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Economic News Release
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CPS CPS Program Links
CES CES Program Links

Employment Situation News Release

Transmission of material in this news release is embargoed until	               USDL-23-1893
8:30 a.m. (ET) Friday, September 1, 2023

Technical information:
 Household data:      (202) 691-6378  *  cpsinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/cps
 Establishment data:  (202) 691-6555  *  cesinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/ces

Media contact:        (202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov


                          THE EMPLOYMENT SITUATION -- AUGUST 2023


Total nonfarm payroll employment increased by 187,000 in August, and the unemployment rate rose to
3.8 percent, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. Employment continued to trend up
in health care, leisure and hospitality, social assistance, and construction. Employment in
transportation and warehousing declined.

This news release presents statistics from two monthly surveys. The household survey measures labor
force status, including unemployment, by demographic characteristics. The establishment survey 
measures nonfarm employment, hours, and earnings by industry. For more information about the 
concepts and statistical methodology used in these two surveys, see the Technical Note.

Household Survey Data

The unemployment rate rose by 0.3 percentage point to 3.8 percent in August, and the number of 
unemployed persons increased by 514,000 to 6.4 million. Both measures are little different from
a year earlier, when the unemployment rate was 3.7 percent and the number of unemployed persons
was 6.0 million. (See table A-1.)

Among the major worker groups, the unemployment rates for adult men (3.7 percent), Whites (3.4
percent), and Asians (3.1 percent) rose in August. The jobless rates for adult women (3.2 percent),
teenagers (12.2 percent), Blacks (5.3 percent), and Hispanics (4.9 percent) showed little change
over the month. (See tables A-1, A-2, and A-3.)

Among the unemployed, the number of job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs increased
by 294,000 to 2.9 million in August, offsetting a decrease of 280,000 in July. In August, the 
number of new entrants edged up to 597,000. (New entrants are unemployed persons with no previous
work experience.) (See table A-11.)

Both the number of persons unemployed less than 5 weeks, at 2.2 million, and the number of long-
term unemployed (those jobless for 27 weeks or more), at 1.3 million, edged up in August. The 
long-term unemployed accounted for 20.3 percent of all unemployed persons. (See table A-12.)

In August, the labor force participation rate rose by 0.2 percentage point to 62.8 percent, after
being flat since March. The employment-population ratio was unchanged over the month at 60.4
percent. (See table A-1.)

The number of persons employed part time for economic reasons, at 4.2 million, changed little in
August. These individuals, who would have preferred full-time employment, were working part time
because their hours had been reduced or they were unable to find full-time jobs. (See table A-8.)

In August, the number of persons not in the labor force who currently want a job was 5.4 million,
little changed from the prior month. These individuals were not counted as unemployed because they
were not actively looking for work during the 4 weeks preceding the survey or were unavailable to
take a job. (See table A-1.)

Among those not in the labor force who wanted a job, the number of persons marginally attached to
the labor force was little changed at 1.5 million in August. These individuals wanted and were
available for work and had looked for a job sometime in the prior 12 months but had not looked for
work in the 4 weeks preceding the survey. The number of discouraged workers, a subset of the
marginally attached who believed that no jobs were available for them, also changed little over
the month at 386,000. (See Summary table A.) 

Establishment Survey Data

Total nonfarm payroll employment increased by 187,000 in August, less than the average monthly
gain of 271,000 over the prior 12 months. In August, employment continued to trend up in health
care, leisure and hospitality, social assistance, and construction. Employment in transportation 
and warehousing declined. (See table B-1.)

In August, health care added 71,000 jobs, following a gain of similar magnitude in the prior month.
Over the month, job growth continued in ambulatory health care services (+40,000), nursing and 
residential care facilities (+17,000), and hospitals (+15,000).

Employment in leisure and hospitality continued to trend up in August (+40,000). The industry had
gained an average of 61,000 jobs per month over the prior 12 months. Employment in the industry
remains below its pre-pandemic February 2020 level by 290,000, or 1.7 percent.

Employment in social assistance increased by 26,000 in August, in line with the prior 12-month 
average gain (+22,000). Over the month, job growth continued in individual and family services
(+21,000).

Construction employment continued to trend up in August (+22,000), in line with the average monthly
gain over the prior 12 months (+17,000). Within the industry, employment continued to trend up over
the month in specialty trade contractors (+11,000) and in heavy and civil engineering construction
(+7,000).

Transportation and warehousing lost 34,000 jobs in August. Employment in truck transportation fell
sharply (-37,000), largely reflecting a business closure. Couriers and messengers lost 9,000 jobs,
while air transportation added 3,000 jobs. Employment in transportation and warehousing had shown
little net change over the prior 12 months. 

Employment in professional and business services changed little in August (+19,000) and has shown
essentially no net change since May. Professional, scientific, and technical services employment
continued to trend up over the month (+21,000). In contrast, employment in temporary help services
continued to trend down (-19,000) and has declined by 242,000 since its peak in March 2022.

Information employment changed little in August (-15,000). Within the industry, employment in 
motion picture and sound recording industries decreased by 17,000, reflecting strike activity. Job
losses continued in telecommunications (-4,000).

Employment showed little change over the month in other major industries, including mining,
quarrying, and oil and gas extraction; manufacturing; wholesale trade; retail trade; financial
activities; other services; and government.
	
In August, average hourly earnings for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls rose by 8 cents,
or 0.2 percent, to $33.82. Over the past 12 months, average hourly earnings have increased by 4.3
percent. In August, average hourly earnings of private-sector production and nonsupervisory 
employees rose by 6 cents, or 0.2 percent, to $29.00. (See tables B-3 and B-8.) 

The average workweek for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls edged up by 0.1 hour to 34.4
hours in August. In manufacturing, the average workweek was 40.1 hours for the fifth month in a
row, and overtime edged down by 0.1 hour to 3.0 hours. The average workweek for production and 
nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls edged up by 0.1 hour to 33.8 hours. (See
tables B-2 and B-7.)

The change in total nonfarm payroll employment for June was revised down by 80,000, from +185,000
to +105,000, and the change for July was revised down by 30,000, from +187,000 to +157,000. With
these revisions, employment in June and July combined is 110,000 lower than previously reported.
(Monthly revisions result from additional reports received from businesses and government agencies
since the last published estimates and from the recalculation of seasonal factors.)

_____________
The Employment Situation for September is scheduled to be released on
Friday, October 6, 2023, at 8:30 a.m. (ET).




HOUSEHOLD DATA
Summary table A. Household data, seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Category Aug.
2022
June
2023
July
2023
Aug.
2023
Change from:
July
2023-
Aug.
2023

Employment status

Civilian noninstitutional population

264,184 266,801 267,002 267,213 211

Civilian labor force

164,714 166,951 167,103 167,839 736

Participation rate

62.3 62.6 62.6 62.8 0.2

Employed

158,694 160,994 161,262 161,484 222

Employment-population ratio

60.1 60.3 60.4 60.4 0.0

Unemployed

6,021 5,957 5,841 6,355 514

Unemployment rate

3.7 3.6 3.5 3.8 0.3

Not in labor force

99,469 99,850 99,899 99,374 -525

Unemployment rates

Total, 16 years and over

3.7 3.6 3.5 3.8 0.3

Adult men (20 years and over)

3.5 3.4 3.3 3.7 0.4

Adult women (20 years and over)

3.3 3.1 3.1 3.2 0.1

Teenagers (16 to 19 years)

10.4 11.0 11.3 12.2 0.9

White

3.2 3.1 3.1 3.4 0.3

Black or African American

6.4 6.0 5.8 5.3 -0.5

Asian

2.8 3.2 2.3 3.1 0.8

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

4.5 4.3 4.4 4.9 0.5

Total, 25 years and over

3.0 3.0 2.8 3.0 0.2

Less than a high school diploma

6.1 6.0 5.2 5.4 0.2

High school graduates, no college

4.4 3.9 3.4 3.8 0.4

Some college or associate degree

2.9 3.1 3.1 3.0 -0.1

Bachelor's degree and higher

1.9 2.0 2.0 2.2 0.2

Reason for unemployment

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

2,693 2,900 2,620 2,914 294

Job leavers

897 794 852 801 -51

Reentrants

1,833 1,745 1,853 1,930 77

New entrants

451 558 503 597 94

Duration of unemployment

Less than 5 weeks

2,227 2,068 2,004 2,221 217

5 to 14 weeks

1,797 1,889 1,698 1,877 179

15 to 26 weeks

887 917 997 1,002 5

27 weeks and over

1,165 1,105 1,164 1,296 132

Employed persons at work part time

Part time for economic reasons

4,140 4,191 4,000 4,221 221

Slack work or business conditions

2,767 2,890 2,717 2,799 82

Could only find part-time work

971 948 1,014 1,021 7

Part time for noneconomic reasons

21,085 21,267 21,971 21,975 4

Persons not in the labor force

Marginally attached to the labor force

1,433 1,435 1,398 1,505 107

Discouraged workers

367 310 335 386 51

NOTE: Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Summary table B. Establishment data, seasonally adjusted
Category Aug.
2022
June
2023
July
2023(p)
Aug.
2023(p)

EMPLOYMENT BY SELECTED INDUSTRY
(Over-the-month change, in thousands)

Total nonfarm

352 105 157 187

Total private

306 86 155 179

Goods-producing

37 32 14 36

Mining and logging

-2 -1 2 -2

Construction

8 29 16 22

Manufacturing

31 4 -4 16

Durable goods(1)

31 17 11 12

Motor vehicles and parts

12.2 4.2 2.4 -0.1

Nondurable goods

0 -13 -15 4

Private service-providing

269 54 141 143

Wholesale trade

13.2 -6.7 18.0 4.7

Retail trade

36.7 -22.7 13.2 6.3

Transportation and warehousing

8.5 -19.1 -10.0 -34.2

Utilities

1.3 0.8 -2.7 2.5

Information

8 -10 -15 -15

Financial activities

9 2 17 4

Professional and business services(1)

48 -1 -20 19

Temporary help services

0.1 -36.0 -23.9 -18.9

Private education and health services(1)

92 79 102 102

Health care and social assistance

78.1 85.9 99.6 97.3

Leisure and hospitality

48 26 32 40

Other services

4 6 7 13

Government

46 19 2 8

(3-month average change, in thousands)

Total nonfarm

430 201 181 150

Total private

394 173 165 140

WOMEN AND PRODUCTION AND NONSUPERVISORY EMPLOYEES
AS A PERCENT OF ALL EMPLOYEES(2)

Total nonfarm women employees

49.8 49.8 49.8 49.9

Total private women employees

48.4 48.4 48.4 48.4

Total private production and nonsupervisory employees

81.5 81.4 81.4 81.3

HOURS AND EARNINGS
ALL EMPLOYEES

Total private

Average weekly hours

34.5 34.4 34.3 34.4

Average hourly earnings

$32.43 $33.60 $33.74 $33.82

Average weekly earnings

$1,118.84 $1,155.84 $1,157.28 $1,163.41

Index of aggregate weekly hours (2007=100)(3)

113.5 115.2 115.0 115.5

Over-the-month percent change

-0.1 0.3 -0.2 0.4

Index of aggregate weekly payrolls (2007=100)(4)

176.0 185.1 185.5 186.8

Over-the-month percent change

0.2 0.8 0.2 0.7

DIFFUSION INDEX
(Over 1-month span)(5)

Total private (250 industries)

62.0 55.2 56.8 63.8

Manufacturing (72 industries)

53.5 53.5 47.9 55.6

Footnotes
(1) Includes other industries, not shown separately.
(2) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries.
(3) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding annual average aggregate hours.
(4) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding annual average aggregate weekly payrolls.
(5) Figures are the percent of industries with employment increasing plus one-half of the industries with unchanged employment, where 50 percent indicates an equal balance between industries with increasing and decreasing employment.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2022 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


Frequently Asked Questions about Employment and Unemployment Estimates

1. Why are there two monthly measures of employment?

   The household survey and establishment survey both produce sample-based estimates
   of employment, and both have strengths and limitations. The establishment survey
   employment series has a smaller margin of error on the measurement of month-to-
   month change than the household survey because of its much larger sample size. An
   over-the-month employment change of about 130,000 is statistically significant in
   the establishment survey, while the threshold for a statistically significant change
   in the household survey is about 600,000. However, the household survey has a more
   expansive scope than the establishment survey because it includes self-employed
   workers whose businesses are unincorporated, unpaid family workers, agricultural
   workers, and private household workers, who are excluded by the establishment survey.
   The household survey also provides estimates of employment for demographic groups.
   For more information on the differences between the two surveys, please visit
   www.bls.gov/web/empsit/ces_cps_trends.htm.

2. Are undocumented immigrants counted in the surveys?

   It is likely that both surveys include at least some undocumented immigrants. However,
   neither the establishment nor the household survey is designed to identify the legal
   status of workers. Therefore, it is not possible to determine how many are counted in
   either survey. The establishment survey does not collect data on the legal status of
   workers. The household survey does include questions which identify the foreign and
   native born, but it does not include questions about the legal status of the foreign
   born. Data on the foreign and native born are published each month in table A-7 of
   The Employment Situation news release.

3. Why does the establishment survey have revisions?

   The establishment survey revises published estimates to improve its data series by
   incorporating additional information that was not available at the time of the
   initial publication of the estimates. The establishment survey revises its initial
   monthly estimates twice, in the immediately succeeding 2 months, to incorporate
   additional sample receipts from respondents in the survey and recalculated seasonal
   adjustment factors. For more information on the monthly revisions, please visit
   www.bls.gov/web/empsit/cestn.htm#section7.

   On an annual basis, the establishment survey incorporates a benchmark revision that
   re-anchors estimates to nearly complete employment counts available from unemployment
   insurance tax records. The benchmark helps to control for sampling and modeling errors
   in the estimates. For more information on the annual benchmark revision, please visit
   www.bls.gov/web/empsit/cesbmart.htm.

4. Does the establishment survey sample include small firms?

   Yes; about 40 percent of the establishment survey sample is comprised of business
   establishments with fewer than 20 employees. The establishment survey sample is
   designed to maximize the reliability of the statewide total nonfarm employment
   estimate; firms from all states, size classes, and industries are appropriately
   sampled to achieve that goal.

5. Does the establishment survey account for employment from new businesses?

   Yes; monthly establishment survey estimates include an adjustment to account for
   the net employment change generated by business births and deaths. The adjustment
   comes from an econometric model that forecasts the monthly net jobs impact of
   business births and deaths based on the actual past values of the net impact that
   can be observed with a lag from the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages. The
   establishment survey uses modeling rather than sampling for this purpose because
   the survey is not immediately able to bring new businesses into the sample. There
   is an unavoidable lag between the birth of a new firm and its appearance on the
   sampling frame and availability for selection. BLS adds new businesses to the survey
   twice a year.

6. Is the count of unemployed persons limited to just those people receiving unemployment
   insurance benefits?

   No; the estimate of unemployment is based on a monthly sample survey of households.
   All persons who are without jobs and are actively seeking and available to work are
   included among the unemployed. (People on temporary layoff are included even if
   they do not actively seek work.) There is no requirement or question relating to
   unemployment insurance benefits in the monthly survey.

7. Does the official unemployment rate exclude people who want a job but are not currently
   looking for work?

   Yes; however, there are separate estimates of persons outside the labor force who
   want a job, including those who are not currently looking because they believe no
   jobs are available (discouraged workers). In addition, alternative measures of labor
   underutilization (some of which include discouraged workers and other groups not
   officially counted as unemployed) are published each month in table A-15 of The
   Employment Situation news release. For more information about these alternative
   measures, please visit www.bls.gov/cps/lfcharacteristics.htm#altmeasures.

8. How can unusually severe weather affect employment and hours estimates?

   In the establishment survey, the reference period is the pay period that includes
   the 12th of the month. Unusually severe weather is more likely to have an impact on
   average weekly hours than on employment. Average weekly hours are estimated for paid
   time during the pay period, including pay for holidays, sick leave, or other time off.
   The impact of severe weather on hours estimates typically, but not always, results in
   a reduction in average weekly hours. For example, some employees may be off work for
   part of the pay period and not receive pay for the time missed, while some workers,
   such as those dealing with cleanup or repair, may work extra hours.
   
   Typically, it is not possible to precisely quantify the effect of extreme weather on 
   payroll employment estimates. In order for severe weather conditions to reduce
   employment estimates, employees have to be off work without pay for the entire pay
   period. Employees who receive pay for any part of the pay period, even 1 hour, are
   counted in the payroll employment figures. For more information on how often employees
   are paid, please visit www.bls.gov/ces/publications/length-pay-period.htm.

   In the household survey, the reference period is generally the calendar week that
   includes the 12th of the month. Persons who miss the entire week's work for weather-
   related events are counted as employed whether or not they are paid for the time
   off. The household survey collects data on the number of persons who had a job but
   were not at work due to bad weather. It also provides a measure of the number of
   persons who usually work full time but had reduced hours due to bad weather. 
   Current and historical data are available on the household survey's most requested
   statistics page, please visit data.bls.gov/cgi-bin/surveymost?ln.




Technical Note


   This news release presents statistics from two major surveys, the Current
Population Survey (CPS; household survey) and the Current Employment Statistics
survey (CES; establishment survey). The household survey provides information
on the labor force, employment, and unemployment that appears in the "A" tables,
marked HOUSEHOLD DATA. It is a sample survey of about 60,000 eligible households
conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau for the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS).

   The establishment survey provides information on employment, hours, and
earnings of employees on nonfarm payrolls; the data appear in the "B" tables,
marked ESTABLISHMENT DATA. BLS collects these data each month from the payroll
records of a sample of nonagricultural business establishments. Each month
the CES program surveys about 122,000 businesses and government agencies,
representing approximately 666,000 individual worksites, in order to provide
detailed industry data on employment, hours, and earnings of workers on nonfarm
payrolls. The active sample includes approximately one-third of all nonfarm
payroll jobs.

   For both surveys, the data for a given month relate to a particular week or
pay period. In the household survey, the reference period is generally the
calendar week that contains the 12th day of the month. In the establishment
survey, the reference period is the pay period including the 12th, which may or
may not correspond directly to the calendar week.

Coverage, definitions, and differences between surveys

   Household survey. The sample is selected to reflect the entire civilian 
noninstitutional population. Based on responses to a series of questions on 
work and job search activities, each person 16 years and over in a sample
household is classified as employed, unemployed, or not in the labor force.

   People are classified as employed if they did any work at all as paid employees
during the reference week; worked in their own business, profession, or on their
own farm; or worked without pay at least 15 hours in a family business or farm.
People are also counted as employed if they were temporarily absent from their jobs
because of illness, bad weather, vacation, labor-management disputes, or personal
reasons.

   People are classified as unemployed if they meet all of the following criteria:
they had no employment during the reference week; they were available for work at
that time; and they made specific active efforts to find employment sometime during
the 4-week period ending with the reference week. Persons laid off from a job and
expecting recall need not be looking for work to be counted as unemployed. The
unemployment data derived from the household survey in no way depend upon the
eligibility for or receipt of unemployment insurance benefits.

   The civilian labor force is the sum of employed and unemployed persons.
Those persons not classified as employed or unemployed are not in the labor 
force. The unemployment rate is the number unemployed as a percent of the 
labor force. The labor force participation rate is the labor force as a 
percent of the population, and the employment-population ratio is the 
employed as a percent of the population. Additional information about the 
household survey can be found at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm.

   Establishment survey. The sample establishments are drawn from private
nonfarm businesses such as factories, offices, and stores, as well as
from federal, state, and local government entities. Employees on nonfarm
payrolls are those who worked or received pay for any part of the reference pay
period, including persons on paid leave. Persons are counted in each job
they hold. Hours and earnings data are produced for the private sector for
all employees and for production and nonsupervisory employees. Production
and nonsupervisory employees are defined as production and related employees
in manufacturing and mining and logging, construction workers in construction,
and nonsupervisory employees in private service-providing industries.

   Industries are classified on the basis of an establishment's principal
activity in accordance with the 2022 version of the North American Industry
Classification System. Additional information about the establishment survey
can be found at www.bls.gov/ces/.

   Differences in employment estimates. The numerous conceptual and methodological
differences between the household and establishment surveys result in important
distinctions in the employment estimates derived from the surveys. Among these are:

   --The household survey includes agricultural workers, self-employed workers
     whose businesses are unincorporated, unpaid family workers, and private
     household workers among the employed. These groups are excluded from the
     establishment survey.

   --The household survey includes people on unpaid leave among the employed.
     The establishment survey does not.

   --The household survey is limited to workers 16 years of age and older.
     The establishment survey is not limited by age.

   --The household survey has no duplication of individuals, because
     individuals are counted only once, even if they hold more than one
     job. In the establishment survey, employees working at more than one
     job and thus appearing on more than one payroll are counted separately
     for each appearance.

Seasonal adjustment

   Over the course of a year, the size of the nation's labor force and the levels
of employment and unemployment undergo regularly occurring fluctuations. These 
events may result from seasonal changes in weather, major holidays, and the opening
and closing of schools. The effect of such seasonal variation can be very large.

   Because these seasonal events follow a more or less regular pattern each year,
their influence on the level of a series can be tempered by adjusting for regular
seasonal variation. These adjustments make nonseasonal developments, such as
declines in employment or increases in the participation of women in the labor
force, easier to spot. For example, in the household survey, the large number of
youth entering the labor force each June is likely to obscure any other changes
that have taken place relative to May, making it difficult to determine if the 
level of economic activity has risen or declined. Similarly, in the establishment
survey, payroll employment in education declines by about 20 percent at the end
of the spring term and later rises with the start of the fall term, obscuring the
underlying employment trends in the industry. Because seasonal employment changes
at the end and beginning of the school year can be estimated, the statistics can be
adjusted to make underlying employment patterns more discernable.  The seasonally
adjusted figures provide a more useful tool with which to analyze changes in
month-to-month economic activity.

   Many seasonally adjusted series are independently adjusted in both the household
and establishment surveys. However, the adjusted series for many major estimates,
such as total payroll employment, employment in most major sectors, total employment,
and unemployment are computed by aggregating independently adjusted component series.
For example, total unemployment is derived by summing the adjusted series for four
major age-sex components; this differs from the unemployment estimate that would be
obtained by directly adjusting the total or by combining the duration, reasons, or 
more detailed age categories. Percentage distributions of unemployment by reason and
duration are derived from the sum of the independently seasonally adjusted component
series and will not necessarily match calculations made using the seasonally adjusted
total unemployment level. Additional information about seasonal adjustment in the 
household survey can be found at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#sa.

   For both the household and establishment surveys, a concurrent seasonal adjustment
methodology is used in which new seasonal factors are calculated each month using all
relevant data, up to and including the data for the current month. In the household
survey, new seasonal factors are used to adjust only the current month's data. In the
establishment survey, however, new seasonal factors are used each month to adjust the
three most recent monthly estimates. The prior 2 months are routinely revised to
incorporate additional sample reports and recalculated seasonal adjustment factors.
In both surveys, 5-year revisions to historical data are made once a year.

Reliability of the estimates

   Statistics based on the household and establishment surveys are subject to both
sampling and nonsampling error. When a sample, rather than the entire population,
is surveyed, there is a chance that the sample estimates may differ from the true
population values they represent. The component of this difference that occurs
because samples differ by chance is known as sampling error, and its variability
is measured by the standard error of the estimate. There is about a 90-percent
chance, or level of confidence, that an estimate based on a sample will differ by
no more than 1.6 standard errors from the true population value because of sampling
error. BLS analyses are generally conducted at the 90-percent level of confidence.

   For example, the confidence interval for the monthly change in total nonfarm
employment from the establishment survey is on the order of plus or minus 130,000.
Suppose the estimate of nonfarm employment increases by 50,000 from one month to
the next. The 90-percent confidence interval on the monthly change would range from
-80,000 to +180,000 (50,000 +/- 130,000). These figures do not mean that the sample
results are off by these magnitudes, but rather that there is about a 90-percent
chance that the true over-the-month change lies within this interval. Since this
range includes values of less than zero, we could not say with confidence that
nonfarm employment had, in fact, increased that month. If, however, the reported
nonfarm employment rise was 250,000, then all of the values within the 90-percent
confidence interval would be greater than zero. In this case, it is likely (at
least a 90-percent chance) that nonfarm employment had, in fact, risen that month.
At an unemployment rate of around 6.0 percent, the 90-percent confidence interval
for the monthly change in unemployment as measured by the household survey is
about +/- 300,000, and for the monthly change in the unemployment rate it is about
+/- 0.2 percentage point.

   In general, estimates involving many individuals or establishments have lower
standard errors (relative to the size of the estimate) than estimates which are based
on a small number of observations. The precision of estimates also is improved when
the data are cumulated over time, such as for quarterly and annual averages.

   The household and establishment surveys are also affected by nonsampling error,
which can occur for many reasons, including the failure to sample a segment of the
population, inability to obtain information for all respondents in the sample,
inability or unwillingness of respondents to provide correct information on a
timely basis, mistakes made by respondents, and errors made in the collection or
processing of the data.

   For example, in the establishment survey, estimates for the most recent 2 months
are based on incomplete returns; for this reason, these estimates are labeled
preliminary in the tables. It is only after two successive revisions to a monthly
estimate, when nearly all sample reports have been received, that the estimate is
considered final.

   Another major source of nonsampling error in the establishment survey is the
inability to capture, on a timely basis, employment generated by new firms. To
correct for this systematic underestimation of employment growth, an estimation
procedure with two components is used to account for business births. The first
component excludes employment losses from business deaths from sample-based
estimation in order to offset the missing employment gains from business births.
This is incorporated into the sample-based estimation procedure by simply not
reflecting sample units going out of business, but imputing to them the same
employment trend as the other firms in the sample. This procedure accounts for
most of the net birth/death employment.

   The second component is an ARIMA time series model designed to estimate the
residual net birth/death employment not accounted for by the imputation. The
historical time series used to create and test the ARIMA model was derived from
the unemployment insurance universe micro-level database, and reflects the actual
residual net of births and deaths over the past 5 years.

   The sample-based estimates from the establishment survey are adjusted once a
year (on a lagged basis) to universe counts of payroll employment obtained from
administrative records of the unemployment insurance program. The difference 
between the March sample-based employment estimates and the March universe counts
is known as a benchmark revision, and serves as a rough proxy for total survey
error. The new benchmarks also incorporate changes in the classification of
industries. Over the past decade, absolute benchmark revisions for total nonfarm
employment have averaged 0.1 percent, with a range from -0.3 percent to 0.3 percent.

Other information

   If you are deaf, hard of hearing, or have a speech disability, please dial 7-1-1
to access telecommunications relay services.




HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-1. Employment status of the civilian population by sex and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Aug.
2022
July
2023
Aug.
2023
Aug.
2022
Apr.
2023
May
2023
June
2023
July
2023
Aug.
2023

TOTAL

Civilian noninstitutional population

264,184 267,002 267,213 264,184 266,443 266,618 266,801 267,002 267,213

Civilian labor force

164,971 168,354 168,049 164,714 166,688 166,818 166,951 167,103 167,839

Participation rate

62.4 63.1 62.9 62.3 62.6 62.6 62.6 62.6 62.8

Employed

158,714 161,982 161,427 158,694 161,031 160,721 160,994 161,262 161,484

Employment-population ratio

60.1 60.7 60.4 60.1 60.4 60.3 60.3 60.4 60.4

Unemployed

6,256 6,372 6,623 6,021 5,657 6,097 5,957 5,841 6,355

Unemployment rate

3.8 3.8 3.9 3.7 3.4 3.7 3.6 3.5 3.8

Not in labor force

99,213 98,649 99,164 99,469 99,755 99,800 99,850 99,899 99,374

Persons who currently want a job

5,633 5,578 5,482 5,534 5,271 5,477 5,389 5,247 5,370

Men, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

128,722 130,507 130,608 128,722 130,234 130,319 130,408 130,507 130,608

Civilian labor force

87,649 89,647 89,299 87,366 88,686 88,704 88,836 88,695 89,082

Participation rate

68.1 68.7 68.4 67.9 68.1 68.1 68.1 68.0 68.2

Employed

84,504 86,417 85,838 84,081 85,611 85,410 85,547 85,492 85,493

Employment-population ratio

65.6 66.2 65.7 65.3 65.7 65.5 65.6 65.5 65.5

Unemployed

3,145 3,231 3,461 3,284 3,075 3,294 3,289 3,203 3,589

Unemployment rate

3.6 3.6 3.9 3.8 3.5 3.7 3.7 3.6 4.0

Not in labor force

41,072 40,859 41,310 41,356 41,548 41,616 41,572 41,811 41,527

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

120,058 121,735 121,832 120,058 121,488 121,565 121,646 121,735 121,832

Civilian labor force

84,180 86,062 85,868 84,192 85,439 85,487 85,774 85,739 85,934

Participation rate

70.1 70.7 70.5 70.1 70.3 70.3 70.5 70.4 70.5

Employed

81,401 83,320 82,865 81,263 82,661 82,526 82,868 82,922 82,777

Employment-population ratio

67.8 68.4 68.0 67.7 68.0 67.9 68.1 68.1 67.9

Unemployed

2,780 2,743 3,003 2,929 2,778 2,961 2,906 2,817 3,157

Unemployment rate

3.3 3.2 3.5 3.5 3.3 3.5 3.4 3.3 3.7

Not in labor force

35,878 35,673 35,964 35,867 36,049 36,078 35,871 35,997 35,898

Women, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

135,462 136,496 136,605 135,462 136,209 136,299 136,393 136,496 136,605

Civilian labor force

77,321 78,706 78,750 77,349 78,002 78,114 78,115 78,408 78,757

Participation rate

57.1 57.7 57.6 57.1 57.3 57.3 57.3 57.4 57.7

Employed

74,210 75,565 75,589 74,613 75,420 75,311 75,448 75,769 75,991

Employment-population ratio

54.8 55.4 55.3 55.1 55.4 55.3 55.3 55.5 55.6

Unemployed

3,111 3,141 3,162 2,736 2,582 2,803 2,668 2,638 2,766

Unemployment rate

4.0 4.0 4.0 3.5 3.3 3.6 3.4 3.4 3.5

Not in labor force

58,141 57,790 57,854 58,113 58,207 58,185 58,277 58,088 57,847

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

127,034 128,028 128,132 127,034 127,761 127,845 127,932 128,028 128,132

Civilian labor force

73,850 74,856 75,305 74,098 74,868 75,005 74,927 75,205 75,541

Participation rate

58.1 58.5 58.8 58.3 58.6 58.7 58.6 58.7 59.0

Employed

71,067 72,120 72,515 71,676 72,575 72,518 72,567 72,877 73,121

Employment-population ratio

55.9 56.3 56.6 56.4 56.8 56.7 56.7 56.9 57.1

Unemployed

2,783 2,737 2,790 2,422 2,293 2,486 2,360 2,328 2,419

Unemployment rate

3.8 3.7 3.7 3.3 3.1 3.3 3.1 3.1 3.2

Not in labor force

53,185 53,171 52,826 52,936 52,893 52,840 53,005 52,822 52,591

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian noninstitutional population

17,091 17,239 17,249 17,091 17,194 17,208 17,223 17,239 17,249

Civilian labor force

6,940 7,435 6,876 6,424 6,382 6,326 6,250 6,159 6,365

Participation rate

40.6 43.1 39.9 37.6 37.1 36.8 36.3 35.7 36.9

Employed

6,247 6,542 6,046 5,754 5,796 5,676 5,559 5,462 5,586

Employment-population ratio

36.5 38.0 35.1 33.7 33.7 33.0 32.3 31.7 32.4

Unemployed

694 893 830 670 586 650 691 696 779

Unemployment rate

10.0 12.0 12.1 10.4 9.2 10.3 11.0 11.3 12.2

Not in labor force

10,151 9,804 10,373 10,667 10,813 10,882 10,973 11,080 10,885

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-2. Employment status of the civilian population by race, sex, and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, race, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Aug.
2022
July
2023
Aug.
2023
Aug.
2022
Apr.
2023
May
2023
June
2023
July
2023
Aug.
2023

WHITE

Civilian noninstitutional population

203,324 204,536 204,645 203,324 204,261 204,345 204,433 204,536 204,645

Civilian labor force

126,264 128,184 128,092 126,147 127,174 127,273 127,306 127,329 127,976

Participation rate

62.1 62.7 62.6 62.0 62.3 62.3 62.3 62.3 62.5

Employed

122,115 123,917 123,531 122,125 123,224 123,112 123,389 123,393 123,571

Employment-population ratio

60.1 60.6 60.4 60.1 60.3 60.2 60.4 60.3 60.4

Unemployed

4,148 4,267 4,561 4,022 3,950 4,161 3,917 3,936 4,405

Unemployment rate

3.3 3.3 3.6 3.2 3.1 3.3 3.1 3.1 3.4

Not in labor force

77,061 76,352 76,553 77,177 77,087 77,072 77,127 77,207 76,669

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

65,545 66,599 66,480 65,616 66,299 66,433 66,543 66,414 66,565

Participation rate

69.9 70.3 70.2 69.9 70.1 70.2 70.3 70.2 70.3

Employed

63,660 64,674 64,374 63,592 64,363 64,343 64,545 64,423 64,324

Employment-population ratio

67.9 68.3 68.0 67.8 68.1 68.0 68.2 68.0 67.9

Unemployed

1,885 1,925 2,106 2,024 1,936 2,089 1,998 1,991 2,241

Unemployment rate

2.9 2.9 3.2 3.1 2.9 3.1 3.0 3.0 3.4

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

55,399 55,899 56,243 55,625 55,882 55,950 55,994 56,188 56,451

Participation rate

57.1 57.4 57.7 57.3 57.5 57.5 57.6 57.7 58.0

Employed

53,608 54,099 54,361 54,087 54,304 54,323 54,536 54,690 54,826

Employment-population ratio

55.3 55.6 55.8 55.7 55.9 55.9 56.1 56.2 56.3

Unemployed

1,791 1,800 1,882 1,538 1,578 1,627 1,458 1,498 1,625

Unemployment rate

3.2 3.2 3.3 2.8 2.8 2.9 2.6 2.7 2.9

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

5,320 5,686 5,369 4,907 4,993 4,890 4,769 4,727 4,960

Participation rate

42.6 45.4 42.9 39.3 39.9 39.1 38.1 37.8 39.6

Employed

4,848 5,145 4,796 4,446 4,557 4,445 4,308 4,281 4,421

Employment-population ratio

38.8 41.1 38.3 35.6 36.4 35.5 34.4 34.2 35.3

Unemployed

472 542 573 460 436 445 461 447 539

Unemployment rate

8.9 9.5 10.7 9.4 8.7 9.1 9.7 9.5 10.9

BLACK OR AFRICAN AMERICAN

Civilian noninstitutional population

34,171 34,678 34,714 34,171 34,583 34,613 34,644 34,678 34,714

Civilian labor force

21,259 21,993 21,837 21,129 21,790 21,874 21,695 21,751 21,746

Participation rate

62.2 63.4 62.9 61.8 63.0 63.2 62.6 62.7 62.6

Employed

19,824 20,596 20,613 19,785 20,766 20,641 20,402 20,496 20,596

Employment-population ratio

58.0 59.4 59.4 57.9 60.0 59.6 58.9 59.1 59.3

Unemployed

1,436 1,396 1,224 1,344 1,025 1,234 1,292 1,255 1,150

Unemployment rate

6.8 6.3 5.6 6.4 4.7 5.6 6.0 5.8 5.3

Not in labor force

12,912 12,686 12,878 13,042 12,793 12,738 12,949 12,927 12,969

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

9,777 10,197 10,182 9,714 10,005 10,084 10,053 10,114 10,131

Participation rate

67.3 68.9 68.7 66.9 67.8 68.2 68.0 68.3 68.4

Employed

9,199 9,656 9,678 9,133 9,556 9,519 9,465 9,576 9,620

Employment-population ratio

63.3 65.2 65.3 62.9 64.7 64.4 64.0 64.7 64.9

Unemployed

578 542 504 582 449 565 588 538 511

Unemployment rate

5.9 5.3 5.0 6.0 4.5 5.6 5.9 5.3 5.0

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

10,654 10,905 10,859 10,640 11,054 11,051 10,886 10,922 10,872

Participation rate

62.1 62.9 62.6 62.0 63.9 63.9 62.9 63.0 62.7

Employed

9,947 10,265 10,277 10,017 10,573 10,469 10,300 10,353 10,359

Employment-population ratio

58.0 59.2 59.2 58.4 61.1 60.5 59.5 59.7 59.7

Unemployed

707 640 582 624 481 582 586 569 514

Unemployment rate

6.6 5.9 5.4 5.9 4.4 5.3 5.4 5.2 4.7

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

829 890 796 774 732 740 756 715 742

Participation rate

33.3 35.1 31.3 31.2 29.0 29.2 29.8 28.2 29.2

Employed

678 676 658 635 637 653 638 568 617

Employment-population ratio

27.3 26.6 25.9 25.6 25.2 25.8 25.1 22.3 24.3

Unemployed

151 215 138 139 95 87 118 148 125

Unemployment rate

18.2 24.1 17.3 18.0 12.9 11.7 15.6 20.7 16.9

ASIAN

Civilian noninstitutional population

16,989 17,600 17,515 16,989 17,557 17,511 17,491 17,600 17,515

Civilian labor force

11,166 11,636 11,552 11,084 11,396 11,408 11,435 11,556 11,486

Participation rate

65.7 66.1 66.0 65.2 64.9 65.1 65.4 65.7 65.6

Employed

10,841 11,343 11,176 10,778 11,073 11,073 11,073 11,288 11,131

Employment-population ratio

63.8 64.4 63.8 63.4 63.1 63.2 63.3 64.1 63.6

Unemployed

326 294 376 305 323 335 363 267 355

Unemployment rate

2.9 2.5 3.3 2.8 2.8 2.9 3.2 2.3 3.1

Not in labor force

5,823 5,964 5,963 5,906 6,162 6,104 6,056 6,044 6,029

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Estimates for the above race groups will not sum to totals shown in table A-1 because data are not presented for all races. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-3. Employment status of the Hispanic or Latino population by sex and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Aug.
2022
July
2023
Aug.
2023
Aug.
2022
Apr.
2023
May
2023
June
2023
July
2023
Aug.
2023

HISPANIC OR LATINO ETHNICITY

Civilian noninstitutional population

46,287 47,569 47,671 46,287 47,288 47,380 47,473 47,569 47,671

Civilian labor force

30,920 32,116 31,960 30,920 31,589 31,690 31,943 32,052 31,977

Participation rate

66.8 67.5 67.0 66.8 66.8 66.9 67.3 67.4 67.1

Employed

29,498 30,668 30,382 29,526 30,185 30,407 30,571 30,637 30,420

Employment-population ratio

63.7 64.5 63.7 63.8 63.8 64.2 64.4 64.4 63.8

Unemployed

1,422 1,448 1,578 1,395 1,404 1,283 1,372 1,416 1,557

Unemployment rate

4.6 4.5 4.9 4.5 4.4 4.0 4.3 4.4 4.9

Not in labor force

15,367 15,453 15,711 15,367 15,699 15,690 15,530 15,517 15,694

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

16,651 17,271 17,170 16,633 16,956 17,123 17,224 17,290 17,164

Participation rate

79.4 79.9 79.3 79.3 78.9 79.5 79.8 80.0 79.2

Employed

15,998 16,660 16,465 15,967 16,260 16,434 16,576 16,599 16,433

Employment-population ratio

76.3 77.1 76.0 76.1 75.7 76.3 76.8 76.8 75.9

Unemployed

653 611 706 666 696 690 649 691 731

Unemployment rate

3.9 3.5 4.1 4.0 4.1 4.0 3.8 4.0 4.3

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

12,746 13,179 13,279 12,807 13,111 13,150 13,182 13,271 13,343

Participation rate

60.6 61.1 61.5 60.9 61.2 61.2 61.3 61.6 61.8

Employed

12,177 12,617 12,663 12,260 12,576 12,700 12,638 12,745 12,752

Employment-population ratio

57.9 58.5 58.6 58.3 58.7 59.1 58.7 59.1 59.0

Unemployed

569 562 616 546 534 450 544 525 591

Unemployment rate

4.5 4.3 4.6 4.3 4.1 3.4 4.1 4.0 4.4

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

1,524 1,667 1,510 1,481 1,522 1,417 1,537 1,492 1,470

Participation rate

35.6 37.9 34.3 34.6 34.9 32.4 35.0 33.9 33.4

Employed

1,323 1,391 1,254 1,299 1,349 1,273 1,357 1,292 1,236

Employment-population ratio

30.9 31.6 28.5 30.3 30.9 29.1 31.0 29.4 28.0

Unemployed

201 276 257 182 174 144 180 200 235

Unemployment rate

13.2 16.5 17.0 12.3 11.4 10.1 11.7 13.4 16.0

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-4. Employment status of the civilian population 25 years and over by educational attainment
[Numbers in thousands]
Educational attainment Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Aug.
2022
July
2023
Aug.
2023
Aug.
2022
Apr.
2023
May
2023
June
2023
July
2023
Aug.
2023

Less than a high school diploma

Civilian labor force

8,623 8,741 9,210 8,654 9,082 9,140 9,184 8,926 9,239

Participation rate

45.2 46.7 47.4 45.4 46.3 45.7 46.6 47.7 47.6

Employed

8,153 8,303 8,774 8,124 8,595 8,621 8,632 8,459 8,743

Employment-population ratio

42.8 44.3 45.2 42.6 43.8 43.1 43.8 45.2 45.0

Unemployed

469 438 436 530 487 519 552 467 496

Unemployment rate

5.4 5.0 4.7 6.1 5.4 5.7 6.0 5.2 5.4

High school graduates, no college(1)

Civilian labor force

35,903 35,766 36,349 35,819 35,752 36,022 36,038 35,980 36,243

Participation rate

56.6 56.2 56.7 56.4 56.4 56.8 57.0 56.5 56.5

Employed

34,354 34,572 34,957 34,259 34,345 34,611 34,638 34,763 34,851

Employment-population ratio

54.1 54.3 54.5 54.0 54.2 54.6 54.7 54.6 54.4

Unemployed

1,549 1,193 1,392 1,560 1,407 1,411 1,400 1,217 1,391

Unemployment rate

4.3 3.3 3.8 4.4 3.9 3.9 3.9 3.4 3.8

Some college or associate degree

Civilian labor force

35,262 35,640 35,560 35,606 35,668 35,407 35,564 35,730 35,867

Participation rate

62.4 62.6 62.7 63.0 63.0 63.1 62.5 62.7 63.3

Employed

34,147 34,452 34,393 34,559 34,650 34,273 34,472 34,612 34,780

Employment-population ratio

60.5 60.5 60.7 61.2 61.2 61.1 60.5 60.7 61.4

Unemployed

1,115 1,188 1,167 1,046 1,018 1,134 1,092 1,118 1,087

Unemployment rate

3.2 3.3 3.3 2.9 2.9 3.2 3.1 3.1 3.0

Bachelor's degree and higher(2)

Civilian labor force

63,343 64,525 64,112 63,609 64,077 64,201 64,274 64,817 64,398

Participation rate

72.6 73.1 73.2 72.9 73.3 73.1 73.4 73.4 73.5

Employed

61,949 63,032 62,469 62,426 62,835 62,879 63,010 63,522 62,986

Employment-population ratio

71.0 71.4 71.3 71.6 71.8 71.6 72.0 71.9 71.9

Unemployed

1,394 1,494 1,643 1,183 1,241 1,322 1,264 1,295 1,412

Unemployment rate

2.2 2.3 2.6 1.9 1.9 2.1 2.0 2.0 2.2

Footnotes
(1) Includes persons with a high school diploma or equivalent.
(2) Includes persons with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees.

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals for those 25 years and over because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-5. Employment status of the civilian population 18 years and over by veteran status, period of service, and sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, veteran status, and period of service Total Men Women
Aug.
2022
Aug.
2023
Aug.
2022
Aug.
2023
Aug.
2022
Aug.
2023

VETERANS, 18 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

18,336 17,879 16,306 15,836 2,030 2,043

Civilian labor force

8,745 8,680 7,530 7,542 1,214 1,138

Participation rate

47.7 48.5 46.2 47.6 59.8 55.7

Employed

8,538 8,371 7,355 7,291 1,182 1,080

Employment-population ratio

46.6 46.8 45.1 46.0 58.2 52.8

Unemployed

207 309 175 251 32 58

Unemployment rate

2.4 3.6 2.3 3.3 2.6 5.1

Not in labor force

9,591 9,199 8,776 8,294 816 905

Gulf War-era II veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

4,921 5,012 4,045 4,088 875 924

Civilian labor force

3,863 3,983 3,210 3,337 652 647

Participation rate

78.5 79.5 79.4 81.6 74.5 70.0

Employed

3,791 3,810 3,151 3,202 639 608

Employment-population ratio

77.0 76.0 77.9 78.3 73.0 65.8

Unemployed

72 173 59 135 13 39

Unemployment rate

1.9 4.3 1.8 4.0 2.0 6.0

Not in labor force

1,058 1,029 835 751 223 277

Gulf War-era I veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

3,236 3,006 2,738 2,558 499 448

Civilian labor force

2,295 2,173 1,973 1,863 322 310

Participation rate

70.9 72.3 72.1 72.8 64.5 69.3

Employed

2,248 2,126 1,933 1,827 315 299

Employment-population ratio

69.5 70.7 70.6 71.4 63.2 66.8

Unemployed

47 47 40 36 7 11

Unemployment rate

2.0 2.2 2.0 1.9 2.0 3.6

Not in labor force

941 833 765 695 177 138

World War II, Korean War, and Vietnam-era veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

6,202 5,941 5,955 5,689 247 252

Civilian labor force

901 833 843 815 58 18

Participation rate

14.5 14.0 14.2 14.3 23.5 7.3

Employed

857 806 799 788 58 18

Employment-population ratio

13.8 13.6 13.4 13.9 23.5 7.3

Unemployed

44 27 44 27 0 0

Unemployment rate

4.9 3.2 5.3 3.3 - -

Not in labor force

5,301 5,108 5,112 4,874 189 234

Veterans of other service periods

Civilian noninstitutional population

3,977 3,920 3,568 3,501 409 419

Civilian labor force

1,686 1,690 1,504 1,528 182 162

Participation rate

42.4 43.1 42.2 43.6 44.5 38.8

Employed

1,642 1,629 1,472 1,475 170 154

Employment-population ratio

41.3 41.6 41.3 42.1 41.5 36.8

Unemployed

44 62 32 53 12 8

Unemployment rate

2.6 3.6 2.1 3.5 6.8 5.1

Not in labor force

2,291 2,230 2,064 1,973 227 257

NONVETERANS, 18 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

236,620 240,285 107,727 110,139 128,893 130,146

Civilian labor force

153,429 156,713 78,796 80,461 74,634 76,252

Participation rate

64.8 65.2 73.1 73.1 57.9 58.6

Employed

147,631 150,694 75,961 77,389 71,670 73,305

Employment-population ratio

62.4 62.7 70.5 70.3 55.6 56.3

Unemployed

5,799 6,019 2,835 3,072 2,963 2,947

Unemployment rate

3.8 3.8 3.6 3.8 4.0 3.9

Not in labor force

83,190 83,572 28,931 29,677 54,260 53,894

NOTE: Veterans served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces and were not on active duty at the time of the survey. Nonveterans never served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces. Veterans could have served anywhere in the world during these periods of service: Gulf War era II (September 2001-present), Gulf War era I (August 1990-August 2001), Vietnam era (August 1964-April 1975), Korean War (July 1950-January 1955), World War II (December 1941-December 1946), and other service periods (all other time periods). Veterans who served in more than one wartime period are classified only in the most recent one. Veterans who served during one of the selected wartime periods and another period are classified only in the wartime period. Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria (values not shown where base is less than 75,000).


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-6. Employment status of the civilian population by sex, age, and disability status, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Persons with a disability Persons with no disability
Aug.
2022
Aug.
2023
Aug.
2022
Aug.
2023

TOTAL, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

32,316 34,059 231,868 233,154

Civilian labor force

7,283 8,477 157,687 159,573

Participation rate

22.5 24.9 68.0 68.4

Employed

6,721 7,849 151,993 153,578

Employment-population ratio

20.8 23.0 65.6 65.9

Unemployed

562 627 5,694 5,995

Unemployment rate

7.7 7.4 3.6 3.8

Not in labor force

25,033 25,582 74,180 73,582

Men, 16 to 64 years

Civilian labor force

2,962 3,563 78,559 79,618

Participation rate

37.5 42.0 82.8 83.3

Employed

2,725 3,276 75,850 76,659

Employment-population ratio

34.5 38.6 80.0 80.2

Unemployed

237 287 2,708 2,959

Unemployment rate

8.0 8.0 3.4 3.7

Not in labor force

4,944 4,914 16,293 15,997

Women, 16 to 64 years

Civilian labor force

3,101 3,528 69,489 70,078

Participation rate

37.8 40.4 72.2 73.1

Employed

2,858 3,257 66,773 67,402

Employment-population ratio

34.8 37.3 69.4 70.3

Unemployed

243 271 2,716 2,676

Unemployment rate

7.8 7.7 3.9 3.8

Not in labor force

5,107 5,210 26,744 25,840

Both sexes, 65 years and over

Civilian labor force

1,220 1,386 9,640 9,876

Participation rate

7.5 8.2 23.6 23.7

Employed

1,138 1,317 9,370 9,516

Employment-population ratio

7.0 7.8 23.0 22.9

Unemployed

82 70 269 360

Unemployment rate

6.7 5.0 2.8 3.6

Not in labor force

14,982 15,458 31,143 31,744

NOTE: A person with a disability has at least one of the following conditions: is deaf or has serious difficulty hearing; is blind or has serious difficulty seeing even when wearing glasses; has serious difficulty concentrating, remembering, or making decisions because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition; has serious difficulty walking or climbing stairs; has difficulty dressing or bathing; or has difficulty doing errands alone such as visiting a doctor's office or shopping because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-7. Employment status of the civilian population by nativity and sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status and nativity Total Men Women
Aug.
2022
Aug.
2023
Aug.
2022
Aug.
2023
Aug.
2022
Aug.
2023

Foreign born, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

44,860 46,818 21,778 22,854 23,082 23,964

Civilian labor force

29,817 31,567 17,034 17,972 12,783 13,595

Participation rate

66.5 67.4 78.2 78.6 55.4 56.7

Employed

28,654 30,396 16,438 17,380 12,216 13,015

Employment-population ratio

63.9 64.9 75.5 76.0 52.9 54.3

Unemployed

1,163 1,171 596 591 567 580

Unemployment rate

3.9 3.7 3.5 3.3 4.4 4.3

Not in labor force

15,043 15,251 4,744 4,883 10,299 10,369

Native born, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

219,324 220,395 106,944 107,754 112,380 112,641

Civilian labor force

135,153 136,482 70,616 71,327 64,538 65,155

Participation rate

61.6 61.9 66.0 66.2 57.4 57.8

Employed

130,060 131,031 68,066 68,458 61,994 62,573

Employment-population ratio

59.3 59.5 63.6 63.5 55.2 55.6

Unemployed

5,093 5,452 2,549 2,870 2,544 2,582

Unemployment rate

3.8 4.0 3.6 4.0 3.9 4.0

Not in labor force

84,170 83,913 36,328 36,427 47,842 47,486

NOTE: The foreign born are those residing in the United States who were not U.S. citizens at birth. That is, they were born outside the United States or one of its outlying areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam, to parents neither of whom was a U.S. citizen. The native born are persons who were born in the United States or one of its outlying areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam or who were born abroad of at least one parent who was a U.S. citizen. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-8. Employed persons by class of worker and part-time status
[In thousands]
Category Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Aug.
2022
July
2023
Aug.
2023
Aug.
2022
Apr.
2023
May
2023
June
2023
July
2023
Aug.
2023

CLASS OF WORKER

Agriculture and related industries

2,207 2,392 2,326 2,173 2,301 2,301 2,311 2,261 2,296

Wage and salary workers(1)

1,503 1,633 1,582 1,486 1,536 1,569 1,591 1,519 1,559

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

671 719 717 648 715 672 674 688 695

Unpaid family workers

32 40 27 - - - - - -

Nonagricultural industries

156,507 159,590 159,101 156,699 158,639 158,416 158,853 159,099 159,321

Wage and salary workers(1)

147,362 150,596 150,171 147,381 149,383 149,512 149,632 149,974 150,217

Government

20,744 20,293 20,684 21,216 21,678 21,434 21,552 21,161 21,199

Private industries

126,618 130,303 129,487 126,048 127,655 128,050 128,110 128,778 128,891

Private households

777 689 681 - - - - - -

Other industries

125,840 129,614 128,807 125,357 126,942 127,337 127,470 128,166 128,282

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

9,081 8,930 8,886 8,992 9,100 8,731 8,917 8,814 8,809

Unpaid family workers

64 63 44 - - - - - -

PERSONS AT WORK PART TIME(2)

All industries

Part time for economic reasons(3)

4,060 4,158 4,143 4,140 3,903 3,739 4,191 4,000 4,221

Slack work or business conditions

2,673 2,743 2,712 2,767 2,760 2,582 2,890 2,717 2,799

Could only find part-time work

932 1,078 1,003 971 817 824 948 1,014 1,021

Part time for noneconomic reasons(4)

19,618 20,648 20,506 21,085 21,796 21,864 21,267 21,971 21,975

Nonagricultural industries

Part time for economic reasons(3)

3,996 4,082 4,084 4,063 3,841 3,725 4,095 3,913 4,110

Slack work or business conditions

2,630 2,693 2,670 2,724 2,715 2,566 2,835 2,657 2,757

Could only find part-time work

914 1,073 999 958 807 821 943 1,012 1,021

Part time for noneconomic reasons(4)

19,333 20,202 20,084 20,754 21,400 21,496 20,913 21,539 21,522

Footnotes
(1) Includes self-employed workers whose businesses are incorporated.
(2) Refers to those who worked 1 to 34 hours during the survey reference week and excludes employed persons who were absent from their jobs for the entire week.
(3) Refers to those who worked 1 to 34 hours during the reference week for an economic reason such as slack work or unfavorable business conditions, inability to find full-time work, or seasonal declines in demand.
(4) Refers to persons who usually work part time for noneconomic reasons such as childcare problems, family or personal obligations, school or training, retirement or Social Security limits on earnings, and other reasons. This excludes persons who usually work full time but worked only 1 to 34 hours during the reference week for reasons such as vacations, holidays, illness, and bad weather.

- Data not available.
NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-9. Selected employment indicators
[Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Aug.
2022
July
2023
Aug.
2023
Aug.
2022
Apr.
2023
May
2023
June
2023
July
2023
Aug.
2023

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

158,714 161,982 161,427 158,694 161,031 160,721 160,994 161,262 161,484

16 to 19 years

6,247 6,542 6,046 5,754 5,796 5,676 5,559 5,462 5,586

16 to 17 years

2,546 2,539 2,362 2,257 2,209 2,240 2,177 2,083 2,098

18 to 19 years

3,701 4,003 3,684 3,483 3,594 3,450 3,372 3,353 3,461

20 years and over

152,468 155,439 155,381 152,939 155,236 155,045 155,435 155,799 155,898

20 to 24 years

13,864 15,080 14,787 13,668 14,843 14,816 14,741 14,559 14,606

25 years and over

138,604 140,359 140,593 139,231 140,452 140,314 140,612 141,160 141,194

25 to 54 years

101,645 102,940 103,133 102,028 103,220 103,209 103,384 103,539 103,531

25 to 34 years

35,362 35,997 35,810 35,509 35,866 35,814 35,755 36,168 35,974

35 to 44 years

34,592 35,173 35,375 34,689 35,285 35,257 35,391 35,379 35,478

45 to 54 years

31,691 31,771 31,948 31,830 32,069 32,138 32,238 31,992 32,080

55 years and over

36,959 37,418 37,461 37,204 37,232 37,105 37,228 37,620 37,663

Men, 16 years and over

84,504 86,417 85,838 84,081 85,611 85,410 85,547 85,492 85,493

16 to 19 years

3,103 3,097 2,973 2,818 2,951 2,884 2,679 2,570 2,716

16 to 17 years

1,188 1,167 1,158 1,037 1,079 1,043 972 943 1,009

18 to 19 years

1,915 1,930 1,815 1,760 1,878 1,844 1,695 1,606 1,668

20 years and over

81,401 83,320 82,865 81,263 82,661 82,526 82,868 82,922 82,777

20 to 24 years

7,096 7,789 7,530 6,912 7,491 7,509 7,541 7,435 7,369

25 years and over

74,305 75,531 75,335 74,252 75,207 75,088 75,233 75,462 75,297

25 to 54 years

54,246 55,437 55,335 54,199 55,184 55,174 55,263 55,358 55,300

25 to 34 years

18,731 19,365 19,198 18,735 19,134 19,145 19,130 19,338 19,215

35 to 44 years

18,700 19,155 19,097 18,647 18,997 18,998 19,143 19,103 19,053

45 to 54 years

16,816 16,918 17,040 16,817 17,053 17,031 16,990 16,917 17,032

55 years and over

20,059 20,094 20,000 20,053 20,023 19,914 19,971 20,104 19,997

Women, 16 years and over

74,210 75,565 75,589 74,613 75,420 75,311 75,448 75,769 75,991

16 to 19 years

3,143 3,445 3,073 2,936 2,845 2,793 2,880 2,892 2,870

16 to 17 years

1,358 1,372 1,204 1,221 1,130 1,196 1,205 1,140 1,089

18 to 19 years

1,786 2,073 1,869 1,723 1,716 1,606 1,677 1,746 1,793

20 years and over

71,067 72,120 72,515 71,676 72,575 72,518 72,567 72,877 73,121

20 to 24 years

6,768 7,291 7,257 6,756 7,353 7,307 7,201 7,125 7,237

25 years and over

64,299 64,828 65,258 64,979 65,245 65,226 65,378 65,697 65,897

25 to 54 years

47,399 47,504 47,797 47,828 48,036 48,035 48,121 48,181 48,232

25 to 34 years

16,631 16,632 16,611 16,773 16,732 16,669 16,625 16,830 16,759

35 to 44 years

15,892 16,018 16,279 16,042 16,288 16,259 16,248 16,276 16,425

45 to 54 years

14,876 14,853 14,908 15,013 15,016 15,107 15,248 15,075 15,048

55 years and over

16,900 17,325 17,461 17,151 17,209 17,191 17,258 17,516 17,665

MARITAL STATUS

Married men, spouse present(1)

45,365 45,587 45,754 45,488 46,124 45,647 45,844 45,886 45,911

Married women, spouse present(1)

36,249 36,768 36,930 36,778 37,140 36,964 36,847 37,413 37,430

Women who maintain families(2)

9,918 9,869 9,719 - - - - - -

FULL- OR PART-TIME STATUS

Full-time workers(3)

133,630 135,494 135,445 132,336 134,500 134,477 134,859 134,274 134,189

Part-time workers(4)

25,085 26,488 25,982 26,250 26,663 26,443 26,181 27,153 27,185

MULTIPLE JOBHOLDERS

Total multiple jobholders

7,485 8,091 7,778 7,747 7,707 7,762 7,995 8,113 8,028

Percent of total employed

4.7 5.0 4.8 4.9 4.8 4.8 5.0 5.0 5.0

SELF-EMPLOYMENT

Self-employed workers, incorporated

6,672 7,158 6,989 - - - - - -

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

9,752 9,649 9,603 9,640 9,815 9,403 9,591 9,502 9,504

Footnotes
(1) Beginning with data for January 2020, refers to persons in both opposite-sex and same-sex married couples. Prior to January 2020, referred to persons in opposite-sex married couples only.
(2) Beginning with data for January 2020, refers to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not a spouse of either sex. Prior to January 2020, referred to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not an opposite-sex spouse.
(3) Employed full-time workers are persons who usually work 35 hours or more per week.
(4) Employed part-time workers are persons who usually work less than 35 hours per week.

- Data not available.
NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-10. Selected unemployment indicators, seasonally adjusted
Characteristic Number of
unemployed persons
(in thousands)
Unemployment rates
Aug.
2022
July
2023
Aug.
2023
Aug.
2022
Apr.
2023
May
2023
June
2023
July
2023
Aug.
2023

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

6,021 5,841 6,355 3.7 3.4 3.7 3.6 3.5 3.8

16 to 19 years

670 696 779 10.4 9.2 10.3 11.0 11.3 12.2

16 to 17 years

243 262 280 9.7 9.4 9.5 11.2 11.2 11.8

18 to 19 years

428 432 506 10.9 9.4 10.6 10.5 11.4 12.7

20 years and over

5,351 5,145 5,576 3.4 3.2 3.4 3.3 3.2 3.5

20 to 24 years

1,022 1,046 1,125 7.0 5.4 6.3 6.1 6.7 7.2

25 years and over

4,299 4,079 4,395 3.0 2.9 3.0 3.0 2.8 3.0

25 to 54 years

3,283 3,181 3,353 3.1 3.1 3.1 3.1 3.0 3.1

25 to 34 years

1,391 1,333 1,446 3.8 3.8 3.9 3.9 3.6 3.9

35 to 44 years

1,029 1,093 1,085 2.9 2.9 2.9 2.9 3.0 3.0

45 to 54 years

863 754 822 2.6 2.4 2.6 2.4 2.3 2.5

55 years and over

1,018 881 1,036 2.7 2.3 2.8 2.6 2.3 2.7

Men, 16 years and over

3,284 3,203 3,589 3.8 3.5 3.7 3.7 3.6 4.0

16 to 19 years

356 386 432 11.2 9.1 10.4 12.5 13.0 13.7

16 to 17 years

135 144 138 11.5 8.6 8.0 14.1 13.2 12.0

18 to 19 years

223 238 302 11.2 10.1 11.5 10.5 12.9 15.3

20 years and over

2,929 2,817 3,157 3.5 3.3 3.5 3.4 3.3 3.7

20 to 24 years

609 573 677 8.1 6.0 7.1 6.7 7.2 8.4

25 years and over

2,294 2,223 2,422 3.0 2.9 3.0 3.0 2.9 3.1

25 to 54 years

1,740 1,775 1,842 3.1 3.1 3.1 3.0 3.1 3.2

25 to 34 years

720 760 776 3.7 4.0 3.7 4.0 3.8 3.9

35 to 44 years

567 554 587 3.0 2.9 2.7 2.5 2.8 3.0

45 to 54 years

453 460 479 2.6 2.4 2.7 2.5 2.6 2.7

55 years and over

554 449 580 2.7 2.3 2.9 3.0 2.2 2.8

Women, 16 years and over

2,736 2,638 2,766 3.5 3.3 3.6 3.4 3.4 3.5

16 to 19 years

314 310 347 9.7 9.2 10.2 9.7 9.7 10.8

16 to 17 years

108 118 143 8.1 10.2 10.7 8.7 9.4 11.6

18 to 19 years

205 194 204 10.6 8.7 9.5 10.4 10.0 10.2

20 years and over

2,422 2,328 2,419 3.3 3.1 3.3 3.1 3.1 3.2

20 to 24 years

414 473 448 5.8 4.7 5.4 5.3 6.2 5.8

25 years and over

2,005 1,856 1,973 3.0 2.8 3.1 3.0 2.7 2.9

25 to 54 years

1,543 1,406 1,511 3.1 3.0 3.2 3.2 2.8 3.0

25 to 34 years

671 573 670 3.8 3.5 4.0 3.9 3.3 3.8

35 to 44 years

462 540 498 2.8 3.0 3.1 3.5 3.2 2.9

45 to 54 years

411 293 343 2.7 2.5 2.6 2.3 1.9 2.2

55 years and over

450 408 449 2.6 2.4 2.6 2.1 2.3 2.5

MARITAL STATUS

Married men, spouse present(1)

932 803 942 2.0 1.7 2.0 1.8 1.7 2.0

Married women, spouse present(1)

795 782 794 2.1 2.0 2.3 2.2 2.0 2.1

Women who maintain families(2)

533 466 499 5.1 4.8 4.6 4.8 4.5 4.9

FULL- OR PART-TIME STATUS

Full-time workers(3)

4,948 4,702 5,129 3.6 3.3 3.6 3.5 3.4 3.7

Part-time workers(4)

1,113 1,150 1,258 4.1 3.6 4.0 4.0 4.1 4.4

Footnotes
(1) Beginning with data for January 2020, refers to persons in both opposite-sex and same-sex married couples. Prior to January 2020, referred to persons in opposite-sex married couples only.
(2) Data are not seasonally adjusted. Beginning with data for January 2020, refers to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not a spouse of either sex. Prior to January 2020, referred to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not an opposite-sex spouse.
(3) Full-time workers are unemployed persons who have expressed a desire to work full time (35 hours or more per week) or are on layoff from full-time jobs.
(4) Part-time workers are unemployed persons who have expressed a desire to work part time (less than 35 hours per week) or are on layoff from part-time jobs.

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-11. Unemployed persons by reason for unemployment
[Numbers in thousands]
Reason Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Aug.
2022
July
2023
Aug.
2023
Aug.
2022
Apr.
2023
May
2023
June
2023
July
2023
Aug.
2023

NUMBER OF UNEMPLOYED

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

2,871 2,801 3,053 2,693 2,642 2,960 2,900 2,620 2,914

On temporary layoff

866 873 870 796 709 767 842 667 789

Not on temporary layoff

2,005 1,928 2,183 1,898 1,933 2,193 2,058 1,953 2,125

Permanent job losers

1,427 1,381 1,600 1,314 1,445 1,588 1,493 1,372 1,538

Persons who completed temporary jobs

578 547 583 584 488 605 565 581 587

Job leavers

983 891 876 897 790 765 794 852 801

Reentrants

1,891 1,989 2,014 1,833 1,761 1,821 1,745 1,853 1,930

New entrants

511 691 680 451 531 508 558 503 597

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

45.9 44.0 46.1 45.8 46.2 48.9 48.4 44.9 46.7

On temporary layoff

13.8 13.7 13.1 13.5 12.4 12.7 14.0 11.4 12.6

Not on temporary layoff

32.0 30.3 33.0 32.3 33.8 36.2 34.3 33.5 34.0

Job leavers

15.7 14.0 13.2 15.3 13.8 12.6 13.2 14.6 12.8

Reentrants

30.2 31.2 30.4 31.2 30.8 30.1 29.1 31.8 30.9

New entrants

8.2 10.8 10.3 7.7 9.3 8.4 9.3 8.6 9.6

UNEMPLOYED AS A PERCENT OF THE
CIVILIAN LABOR FORCE

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

1.7 1.7 1.8 1.6 1.6 1.8 1.7 1.6 1.7

Job leavers

0.6 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5

Reentrants

1.1 1.2 1.2 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.0 1.1 1.2

New entrants

0.3 0.4 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.4

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to total unemployed in table A-1 because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-12. Unemployed persons by duration of unemployment
[Numbers in thousands]
Duration Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Aug.
2022
July
2023
Aug.
2023
Aug.
2022
Apr.
2023
May
2023
June
2023
July
2023
Aug.
2023

NUMBER OF UNEMPLOYED

Less than 5 weeks

2,162 2,283 2,173 2,227 1,866 2,083 2,068 2,004 2,221

5 to 14 weeks

2,175 2,048 2,280 1,797 1,915 1,865 1,889 1,698 1,877

15 weeks and over

1,919 2,041 2,171 2,052 1,835 2,046 2,021 2,161 2,298

15 to 26 weeks

683 820 796 887 679 858 917 997 1,002

27 weeks and over

1,236 1,221 1,374 1,165 1,156 1,188 1,105 1,164 1,296

Average (mean) duration, in weeks

22.1 19.6 20.2 22.3 20.9 21.2 20.7 20.6 20.4

Median duration, in weeks

8.6 8.1 8.8 8.6 8.4 8.6 8.7 8.7 8.7

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION

Less than 5 weeks

34.6 35.8 32.8 36.6 33.2 34.8 34.6 34.2 34.7

5 to 14 weeks

34.8 32.1 34.4 29.6 34.1 31.1 31.6 29.0 29.3

15 weeks and over

30.7 32.0 32.8 33.8 32.7 34.1 33.8 36.9 35.9

15 to 26 weeks

10.9 12.9 12.0 14.6 12.1 14.3 15.3 17.0 15.7

27 weeks and over

19.8 19.2 20.7 19.2 20.6 19.8 18.5 19.9 20.3

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to total unemployed in table A-1 because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-13. Employed and unemployed persons by occupation, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Occupation Employed Unemployed Unemployment
rates
Aug.
2022
Aug.
2023
Aug.
2022
Aug.
2023
Aug.
2022
Aug.
2023

Total, 16 years and over(1)

158,714 161,427 6,256 6,623 3.8 3.9

Management, professional, and related occupations

68,377 69,280 1,647 1,712 2.4 2.4

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

30,109 30,458 533 649 1.7 2.1

Professional and related occupations

38,268 38,822 1,113 1,063 2.8 2.7

Service occupations

25,675 26,646 1,331 1,344 4.9 4.8

Sales and office occupations

29,998 30,408 1,133 1,243 3.6 3.9

Sales and related occupations

14,112 14,286 585 580 4.0 3.9

Office and administrative support occupations

15,886 16,122 549 663 3.3 3.9

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

14,226 14,606 602 581 4.1 3.8

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

1,037 1,074 84 76 7.5 6.6

Construction and extraction occupations

8,312 8,530 430 413 4.9 4.6

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

4,877 5,002 88 92 1.8 1.8

Production, transportation, and material moving
occupations

20,438 20,486 1,014 1,024 4.7 4.8

Production occupations

8,486 8,526 367 282 4.1 3.2

Transportation and material moving occupations

11,952 11,960 646 742 5.1 5.8

Footnotes
(1) Persons with no previous work experience and persons whose last job was in the U.S. Armed Forces are included in the unemployed total.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data. Effective with January 2020 data, occupations reflect the introduction of the 2018 Census occupational classification system into the Current Population Survey, or household survey. This classification system is derived from the 2018 Standard Occupational Classification (SOC). No historical data have been revised. Data for 2020 are not strictly comparable with earlier years.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-14. Unemployed persons by industry and class of worker, not seasonally adjusted
Industry and class of worker Number of
unemployed
persons
(in thousands)
Unemployment
rates
Aug.
2022
Aug.
2023
Aug.
2022
Aug.
2023

Total, 16 years and over(1)

6,256 6,623 3.8 3.9

Nonagricultural private wage and salary workers

4,786 4,938 3.6 3.7

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

16 16 2.6 2.5

Construction

401 424 3.9 3.9

Manufacturing

515 433 3.3 2.7

Durable goods

278 264 2.8 2.6

Nondurable goods

237 169 4.1 3.0

Wholesale and retail trade

724 766 3.7 3.8

Transportation and utilities

349 370 4.3 4.4

Information

84 106 3.2 4.1

Financial activities

181 224 1.8 2.2

Professional and business services

688 729 3.5 3.7

Education and health services

760 822 3.1 3.2

Leisure and hospitality

839 817 6.1 5.8

Other services

231 232 3.3 3.5

Agriculture and related private wage and salary workers

105 93 6.7 5.8

Government workers

591 599 2.8 2.8

Self-employed workers, unincorporated, and unpaid family workers

263 313 2.6 3.1

Footnotes
(1) Persons with no previous work experience and persons whose last job was in the U.S. Armed Forces are included in the unemployed total.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data. Effective with January 2020 data, industries reflect the introduction of the 2017 Census industry classification system into the Current Population Survey. This industry classification system is derived from the 2017 North American Industry Classification System (NAICS). No historical data have been revised.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-15. Alternative measures of labor underutilization
[Percent]
Measure Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Aug.
2022
July
2023
Aug.
2023
Aug.
2022
Apr.
2023
May
2023
June
2023
July
2023
Aug.
2023

U-1 Persons unemployed 15 weeks or longer, as a percent of the civilian labor force

1.2 1.2 1.3 1.2 1.1 1.2 1.2 1.3 1.4

U-2 Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs, as a percent of the civilian labor force

1.7 1.7 1.8 1.6 1.6 1.8 1.7 1.6 1.7

U-3 Total unemployed, as a percent of the civilian labor force (official unemployment rate)

3.8 3.8 3.9 3.7 3.4 3.7 3.6 3.5 3.8

U-4 Total unemployed plus discouraged workers, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus discouraged workers

4.0 4.0 4.1 3.9 3.6 3.9 3.7 3.7 4.0

U-5 Total unemployed, plus discouraged workers, plus all other persons marginally attached to the labor force, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force

4.6 4.6 4.8 4.5 4.2 4.5 4.4 4.3 4.6

U-6 Total unemployed, plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force, plus total employed part time for economic reasons, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force

7.0 7.1 7.2 7.0 6.6 6.7 6.9 6.7 7.1

NOTE: Persons marginally attached to the labor force are those who currently are neither working nor looking for work but indicate that they want and are available for a job and have looked for work sometime in the past 12 months. Discouraged workers, a subset of the marginally attached, have given a job-market related reason for not currently looking for work. Persons employed part time for economic reasons are those who want and are available for full-time work but have had to settle for a part-time schedule. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-16. Persons not in the labor force and multiple jobholders by sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Category Total Men Women
Aug.
2022
Aug.
2023
Aug.
2022
Aug.
2023
Aug.
2022
Aug.
2023

NOT IN THE LABOR FORCE

Total not in the labor force

99,213 99,164 41,072 41,310 58,141 57,854

Persons who currently want a job

5,633 5,482 2,572 2,480 3,061 3,002

Marginally attached to the labor force(1)

1,412 1,500 757 732 655 768

Discouraged workers(2)

337 364 209 247 128 117

Other persons marginally attached to the labor force(3)

1,074 1,136 548 485 526 652

MULTIPLE JOBHOLDERS

Total multiple jobholders(4)

7,485 7,778 3,709 3,691 3,776 4,087

Percent of total employed

4.7 4.8 4.4 4.3 5.1 5.4

Primary job full time, secondary job part time

4,237 4,582 2,307 2,372 1,930 2,210

Primary and secondary jobs both part time

1,573 1,868 515 657 1,057 1,211

Primary and secondary jobs both full time

440 367 255 202 186 164

Hours vary on primary or secondary job

1,157 859 595 431 562 427

Footnotes
(1) Data refer to persons who want a job, have searched for work during the prior 12 months, and were available to take a job during the reference week, but had not looked for work in the past 4 weeks.
(2) Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for reasons such as thinks no work available, could not find work, lacks schooling or training, employer thinks too young or old, and other types of discrimination.
(3) Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for such reasons as school or family responsibilities, ill health, and transportation problems, as well as a number for whom reason for nonparticipation was not determined.
(4) Includes a small number of persons who work part time on their primary job and full time on their secondary job(s), not shown separately.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-1. Employees on nonfarm payrolls by industry sector and selected industry detail
[In thousands]
Industry Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Aug.
2022
June
2023
July
2023(p)
Aug.
2023(p)
Aug.
2022
June
2023
July
2023(p)
Aug.
2023(p)
Change from:
July2023 - Aug.2023(p)

Total nonfarm

153,285 156,905 156,034 156,302 153,332 156,075 156,232 156,419 187

Total private

131,870 134,351 134,479 134,499 131,101 133,427 133,582 133,761 179

Goods-producing

21,573 21,847 21,879 21,911 21,283 21,582 21,596 21,632 36

Mining and logging

619 648 652 650 611 642 644 642 -2

Logging

47.1 46.0 48.4 47.8 45.6 46.2 47.2 46.3 -0.9

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

572.1 601.9 603.8 602.4 565.0 595.5 596.6 596.1 -0.5

Oil and gas extraction

116.6 118.4 119.2 119.8 115.6 118.1 118.3 118.7 0.4

Mining (except oil and gas)

187.3 190.6 191.7 190.0 183.5 186.9 187.6 186.5 -1.1

Coal mining

40.6 41.7 42.0 41.3 40.6 41.5 41.8 41.3 -0.5

Metal ore mining

43.4 44.2 44.3 44.3 43.0 43.7 43.8 44.0 0.2

Nonmetallic mineral mining and quarrying

103.3 104.7 105.4 104.4 99.9 101.7 102.0 101.2 -0.8

Support activities for mining

268.2 292.9 292.9 292.6 265.9 290.5 290.7 290.9 0.2

Construction

7,992 8,141 8,188 8,202 7,781 7,955 7,971 7,993 22

Construction of buildings

1,789.3 1,829.0 1,835.3 1,833.5 1,752.5 1,796.9 1,796.1 1,800.3 4.2

Residential building construction

942.6 947.1 942.2 940.4 924.5 929.5 922.2 924.6 2.4

Nonresidential building construction

846.7 881.9 893.1 893.1 828.0 867.4 873.9 875.7 1.8

Heavy and civil engineering construction

1,125.5 1,161.0 1,170.4 1,179.7 1,075.4 1,115.9 1,120.7 1,127.8 7.1

Specialty trade contractors

5,077.6 5,150.7 5,182.7 5,189.2 4,952.9 5,041.9 5,053.7 5,064.8 11.1

Residential specialty trade contractors

2,360.9 2,400.2 2,415.2 2,402.9 2,309.0 2,345.7 2,352.3 2,351.3 -1.0

Nonresidential specialty trade contractors

2,716.7 2,750.5 2,767.5 2,786.3 2,643.9 2,696.2 2,701.4 2,713.5 12.1

Manufacturing

12,962 13,058 13,039 13,059 12,891 12,985 12,981 12,997 16

Durable goods

8,050 8,172 8,156 8,178 8,018 8,125 8,136 8,148 12

Wood product manufacturing

432.1 424.6 422.2 425.4 430.3 422.5 420.6 423.7 3.1

Nonmetallic mineral product manufacturing

429.6 438.0 437.8 438.2 423.1 431.4 432.3 432.5 0.2

Primary metal manufacturing

363.7 370.5 371.9 370.4 364.2 370.2 371.6 370.7 -0.9

Fabricated metal product manufacturing

1,439.5 1,461.2 1,457.6 1,457.4 1,437.2 1,453.2 1,450.8 1,455.4 4.6

Machinery manufacturing

1,112.8 1,140.6 1,139.8 1,138.7 1,108.7 1,130.5 1,131.5 1,135.1 3.6

Computer and electronic product manufacturing

1,100.7 1,110.6 1,113.6 1,109.5 1,095.5 1,104.2 1,106.0 1,104.1 -1.9

Computer and peripheral equipment manufacturing

164.7 169.1 169.3 168.3 164.1 168.3 168.3 167.8 -0.5

Communications equipment manufacturing

85.2 86.4 86.6 85.6 85.2 85.3 85.6 85.5 -0.1

Semiconductor and other electronic component manufacturing

394.2 390.7 390.5 388.7 391.9 388.2 387.0 386.5 -0.5

Navigational, measuring, electromedical, and control instruments manufacturing

423.9 430.7 433.2 433.5 422.3 429.2 431.6 431.4 -0.2

Manufacturing and reproducing magnetic and optical media and audio and video equipment manufacturing

32.7 33.7 34.0 33.4 32.0 33.2 33.5 32.9 -0.6

Electrical equipment, appliance, and component manufacturing

405.3 405.7 407.5 409.3 405.0 402.7 405.2 408.9 3.7

Transportation equipment manufacturing(1)

1,749.9 1,822.8 1,808.3 1,835.7 1,742.3 1,817.7 1,826.5 1,827.1 0.6

Motor vehicles and parts(2)

1,030.8 1,068.9 1,051.2 1,078.8 1,025.2 1,070.6 1,073.0 1,072.9 -0.1

Furniture and related product manufacturing

380.0 365.1 361.9 358.4 380.2 362.7 360.5 358.9 -1.6

Miscellaneous manufacturing

635.9 632.8 635.2 635.3 631.7 629.9 631.3 631.8 0.5

Nondurable goods

4,912 4,886 4,883 4,881 4,873 4,860 4,845 4,849 4

Food manufacturing

1,724.1 1,721.8 1,728.1 1,731.2 1,700.6 1,718.8 1,713.3 1,715.3 2.0

Textile mills

98.8 94.5 94.2 93.2 98.4 93.7 93.8 92.8 -1.0

Textile product mills

103.1 99.5 99.1 99.2 103.3 99.6 99.0 99.7 0.7

Apparel manufacturing

93.6 93.3 91.0 91.1 93.4 92.3 91.0 91.2 0.2

Paper manufacturing

360.5 350.8 349.3 348.8 361.1 350.4 349.8 349.4 -0.4

Printing and related support activities

383.9 377.1 376.8 376.2 383.1 376.3 376.1 375.8 -0.3

Petroleum and coal products manufacturing

106.7 109.2 108.5 108.5 104.4 106.6 105.4 106.2 0.8

Chemical manufacturing

913.9 922.7 919.7 921.9 911.7 918.2 914.8 919.6 4.8

Plastics and rubber products manufacturing

762.9 748.7 745.3 740.4 762.3 744.2 741.9 738.2 -3.7

Beverage, tobacco, and leather and allied product manufacturing

364.5 368.7 371.1 370.6 354.8 359.7 359.9 360.8 0.9

Private service-providing

110,297 112,504 112,600 112,588 109,818 111,845 111,986 112,129 143

Trade, transportation, and utilities

28,640 28,816 28,786 28,737 28,777 28,850 28,868 28,848 -20

Wholesale trade

6,014.6 6,080.3 6,101.8 6,090.4 5,995.5 6,047.4 6,065.4 6,070.1 4.7

Merchant wholesalers, durable goods

3,315.2 3,355.7 3,368.6 3,363.4 3,306.4 3,339.7 3,350.3 3,354.0 3.7

Merchant wholesalers, nondurable goods

2,176.3 2,200.6 2,204.7 2,195.0 2,167.7 2,184.4 2,188.3 2,186.4 -1.9

Wholesale trade agents and brokers

523.1 524.0 528.5 532.0 521.4 523.3 526.8 529.7 2.9

Retail trade

15,487.3 15,537.8 15,551.4 15,530.9 15,513.4 15,525.4 15,538.6 15,544.9 6.3

Motor vehicle and parts dealers

2,025.9 2,049.8 2,051.0 2,054.6 2,012.8 2,034.7 2,038.6 2,041.5 2.9

Automobile dealers

1,259.0 1,261.7 1,260.5 1,265.4 1,253.5 1,257.1 1,258.3 1,260.2 1.9

Other motor vehicle dealers

182.2 186.4 185.7 183.3 175.6 177.2 177.1 176.9 -0.2

Automotive parts, accessories, and tire retailers

584.7 601.7 604.8 605.9 583.6 600.4 603.2 604.4 1.2

Building material and garden equipment and supplies dealers

1,425.0 1,427.9 1,405.1 1,375.3 1,417.6 1,365.7 1,369.2 1,369.0 -0.2

Food and beverage retailers

3,223.1 3,250.6 3,266.0 3,256.8 3,210.2 3,240.7 3,246.3 3,246.9 0.6

Furniture, home furnishings, electronics, and appliance retailers

895.9 845.7 837.8 835.6 906.6 853.3 848.0 843.2 -4.8

Furniture and home furnishings retailers

450.1 433.7 428.9 429.4 455.5 437.9 435.8 435.0 -0.8

Electronics and appliance retailers

445.8 412.0 408.9 406.2 455.3 418.3 415.9 412.3 -3.6

General merchandise retailers

3,076.5 3,128.8 3,139.7 3,147.2 3,139.2 3,185.9 3,186.9 3,191.9 5.0

Department stores

934.0 931.7 931.6 937.3 960.6 963.7 959.1 959.4 0.3

Warehouse clubs, supercenters, and other general merchandise retailers

2,142.5 2,197.1 2,208.1 2,209.9 2,178.7 2,222.2 2,227.8 2,232.5 4.7

Health and personal care retailers

1,092.1 1,096.5 1,090.3 1,085.9 1,102.4 1,105.1 1,103.8 1,098.4 -5.4

Gasoline stations and fuel dealers

1,056.0 1,080.5 1,087.0 1,089.8 1,042.0 1,071.1 1,074.0 1,075.0 1.0

Clothing, clothing accessories, shoe, and jewelry retailers

1,147.8 1,120.8 1,131.3 1,145.2 1,146.0 1,134.8 1,137.9 1,144.1 6.2

Sporting goods, hobby, musical instrument, book, and miscellaneous retailers

1,545.0 1,537.2 1,543.2 1,540.5 1,536.6 1,534.1 1,533.9 1,534.9 1.0

Transportation and warehousing

6,580.8 6,638.1 6,573.6 6,556.2 6,712.1 6,719.5 6,709.5 6,675.3 -34.2

Air transportation

514.5 546.2 548.4 550.8 511.0 540.9 543.8 547.2 3.4

Rail transportation

146.8 150.5 150.5 150.5 146.5 150.2 150.3 150.2 -0.1

Water transportation

67.7 71.8 71.2 71.3 65.6 68.7 67.5 68.8 1.3

Truck transportation

1,617.9 1,619.8 1,619.9 1,584.2 1,600.0 1,607.8 1,604.3 1,567.6 -36.7

Transit and ground passenger transportation

358.8 425.0 378.4 382.7 416.6 436.8 435.9 441.4 5.5

Pipeline transportation

48.7 47.9 47.8 47.4 48.6 47.5 47.4 47.4 0.0

Scenic and sightseeing transportation

38.7 41.4 44.5 44.4 31.9 36.2 36.9 37.5 0.6

Support activities for transportation

798.4 807.5 811.8 815.4 796.6 814.1 815.5 815.7 0.2

Couriers and messengers

1,068.6 1,060.0 1,042.3 1,042.7 1,144.7 1,114.2 1,109.3 1,100.3 -9.0

Warehousing and storage

1,920.7 1,868.0 1,858.8 1,866.8 1,950.6 1,903.1 1,898.6 1,899.2 0.6

Utilities

556.8 560.2 559.1 559.2 555.5 557.5 554.8 557.3 2.5

Information

3,126 3,102 3,088 3,066 3,110 3,081 3,066 3,051 -15

Motion picture and sound recording industries

475.5 475.4 468.4 449.7 461.9 463.6 454.4 437.6 -16.8

Publishing industries

954.7 940.1 933.6 937.0 951.5 933.6 929.3 933.4 4.1

Broadcasting and content providers

358.3 352.5 351.3 348.2 358.1 351.8 352.4 348.8 -3.6

Telecommunications

666.6 648.8 644.6 636.9 667.3 647.1 641.3 637.7 -3.6

Computing infrastructure providers, data processing, web hosting, and related services

474.6 494.5 498.1 503.4 477.1 494.5 498.7 504.5 5.8

Web search portals, libraries, archives, and other information services

196.4 190.7 191.8 191.1 194.5 190.7 190.1 189.2 -0.9

Financial activities

9,121 9,181 9,223 9,209 9,066 9,137 9,154 9,158 4

Finance and insurance

6,703.7 6,731.0 6,753.0 6,747.6 6,686.4 6,717.1 6,724.8 6,728.2 3.4

Monetary authorities-central bank

21.6 22.2 22.4 22.1 21.4 22.1 22.0 22.0 0.0

Credit intermediation and related
activities

2,696.6 2,675.2 2,675.8 2,668.3 2,688.5 2,668.0 2,666.4 2,660.7 -5.7

Depository credit intermediation(1)

1,771.9 1,790.8 1,792.6 1,786.7 1,765.9 1,785.2 1,784.3 1,782.0 -2.3

Commercial banking

1,372.3 1,379.4 1,379.2 1,375.0 1,367.3 1,375.1 1,372.5 1,371.0 -1.5

Nondepository credit intermediation

595.8 570.8 571.2 566.7 594.0 569.3 569.0 564.7 -4.3

Activities related to credit intermediation

328.9 313.6 312.0 314.9 328.6 313.5 313.1 314.0 0.9

Securities, commodity contracts, funds, trusts, and other financial vehicles, investments, and related activities

1,066.7 1,090.6 1,099.2 1,097.1 1,057.4 1,085.9 1,085.5 1,087.0 1.5

Insurance carriers and related activities

2,918.8 2,943.0 2,955.6 2,960.1 2,919.1 2,941.1 2,950.9 2,958.5 7.6

Real estate and rental and leasing

2,417.4 2,449.7 2,470.4 2,461.3 2,379.9 2,419.8 2,428.8 2,429.3 0.5

Real estate

1,837.9 1,857.3 1,869.1 1,862.8 1,819.3 1,845.9 1,849.2 1,850.2 1.0

Rental and leasing services

556.7 569.7 578.6 575.6 538.2 551.6 557.2 556.5 -0.7

Lessors of nonfinancial intangible assets (except copyrighted works)

22.8 22.7 22.7 22.9 22.4 22.3 22.4 22.6 0.2

Professional and business services

22,795 23,070 23,056 23,096 22,707 23,016 22,996 23,015 19

Professional, scientific, and technical services

10,595.9 10,889.3 10,954.6 10,935.8 10,595.3 10,895.9 10,915.2 10,935.8 20.6

Legal services

1,177.3 1,194.9 1,192.3 1,174.2 1,176.6 1,182.1 1,179.9 1,175.7 -4.2

Accounting, tax preparation, bookkeeping, and payroll services

1,073.5 1,125.2 1,130.1 1,118.5 1,123.5 1,163.1 1,164.0 1,166.7 2.7

Architectural, engineering, and related services

1,642.9 1,703.9 1,709.5 1,709.7 1,622.7 1,684.0 1,684.8 1,688.8 4.0

Specialized design services

154.3 161.2 160.4 160.5 153.8 159.9 159.9 160.1 0.2

Computer systems design and related services

2,478.3 2,501.5 2,525.0 2,537.1 2,468.8 2,509.4 2,516.8 2,527.2 10.4

Management, scientific, and technical consulting services

1,805.9 1,874.9 1,888.1 1,884.3 1,802.9 1,880.0 1,884.4 1,883.7 -0.7

Scientific research and development services

911.7 945.2 954.0 957.3 902.9 936.3 938.5 946.4 7.9

Advertising, public relations, and related services

496.3 498.3 500.2 503.7 494.6 497.3 498.0 500.9 2.9

Other professional, scientific, and technical services

855.7 884.2 895.0 890.5 849.6 883.8 888.9 886.3 -2.6

Management of companies and enterprises

2,506.9 2,533.4 2,537.3 2,531.7 2,496.5 2,519.3 2,519.8 2,521.7 1.9

Administrative and support and waste management and remediation services

9,692.4 9,647.2 9,564.3 9,628.8 9,615.3 9,600.8 9,561.0 9,557.3 -3.7

Administrative and support services

9,206.1 9,148.4 9,063.2 9,124.1 9,133.7 9,104.7 9,064.3 9,058.3 -6.0

Office administrative services

606.7 623.2 623.2 622.9 600.0 619.1 618.2 618.5 0.3

Facilities support services

158.3 163.5 165.8 166.2 157.0 164.8 164.3 164.4 0.1

Employment services(1)

3,865.4 3,701.0 3,620.1 3,678.2 3,906.4 3,771.1 3,737.5 3,722.5 -15.0

Temporary help services

3,083.8 2,926.3 2,855.3 2,895.0 3,120.0 2,978.3 2,954.4 2,935.5 -18.9

Business support services

782.2 750.0 745.1 743.1 793.8 759.1 757.3 753.5 -3.8

Travel arrangement and reservation services

174.5 184.9 186.0 186.7 171.5 181.6 183.2 184.0 0.8

Investigation and security services

962.6 985.6 979.4 988.9 960.3 986.5 981.7 986.8 5.1

Services to buildings and dwellings

2,313.8 2,396.0 2,399.8 2,392.4 2,207.2 2,279.6 2,280.7 2,287.4 6.7

Other support services

342.6 344.2 343.8 345.7 337.4 342.9 341.4 341.2 -0.2

Waste management and remediation services

486.3 498.8 501.1 504.7 481.6 496.1 496.7 499.0 2.3

Private education and health services

24,222 25,102 25,114 25,238 24,496 25,316 25,418 25,520 102

Private educational services

3,574.3 3,729.6 3,643.0 3,668.5 3,827.3 3,932.4 3,934.5 3,939.2 4.7

Health care and social assistance

20,647.9 21,372.3 21,471.4 21,569.3 20,668.8 21,383.9 21,483.5 21,580.8 97.3

Health care(3)

16,377.9 16,858.2 16,949.8 17,020.5 16,378.6 16,870.4 16,943.4 17,014.3 70.9

Ambulatory health care services

8,152.0 8,389.4 8,434.0 8,473.4 8,164.5 8,404.9 8,442.7 8,482.6 39.9

Offices of physicians

2,813.8 2,889.3 2,906.8 2,917.1 2,818.8 2,896.9 2,906.4 2,920.5 14.1

Offices of dentists

1,025.1 1,037.7 1,042.5 1,040.7 1,023.7 1,034.6 1,042.2 1,039.7 -2.5

Offices of other health practitioners

1,094.0 1,132.2 1,137.3 1,147.5 1,094.3 1,136.1 1,138.4 1,146.5 8.1

Outpatient care centers

1,040.2 1,055.3 1,060.6 1,066.3 1,041.6 1,059.8 1,062.4 1,067.4 5.0

Medical and diagnostic laboratories

322.0 324.0 324.8 326.3 322.1 324.2 325.0 326.2 1.2

Home health care services

1,534.5 1,616.0 1,625.0 1,635.2 1,539.9 1,616.2 1,629.0 1,640.2 11.2

Other ambulatory health care services

322.4 334.9 337.0 340.3 324.1 337.1 339.3 342.1 2.8

Hospitals

5,187.1 5,312.0 5,332.7 5,349.8 5,183.2 5,314.6 5,330.7 5,345.2 14.5

Nursing and residential care facilities

3,038.8 3,156.8 3,183.1 3,197.3 3,030.9 3,150.9 3,170.0 3,186.5 16.5

Skilled nursing care facilities

1,361.7 1,416.3 1,425.8 1,432.8 1,359.7 1,413.4 1,419.4 1,428.3 8.9

Residential intellectual and developmental disability, mental health, and substance abuse facilities

615.0 634.9 639.4 640.7 613.5 634.0 636.9 638.8 1.9

Continuing care retirement communities and assisted living facilities for the elderly

908.5 948.3 960.7 965.5 904.7 946.8 957.1 961.9 4.8

Other residential care facilities

153.6 157.3 157.2 158.3 153.1 156.7 156.6 157.5 0.9

Social assistance

4,270.0 4,514.1 4,521.6 4,548.8 4,290.2 4,513.5 4,540.1 4,566.5 26.4

Individual and family services

2,849.3 3,019.6 3,045.7 3,057.2 2,850.7 3,014.3 3,035.8 3,056.3 20.5

Community food and housing, and emergency and other relief services

203.2 217.9 217.9 218.7 204.7 218.0 218.8 220.0 1.2

Vocational rehabilitation services

272.4 283.9 283.1 284.0 268.8 280.5 279.5 280.9 1.4

Child care services

945.1 992.7 974.9 988.9 965.9 1,000.7 1,006.0 1,009.3 3.3

Leisure and hospitality

16,614 17,294 17,392 17,312 15,935 16,583 16,615 16,655 40

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

2,585.6 2,750.5 2,793.4 2,738.3 2,310.6 2,454.7 2,457.8 2,474.5 16.7

Performing arts, spectator sports, and related industries

532.8 572.3 565.6 569.0 506.9 535.4 533.9 538.8 4.9

Museums, historical sites, and similar institutions

172.6 184.6 187.5 185.5 161.2 172.1 171.8 174.0 2.2

Amusement, gambling, and recreation industries

1,880.2 1,993.6 2,040.3 1,983.8 1,642.5 1,747.2 1,752.1 1,761.7 9.6

Accommodation and food services

14,028.3 14,543.0 14,598.6 14,574.0 13,624.0 14,128.4 14,157.4 14,180.9 23.5

Accommodation

1,916.5 1,973.0 2,012.9 1,990.5 1,792.1 1,860.4 1,865.8 1,874.4 8.6

Food services and drinking places

12,111.8 12,570.0 12,585.7 12,583.5 11,831.9 12,268.0 12,291.6 12,306.5 14.9

Other services

5,779 5,939 5,941 5,930 5,727 5,862 5,869 5,882 13

Repair and maintenance

1,406.3 1,460.1 1,463.3 1,461.5 1,398.5 1,447.0 1,451.9 1,453.6 1.7

Personal and laundry services

1,500.9 1,557.6 1,545.0 1,548.0 1,494.6 1,535.4 1,536.6 1,543.1 6.5

Religious, grantmaking, civic, professional, and similar organizations

2,872.0 2,921.6 2,933.1 2,920.8 2,834.0 2,879.5 2,880.7 2,885.7 5.0

Government

21,415 22,554 21,555 21,803 22,231 22,648 22,650 22,658 8

Federal

2,867 2,930 2,944 2,948 2,865 2,925 2,931 2,941 10

Federal, except U.S. Postal Service

2,274.6 2,326.2 2,338.8 2,345.5 2,264.4 2,316.6 2,325.4 2,332.0 6.6

U.S. Postal Service

592.8 603.7 605.3 602.4 600.4 608.5 605.7 608.5 2.8

State government

4,865 4,996 4,918 4,977 5,109 5,231 5,226 5,226 0

State government education

2,194.5 2,276.0 2,193.1 2,246.4 2,451.7 2,529.1 2,517.1 2,512.2 -4.9

State government, excluding education

2,670.7 2,719.7 2,725.2 2,730.5 2,657.0 2,702.3 2,708.4 2,713.6 5.2

Local government

13,683 14,628 13,693 13,878 14,257 14,492 14,493 14,491 -2

Local government education

7,070.6 7,845.8 6,842.5 7,071.7 7,827.3 7,895.7 7,877.4 7,867.2 -10.2

Local government, excluding education

6,612.4 6,782.2 6,850.4 6,806.6 6,430.0 6,596.4 6,615.1 6,624.0 8.9

Footnotes
(1) Includes other industries, not shown separately.
(2) Includes motor vehicle manufacturing, motor vehicle body and trailer manufacturing, and motor vehicle parts manufacturing.
(3) Includes ambulatory health care services, hospitals, and nursing and residential care facilities.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2022 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-2. Average weekly hours and overtime of all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Aug.
2022
June
2023
July
2023(p)
Aug.
2023(p)

AVERAGE WEEKLY HOURS

Total private

34.5 34.4 34.3 34.4

Goods-producing

39.9 39.8 39.8 39.9

Mining and logging

46.2 45.5 44.6 45.3

Construction

38.7 38.9 38.9 39.1

Manufacturing

40.3 40.1 40.1 40.1

Durable goods

40.7 40.7 40.7 40.7

Nondurable goods

39.8 39.1 39.1 39.1

Private service-providing

33.5 33.3 33.3 33.3

Trade, transportation, and utilities

34.1 33.9 33.9 34.0

Wholesale trade

38.9 38.8 38.7 38.9

Retail trade

30.1 29.9 29.9 30.0

Transportation and warehousing

38.5 38.1 38.2 38.1

Utilities

41.9 42.3 42.3 42.3

Information

36.5 36.3 36.2 36.2

Financial activities

37.5 37.4 37.5 37.4

Professional and business services

36.6 36.5 36.5 36.5

Private education and health services

33.4 33.4 33.3 33.4

Leisure and hospitality

25.6 25.3 25.2 25.2

Other services

32.2 32.3 32.3 32.3

AVERAGE OVERTIME HOURS

Manufacturing

3.2 3.0 3.1 3.0

Durable goods

3.3 3.1 3.2 3.2

Nondurable goods

3.1 2.8 2.8 2.7

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2022 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-3. Average hourly and weekly earnings of all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Average hourly earnings Average weekly earnings
Aug.
2022
June
2023
July
2023(p)
Aug.
2023(p)
Aug.
2022
June
2023
July
2023(p)
Aug.
2023(p)

Total private

$32.43 $33.60 $33.74 $33.82 $1,118.84 $1,155.84 $1,157.28 $1,163.41

Goods-producing

32.59 34.03 34.25 34.27 1,300.34 1,354.39 1,363.15 1,367.37

Mining and logging

36.22 37.98 38.02 37.85 1,673.36 1,728.09 1,695.69 1,714.61

Construction

34.91 36.35 36.67 36.71 1,351.02 1,414.02 1,426.46 1,435.36

Manufacturing

31.06 32.43 32.61 32.61 1,251.72 1,300.44 1,307.66 1,307.66

Durable goods

32.64 33.93 34.13 34.08 1,328.45 1,380.95 1,389.09 1,387.06

Nondurable goods

28.40 29.83 29.94 30.04 1,130.32 1,166.35 1,170.65 1,174.56

Private service-providing

32.40 33.50 33.62 33.72 1,085.40 1,115.55 1,119.55 1,122.88

Trade, transportation, and utilities

27.81 29.00 29.05 29.17 948.32 983.10 984.80 991.78

Wholesale trade

35.24 36.89 36.91 37.05 1,370.84 1,431.33 1,428.42 1,441.25

Retail trade

23.05 23.89 23.92 24.01 693.81 714.31 715.21 720.30

Transportation and warehousing

27.92 29.12 29.23 29.37 1,074.92 1,109.47 1,116.59 1,119.00

Utilities

47.43 49.91 50.15 50.03 1,987.32 2,111.19 2,121.35 2,116.27

Information

47.35 48.03 48.14 48.21 1,728.28 1,743.49 1,742.67 1,745.20

Financial activities

41.79 43.33 43.64 44.11 1,567.13 1,620.54 1,636.50 1,649.71

Professional and business services

38.92 40.36 40.57 40.54 1,424.47 1,473.14 1,480.81 1,479.71

Private education and health services

32.13 32.92 33.03 33.12 1,073.14 1,099.53 1,099.90 1,106.21

Leisure and hospitality

20.29 21.21 21.25 21.30 519.42 536.61 535.50 536.76

Other services

28.91 29.77 29.80 29.96 930.90 961.57 962.54 967.71

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2022 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-4. Indexes of aggregate weekly hours and payrolls for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
[2007=100]
Industry Index of aggregate weekly hours(1) Index of aggregate weekly payrolls(2)
Aug.
2022
June
2023
July
2023(p)
Aug.
2023(p)
Percent change from:
July
2023 - Aug.
2023(p)
Aug.
2022
June
2023
July
2023(p)
Aug.
2023(p)
Percent change from:
July
2023 - Aug.
2023(p)

Total private

113.5 115.2 115.0 115.5 0.4 176.0 185.1 185.5 186.8 0.7

Goods-producing

96.7 97.9 97.9 98.3 0.4 142.5 150.5 151.6 152.3 0.5

Mining and logging

88.7 91.8 90.3 91.4 1.2 129.0 140.0 137.8 138.9 0.8

Construction

103.8 106.7 106.9 107.7 0.7 157.4 168.5 170.3 171.8 0.9

Manufacturing

93.5 93.7 93.6 93.8 0.2 135.0 141.3 142.0 142.2 0.1

Durable goods

91.9 93.1 93.2 93.4 0.2 133.2 140.3 141.3 141.3 0.0

Nondurable goods

96.8 94.8 94.6 94.6 0.0 139.5 143.6 143.7 144.3 0.4

Private service-providing

118.4 119.9 120.1 120.2 0.1 186.5 195.2 196.2 197.0 0.4

Trade, transportation, and utilities

107.2 106.9 106.9 107.2 0.3 160.8 167.1 167.5 168.6 0.7

Wholesale trade

102.9 103.5 103.5 104.2 0.7 151.7 159.7 159.9 161.4 0.9

Retail trade

95.0 94.5 94.6 94.9 0.3 144.9 149.2 149.6 150.7 0.7

Transportation and warehousing

148.5 147.1 147.3 146.1 -0.8 210.9 217.9 219.0 218.3 -0.3

Utilities

100.7 102.0 101.5 102.0 0.5 157.8 168.2 168.2 168.6 0.2

Information

103.7 102.2 101.4 100.9 -0.5 174.8 174.7 173.8 173.2 -0.3

Financial activities

111.4 111.9 112.5 112.2 -0.3 181.5 189.2 191.4 193.0 0.8

Professional and business services

130.0 131.4 131.3 131.4 0.1 205.0 214.9 215.8 215.8 0.0

Private education and health services

133.6 138.1 138.2 139.2 0.7 206.5 218.7 219.6 221.8 1.0

Leisure and hospitality

116.4 119.7 119.5 119.8 0.3 190.5 204.8 204.8 205.8 0.5

Other services

106.3 109.2 109.3 109.5 0.2 168.5 178.1 178.5 179.9 0.8

Footnotes
(1) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding 2007 annual average aggregate hours. Aggregate hours estimates are the product of estimates of average weekly hours and employment.
(2) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding 2007 annual average aggregate weekly payrolls. Aggregate payrolls estimates are the product of estimates of average hourly earnings, average weekly hours, and employment.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2022 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-5. Employment of women on nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Women employees (in thousands) Percent of all employees
Aug.
2022
June
2023
July
2023(p)
Aug.
2023(p)
Aug.
2022
June
2023
July
2023(p)
Aug.
2023(p)

Total nonfarm

76,334 77,739 77,844 77,988 49.8 49.8 49.8 49.9

Total private

63,398 64,524 64,630 64,771 48.4 48.4 48.4 48.4

Goods-producing

4,907 4,996 5,003 5,001 23.1 23.1 23.2 23.1

Mining and logging

78 83 83 82 12.8 12.9 12.9 12.8

Construction

1,093 1,128 1,137 1,138 14.0 14.2 14.3 14.2

Manufacturing

3,736 3,785 3,783 3,781 29.0 29.1 29.1 29.1

Durable goods

1,988 2,027 2,029 2,032 24.8 24.9 24.9 24.9

Nondurable goods

1,748 1,758 1,754 1,749 35.9 36.2 36.2 36.1

Private service-providing

58,491 59,528 59,627 59,770 53.3 53.2 53.2 53.3

Trade, transportation, and utilities

11,352 11,340 11,327 11,344 39.4 39.3 39.2 39.3

Wholesale trade

1,833.9 1,865.8 1,864.5 1,883.8 30.6 30.9 30.7 31.0

Retail trade

7,550.0 7,513.3 7,509.3 7,513.0 48.7 48.4 48.3 48.3

Transportation and warehousing

1,826.5 1,814.5 1,807.6 1,799.6 27.2 27.0 26.9 27.0

Utilities

141.4 146.2 145.2 147.8 25.5 26.2 26.2 26.5

Information

1,248 1,249 1,247 1,250 40.1 40.5 40.7 41.0

Financial activities

5,056 5,083 5,087 5,086 55.8 55.6 55.6 55.5

Professional and business services

10,471 10,575 10,572 10,578 46.1 45.9 46.0 46.0

Private education and health services

18,870 19,453 19,529 19,607 77.0 76.8 76.8 76.8

Leisure and hospitality

8,436 8,683 8,723 8,761 52.9 52.4 52.5 52.6

Other services

3,058 3,145 3,142 3,144 53.4 53.7 53.5 53.5

Government

12,936 13,215 13,214 13,217 58.2 58.3 58.3 58.3

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2022 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-6. Employment of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
[In thousands]
Industry Aug.
2022
June
2023
July
2023(p)
Aug.
2023(p)

Total private

106,813 108,581 108,744 108,804

Goods-producing

15,274 15,464 15,468 15,487

Mining and logging

461 491 495 495

Construction

5,757 5,844 5,851 5,866

Manufacturing

9,056 9,129 9,122 9,126

Durable goods

5,560 5,628 5,632 5,635

Nondurable goods

3,496 3,501 3,490 3,491

Private service-providing

91,539 93,117 93,276 93,317

Trade, transportation, and utilities

24,256 24,318 24,326 24,310

Wholesale trade

4,762.8 4,779.5 4,798.7 4,794.9

Retail trade

13,198.2 13,229.3 13,231.3 13,228.4

Transportation and warehousing

5,850.5 5,866.4 5,856.0 5,844.9

Utilities

444.3 443.0 439.6 442.2

Information

2,462 2,463 2,455 2,429

Financial activities

6,824 6,861 6,865 6,857

Professional and business services

18,183 18,222 18,205 18,190

Private education and health services

21,284 22,024 22,105 22,186

Leisure and hospitality

13,869 14,465 14,538 14,542

Other services

4,661 4,764 4,782 4,803

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2022 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-7. Average weekly hours and overtime of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry Aug.
2022
June
2023
July
2023(p)
Aug.
2023(p)

AVERAGE WEEKLY HOURS

Total private

34.0 33.8 33.7 33.8

Goods-producing

40.6 40.5 40.5 40.6

Mining and logging

47.3 47.5 47.2 47.7

Construction

39.5 39.6 39.5 39.7

Manufacturing

41.0 40.8 40.8 40.8

Durable goods

41.3 41.2 41.1 41.2

Nondurable goods

40.4 40.1 40.2 40.3

Private service-providing

32.9 32.7 32.6 32.6

Trade, transportation, and utilities

34.0 33.9 33.9 33.9

Wholesale trade

39.0 38.8 38.7 38.9

Retail trade

30.2 30.3 30.3 30.3

Transportation and warehousing

37.9 37.5 37.6 37.4

Utilities

42.4 42.3 43.0 42.4

Information

36.3 35.7 35.8 35.7

Financial activities

37.3 37.1 36.9 36.9

Professional and business services

36.3 36.3 36.2 36.4

Private education and health services

32.6 32.5 32.5 32.5

Leisure and hospitality

24.5 24.1 24.0 23.9

Other services

31.1 31.3 31.2 31.3

AVERAGE OVERTIME HOURS

Manufacturing

3.9 3.7 3.7 3.7

Durable goods

4.1 3.9 3.9 3.8

Nondurable goods

3.7 3.4 3.5 3.5

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2022 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-8. Average hourly and weekly earnings of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry Average hourly earnings Average weekly earnings
Aug.
2022
June
2023
July
2023(p)
Aug.
2023(p)
Aug.
2022
June
2023
July
2023(p)
Aug.
2023(p)

Total private

$27.75 $28.82 $28.94 $29.00 $943.50 $974.12 $975.28 $980.20

Goods-producing

28.14 29.52 29.63 29.74 1,142.48 1,195.56 1,200.02 1,207.44

Mining and logging

32.96 34.50 34.17 33.65 1,559.01 1,638.75 1,612.82 1,605.11

Construction

32.55 34.04 34.23 34.40 1,285.73 1,347.98 1,352.09 1,365.68

Manufacturing

25.15 26.40 26.49 26.59 1,031.15 1,077.12 1,080.79 1,084.87

Durable goods

26.29 27.55 27.64 27.71 1,085.78 1,135.06 1,136.00 1,141.65

Nondurable goods

23.28 24.49 24.61 24.74 940.51 982.05 989.32 997.02

Private service-providing

27.67 28.68 28.80 28.85 910.34 937.84 938.88 940.51

Trade, transportation, and utilities

24.17 25.19 25.30 25.40 821.78 853.94 857.67 861.06

Wholesale trade

29.39 30.49 30.53 30.77 1,146.21 1,183.01 1,181.51 1,196.95

Retail trade

19.77 20.47 20.52 20.59 597.05 620.24 621.76 623.88

Transportation and warehousing

26.18 27.72 27.92 27.99 992.22 1,039.50 1,049.79 1,046.83

Utilities

42.30 44.16 44.71 44.69 1,793.52 1,867.97 1,922.53 1,894.86

Information

38.22 39.36 39.47 39.53 1,387.39 1,405.15 1,413.03 1,411.22

Financial activities

32.48 33.76 33.90 33.99 1,211.50 1,252.50 1,250.91 1,254.23

Professional and business services

32.67 34.11 34.27 34.37 1,185.92 1,238.19 1,240.57 1,251.07

Private education and health services

29.25 30.03 30.17 30.10 953.55 975.98 980.53 978.25

Leisure and hospitality

18.00 18.78 18.83 18.85 441.00 452.60 451.92 450.52

Other services

25.01 25.61 25.73 25.81 777.81 801.59 802.78 807.85

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2022 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-9. Indexes of aggregate weekly hours and payrolls for production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
[2002=100]
Industry Index of aggregate weekly hours(2) Index of aggregate weekly payrolls(3)
Aug.
2022
June
2023
July
2023(p)
Aug.
2023(p)
Percent change from:
July
2023 - Aug.
2023(p)
Aug.
2022
June
2023
July
2023(p)
Aug.
2023(p)
Percent change from:
July
2023 - Aug.
2023(p)

Total private

121.0 122.3 122.1 122.5 0.3 224.5 235.6 236.2 237.5 0.6

Goods-producing

94.8 95.7 95.7 96.1 0.4 163.3 173.0 173.7 175.0 0.7

Mining and logging

115.9 123.9 124.2 125.5 1.0 222.1 248.7 246.7 245.6 -0.4

Construction

113.9 115.9 115.7 116.6 0.8 200.1 213.0 213.9 216.6 1.3

Manufacturing

85.2 85.5 85.4 85.5 0.1 140.2 147.6 148.0 148.6 0.4

Durable goods

86.3 87.1 87.0 87.2 0.2 141.6 149.8 150.1 150.9 0.5

Nondurable goods

83.2 82.7 82.7 82.9 0.2 136.9 143.1 143.8 144.9 0.8

Private service-providing

128.3 129.7 129.6 129.6 0.0 243.5 255.2 255.9 256.5 0.2

Trade, transportation, and utilities

115.4 115.4 115.4 115.4 0.0 199.4 207.7 208.7 209.4 0.3

Wholesale trade

110.2 110.1 110.2 110.7 0.5 191.2 198.1 198.6 201.0 1.2

Retail trade

101.1 101.6 101.6 101.6 0.0 171.3 178.4 178.8 179.4 0.3

Transportation and warehousing

167.8 166.5 166.6 165.4 -0.7 279.6 293.8 296.1 294.7 -0.5

Utilities

96.3 95.8 96.7 95.9 -0.8 170.1 176.6 180.4 178.9 -0.8

Information

102.0 100.4 100.3 99.0 -1.3 193.0 195.6 196.0 193.7 -1.2

Financial activities

119.8 119.8 119.2 119.1 -0.1 239.4 248.8 248.7 249.0 0.1

Professional and business services

147.3 147.7 147.1 147.8 0.5 286.3 299.6 299.9 302.2 0.8

Private education and health services

147.9 152.6 153.2 153.7 0.3 285.6 302.5 305.0 305.4 0.1

Leisure and hospitality

124.5 127.7 127.8 127.3 -0.4 254.4 272.3 273.3 272.5 -0.3

Other services

101.7