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Employment Situation News Release

Transmission of material in this news release is embargoed until	 USDL-19-1388
8:30 a.m. (EDT) Friday, August 2, 2019

Technical information: 
 Household data:	(202) 691-6378  *  cpsinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/cps
 Establishment data:	(202) 691-6555  *  cesinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/ces

Media contact:	        (202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov


                   THE EMPLOYMENT SITUATION -- JULY 2019


Total nonfarm payroll employment rose by 164,000 in July, and the unemployment
rate was unchanged at 3.7 percent, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported
today. Notable job gains occurred in professional and technical services,
health care, social assistance, and financial activities.

This news release presents statistics from two monthly surveys. The household
survey measures labor force status, including unemployment, by demographic
characteristics. The establishment survey measures nonfarm employment, hours,
and earnings by industry. For more information about the concepts and statistical
methodology used in these two surveys, see the Technical Note.

Household Survey Data

The unemployment rate held at 3.7 percent in July, and the number of unemployed
persons was little changed at 6.1 million. (See table A-1.)

Among the major worker groups, the unemployment rate for Asians increased to
2.8 percent in July. The jobless rates for adult men (3.4 percent), adult women
(3.4 percent), teenagers (12.8 percent), Whites (3.3 percent), Blacks (6.0
percent), and Hispanics (4.5 percent) showed little or no change over the month.
(See tables A-1, A-2, and A-3.)

In July, the number of persons unemployed less than 5 weeks increased by 240,000
to 2.2 million, while the number of long-term unemployed (those jobless for 27
weeks or more) declined by 248,000 to 1.2 million. The long-term unemployed
accounted for 19.2 percent of the unemployed. (See table A-12.)

In July, the labor force participation rate was 63.0 percent, and the employment-
population ratio was 60.7 percent. Both measures were little changed over the
month and over the year. (See table A-1.)

The number of persons employed part time for economic reasons (sometimes referred
to as involuntary part-time workers) declined by 363,000 in July to 4.0 million.
These individuals, who would have preferred full-time employment, were working
part time because their hours had been reduced or they were unable to find full-
time jobs. Over the past 12 months, the number of involuntary part-time workers
has declined by 604,000. (See table A-8.)

In July, 1.5 million persons were marginally attached to the labor force,
essentially unchanged from a year earlier. (Data are not seasonally adjusted.)
These individuals were not in the labor force, wanted and were available for work,
and had looked for a job sometime in the prior 12 months. They were not counted
as unemployed because they had not searched for work in the 4 weeks preceding
the survey. (See table A-16.)

Among the marginally attached, there were 368,000 discouraged workers in July,
down by 144,000 from a year earlier. (Data are not seasonally adjusted.)
Discouraged workers are persons not currently looking for work because they
believe no jobs are available for them. The remaining 1.1 million persons
marginally attached to the labor force in July had not searched for work for
reasons such as school attendance or family responsibilities. (See table A-16.)

Establishment Survey Data

Total nonfarm payroll employment increased by 164,000 in July, in line with
average employment growth in the first 6 months of the year. In 2018, employment
gains had averaged 223,000 per month. In July, notable job gains occurred in
professional and technical services (+31,000), health care (+30,000), social
assistance (+20,000), and financial activities (+18,000). (See table B-1.)

Professional and technical services added 31,000 jobs in July, bringing the
12-month job gain to 300,000. In July, employment increased by 11,000 in computer
systems design and related services; this industry accounted for about one-third
of employment growth in professional and technical services both over the month
and over the year.

Employment in health care rose by 30,000 over the month, reflecting a gain in
ambulatory health care services (+29,000). Health care employment has increased
by 405,000 over the year, with ambulatory health care services accounting for
about two-thirds of the gain.

Social assistance added 20,000 jobs in July. Employment in this industry has
increased by 143,000 over the year.

In July, financial activities employment rose by 18,000, with most of the gain
occurring in insurance carriers and related activities (+11,000).

Mining employment declined by 5,000 in July, after showing little net change
in recent months.

Manufacturing employment changed little in July (+16,000) and thus far in 2019.
Job gains in the industry had averaged 22,000 per month in 2018.

Employment in other major industries, including construction, wholesale trade,
retail trade, transportation and warehousing, information, leisure and hospitality,
and government, changed little over the month.

In July, average hourly earnings for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls
rose by 8 cents to $27.98, following an 8-cent gain in June. Over the past 12
months, average hourly earnings have increased by 3.2 percent. In July, average
hourly earnings of private-sector production and nonsupervisory employees rose
by 4 cents to $23.46.  (See tables B-3 and B-8.)

The average workweek for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls decreased by
0.1 hour to 34.3 hours in July. In manufacturing, the average workweek decreased
by 0.3 hour to 40.4 hours, and overtime declined by 0.2 hour to 3.2 hours. The
average workweek of private-sector production and nonsupervisory employees
declined by 0.1 hour to 33.5 hours. (See tables B-2 and B-7.)

The change in total nonfarm payroll employment for May was revised down by 10,000
from +72,000 to +62,000, and the change for June was revised down by 31,000 from
+224,000 to +193,000. With these revisions, employment gains in May and June
combined were 41,000 less than previously reported. (Monthly revisions result
from additional reports received from businesses and government agencies since
the last published estimates and from the recalculation of seasonal factors.)
After revisions, job gains have averaged +140,000 per month over the last 3 months.

_____________
The Employment Situation for August is scheduled to be released on Friday,
September 6, 2019, at 8:30 a.m. (EDT).


 _______________________________________________________________________
|									|
|     2019 Preliminary Benchmark Revision to Establishment Survey 	|
|                 Data to be released on August 21, 2019		|
|									|
| Each year, the establishment survey estimates are benchmarked to	|
| comprehensive counts of employment from the Quarterly Census of	|
| Employment and Wages (QCEW) for the month of March. These counts	|
| are derived from state unemployment insurance (UI) tax records	|
| that nearly all employers are required to file. On August 21,		|
| 2019, at 10:00 a.m. (EDT), the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) will	|
| release the preliminary estimate of the upcoming annual benchmark	|
| revision. This is the same day the first-quarter 2019 data from	|
| QCEW will be issued. Preliminary benchmark revisions for all major	|
| industry sectors, as well as total nonfarm and total private		|
| employment, will be available on the BLS website at			|
| www.bls.gov/web/empsit/cesprelbmk.htm.				|
|                                    					|
| The final benchmark revision will be issued with the publication	|
| of the January 2020 Employment Situation news release in February	|
| 2020.									|
|_______________________________________________________________________|




HOUSEHOLD DATA
Summary table A. Household data, seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Category July
2018
May
2019
June
2019
July
2019
Change from:
June
2019-
July
2019

Employment status

Civilian noninstitutional population

257,843 258,861 259,037 259,225 188

Civilian labor force

162,209 162,646 162,981 163,351 370

Participation rate

62.9 62.8 62.9 63.0 0.1

Employed

155,964 156,758 157,005 157,288 283

Employment-population ratio

60.5 60.6 60.6 60.7 0.1

Unemployed

6,245 5,888 5,975 6,063 88

Unemployment rate

3.9 3.6 3.7 3.7 0.0

Not in labor force

95,633 96,215 96,057 95,874 -183

Unemployment rates

Total, 16 years and over

3.9 3.6 3.7 3.7 0.0

Adult men (20 years and over)

3.4 3.3 3.3 3.4 0.1

Adult women (20 years and over)

3.6 3.2 3.3 3.4 0.1

Teenagers (16 to 19 years)

13.1 12.7 12.7 12.8 0.1

White

3.3 3.3 3.3 3.3 0.0

Black or African American

6.6 6.2 6.0 6.0 0.0

Asian

3.1 2.5 2.1 2.8 0.7

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

4.5 4.2 4.3 4.5 0.2

Total, 25 years and over

3.1 2.9 3.0 3.0 0.0

Less than a high school diploma

5.0 5.4 5.3 5.1 -0.2

High school graduates, no college

4.0 3.5 3.9 3.6 -0.3

Some college or associate degree

3.2 2.8 3.0 3.2 0.2

Bachelor's degree and higher

2.2 2.1 2.1 2.2 0.1

Reason for unemployment

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

2,996 2,664 2,736 2,798 62

Job leavers

835 803 888 833 -55

Reentrants

1,804 1,870 1,868 1,810 -58

New entrants

592 599 541 595 54

Duration of unemployment

Less than 5 weeks

2,092 2,147 1,961 2,201 240

5 to 14 weeks

1,818 1,559 1,830 1,797 -33

15 to 26 weeks

959 799 769 905 136

27 weeks and over

1,418 1,298 1,414 1,166 -248

Employed persons at work part time

Part time for economic reasons

4,588 4,355 4,347 3,984 -363

Slack work or business conditions

2,870 2,646 2,707 2,385 -322

Could only find part-time work

1,445 1,339 1,337 1,364 27

Part time for noneconomic reasons

21,525 21,366 21,524 21,437 -87

Persons not in the labor force (not seasonally adjusted)

Marginally attached to the labor force

1,498 1,395 1,571 1,478 -

Discouraged workers

512 338 425 368 -

- Over-the-month changes are not displayed for not seasonally adjusted data.
NOTE: Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Summary table B. Establishment data, seasonally adjusted
Category July
2018
May
2019
June
2019(p)
July
2019(p)

EMPLOYMENT BY SELECTED INDUSTRY
(Over-the-month change, in thousands)

Total nonfarm

178 62 193 164

Total private

173 81 179 148

Goods-producing

38 5 29 15

Mining and logging

-1 2 -1 -5

Construction

19 1 18 4

Manufacturing

20 2 12 16

Durable goods(1)

17 3 11 12

Motor vehicles and parts

-1.9 2.0 -0.1 7.2

Nondurable goods

3 -1 1 4

Private service-providing

135 76 150 133

Wholesale trade

14.4 5.4 -1.3 6.7

Retail trade

2.3 -12.2 -6.7 -3.6

Transportation and warehousing

8.0 3.4 20.5 0.3

Utilities

-2.9 1.1 1.4 -0.4

Information

1 9 14 -10

Financial activities

5 5 3 18

Professional and business services(1)

37 21 38 38

Temporary help services

5.1 -2.0 -0.9 2.2

Education and health services(1)

48 34 57 66

Health care and social assistance

37.2 28.2 44.8 50.4

Leisure and hospitality

35 12 7 10

Other services

-12 -3 17 8

Government

5 -19 14 16

(3-month average change, in thousands)

Total nonfarm

237 144 157 140

Total private

224 143 152 136

WOMEN AND PRODUCTION AND NONSUPERVISORY EMPLOYEES
AS A PERCENT OF ALL EMPLOYEES(2)

Total nonfarm women employees

49.7 49.9 49.8 49.9

Total private women employees

48.3 48.5 48.5 48.5

Total private production and nonsupervisory employees

82.4 82.4 82.3 82.3

HOURS AND EARNINGS
ALL EMPLOYEES

Total private

Average weekly hours

34.5 34.4 34.4 34.3

Average hourly earnings

$27.11 $27.82 $27.90 $27.98

Average weekly earnings

$935.30 $957.01 $959.76 $959.71

Index of aggregate weekly hours (2007=100)(3)

109.7 111.0 111.2 111.0

Over-the-month percent change

0.1 0.1 0.2 -0.2

Index of aggregate weekly payrolls (2007=100)(4)

142.2 147.6 148.3 148.4

Over-the-month percent change

0.4 0.3 0.5 0.1

DIFFUSION INDEX
(Over 1-month span)(5)

Total private (258 industries)

61.8 54.8 58.1 59.9

Manufacturing (76 industries)

63.2 50.0 57.2 56.6

Footnotes
(1) Includes other industries, not shown separately.
(2) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries.
(3) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding annual average aggregate hours.
(4) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding annual average aggregate weekly payrolls.
(5) Figures are the percent of industries with employment increasing plus one-half of the industries with unchanged employment, where 50 percent indicates an equal balance between industries with increasing and decreasing employment.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2018 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


Frequently Asked Questions about Employment and Unemployment Estimates

1. Why are there two monthly measures of employment?

   The household survey and establishment survey both produce sample-based estimates
   of employment, and both have strengths and limitations. The establishment survey
   employment series has a smaller margin of error on the measurement of month-to-
   month change than the household survey because of its much larger sample size. An
   over-the-month employment change of about 100,000 is statistically significant in
   the establishment survey, while the threshold for a statistically significant change
   in the household survey is about 500,000. However, the household survey has a more
   expansive scope than the establishment survey because it includes self-employed
   workers whose businesses are unincorporated, unpaid family workers, agricultural
   workers, and private household workers, who are excluded by the establishment survey.
   The household survey also provides estimates of employment for demographic groups.
   For more information on the differences between the two surveys, please visit
   https://www.bls.gov/web/empsit/ces_cps_trends.htm.

2. Are undocumented immigrants counted in the surveys?

   It is likely that both surveys include at least some undocumented immigrants. However,
   neither the establishment nor the household survey is designed to identify the legal
   status of workers. Therefore, it is not possible to determine how many are counted in
   either survey. The establishment survey does not collect data on the legal status of
   workers. The household survey does include questions which identify the foreign and
   native born, but it does not include questions about the legal status of the foreign
   born. Data on the foreign and native born are published each month in table A-7 of
   The Employment Situation news release.

3. Why does the establishment survey have revisions?

   The establishment survey revises published estimates to improve its data series by
   incorporating additional information that was not available at the time of the
   initial publication of the estimates. The establishment survey revises its initial
   monthly estimates twice, in the immediately succeeding 2 months, to incorporate
   additional sample receipts from respondents in the survey and recalculated seasonal
   adjustment factors. For more information on the monthly revisions, please visit
   https://www.bls.gov/ces/cesrevinfo.htm.

   On an annual basis, the establishment survey incorporates a benchmark revision that
   re-anchors estimates to nearly complete employment counts available from unemployment
   insurance tax records. The benchmark helps to control for sampling and modeling errors
   in the estimates. For more information on the annual benchmark revision, please visit
   https://www.bls.gov/web/empsit/cesbmart.htm.

4. Does the establishment survey sample include small firms?

   Yes; about 40 percent of the establishment survey sample is comprised of business
   establishments with fewer than 20 employees. The establishment survey sample is
   designed to maximize the reliability of the statewide total nonfarm employment
   estimate; firms from all states, size classes, and industries are appropriately
   sampled to achieve that goal.

5. Does the establishment survey account for employment from new businesses?

   Yes; monthly establishment survey estimates include an adjustment to account for
   the net employment change generated by business births and deaths. The adjustment
   comes from an econometric model that forecasts the monthly net jobs impact of
   business births and deaths based on the actual past values of the net impact that
   can be observed with a lag from the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages. The
   establishment survey uses modeling rather than sampling for this purpose because
   the survey is not immediately able to bring new businesses into the sample. There
   is an unavoidable lag between the birth of a new firm and its appearance on the
   sampling frame and availability for selection. BLS adds new businesses to the survey
   twice a year.

6. Is the count of unemployed persons limited to just those people receiving unemployment
   insurance benefits?

   No; the estimate of unemployment is based on a monthly sample survey of households.
   All persons who are without jobs and are actively seeking and available to work are
   included among the unemployed. (People on temporary layoff are included even if
   they do not actively seek work.) There is no requirement or question relating to
   unemployment insurance benefits in the monthly survey.

7. Does the official unemployment rate exclude people who want a job but are not currently
   looking for work?

   Yes; however, there are separate estimates of persons outside the labor force who
   want a job, including those who are not currently looking because they believe no
   jobs are available (discouraged workers). In addition, alternative measures of labor
   underutilization (some of which include discouraged workers and other groups not
   officially counted as unemployed) are published each month in table A-15 of The
   Employment Situation news release. For more information about these alternative
   measures, please visit https://www.bls.gov/cps/lfcharacteristics.htm#altmeasures.

8. How can unusually severe weather affect employment and hours estimates?

   In the establishment survey, the reference period is the pay period that includes
   the 12th of the month. Unusually severe weather is more likely to have an impact on
   average weekly hours than on employment. Average weekly hours are estimated for paid
   time during the pay period, including pay for holidays, sick leave, or other time off.
   The impact of severe weather on hours estimates typically, but not always, results in
   a reduction in average weekly hours. For example, some employees may be off work for
   part of the pay period and not receive pay for the time missed, while some workers,
   such as those dealing with cleanup or repair, may work extra hours.
   
   Typically, it is not possible to precisely quantify the effect of extreme weather on 
   payroll employment estimates. In order for severe weather conditions to reduce
   employment estimates, employees have to be off work without pay for the entire pay
   period. Employees who receive pay for any part of the pay period, even 1 hour, are
   counted in the payroll employment figures. For more information on how often employees
   are paid, please visit https://www.bls.gov/opub/btn/volume-3/how-frequently-do-private-
   businesses-pay-workers.htm.

   In the household survey, the reference period is generally the calendar week that
   includes the 12th of the month. Persons who miss the entire week's work for weather-
   related events are counted as employed whether or not they are paid for the time
   off. The household survey collects data on the number of persons who had a job but
   were not at work due to bad weather. It also provides a measure of the number of
   persons who usually work full time but had reduced hours due to bad weather. 
   Current and historical data are available on the household survey's most requested
   statistics page, please visit https://data.bls.gov/cgi-bin/surveymost?ln.




Technical Note


   This news release presents statistics from two major surveys, the Current
Population Survey (CPS; household survey) and the Current Employment Statistics
survey (CES; establishment survey). The household survey provides information
on the labor force, employment, and unemployment that appears in the "A" tables,
marked HOUSEHOLD DATA. It is a sample survey of about 60,000 eligible households
conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau for the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS).

   The establishment survey provides information on employment, hours, and
earnings of employees on nonfarm payrolls; the data appear in the "B" tables,
marked ESTABLISHMENT DATA. BLS collects these data each month from the payroll
records of a sample of nonagricultural business establishments. Each month
the CES program surveys about 142,000 businesses and government agencies,
representing approximately 689,000 individual worksites, in order to provide
detailed industry data on employment, hours, and earnings of workers on nonfarm
payrolls. The active sample includes approximately one-third of all nonfarm
payroll employees.

   For both surveys, the data for a given month relate to a particular week or
pay period. In the household survey, the reference period is generally the
calendar week that contains the 12th day of the month. In the establishment
survey, the reference period is the pay period including the 12th, which may or
may not correspond directly to the calendar week.

Coverage, definitions, and differences between surveys

   Household survey. The sample is selected to reflect the entire civilian 
noninstitutional population. Based on responses to a series of questions on 
work and job search activities, each person 16 years and over in a sample
household is classified as employed, unemployed, or not in the labor force.

   People are classified as employed if they did any work at all as paid employees
during the reference week; worked in their own business, profession, or on their
own farm; or worked without pay at least 15 hours in a family business or farm.
People are also counted as employed if they were temporarily absent from their jobs
because of illness, bad weather, vacation, labor-management disputes, or personal
reasons.

   People are classified as unemployed if they meet all of the following criteria:
they had no employment during the reference week; they were available for work at
that time; and they made specific efforts to find employment sometime during the
4-week period ending with the reference week. Persons laid off from a job and
expecting recall need not be looking for work to be counted as unemployed. The
unemployment data derived from the household survey in no way depend upon the
eligibility for or receipt of unemployment insurance benefits.

   The civilian labor force is the sum of employed and unemployed persons.
Those persons not classified as employed or unemployed are not in the labor 
force. The unemployment rate is the number unemployed as a percent of the 
labor force. The labor force participation rate is the labor force as a 
percent of the population, and the employment-population ratio is the 
employed as a percent of the population. Additional information about the 
household survey can be found at https://www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm.

   Establishment survey. The sample establishments are drawn from private
nonfarm businesses such as factories, offices, and stores, as well as
from federal, state, and local government entities. Employees on nonfarm
payrolls are those who worked or received pay for any part of the reference pay
period, including persons on paid leave. Persons are counted in each job
they hold. Hours and earnings data are produced for the private sector for
all employees and for production and nonsupervisory employees. Production
and nonsupervisory employees are defined as production and related employees
in manufacturing and mining and logging, construction workers in construction,
and nonsupervisory employees in private service-providing industries.

   Industries are classified on the basis of an establishment's principal
activity in accordance with the 2017 version of the North American Industry
Classification System. Additional information about the establishment survey
can be found at https://www.bls.gov/ces/.

   Differences in employment estimates. The numerous conceptual and methodological
differences between the household and establishment  surveys result in important
distinctions in the employment estimates derived from the surveys. Among these are:

   --The household survey includes agricultural workers, self-employed workers
     whose businesses are unincorporated, unpaid family workers, and private
     household workers among the employed. These groups are excluded from the
     establishment survey.

   --The household survey includes people on unpaid leave among the employed.
     The establishment survey does not.

   --The household survey is limited to workers 16 years of age and older.
     The establishment survey is not limited by age.

   --The household survey has no duplication of individuals, because
     individuals are counted only once, even if they hold more than one
     job. In the establishment survey, employees working at more than one
     job and thus appearing on more than one payroll are counted separately
     for each appearance.

Seasonal adjustment

   Over the course of a year, the size of the nation's labor force and the levels
of employment and unemployment undergo regularly occurring fluctuations. These 
events may result from seasonal changes in weather, major holidays, and the opening
and closing of schools. The effect of such seasonal variation can be very large.

   Because these seasonal events follow a more or less regular pattern each year,
their influence on the level of a series can be tempered by adjusting for regular
seasonal variation. These adjustments make nonseasonal developments, such as
declines in employment or increases in the participation of women in the labor
force, easier to spot. For example, in the household survey, the large number of
youth entering the labor force each June is likely to obscure any other changes
that have taken place relative to May, making it difficult to determine if the 
level of economic activity has risen or declined. Similarly, in the establishment
survey, payroll employment in education declines by about 20 percent at the end
of the spring term and later rises with the start of the fall term, obscuring the
underlying employment trends in the industry. Because seasonal employment changes
at the end and beginning of the school year can be estimated, the statistics can be
adjusted to make underlying employment patterns more discernable.  The seasonally
adjusted figures provide a more useful tool with which to analyze changes in
month-to-month economic activity.

   Many seasonally adjusted series are independently adjusted in both the household
and establishment surveys. However, the adjusted series for many major estimates,
such as total payroll employment, employment in most major sectors, total employment,
and unemployment are computed by aggregating independently adjusted component series.
For example, total unemployment is derived by summing the adjusted series for four
major age-sex components; this differs from the unemployment estimate that would be
obtained by directly adjusting the total or by combining
the duration, reasons, or more detailed age categories.

   For both the household and establishment surveys, a concurrent seasonal adjustment
methodology is used in which new seasonal factors are calculated each month using all
relevant data, up to and including the data for the current month. In the household
survey, new seasonal factors are used to adjust only the current month's data. In the
establishment survey, however, new seasonal factors are used each month to adjust the
three most recent monthly estimates. The prior 2 months are routinely revised to
incorporate additional sample reports and recalculated seasonal adjustment factors.
In both surveys, 5-year revisions to historical data are made once a year.

Reliability of the estimates

   Statistics based on the household and establishment surveys are subject to both
sampling and nonsampling error. When a sample, rather than the entire population,
is surveyed, there is a chance that the sample estimates may differ from the true
population values they represent. The component of this difference that occurs
because samples differ by chance is known as sampling error, and its variability
is measured by the standard error of the estimate. There is about a 90-percent
chance, or level of confidence, that an estimate based on a sample will differ by
no more than 1.6 standard errors from the true population value because of sampling
error. BLS analyses are generally conducted at the 90-percent level of confidence.

   For example, the confidence interval for the monthly change in total nonfarm
employment from the establishment survey is on the order of plus or minus 110,000.
Suppose the estimate of nonfarm employment increases by 50,000 from one month to
the next. The 90-percent confidence interval on the monthly change would range from
-60,000 to +160,000 (50,000 +/- 110,000). These figures do not mean that the sample
results are off by these magnitudes, but rather that there is about a 90-percent
chance that the true over-the-month change lies within this interval. Since this
range includes values of less than zero, we could not say with confidence that
nonfarm employment had, in fact, increased that month. If, however, the reported
nonfarm employment rise was 250,000, then all of the values within the 90- percent
confidence interval would be greater than zero. In this case, it is likely (at
least a 90-percent chance) that nonfarm employment had, in fact, risen that month.
At an unemployment rate of around 6.0 percent, the 90-percent confidence interval
for the monthly change in unemployment as measured by the household survey is
about +/- 300,000, and for the monthly change in the unemployment rate it is about
+/- 0.2 percentage point.

   In general, estimates involving many individuals or establishments have lower
standard errors (relative to the size of the estimate) than estimates which are based
on a small number of observations. The precision of estimates also is improved when
the data are cumulated over time, such as for quarterly and annual averages.

   The household and establishment surveys are also affected by nonsampling error,
which can occur for many reasons, including the failure to sample a segment of the
population, inability to obtain information for all respondents in the sample,
inability or unwillingness of respondents to provide correct information on a
timely basis, mistakes made by respondents, and errors made in the collection or
processing of the data.

   For example, in the establishment survey, estimates for the most recent 2 months
are based on incomplete returns; for this reason, these estimates are labeled
preliminary in the tables. It is only after two successive revisions to a monthly
estimate, when nearly all sample reports have been received, that the estimate is
considered final.

   Another major source of nonsampling error in the establishment survey is the
inability to capture, on a timely basis, employment generated by new firms. To
correct for this systematic underestimation of employment growth, an estimation
procedure with two components is used to account for business births. The first
component excludes employment losses from business deaths from sample-based
estimation in order to offset the missing employment gains from business births.
This is incorporated into the sample-based estimation procedure by simply not
reflecting sample units going out of business, but imputing to them the same
employment trend as the other firms in the sample. This procedure accounts for
most of the net birth/death employment.

   The second component is an ARIMA time series model designed to estimate the
residual net birth/death employment not accounted for by the imputation. The
historical time series used to create and test the ARIMA model was derived from
the unemployment insurance universe micro- level database, and reflects the actual
residual net of births and deaths over the past 5 years.

   The sample-based estimates from the establishment survey are adjusted once a
year (on a lagged basis) to universe counts of payroll employment obtained from
administrative records of the unemployment insurance program. The difference 
between the March sample-based employment estimates and the March universe counts
is known as a benchmark revision, and serves as a rough proxy for total survey
error. The new benchmarks also incorporate changes in the classification of
industries. Over the past decade, absolute benchmark revisions for total nonfarm
employment have averaged 0.3 percent, with a range from -0.7 percent to 0.6 percent.

Other information

   Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired
individuals upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay
Service: (800) 877-8339.




HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-1. Employment status of the civilian population by sex and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
July
2018
June
2019
July
2019
July
2018
Mar.
2019
Apr.
2019
May
2019
June
2019
July
2019

TOTAL

Civilian noninstitutional population

257,843 259,037 259,225 257,843 258,537 258,693 258,861 259,037 259,225

Civilian labor force

163,734 164,120 164,941 162,209 162,960 162,470 162,646 162,981 163,351

Participation rate

63.5 63.4 63.6 62.9 63.0 62.8 62.8 62.9 63.0

Employed

157,004 157,828 158,385 155,964 156,748 156,645 156,758 157,005 157,288

Employment-population ratio

60.9 60.9 61.1 60.5 60.6 60.6 60.6 60.6 60.7

Unemployed

6,730 6,292 6,556 6,245 6,211 5,824 5,888 5,975 6,063

Unemployment rate

4.1 3.8 4.0 3.9 3.8 3.6 3.6 3.7 3.7

Not in labor force

94,109 94,917 94,284 95,633 95,577 96,223 96,215 96,057 95,874

Persons who currently want a job

5,483 5,725 5,289 5,192 5,227 5,121 5,045 5,322 5,043

Men, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

124,704 125,285 125,378 124,704 125,037 125,114 125,197 125,285 125,378

Civilian labor force

87,102 87,415 88,025 85,904 86,442 86,179 86,377 86,479 86,805

Participation rate

69.8 69.8 70.2 68.9 69.1 68.9 69.0 69.0 69.2

Employed

83,828 84,189 84,798 82,662 83,034 82,959 83,192 83,293 83,584

Employment-population ratio

67.2 67.2 67.6 66.3 66.4 66.3 66.4 66.5 66.7

Unemployed

3,274 3,226 3,227 3,242 3,408 3,221 3,185 3,185 3,221

Unemployment rate

3.8 3.7 3.7 3.8 3.9 3.7 3.7 3.7 3.7

Not in labor force

37,602 37,870 37,353 38,800 38,595 38,935 38,820 38,806 38,573

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

116,220 116,843 116,939 116,220 116,586 116,665 116,752 116,843 116,939

Civilian labor force

83,534 83,837 84,284 83,019 83,573 83,373 83,561 83,501 83,794

Participation rate

71.9 71.8 72.1 71.4 71.7 71.5 71.6 71.5 71.7

Employed

80,800 81,173 81,561 80,217 80,564 80,576 80,766 80,718 80,981

Employment-population ratio

69.5 69.5 69.7 69.0 69.1 69.1 69.2 69.1 69.3

Unemployed

2,734 2,663 2,723 2,801 3,009 2,797 2,795 2,783 2,814

Unemployment rate

3.3 3.2 3.2 3.4 3.6 3.4 3.3 3.3 3.4

Not in labor force

32,685 33,006 32,655 33,201 33,013 33,292 33,191 33,341 33,144

Women, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

133,139 133,753 133,847 133,139 133,500 133,579 133,664 133,753 133,847

Civilian labor force

76,632 76,705 76,916 76,305 76,518 76,291 76,269 76,502 76,546

Participation rate

57.6 57.3 57.5 57.3 57.3 57.1 57.1 57.2 57.2

Employed

73,176 73,639 73,587 73,302 73,715 73,687 73,566 73,712 73,705

Employment-population ratio

55.0 55.1 55.0 55.1 55.2 55.2 55.0 55.1 55.1

Unemployed

3,456 3,066 3,329 3,003 2,803 2,604 2,703 2,790 2,841

Unemployment rate

4.5 4.0 4.3 3.9 3.7 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7

Not in labor force

56,507 57,048 56,931 56,834 56,982 57,288 57,395 57,251 57,301

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

124,875 125,509 125,604 124,875 125,252 125,332 125,419 125,509 125,604

Civilian labor force

73,004 73,297 73,269 73,295 73,525 73,419 73,347 73,579 73,548

Participation rate

58.5 58.4 58.3 58.7 58.7 58.6 58.5 58.6 58.6

Employed

69,975 70,714 70,415 70,622 71,072 71,131 70,981 71,139 71,069

Employment-population ratio

56.0 56.3 56.1 56.6 56.7 56.8 56.6 56.7 56.6

Unemployed

3,028 2,583 2,853 2,673 2,453 2,288 2,366 2,441 2,479

Unemployment rate

4.1 3.5 3.9 3.6 3.3 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4

Not in labor force

51,871 52,212 52,336 51,580 51,727 51,913 52,071 51,929 52,057

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian noninstitutional population

16,748 16,686 16,682 16,748 16,698 16,696 16,690 16,686 16,682

Civilian labor force

7,196 6,986 7,389 5,896 5,862 5,678 5,738 5,900 6,009

Participation rate

43.0 41.9 44.3 35.2 35.1 34.0 34.4 35.4 36.0

Employed

6,228 5,941 6,409 5,125 5,113 4,938 5,011 5,148 5,239

Employment-population ratio

37.2 35.6 38.4 30.6 30.6 29.6 30.0 30.9 31.4

Unemployed

967 1,046 980 771 748 740 726 751 770

Unemployment rate

13.4 15.0 13.3 13.1 12.8 13.0 12.7 12.7 12.8

Not in labor force

9,552 9,700 9,293 10,852 10,837 11,018 10,953 10,786 10,673

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-2. Employment status of the civilian population by race, sex, and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, race, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
July
2018
June
2019
July
2019
July
2018
Mar.
2019
Apr.
2019
May
2019
June
2019
July
2019

WHITE

Civilian noninstitutional population

200,236 200,746 200,843 200,236 200,508 200,576 200,658 200,746 200,843

Civilian labor force

126,927 127,131 127,549 125,716 126,404 125,900 125,980 126,244 126,345

Participation rate

63.4 63.3 63.5 62.8 63.0 62.8 62.8 62.9 62.9

Employed

122,332 122,708 122,968 121,507 122,143 121,944 121,883 122,125 122,144

Employment-population ratio

61.1 61.1 61.2 60.7 60.9 60.8 60.7 60.8 60.8

Unemployed

4,595 4,422 4,580 4,209 4,261 3,957 4,097 4,119 4,201

Unemployment rate

3.6 3.5 3.6 3.3 3.4 3.1 3.3 3.3 3.3

Not in labor force

73,309 73,615 73,294 74,521 74,104 74,676 74,678 74,502 74,498

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

65,957 66,203 66,301 65,614 66,014 65,802 65,973 65,928 65,994

Participation rate

71.9 72.0 72.1 71.6 71.9 71.6 71.8 71.7 71.7

Employed

64,110 64,343 64,399 63,681 63,936 63,896 64,042 64,009 64,005

Employment-population ratio

69.9 70.0 70.0 69.5 69.6 69.6 69.7 69.6 69.6

Unemployed

1,847 1,860 1,902 1,933 2,078 1,906 1,931 1,919 1,989

Unemployment rate

2.8 2.8 2.9 2.9 3.1 2.9 2.9 2.9 3.0

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

55,382 55,430 55,479 55,537 55,806 55,671 55,526 55,704 55,663

Participation rate

57.5 57.4 57.4 57.7 57.9 57.7 57.5 57.7 57.6

Employed

53,272 53,586 53,481 53,764 54,140 54,133 53,869 53,993 53,988

Employment-population ratio

55.3 55.5 55.4 55.9 56.1 56.1 55.8 55.9 55.9

Unemployed

2,110 1,844 1,998 1,774 1,666 1,538 1,657 1,711 1,675

Unemployment rate

3.8 3.3 3.6 3.2 3.0 2.8 3.0 3.1 3.0

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

5,588 5,498 5,768 4,565 4,585 4,427 4,482 4,612 4,687

Participation rate

45.4 44.9 47.1 37.1 37.4 36.1 36.6 37.7 38.3

Employed

4,950 4,780 5,088 4,063 4,067 3,915 3,972 4,123 4,151

Employment-population ratio

40.2 39.0 41.6 33.0 33.2 31.9 32.4 33.7 33.9

Unemployed

638 718 680 502 517 512 510 489 536

Unemployment rate

11.4 13.1 11.8 11.0 11.3 11.6 11.4 10.6 11.4

BLACK OR AFRICAN AMERICAN

Civilian noninstitutional population

32,771 33,014 33,045 32,771 32,925 32,955 32,984 33,014 33,045

Civilian labor force

20,708 20,581 20,942 20,496 20,432 20,589 20,562 20,430 20,714

Participation rate

63.2 62.3 63.4 62.5 62.1 62.5 62.3 61.9 62.7

Employed

19,255 19,319 19,622 19,151 19,073 19,219 19,280 19,199 19,481

Employment-population ratio

58.8 58.5 59.4 58.4 57.9 58.3 58.5 58.2 59.0

Unemployed

1,453 1,262 1,319 1,345 1,359 1,370 1,282 1,231 1,233

Unemployment rate

7.0 6.1 6.3 6.6 6.7 6.7 6.2 6.0 6.0

Not in labor force

12,063 12,432 12,103 12,275 12,493 12,366 12,421 12,584 12,331

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

9,410 9,378 9,600 9,325 9,399 9,456 9,422 9,303 9,502

Participation rate

68.5 67.6 69.1 67.9 68.0 68.3 68.0 67.1 68.4

Employed

8,841 8,878 9,061 8,756 8,753 8,811 8,833 8,768 8,953

Employment-population ratio

64.4 64.0 65.3 63.8 63.3 63.7 63.8 63.2 64.5

Unemployed

570 500 540 569 646 645 589 535 549

Unemployment rate

6.1 5.3 5.6 6.1 6.9 6.8 6.3 5.8 5.8

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

10,391 10,359 10,388 10,424 10,316 10,411 10,469 10,396 10,421

Participation rate

62.8 62.1 62.2 63.0 62.0 62.5 62.8 62.3 62.4

Employed

9,709 9,813 9,800 9,793 9,777 9,859 9,934 9,846 9,877

Employment-population ratio

58.7 58.8 58.7 59.2 58.8 59.2 59.6 59.0 59.2

Unemployed

682 546 588 631 539 552 535 550 544

Unemployment rate

6.6 5.3 5.7 6.1 5.2 5.3 5.1 5.3 5.2

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

906 844 954 748 717 722 671 731 790

Participation rate

36.3 34.3 38.8 30.0 29.0 29.2 27.2 29.7 32.1

Employed

705 628 762 602 542 549 513 586 650

Employment-population ratio

28.2 25.5 31.0 24.1 21.9 22.2 20.8 23.8 26.4

Unemployed

201 216 192 145 174 173 158 145 140

Unemployment rate

22.2 25.6 20.1 19.4 24.3 24.0 23.5 19.9 17.7

ASIAN

Civilian noninstitutional population

15,922 16,557 16,399 15,922 16,245 16,290 16,361 16,557 16,399

Civilian labor force

10,227 10,600 10,519 10,156 10,402 10,180 10,304 10,526 10,449

Participation rate

64.2 64.0 64.1 63.8 64.0 62.5 63.0 63.6 63.7

Employed

9,889 10,361 10,205 9,842 10,082 9,957 10,046 10,303 10,160

Employment-population ratio

62.1 62.6 62.2 61.8 62.1 61.1 61.4 62.2 62.0

Unemployed

338 239 314 314 320 223 258 222 289

Unemployment rate

3.3 2.3 3.0 3.1 3.1 2.2 2.5 2.1 2.8

Not in labor force

5,695 5,958 5,881 5,766 5,843 6,110 6,058 6,032 5,950

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Estimates for the above race groups will not sum to totals shown in table A-1 because data are not presented for all races. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-3. Employment status of the Hispanic or Latino population by sex and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
July
2018
June
2019
July
2019
July
2018
Mar.
2019
Apr.
2019
May
2019
June
2019
July
2019

HISPANIC OR LATINO ETHNICITY

Civilian noninstitutional population

42,767 43,453 43,537 42,767 43,205 43,289 43,370 43,453 43,537

Civilian labor force

28,701 28,989 29,097 28,502 28,929 28,546 28,689 28,855 28,896

Participation rate

67.1 66.7 66.8 66.6 67.0 65.9 66.2 66.4 66.4

Employed

27,380 27,721 27,733 27,223 27,566 27,348 27,493 27,602 27,581

Employment-population ratio

64.0 63.8 63.7 63.7 63.8 63.2 63.4 63.5 63.4

Unemployed

1,322 1,268 1,365 1,279 1,363 1,198 1,196 1,253 1,314

Unemployment rate

4.6 4.4 4.7 4.5 4.7 4.2 4.2 4.3 4.5

Not in labor force

14,066 14,464 14,440 14,265 14,277 14,743 14,681 14,599 14,642

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

15,578 15,677 15,702 15,513 15,832 15,611 15,731 15,659 15,651

Participation rate

80.7 79.9 79.9 80.4 81.2 79.9 80.4 79.8 79.6

Employed

15,141 15,162 15,133 15,006 15,187 15,028 15,188 15,093 15,017

Employment-population ratio

78.4 77.3 77.0 77.7 77.9 76.9 77.6 76.9 76.4

Unemployed

436 515 569 508 646 583 543 566 634

Unemployment rate

2.8 3.3 3.6 3.3 4.1 3.7 3.4 3.6 4.0

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

11,630 11,870 11,869 11,689 11,839 11,762 11,810 11,885 11,929

Participation rate

59.6 59.8 59.7 59.9 60.0 59.5 59.6 59.9 60.0

Employed

11,038 11,365 11,382 11,137 11,321 11,330 11,330 11,382 11,480

Employment-population ratio

56.5 57.2 57.2 57.0 57.4 57.3 57.2 57.3 57.7

Unemployed

592 506 487 552 518 432 480 503 449

Unemployment rate

5.1 4.3 4.1 4.7 4.4 3.7 4.1 4.2 3.8

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

1,494 1,442 1,527 1,299 1,257 1,172 1,149 1,310 1,316

Participation rate

37.9 36.2 38.3 33.0 31.7 29.5 28.9 32.9 33.0

Employed

1,200 1,195 1,218 1,080 1,058 989 975 1,126 1,084

Employment-population ratio

30.5 30.0 30.5 27.4 26.6 24.9 24.5 28.3 27.2

Unemployed

294 247 309 219 199 183 174 184 232

Unemployment rate

19.7 17.1 20.2 16.9 15.9 15.6 15.1 14.0 17.6

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-4. Employment status of the civilian population 25 years and over by educational attainment
[Numbers in thousands]
Educational attainment Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
July
2018
June
2019
July
2019
July
2018
Mar.
2019
Apr.
2019
May
2019
June
2019
July
2019

Less than a high school diploma

Civilian labor force

10,047 10,181 9,812 10,205 10,142 9,996 9,915 10,025 9,975

Participation rate

46.1 46.1 46.3 46.9 46.1 45.3 44.6 45.4 47.1

Employed

9,573 9,713 9,358 9,691 9,548 9,460 9,383 9,489 9,466

Employment-population ratio

44.0 44.0 44.2 44.5 43.4 42.8 42.2 43.0 44.7

Unemployed

474 467 455 514 594 536 533 536 509

Unemployment rate

4.7 4.6 4.6 5.0 5.9 5.4 5.4 5.3 5.1

High school graduates, no college(1)

Civilian labor force

36,368 35,906 36,303 36,511 35,983 35,901 35,781 36,120 36,286

Participation rate

57.6 57.5 57.5 57.8 57.9 57.9 57.4 57.8 57.5

Employed

34,900 34,586 35,005 35,041 34,654 34,662 34,522 34,715 34,982

Employment-population ratio

55.3 55.4 55.5 55.5 55.8 55.9 55.4 55.6 55.4

Unemployed

1,468 1,319 1,297 1,470 1,329 1,239 1,259 1,404 1,304

Unemployment rate

4.0 3.7 3.6 4.0 3.7 3.5 3.5 3.9 3.6

Some college or associate degree

Civilian labor force

37,533 37,216 37,213 37,502 37,268 37,290 37,614 37,200 37,222

Participation rate

65.4 64.7 65.0 65.3 65.2 64.6 65.3 64.7 65.0

Employed

36,305 36,109 35,982 36,306 36,012 36,141 36,569 36,069 36,028

Employment-population ratio

63.2 62.8 62.8 63.2 63.0 62.6 63.5 62.7 62.9

Unemployed

1,229 1,107 1,230 1,196 1,256 1,149 1,045 1,132 1,194

Unemployment rate

3.3 3.0 3.3 3.2 3.4 3.1 2.8 3.0 3.2

Bachelor's degree and higher(2)

Civilian labor force

56,771 58,066 58,303 57,041 58,593 58,381 58,217 58,510 58,664

Participation rate

73.2 73.3 73.0 73.6 73.7 73.9 73.8 73.8 73.4

Employed

55,330 56,780 56,844 55,776 57,409 57,179 56,980 57,275 57,399

Employment-population ratio

71.4 71.7 71.1 71.9 72.2 72.3 72.2 72.3 71.8

Unemployed

1,441 1,286 1,459 1,266 1,184 1,202 1,237 1,235 1,265

Unemployment rate

2.5 2.2 2.5 2.2 2.0 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.2

Footnotes
(1) Includes persons with a high school diploma or equivalent.
(2) Includes persons with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-5. Employment status of the civilian population 18 years and over by veteran status, period of service, and sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, veteran status, and period of service Total Men Women
July
2018
July
2019
July
2018
July
2019
July
2018
July
2019

VETERANS, 18 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

19,183 18,805 17,317 16,920 1,866 1,885

Civilian labor force

9,428 9,287 8,294 8,210 1,134 1,077

Participation rate

49.1 49.4 47.9 48.5 60.8 57.1

Employed

9,145 8,970 8,038 7,948 1,107 1,022

Employment-population ratio

47.7 47.7 46.4 47.0 59.3 54.2

Unemployed

283 316 255 262 27 54

Unemployment rate

3.0 3.4 3.1 3.2 2.4 5.0

Not in labor force

9,755 9,518 9,023 8,710 732 808

Gulf War-era II veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

4,182 4,374 3,485 3,656 697 718

Civilian labor force

3,325 3,536 2,815 3,040 511 495

Participation rate

79.5 80.8 80.8 83.2 73.2 69.0

Employed

3,227 3,407 2,729 2,928 498 479

Employment-population ratio

77.2 77.9 78.3 80.1 71.5 66.8

Unemployed

99 128 86 112 12 16

Unemployment rate

3.0 3.6 3.1 3.7 2.4 3.2

Not in labor force

857 838 670 616 187 222

Gulf War-era I veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

3,063 3,030 2,564 2,518 499 512

Civilian labor force

2,440 2,309 2,067 1,973 372 336

Participation rate

79.7 76.2 80.6 78.4 74.7 65.5

Employed

2,381 2,234 2,014 1,913 367 321

Employment-population ratio

77.7 73.7 78.6 76.0 73.5 62.7

Unemployed

59 75 53 60 6 14

Unemployment rate

2.4 3.2 2.6 3.1 1.6 4.3

Not in labor force

623 721 497 545 126 177

World War II, Korean War, and Vietnam-era veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

7,608 7,196 7,349 6,948 259 248

Civilian labor force

1,604 1,479 1,573 1,439 31 41

Participation rate

21.1 20.6 21.4 20.7 12.1 16.3

Employed

1,526 1,425 1,497 1,391 30 34

Employment-population ratio

20.1 19.8 20.4 20.0 11.6 13.9

Unemployed

78 54 77 48 1 6

Unemployment rate

4.9 3.7 4.9 3.4 - -

Not in labor force

6,004 5,717 5,776 5,509 228 207

Veterans of other service periods

Civilian noninstitutional population

4,330 4,205 3,919 3,798 411 407

Civilian labor force

2,058 1,963 1,839 1,758 220 205

Participation rate

47.5 46.7 46.9 46.3 53.5 50.4

Employed

2,011 1,904 1,799 1,717 212 187

Employment-population ratio

46.4 45.3 45.9 45.2 51.6 46.0

Unemployed

47 59 40 41 8 18

Unemployment rate

2.3 3.0 2.2 2.3 3.6 8.7

Not in labor force

2,272 2,242 2,080 2,040 191 202

NONVETERANS, 18 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

230,008 231,909 103,000 104,120 127,008 127,789

Civilian labor force

151,617 153,054 77,532 78,490 74,086 74,564

Participation rate

65.9 66.0 75.3 75.4 58.3 58.3

Employed

145,563 147,260 74,718 75,735 70,845 71,525

Employment-population ratio

63.3 63.5 72.5 72.7 55.8 56.0

Unemployed

6,054 5,794 2,814 2,755 3,241 3,040

Unemployment rate

4.0 3.8 3.6 3.5 4.4 4.1

Not in labor force

78,390 78,855 25,468 25,630 52,922 53,225

NOTE: Veterans served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces and were not on active duty at the time of the survey. Nonveterans never served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces. Veterans could have served anywhere in the world during these periods of service: Gulf War era II (September 2001-present), Gulf War era I (August 1990-August 2001), Vietnam era (August 1964-April 1975), Korean War (July 1950-January 1955), World War II (December 1941-December 1946), and other service periods (all other time periods). Veterans who served in more than one wartime period are classified only in the most recent one. Veterans who served during one of the selected wartime periods and another period are classified only in the wartime period. Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria (values not shown where base is less than 75,000).


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-6. Employment status of the civilian population by sex, age, and disability status, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Persons with a disability Persons with no disability
July
2018
July
2019
July
2018
July
2019

TOTAL, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

29,886 29,847 227,957 229,378

Civilian labor force

6,049 6,218 157,685 158,724

Participation rate

20.2 20.8 69.2 69.2

Employed

5,538 5,744 151,466 152,641

Employment-population ratio

18.5 19.2 66.4 66.5

Unemployed

511 474 6,219 6,082

Unemployment rate

8.5 7.6 3.9 3.8

Not in labor force

23,837 23,629 70,272 70,655

Men, 16 to 64 years

Civilian labor force

2,580 2,610 78,914 79,382

Participation rate

34.8 36.5 83.7 84.0

Employed

2,343 2,402 76,101 76,526

Employment-population ratio

31.6 33.6 80.7 81.0

Unemployed

236 208 2,814 2,856

Unemployment rate

9.2 8.0 3.6 3.6

Not in labor force

4,834 4,532 15,347 15,078

Women, 16 to 64 years

Civilian labor force

2,301 2,455 69,908 69,725

Participation rate

30.0 31.8 71.9 71.9

Employed

2,081 2,232 66,829 66,764

Employment-population ratio

27.1 28.9 68.8 68.9

Unemployed

220 223 3,079 2,962

Unemployment rate

9.5 9.1 4.4 4.2

Not in labor force

5,369 5,276 27,264 27,203

Both sexes, 65 years and over

Civilian labor force

1,169 1,152 8,862 9,616

Participation rate

7.9 7.7 24.3 25.3

Employed

1,113 1,110 8,536 9,351

Employment-population ratio

7.5 7.4 23.4 24.6

Unemployed

56 43 326 265

Unemployment rate

4.8 3.7 3.7 2.8

Not in labor force

13,633 13,820 27,661 28,373

NOTE: A person with a disability has at least one of the following conditions: is deaf or has serious difficulty hearing; is blind or has serious difficulty seeing even when wearing glasses; has serious difficulty concentrating, remembering, or making decisions because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition; has serious difficulty walking or climbing stairs; has difficulty dressing or bathing; or has difficulty doing errands alone such as visiting a doctor's office or shopping because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-7. Employment status of the civilian population by nativity and sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status and nativity Total Men Women
July
2018
July
2019
July
2018
July
2019
July
2018
July
2019

Foreign born, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

42,279 42,715 20,486 20,687 21,792 22,028

Civilian labor force

27,858 27,982 16,209 16,153 11,649 11,829

Participation rate

65.9 65.5 79.1 78.1 53.5 53.7

Employed

26,942 27,140 15,769 15,757 11,173 11,383

Employment-population ratio

63.7 63.5 77.0 76.2 51.3 51.7

Unemployed

916 842 440 397 476 445

Unemployment rate

3.3 3.0 2.7 2.5 4.1 3.8

Not in labor force

14,420 14,733 4,277 4,534 10,143 10,199

Native born, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

215,564 216,509 104,218 104,690 111,346 111,819

Civilian labor force

135,876 136,959 70,893 71,872 64,983 65,087

Participation rate

63.0 63.3 68.0 68.7 58.4 58.2

Employed

130,062 131,245 68,059 69,041 62,003 62,204

Employment-population ratio

60.3 60.6 65.3 65.9 55.7 55.6

Unemployed

5,814 5,714 2,834 2,831 2,980 2,884

Unemployment rate

4.3 4.2 4.0 3.9 4.6 4.4

Not in labor force

79,688 79,550 33,325 32,819 46,363 46,732

NOTE: The foreign born are those residing in the United States who were not U.S. citizens at birth. That is, they were born outside the United States or one of its outlying areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam, to parents neither of whom was a U.S. citizen. The native born are persons who were born in the United States or one of its outlying areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam or who were born abroad of at least one parent who was a U.S. citizen. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-8. Employed persons by class of worker and part-time status
[In thousands]
Category Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
July
2018
June
2019
July
2019
July
2018
Mar.
2019
Apr.
2019
May
2019
June
2019
July
2019

CLASS OF WORKER

Agriculture and related industries

2,656 2,422 2,569 2,493 2,332 2,394 2,432 2,320 2,402

Wage and salary workers(1)

1,822 1,551 1,707 1,681 1,687 1,687 1,724 1,482 1,577

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

806 821 821 781 644 690 690 778 779

Unpaid family workers

28 51 42 - - - - - -

Nonagricultural industries

154,348 155,406 155,816 153,425 154,358 154,271 154,314 154,725 154,904

Wage and salary workers(1)

145,370 146,537 146,774 144,411 145,609 145,675 145,590 145,906 145,880

Government

20,036 20,588 20,006 20,876 20,677 20,831 20,730 20,952 20,823

Private industries

125,335 125,949 126,768 123,496 124,948 124,892 124,870 124,901 125,012

Private households

800 849 808 - - - - - -

Other industries

124,534 125,101 125,960 122,722 124,153 124,075 124,064 124,115 124,224

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

8,911 8,850 8,995 8,898 8,727 8,569 8,711 8,766 8,945

Unpaid family workers

66 19 46 - - - - - -

PERSONS AT WORK PART TIME(2)

All industries

Part time for economic reasons(3)

4,766 4,602 4,102 4,588 4,499 4,654 4,355 4,347 3,984

Slack work or business conditions

2,922 2,837 2,387 2,870 2,909 2,891 2,646 2,707 2,385

Could only find part-time work

1,445 1,360 1,374 1,445 1,329 1,446 1,339 1,337 1,364

Part time for noneconomic reasons(4)

20,059 20,555 20,038 21,525 21,297 21,322 21,366 21,524 21,437

Nonagricultural industries

Part time for economic reasons(3)

4,701 4,529 4,017 4,510 4,439 4,589 4,241 4,258 3,878

Slack work or business conditions

2,891 2,787 2,329 2,831 2,854 2,865 2,565 2,669 2,323

Could only find part-time work

1,425 1,347 1,354 1,429 1,327 1,437 1,333 1,326 1,350

Part time for noneconomic reasons(4)

19,694 20,213 19,656 21,154 20,995 20,985 21,038 21,188 21,049

Footnotes
(1) Includes self-employed workers whose businesses are incorporated.
(2) Refers to those who worked 1 to 34 hours during the survey reference week and excludes employed persons who were absent from their jobs for the entire week.
(3) Refers to those who worked 1 to 34 hours during the reference week for an economic reason such as slack work or unfavorable business conditions, inability to find full-time work, or seasonal declines in demand.
(4) Refers to persons who usually work part time for noneconomic reasons such as childcare problems, family or personal obligations, school or training, retirement or Social Security limits on earnings, and other reasons. This excludes persons who usually work full time but worked only 1 to 34 hours during the reference week for reasons such as vacations, holidays, illness, and bad weather.

- Data not available.
NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-9. Selected employment indicators
[Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
July
2018
June
2019
July
2019
July
2018
Mar.
2019
Apr.
2019
May
2019
June
2019
July
2019

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

157,004 157,828 158,385 155,964 156,748 156,645 156,758 157,005 157,288

16 to 19 years

6,228 5,941 6,409 5,125 5,113 4,938 5,011 5,148 5,239

16 to 17 years

2,296 2,035 2,154 1,813 1,759 1,723 1,704 1,756 1,704

18 to 19 years

3,933 3,906 4,254 3,316 3,356 3,198 3,294 3,398 3,559

20 years and over

150,775 151,888 151,976 150,839 151,635 151,707 151,747 151,857 152,050

20 to 24 years

14,668 14,699 14,787 14,122 14,064 14,192 14,303 14,291 14,233

25 years and over

136,107 137,189 137,189 136,766 137,685 137,481 137,369 137,547 137,837

25 to 54 years

100,005 100,449 99,911 100,420 100,792 100,687 100,636 100,665 100,373

25 to 34 years

35,353 35,699 35,369 35,440 35,695 35,582 35,616 35,708 35,486

35 to 44 years

32,546 32,933 32,904 32,695 32,855 32,918 32,961 32,973 33,044

45 to 54 years

32,107 31,816 31,638 32,285 32,241 32,187 32,059 31,985 31,842

55 years and over

36,102 36,740 37,278 36,346 36,893 36,794 36,733 36,882 37,464

Men, 16 years and over

83,828 84,189 84,798 82,662 83,034 82,959 83,192 83,293 83,584

16 to 19 years

3,028 3,016 3,237 2,445 2,470 2,383 2,426 2,575 2,603

16 to 17 years

1,072 1,082 1,115 813 882 893 841 896 855

18 to 19 years

1,956 1,934 2,123 1,630 1,594 1,486 1,590 1,681 1,762

20 years and over

80,800 81,173 81,561 80,217 80,564 80,576 80,766 80,718 80,981

20 to 24 years

7,522 7,533 7,620 7,137 7,120 7,203 7,285 7,279 7,228

25 years and over

73,278 73,641 73,941 73,124 73,520 73,379 73,477 73,430 73,761

25 to 54 years

53,794 53,776 53,775 53,674 53,968 53,813 53,727 53,630 53,688

25 to 34 years

19,126 19,123 19,143 19,055 19,314 19,186 19,181 19,009 19,088

35 to 44 years

17,737 17,867 17,842 17,686 17,720 17,768 17,753 17,792 17,790

45 to 54 years

16,931 16,786 16,789 16,934 16,933 16,859 16,793 16,829 16,810

55 years and over

19,484 19,865 20,166 19,450 19,553 19,566 19,750 19,800 20,073

Women, 16 years and over

73,176 73,639 73,587 73,302 73,715 73,687 73,566 73,712 73,705

16 to 19 years

3,201 2,924 3,172 2,680 2,643 2,555 2,585 2,573 2,636

16 to 17 years

1,224 953 1,040 1,000 877 830 863 860 849

18 to 19 years

1,977 1,972 2,132 1,686 1,762 1,712 1,704 1,718 1,797

20 years and over

69,975 70,714 70,415 70,622 71,072 71,131 70,981 71,139 71,069

20 to 24 years

7,146 7,166 7,168 6,985 6,944 6,989 7,018 7,012 7,005

25 years and over

62,829 63,548 63,248 63,642 64,164 64,102 63,891 64,117 64,076

25 to 54 years

46,211 46,673 46,136 46,746 46,824 46,874 46,908 47,035 46,685

25 to 34 years

16,226 16,576 16,225 16,385 16,381 16,396 16,434 16,698 16,398

35 to 44 years

14,809 15,067 15,062 15,009 15,135 15,150 15,208 15,181 15,254

45 to 54 years

15,176 15,030 14,848 15,352 15,308 15,327 15,266 15,156 15,032

55 years and over

16,618 16,875 17,112 16,896 17,340 17,228 16,983 17,082 17,392

MARITAL STATUS

Married men, spouse present(1)

45,626 45,749 45,868 45,780 45,867 45,734 45,789 45,681 46,005

Married women, spouse present(1)

35,272 35,574 35,338 35,998 36,566 36,206 35,971 36,013 36,110

Women who maintain families(2)

9,842 9,695 9,661 - - - - - -

FULL- OR PART-TIME STATUS

Full-time workers(3)

130,644 131,542 132,153 128,978 129,969 129,778 129,695 130,148 130,429

Part-time workers(4)

26,359 26,287 26,232 26,991 26,938 26,915 26,981 26,807 26,861

MULTIPLE JOBHOLDERS

Total multiple jobholders

7,833 7,987 8,310 8,064 7,853 7,798 7,855 8,156 8,389

Percent of total employed

5.0 5.1 5.2 5.2 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.2 5.3

SELF-EMPLOYMENT

Self-employed workers, incorporated

5,545 6,195 6,225 - - - - - -

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

9,718 9,671 9,816 9,679 9,371 9,259 9,401 9,544 9,724

Footnotes
(1) Refers to persons in opposite-sex married couples only.
(2) Refers to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not an opposite-sex spouse.
(3) Employed full-time workers are persons who usually work 35 hours or more per week.
(4) Employed part-time workers are persons who usually work less than 35 hours per week.

- Data not available.
NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-10. Selected unemployment indicators, seasonally adjusted
Characteristic Number of
unemployed persons
(in thousands)
Unemployment rates
July
2018
June
2019
July
2019
July
2018
Mar.
2019
Apr.
2019
May
2019
June
2019
July
2019

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

6,245 5,975 6,063 3.9 3.8 3.6 3.6 3.7 3.7

16 to 19 years

771 751 770 13.1 12.8 13.0 12.7 12.7 12.8

16 to 17 years

279 300 312 13.4 12.6 13.7 14.1 14.6 15.5

18 to 19 years

476 442 438 12.6 12.7 12.4 11.9 11.5 10.9

20 years and over

5,474 5,224 5,293 3.5 3.5 3.2 3.3 3.3 3.4

20 to 24 years

1,040 967 1,032 6.9 7.2 6.5 7.0 6.3 6.8

25 years and over

4,445 4,268 4,268 3.1 3.1 2.9 2.9 3.0 3.0

25 to 54 years

3,286 3,154 3,225 3.2 3.2 3.0 2.9 3.0 3.1

25 to 34 years

1,296 1,324 1,377 3.5 4.0 3.9 3.5 3.6 3.7

35 to 44 years

1,029 956 963 3.1 2.8 2.7 2.6 2.8 2.8

45 to 54 years

961 873 885 2.9 2.9 2.5 2.5 2.7 2.7

55 years and over

1,151 1,150 1,052 3.1 2.7 2.6 2.7 3.0 2.7

Men, 16 years and over

3,242 3,185 3,221 3.8 3.9 3.7 3.7 3.7 3.7

16 to 19 years

440 402 407 15.3 13.9 15.1 13.9 13.5 13.5

16 to 17 years

151 145 155 15.7 11.7 12.5 15.5 14.0 15.3

18 to 19 years

274 248 235 14.4 14.7 16.6 12.8 12.9 11.8

20 years and over

2,801 2,783 2,814 3.4 3.6 3.4 3.3 3.3 3.4

20 to 24 years

573 585 591 7.4 8.8 7.7 8.3 7.4 7.6

25 years and over

2,242 2,192 2,221 3.0 3.1 2.9 2.8 2.9 2.9

25 to 54 years

1,634 1,646 1,705 3.0 3.2 3.1 2.9 3.0 3.1

25 to 34 years

685 718 737 3.5 3.7 3.6 3.4 3.6 3.7

35 to 44 years

469 445 484 2.6 2.8 2.7 2.6 2.4 2.6

45 to 54 years

480 482 483 2.8 2.9 2.8 2.6 2.8 2.8

55 years and over

608 546 517 3.0 2.8 2.6 2.6 2.7 2.5

Women, 16 years and over

3,003 2,790 2,841 3.9 3.7 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7

16 to 19 years

330 349 363 11.0 11.7 11.0 11.5 12.0 12.1

16 to 17 years

128 155 157 11.4 13.5 15.0 12.6 15.2 15.7

18 to 19 years

203 193 203 10.7 10.7 8.3 11.0 10.1 10.1

20 years and over

2,673 2,441 2,479 3.6 3.3 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4

20 to 24 years

467 382 440 6.3 5.5 5.3 5.6 5.2 5.9

25 years and over

2,203 2,077 2,047 3.3 3.1 2.9 2.9 3.1 3.1

25 to 54 years

1,653 1,508 1,521 3.4 3.3 3.0 2.9 3.1 3.2

25 to 34 years

612 607 639 3.6 4.3 4.2 3.6 3.5 3.8

35 to 44 years

560 511 480 3.6 2.7 2.6 2.7 3.3 3.0

45 to 54 years

481 391 402 3.0 2.8 2.2 2.4 2.5 2.6

55 years and over

528 580 513 3.0 2.6 2.6 3.1 3.3 2.9

MARITAL STATUS

Married men, spouse present(1)

937 839 869 2.0 1.9 1.8 1.7 1.8 1.9

Married women, spouse present(1)

928 859 816 2.5 2.4 1.8 2.4 2.3 2.2

Women who maintain families(2)

588 521 622 5.6 4.7 4.9 4.7 5.1 6.0

FULL- OR PART-TIME STATUS

Full-time workers(3)

5,037 4,733 4,872 3.8 3.7 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.6

Part-time workers(4)

1,251 1,224 1,210 4.4 4.3 4.1 4.2 4.4 4.3

Footnotes
(1) Refers to persons in opposite-sex couples only.
(2) Data are not seasonally adjusted. Refers to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not an opposite-sex spouse.
(3) Full-time workers are unemployed persons who have expressed a desire to work full time (35 hours or more per week) or are on layoff from full-time jobs.
(4) Part-time workers are unemployed persons who have expressed a desire to work part time (less than 35 hours per week) or are on layoff from part-time jobs.

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-11. Unemployed persons by reason for unemployment
[Numbers in thousands]
Reason Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
July
2018
June
2019
July
2019
July
2018
Mar.
2019
Apr.
2019
May
2019
June
2019
July
2019

NUMBER OF UNEMPLOYED

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

3,164 2,703 2,986 2,996 2,837 2,651 2,664 2,736 2,798

On temporary layoff

1,080 841 1,050 879 878 717 869 801 836

Not on temporary layoff

2,084 1,862 1,935 2,117 1,960 1,934 1,795 1,935 1,963

Permanent job losers

1,438 1,315 1,362 1,437 1,379 1,302 1,289 1,358 1,361

Persons who completed temporary jobs

646 547 573 680 580 632 506 577 602

Job leavers

869 871 877 835 779 737 803 888 833

Reentrants

1,893 1,963 1,881 1,804 2,007 1,926 1,870 1,868 1,810

New entrants

803 754 813 592 614 530 599 541 595

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

47.0 43.0 45.5 48.1 45.5 45.4 44.9 45.3 46.4

On temporary layoff

16.0 13.4 16.0 14.1 14.1 12.3 14.6 13.3 13.8

Not on temporary layoff

31.0 29.6 29.5 34.0 31.4 33.1 30.2 32.1 32.5

Job leavers

12.9 13.8 13.4 13.4 12.5 12.6 13.5 14.7 13.8

Reentrants

28.1 31.2 28.7 29.0 32.2 33.0 31.5 31.0 30.0

New entrants

11.9 12.0 12.4 9.5 9.8 9.1 10.1 9.0 9.9

UNEMPLOYED AS A PERCENT OF THE
CIVILIAN LABOR FORCE

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

1.9 1.6 1.8 1.8 1.7 1.6 1.6 1.7 1.7

Job leavers

0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5

Reentrants

1.2 1.2 1.1 1.1 1.2 1.2 1.1 1.1 1.1

New entrants

0.5 0.5 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.3 0.4 0.3 0.4

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-12. Unemployed persons by duration of unemployment
[Numbers in thousands]
Duration Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
July
2018
June
2019
July
2019
July
2018
Mar.
2019
Apr.
2019
May
2019
June
2019
July
2019

NUMBER OF UNEMPLOYED

Less than 5 weeks

2,248 2,615 2,387 2,092 2,126 1,904 2,147 1,961 2,201

5 to 14 weeks

2,185 1,635 2,164 1,818 1,815 1,842 1,559 1,830 1,797

15 weeks and over

2,297 2,042 2,005 2,377 2,256 2,084 2,097 2,182 2,071

15 to 26 weeks

818 737 773 959 950 854 799 769 905

27 weeks and over

1,480 1,304 1,232 1,418 1,305 1,230 1,298 1,414 1,166

Average (mean) duration, in weeks

22.0 20.2 18.7 23.1 22.2 22.9 24.1 22.2 19.6

Median duration, in weeks

8.8 7.3 7.9 9.6 9.6 9.4 9.1 9.6 8.9

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION

Less than 5 weeks

33.4 41.6 36.4 33.3 34.3 32.7 37.0 32.8 36.3

5 to 14 weeks

32.5 26.0 33.0 28.9 29.3 31.6 26.9 30.6 29.6

15 weeks and over

34.1 32.5 30.6 37.8 36.4 35.7 36.1 36.5 34.1

15 to 26 weeks

12.2 11.7 11.8 15.2 15.3 14.6 13.8 12.9 14.9

27 weeks and over

22.0 20.7 18.8 22.6 21.1 21.1 22.4 23.7 19.2

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-13. Employed and unemployed persons by occupation, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Occupation Employed Unemployed Unemployment
rates
July
2018
July
2019
July
2018
July
2019
July
2018
July
2019

Total, 16 years and over(1)

157,004 158,385 6,730 6,556 4.1 4.0

Management, professional, and related occupations

61,433 63,394 1,539 1,591 2.4 2.4

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

25,739 26,877 511 492 1.9 1.8

Professional and related occupations

35,694 36,517 1,028 1,099 2.8 2.9

Service occupations

27,887 27,975 1,508 1,319 5.1 4.5

Sales and office occupations

34,025 33,686 1,431 1,274 4.0 3.6

Sales and related occupations

16,023 15,998 662 523 4.0 3.2

Office and administrative support occupations

18,003 17,688 769 751 4.1 4.1

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

15,005 14,705 589 640 3.8 4.2

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

1,285 1,211 97 61 7.0 4.8

Construction and extraction occupations

8,527 8,545 373 406 4.2 4.5

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

5,193 4,948 119 174 2.2 3.4

Production, transportation, and material moving
occupations

18,654 18,625 850 903 4.4 4.6

Production occupations

8,466 8,415 366 362 4.1 4.1

Transportation and material moving occupations

10,188 10,209 484 541 4.5 5.0

Footnotes
(1) Persons with no previous work experience and persons whose last job was in the U.S. Armed Forces are included in the unemployed total.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-14. Unemployed persons by industry and class of worker, not seasonally adjusted
Industry and class of worker Number of
unemployed
persons
(in thousands)
Unemployment
rates
July
2018
July
2019
July
2018
July
2019

Total, 16 years and over(1)

6,730 6,556 4.1 4.0

Nonagricultural private wage and salary workers

4,819 4,633 3.7 3.5

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

29 18 3.4 2.3

Construction

333 386 3.4 3.8

Manufacturing

596 472 3.8 3.0

Durable goods

339 295 3.5 3.0

Nondurable goods

257 178 4.4 3.1

Wholesale and retail trade

841 779 4.1 3.9

Transportation and utilities

254 277 3.6 3.7

Information

114 103 4.2 3.9

Financial activities

233 169 2.3 1.7

Professional and business services

632 635 3.6 3.4

Education and health services

767 757 3.2 3.1

Leisure and hospitality

779 805 5.2 5.3

Other services

242 233 3.5 3.4

Agriculture and related private wage and salary workers

112 77 5.9 4.4

Government workers

744 816 3.6 3.9

Self-employed workers, unincorporated, and unpaid family workers

253 216 2.5 2.1

Footnotes
(1) Persons with no previous work experience and persons whose last job was in the U.S. Armed Forces are included in the unemployed total.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-15. Alternative measures of labor underutilization
[Percent]
Measure Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
July
2018
June
2019
July
2019
July
2018
Mar.
2019
Apr.
2019
May
2019
June
2019
July
2019

U-1 Persons unemployed 15 weeks or longer, as a percent of the civilian labor force

1.4 1.2 1.2 1.5 1.4 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3

U-2 Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs, as a percent of the civilian labor force

1.9 1.6 1.8 1.8 1.7 1.6 1.6 1.7 1.7

U-3 Total unemployed, as a percent of the civilian labor force (official unemployment rate)

4.1 3.8 4.0 3.9 3.8 3.6 3.6 3.7 3.7

U-4 Total unemployed plus discouraged workers, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus discouraged workers

4.4 4.1 4.2 4.2 4.1 3.9 3.8 3.9 3.9

U-5 Total unemployed, plus discouraged workers, plus all other persons marginally attached to the labor force, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force

5.0 4.7 4.8 4.7 4.6 4.4 4.4 4.6 4.6

U-6 Total unemployed, plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force, plus total employed part time for economic reasons, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force

7.9 7.5 7.3 7.5 7.3 7.3 7.1 7.2 7.0

NOTE: Persons marginally attached to the labor force are those who currently are neither working nor looking for work but indicate that they want and are available for a job and have looked for work sometime in the past 12 months. Discouraged workers, a subset of the marginally attached, have given a job-market related reason for not currently looking for work. Persons employed part time for economic reasons are those who want and are available for full-time work but have had to settle for a part-time schedule. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-16. Persons not in the labor force and multiple jobholders by sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Category Total Men Women
July
2018
July
2019
July
2018
July
2019
July
2018
July
2019

NOT IN THE LABOR FORCE

Total not in the labor force

94,109 94,284 37,602 37,353 56,507 56,931

Persons who currently want a job

5,483 5,289 2,529 2,465 2,953 2,824

Marginally attached to the labor force(1)

1,498 1,478 727 795 771 683

Discouraged workers(2)

512 368 327 212 184 156

Other persons marginally attached to the labor force(3)

986 1,110 400 583 587 527

MULTIPLE JOBHOLDERS

Total multiple jobholders(4)

7,833 8,310 3,715 4,080 4,118 4,230

Percent of total employed

5.0 5.2 4.4 4.8 5.6 5.7

Primary job full time, secondary job part time

4,255 4,503 2,222 2,387 2,034 2,116

Primary and secondary jobs both part time

2,030 2,091 685 725 1,346 1,367

Primary and secondary jobs both full time

416 376 234 268 182 108

Hours vary on primary or secondary job

1,085 1,277 551 678 534 599

Footnotes
(1) Data refer to persons who want a job, have searched for work during the prior 12 months, and were available to take a job during the reference week, but had not looked for work in the past 4 weeks.
(2) Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for reasons such as thinks no work available, could not find work, lacks schooling or training, employer thinks too young or old, and other types of discrimination.
(3) Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for such reasons as school or family responsibilities, ill health, and transportation problems, as well as a number for whom reason for nonparticipation was not determined.
(4) Includes a small number of persons who work part time on their primary job and full time on their secondary job(s), not shown separately.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-1. Employees on nonfarm payrolls by industry sector and selected industry detail
[In thousands]
Industry Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
July
2018
May
2019
June
2019(p)
July
2019(p)
July
2018
May
2019
June
2019(p)
July
2019(p)
Change from:
June2019 - July2019(p)

Total nonfarm

148,948 151,610 152,242 151,183 149,185 151,074 151,267 151,431 164

Total private

127,775 128,771 129,796 129,926 126,727 128,562 128,741 128,889 148

Goods-producing

21,083 21,108 21,387 21,453 20,744 21,077 21,106 21,121 15

Mining and logging

745 754 762 762 734 758 757 752 -5

Logging

49.9 45.5 47.7 48.8 48.4 46.6 47.0 47.4 0.4

Mining

694.6 708.7 714.3 712.9 685.9 711.0 709.5 704.4 -5.1

Oil and gas extraction

148.0 156.6 160.1 159.2 146.0 156.6 158.3 157.1 -1.2

Mining, except oil and gas

196.9 196.9 199.3 197.1 193.1 195.2 195.1 193.7 -1.4

Coal mining

51.9 52.9 53.0 52.0 52.0 52.8 52.9 52.1 -0.8

Metal ore mining

42.5 41.3 41.9 42.1 41.9 41.2 41.4 41.5 0.1

Nonmetallic mineral mining and quarrying

102.5 102.7 104.4 103.0 99.2 101.1 100.8 100.2 -0.6

Support activities for mining

349.7 355.2 354.9 356.6 346.8 359.2 356.1 353.6 -2.5

Construction

7,555 7,543 7,700 7,756 7,303 7,483 7,501 7,505 4

Construction of buildings

1,675.9 1,647.1 1,684.7 1,696.5 1,631.7 1,650.3 1,653.6 1,655.1 1.5

Residential building

829.8 829.2 849.6 853.8 805.9 828.6 831.1 832.5 1.4

Nonresidential building

846.1 817.9 835.1 842.7 825.8 821.7 822.5 822.6 0.1

Heavy and civil engineering construction

1,121.1 1,113.0 1,133.8 1,136.8 1,058.9 1,079.0 1,079.4 1,075.1 -4.3

Specialty trade contractors

4,757.9 4,782.5 4,881.1 4,922.3 4,612.0 4,753.2 4,767.7 4,775.1 7.4

Residential specialty trade contractors

2,091.6 2,087.2 2,128.6 2,146.1 2,026.3 2,071.6 2,074.1 2,080.1 6.0

Nonresidential specialty trade contractors

2,666.3 2,695.3 2,752.5 2,776.2 2,585.7 2,681.6 2,693.6 2,695.0 1.4

Manufacturing

12,783 12,811 12,925 12,935 12,707 12,836 12,848 12,864 16

Durable goods

7,987 8,050 8,115 8,105 7,961 8,058 8,069 8,081 12

Wood products

411.0 407.1 412.0 413.6 407.4 408.8 409.4 409.9 0.5

Nonmetallic mineral products

421.2 418.7 422.2 422.1 414.3 414.9 415.6 415.9 0.3

Primary metals

377.5 381.4 381.9 378.9 377.4 380.9 380.6 379.3 -1.3

Fabricated metal products

1,478.8 1,482.8 1,493.4 1,491.2 1,471.3 1,482.8 1,483.5 1,484.0 0.5

Machinery

1,133.1 1,137.8 1,147.8 1,144.7 1,126.5 1,138.6 1,141.9 1,138.3 -3.6

Computer and electronic products

1,064.3 1,074.5 1,088.7 1,093.9 1,057.7 1,078.8 1,084.2 1,086.8 2.6

Computer and peripheral equipment

157.2 159.8 161.5 162.6 156.2 160.7 161.2 161.3 0.1

Communications equipment

85.8 85.2 86.1 86.2 85.2 85.8 85.6 85.8 0.2

Semiconductors and electronic components

373.6 375.4 380.0 381.7 371.1 376.7 378.1 379.1 1.0

Electronic instruments

414.1 420.5 427.0 429.5 411.7 421.8 425.4 426.8 1.4

Miscellaneous computer and electronic products

33.6 33.6 34.1 33.9 33.5 33.7 33.9 33.8 -0.1

Electrical equipment and appliances

402.9 400.7 403.3 406.3 399.9 402.6 402.6 403.3 0.7

Transportation equipment(1)

1,689.3 1,735.5 1,748.3 1,737.2 1,703.2 1,739.6 1,741.6 1,751.1 9.5

Motor vehicles and parts(2)

976.5 995.6 1,001.6 987.7 993.6 998.4 998.3 1,005.5 7.2

Furniture and related products

397.5 394.0 395.5 396.7 394.9 394.0 392.1 394.1 2.0

Miscellaneous durable goods manufacturing

611.1 617.2 621.9 620.3 608.8 616.6 617.9 618.2 0.3

Nondurable goods

4,796 4,761 4,810 4,830 4,746 4,778 4,779 4,783 4

Food manufacturing

1,650.6 1,615.5 1,644.8 1,663.0 1,621.7 1,633.6 1,634.2 1,635.4 1.2

Textile mills

112.9 112.5 112.3 112.0 112.8 113.2 112.1 112.1 0.0

Textile product mills

116.4 113.4 113.5 115.0 115.9 114.2 114.0 114.5 0.5

Apparel

111.9 108.2 108.7 106.9 113.2 108.0 108.0 107.7 -0.3

Paper and paper products

368.2 371.1 371.2 371.4 366.8 370.3 369.5 370.2 0.7

Printing and related support activities

432.1 419.7 422.3 422.2 430.6 421.3 421.3 420.6 -0.7

Petroleum and coal products

119.7 118.2 119.0 118.9 116.2 117.0 116.0 115.8 -0.2

Chemicals

841.4 857.1 860.9 863.8 836.7 857.0 857.6 859.5 1.9

Plastics and rubber products

734.7 738.2 743.8 741.9 731.5 736.6 738.8 739.1 0.3

Miscellaneous nondurable goods manufacturing

308.1 306.8 313.1 315.3 300.2 306.6 307.7 307.6 -0.1

Private service-providing

106,692 107,663 108,409 108,473 105,983 107,485 107,635 107,768 133

Trade, transportation, and utilities

27,636 27,687 27,829 27,794 27,643 27,807 27,821 27,824 3

Wholesale trade

5,879.4 5,938.0 5,961.9 5,969.0 5,849.4 5,935.2 5,933.9 5,940.6 6.7

Durable goods

3,165.9 3,210.7 3,224.0 3,232.3 3,150.4 3,213.1 3,213.2 3,217.9 4.7

Nondurable goods

2,160.5 2,175.6 2,184.8 2,182.1 2,149.0 2,169.5 2,169.8 2,171.0 1.2

Electronic markets and agents and brokers

553.0 551.7 553.1 554.6 550.0 552.6 550.9 551.7 0.8

Retail trade

15,854.5 15,691.6 15,776.1 15,781.3 15,824.4 15,774.8 15,768.1 15,764.5 -3.6

Motor vehicle and parts dealers

2,037.7 2,053.2 2,063.4 2,065.0 2,022.4 2,048.9 2,049.7 2,049.6 -0.1

Automobile dealers

1,303.9 1,309.2 1,311.5 1,314.1 1,299.2 1,310.0 1,308.5 1,309.4 0.9

Other motor vehicle dealers

166.5 166.1 168.3 166.6 157.3 159.5 159.0 157.9 -1.1

Auto parts, accessories, and tire stores

567.3 577.9 583.6 584.3 566.0 579.3 582.2 582.3 0.1

Furniture and home furnishings stores

474.4 481.5 481.3 478.3 480.3 486.9 486.2 485.2 -1.0

Electronics and appliance stores

487.5 464.0 462.7 457.7 493.0 469.7 468.3 462.6 -5.7

Building material and garden supply stores

1,345.2 1,367.6 1,364.9 1,343.1 1,309.0 1,301.9 1,304.8 1,306.3 1.5

Food and beverage stores

3,107.4 3,104.6 3,138.4 3,145.7 3,082.9 3,117.4 3,116.8 3,122.1 5.3

Health and personal care stores

1,050.6 1,038.0 1,039.4 1,035.9 1,056.0 1,043.5 1,042.1 1,043.3 1.2

Gasoline stations

944.4 948.2 962.9 966.4 932.6 948.0 951.9 954.7 2.8

Clothing and clothing accessories stores

1,377.3 1,284.3 1,301.0 1,316.1 1,381.1 1,328.3 1,325.4 1,324.8 -0.6

Sporting goods, hobby, book, and music stores

552.3 538.4 543.8 543.5 565.7 554.3 555.4 554.3 -1.1

General merchandise stores

3,060.3 2,997.2 2,998.2 3,011.8 3,093.4 3,056.5 3,052.8 3,050.6 -2.2

Department stores

1,122.8 1,078.1 1,079.9 1,088.9 1,146.9 1,120.3 1,117.6 1,113.9 -3.7

General merchandise stores, including warehouse clubs and supercenters

1,937.5 1,919.1 1,918.3 1,922.9 1,946.5 1,936.2 1,935.2 1,936.7 1.5

Miscellaneous store retailers

847.7 840.8 844.0 845.4 833.9 837.6 835.7 833.7 -2.0

Nonstore retailers

569.7 573.8 576.1 572.4 574.1 581.8 579.0 577.3 -1.7

Transportation and warehousing

5,344.7 5,504.6 5,532.4 5,484.6 5,417.2 5,543.4 5,563.9 5,564.2 0.3

Air transportation

506.1 515.3 522.0 523.4 501.7 514.6 518.4 519.3 0.9

Rail transportation

214.8 208.3 206.0 206.0 214.5 207.9 206.3 206.2 -0.1

Water transportation

67.6 66.2 66.4 67.2 64.7 64.9 64.3 64.4 0.1

Truck transportation

1,504.4 1,519.9 1,534.0 1,539.9 1,487.7 1,518.7 1,522.0 1,524.0 2.0

Transit and ground passenger transportation

425.4 507.4 486.5 422.5 486.0 490.2 491.9 483.7 -8.2

Pipeline transportation

49.1 48.1 48.1 48.4 49.0 47.9 48.1 48.1 0.0

Scenic and sightseeing transportation

44.6 36.7 44.2 45.4 33.7 34.3 34.9 34.4 -0.5

Support activities for transportation

712.1 717.0 723.7 720.5 711.0 719.4 723.8 720.0 -3.8

Couriers and messengers

690.4 709.0 722.1 728.3 729.2 756.2 762.9 769.6 6.7

Warehousing and storage

1,130.2 1,176.7 1,179.4 1,183.0 1,139.7 1,189.3 1,191.3 1,194.5 3.2

Utilities

557.0 552.3 558.4 559.0 552.4 553.4 554.8 554.4 -0.4

Information

2,850 2,806 2,839 2,837 2,832 2,815 2,829 2,819 -10

Publishing industries, except Internet

736.5 733.0 743.1 745.1 732.9 738.2 742.3 741.2 -1.1

Motion picture and sound recording industries

447.3 427.8 441.7 438.6 438.2 423.9 434.3 428.4 -5.9

Broadcasting, except Internet

268.6 267.9 268.7 267.1 270.1 269.9 269.1 268.7 -0.4

Telecommunications

752.9 717.0 717.5 713.2 751.0 720.6 717.8 712.7 -5.1

Data processing, hosting and related services

331.7 330.3 332.5 335.0 330.1 331.4 332.0 333.3 1.3

Other information services

312.5 330.2 335.2 338.0 309.6 331.4 333.1 335.1 2.0

Financial activities

8,653 8,636 8,714 8,761 8,572 8,656 8,659 8,677 18

Finance and insurance

6,348.3 6,317.5 6,353.2 6,386.1 6,315.5 6,336.7 6,337.1 6,351.0 13.9

Monetary authorities - central bank

19.9 19.6 19.4 19.7 19.6 19.6 19.4 19.4 0.0

Credit intermediation and related
activities

2,666.6 2,624.0 2,639.6 2,649.1 2,649.9 2,631.7 2,630.6 2,631.4 0.8

Depository credit intermediation(1)

1,727.9 1,707.0 1,717.7 1,719.3 1,716.9 1,709.2 1,708.5 1,707.7 -0.8

Commercial banking

1,329.8 1,306.1 1,312.7 1,314.5 1,321.9 1,307.6 1,306.9 1,306.0 -0.9

Nondepository credit intermediation

629.1 613.0 618.0 623.9 625.8 616.9 618.0 619.5 1.5

Activities related to credit intermediation

309.6 304.0 303.9 305.9 307.3 305.6 304.1 304.3 0.2

Securities, commodity contracts, investments, and funds and trusts

964.8 966.6 977.1 985.9 955.8 971.8 974.4 976.1 1.7

Insurance carriers and related activities

2,697.0 2,707.3 2,717.1 2,731.4 2,690.2 2,713.6 2,712.7 2,724.1 11.4

Real estate and rental and leasing

2,304.7 2,318.1 2,360.5 2,374.4 2,256.6 2,319.3 2,321.9 2,326.2 4.3

Real estate

1,688.8 1,699.4 1,725.9 1,735.7 1,664.0 1,704.3 1,707.6 1,710.8 3.2

Rental and leasing services

591.7 595.7 610.9 615.2 569.0 592.0 591.3 592.5 1.2

Lessors of nonfinancial intangible assets

24.2 23.0 23.7 23.5 23.6 23.0 23.0 22.9 -0.1

Professional and business services

21,139 21,399 21,577 21,605 21,017 21,408 21,446 21,484 38

Professional and technical services

9,326.2 9,494.8 9,568.3 9,632.4 9,313.9 9,553.0 9,582.9 9,613.7 30.8

Legal services

1,152.2 1,139.5 1,155.5 1,154.9 1,141.8 1,143.5 1,144.1 1,144.2 0.1

Accounting and bookkeeping services

959.4 1,004.4 1,000.2 1,006.5 1,016.7 1,051.0 1,056.0 1,059.6 3.6

Architectural and engineering services

1,499.9 1,513.5 1,535.1 1,544.6 1,477.2 1,514.8 1,517.5 1,521.3 3.8

Specialized design services

143.3 150.1 150.0 148.3 143.1 148.8 148.8 148.6 -0.2

Computer systems design and related services

2,139.7 2,202.1 2,210.3 2,236.4 2,127.0 2,202.8 2,212.0 2,222.6 10.6

Management and technical consulting services

1,490.6 1,518.1 1,531.1 1,540.9 1,483.1 1,522.6 1,527.5 1,533.3 5.8

Scientific research and development services

707.3 722.1 733.5 741.3 696.8 722.8 726.6 730.2 3.6

Advertising and related services

491.9 490.4 492.8 495.7 489.3 490.0 491.1 492.8 1.7

Other professional and technical services

741.9 754.6 759.8 763.8 739.0 756.6 759.2 761.3 2.1

Management of companies and enterprises

2,395.9 2,411.5 2,430.1 2,435.4 2,375.3 2,412.6 2,414.1 2,415.0 0.9

Administrative and waste services

9,416.5 9,492.2 9,579.0 9,537.2 9,327.7 9,442.6 9,449.3 9,455.0 5.7

Administrative and support services

8,968.5 9,038.3 9,117.0 9,072.0 8,888.6 8,989.0 8,993.8 8,998.5 4.7

Office administrative services

516.9 529.8 533.8 534.5 515.9 529.2 530.5 532.4 1.9

Facilities support services

152.9 155.4 155.9 156.6 153.3 156.0 156.7 156.9 0.2

Employment services(1)

3,633.9 3,686.1 3,710.7 3,670.4 3,674.0 3,710.4 3,709.5 3,715.0 5.5

Temporary help services

2,960.6 3,009.5 3,026.8 2,985.5 3,004.1 3,032.3 3,031.4 3,033.6 2.2

Business support services

883.0 879.4 878.6 880.9 897.5 895.0 894.9 895.3 0.4

Travel arrangement and reservation services

221.7 217.9 218.8 217.2 218.4 215.4 215.0 214.3 -0.7

Investigation and security services

948.5 953.6 953.5 951.1 948.2 953.7 953.3 952.3 -1.0

Services to buildings and dwellings

2,283.6 2,275.4 2,322.5 2,325.2 2,155.0 2,194.1 2,197.3 2,197.6 0.3

Other support services

328.0 340.7 343.2 336.1 326.3 335.2 336.6 334.7 -1.9

Waste management and remediation services

448.0 453.9 462.0 465.2 439.1 453.6 455.5 456.5 1.0

Education and health services

23,333 24,218 24,038 23,951 23,694 24,176 24,233 24,299 66

Educational services

3,423.5 3,808.3 3,586.1 3,483.8 3,749.7 3,779.8 3,791.3 3,807.0 15.7

Health care and social assistance

19,909.4 20,410.0 20,452.3 20,467.1 19,943.9 20,396.6 20,441.4 20,491.8 50.4

Health care(3)

16,024.4 16,336.4 16,399.6 16,430.2 16,006.8 16,350.8 16,381.7 16,412.1 30.4

Ambulatory health care services

7,502.8 7,735.0 7,755.9 7,776.8 7,503.0 7,730.5 7,747.0 7,775.9 28.9

Offices of physicians

2,621.0 2,675.9 2,684.8 2,690.7 2,618.6 2,678.9 2,685.5 2,688.5 3.0

Offices of dentists

955.9 983.0 984.0 984.9 955.7 983.5 981.7 985.5 3.8

Offices of other health practitioners

930.3 968.5 968.4 972.7 930.6 964.7 965.7 973.0 7.3

Outpatient care centers

935.2 968.4 970.3 972.6 934.9 967.4 970.5 972.9 2.4

Medical and diagnostic laboratories

280.0 289.3 291.4 293.1 279.6 290.3 290.6 292.1 1.5

Home health care services

1,471.7 1,537.5 1,544.4 1,551.0 1,474.8 1,534.7 1,541.9 1,552.6 10.7

Other ambulatory health care services

308.7 312.4 312.6 311.8 308.9 311.1 311.0 311.3 0.3

Hospitals

5,151.4 5,217.0 5,241.6 5,242.5 5,145.8 5,231.6 5,241.0 5,238.9 -2.1

Nursing and residential care facilities

3,370.2 3,384.4 3,402.1 3,410.9 3,358.0 3,388.7 3,393.7 3,397.3 3.6

Nursing care facilities

1,609.0 1,601.9 1,609.7 1,613.6 1,604.1 1,605.6 1,607.8 1,608.6 0.8

Residential mental health facilities

644.8 651.8 655.7 657.9 642.9 651.2 653.5 655.2 1.7

Community care facilities for the elderly

949.5 961.6 967.1 968.3 946.5 962.9 964.0 964.5 0.5

Other residential care facilities

166.9 169.1 169.6 171.1 164.4 169.0 168.5 169.0 0.5

Social assistance

3,885.0 4,073.6 4,052.7 4,036.9 3,937.1 4,045.8 4,059.7 4,079.7 20.0

Individual and family services

2,476.6 2,559.4 2,565.3 2,578.0 2,471.0 2,550.6 2,557.7 2,570.3 12.6

Emergency and other relief services

173.2 176.4 178.8 178.8 173.5 177.2 178.8 178.9 0.1

Vocational rehabilitation services

336.6 329.6 330.6 332.7 330.4 328.7 327.3 326.4 -0.9

Child day care services

898.6 1,008.2 978.0 947.4 962.1 989.3 995.9 1,004.0 8.1

Leisure and hospitality

17,164 16,961 17,396 17,504 16,378 16,699 16,706 16,716 10

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

2,762.4 2,534.7 2,753.8 2,821.9 2,389.6 2,453.5 2,449.5 2,449.4 -0.1

Performing arts and spectator sports

529.2 552.2 552.8 544.2 500.6 518.8 519.1 515.6 -3.5

Museums, historical sites, and similar institutions

188.7 181.2 190.7 193.7 170.2 174.7 175.0 175.0 0.0

Amusements, gambling, and recreation

2,044.5 1,801.3 2,010.3 2,084.0 1,718.8 1,760.0 1,755.4 1,758.8 3.4

Accommodation and food services

14,401.2 14,426.2 14,641.7 14,682.0 13,988.2 14,245.2 14,256.0 14,266.2 10.2

Accommodation

2,195.8 2,064.5 2,171.8 2,222.2 2,035.7 2,057.9 2,066.1 2,060.9 -5.2

Food services and drinking places

12,205.4 12,361.7 12,469.9 12,459.8 11,952.5 12,187.3 12,189.9 12,205.3 15.4

Other services

5,917 5,956 6,016 6,021 5,847 5,924 5,941 5,949 8

Repair and maintenance

1,335.0 1,362.6 1,368.2 1,370.9 1,329.5 1,353.2 1,359.1 1,364.4 5.3

Personal and laundry services

1,517.9 1,554.1 1,551.1 1,543.6 1,508.0 1,535.3 1,534.2 1,534.4 0.2

Membership associations and organizations

3,063.8 3,039.0 3,096.7 3,106.9 3,009.2 3,035.4 3,047.9 3,049.7 1.8

Government

21,173 22,839 22,446 21,257 22,458 22,512 22,526 22,542 16

Federal

2,810.0 2,814.0 2,832.0 2,834.0 2,796.0 2,815.0 2,818.0 2,820.0 2.0

Federal, except U.S. Postal Service

2,204.8 2,206.4 2,225.2 2,226.8 2,189.6 2,205.7 2,207.9 2,210.4 2.5

U.S. Postal Service

605.3 607.4 606.4 607.3 606.6 608.9 609.9 609.7 -0.2

State government

4,850.0 5,166.0 4,901.0 4,820.0 5,179.0 5,159.0 5,156.0 5,156.0 0.0

State government education

2,136.9 2,464.4 2,184.4 2,099.7 2,484.1 2,464.0 2,457.5 2,454.1 -3.4

State government, excluding education

2,712.7 2,701.9 2,716.5 2,719.8 2,695.1 2,695.4 2,698.0 2,701.4 3.4

Local government

13,513.0 14,859.0 14,713.0 13,603.0 14,483.0 14,538.0 14,552.0 14,566.0 14.0

Local government education

6,757.0 8,302.8 7,946.5 6,778.8 7,972.7 7,981.9 7,979.5 7,991.2 11.7

Local government, excluding education

6,756.2 6,555.8 6,766.5 6,823.9 6,510.4 6,556.0 6,572.8 6,574.6 1.8

Footnotes
(1) Includes other industries, not shown separately.
(2) Includes motor vehicles, motor vehicle bodies and trailers, and motor vehicle parts.
(3) Includes ambulatory health care services, hospitals, and nursing and residential care facilities.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2018 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-2. Average weekly hours and overtime of all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry July
2018
May
2019
June
2019(p)
July
2019(p)

AVERAGE WEEKLY HOURS

Total private

34.5 34.4 34.4 34.3

Goods-producing

40.6 40.3 40.4 40.2

Mining and logging

45.9 46.3 46.5 46.4

Construction

39.4 39.1 39.3 39.1

Manufacturing

41.0 40.6 40.7 40.4

Durable goods

41.4 41.0 41.1 40.8

Nondurable goods

40.3 40.0 40.0 39.7

Private service-providing

33.3 33.2 33.2 33.2

Trade, transportation, and utilities

34.6 34.2 34.2 34.1

Wholesale trade

39.0 38.9 38.9 38.8

Retail trade

31.1 30.7 30.7 30.7

Transportation and warehousing

39.1 38.5 38.4 38.1

Utilities

41.9 42.1 42.6 41.9

Information

36.0 36.4 36.4 36.1

Financial activities

37.5 37.6 37.6 37.6

Professional and business services

36.2 36.2 36.2 36.1

Education and health services

32.9 33.0 32.9 32.9

Leisure and hospitality

26.1 25.9 25.9 25.8

Other services

31.8 31.8 31.8 31.8

AVERAGE OVERTIME HOURS

Manufacturing

3.5 3.4 3.4 3.2

Durable goods

3.5 3.3 3.3 3.2

Nondurable goods

3.5 3.5 3.5 3.3

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2018 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-3. Average hourly and weekly earnings of all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Average hourly earnings Average weekly earnings
July
2018
May
2019
June
2019(p)
July
2019(p)
July
2018
May
2019
June
2019(p)
July
2019(p)

Total private

$27.11 $27.82 $27.90 $27.98 $935.30 $957.01 $959.76 $959.71

Goods-producing

28.24 28.90 28.97 29.02 1,146.54 1,164.67 1,170.39 1,166.60

Mining and logging

32.49 33.57 33.70 34.09 1,491.29 1,554.29 1,567.05 1,581.78

Construction

29.92 30.68 30.72 30.75 1,178.85 1,199.59 1,207.30 1,202.33

Manufacturing

27.03 27.58 27.67 27.70 1,108.23 1,119.75 1,126.17 1,119.08

Durable goods

28.41 29.05 29.14 29.13 1,176.17 1,191.05 1,197.65 1,188.50

Nondurable goods

24.66 25.04 25.12 25.20 993.80 1,001.60 1,004.80 1,000.44

Private service-providing

26.84 27.57 27.65 27.74 893.77 915.32 917.98 920.97

Trade, transportation, and utilities

23.32 24.13 24.20 24.28 806.87 825.25 827.64 827.95

Wholesale trade

30.47 31.34 31.38 31.34 1,188.33 1,219.13 1,220.68 1,215.99

Retail trade

18.76 19.53 19.63 19.76 583.44 599.57 602.64 606.63

Transportation and warehousing

24.31 24.84 24.84 25.01 950.52 956.34 953.86 952.88

Utilities

40.81 41.83 41.79 41.66 1,709.94 1,761.04 1,780.25 1,745.55

Information

39.75 41.84 41.75 42.35 1,431.00 1,522.98 1,519.70 1,528.84

Financial activities

34.81 35.85 36.03 36.11 1,305.38 1,347.96 1,354.73 1,357.74

Professional and business services

32.61 33.46 33.53 33.63 1,180.48 1,211.25 1,213.79 1,214.04

Education and health services

27.05 27.36 27.46 27.52 889.95 902.88 903.43 905.41

Leisure and hospitality

16.00 16.51 16.56 16.59 417.60 427.61 428.90 428.02

Other services

24.55 24.94 24.96 25.00 780.69 793.09 793.73 795.00

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2018 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-4. Indexes of aggregate weekly hours and payrolls for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
[2007=100]
Industry Index of aggregate weekly hours(1) Index of aggregate weekly payrolls(2)
July
2018
May
2019
June
2019(p)
July
2019(p)
Percent change from:
June
2019 - July
2019(p)
July
2018
May
2019
June
2019(p)
July
2019(p)
Percent change from:
June
2019 - July
2019(p)

Total private

109.7 111.0 111.2 111.0 -0.2 142.2 147.6 148.3 148.4 0.1

Goods-producing

96.0 96.8 97.1 96.7 -0.4 122.5 126.4 127.2 126.9 -0.2

Mining and logging

105.9 110.3 110.6 109.6 -0.9 138.1 148.6 149.7 150.1 0.3

Construction

99.2 100.9 101.6 101.2 -0.4 128.9 134.4 135.6 135.2 -0.3

Manufacturing

93.7 93.8 94.1 93.5 -0.6 117.8 120.3 121.1 120.4 -0.6

Durable goods

92.8 93.0 93.4 92.8 -0.6 117.1 120.0 120.8 120.1 -0.6

Nondurable goods

95.5 95.4 95.4 94.8 -0.6 119.5 121.2 121.6 121.2 -0.3

Private service-providing

113.5 114.8 115.0 115.1 0.1 148.1 153.8 154.5 155.2 0.5

Trade, transportation, and utilities

104.3 103.7 103.8 103.5 -0.3 131.1 134.9 135.3 135.4 0.1

Wholesale trade

100.6 101.8 101.8 101.7 -0.1 128.2 133.5 133.6 133.3 -0.2

Retail trade

99.9 98.3 98.3 98.3 0.0 123.9 126.9 127.5 128.3 0.6

Transportation and warehousing

121.1 122.0 122.1 121.2 -0.7 149.3 153.7 153.9 153.7 -0.1

Utilities

100.1 100.8 102.3 100.5 -1.8 135.0 139.3 141.2 138.3 -2.1

Information

93.1 93.6 94.0 92.9 -1.2 131.8 139.4 139.8 140.1 0.2

Financial activities

105.3 106.6 106.6 106.9 0.3 142.9 149.1 149.9 150.5 0.4

Professional and business services

119.3 121.5 121.7 121.6 -0.1 157.5 164.6 165.3 165.6 0.2

Education and health services

127.3 130.3 130.2 130.5 0.2 165.6 171.5 172.0 172.8 0.5

Leisure and hospitality

122.0 123.4 123.5 123.1 -0.3 157.4 164.4 164.9 164.7 -0.1

Other services

107.2 108.6 108.9 109.1 0.2 144.2 148.5 149.0 149.5 0.3

Footnotes
(1) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding 2007 annual average aggregate hours. Aggregate hours estimates are the product of estimates of average weekly hours and employment.
(2) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding 2007 annual average aggregate weekly payrolls. Aggregate payrolls estimates are the product of estimates of average hourly earnings, average weekly hours, and employment.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2018 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-5. Employment of women on nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Women employees (in thousands) Percent of all employees
July
2018
May
2019
June
2019(p)
July
2019(p)
July
2018
May
2019
June
2019(p)
July
2019(p)

Total nonfarm

74,091 75,329 75,405 75,584 49.7 49.9 49.8 49.9

Total private

61,163 62,329 62,403 62,561 48.3 48.5 48.5 48.5

Goods-producing

4,593 4,706 4,712 4,731 22.1 22.3 22.3 22.4

Mining and logging

93 98 99 100 12.7 12.9 13.1 13.3

Construction

935 971 973 977 12.8 13.0 13.0 13.0

Manufacturing

3,565 3,637 3,640 3,654 28.1 28.3 28.3 28.4

Durable goods

1,889 1,933 1,937 1,943 23.7 24.0 24.0 24.0

Nondurable goods

1,676 1,704 1,703 1,711 35.3 35.7 35.6 35.8

Private service-providing

56,570 57,623 57,691 57,830 53.4 53.6 53.6 53.7

Trade, transportation, and utilities

11,109 11,154 11,144 11,159 40.2 40.1 40.1 40.1

Wholesale trade

1,746.6 1,789.7 1,787.8 1,793.1 29.9 30.2 30.1 30.2

Retail trade

7,884.0 7,828.9 7,815.7 7,809.8 49.8 49.6 49.6 49.5

Transportation and warehousing

1,348.7 1,402.5 1,406.7 1,422.1 24.9 25.3 25.3 25.6

Utilities

129.3 132.6 133.4 134.0 23.4 24.0 24.0 24.2

Information

1,117 1,118 1,123 1,126 39.4 39.7 39.7 39.9

Financial activities

4,852 4,892 4,890 4,896 56.6 56.5 56.5 56.4

Professional and business services

9,505 9,751 9,773 9,803 45.2 45.5 45.6 45.6

Education and health services

18,275 18,676 18,723 18,792 77.1 77.3 77.3 77.3

Leisure and hospitality

8,603 8,867 8,869 8,882 52.5 53.1 53.1 53.1

Other services

3,109 3,165 3,169 3,172 53.2 53.4 53.3 53.3

Government

12,928 13,000 13,002 13,023 57.6 57.7 57.7 57.8

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2018 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-6. Employment of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
[In thousands]
Industry July
2018
May
2019
June
2019(p)
July
2019(p)

Total private

104,418 105,872 105,978 106,105

Goods-producing

14,909 15,104 15,112 15,134

Mining and logging

546 558 555 549

Construction

5,454 5,569 5,585 5,592

Manufacturing

8,909 8,977 8,972 8,993

Durable goods

5,472 5,547 5,549 5,571

Nondurable goods

3,437 3,430 3,423 3,422

Private service-providing

89,509 90,768 90,866 90,971

Trade, transportation, and utilities

23,389 23,531 23,530 23,529

Wholesale trade

4,696.0 4,770.7 4,766.5 4,767.0

Retail trade

13,523.9 13,469.7 13,457.8 13,444.3

Transportation and warehousing

4,726.9 4,847.2 4,861.0 4,874.0

Utilities

442.0 443.2 444.9 444.1

Information

2,276 2,266 2,277 2,269

Financial activities

6,630 6,704 6,699 6,713

Professional and business services

17,153 17,443 17,457 17,482

Education and health services

20,807 21,230 21,289 21,346

Leisure and hospitality

14,413 14,686 14,693 14,707

Other services

4,841 4,908 4,921 4,925

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2018 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-7. Average weekly hours and overtime of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry July
2018
May
2019
June
2019(p)
July
2019(p)

AVERAGE WEEKLY HOURS

Total private

33.8 33.6 33.6 33.5

Goods-producing

41.6 41.1 41.2 41.0

Mining and logging

46.7 46.8 47.3 47.2

Construction

40.1 39.7 39.9 39.7

Manufacturing

42.2 41.6 41.6 41.5

Durable goods

42.5 41.9 42.0 41.8

Nondurable goods

41.9 41.1 41.1 41.0

Private service-providing

32.5 32.3 32.4 32.3

Trade, transportation, and utilities

34.1 33.7 33.8 33.7

Wholesale trade

38.9 38.6 38.7 38.6

Retail trade

30.5 30.2 30.3 30.2

Transportation and warehousing

38.6 37.9 37.8 37.6

Utilities

42.5 42.4 42.2 42.0

Information

35.6 35.4 35.6 35.0

Financial activities

37.1 36.9 36.8 36.8

Professional and business services

35.4 35.4 35.4 35.4

Education and health services

32.2 32.2 32.2 32.2

Leisure and hospitality

24.9 24.6 24.7 24.6

Other services

30.7 30.7 30.7 30.7

AVERAGE OVERTIME HOURS

Manufacturing

4.5 4.2 4.2 4.0

Durable goods

4.6 4.2 4.2 4.0

Nondurable goods

4.4 4.3 4.3 4.1

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2018 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-8. Average hourly and weekly earnings of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry Average hourly earnings Average weekly earnings
July
2018
May
2019
June
2019(p)
July
2019(p)
July
2018
May
2019
June
2019(p)
July
2019(p)

Total private

$22.71 $23.38 $23.42 $23.46 $767.60 $785.57 $786.91 $785.91

Goods-producing

23.95 24.66 24.71 24.71 996.32 1,013.53 1,018.05 1,013.11

Mining and logging

28.22 29.97 29.82 29.69 1,317.87 1,402.60 1,410.49 1,401.37

Construction

27.73 28.44 28.45 28.41 1,111.97 1,129.07 1,135.16 1,127.88

Manufacturing

21.46 22.04 22.11 22.16 905.61 916.86 919.78 919.64

Durable goods

22.47 22.96 23.03 23.09 954.98 962.02 967.26 965.16

Nondurable goods

19.83 20.54 20.59 20.62 830.88 844.19 846.25 845.42

Private service-providing

22.44 23.11 23.14 23.19 729.30 746.45 749.74 749.04

Trade, transportation, and utilities

19.88 20.69 20.66 20.68 677.91 697.25 698.31 696.92

Wholesale trade

25.14 26.09 26.14 26.04 977.95 1,007.07 1,011.62 1,005.14

Retail trade

15.94 16.64 16.59 16.65 486.17 502.53 502.68 502.83

Transportation and warehousing

21.82 22.59 22.53 22.59 842.25 856.16 851.63 849.38

Utilities

36.59 37.05 36.71 36.66 1,555.08 1,570.92 1,549.16 1,539.72

Information

31.81 33.47 33.55 33.65 1,132.44 1,184.84 1,194.38 1,177.75

Financial activities

26.90 27.56 27.71 27.72 997.99 1,016.96 1,019.73 1,020.10

Professional and business services

26.85 27.59 27.68 27.74 950.49 976.69 979.87 982.00

Education and health services

23.67 24.05 24.11 24.20 762.17 774.41 776.34 779.24

Leisure and hospitality

13.89 14.42 14.43 14.46 345.86 354.73 356.42 355.72

Other services

20.81 21.16 21.19 21.22 638.87 649.61 650.53 651.45

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2018 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-9. Indexes of aggregate weekly hours and payrolls for production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
[2002=100]
Industry Index of aggregate weekly hours(2) Index of aggregate weekly payrolls(3)
July
2018
May
2019
June
2019(p)
July
2019(p)
Percent change from:
June
2019 - July
2019(p)
July
2018
May
2019
June
2019(p)
July
2019(p)
Percent change from:
June
2019 - July
2019(p)

Total private

117.6 118.5 118.6 118.4 -0.2 178.5 185.2 185.7 185.7 0.0

Goods-producing

94.8 94.9 95.1 94.8 -0.3 139.0 143.2 144.0 143.5 -0.3

Mining and logging

135.5 138.8 139.5 137.7 -1.3 222.4 241.9 241.9 237.8 -1.7

Construction

109.5 110.7 111.6 111.2 -0.4 164.0 170.0 171.4 170.5 -0.5

Manufacturing

86.3 85.7 85.7 85.7 0.0 121.1 123.6 123.9 124.2 0.2

Durable goods

87.4 87.3 87.6 87.5 -0.1 122.6 125.2 125.9 126.1 0.2

Nondurable goods

84.8 83.1 82.9 82.7 -0.2 118.9 120.6 120.6 120.5 -0.1

Private service-providing

123.9 124.9 125.4 125.1 -0.2 190.6 197.9 199.0 199.0 0.0

Trade, transportation, and utilities

111.4 110.7 111.1 110.7 -0.4 158.1 163.6 163.8 163.5 -0.2

Wholesale trade

108.4 109.3 109.5 109.2 -0.3 160.9 168.3 168.9 167.8 -0.7

Retail trade

104.4 102.9 103.2 102.7 -0.5 142.6 146.8 146.7 146.6 -0.1

Transportation and warehousing

137.2 138.2 138.2 137.8 -0.3 189.9 198.0 197.5 197.5 0.0

Utilities

96.1 96.1 96.0 95.4 -0.6 146.7 148.6 147.1 146.0 -0.7

Information

92.5 91.6 92.5 90.6 -2.1 145.6 151.7 153.7 151.0 -1.8

Financial activities

115.8 116.5 116.1 116.3 0.2 191.6 197.5 197.8 198.3 0.3

Professional and business services

135.8 138.1 138.2 138.4 0.1 216.8 226.5 227.4 228.3 0.4

Education and health services

142.8 145.8 146.2 146.5 0.2 223.2 231.4 232.6 234.1 0.6

Leisure and hospitality

131.5 132.3 132.9 132.5 -0.3 207.4 216.7 217.8 217.6 -0.1

Other services

104.2 105.7 106.0 106.0 0.0 158.0 162.9 163.6 163.9 0.2

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(2) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding 2002 annual average aggregate hours. Aggregate hours estimates are the product of estimates of average weekly hours and employment.
(3) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding 2002 annual average aggregate weekly payrolls. Aggregate payrolls estimates are the product of estimates of average hourly earnings, average weekly hours, and employment.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2018 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


Last Modified Date: August 02, 2019