0.1 0.4

Index of aggregate weekly payrolls (2007=100)(4)

174.1 183.2 183.7 185.1

Over-the-month percent change

0.6 0.5 0.3 0.8

DIFFUSION INDEX
(Over 1-month span)(5)

Total private (250 industries)

69.2 58.4 61.2 58.0

Manufacturing (72 industries)

62.5 47.2 50.7 56.3

Footnotes
(1) Includes other industries, not shown separately.
(2) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries.
(3) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding annual average aggregate hours.
(4) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding annual average aggregate weekly payrolls.
(5) Figures are the percent of industries with employment increasing plus one-half of the industries with unchanged employment, where 50 percent indicates an equal balance between industries with increasing and decreasing employment.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2022 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


Frequently Asked Questions about Employment and Unemployment Estimates

1. Why are there two monthly measures of employment?

   The household survey and establishment survey both produce sample-based estimates
   of employment, and both have strengths and limitations. The establishment survey
   employment series has a smaller margin of error on the measurement of month-to-
   month change than the household survey because of its much larger sample size. An
   over-the-month employment change of about 130,000 is statistically significant in
   the establishment survey, while the threshold for a statistically significant change
   in the household survey is about 600,000. However, the household survey has a more
   expansive scope than the establishment survey because it includes self-employed
   workers whose businesses are unincorporated, unpaid family workers, agricultural
   workers, and private household workers, who are excluded by the establishment survey.
   The household survey also provides estimates of employment for demographic groups.
   For more information on the differences between the two surveys, please visit
   www.bls.gov/web/empsit/ces_cps_trends.htm.

2. Are undocumented immigrants counted in the surveys?

   It is likely that both surveys include at least some undocumented immigrants. However,
   neither the establishment nor the household survey is designed to identify the legal
   status of workers. Therefore, it is not possible to determine how many are counted in
   either survey. The establishment survey does not collect data on the legal status of
   workers. The household survey does include questions which identify the foreign and
   native born, but it does not include questions about the legal status of the foreign
   born. Data on the foreign and native born are published each month in table A-7 of
   The Employment Situation news release.

3. Why does the establishment survey have revisions?

   The establishment survey revises published estimates to improve its data series by
   incorporating additional information that was not available at the time of the
   initial publication of the estimates. The establishment survey revises its initial
   monthly estimates twice, in the immediately succeeding 2 months, to incorporate
   additional sample receipts from respondents in the survey and recalculated seasonal
   adjustment factors. For more information on the monthly revisions, please visit
   www.bls.gov/web/empsit/cestn.htm#section7.

   On an annual basis, the establishment survey incorporates a benchmark revision that
   re-anchors estimates to nearly complete employment counts available from unemployment
   insurance tax records. The benchmark helps to control for sampling and modeling errors
   in the estimates. For more information on the annual benchmark revision, please visit
   www.bls.gov/web/empsit/cesbmart.htm.

4. Does the establishment survey sample include small firms?

   Yes; about 40 percent of the establishment survey sample is comprised of business
   establishments with fewer than 20 employees. The establishment survey sample is
   designed to maximize the reliability of the statewide total nonfarm employment
   estimate; firms from all states, size classes, and industries are appropriately
   sampled to achieve that goal.

5. Does the establishment survey account for employment from new businesses?

   Yes; monthly establishment survey estimates include an adjustment to account for
   the net employment change generated by business births and deaths. The adjustment
   comes from an econometric model that forecasts the monthly net jobs impact of
   business births and deaths based on the actual past values of the net impact that
   can be observed with a lag from the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages. The
   establishment survey uses modeling rather than sampling for this purpose because
   the survey is not immediately able to bring new businesses into the sample. There
   is an unavoidable lag between the birth of a new firm and its appearance on the
   sampling frame and availability for selection. BLS adds new businesses to the survey
   twice a year.

6. Is the count of unemployed persons limited to just those people receiving unemployment
   insurance benefits?

   No; the estimate of unemployment is based on a monthly sample survey of households.
   All persons who are without jobs and are actively seeking and available to work are
   included among the unemployed. (People on temporary layoff are included even if
   they do not actively seek work.) There is no requirement or question relating to
   unemployment insurance benefits in the monthly survey.

7. Does the official unemployment rate exclude people who want a job but are not currently
   looking for work?

   Yes; however, there are separate estimates of persons outside the labor force who
   want a job, including those who are not currently looking because they believe no
   jobs are available (discouraged workers). In addition, alternative measures of labor
   underutilization (some of which include discouraged workers and other groups not
   officially counted as unemployed) are published each month in table A-15 of The
   Employment Situation news release. For more information about these alternative
   measures, please visit www.bls.gov/cps/lfcharacteristics.htm#altmeasures.

8. How can unusually severe weather affect employment and hours estimates?

   In the establishment survey, the reference period is the pay period that includes
   the 12th of the month. Unusually severe weather is more likely to have an impact on
   average weekly hours than on employment. Average weekly hours are estimated for paid
   time during the pay period, including pay for holidays, sick leave, or other time off.
   The impact of severe weather on hours estimates typically, but not always, results in
   a reduction in average weekly hours. For example, some employees may be off work for
   part of the pay period and not receive pay for the time missed, while some workers,
   such as those dealing with cleanup or repair, may work extra hours.
   
   Typically, it is not possible to precisely quantify the effect of extreme weather on 
   payroll employment estimates. In order for severe weather conditions to reduce
   employment estimates, employees have to be off work without pay for the entire pay
   period. Employees who receive pay for any part of the pay period, even 1 hour, are
   counted in the payroll employment figures. For more information on how often employees
   are paid, please visit www.bls.gov/ces/publications/length-pay-period.htm.

   In the household survey, the reference period is generally the calendar week that
   includes the 12th of the month. Persons who miss the entire week's work for weather-
   related events are counted as employed whether or not they are paid for the time
   off. The household survey collects data on the number of persons who had a job but
   were not at work due to bad weather. It also provides a measure of the number of
   persons who usually work full time but had reduced hours due to bad weather. 
   Current and historical data are available on the household survey's most requested
   statistics page, please visit data.bls.gov/cgi-bin/surveymost?ln.




Technical Note


   This news release presents statistics from two major surveys, the Current
Population Survey (CPS; household survey) and the Current Employment Statistics
survey (CES; establishment survey). The household survey provides information
on the labor force, employment, and unemployment that appears in the "A" tables,
marked HOUSEHOLD DATA. It is a sample survey of about 60,000 eligible households
conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau for the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS).

   The establishment survey provides information on employment, hours, and
earnings of employees on nonfarm payrolls; the data appear in the "B" tables,
marked ESTABLISHMENT DATA. BLS collects these data each month from the payroll
records of a sample of nonagricultural business establishments. Each month
the CES program surveys about 122,000 businesses and government agencies,
representing approximately 666,000 individual worksites, in order to provide
detailed industry data on employment, hours, and earnings of workers on nonfarm
payrolls. The active sample includes approximately one-third of all nonfarm
payroll jobs.

   For both surveys, the data for a given month relate to a particular week or
pay period. In the household survey, the reference period is generally the
calendar week that contains the 12th day of the month. In the establishment
survey, the reference period is the pay period including the 12th, which may or
may not correspond directly to the calendar week.

Coverage, definitions, and differences between surveys

   Household survey. The sample is selected to reflect the entire civilian 
noninstitutional population. Based on responses to a series of questions on 
work and job search activities, each person 16 years and over in a sample
household is classified as employed, unemployed, or not in the labor force.

   People are classified as employed if they did any work at all as paid employees
during the reference week; worked in their own business, profession, or on their
own farm; or worked without pay at least 15 hours in a family business or farm.
People are also counted as employed if they were temporarily absent from their jobs
because of illness, bad weather, vacation, labor-management disputes, or personal
reasons.

   People are classified as unemployed if they meet all of the following criteria:
they had no employment during the reference week; they were available for work at
that time; and they made specific active efforts to find employment sometime during
the 4-week period ending with the reference week. Persons laid off from a job and
expecting recall need not be looking for work to be counted as unemployed. The
unemployment data derived from the household survey in no way depend upon the
eligibility for or receipt of unemployment insurance benefits.

   The civilian labor force is the sum of employed and unemployed persons.
Those persons not classified as employed or unemployed are not in the labor 
force. The unemployment rate is the number unemployed as a percent of the 
labor force. The labor force participation rate is the labor force as a 
percent of the population, and the employment-population ratio is the 
employed as a percent of the population. Additional information about the 
household survey can be found at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm.

   Establishment survey. The sample establishments are drawn from private
nonfarm businesses such as factories, offices, and stores, as well as
from federal, state, and local government entities. Employees on nonfarm
payrolls are those who worked or received pay for any part of the reference pay
period, including persons on paid leave. Persons are counted in each job
they hold. Hours and earnings data are produced for the private sector for
all employees and for production and nonsupervisory employees. Production
and nonsupervisory employees are defined as production and related employees
in manufacturing and mining and logging, construction workers in construction,
and nonsupervisory employees in private service-providing industries.

   Industries are classified on the basis of an establishment's principal
activity in accordance with the 2022 version of the North American Industry
Classification System. Additional information about the establishment survey
can be found at www.bls.gov/ces/.

   Differences in employment estimates. The numerous conceptual and methodological
differences between the household and establishment surveys result in important
distinctions in the employment estimates derived from the surveys. Among these are:

   --The household survey includes agricultural workers, self-employed workers
     whose businesses are unincorporated, unpaid family workers, and private
     household workers among the employed. These groups are excluded from the
     establishment survey.

   --The household survey includes people on unpaid leave among the employed.
     The establishment survey does not.

   --The household survey is limited to workers 16 years of age and older.
     The establishment survey is not limited by age.

   --The household survey has no duplication of individuals, because
     individuals are counted only once, even if they hold more than one
     job. In the establishment survey, employees working at more than one
     job and thus appearing on more than one payroll are counted separately
     for each appearance.

Seasonal adjustment

   Over the course of a year, the size of the nation's labor force and the levels
of employment and unemployment undergo regularly occurring fluctuations. These 
events may result from seasonal changes in weather, major holidays, and the opening
and closing of schools. The effect of such seasonal variation can be very large.

   Because these seasonal events follow a more or less regular pattern each year,
their influence on the level of a series can be tempered by adjusting for regular
seasonal variation. These adjustments make nonseasonal developments, such as
declines in employment or increases in the participation of women in the labor
force, easier to spot. For example, in the household survey, the large number of
youth entering the labor force each June is likely to obscure any other changes
that have taken place relative to May, making it difficult to determine if the 
level of economic activity has risen or declined. Similarly, in the establishment
survey, payroll employment in education declines by about 20 percent at the end
of the spring term and later rises with the start of the fall term, obscuring the
underlying employment trends in the industry. Because seasonal employment changes
at the end and beginning of the school year can be estimated, the statistics can be
adjusted to make underlying employment patterns more discernable.  The seasonally
adjusted figures provide a more useful tool with which to analyze changes in
month-to-month economic activity.

   Many seasonally adjusted series are independently adjusted in both the household
and establishment surveys. However, the adjusted series for many major estimates,
such as total payroll employment, employment in most major sectors, total employment,
and unemployment are computed by aggregating independently adjusted component series.
For example, total unemployment is derived by summing the adjusted series for four
major age-sex components; this differs from the unemployment estimate that would be
obtained by directly adjusting the total or by combining the duration, reasons, or 
more detailed age categories. Percentage distributions of unemployment by reason and
duration are derived from the sum of the independently seasonally adjusted component
series and will not necessarily match calculations made using the seasonally adjusted
total unemployment level. Additional information about seasonal adjustment in the 
household survey can be found at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#sa.

   For both the household and establishment surveys, a concurrent seasonal adjustment
methodology is used in which new seasonal factors are calculated each month using all
relevant data, up to and including the data for the current month. In the household
survey, new seasonal factors are used to adjust only the current month's data. In the
establishment survey, however, new seasonal factors are used each month to adjust the
three most recent monthly estimates. The prior 2 months are routinely revised to
incorporate additional sample reports and recalculated seasonal adjustment factors.
In both surveys, 5-year revisions to historical data are made once a year.

Reliability of the estimates

   Statistics based on the household and establishment surveys are subject to both
sampling and nonsampling error. When a sample, rather than the entire population,
is surveyed, there is a chance that the sample estimates may differ from the true
population values they represent. The component of this difference that occurs
because samples differ by chance is known as sampling error, and its variability
is measured by the standard error of the estimate. There is about a 90-percent
chance, or level of confidence, that an estimate based on a sample will differ by
no more than 1.6 standard errors from the true population value because of sampling
error. BLS analyses are generally conducted at the 90-percent level of confidence.

   For example, the confidence interval for the monthly change in total nonfarm
employment from the establishment survey is on the order of plus or minus 130,000.
Suppose the estimate of nonfarm employment increases by 50,000 from one month to
the next. The 90-percent confidence interval on the monthly change would range from
-80,000 to +180,000 (50,000 +/- 130,000). These figures do not mean that the sample
results are off by these magnitudes, but rather that there is about a 90-percent
chance that the true over-the-month change lies within this interval. Since this
range includes values of less than zero, we could not say with confidence that
nonfarm employment had, in fact, increased that month. If, however, the reported
nonfarm employment rise was 250,000, then all of the values within the 90-percent
confidence interval would be greater than zero. In this case, it is likely (at
least a 90-percent chance) that nonfarm employment had, in fact, risen that month.
At an unemployment rate of around 6.0 percent, the 90-percent confidence interval
for the monthly change in unemployment as measured by the household survey is
about +/- 300,000, and for the monthly change in the unemployment rate it is about
+/- 0.2 percentage point.

   In general, estimates involving many individuals or establishments have lower
standard errors (relative to the size of the estimate) than estimates which are based
on a small number of observations. The precision of estimates also is improved when
the data are cumulated over time, such as for quarterly and annual averages.

   The household and establishment surveys are also affected by nonsampling error,
which can occur for many reasons, including the failure to sample a segment of the
population, inability to obtain information for all respondents in the sample,
inability or unwillingness of respondents to provide correct information on a
timely basis, mistakes made by respondents, and errors made in the collection or
processing of the data.

   For example, in the establishment survey, estimates for the most recent 2 months
are based on incomplete returns; for this reason, these estimates are labeled
preliminary in the tables. It is only after two successive revisions to a monthly
estimate, when nearly all sample reports have been received, that the estimate is
considered final.

   Another major source of nonsampling error in the establishment survey is the
inability to capture, on a timely basis, employment generated by new firms. To
correct for this systematic underestimation of employment growth, an estimation
procedure with two components is used to account for business births. The first
component excludes employment losses from business deaths from sample-based
estimation in order to offset the missing employment gains from business births.
This is incorporated into the sample-based estimation procedure by simply not
reflecting sample units going out of business, but imputing to them the same
employment trend as the other firms in the sample. This procedure accounts for
most of the net birth/death employment.

   The second component is an ARIMA time series model designed to estimate the
residual net birth/death employment not accounted for by the imputation. The
historical time series used to create and test the ARIMA model was derived from
the unemployment insurance universe micro-level database, and reflects the actual
residual net of births and deaths over the past 5 years.

   The sample-based estimates from the establishment survey are adjusted once a
year (on a lagged basis) to universe counts of payroll employment obtained from
administrative records of the unemployment insurance program. The difference 
between the March sample-based employment estimates and the March universe counts
is known as a benchmark revision, and serves as a rough proxy for total survey
error. The new benchmarks also incorporate changes in the classification of
industries. Over the past decade, absolute benchmark revisions for total nonfarm
employment have averaged 0.1 percent, with a range from -0.3 percent to 0.3 percent.

Other information

   If you are deaf, hard of hearing, or have a speech disability, please dial 7-1-1
to access telecommunications relay services.




HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-1. Employment status of the civilian population by sex and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
June
2022
May
2023
June
2023
June
2022
Feb.
2023
Mar.
2023
Apr.
2023
May
2023
June
2023

TOTAL

Civilian noninstitutional population

263,835 266,618 266,801 263,835 266,112 266,272 266,443 266,618 266,801

Civilian labor force

165,012 166,702 167,910 164,002 166,251 166,731 166,688 166,818 166,951

Participation rate

62.5 62.5 62.9 62.2 62.5 62.6 62.6 62.6 62.6

Employed

158,678 161,002 161,559 158,057 160,315 160,892 161,031 160,721 160,994

Employment-population ratio

60.1 60.4 60.6 59.9 60.2 60.4 60.4 60.3 60.3

Unemployed

6,334 5,700 6,351 5,945 5,936 5,839 5,657 6,097 5,957

Unemployment rate

3.8 3.4 3.8 3.6 3.6 3.5 3.4 3.7 3.6

Not in labor force

98,822 99,916 98,891 99,833 99,861 99,541 99,755 99,800 99,850

Persons who currently want a job

6,100 6,004 5,846 5,653 5,103 4,925 5,271 5,477 5,389

Men, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

128,547 130,319 130,408 128,547 130,072 130,150 130,234 130,319 130,408

Civilian labor force

87,924 88,701 89,503 87,199 88,474 88,999 88,686 88,704 88,836

Participation rate

68.4 68.1 68.6 67.8 68.0 68.4 68.1 68.1 68.1

Employed

84,690 85,626 86,140 84,026 85,266 85,776 85,611 85,410 85,547

Employment-population ratio

65.9 65.7 66.1 65.4 65.6 65.9 65.7 65.5 65.6

Unemployed

3,234 3,075 3,363 3,173 3,208 3,223 3,075 3,294 3,289

Unemployment rate

3.7 3.5 3.8 3.6 3.6 3.6 3.5 3.7 3.7

Not in labor force

40,624 41,618 40,905 41,348 41,597 41,151 41,548 41,616 41,572

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

119,899 121,565 121,646 119,899 121,346 121,415 121,488 121,565 121,646

Civilian labor force

84,178 85,576 85,895 84,029 85,210 85,696 85,439 85,487 85,774

Participation rate

70.2 70.4 70.6 70.1 70.2 70.6 70.3 70.3 70.5

Employed

81,432 82,810 83,068 81,210 82,407 82,816 82,661 82,526 82,868

Employment-population ratio

67.9 68.1 68.3 67.7 67.9 68.2 68.0 67.9 68.1

Unemployed

2,746 2,765 2,827 2,818 2,803 2,880 2,778 2,961 2,906

Unemployment rate

3.3 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.3 3.4 3.3 3.5 3.4

Not in labor force

35,721 35,989 35,750 35,870 36,136 35,718 36,049 36,078 35,871

Women, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

135,287 136,299 136,393 135,287 136,040 136,122 136,209 136,299 136,393

Civilian labor force

77,089 78,001 78,407 76,803 77,777 77,732 78,002 78,114 78,115

Participation rate

57.0 57.2 57.5 56.8 57.2 57.1 57.3 57.3 57.3

Employed

73,988 75,376 75,419 74,031 75,049 75,115 75,420 75,311 75,448

Employment-population ratio

54.7 55.3 55.3 54.7 55.2 55.2 55.4 55.3 55.3

Unemployed

3,101 2,625 2,987 2,772 2,728 2,617 2,582 2,803 2,668

Unemployment rate

4.0 3.4 3.8 3.6 3.5 3.4 3.3 3.6 3.4

Not in labor force

58,198 58,298 57,986 58,484 58,264 58,390 58,207 58,185 58,277

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

126,872 127,845 127,932 126,872 127,613 127,684 127,761 127,845 127,932

Civilian labor force

73,522 74,941 74,722 73,721 74,606 74,612 74,868 75,005 74,927

Participation rate

57.9 58.6 58.4 58.1 58.5 58.4 58.6 58.7 58.6

Employed

70,890 72,634 72,171 71,280 72,189 72,284 72,575 72,518 72,567

Employment-population ratio

55.9 56.8 56.4 56.2 56.6 56.6 56.8 56.7 56.7

Unemployed

2,632 2,307 2,551 2,441 2,417 2,328 2,293 2,486 2,360

Unemployment rate

3.6 3.1 3.4 3.3 3.2 3.1 3.1 3.3 3.1

Not in labor force

53,350 52,904 53,210 53,151 53,007 53,072 52,893 52,840 53,005

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian noninstitutional population

17,064 17,208 17,223 17,064 17,153 17,173 17,194 17,208 17,223

Civilian labor force

7,312 6,185 7,293 6,252 6,435 6,423 6,382 6,326 6,250

Participation rate

42.9 35.9 42.3 36.6 37.5 37.4 37.1 36.8 36.3

Employed

6,356 5,558 6,320 5,566 5,719 5,792 5,796 5,676 5,559

Employment-population ratio

37.2 32.3 36.7 32.6 33.3 33.7 33.7 33.0 32.3

Unemployed

957 628 973 686 716 631 586 650 691

Unemployment rate

13.1 10.1 13.3 11.0 11.1 9.8 9.2 10.3 11.0

Not in labor force

9,752 11,023 9,931 10,813 10,718 10,750 10,813 10,882 10,973

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-2. Employment status of the civilian population by race, sex, and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, race, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
June
2022
May
2023
June
2023
June
2022
Feb.
2023
Mar.
2023
Apr.
2023
May
2023
June
2023

WHITE

Civilian noninstitutional population

203,125 204,345 204,433 203,125 204,118 204,186 204,261 204,345 204,433

Civilian labor force

126,371 127,111 127,942 125,703 126,756 126,933 127,174 127,273 127,306

Participation rate

62.2 62.2 62.6 61.9 62.1 62.2 62.3 62.3 62.3

Employed

121,949 123,247 123,760 121,582 122,738 122,831 123,224 123,112 123,389

Employment-population ratio

60.0 60.3 60.5 59.9 60.1 60.2 60.3 60.2 60.4

Unemployed

4,422 3,864 4,182 4,121 4,017 4,102 3,950 4,161 3,917

Unemployment rate

3.5 3.0 3.3 3.3 3.2 3.2 3.1 3.3 3.1

Not in labor force

76,754 77,233 76,491 77,423 77,362 77,253 77,087 77,072 77,127

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

65,607 66,450 66,596 65,554 66,083 66,304 66,299 66,433 66,543

Participation rate

70.0 70.3 70.4 69.9 69.9 70.2 70.1 70.2 70.3

Employed

63,653 64,521 64,668 63,532 64,125 64,287 64,363 64,343 64,545

Employment-population ratio

67.9 68.2 68.3 67.8 67.9 68.0 68.1 68.0 68.2

Unemployed

1,954 1,928 1,928 2,022 1,958 2,018 1,936 2,089 1,998

Unemployment rate

3.0 2.9 2.9 3.1 3.0 3.0 2.9 3.1 3.0

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

55,099 55,878 55,784 55,312 55,733 55,656 55,882 55,950 55,994

Participation rate

56.8 57.5 57.3 57.1 57.4 57.3 57.5 57.5 57.6

Employed

53,334 54,379 54,176 53,713 54,142 53,994 54,304 54,323 54,536

Employment-population ratio

55.0 55.9 55.7 55.4 55.7 55.6 55.9 55.9 56.1

Unemployed

1,765 1,499 1,608 1,598 1,591 1,661 1,578 1,627 1,458

Unemployment rate

3.2 2.7 2.9 2.9 2.9 3.0 2.8 2.9 2.6

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

5,665 4,784 5,562 4,837 4,940 4,973 4,993 4,890 4,769

Participation rate

45.4 38.2 44.4 38.7 39.6 39.8 39.9 39.1 38.1

Employed

4,961 4,347 4,916 4,336 4,471 4,550 4,557 4,445 4,308

Employment-population ratio

39.7 34.7 39.3 34.7 35.8 36.4 36.4 35.5 34.4

Unemployed

703 437 646 501 469 423 436 445 461

Unemployment rate

12.4 9.1 11.6 10.4 9.5 8.5 8.7 9.1 9.7

BLACK OR AFRICAN AMERICAN

Civilian noninstitutional population

34,107 34,613 34,644 34,107 34,519 34,550 34,583 34,613 34,644

Civilian labor force

21,379 21,878 21,886 21,209 21,893 22,152 21,790 21,874 21,695

Participation rate

62.7 63.2 63.2 62.2 63.4 64.1 63.0 63.2 62.6

Employed

20,082 20,662 20,495 19,965 20,654 21,037 20,766 20,641 20,402

Employment-population ratio

58.9 59.7 59.2 58.5 59.8 60.9 60.0 59.6 58.9

Unemployed

1,297 1,216 1,392 1,245 1,239 1,114 1,025 1,234 1,292

Unemployment rate

6.1 5.6 6.4 5.9 5.7 5.0 4.7 5.6 6.0

Not in labor force

12,728 12,735 12,757 12,898 12,626 12,399 12,793 12,738 12,949

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

9,945 10,103 10,128 9,863 10,218 10,400 10,005 10,084 10,053

Participation rate

68.6 68.4 68.5 68.0 69.3 70.5 67.8 68.2 68.0

Employed

9,429 9,536 9,547 9,336 9,700 9,860 9,556 9,519 9,465

Employment-population ratio

65.0 64.5 64.5 64.4 65.8 66.8 64.7 64.4 64.0

Unemployed

516 567 581 527 518 539 449 565 588

Unemployment rate

5.2 5.6 5.7 5.3 5.1 5.2 4.5 5.6 5.9

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

10,612 11,058 10,881 10,624 10,877 10,986 11,054 11,051 10,886

Participation rate

61.9 63.9 62.8 62.0 63.0 63.6 63.9 63.9 62.9

Employed

9,998 10,491 10,260 10,025 10,319 10,522 10,573 10,469 10,300

Employment-population ratio

58.4 60.6 59.2 58.5 59.8 60.9 61.1 60.5 59.5

Unemployed

614 567 621 599 558 464 481 582 586

Unemployment rate

5.8 5.1 5.7 5.6 5.1 4.2 4.4 5.3 5.4

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

822 717 877 723 797 766 732 740 756

Participation rate

33.2 28.3 34.6 29.2 31.7 30.4 29.0 29.2 29.8

Employed

655 635 688 604 635 655 637 653 638

Employment-population ratio

26.4 25.1 27.1 24.4 25.2 26.0 25.2 25.8 25.1

Unemployed

167 82 189 119 163 111 95 87 118

Unemployment rate

20.3 11.4 21.6 16.5 20.4 14.5 12.9 11.7 15.6

ASIAN

Civilian noninstitutional population

16,910 17,511 17,491 16,910 17,444 17,545 17,557 17,511 17,491

Civilian labor force

10,954 11,348 11,495 10,895 11,348 11,390 11,396 11,408 11,435

Participation rate

64.8 64.8 65.7 64.4 65.1 64.9 64.9 65.1 65.4

Employed

10,602 11,034 11,104 10,568 10,962 11,067 11,073 11,073 11,073

Employment-population ratio

62.7 63.0 63.5 62.5 62.8 63.1 63.1 63.2 63.3

Unemployed

352 315 391 326 386 323 323 335 363

Unemployment rate

3.2 2.8 3.4 3.0 3.4 2.8 2.8 2.9 3.2

Not in labor force

5,956 6,163 5,997 6,015 6,096 6,154 6,162 6,104 6,056

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Estimates for the above race groups will not sum to totals shown in table A-1 because data are not presented for all races. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-3. Employment status of the Hispanic or Latino population by sex and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
June
2022
May
2023
June
2023
June
2022
Feb.
2023
Mar.
2023
Apr.
2023
May
2023
June
2023

HISPANIC OR LATINO ETHNICITY

Civilian noninstitutional population

46,119 47,380 47,473 46,119 47,103 47,194 47,288 47,380 47,473

Civilian labor force

30,793 31,612 32,063 30,686 31,444 31,517 31,589 31,690 31,943

Participation rate

66.8 66.7 67.5 66.5 66.8 66.8 66.8 66.9 67.3

Employed

29,443 30,471 30,684 29,355 29,789 30,071 30,185 30,407 30,571

Employment-population ratio

63.8 64.3 64.6 63.7 63.2 63.7 63.8 64.2 64.4

Unemployed

1,350 1,140 1,379 1,331 1,655 1,446 1,404 1,283 1,372

Unemployment rate

4.4 3.6 4.3 4.3 5.3 4.6 4.4 4.0 4.3

Not in labor force

15,326 15,768 15,410 15,433 15,659 15,677 15,699 15,690 15,530

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

16,739 17,113 17,212 16,751 16,882 16,969 16,956 17,123 17,224

Participation rate

80.1 79.5 79.8 80.2 78.8 79.1 78.9 79.5 79.8

Employed

16,202 16,512 16,647 16,148 16,036 16,293 16,260 16,434 16,576

Employment-population ratio

77.5 76.7 77.2 77.3 74.9 76.0 75.7 76.3 76.8

Unemployed

537 601 565 603 846 676 696 690 649

Unemployment rate

3.2 3.5 3.3 3.6 5.0 4.0 4.1 4.0 3.8

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

12,499 13,120 13,191 12,493 13,085 13,069 13,111 13,150 13,182

Participation rate

59.6 61.1 61.3 59.6 61.3 61.1 61.2 61.2 61.3

Employed

11,919 12,707 12,618 11,939 12,460 12,482 12,576 12,700 12,638

Employment-population ratio

56.9 59.2 58.6 57.0 58.4 58.4 58.7 59.1 58.7

Unemployed

579 413 572 554 626 587 534 450 544

Unemployment rate

4.6 3.1 4.3 4.4 4.8 4.5 4.1 3.4 4.1

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

1,555 1,379 1,660 1,443 1,477 1,479 1,522 1,417 1,537

Participation rate

36.5 31.5 37.9 33.8 34.0 34.0 34.9 32.4 35.0

Employed

1,321 1,253 1,419 1,268 1,294 1,296 1,349 1,273 1,357

Employment-population ratio

31.0 28.6 32.4 29.7 29.8 29.8 30.9 29.1 31.0

Unemployed

234 126 242 175 183 183 174 144 180

Unemployment rate

15.0 9.2 14.5 12.1 12.4 12.4 11.4 10.1 11.7

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-4. Employment status of the civilian population 25 years and over by educational attainment
[Numbers in thousands]
Educational attainment Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
June
2022
May
2023
June
2023
June
2022
Feb.
2023
Mar.
2023
Apr.
2023
May
2023
June
2023

Less than a high school diploma

Civilian labor force

9,389 9,381 9,391 9,190 9,165 9,203 9,082 9,140 9,184

Participation rate

45.6 46.9 47.7 44.6 48.3 46.6 46.3 45.7 46.6

Employed

8,917 8,907 8,884 8,666 8,629 8,762 8,595 8,621 8,632

Employment-population ratio

43.3 44.6 45.1 42.1 45.5 44.3 43.8 43.1 43.8

Unemployed

472 474 507 524 536 441 487 519 552

Unemployment rate

5.0 5.1 5.4 5.7 5.8 4.8 5.4 5.7 6.0

High school graduates, no college(1)

Civilian labor force

35,612 36,087 35,780 35,897 35,850 35,680 35,752 36,022 36,038

Participation rate

56.3 56.9 56.5 56.7 56.0 56.1 56.4 56.8 57.0

Employed

34,366 34,767 34,441 34,589 34,574 34,246 34,345 34,611 34,638

Employment-population ratio

54.3 54.9 54.4 54.6 54.0 53.8 54.2 54.6 54.7

Unemployed

1,247 1,320 1,339 1,308 1,276 1,433 1,407 1,411 1,400

Unemployment rate

3.5 3.7 3.7 3.6 3.6 4.0 3.9 3.9 3.9

Some college or associate degree

Civilian labor force

35,757 35,277 35,572 35,714 35,962 35,944 35,668 35,407 35,564

Participation rate

62.7 62.9 62.5 62.6 63.6 63.6 63.0 63.1 62.5

Employed

34,639 34,203 34,475 34,593 34,796 34,877 34,650 34,273 34,472

Employment-population ratio

60.7 61.0 60.5 60.6 61.5 61.8 61.2 61.1 60.5

Unemployed

1,118 1,073 1,096 1,121 1,167 1,067 1,018 1,134 1,092

Unemployment rate

3.1 3.0 3.1 3.1 3.2 3.0 2.9 3.2 3.1

Bachelor's degree and higher(2)

Civilian labor force

61,540 64,067 63,652 62,172 63,140 63,632 64,077 64,201 64,274

Participation rate

72.4 73.0 72.7 73.2 72.3 73.1 73.3 73.1 73.4

Employed

60,166 62,857 62,310 60,875 61,858 62,355 62,835 62,879 63,010

Employment-population ratio

70.8 71.6 71.2 71.7 70.9 71.6 71.8 71.6 72.0

Unemployed

1,374 1,210 1,342 1,296 1,282 1,278 1,241 1,322 1,264

Unemployment rate

2.2 1.9 2.1 2.1 2.0 2.0 1.9 2.1 2.0

Footnotes
(1) Includes persons with a high school diploma or equivalent.
(2) Includes persons with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees.

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals for those 25 years and over because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-5. Employment status of the civilian population 18 years and over by veteran status, period of service, and sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, veteran status, and period of service Total Men Women
June
2022
June
2023
June
2022
June
2023
June
2022
June
2023

VETERANS, 18 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

18,384 17,920 16,356 15,879 2,028 2,041

Civilian labor force

8,616 8,576 7,445 7,486 1,171 1,090

Participation rate

46.9 47.9 45.5 47.1 57.7 53.4

Employed

8,381 8,346 7,245 7,278 1,136 1,067

Employment-population ratio

45.6 46.6 44.3 45.8 56.0 52.3

Unemployed

235 230 200 208 35 22

Unemployment rate

2.7 2.7 2.7 2.8 3.0 2.1

Not in labor force

9,768 9,344 8,911 8,393 857 951

Gulf War-era II veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

4,933 5,040 4,031 4,123 902 917

Civilian labor force

3,808 3,973 3,162 3,354 646 620

Participation rate

77.2 78.8 78.4 81.3 71.6 67.6

Employed

3,697 3,872 3,074 3,255 623 617

Employment-population ratio

75.0 76.8 76.3 78.9 69.1 67.3

Unemployed

110 102 88 99 23 3

Unemployment rate

2.9 2.6 2.8 2.9 3.5 0.5

Not in labor force

1,125 1,066 869 769 256 297

Gulf War-era I veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

3,200 2,949 2,733 2,499 467 450

Civilian labor force

2,238 2,073 1,937 1,790 300 283

Participation rate

69.9 70.3 70.9 71.6 64.3 63.0

Employed

2,205 2,028 1,911 1,758 293 270

Employment-population ratio

68.9 68.8 69.9 70.4 62.8 60.0

Unemployed

33 45 26 31 7 13

Unemployment rate

1.5 2.2 1.4 1.7 2.3 4.8

Not in labor force

963 876 796 710 167 166

World War II, Korean War, and Vietnam-era veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

6,250 5,987 6,001 5,733 249 254

Civilian labor force

905 849 862 820 43 29

Participation rate

14.5 14.2 14.4 14.3 17.4 11.6

Employed

859 819 816 789 43 29

Employment-population ratio

13.7 13.7 13.6 13.8 17.2 11.6

Unemployed

46 30 46 30 0 0

Unemployment rate

5.1 3.6 5.3 3.7 - -

Not in labor force

5,345 5,138 5,139 4,913 206 225

Veterans of other service periods

Civilian noninstitutional population

4,001 3,944 3,591 3,524 410 420

Civilian labor force

1,666 1,680 1,484 1,523 181 157

Participation rate

41.6 42.6 41.3 43.2 44.3 37.4

Employed

1,620 1,627 1,443 1,476 177 151

Employment-population ratio

40.5 41.2 40.2 41.9 43.1 35.9

Unemployed

46 53 41 47 5 6

Unemployment rate

2.7 3.2 2.7 3.1 2.7 3.9

Not in labor force

2,335 2,264 2,107 2,001 229 263

NONVETERANS, 18 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

236,545 239,520 107,707 109,818 128,837 129,702

Civilian labor force

153,584 156,449 79,030 80,623 74,554 75,826

Participation rate

64.9 65.3 73.4 73.4 57.9 58.5

Employed

147,902 150,762 76,207 77,719 71,696 73,043

Employment-population ratio

62.5 62.9 70.8 70.8 55.6 56.3

Unemployed

5,682 5,687 2,824 2,904 2,858 2,783

Unemployment rate

3.7 3.6 3.6 3.6 3.8 3.7

Not in labor force

82,961 83,071 28,677 29,195 54,284 53,876

NOTE: Veterans served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces and were not on active duty at the time of the survey. Nonveterans never served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces. Veterans could have served anywhere in the world during these periods of service: Gulf War era II (September 2001-present), Gulf War era I (August 1990-August 2001), Vietnam era (August 1964-April 1975), Korean War (July 1950-January 1955), World War II (December 1941-December 1946), and other service periods (all other time periods). Veterans who served in more than one wartime period are classified only in the most recent one. Veterans who served during one of the selected wartime periods and another period are classified only in the wartime period. Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria (values not shown where base is less than 75,000).


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-6. Employment status of the civilian population by sex, age, and disability status, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Persons with a disability Persons with no disability
June
2022
June
2023
June
2022
June
2023

TOTAL, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

32,921 34,152 230,913 232,649

Civilian labor force

7,588 8,193 157,424 159,717

Participation rate

23.1 24.0 68.2 68.7

Employed

6,965 7,638 151,713 153,921

Employment-population ratio

21.2 22.4 65.7 66.2

Unemployed

624 555 5,711 5,796

Unemployment rate

8.2 6.8 3.6 3.6

Not in labor force

25,333 25,960 73,490 72,931

Men, 16 to 64 years

Civilian labor force

3,125 3,360 78,790 80,084

Participation rate

38.0 39.9 83.3 83.8

Employed

2,866 3,138 75,997 77,113

Employment-population ratio

34.9 37.3 80.4 80.6

Unemployed

259 221 2,793 2,971

Unemployment rate

8.3 6.6 3.5 3.7

Not in labor force

5,091 5,052 15,759 15,531

Women, 16 to 64 years

Civilian labor force

3,166 3,348 69,263 70,132

Participation rate

38.1 39.5 72.0 73.0

Employed

2,900 3,112 66,579 67,547

Employment-population ratio

34.9 36.7 69.3 70.3

Unemployed

267 235 2,684 2,585

Unemployment rate

8.4 7.0 3.9 3.7

Not in labor force

5,145 5,124 26,871 25,942

Both sexes, 65 years and over

Civilian labor force

1,297 1,485 9,371 9,502

Participation rate

7.9 8.6 23.3 23.2

Employed

1,199 1,387 9,137 9,262

Employment-population ratio

7.3 8.0 22.7 22.6

Unemployed

98 99 234 240

Unemployment rate

7.5 6.6 2.5 2.5

Not in labor force

15,096 15,784 30,859 31,458

NOTE: A person with a disability has at least one of the following conditions: is deaf or has serious difficulty hearing; is blind or has serious difficulty seeing even when wearing glasses; has serious difficulty concentrating, remembering, or making decisions because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition; has serious difficulty walking or climbing stairs; has difficulty dressing or bathing; or has difficulty doing errands alone such as visiting a doctor's office or shopping because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-7. Employment status of the civilian population by nativity and sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status and nativity Total Men Women
June
2022
June
2023
June
2022
June
2023
June
2022
June
2023

Foreign born, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

44,854 45,873 21,696 22,463 23,158 23,409

Civilian labor force

29,553 30,730 16,757 17,508 12,796 13,222

Participation rate

65.9 67.0 77.2 77.9 55.3 56.5

Employed

28,498 29,710 16,221 17,042 12,276 12,668

Employment-population ratio

63.5 64.8 74.8 75.9 53.0 54.1

Unemployed

1,056 1,020 536 466 520 555

Unemployment rate

3.6 3.3 3.2 2.7 4.1 4.2

Not in labor force

15,300 15,142 4,939 4,955 10,361 10,187

Native born, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

218,981 220,928 106,851 107,945 112,129 112,984

Civilian labor force

135,459 137,180 71,167 71,995 64,292 65,185

Participation rate

61.9 62.1 66.6 66.7 57.3 57.7

Employed

130,180 131,849 68,468 69,097 61,712 62,752

Employment-population ratio

59.4 59.7 64.1 64.0 55.0 55.5

Unemployed

5,279 5,331 2,698 2,898 2,581 2,433

Unemployment rate

3.9 3.9 3.8 4.0 4.0 3.7

Not in labor force

83,522 83,749 35,685 35,950 47,837 47,799

NOTE: The foreign born are those residing in the United States who were not U.S. citizens at birth. That is, they were born outside the United States or one of its outlying areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam, to parents neither of whom was a U.S. citizen. The native born are persons who were born in the United States or one of its outlying areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam or who were born abroad of at least one parent who was a U.S. citizen. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-8. Employed persons by class of worker and part-time status
[In thousands]
Category Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
June
2022
May
2023
June
2023
June
2022
Feb.
2023
Mar.
2023
Apr.
2023
May
2023
June
2023

CLASS OF WORKER

Agriculture and related industries

2,385 2,358 2,398 2,297 2,346 2,226 2,301 2,301 2,311

Wage and salary workers(1)

1,553 1,615 1,650 1,513 1,521 1,509 1,536 1,569 1,591

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

787 694 712 746 781 666 715 672 674

Unpaid family workers

45 50 36 - - - - - -

Nonagricultural industries

156,293 158,644 159,161 155,976 157,743 158,318 158,639 158,416 158,853

Wage and salary workers(1)

146,848 149,753 150,021 146,424 148,723 149,479 149,383 149,512 149,632

Government

20,265 21,487 21,022 20,775 21,501 21,467 21,678 21,434 21,552

Private industries

126,582 128,266 128,999 125,714 126,967 127,750 127,655 128,050 128,110

Private households

616 643 641 - - - - - -

Other industries

125,966 127,624 128,358 125,117 126,261 127,055 126,942 127,337 127,470

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

9,392 8,820 9,055 9,242 9,338 9,173 9,100 8,731 8,917

Unpaid family workers

53 71 84 - - - - - -

PERSONS AT WORK PART TIME(2)

All industries

Part time for economic reasons(3)

3,838 3,535 4,403 3,631 4,067 4,102 3,903 3,739 4,191

Slack work or business conditions

2,426 2,435 2,955 2,380 2,840 2,873 2,760 2,582 2,890

Could only find part-time work

906 835 974 910 859 882 817 824 948

Part time for noneconomic reasons(4)

19,885 21,884 20,354 20,655 21,856 21,433 21,796 21,864 21,267

Nonagricultural industries

Part time for economic reasons(3)

3,813 3,518 4,337 3,594 3,964 4,037 3,841 3,725 4,095

Slack work or business conditions

2,415 2,428 2,910 2,358 2,750 2,822 2,715 2,566 2,835

Could only find part-time work

901 835 970 907 842 872 807 821 943

Part time for noneconomic reasons(4)

19,474 21,515 20,004 20,238 21,453 21,069 21,400 21,496 20,913

Footnotes
(1) Includes self-employed workers whose businesses are incorporated.
(2) Refers to those who worked 1 to 34 hours during the survey reference week and excludes employed persons who were absent from their jobs for the entire week.
(3) Refers to those who worked 1 to 34 hours during the reference week for an economic reason such as slack work or unfavorable business conditions, inability to find full-time work, or seasonal declines in demand.
(4) Refers to persons who usually work part time for noneconomic reasons such as childcare problems, family or personal obligations, school or training, retirement or Social Security limits on earnings, and other reasons. This excludes persons who usually work full time but worked only 1 to 34 hours during the reference week for reasons such as vacations, holidays, illness, and bad weather.

- Data not available.
NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-9. Selected employment indicators
[Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
June
2022
May
2023
June
2023
June
2022
Feb.
2023
Mar.
2023
Apr.
2023
May
2023
June
2023

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

158,678 161,002 161,559 158,057 160,315 160,892 161,031 160,721 160,994

16 to 19 years

6,356 5,558 6,320 5,566 5,719 5,792 5,796 5,676 5,559

16 to 17 years

2,395 2,115 2,451 2,113 2,200 2,227 2,209 2,240 2,177

18 to 19 years

3,961 3,443 3,868 3,450 3,534 3,589 3,594 3,450 3,372

20 years and over

152,322 155,445 155,239 152,491 154,597 155,100 155,236 155,045 155,435

20 to 24 years

14,235 14,711 15,130 13,853 14,831 14,896 14,843 14,816 14,741

25 years and over

138,087 140,734 140,110 138,598 139,939 140,372 140,452 140,314 140,612

25 to 54 years

101,200 103,443 103,108 101,492 102,838 103,121 103,220 103,209 103,384

25 to 34 years

35,345 35,897 35,712 35,386 35,799 35,780 35,866 35,814 35,755

35 to 44 years

34,399 35,343 35,267 34,520 35,243 35,492 35,285 35,257 35,391

45 to 54 years

31,457 32,202 32,130 31,586 31,796 31,849 32,069 32,138 32,238

55 years and over

36,887 37,291 37,002 37,106 37,100 37,250 37,232 37,105 37,228

Men, 16 years and over

84,690 85,626 86,140 84,026 85,266 85,776 85,611 85,410 85,547

16 to 19 years

3,257 2,816 3,072 2,816 2,859 2,961 2,951 2,884 2,679

16 to 17 years

1,238 991 1,142 1,042 1,020 1,134 1,079 1,043 972

18 to 19 years

2,019 1,825 1,930 1,769 1,851 1,850 1,878 1,844 1,695

20 years and over

81,432 82,810 83,068 81,210 82,407 82,816 82,661 82,526 82,868

20 to 24 years

7,317 7,489 7,784 7,083 7,484 7,687 7,491 7,509 7,541

25 years and over

74,115 75,321 75,284 74,071 75,070 75,249 75,207 75,088 75,233

25 to 54 years

54,238 55,321 55,342 54,169 55,033 55,232 55,184 55,174 55,263

25 to 34 years

18,826 19,184 19,161 18,797 19,167 19,140 19,134 19,145 19,130

35 to 44 years

18,531 19,060 19,169 18,509 18,965 19,115 18,997 18,998 19,143

45 to 54 years

16,880 17,078 17,012 16,863 16,901 16,977 17,053 17,031 16,990

55 years and over

19,877 20,000 19,942 19,902 20,037 20,017 20,023 19,914 19,971

Women, 16 years and over

73,988 75,376 75,419 74,031 75,049 75,115 75,420 75,311 75,448

16 to 19 years

3,098 2,742 3,248 2,750 2,860 2,831 2,845 2,793 2,880

16 to 17 years

1,156 1,124 1,309 1,071 1,179 1,093 1,130 1,196 1,205

18 to 19 years

1,942 1,618 1,939 1,681 1,683 1,738 1,716 1,606 1,677

20 years and over

70,890 72,634 72,171 71,280 72,189 72,284 72,575 72,518 72,567

20 to 24 years

6,918 7,222 7,345 6,770 7,347 7,209 7,353 7,307 7,201

25 years and over

63,972 65,413 64,826 64,527 64,868 65,123 65,245 65,226 65,378

25 to 54 years

46,963 48,121 47,766 47,322 47,805 47,889 48,036 48,035 48,121

25 to 34 years

16,518 16,714 16,551 16,589 16,633 16,640 16,732 16,669 16,625

35 to 44 years

15,868 16,283 16,097 16,011 16,278 16,377 16,288 16,259 16,248

45 to 54 years

14,577 15,124 15,118 14,723 14,895 14,872 15,016 15,107 15,248

55 years and over

17,009 17,291 17,060 17,204 17,063 17,234 17,209 17,191 17,258

MARITAL STATUS

Married men, spouse present(1)

45,191 45,758 45,696 45,276 46,387 46,341 46,124 45,647 45,844

Married women, spouse present(1)

36,099 37,072 36,422 36,516 36,883 36,759 37,140 36,964 36,847

Women who maintain families(2)

10,010 9,683 9,950 - - - - - -

FULL- OR PART-TIME STATUS

Full-time workers(3)

133,626 134,581 135,860 132,558 133,184 134,339 134,500 134,477 134,859

Part-time workers(4)

25,052 26,421 25,699 25,469 27,089 26,747 26,663 26,443 26,181

MULTIPLE JOBHOLDERS

Total multiple jobholders

7,432 7,718 7,880 7,552 7,904 7,979 7,707 7,762 7,995

Percent of total employed

4.7 4.8 4.9 4.8 4.9 5.0 4.8 4.8 5.0

SELF-EMPLOYMENT

Self-employed workers, incorporated

6,659 6,706 6,836 - - - - - -

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

10,179 9,514 9,767 9,988 10,119 9,839 9,815 9,403 9,591

Footnotes
(1) Beginning with data for January 2020, refers to persons in both opposite-sex and same-sex married couples. Prior to January 2020, referred to persons in opposite-sex married couples only.
(2) Beginning with data for January 2020, refers to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not a spouse of either sex. Prior to January 2020, referred to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not an opposite-sex spouse.
(3) Employed full-time workers are persons who usually work 35 hours or more per week.
(4) Employed part-time workers are persons who usually work less than 35 hours per week.

- Data not available.
NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-10. Selected unemployment indicators, seasonally adjusted
Characteristic Number of
unemployed persons
(in thousands)
Unemployment rates
June
2022
May
2023
June
2023
June
2022
Feb.
2023
Mar.
2023
Apr.
2023
May
2023
June
2023

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

5,945 6,097 5,957 3.6 3.6 3.5 3.4 3.7 3.6

16 to 19 years

686 650 691 11.0 11.1 9.8 9.2 10.3 11.0

16 to 17 years

267 235 274 11.2 9.0 9.1 9.4 9.5 11.2

18 to 19 years

392 407 394 10.2 12.1 10.3 9.4 10.6 10.5

20 years and over

5,259 5,447 5,266 3.3 3.3 3.2 3.2 3.4 3.3

20 to 24 years

1,018 990 952 6.8 6.9 6.5 5.4 6.3 6.1

25 years and over

4,260 4,401 4,326 3.0 2.9 2.9 2.9 3.0 3.0

25 to 54 years

3,199 3,355 3,322 3.1 3.1 2.9 3.1 3.1 3.1

25 to 34 years

1,278 1,441 1,467 3.5 3.9 3.8 3.8 3.9 3.9

35 to 44 years

1,141 1,052 1,070 3.2 2.6 2.5 2.9 2.9 2.9

45 to 54 years

780 862 785 2.4 2.6 2.4 2.4 2.6 2.4

55 years and over

1,039 1,056 978 2.7 2.5 2.6 2.3 2.8 2.6

Men, 16 years and over

3,173 3,294 3,289 3.6 3.6 3.6 3.5 3.7 3.7

16 to 19 years

354 333 383 11.2 12.4 10.4 9.1 10.4 12.5

16 to 17 years

134 91 159 11.4 11.4 9.5 8.6 8.0 14.1

18 to 19 years

191 239 200 9.7 12.9 10.6 10.1 11.5 10.5

20 years and over

2,818 2,961 2,906 3.4 3.3 3.4 3.3 3.5 3.4

20 to 24 years

586 570 545 7.6 7.9 6.9 6.0 7.1 6.7

25 years and over

2,212 2,332 2,334 2.9 2.9 3.0 2.9 3.0 3.0

25 to 54 years

1,630 1,743 1,707 2.9 3.1 3.0 3.1 3.1 3.0

25 to 34 years

691 744 792 3.5 3.9 4.0 4.0 3.7 4.0

35 to 44 years

549 534 482 2.9 2.7 2.8 2.9 2.7 2.5

45 to 54 years

390 465 433 2.3 2.5 2.1 2.4 2.7 2.5

55 years and over

582 589 627 2.8 2.5 2.8 2.3 2.9 3.0

Women, 16 years and over

2,772 2,803 2,668 3.6 3.5 3.4 3.3 3.6 3.4

16 to 19 years

331 317 308 10.8 9.8 9.3 9.2 10.2 9.7

16 to 17 years

132 144 115 11.0 6.8 8.7 10.2 10.7 8.7

18 to 19 years

201 168 195 10.7 11.2 9.9 8.7 9.5 10.4

20 years and over

2,441 2,486 2,360 3.3 3.2 3.1 3.1 3.3 3.1

20 to 24 years

433 420 407 6.0 5.9 6.1 4.7 5.4 5.3

25 years and over

2,048 2,068 1,992 3.1 3.0 2.7 2.8 3.1 3.0

25 to 54 years

1,569 1,612 1,615 3.2 3.0 2.8 3.0 3.2 3.2

25 to 34 years

587 698 675 3.4 3.9 3.4 3.5 4.0 3.9

35 to 44 years

592 517 588 3.6 2.4 2.3 3.0 3.1 3.5

45 to 54 years

390 397 352 2.6 2.8 2.8 2.5 2.6 2.3

55 years and over

474 460 373 2.7 2.7 2.4 2.4 2.6 2.1

MARITAL STATUS

Married men, spouse present(1)

931 948 830 2.0 1.9 1.9 1.7 2.0 1.8

Married women, spouse present(1)

844 867 810 2.3 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.3 2.2

Women who maintain families(2)

477 468 501 4.5 5.0 4.6 4.8 4.6 4.8

FULL- OR PART-TIME STATUS

Full-time workers(3)

4,910 4,953 4,875 3.6 3.5 3.4 3.3 3.6 3.5

Part-time workers(4)

1,029 1,095 1,086 3.9 4.0 3.9 3.6 4.0 4.0

Footnotes
(1) Beginning with data for January 2020, refers to persons in both opposite-sex and same-sex married couples. Prior to January 2020, referred to persons in opposite-sex married couples only.
(2) Data are not seasonally adjusted. Beginning with data for January 2020, refers to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not a spouse of either sex. Prior to January 2020, referred to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not an opposite-sex spouse.
(3) Full-time workers are unemployed persons who have expressed a desire to work full time (35 hours or more per week) or are on layoff from full-time jobs.
(4) Part-time workers are unemployed persons who have expressed a desire to work part time (less than 35 hours per week) or are on layoff from part-time jobs.

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-11. Unemployed persons by reason for unemployment
[Numbers in thousands]
Reason Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
June
2022
May
2023
June
2023
June
2022
Feb.
2023
Mar.
2023
Apr.
2023
May
2023
June
2023

NUMBER OF UNEMPLOYED

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

2,601 2,610 2,817 2,633 2,752 2,949 2,642 2,960 2,900

On temporary layoff

815 503 850 832 816 833 709 767 842

Not on temporary layoff

1,786 2,107 1,968 1,802 1,935 2,117 1,933 2,193 2,058

Permanent job losers

1,278 1,567 1,439 1,256 1,380 1,552 1,445 1,588 1,493

Persons who completed temporary jobs

508 540 528 546 555 564 488 605 565

Job leavers

812 715 772 833 891 845 790 765 794

Reentrants

2,200 1,880 1,934 1,979 1,847 1,665 1,761 1,821 1,745

New entrants

721 495 828 466 515 492 531 508 558

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

41.1 45.8 44.4 44.5 45.8 49.6 46.2 48.9 48.4

On temporary layoff

12.9 8.8 13.4 14.1 13.6 14.0 12.4 12.7 14.0

Not on temporary layoff

28.2 37.0 31.0 30.5 32.2 35.6 33.8 36.2 34.3

Job leavers

12.8 12.5 12.2 14.1 14.8 14.2 13.8 12.6 13.2

Reentrants

34.7 33.0 30.4 33.5 30.8 28.0 30.8 30.1 29.1

New entrants

11.4 8.7 13.0 7.9 8.6 8.3 9.3 8.4 9.3

UNEMPLOYED AS A PERCENT OF THE
CIVILIAN LABOR FORCE

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

1.6 1.6 1.7 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.6 1.8 1.7

Job leavers

0.5 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5

Reentrants

1.3 1.1 1.2 1.2 1.1 1.0 1.1 1.1 1.0

New entrants

0.4 0.3 0.5 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to total unemployed in table A-1 because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-12. Unemployed persons by duration of unemployment
[Numbers in thousands]
Duration Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
June
2022
May
2023
June
2023
June
2022
Feb.
2023
Mar.
2023
Apr.
2023
May
2023
June
2023

NUMBER OF UNEMPLOYED

Less than 5 weeks

2,964 2,044 2,788 2,259 2,289 2,272 1,866 2,083 2,068

5 to 14 weeks

1,386 1,536 1,667 1,576 1,845 1,733 1,915 1,865 1,889

15 weeks and over

1,985 2,120 1,896 2,114 1,862 1,838 1,835 2,046 2,021

15 to 26 weeks

699 992 845 777 805 734 679 858 917

27 weeks and over

1,286 1,127 1,051 1,337 1,057 1,104 1,156 1,188 1,105

Average (mean) duration, in weeks

20.8 21.9 19.3 22.3 19.3 19.5 20.9 21.2 20.7

Median duration, in weeks

5.8 9.4 6.4 8.2 8.3 8.1 8.4 8.6 8.7

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION

Less than 5 weeks

46.8 35.9 43.9 38.0 38.2 38.9 33.2 34.8 34.6

5 to 14 weeks

21.9 27.0 26.2 26.5 30.8 29.7 34.1 31.1 31.6

15 weeks and over

31.3 37.2 29.8 35.5 31.1 31.5 32.7 34.1 33.8

15 to 26 weeks

11.0 17.4 13.3 13.1 13.4 12.6 12.1 14.3 15.3

27 weeks and over

20.3 19.8 16.6 22.5 17.6 18.9 20.6 19.8 18.5

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to total unemployed in table A-1 because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-13. Employed and unemployed persons by occupation, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Occupation Employed Unemployed Unemployment
rates
June
2022
June
2023
June
2022
June
2023
June
2022
June
2023

Total, 16 years and over(1)

158,678 161,559 6,334 6,351 3.8 3.8

Management, professional, and related occupations

67,224 69,956 1,520 1,609 2.2 2.2

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

29,179 30,881 488 600 1.6 1.9

Professional and related occupations

38,045 39,075 1,032 1,009 2.6 2.5

Service occupations

26,195 27,041 1,245 1,222 4.5 4.3

Sales and office occupations

30,264 30,135 1,223 1,094 3.9 3.5

Sales and related occupations

14,311 14,218 619 589 4.1 4.0

Office and administrative support occupations

15,953 15,917 604 506 3.6 3.1

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

14,401 14,596 601 498 4.0 3.3

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

1,090 1,041 68 55 5.9 5.0

Construction and extraction occupations

8,542 8,597 400 340 4.5 3.8

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

4,770 4,958 133 103 2.7 2.0

Production, transportation, and material moving
occupations

20,593 19,832 1,016 1,080 4.7 5.2

Production occupations

8,544 8,269 315 360 3.6 4.2

Transportation and material moving occupations

12,050 11,563 700 720 5.5 5.9

Footnotes
(1) Persons with no previous work experience and persons whose last job was in the U.S. Armed Forces are included in the unemployed total.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data. Effective with January 2020 data, occupations reflect the introduction of the 2018 Census occupational classification system into the Current Population Survey, or household survey. This classification system is derived from the 2018 Standard Occupational Classification (SOC). No historical data have been revised. Data for 2020 are not strictly comparable with earlier years.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-14. Unemployed persons by industry and class of worker, not seasonally adjusted
Industry and class of worker Number of
unemployed
persons
(in thousands)
Unemployment
rates
June
2022
June
2023
June
2022
June
2023

Total, 16 years and over(1)

6,334 6,351 3.8 3.8

Nonagricultural private wage and salary workers

4,607 4,449 3.5 3.3

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

10 7 1.6 1.3

Construction

385 381 3.7 3.6

Manufacturing

465 396 3.0 2.6

Durable goods

277 238 2.9 2.4

Nondurable goods

189 158 3.2 2.9

Wholesale and retail trade

799 855 4.1 4.4

Transportation and utilities

323 263 3.8 3.1

Information

80 85 3.1 3.1

Financial activities

211 226 2.1 2.2

Professional and business services

640 628 3.4 3.3

Education and health services

803 733 3.3 2.8

Leisure and hospitality

721 735 5.2 5.1

Other services

169 140 2.5 2.1

Agriculture and related private wage and salary workers

69 85 4.4 5.1

Government workers

653 649 3.1 3.0

Self-employed workers, unincorporated, and unpaid family workers

284 340 2.7 3.3

Footnotes
(1) Persons with no previous work experience and persons whose last job was in the U.S. Armed Forces are included in the unemployed total.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data. Effective with January 2020 data, industries reflect the introduction of the 2017 Census industry classification system into the Current Population Survey. This industry classification system is derived from the 2017 North American Industry Classification System (NAICS). No historical data have been revised.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-15. Alternative measures of labor underutilization
[Percent]
Measure Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
June
2022
May
2023
June
2023
June
2022
Feb.
2023
Mar.
2023
Apr.
2023
May
2023
June
2023

U-1 Persons unemployed 15 weeks or longer, as a percent of the civilian labor force

1.2 1.3 1.1 1.3 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.2 1.2

U-2 Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs, as a percent of the civilian labor force

1.6 1.6 1.7 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.6 1.8 1.7

U-3 Total unemployed, as a percent of the civilian labor force (official unemployment rate)

3.8 3.4 3.8 3.6 3.6 3.5 3.4 3.7 3.6

U-4 Total unemployed plus discouraged workers, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus discouraged workers

4.1 3.6 4.0 3.8 3.8 3.7 3.6 3.9 3.7

U-5 Total unemployed, plus discouraged workers, plus all other persons marginally attached to the labor force, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force

4.7 4.3 4.6 4.5 4.4 4.2 4.2 4.5 4.4

U-6 Total unemployed, plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force, plus total employed part time for economic reasons, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force

7.0 6.4 7.2 6.7 6.8 6.7 6.6 6.7 6.9

NOTE: Persons marginally attached to the labor force are those who currently are neither working nor looking for work but indicate that they want and are available for a job and have looked for work sometime in the past 12 months. Discouraged workers, a subset of the marginally attached, have given a job-market related reason for not currently looking for work. Persons employed part time for economic reasons are those who want and are available for full-time work but have had to settle for a part-time schedule. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-16. Persons not in the labor force and multiple jobholders by sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Category Total Men Women
June
2022
June
2023
June
2022
June
2023
June
2022
June
2023

NOT IN THE LABOR FORCE

Total not in the labor force

98,822 98,891 40,624 40,905 58,198 57,986

Persons who currently want a job

6,100 5,846 2,886 2,682 3,214 3,164

Marginally attached to the labor force(1)

1,541 1,479 808 759 733 721

Discouraged workers(2)

386 320 243 185 143 134

Other persons marginally attached to the labor force(3)

1,154 1,159 565 573 590 586

MULTIPLE JOBHOLDERS

Total multiple jobholders(4)

7,432 7,880 3,722 3,873 3,709 4,007

Percent of total employed

4.7 4.9 4.4 4.5 5.0 5.3

Primary job full time, secondary job part time

4,204 4,670 2,236 2,488 1,968 2,182

Primary and secondary jobs both part time

1,692 1,747 613 637 1,079 1,111

Primary and secondary jobs both full time

426 389 286 217 140 172

Hours vary on primary or secondary job

1,027 994 555 509 472 485

Footnotes
(1) Data refer to persons who want a job, have searched for work during the prior 12 months, and were available to take a job during the reference week, but had not looked for work in the past 4 weeks.
(2) Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for reasons such as thinks no work available, could not find work, lacks schooling or training, employer thinks too young or old, and other types of discrimination.
(3) Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for such reasons as school or family responsibilities, ill health, and transportation problems, as well as a number for whom reason for nonparticipation was not determined.
(4) Includes a small number of persons who work part time on their primary job and full time on their secondary job(s), not shown separately.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-1. Employees on nonfarm payrolls by industry sector and selected industry detail
[In thousands]
Industry Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
June
2022
Apr.
2023
May
2023(p)
June
2023(p)
June
2022
Apr.
2023
May
2023(p)
June
2023(p)
Change from:
May2023 - June2023(p)

Total nonfarm

153,217 155,369 156,266 156,963 152,412 155,689 155,995 156,204 209

Total private

131,254 132,469 133,370 134,389 130,302 133,086 133,345 133,494 149

Goods-producing

21,445 21,394 21,566 21,837 21,175 21,526 21,549 21,578 29

Mining and logging

613 634 641 647 607 640 643 642 -1

Logging

45.1 43.8 43.7 45.3 45.1 46.3 45.9 45.5 -0.4

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

568.2 590.1 597.2 602.0 561.7 593.3 597.2 596.1 -1.1

Oil and gas extraction

121.9 117.3 117.9 118.4 121.4 118.2 119.0 118.0 -1.0

Mining (except oil and gas)

186.7 186.1 188.8 191.4 182.8 187.4 186.8 187.7 0.9

Coal mining

40.9 41.4 41.3 41.6 40.8 41.3 41.2 41.5 0.3

Metal ore mining

43.4 43.9 44.0 44.1 42.7 43.9 43.9 43.6 -0.3

Nonmetallic mineral mining and quarrying

102.4 100.8 103.5 105.7 99.3 102.2 101.7 102.7 1.0

Support activities for mining

259.6 286.7 290.5 292.2 257.5 287.7 291.4 290.4 -1.0

Construction

7,932 7,823 7,973 8,131 7,749 7,901 7,924 7,947 23

Construction of buildings

1,780.5 1,763.9 1,787.1 1,826.2 1,749.3 1,785.4 1,790.7 1,796.9 6.2

Residential building construction

937.0 915.8 927.9 942.9 921.4 928.1 928.4 929.2 0.8

Nonresidential building construction

843.5 848.1 859.2 883.3 827.9 857.3 862.3 867.7 5.4

Heavy and civil engineering construction

1,119.5 1,093.6 1,134.9 1,160.3 1,077.4 1,095.8 1,105.7 1,113.0 7.3

Specialty trade contractors

5,032.1 4,965.1 5,051.1 5,144.0 4,921.8 5,019.6 5,027.8 5,037.3 9.5

Residential specialty trade contractors

2,350.1 2,307.9 2,347.5 2,392.3 2,298.0 2,330.0 2,332.6 2,342.6 10.0

Nonresidential specialty trade contractors

2,682.0 2,657.2 2,703.6 2,751.7 2,623.8 2,689.6 2,695.2 2,694.7 -0.5

Manufacturing

12,900 12,937 12,952 13,059 12,819 12,985 12,982 12,989 7

Durable goods

8,008 8,085 8,095 8,172 7,954 8,105 8,109 8,124 15

Wood product manufacturing

433.2 422.6 424.4 427.2 430.0 423.9 424.3 424.7 0.4

Nonmetallic mineral product manufacturing

425.7 427.6 431.4 436.8 418.4 429.8 428.2 430.7 2.5

Primary metal manufacturing

361.6 366.7 367.1 368.7 361.4 367.2 368.5 368.6 0.1

Fabricated metal product manufacturing

1,438.0 1,447.2 1,449.5 1,459.1 1,429.4 1,449.9 1,450.5 1,451.5 1.0

Machinery manufacturing

1,114.1 1,124.2 1,125.2 1,139.5 1,103.3 1,126.6 1,127.0 1,130.1 3.1

Computer and electronic product manufacturing

1,093.5 1,098.3 1,099.1 1,110.8 1,087.5 1,102.7 1,102.7 1,104.8 2.1

Computer and peripheral equipment manufacturing

162.9 167.7 167.3 169.1 162.3 168.5 168.4 168.7 0.3

Communications equipment manufacturing

86.6 84.3 84.7 86.5 85.7 84.5 84.9 85.3 0.4

Semiconductor and other electronic component manufacturing

389.1 388.0 387.1 389.8 386.3 390.0 388.9 387.6 -1.3

Navigational, measuring, electromedical, and control instruments manufacturing

422.4 425.6 426.6 432.0 421.2 426.5 426.8 430.1 3.3

Manufacturing and reproducing magnetic and optical media and audio and video equipment manufacturing

32.5 32.7 33.4 33.4 32.0 33.2 33.6 32.9 -0.7

Electrical equipment, appliance, and component manufacturing

407.7 402.9 404.0 405.7 404.1 403.8 404.6 402.3 -2.3

Transportation equipment manufacturing(1)

1,718.1 1,799.8 1,803.2 1,825.7 1,710.7 1,801.5 1,810.2 1,817.4 7.2

Motor vehicles and parts(2)

1,004.7 1,063.5 1,062.6 1,069.1 1,007.1 1,061.1 1,067.3 1,071.6 4.3

Furniture and related product manufacturing

384.0 366.2 362.8 365.6 381.7 367.6 363.8 364.0 0.2

Miscellaneous manufacturing

632.4 629.9 628.0 632.8 627.8 631.7 628.8 629.4 0.6

Nondurable goods

4,892 4,852 4,857 4,887 4,865 4,880 4,873 4,865 -8

Food manufacturing

1,702.9 1,710.7 1,709.0 1,722.9 1,700.1 1,726.8 1,725.7 1,722.4 -3.3

Textile mills

100.1 95.6 94.3 94.9 99.3 95.5 94.4 94.2 -0.2

Textile product mills

104.9 100.9 101.1 99.4 104.5 100.9 100.7 99.5 -1.2

Apparel manufacturing

94.7 94.9 93.2 93.0 93.8 94.2 93.0 92.4 -0.6

Paper manufacturing

364.5 352.3 350.8 351.5 363.5 353.1 351.6 351.0 -0.6

Printing and related support activities

383.0 379.8 377.9 377.7 381.7 381.0 378.4 376.9 -1.5

Petroleum and coal products manufacturing

108.6 105.5 107.5 108.2 106.2 106.3 106.1 105.9 -0.2

Chemical manufacturing

910.0 915.8 917.4 923.7 905.3 917.7 919.4 919.5 0.1

Plastics and rubber products manufacturing

761.3 744.7 745.6 746.4 756.7 746.1 744.9 742.9 -2.0

Beverage, tobacco, and leather and allied product manufacturing

362.0 351.9 359.8 369.5 353.5 358.2 359.1 360.4 1.3

Private service-providing

109,809 111,075 111,804 112,552 109,127 111,560 111,796 111,916 120

Trade, transportation, and utilities

28,637 28,574 28,730 28,851 28,671 28,850 28,895 28,873 -22

Wholesale trade

6,003.3 6,032.9 6,056.8 6,080.8 5,966.3 6,046.4 6,050.6 6,047.0 -3.6

Merchant wholesalers, durable goods

3,307.9 3,332.5 3,348.0 3,363.3 3,289.0 3,339.0 3,345.3 3,346.1 0.8

Merchant wholesalers, nondurable goods

2,174.7 2,175.0 2,185.4 2,194.6 2,158.4 2,180.2 2,181.6 2,179.1 -2.5

Wholesale trade agents and brokers

520.7 525.4 523.4 522.9 518.9 527.2 523.7 521.8 -1.9

Retail trade

15,483.9 15,369.5 15,469.5 15,565.1 15,467.3 15,527.2 15,550.2 15,539.0 -11.2

Motor vehicle and parts dealers

2,024.3 2,020.2 2,038.3 2,054.1 2,010.4 2,021.0 2,032.6 2,038.3 5.7

Automobile dealers

1,258.4 1,250.9 1,258.2 1,266.7 1,253.9 1,252.1 1,257.5 1,261.0 3.5

Other motor vehicle dealers

185.0 176.9 182.8 185.9 175.8 176.6 177.5 177.0 -0.5

Automotive parts, accessories, and tire retailers

580.9 592.4 597.3 601.5 580.7 592.4 597.6 600.3 2.7

Building material and garden equipment and supplies dealers

1,484.7 1,408.3 1,431.1 1,424.5 1,406.8 1,376.2 1,369.0 1,359.1 -9.9

Food and beverage retailers

3,194.9 3,215.9 3,229.1 3,257.7 3,180.7 3,241.3 3,244.9 3,244.6 -0.3

Furniture, home furnishings, electronics, and appliance retailers

903.4 854.9 849.9 846.5 912.5 864.0 858.8 854.3 -4.5

Furniture and home furnishings retailers

457.3 435.8 433.1 434.2 461.9 440.6 437.7 437.9 0.2

Electronics and appliance retailers

446.1 419.1 416.8 412.3 455.9 425.3 422.9 420.3 -2.6

General merchandise retailers

3,071.1 3,099.1 3,111.9 3,130.4 3,153.3 3,162.4 3,182.1 3,184.0 1.9

Department stores

926.8 920.4 928.1 933.1 967.0 961.5 967.4 964.7 -2.7

Warehouse clubs, supercenters, and other general merchandise retailers

2,144.3 2,178.7 2,183.8 2,197.3 2,186.3 2,200.9 2,214.7 2,219.3 4.6

Health and personal care retailers

1,083.9 1,094.6 1,097.1 1,098.4 1,092.2 1,105.6 1,107.2 1,108.3 1.1

Gasoline stations and fuel dealers

1,044.6 1,059.0 1,067.3 1,083.0 1,035.6 1,068.0 1,068.7 1,072.8 4.1

Clothing, clothing accessories, shoe, and jewelry retailers

1,135.7 1,109.5 1,114.5 1,127.6 1,142.3 1,149.1 1,147.3 1,141.2 -6.1

Sporting goods, hobby, musical instrument, book, and miscellaneous retailers

1,541.3 1,508.0 1,530.3 1,542.9 1,533.5 1,539.6 1,539.6 1,536.4 -3.2

Transportation and warehousing

6,594.7 6,616.6 6,647.1 6,645.8 6,684.2 6,720.0 6,736.9 6,730.0 -6.9

Air transportation

508.3 535.2 540.5 548.0 502.8 536.7 539.4 542.6 3.2

Rail transportation

146.8 150.4 150.4 150.4 146.7 150.4 150.3 150.1 -0.2

Water transportation

67.1 65.3 68.2 69.9 64.6 66.7 67.4 67.3 -0.1

Truck transportation

1,602.4 1,591.4 1,605.7 1,619.9 1,591.4 1,608.7 1,609.9 1,609.7 -0.2

Transit and ground passenger transportation

400.9 432.6 450.5 427.7 412.3 422.1 436.9 439.0 2.1

Pipeline transportation

50.7 48.1 48.1 47.7 50.2 48.1 47.8 47.4 -0.4

Scenic and sightseeing transportation

38.1 32.5 35.1 41.0 32.2 35.7 35.3 35.8 0.5

Support activities for transportation

782.0 806.6 809.4 811.4 787.1 813.4 815.7 817.8 2.1

Couriers and messengers

1,070.4 1,049.5 1,054.4 1,058.5 1,136.6 1,120.3 1,122.6 1,115.6 -7.0

Warehousing and storage

1,928.0 1,905.0 1,884.8 1,871.3 1,960.3 1,917.9 1,911.6 1,904.7 -6.9

Utilities

555.1 554.9 556.1 559.0 552.9 556.0 556.9 556.6 -0.3

Information

3,111 3,073 3,078 3,113 3,089 3,095 3,095 3,095 0

Motion picture and sound recording industries

475.2 455.0 475.4 484.7 467.3 465.3 473.4 474.9 1.5

Publishing industries

955.1 932.2 924.8 944.0 946.6 938.4 935.3 938.7 3.4

Broadcasting and content providers

358.3 354.9 354.0 352.3 356.9 355.5 354.7 351.6 -3.1

Telecommunications

666.5 647.7 643.2 647.8 665.7 650.8 647.5 647.1 -0.4

Computing infrastructure providers, data processing, web hosting, and related services

466.6 489.3 490.9 493.7 464.8 490.3 491.3 492.9 1.6

Web search portals, libraries, archives, and other information services

189.2 193.6 189.7 190.5 187.7 195.0 192.5 190.0 -2.5

Financial activities

9,090 9,078 9,104 9,187 9,043 9,122 9,134 9,144 10

Finance and insurance

6,685.2 6,680.9 6,691.5 6,734.7 6,672.1 6,704.7 6,715.3 6,722.0 6.7

Monetary authorities-central bank

21.4 21.9 21.9 22.2 21.3 22.0 22.0 22.1 0.1

Credit intermediation and related
activities

2,696.8 2,665.4 2,663.4 2,674.2 2,689.4 2,671.2 2,669.3 2,669.1 -0.2

Depository credit intermediation(1)

1,760.5 1,784.3 1,778.7 1,789.7 1,754.5 1,787.6 1,782.8 1,786.4 3.6

Commercial banking

1,365.4 1,376.5 1,369.6 1,378.1 1,361.4 1,377.9 1,373.1 1,375.5 2.4

Nondepository credit intermediation

603.9 567.2 569.4 571.4 603.0 570.5 571.6 570.3 -1.3

Activities related to credit intermediation

332.4 313.9 315.3 313.1 331.9 313.1 314.9 312.4 -2.5

Securities, commodity contracts, funds, trusts, and other financial vehicles, investments, and related activities

1,051.2 1,070.9 1,074.1 1,089.0 1,048.3 1,078.2 1,081.9 1,085.5 3.6

Insurance carriers and related activities

2,915.8 2,922.7 2,932.1 2,949.3 2,913.1 2,933.3 2,942.1 2,945.3 3.2

Real estate and rental and leasing

2,404.4 2,396.6 2,412.4 2,451.9 2,370.4 2,417.0 2,418.5 2,422.2 3.7

Real estate

1,832.4 1,841.7 1,842.3 1,864.9 1,816.6 1,852.2 1,851.5 1,853.5 2.0

Rental and leasing services

549.1 532.6 547.6 564.4 531.2 542.3 544.4 546.4 2.0

Lessors of nonfinancial intangible assets (except copyrighted works)

22.9 22.3 22.5 22.6 22.6 22.5 22.6 22.3 -0.3

Professional and business services

22,619 22,888 22,997 23,087 22,582 22,972 23,033 23,054 21

Professional, scientific, and technical services

10,509.7 10,858.5 10,815.2 10,882.5 10,523.1 10,829.7 10,874.7 10,897.7 23.0

Legal services

1,194.1 1,171.2 1,172.5 1,195.6 1,183.3 1,180.1 1,180.0 1,185.1 5.1

Accounting, tax preparation, bookkeeping, and payroll services

1,079.5 1,222.2 1,134.6 1,125.1 1,119.3 1,148.8 1,161.6 1,163.4 1.8

Architectural, engineering, and related services

1,618.8 1,655.6 1,669.1 1,701.2 1,602.8 1,671.3 1,677.1 1,683.4 6.3

Specialized design services

154.5 158.5 158.8 160.5 153.6 159.0 158.7 159.4 0.7

Computer systems design and related services

2,455.0 2,501.8 2,505.1 2,498.2 2,461.9 2,500.9 2,504.4 2,506.6 2.2

Management, scientific, and technical consulting services

1,775.4 1,854.2 1,863.7 1,877.1 1,782.7 1,863.2 1,874.6 1,886.5 11.9

Scientific research and development services

906.3 925.4 929.7 945.3 896.2 931.0 934.0 934.7 0.7

Advertising, public relations, and related services

489.4 491.5 493.9 498.9 487.8 493.1 495.3 497.5 2.2

Other professional, scientific, and technical services

836.7 878.1 887.8 880.6 835.4 882.3 889.1 881.1 -8.0

Management of companies and enterprises

2,501.2 2,512.1 2,513.3 2,531.9 2,486.0 2,521.6 2,520.1 2,517.7 -2.4

Administrative and support and waste management and remediation services

9,607.8 9,517.1 9,668.7 9,672.3 9,573.1 9,620.9 9,637.8 9,638.2 0.4

Administrative and support services

9,128.0 9,027.3 9,174.8 9,172.8 9,095.1 9,126.7 9,142.0 9,141.6 -0.4

Office administrative services

596.3 618.0 620.6 623.0 592.7 619.1 619.9 621.1 1.2

Facilities support services

153.6 160.5 160.7 164.1 155.5 160.5 163.5 165.5 2.0

Employment services(1)

3,827.7 3,718.7 3,785.8 3,730.0 3,898.7 3,811.0 3,815.3 3,803.4 -11.9

Temporary help services

3,066.2 2,954.5 3,013.1 2,957.0 3,118.3 3,021.1 3,024.1 3,011.5 -12.6

Business support services

788.3 758.4 754.0 748.2 800.2 762.3 759.5 758.5 -1.0

Travel arrangement and reservation services

174.8 179.5 182.4 181.8 171.0 179.8 180.9 178.6 -2.3

Investigation and security services

947.8 977.0 979.2 979.9 950.0 977.2 979.9 982.9 3.0

Services to buildings and dwellings

2,304.3 2,274.9 2,347.7 2,398.6 2,192.8 2,273.5 2,278.1 2,285.3 7.2

Other support services

335.2 340.3 344.4 347.2 334.0 343.1 344.8 346.4 1.6

Waste management and remediation services

479.8 489.8 493.9 499.5 478.0 494.2 495.8 496.6 0.8

Private education and health services

24,081 25,271 25,248 25,089 24,277 25,149 25,229 25,302 73

Private educational services

3,585.0 4,071.9 3,963.8 3,727.4 3,788.5 3,923.7 3,939.7 3,946.9 7.2

Health care and social assistance

20,496.0 21,199.4 21,284.3 21,361.6 20,488.9 21,224.9 21,289.7 21,354.9 65.2

Health care(3)

16,243.3 16,726.4 16,771.3 16,840.3 16,246.5 16,759.1 16,803.7 16,844.8 41.1

Ambulatory health care services

8,085.3 8,345.4 8,372.3 8,377.6 8,093.5 8,351.2 8,375.8 8,389.6 13.8

Offices of physicians

2,794.2 2,875.4 2,882.9 2,885.0 2,799.3 2,877.1 2,884.7 2,890.8 6.1

Offices of dentists

1,009.9 1,031.7 1,037.5 1,033.2 1,006.3 1,033.8 1,037.3 1,030.5 -6.8

Offices of other health practitioners

1,076.9 1,125.3 1,131.0 1,132.9 1,080.8 1,126.8 1,132.2 1,137.2 5.0

Outpatient care centers

1,028.6 1,057.7 1,056.1 1,058.6 1,030.5 1,059.3 1,059.3 1,062.0 2.7

Medical and diagnostic laboratories

322.5 325.3 322.5 321.0 322.3 323.1 322.5 321.7 -0.8

Home health care services

1,531.9 1,595.0 1,605.0 1,613.0 1,532.4 1,595.4 1,602.9 1,611.7 8.8

Other ambulatory health care services

321.3 335.0 337.3 333.9 321.9 335.6 336.9 335.8 -1.1

Hospitals

5,149.1 5,267.2 5,272.7 5,306.0 5,151.0 5,280.0 5,293.3 5,308.3 15.0

Nursing and residential care facilities

3,008.9 3,113.8 3,126.3 3,156.7 3,002.0 3,127.9 3,134.6 3,146.9 12.3

Skilled nursing care facilities

1,353.7 1,392.3 1,397.7 1,415.5 1,351.4 1,400.8 1,403.9 1,410.1 6.2

Residential intellectual and developmental disability, mental health, and substance abuse facilities

605.5 625.1 630.2 636.0 604.6 627.3 630.7 634.7 4.0

Continuing care retirement communities and assisted living facilities for the elderly

897.9 942.1 943.1 948.5 894.8 944.1 943.9 946.0 2.1

Other residential care facilities

151.8 154.3 155.3 156.7 151.3 155.7 156.1 156.1 0.0

Social assistance

4,252.7 4,473.0 4,513.0 4,521.3 4,242.4 4,465.8 4,486.0 4,510.1 24.1

Individual and family services

2,820.8 2,978.1 3,001.2 3,019.6 2,814.5 2,977.6 2,993.1 3,011.4 18.3

Community food and housing, and emergency and other relief services

201.5 213.9 215.1 217.3 202.1 213.6 215.7 217.4 1.7

Vocational rehabilitation services

271.9 278.4 279.1 283.4 268.8 279.8 279.3 280.1 0.8

Child care services

958.5 1,002.6 1,017.6 1,001.0 956.9 994.7 997.9 1,001.3 3.4

Leisure and hospitality

16,501 16,362 16,775 17,273 15,774 16,529 16,555 16,576 21

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

2,579.2 2,374.4 2,501.5 2,741.0 2,293.6 2,437.8 2,438.6 2,454.2 15.6

Performing arts, spectator sports, and related industries

541.4 545.9 561.7 558.1 507.3 524.5 527.9 524.2 -3.7

Museums, historical sites, and similar institutions

170.0 166.1 174.3 185.8 157.8 171.1 172.4 173.3 0.9

Amusement, gambling, and recreation industries

1,867.8 1,662.4 1,765.5 1,997.1 1,628.5 1,742.2 1,738.3 1,756.7 18.4

Accommodation and food services

13,921.4 13,988.0 14,273.3 14,532.0 13,480.6 14,091.6 14,116.8 14,121.5 4.7

Accommodation

1,890.6 1,811.0 1,864.3 1,973.5 1,769.6 1,855.8 1,857.0 1,862.5 5.5

Food services and drinking places

12,030.8 12,177.0 12,409.0 12,558.5 11,711.0 12,235.8 12,259.8 12,259.0 -0.8

Other services

5,770 5,829 5,872 5,952 5,691 5,843 5,855 5,872 17

Repair and maintenance

1,404.8 1,437.8 1,450.1 1,459.5 1,392.1 1,438.2 1,443.8 1,446.3 2.5

Personal and laundry services

1,491.6 1,532.1 1,546.0 1,564.7 1,468.4 1,530.8 1,532.4 1,540.9 8.5

Religious, grantmaking, civic, professional, and similar organizations

2,873.1 2,858.9 2,876.3 2,928.2 2,830.2 2,873.7 2,878.4 2,884.6 6.2

Government

21,963 22,900 22,896 22,574 22,110 22,603 22,650 22,710 60

Federal

2,858 2,905 2,917 2,924 2,851 2,910 2,913 2,914 1

Federal, except U.S. Postal Service

2,262.9 2,294.4 2,312.0 2,320.4 2,248.9 2,303.0 2,304.9 2,305.3 0.4

U.S. Postal Service

594.6 610.7 604.8 603.6 601.8 606.7 608.0 608.8 0.8

State government

4,850 5,343 5,222 5,003 5,090 5,202 5,215 5,242 27

State government education

2,187.5 2,658.3 2,530.8 2,284.5 2,442.2 2,516.6 2,523.7 2,543.1 19.4

State government, excluding education

2,662.4 2,684.4 2,691.3 2,718.6 2,647.4 2,685.5 2,690.9 2,699.0 8.1

Local government

14,255 14,652 14,757 14,647 14,169 14,491 14,522 14,554 32

Local government education

7,688.5 8,168.3 8,188.3 7,870.2 7,782.5 7,927.4 7,943.1 7,960.4 17.3

Local government, excluding education

6,566.6 6,483.8 6,568.3 6,776.7 6,386.7 6,563.4 6,578.9 6,593.1 14.2

Footnotes
(1) Includes other industries, not shown separately.
(2) Includes motor vehicle manufacturing, motor vehicle body and trailer manufacturing, and motor vehicle parts manufacturing.
(3) Includes ambulatory health care services, hospitals, and nursing and residential care facilities.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2022 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-2. Average weekly hours and overtime of all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry June
2022
Apr.
2023
May
2023(p)
June
2023(p)

AVERAGE WEEKLY HOURS

Total private

34.6 34.4 34.3 34.4

Goods-producing

39.9 39.8 39.8 39.9

Mining and logging

46.5 45.5 45.7 45.6

Construction

38.7 38.9 38.8 39.0

Manufacturing

40.3 40.1 40.1 40.1

Durable goods

40.8 40.6 40.6 40.7

Nondurable goods

39.7 39.4 39.3 39.1

Private service-providing

33.5 33.3 33.3 33.3

Trade, transportation, and utilities

34.1 33.9 33.9 33.9

Wholesale trade

38.9 38.8 38.9 38.9

Retail trade

30.0 29.9 29.9 29.9

Transportation and warehousing

38.5 37.9 37.9 38.0

Utilities

42.8 42.3 42.3 42.3

Information

36.8 36.3 36.1 36.3

Financial activities

37.5 37.5 37.5 37.4

Professional and business services

36.6 36.5 36.4 36.5

Private education and health services

33.5 33.4 33.4 33.4

Leisure and hospitality

25.8 25.4 25.3 25.4

Other services

32.2 32.3 32.3 32.3

AVERAGE OVERTIME HOURS

Manufacturing

3.2 3.0 3.0 3.0

Durable goods

3.2 3.1 3.1 3.1

Nondurable goods

3.1 2.8 2.8 2.8

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2022 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-3. Average hourly and weekly earnings of all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Average hourly earnings Average weekly earnings
June
2022
Apr.
2023
May
2023(p)
June
2023(p)
June
2022
Apr.
2023
May
2023(p)
June
2023(p)

Total private

$32.18 $33.34 $33.46 $33.58 $1,113.43 $1,146.90 $1,147.68 $1,155.15

Goods-producing

32.39 33.69 33.82 33.99 1,292.36 1,340.86 1,346.04 1,356.20

Mining and logging

35.93 37.74 38.12 38.08 1,670.75 1,717.17 1,742.08 1,736.45

Construction

34.67 36.11 36.24 36.31 1,341.73 1,404.68 1,406.11 1,416.09

Manufacturing

30.88 32.04 32.15 32.38 1,244.46 1,284.80 1,289.22 1,298.44

Durable goods

32.47 33.56 33.73 33.87 1,324.78 1,362.54 1,369.44 1,378.51

Nondurable goods

28.21 29.43 29.43 29.79 1,119.94 1,159.54 1,156.60 1,164.79

Private service-providing

32.13 33.26 33.38 33.48 1,076.36 1,107.56 1,111.55 1,114.88

Trade, transportation, and utilities

27.64 28.83 28.86 28.96 942.52 977.34 978.35 981.74

Wholesale trade

35.02 36.61 36.65 36.85 1,362.28 1,420.47 1,425.69 1,433.47

Retail trade

22.90 23.83 23.81 23.85 687.00 712.52 711.92 713.12

Transportation and warehousing

27.70 28.86 28.98 29.07 1,066.45 1,093.79 1,098.34 1,104.66

Utilities

47.55 49.44 49.34 49.60 2,035.14 2,091.31 2,087.08 2,098.08

Information

46.37 47.63 48.16 47.84 1,706.42 1,728.97 1,738.58 1,736.59

Financial activities

41.49 42.68 43.00 43.33 1,555.88 1,600.50 1,612.50 1,620.54

Professional and business services

38.62 40.14 40.25 40.37 1,413.49 1,465.11 1,465.10 1,473.51

Private education and health services

31.86 32.75 32.83 32.92 1,067.31 1,093.85 1,096.52 1,099.53

Leisure and hospitality

20.08 21.04 21.13 21.21 518.06 534.42 534.59 538.73

Other services

28.67 29.56 29.70 29.75 923.17 954.79 959.31 960.93

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2022 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-4. Indexes of aggregate weekly hours and payrolls for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
[2007=100]
Industry Index of aggregate weekly hours(1) Index of aggregate weekly payrolls(2)
June
2022
Apr.
2023
May
2023(p)
June
2023(p)
Percent change from:
May
2023 - June
2023(p)
June
2022
Apr.
2023
May
2023(p)
June
2023(p)
Percent change from:
May
2023 - June
2023(p)

Total private

113.2 114.9 114.8 115.3 0.4 174.1 183.2 183.7 185.1 0.8

Goods-producing

96.3 97.6 97.7 98.1 0.4 140.9 148.6 149.4 150.7 0.9

Mining and logging

88.7 91.5 92.3 92.0 -0.3 127.9 138.6 141.3 140.6 -0.5

Construction

103.4 105.9 106.0 106.8 0.8 155.7 166.2 166.9 168.6 1.0

Manufacturing

92.9 93.7 93.7 93.7 0.0 133.5 139.6 140.0 141.1 0.8

Durable goods

91.4 92.6 92.7 93.1 0.4 131.8 138.1 138.8 140.0 0.9

Nondurable goods

96.4 96.0 95.6 94.9 -0.7 138.0 143.3 142.7 143.5 0.6

Private service-providing

117.7 119.6 119.9 120.0 0.1 183.8 193.4 194.5 195.3 0.4

Trade, transportation, and utilities

106.8 106.9 107.0 106.9 -0.1 159.2 166.1 166.6 167.0 0.2

Wholesale trade

102.4 103.5 103.8 103.8 0.0 150.0 158.5 159.2 159.9 0.4

Retail trade

94.4 94.5 94.6 94.6 0.0 143.0 148.9 149.0 149.1 0.1

Transportation and warehousing

147.9 146.3 146.7 146.9 0.1 208.4 214.9 216.3 217.3 0.5

Utilities

102.4 101.8 101.9 101.9 0.0 160.9 166.2 166.2 166.9 0.4

Information

103.8 102.6 102.1 102.6 0.5 171.4 174.0 175.0 174.8 -0.1

Financial activities

111.1 112.1 112.2 112.0 -0.2 179.8 186.5 188.2 189.3 0.6

Professional and business services

129.3 131.2 131.2 131.6 0.3 202.3 213.3 213.9 215.3 0.7

Private education and health services

132.8 137.2 137.6 138.0 0.3 203.5 216.1 217.3 218.5 0.6

Leisure and hospitality

116.1 119.8 119.5 120.1 0.5 188.1 203.3 203.7 205.6 0.9

Other services

105.7 108.8 109.0 109.4 0.4 166.0 176.3 177.5 178.3 0.5

Footnotes
(1) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding 2007 annual average aggregate hours. Aggregate hours estimates are the product of estimates of average weekly hours and employment.
(2) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding 2007 annual average aggregate weekly payrolls. Aggregate payrolls estimates are the product of estimates of average hourly earnings, average weekly hours, and employment.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2022 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-5. Employment of women on nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Women employees (in thousands) Percent of all employees
June
2022
Apr.
2023
May
2023(p)
June
2023(p)
June
2022
Apr.
2023
May
2023(p)
June
2023(p)

Total nonfarm

75,857 77,547 77,731 77,898 49.8 49.8 49.8 49.9

Total private

62,990 64,357 64,503 64,621 48.3 48.4 48.4 48.4

Goods-producing

4,876 4,982 4,989 4,992 23.0 23.1 23.2 23.1

Mining and logging

77 82 82 84 12.7 12.8 12.8 13.1

Construction

1,087 1,117 1,119 1,122 14.0 14.1 14.1 14.1

Manufacturing

3,712 3,783 3,788 3,786 29.0 29.1 29.2 29.1

Durable goods

1,968 2,022 2,026 2,027 24.7 24.9 25.0 25.0

Nondurable goods

1,744 1,761 1,762 1,759 35.8 36.1 36.2 36.2

Private service-providing

58,114 59,375 59,514 59,629 53.3 53.2 53.2 53.3

Trade, transportation, and utilities

11,302 11,356 11,368 11,357 39.4 39.4 39.3 39.3

Wholesale trade

1,826.0 1,862.6 1,858.1 1,856.0 30.6 30.8 30.7 30.7

Retail trade

7,531.5 7,517.1 7,529.3 7,522.5 48.7 48.4 48.4 48.4

Transportation and warehousing

1,804.6 1,830.6 1,834.6 1,831.8 27.0 27.2 27.2 27.2

Utilities

140.0 145.9 146.0 146.4 25.3 26.2 26.2 26.3

Information

1,235 1,255 1,255 1,255 40.0 40.5 40.5 40.5

Financial activities

5,048 5,079 5,085 5,087 55.8 55.7 55.7 55.6

Professional and business services

10,429 10,569 10,600 10,615 46.2 46.0 46.0 46.0

Private education and health services

18,701 19,320 19,393 19,479 77.0 76.8 76.9 77.0

Leisure and hospitality

8,356 8,657 8,665 8,673 53.0 52.4 52.3 52.3

Other services

3,043 3,139 3,148 3,163 53.5 53.7 53.8 53.9

Government

12,867 13,190 13,228 13,277 58.2 58.4 58.4 58.5

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2022 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-6. Employment of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
[In thousands]
Industry June
2022
Apr.
2023
May
2023(p)
June
2023(p)

Total private

106,194 108,313 108,508 108,650

Goods-producing

15,190 15,446 15,449 15,473

Mining and logging

458 483 490 492

Construction

5,726 5,826 5,829 5,842

Manufacturing

9,006 9,137 9,130 9,139

Durable goods

5,513 5,620 5,619 5,631

Nondurable goods

3,493 3,517 3,511 3,508

Private service-providing

91,004 92,867 93,059 93,177

Trade, transportation, and utilities

24,198 24,349 24,373 24,351

Wholesale trade

4,745.9 4,788.3 4,786.7 4,770.6

Retail trade

13,179.7 13,235.8 13,255.8 13,246.3

Transportation and warehousing

5,830.2 5,882.0 5,886.7 5,891.1

Utilities

442.6 443.2 443.4 442.6

Information

2,457 2,472 2,474 2,472

Financial activities

6,807 6,855 6,856 6,865

Professional and business services

18,075 18,229 18,259 18,278

Private education and health services

21,121 21,871 21,946 22,018

Leisure and hospitality

13,734 14,350 14,402 14,433

Other services

4,612 4,741 4,749 4,760

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2022 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-7. Average weekly hours and overtime of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry June
2022
Apr.
2023
May
2023(p)
June
2023(p)

AVERAGE WEEKLY HOURS

Total private

34.1 33.8 33.8 33.8

Goods-producing

40.6 40.5 40.5 40.6

Mining and logging

48.2 47.4 48.0 47.5

Construction

39.4 39.5 39.5 39.7

Manufacturing

41.0 40.7 40.7 40.7

Durable goods

41.4 41.0 41.1 41.2

Nondurable goods

40.5 40.3 40.2 40.0

Private service-providing

33.0 32.7 32.7 32.7

Trade, transportation, and utilities

34.2 33.9 33.8 34.0

Wholesale trade

39.0 38.9 38.8 39.2

Retail trade

30.5 30.2 30.1 30.3

Transportation and warehousing

37.8 37.5 37.5 37.5

Utilities

43.0 42.6 42.6 42.3

Information

36.4 35.9 35.6 35.5

Financial activities

37.4 37.1 37.2 37.1

Professional and business services

36.3 36.3 36.3 36.3

Private education and health services

32.7 32.6 32.6 32.6

Leisure and hospitality

24.6 24.2 24.2 24.2

Other services

31.2 31.2 31.3 31.3

AVERAGE OVERTIME HOURS

Manufacturing

4.0 3.6 3.6 3.7

Durable goods

4.2 3.8 3.8 3.9

Nondurable goods

3.7 3.4 3.3 3.4

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2022 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-8. Average hourly and weekly earnings of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry Average hourly earnings Average weekly earnings
June
2022
Apr.
2023
May
2023(p)
June
2023(p)
June
2022
Apr.
2023
May
2023(p)
June
2023(p)

Total private

$27.53 $28.61 $28.72 $28.83 $938.77 $967.02 $970.74 $974.45

Goods-producing

27.92 29.23 29.33 29.55 1,133.55 1,183.82 1,187.87 1,199.73

Mining and logging

32.63 34.06 34.30 34.45 1,572.77 1,614.44 1,646.40 1,636.38

Construction

32.26 33.90 33.99 34.09 1,271.04 1,339.05 1,342.61 1,353.37

Manufacturing

25.00 26.04 26.14 26.41 1,025.00 1,059.83 1,063.90 1,074.89

Durable goods

26.19 27.22 27.32 27.58 1,084.27 1,116.02 1,122.85 1,136.30

Nondurable goods

23.08 24.12 24.21 24.47 934.74 972.04 973.24 978.80

Private service-providing

27.44 28.49 28.59 28.69 905.52 931.62 934.89 938.16

Trade, transportation, and utilities

23.93 25.03 25.10 25.17 818.41 848.52 848.38 855.78

Wholesale trade

29.13 30.24 30.32 30.49 1,136.07 1,176.34 1,176.42 1,195.21

Retail trade

19.54 20.37 20.40 20.48 595.97 615.17 614.04 620.54

Transportation and warehousing

25.98 27.45 27.57 27.55 982.04 1,029.38 1,033.88 1,033.13

Utilities

42.21 44.17 44.30 44.40 1,815.03 1,881.64 1,887.18 1,878.12

Information

37.75 39.25 39.49 39.46 1,374.10 1,409.08 1,405.84 1,400.83

Financial activities

32.30 33.37 33.59 33.82 1,208.02 1,238.03 1,249.55 1,254.72

Professional and business services

32.49 33.95 34.05 34.14 1,179.39 1,232.39 1,236.02 1,239.28

Private education and health services

28.97 29.83 29.92 30.04 947.32 972.46 975.39 979.30

Leisure and hospitality

17.85 18.54 18.68 18.77 439.11 448.67 452.06 454.23

Other services

24.82 25.34 25.47 25.59 774.38 790.61 797.21 800.97

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2022 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-9. Indexes of aggregate weekly hours and payrolls for production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
[2002=100]
Industry Index of aggregate weekly hours(2) Index of aggregate weekly payrolls(3)
June
2022
Apr.
2023
May
2023(p)
June
2023(p)
Percent change from:
May
2023 - June
2023(p)
June
2022
Apr.
2023
May
2023(p)
June
2023(p)
Percent change from:
May
2023 - June
2023(p)

Total private

120.7 122.0 122.2 122.4 0.2 222.0 233.3 234.6 235.8 0.5

Goods-producing

94.2 95.6 95.6 96.0 0.4 161.1 171.1 171.7 173.7 1.2

Mining and logging

117.3 121.7 125.0 124.2 -0.6 222.6 241.0 249.3 248.8 -0.2

Construction

113.0 115.2 115.3 116.1 0.7 196.8 210.9 211.6 213.8 1.0

Manufacturing

84.8 85.4 85.3 85.4 0.1 138.6 145.4 145.8 147.5 1.2

Durable goods

85.7 86.6 86.8 87.2 0.5 140.2 147.1 148.0 150.1 1.4

Nondurable goods

83.4 83.5 83.2 82.7 -0.6 135.9 142.3 142.3 143.0 0.5

Private service-providing

128.0 129.4 129.7 129.8 0.1 240.8 252.8 254.3 255.5 0.5

Trade, transportation, and utilities

115.8 115.5 115.3 115.9 0.5 198.1 206.7 206.9 208.5 0.8

Wholesale trade

109.8 110.5 110.2 111.0 0.7 188.9 197.3 197.2 199.7 1.3

Retail trade

101.9 101.3 101.2 101.8 0.6 170.8 177.0 177.0 178.7 1.0

Transportation and warehousing

166.8 166.9 167.1 167.2 0.1 275.8 291.7 293.2 293.2 0.0

Utilities

97.3 96.6 96.6 95.7 -0.9 171.5 178.0 178.6 177.4 -0.7

Information

102.1 101.3 100.5 100.2 -0.3 190.8 196.8 196.5 195.7 -0.4

Financial activities

119.8 119.7 120.0 119.9 -0.1 238.1 245.7 248.1 249.4 0.5

Professional and business services

146.5 147.7 148.0 148.1 0.1 283.0 298.3 299.7 300.8 0.4

Private education and health services

147.3 152.0 152.5 153.0 0.3 281.6 299.3 301.2 303.4 0.7

Leisure and hospitality

123.8 127.2 127.7