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Employment Situation News Release

Transmission of material in this news release is embargoed until	      USDL-19-1573
8:30 a.m. (EDT) Friday, September 6, 2019

Technical information: 
 Household data:	(202) 691-6378  *  cpsinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/cps
 Establishment data:	(202) 691-6555  *  cesinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/ces

Media contact:		(202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov

	
                  THE EMPLOYMENT SITUATION -- AUGUST 2019


Total nonfarm payroll employment rose by 130,000 in August, and the unemployment
rate was unchanged at 3.7 percent, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported
today. Employment in federal government rose, largely reflecting the hiring of
temporary workers for the 2020 Census. Notable job gains also occurred in health
care and financial activities, while mining lost jobs. 

This news release presents statistics from two monthly surveys. The household
survey measures labor force status, including unemployment, by demographic
characteristics. The establishment survey measures nonfarm employment, hours, and
earnings by industry. For more information about the concepts and statistical
methodology used in these two surveys, see the Technical Note.

Household Survey Data

In August, the unemployment rate was 3.7 percent for the third month in a row,
and the number of unemployed persons was essentially unchanged at 6.0 million.
(See table A-1.)

Among the major worker groups, the unemployment rates for adult men (3.4 percent),
adult women (3.3 percent), teenagers (12.6 percent), Whites (3.4 percent), Blacks
(5.5 percent), Asians (2.8 percent), and Hispanics (4.2 percent) showed little or
no change in August. (See tables A-1, A-2, and A-3.)

The number of long-term unemployed (those jobless for 27 weeks or more) was little
changed at 1.2 million in August and accounted for 20.6 percent of the unemployed.
(See table A-12.)

The labor force participation rate edged up to 63.2 percent in August but has shown
little change, on net, thus far this year. The employment-population ratio, at 60.9
percent, also edged up over the month and is up by 0.6 percentage point over the year.
(See table A-1.)

The number of persons employed part time for economic reasons (sometimes referred to
as involuntary part-time workers) increased by 397,000 to 4.4 million in August; this
increase follows a decline of similar magnitude in July. These individuals, who would
have preferred full-time employment, were working part time because their hours had
been reduced or they were unable to find full-time jobs. (See table A-8.)

In August, 1.6 million persons were marginally attached to the labor force, little
different from a year earlier. (Data are not seasonally adjusted.) These individuals
were not in the labor force, wanted and were available for work, and had looked for
a job sometime in the prior 12 months. They were not counted as unemployed because
they had not searched for work in the 4 weeks preceding the survey. (See table A-16.)

Among the marginally attached, there were 467,000 discouraged workers in August,
about unchanged from a year earlier. (Data are not seasonally adjusted.) Discouraged
workers are persons not currently looking for work because they believe no jobs are
available for them. The remaining 1.1 million persons marginally attached to the
labor force in August had not searched for work for reasons such as school attendance
or family responsibilities. (See table A-16.)

Establishment Survey Data

Total nonfarm payroll employment increased by 130,000 in August. Job growth has averaged
158,000 per month thus far this year, below the average monthly gain of 223,000 in 2018.
In August, employment in federal government rose, largely reflecting the hiring of
temporary workers for the 2020 Census. Private-sector employment was up by 96,000, with
notable job gains in health care and financial activities and a job loss in mining.
(See table B-1.)

In August, employment in federal government increased by 28,000. The gain was mostly
due to the hiring of 25,000 temporary workers to prepare for the 2020 Census.

Health care added 24,000 jobs over the month and 392,000 over the past 12 months. In
August, employment continued to trend up in ambulatory health care services (+12,000)
and in hospitals (+9,000). 

In August, financial activities employment rose by 15,000, with nearly half of the gain
occurring in insurance carriers and related activities (+7,000). Financial activities
has added 111,000 jobs over the year. 

Employment in professional and business services continued to trend up in August (+37,000).
Within the industry, employment increased by 10,000 both in computer systems design and
related services and in management of companies and enterprises. Monthly job gains in
professional and business services have averaged 34,000 thus far in 2019, below the
average monthly gain of 47,000 in 2018. 
 
Social assistance employment continued on an upward trend in August (+13,000). Within
the industry, individual and family services added 17,000 jobs. Social assistance has
added 100,000 jobs in the last 6 months.

Mining employment declined by 6,000 in August, with nearly all of the loss in support
activities for mining (-5,000).  

Retail trade employment changed little in August (-11,000). General merchandise stores
lost 15,000 jobs over the month and 80,000 jobs over the year. Building material and
garden supply stores added 9,000 jobs over the month.

Employment showed little change over the month in construction, manufacturing, transportation
and warehousing, and leisure and hospitality. Job growth in these industries has moderated
thus far in 2019 compared with 2018.

In August, average hourly earnings for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls rose by
11 cents to $28.11, following 9-cent gains in both June and July. Over the past 12 months,
average hourly earnings have increased by 3.2 percent. In August, average hourly earnings
of private-sector production and nonsupervisory employees rose by 11 cents to $23.59.
(See tables B-3 and B-8.) 
 
The average workweek for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls increased by 0.1 hour
to 34.4 hours in August. In manufacturing, the average workweek increased by 0.2 hour to
40.6 hours, and overtime declined by 0.1 hour to 3.2 hours. The average workweek of private-
sector production and nonsupervisory employees increased by 0.1 hour to 33.6 hours. 
(See tables B-2 and B-7.) 
 
The change in total nonfarm payroll employment for June was revised down by 15,000 from
+193,000 to +178,000, and the change for July was revised down by 5,000 from +164,000 to
+159,000. With these revisions, employment gains in June and July combined were 20,000
less than previously reported. (Monthly revisions result from additional reports received
from businesses and government agencies since the last published estimates and from the
recalculation of seasonal factors.) After revisions, job gains have averaged 156,000 per
month over the last 3 months. 

_____________
The Employment Situation for September is scheduled to be released on Friday,
October 4, 2019, at 8:30 a.m. (EDT).




HOUSEHOLD DATA
Summary table A. Household data, seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Category Aug.
2018
June
2019
July
2019
Aug.
2019
Change from:
July
2019-
Aug.
2019

Employment status

Civilian noninstitutional population

258,066 259,037 259,225 259,432 207

Civilian labor force

161,802 162,981 163,351 163,922 571

Participation rate

62.7 62.9 63.0 63.2 0.2

Employed

155,604 157,005 157,288 157,878 590

Employment-population ratio

60.3 60.6 60.7 60.9 0.2

Unemployed

6,197 5,975 6,063 6,044 -19

Unemployment rate

3.8 3.7 3.7 3.7 0.0

Not in labor force

96,264 96,057 95,874 95,510 -364

Unemployment rates

Total, 16 years and over

3.8 3.7 3.7 3.7 0.0

Adult men (20 years and over)

3.5 3.3 3.4 3.4 0.0

Adult women (20 years and over)

3.5 3.3 3.4 3.3 -0.1

Teenagers (16 to 19 years)

12.7 12.7 12.8 12.6 -0.2

White

3.4 3.3 3.3 3.4 0.1

Black or African American

6.3 6.0 6.0 5.5 -0.5

Asian

3.0 2.1 2.8 2.8 0.0

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

4.7 4.3 4.5 4.2 -0.3

Total, 25 years and over

3.2 3.0 3.0 2.9 -0.1

Less than a high school diploma

5.7 5.3 5.1 5.4 0.3

High school graduates, no college

3.9 3.9 3.6 3.6 0.0

Some college or associate degree

3.5 3.0 3.2 3.1 -0.1

Bachelor's degree and higher

2.0 2.1 2.2 2.1 -0.1

Reason for unemployment

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

2,868 2,736 2,798 2,876 78

Job leavers

866 888 833 781 -52

Reentrants

1,864 1,868 1,810 1,801 -9

New entrants

586 541 595 574 -21

Duration of unemployment

Less than 5 weeks

2,199 1,961 2,201 2,207 6

5 to 14 weeks

1,722 1,830 1,797 1,757 -40

15 to 26 weeks

927 769 905 835 -70

27 weeks and over

1,320 1,414 1,166 1,243 77

Employed persons at work part time

Part time for economic reasons

4,368 4,347 3,984 4,381 397

Slack work or business conditions

2,581 2,707 2,385 2,678 293

Could only find part-time work

1,377 1,337 1,364 1,351 -13

Part time for noneconomic reasons

21,803 21,524 21,437 21,697 260

Persons not in the labor force (not seasonally adjusted)

Marginally attached to the labor force

1,443 1,571 1,478 1,564 -

Discouraged workers

434 425 368 467 -

- Over-the-month changes are not displayed for not seasonally adjusted data.
NOTE: Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Summary table B. Establishment data, seasonally adjusted
Category Aug.
2018
June
2019
July
2019(p)
Aug.
2019(p)

EMPLOYMENT BY SELECTED INDUSTRY
(Over-the-month change, in thousands)

Total nonfarm

282 178 159 130

Total private

246 161 131 96

Goods-producing

50 27 -2 12

Mining and logging

8 -2 -4 -5

Construction

34 19 -2 14

Manufacturing

8 10 4 3

Durable goods(1)

12 9 2 0

Motor vehicles and parts

2.3 -2.0 -1.5 0.1

Nondurable goods

-4 1 2 3

Private service-providing

196 134 133 84

Wholesale trade

19.4 -1.1 7.3 2.9

Retail trade

5.9 -12.0 -5.1 -11.1

Transportation and warehousing

23.8 20.2 -0.3 -0.5

Utilities

0.6 1.2 -0.5 -1.4

Information

-6 13 0 0

Financial activities

11 3 20 15

Professional and business services(1)

58 43 36 37

Temporary help services

12.9 -2.9 -7.9 15.4

Education and health services(1)

60 48 71 32

Health care and social assistance

48.3 39.9 47.0 36.8

Leisure and hospitality

17 4 -3 12

Other services

6 15 7 -1

Government

36 17 28 34

(3-month average change, in thousands)

Total nonfarm

241 152 133 156

Total private

218 146 124 129

WOMEN AND PRODUCTION AND NONSUPERVISORY EMPLOYEES
AS A PERCENT OF ALL EMPLOYEES(2)

Total nonfarm women employees

49.7 49.8 49.9 49.9

Total private women employees

48.3 48.5 48.5 48.5

Total private production and nonsupervisory employees

82.4 82.3 82.3 82.3

HOURS AND EARNINGS
ALL EMPLOYEES

Total private

Average weekly hours

34.5 34.4 34.3 34.4

Average hourly earnings

$27.23 $27.91 $28.00 $28.11

Average weekly earnings

$939.44 $960.10 $960.40 $966.98

Index of aggregate weekly hours (2007=100)(3)

110.0 111.1 110.9 111.3

Over-the-month percent change

0.3 0.1 -0.2 0.4

Index of aggregate weekly payrolls (2007=100)(4)

143.1 148.3 148.5 149.6

Over-the-month percent change

0.6 0.5 0.1 0.7

DIFFUSION INDEX
(Over 1-month span)(5)

Total private (258 industries)

66.1 59.9 57.8 53.5

Manufacturing (76 industries)

60.5 59.9 53.9 51.3

Footnotes
(1) Includes other industries, not shown separately.
(2) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries.
(3) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding annual average aggregate hours.
(4) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding annual average aggregate weekly payrolls.
(5) Figures are the percent of industries with employment increasing plus one-half of the industries with unchanged employment, where 50 percent indicates an equal balance between industries with increasing and decreasing employment.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2018 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


Frequently Asked Questions about Employment and Unemployment Estimates

1. Why are there two monthly measures of employment?

   The household survey and establishment survey both produce sample-based estimates
   of employment, and both have strengths and limitations. The establishment survey
   employment series has a smaller margin of error on the measurement of month-to-
   month change than the household survey because of its much larger sample size. An
   over-the-month employment change of about 100,000 is statistically significant in
   the establishment survey, while the threshold for a statistically significant change
   in the household survey is about 500,000. However, the household survey has a more
   expansive scope than the establishment survey because it includes self-employed
   workers whose businesses are unincorporated, unpaid family workers, agricultural
   workers, and private household workers, who are excluded by the establishment survey.
   The household survey also provides estimates of employment for demographic groups.
   For more information on the differences between the two surveys, please visit
   https://www.bls.gov/web/empsit/ces_cps_trends.htm.

2. Are undocumented immigrants counted in the surveys?

   It is likely that both surveys include at least some undocumented immigrants. However,
   neither the establishment nor the household survey is designed to identify the legal
   status of workers. Therefore, it is not possible to determine how many are counted in
   either survey. The establishment survey does not collect data on the legal status of
   workers. The household survey does include questions which identify the foreign and
   native born, but it does not include questions about the legal status of the foreign
   born. Data on the foreign and native born are published each month in table A-7 of
   The Employment Situation news release.

3. Why does the establishment survey have revisions?

   The establishment survey revises published estimates to improve its data series by
   incorporating additional information that was not available at the time of the
   initial publication of the estimates. The establishment survey revises its initial
   monthly estimates twice, in the immediately succeeding 2 months, to incorporate
   additional sample receipts from respondents in the survey and recalculated seasonal
   adjustment factors. For more information on the monthly revisions, please visit
   https://www.bls.gov/ces/cesrevinfo.htm.

   On an annual basis, the establishment survey incorporates a benchmark revision that
   re-anchors estimates to nearly complete employment counts available from unemployment
   insurance tax records. The benchmark helps to control for sampling and modeling errors
   in the estimates. For more information on the annual benchmark revision, please visit
   https://www.bls.gov/web/empsit/cesbmart.htm.

4. Does the establishment survey sample include small firms?

   Yes; about 40 percent of the establishment survey sample is comprised of business
   establishments with fewer than 20 employees. The establishment survey sample is
   designed to maximize the reliability of the statewide total nonfarm employment
   estimate; firms from all states, size classes, and industries are appropriately
   sampled to achieve that goal.

5. Does the establishment survey account for employment from new businesses?

   Yes; monthly establishment survey estimates include an adjustment to account for
   the net employment change generated by business births and deaths. The adjustment
   comes from an econometric model that forecasts the monthly net jobs impact of
   business births and deaths based on the actual past values of the net impact that
   can be observed with a lag from the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages. The
   establishment survey uses modeling rather than sampling for this purpose because
   the survey is not immediately able to bring new businesses into the sample. There
   is an unavoidable lag between the birth of a new firm and its appearance on the
   sampling frame and availability for selection. BLS adds new businesses to the survey
   twice a year.

6. Is the count of unemployed persons limited to just those people receiving unemployment
   insurance benefits?

   No; the estimate of unemployment is based on a monthly sample survey of households.
   All persons who are without jobs and are actively seeking and available to work are
   included among the unemployed. (People on temporary layoff are included even if
   they do not actively seek work.) There is no requirement or question relating to
   unemployment insurance benefits in the monthly survey.

7. Does the official unemployment rate exclude people who want a job but are not currently
   looking for work?

   Yes; however, there are separate estimates of persons outside the labor force who
   want a job, including those who are not currently looking because they believe no
   jobs are available (discouraged workers). In addition, alternative measures of labor
   underutilization (some of which include discouraged workers and other groups not
   officially counted as unemployed) are published each month in table A-15 of The
   Employment Situation news release. For more information about these alternative
   measures, please visit https://www.bls.gov/cps/lfcharacteristics.htm#altmeasures.

8. How can unusually severe weather affect employment and hours estimates?

   In the establishment survey, the reference period is the pay period that includes
   the 12th of the month. Unusually severe weather is more likely to have an impact on
   average weekly hours than on employment. Average weekly hours are estimated for paid
   time during the pay period, including pay for holidays, sick leave, or other time off.
   The impact of severe weather on hours estimates typically, but not always, results in
   a reduction in average weekly hours. For example, some employees may be off work for
   part of the pay period and not receive pay for the time missed, while some workers,
   such as those dealing with cleanup or repair, may work extra hours.
   
   Typically, it is not possible to precisely quantify the effect of extreme weather on 
   payroll employment estimates. In order for severe weather conditions to reduce
   employment estimates, employees have to be off work without pay for the entire pay
   period. Employees who receive pay for any part of the pay period, even 1 hour, are
   counted in the payroll employment figures. For more information on how often employees
   are paid, please visit https://www.bls.gov/opub/btn/volume-3/how-frequently-do-private-
   businesses-pay-workers.htm.

   In the household survey, the reference period is generally the calendar week that
   includes the 12th of the month. Persons who miss the entire week's work for weather-
   related events are counted as employed whether or not they are paid for the time
   off. The household survey collects data on the number of persons who had a job but
   were not at work due to bad weather. It also provides a measure of the number of
   persons who usually work full time but had reduced hours due to bad weather. 
   Current and historical data are available on the household survey's most requested
   statistics page, please visit https://data.bls.gov/cgi-bin/surveymost?ln.




Technical Note


   This news release presents statistics from two major surveys, the Current
Population Survey (CPS; household survey) and the Current Employment Statistics
survey (CES; establishment survey). The household survey provides information
on the labor force, employment, and unemployment that appears in the "A" tables,
marked HOUSEHOLD DATA. It is a sample survey of about 60,000 eligible households
conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau for the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS).

   The establishment survey provides information on employment, hours, and
earnings of employees on nonfarm payrolls; the data appear in the "B" tables,
marked ESTABLISHMENT DATA. BLS collects these data each month from the payroll
records of a sample of nonagricultural business establishments. Each month
the CES program surveys about 142,000 businesses and government agencies,
representing approximately 689,000 individual worksites, in order to provide
detailed industry data on employment, hours, and earnings of workers on nonfarm
payrolls. The active sample includes approximately one-third of all nonfarm
payroll employees.

   For both surveys, the data for a given month relate to a particular week or
pay period. In the household survey, the reference period is generally the
calendar week that contains the 12th day of the month. In the establishment
survey, the reference period is the pay period including the 12th, which may or
may not correspond directly to the calendar week.

Coverage, definitions, and differences between surveys

   Household survey. The sample is selected to reflect the entire civilian 
noninstitutional population. Based on responses to a series of questions on 
work and job search activities, each person 16 years and over in a sample
household is classified as employed, unemployed, or not in the labor force.

   People are classified as employed if they did any work at all as paid employees
during the reference week; worked in their own business, profession, or on their
own farm; or worked without pay at least 15 hours in a family business or farm.
People are also counted as employed if they were temporarily absent from their jobs
because of illness, bad weather, vacation, labor-management disputes, or personal
reasons.

   People are classified as unemployed if they meet all of the following criteria:
they had no employment during the reference week; they were available for work at
that time; and they made specific efforts to find employment sometime during the
4-week period ending with the reference week. Persons laid off from a job and
expecting recall need not be looking for work to be counted as unemployed. The
unemployment data derived from the household survey in no way depend upon the
eligibility for or receipt of unemployment insurance benefits.

   The civilian labor force is the sum of employed and unemployed persons.
Those persons not classified as employed or unemployed are not in the labor 
force. The unemployment rate is the number unemployed as a percent of the 
labor force. The labor force participation rate is the labor force as a 
percent of the population, and the employment-population ratio is the 
employed as a percent of the population. Additional information about the 
household survey can be found at https://www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm.

   Establishment survey. The sample establishments are drawn from private
nonfarm businesses such as factories, offices, and stores, as well as
from federal, state, and local government entities. Employees on nonfarm
payrolls are those who worked or received pay for any part of the reference pay
period, including persons on paid leave. Persons are counted in each job
they hold. Hours and earnings data are produced for the private sector for
all employees and for production and nonsupervisory employees. Production
and nonsupervisory employees are defined as production and related employees
in manufacturing and mining and logging, construction workers in construction,
and nonsupervisory employees in private service-providing industries.

   Industries are classified on the basis of an establishment's principal
activity in accordance with the 2017 version of the North American Industry
Classification System. Additional information about the establishment survey
can be found at https://www.bls.gov/ces/.

   Differences in employment estimates. The numerous conceptual and methodological
differences between the household and establishment  surveys result in important
distinctions in the employment estimates derived from the surveys. Among these are:

   --The household survey includes agricultural workers, self-employed workers
     whose businesses are unincorporated, unpaid family workers, and private
     household workers among the employed. These groups are excluded from the
     establishment survey.

   --The household survey includes people on unpaid leave among the employed.
     The establishment survey does not.

   --The household survey is limited to workers 16 years of age and older.
     The establishment survey is not limited by age.

   --The household survey has no duplication of individuals, because
     individuals are counted only once, even if they hold more than one
     job. In the establishment survey, employees working at more than one
     job and thus appearing on more than one payroll are counted separately
     for each appearance.

Seasonal adjustment

   Over the course of a year, the size of the nation's labor force and the levels
of employment and unemployment undergo regularly occurring fluctuations. These 
events may result from seasonal changes in weather, major holidays, and the opening
and closing of schools. The effect of such seasonal variation can be very large.

   Because these seasonal events follow a more or less regular pattern each year,
their influence on the level of a series can be tempered by adjusting for regular
seasonal variation. These adjustments make nonseasonal developments, such as
declines in employment or increases in the participation of women in the labor
force, easier to spot. For example, in the household survey, the large number of
youth entering the labor force each June is likely to obscure any other changes
that have taken place relative to May, making it difficult to determine if the 
level of economic activity has risen or declined. Similarly, in the establishment
survey, payroll employment in education declines by about 20 percent at the end
of the spring term and later rises with the start of the fall term, obscuring the
underlying employment trends in the industry. Because seasonal employment changes
at the end and beginning of the school year can be estimated, the statistics can be
adjusted to make underlying employment patterns more discernable.  The seasonally
adjusted figures provide a more useful tool with which to analyze changes in
month-to-month economic activity.

   Many seasonally adjusted series are independently adjusted in both the household
and establishment surveys. However, the adjusted series for many major estimates,
such as total payroll employment, employment in most major sectors, total employment,
and unemployment are computed by aggregating independently adjusted component series.
For example, total unemployment is derived by summing the adjusted series for four
major age-sex components; this differs from the unemployment estimate that would be
obtained by directly adjusting the total or by combining
the duration, reasons, or more detailed age categories.

   For both the household and establishment surveys, a concurrent seasonal adjustment
methodology is used in which new seasonal factors are calculated each month using all
relevant data, up to and including the data for the current month. In the household
survey, new seasonal factors are used to adjust only the current month's data. In the
establishment survey, however, new seasonal factors are used each month to adjust the
three most recent monthly estimates. The prior 2 months are routinely revised to
incorporate additional sample reports and recalculated seasonal adjustment factors.
In both surveys, 5-year revisions to historical data are made once a year.

Reliability of the estimates

   Statistics based on the household and establishment surveys are subject to both
sampling and nonsampling error. When a sample, rather than the entire population,
is surveyed, there is a chance that the sample estimates may differ from the true
population values they represent. The component of this difference that occurs
because samples differ by chance is known as sampling error, and its variability
is measured by the standard error of the estimate. There is about a 90-percent
chance, or level of confidence, that an estimate based on a sample will differ by
no more than 1.6 standard errors from the true population value because of sampling
error. BLS analyses are generally conducted at the 90-percent level of confidence.

   For example, the confidence interval for the monthly change in total nonfarm
employment from the establishment survey is on the order of plus or minus 110,000.
Suppose the estimate of nonfarm employment increases by 50,000 from one month to
the next. The 90-percent confidence interval on the monthly change would range from
-60,000 to +160,000 (50,000 +/- 110,000). These figures do not mean that the sample
results are off by these magnitudes, but rather that there is about a 90-percent
chance that the true over-the-month change lies within this interval. Since this
range includes values of less than zero, we could not say with confidence that
nonfarm employment had, in fact, increased that month. If, however, the reported
nonfarm employment rise was 250,000, then all of the values within the 90- percent
confidence interval would be greater than zero. In this case, it is likely (at
least a 90-percent chance) that nonfarm employment had, in fact, risen that month.
At an unemployment rate of around 6.0 percent, the 90-percent confidence interval
for the monthly change in unemployment as measured by the household survey is
about +/- 300,000, and for the monthly change in the unemployment rate it is about
+/- 0.2 percentage point.

   In general, estimates involving many individuals or establishments have lower
standard errors (relative to the size of the estimate) than estimates which are based
on a small number of observations. The precision of estimates also is improved when
the data are cumulated over time, such as for quarterly and annual averages.

   The household and establishment surveys are also affected by nonsampling error,
which can occur for many reasons, including the failure to sample a segment of the
population, inability to obtain information for all respondents in the sample,
inability or unwillingness of respondents to provide correct information on a
timely basis, mistakes made by respondents, and errors made in the collection or
processing of the data.

   For example, in the establishment survey, estimates for the most recent 2 months
are based on incomplete returns; for this reason, these estimates are labeled
preliminary in the tables. It is only after two successive revisions to a monthly
estimate, when nearly all sample reports have been received, that the estimate is
considered final.

   Another major source of nonsampling error in the establishment survey is the
inability to capture, on a timely basis, employment generated by new firms. To
correct for this systematic underestimation of employment growth, an estimation
procedure with two components is used to account for business births. The first
component excludes employment losses from business deaths from sample-based
estimation in order to offset the missing employment gains from business births.
This is incorporated into the sample-based estimation procedure by simply not
reflecting sample units going out of business, but imputing to them the same
employment trend as the other firms in the sample. This procedure accounts for
most of the net birth/death employment.

   The second component is an ARIMA time series model designed to estimate the
residual net birth/death employment not accounted for by the imputation. The
historical time series used to create and test the ARIMA model was derived from
the unemployment insurance universe micro- level database, and reflects the actual
residual net of births and deaths over the past 5 years.

   The sample-based estimates from the establishment survey are adjusted once a
year (on a lagged basis) to universe counts of payroll employment obtained from
administrative records of the unemployment insurance program. The difference 
between the March sample-based employment estimates and the March universe counts
is known as a benchmark revision, and serves as a rough proxy for total survey
error. The new benchmarks also incorporate changes in the classification of
industries. Over the past decade, absolute benchmark revisions for total nonfarm
employment have averaged 0.3 percent, with a range from -0.7 percent to 0.6 percent.

Other information

   Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired
individuals upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay
Service: (800) 877-8339.




HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-1. Employment status of the civilian population by sex and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Aug.
2018
July
2019
Aug.
2019
Aug.
2018
Apr.
2019
May
2019
June
2019
July
2019
Aug.
2019

TOTAL

Civilian noninstitutional population

258,066 259,225 259,432 258,066 258,693 258,861 259,037 259,225 259,432

Civilian labor force

161,909 164,941 164,019 161,802 162,470 162,646 162,981 163,351 163,922

Participation rate

62.7 63.6 63.2 62.7 62.8 62.8 62.9 63.0 63.2

Employed

155,539 158,385 157,816 155,604 156,645 156,758 157,005 157,288 157,878

Employment-population ratio

60.3 61.1 60.8 60.3 60.6 60.6 60.6 60.7 60.9

Unemployed

6,370 6,556 6,203 6,197 5,824 5,888 5,975 6,063 6,044

Unemployment rate

3.9 4.0 3.8 3.8 3.6 3.6 3.7 3.7 3.7

Not in labor force

96,157 94,284 95,413 96,264 96,223 96,215 96,057 95,874 95,510

Persons who currently want a job

5,534 5,289 5,331 5,401 5,121 5,045 5,322 5,043 5,150

Men, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

124,816 125,378 125,481 124,816 125,114 125,197 125,285 125,378 125,481

Civilian labor force

86,212 88,025 87,155 85,868 86,179 86,377 86,479 86,805 86,832

Participation rate

69.1 70.2 69.5 68.8 68.9 69.0 69.0 69.2 69.2

Employed

83,062 84,798 84,077 82,565 82,959 83,192 83,293 83,584 83,600

Employment-population ratio

66.5 67.6 67.0 66.1 66.3 66.4 66.5 66.7 66.6

Unemployed

3,150 3,227 3,078 3,303 3,221 3,185 3,185 3,221 3,233

Unemployment rate

3.7 3.7 3.5 3.8 3.7 3.7 3.7 3.7 3.7

Not in labor force

38,604 37,353 38,326 38,948 38,935 38,820 38,806 38,573 38,649

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

116,328 116,939 117,040 116,328 116,665 116,752 116,843 116,939 117,040

Civilian labor force

83,140 84,284 83,939 83,044 83,373 83,561 83,501 83,794 83,868

Participation rate

71.5 72.1 71.7 71.4 71.5 71.6 71.5 71.7 71.7

Employed

80,409 81,561 81,272 80,149 80,576 80,766 80,718 80,981 81,039

Employment-population ratio

69.1 69.7 69.4 68.9 69.1 69.2 69.1 69.3 69.2

Unemployed

2,731 2,723 2,667 2,895 2,797 2,795 2,783 2,814 2,830

Unemployment rate

3.3 3.2 3.2 3.5 3.4 3.3 3.3 3.4 3.4

Not in labor force

33,188 32,655 33,101 33,284 33,292 33,191 33,341 33,144 33,171

Women, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

133,250 133,847 133,951 133,250 133,579 133,664 133,753 133,847 133,951

Civilian labor force

75,697 76,916 76,864 75,934 76,291 76,269 76,502 76,546 77,090

Participation rate

56.8 57.5 57.4 57.0 57.1 57.1 57.2 57.2 57.6

Employed

72,477 73,587 73,740 73,039 73,687 73,566 73,712 73,705 74,278

Employment-population ratio

54.4 55.0 55.0 54.8 55.2 55.0 55.1 55.1 55.5

Unemployed

3,220 3,329 3,125 2,895 2,604 2,703 2,790 2,841 2,812

Unemployment rate

4.3 4.3 4.1 3.8 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.6

Not in labor force

57,553 56,931 57,087 57,316 57,288 57,395 57,251 57,301 56,861

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

124,983 125,604 125,705 124,983 125,332 125,419 125,509 125,604 125,705

Civilian labor force

72,782 73,269 73,756 73,153 73,419 73,347 73,579 73,548 74,123

Participation rate

58.2 58.3 58.7 58.5 58.6 58.5 58.6 58.6 59.0

Employed

69,880 70,415 70,983 70,563 71,131 70,981 71,139 71,069 71,655

Employment-population ratio

55.9 56.1 56.5 56.5 56.8 56.6 56.7 56.6 57.0

Unemployed

2,902 2,853 2,773 2,590 2,288 2,366 2,441 2,479 2,468

Unemployment rate

4.0 3.9 3.8 3.5 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.3

Not in labor force

52,201 52,336 51,949 51,829 51,913 52,071 51,929 52,057 51,582

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian noninstitutional population

16,755 16,682 16,687 16,755 16,696 16,690 16,686 16,682 16,687

Civilian labor force

5,987 7,389 6,324 5,604 5,678 5,738 5,900 6,009 5,931

Participation rate

35.7 44.3 37.9 33.4 34.0 34.4 35.4 36.0 35.5

Employed

5,250 6,409 5,560 4,892 4,938 5,011 5,148 5,239 5,184

Employment-population ratio

31.3 38.4 33.3 29.2 29.6 30.0 30.9 31.4 31.1

Unemployed

737 980 763 712 740 726 751 770 747

Unemployment rate

12.3 13.3 12.1 12.7 13.0 12.7 12.7 12.8 12.6

Not in labor force

10,767 9,293 10,363 11,151 11,018 10,953 10,786 10,673 10,756

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-2. Employment status of the civilian population by race, sex, and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, race, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Aug.
2018
July
2019
Aug.
2019
Aug.
2018
Apr.
2019
May
2019
June
2019
July
2019
Aug.
2019

WHITE

Civilian noninstitutional population

200,356 200,843 200,953 200,356 200,576 200,658 200,746 200,843 200,953

Civilian labor force

125,462 127,549 126,920 125,347 125,900 125,980 126,244 126,345 126,765

Participation rate

62.6 63.5 63.2 62.6 62.8 62.8 62.9 62.9 63.1

Employed

121,040 122,968 122,439 121,074 121,944 121,883 122,125 122,144 122,471

Employment-population ratio

60.4 61.2 60.9 60.4 60.8 60.7 60.8 60.8 60.9

Unemployed

4,421 4,580 4,481 4,272 3,957 4,097 4,119 4,201 4,293

Unemployment rate

3.5 3.6 3.5 3.4 3.1 3.3 3.3 3.3 3.4

Not in labor force

74,894 73,294 74,033 75,009 74,676 74,678 74,502 74,498 74,188

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

65,601 66,301 66,119 65,527 65,802 65,973 65,928 65,994 66,066

Participation rate

71.5 72.1 71.8 71.4 71.6 71.8 71.7 71.7 71.8

Employed

63,702 64,399 64,252 63,513 63,896 64,042 64,009 64,005 64,094

Employment-population ratio

69.4 70.0 69.8 69.2 69.6 69.7 69.6 69.6 69.6

Unemployed

1,899 1,902 1,867 2,014 1,906 1,931 1,919 1,989 1,972

Unemployment rate

2.9 2.9 2.8 3.1 2.9 2.9 2.9 3.0 3.0

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

55,100 55,479 55,839 55,372 55,671 55,526 55,704 55,663 56,063

Participation rate

57.2 57.4 57.8 57.5 57.7 57.5 57.7 57.6 58.0

Employed

53,100 53,481 53,798 53,616 54,133 53,869 53,993 53,988 54,286

Employment-population ratio

55.1 55.4 55.7 55.7 56.1 55.8 55.9 55.9 56.2

Unemployed

2,000 1,998 2,042 1,757 1,538 1,657 1,711 1,675 1,776

Unemployment rate

3.6 3.6 3.7 3.2 2.8 3.0 3.1 3.0 3.2

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

4,761 5,768 4,962 4,447 4,427 4,482 4,612 4,687 4,636

Participation rate

38.7 47.1 40.5 36.1 36.1 36.6 37.7 38.3 37.9

Employed

4,239 5,088 4,389 3,945 3,915 3,972 4,123 4,151 4,091

Employment-population ratio

34.4 41.6 35.9 32.1 31.9 32.4 33.7 33.9 33.4

Unemployed

522 680 573 501 512 510 489 536 545

Unemployment rate

11.0 11.8 11.5 11.3 11.6 11.4 10.6 11.4 11.8

BLACK OR AFRICAN AMERICAN

Civilian noninstitutional population

32,810 33,045 33,081 32,810 32,955 32,984 33,014 33,045 33,081

Civilian labor force

20,452 20,942 20,645 20,384 20,589 20,562 20,430 20,714 20,588

Participation rate

62.3 63.4 62.4 62.1 62.5 62.3 61.9 62.7 62.2

Employed

19,114 19,622 19,503 19,108 19,219 19,280 19,199 19,481 19,463

Employment-population ratio

58.3 59.4 59.0 58.2 58.3 58.5 58.2 59.0 58.8

Unemployed

1,338 1,319 1,143 1,276 1,370 1,282 1,231 1,233 1,125

Unemployment rate

6.5 6.3 5.5 6.3 6.7 6.2 6.0 6.0 5.5

Not in labor force

12,358 12,103 12,435 12,426 12,366 12,421 12,584 12,331 12,492

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

9,431 9,600 9,546 9,394 9,456 9,422 9,303 9,502 9,490

Participation rate

68.6 69.1 68.7 68.3 68.3 68.0 67.1 68.4 68.3

Employed

8,884 9,061 9,005 8,828 8,811 8,833 8,768 8,953 8,931

Employment-population ratio

64.6 65.3 64.8 64.2 63.7 63.8 63.2 64.5 64.2

Unemployed

546 540 540 565 645 589 535 549 559

Unemployment rate

5.8 5.6 5.7 6.0 6.8 6.3 5.8 5.8 5.9

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

10,345 10,388 10,346 10,356 10,411 10,469 10,396 10,421 10,379

Participation rate

62.4 62.2 61.9 62.5 62.5 62.8 62.3 62.4 62.1

Employed

9,690 9,800 9,858 9,769 9,859 9,934 9,846 9,877 9,926

Employment-population ratio

58.5 58.7 59.0 59.0 59.2 59.6 59.0 59.2 59.4

Unemployed

655 588 488 587 552 535 550 544 453

Unemployment rate

6.3 5.7 4.7 5.7 5.3 5.1 5.3 5.2 4.4

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

676 954 753 634 722 671 731 790 719

Participation rate

27.1 38.8 30.6 25.4 29.2 27.2 29.7 32.1 29.2

Employed

539 762 639 510 549 513 586 650 605

Employment-population ratio

21.6 31.0 26.0 20.5 22.2 20.8 23.8 26.4 24.6

Unemployed

137 192 114 124 173 158 145 140 113

Unemployment rate

20.3 20.1 15.2 19.5 24.0 23.5 19.9 17.7 15.7

ASIAN

Civilian noninstitutional population

16,093 16,399 16,433 16,093 16,290 16,361 16,557 16,399 16,433

Civilian labor force

10,279 10,519 10,554 10,260 10,180 10,304 10,526 10,449 10,524

Participation rate

63.9 64.1 64.2 63.8 62.5 63.0 63.6 63.7 64.0

Employed

9,967 10,205 10,248 9,951 9,957 10,046 10,303 10,160 10,225

Employment-population ratio

61.9 62.2 62.4 61.8 61.1 61.4 62.2 62.0 62.2

Unemployed

312 314 306 309 223 258 222 289 299

Unemployment rate

3.0 3.0 2.9 3.0 2.2 2.5 2.1 2.8 2.8

Not in labor force

5,814 5,881 5,879 5,832 6,110 6,058 6,032 5,950 5,909

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Estimates for the above race groups will not sum to totals shown in table A-1 because data are not presented for all races. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-3. Employment status of the Hispanic or Latino population by sex and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Aug.
2018
July
2019
Aug.
2019
Aug.
2018
Apr.
2019
May
2019
June
2019
July
2019
Aug.
2019

HISPANIC OR LATINO ETHNICITY

Civilian noninstitutional population

42,863 43,537 43,630 42,863 43,289 43,370 43,453 43,537 43,630

Civilian labor force

28,219 29,097 29,065 28,253 28,546 28,689 28,855 28,896 29,082

Participation rate

65.8 66.8 66.6 65.9 65.9 66.2 66.4 66.4 66.7

Employed

26,898 27,733 27,849 26,935 27,348 27,493 27,602 27,581 27,866

Employment-population ratio

62.8 63.7 63.8 62.8 63.2 63.4 63.5 63.4 63.9

Unemployed

1,322 1,365 1,216 1,317 1,198 1,196 1,253 1,314 1,216

Unemployment rate

4.7 4.7 4.2 4.7 4.2 4.2 4.3 4.5 4.2

Not in labor force

14,644 14,440 14,565 14,610 14,743 14,681 14,599 14,642 14,548

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

15,428 15,702 15,726 15,425 15,611 15,731 15,659 15,651 15,718

Participation rate

79.7 79.9 79.8 79.7 79.9 80.4 79.8 79.6 79.8

Employed

14,899 15,133 15,244 14,852 15,028 15,188 15,093 15,017 15,186

Employment-population ratio

77.0 77.0 77.4 76.8 76.9 77.6 76.9 76.4 77.1

Unemployed

528 569 482 574 583 543 566 634 532

Unemployment rate

3.4 3.6 3.1 3.7 3.7 3.4 3.6 4.0 3.4

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

11,513 11,869 12,034 11,608 11,762 11,810 11,885 11,929 12,113

Participation rate

58.8 59.7 60.4 59.3 59.5 59.6 59.9 60.0 60.8

Employed

10,902 11,382 11,494 11,025 11,330 11,330 11,382 11,480 11,604

Employment-population ratio

55.7 57.2 57.7 56.3 57.3 57.2 57.3 57.7 58.2

Unemployed

611 487 540 582 432 480 503 449 509

Unemployment rate

5.3 4.1 4.5 5.0 3.7 4.1 4.2 3.8 4.2

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

1,279 1,527 1,305 1,220 1,172 1,149 1,310 1,316 1,251

Participation rate

32.4 38.3 32.6 30.9 29.5 28.9 32.9 33.0 31.3

Employed

1,097 1,218 1,111 1,058 989 975 1,126 1,084 1,076

Employment-population ratio

27.8 30.5 27.8 26.8 24.9 24.5 28.3 27.2 26.9

Unemployed

182 309 194 161 183 174 184 232 175

Unemployment rate

14.2 20.2 14.9 13.2 15.6 15.1 14.0 17.6 14.0

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-4. Employment status of the civilian population 25 years and over by educational attainment
[Numbers in thousands]
Educational attainment Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Aug.
2018
July
2019
Aug.
2019
Aug.
2018
Apr.
2019
May
2019
June
2019
July
2019
Aug.
2019

Less than a high school diploma

Civilian labor force

10,307 9,812 10,062 10,310 9,996 9,915 10,025 9,975 10,032

Participation rate

46.3 46.3 47.3 46.3 45.3 44.6 45.4 47.1 47.1

Employed

9,790 9,358 9,585 9,722 9,460 9,383 9,489 9,466 9,490

Employment-population ratio

44.0 44.2 45.0 43.7 42.8 42.2 43.0 44.7 44.6

Unemployed

516 455 477 588 536 533 536 509 542

Unemployment rate

5.0 4.6 4.7 5.7 5.4 5.4 5.3 5.1 5.4

High school graduates, no college(1)

Civilian labor force

36,344 36,303 36,554 36,132 35,901 35,781 36,120 36,286 36,318

Participation rate

57.6 57.5 57.7 57.3 57.9 57.4 57.8 57.5 57.3

Employed

34,919 35,005 35,252 34,718 34,662 34,522 34,715 34,982 35,023

Employment-population ratio

55.4 55.5 55.6 55.1 55.9 55.4 55.6 55.4 55.3

Unemployed

1,425 1,297 1,302 1,414 1,239 1,259 1,404 1,304 1,295

Unemployment rate

3.9 3.6 3.6 3.9 3.5 3.5 3.9 3.6 3.6

Some college or associate degree

Civilian labor force

36,930 37,213 37,404 37,296 37,290 37,614 37,200 37,222 37,710

Participation rate

64.9 65.0 65.1 65.6 64.6 65.3 64.7 65.0 65.6

Employed

35,552 35,982 36,191 35,977 36,141 36,569 36,069 36,028 36,549

Employment-population ratio

62.5 62.8 63.0 63.2 62.6 63.5 62.7 62.9 63.6

Unemployed

1,378 1,230 1,213 1,320 1,149 1,045 1,132 1,194 1,161

Unemployment rate

3.7 3.3 3.2 3.5 3.1 2.8 3.0 3.2 3.1

Bachelor's degree and higher(2)

Civilian labor force

57,237 58,303 58,295 57,686 58,381 58,217 58,510 58,664 58,800

Participation rate

73.5 73.0 73.2 74.1 73.9 73.8 73.8 73.4 73.9

Employed

55,906 56,844 56,891 56,508 57,179 56,980 57,275 57,399 57,551

Employment-population ratio

71.8 71.1 71.5 72.6 72.3 72.2 72.3 71.8 72.3

Unemployed

1,331 1,459 1,405 1,178 1,202 1,237 1,235 1,265 1,249

Unemployment rate

2.3 2.5 2.4 2.0 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.2 2.1

Footnotes
(1) Includes persons with a high school diploma or equivalent.
(2) Includes persons with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-5. Employment status of the civilian population 18 years and over by veteran status, period of service, and sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, veteran status, and period of service Total Men Women
Aug.
2018
Aug.
2019
Aug.
2018
Aug.
2019
Aug.
2018
Aug.
2019

VETERANS, 18 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

19,151 18,776 17,283 16,890 1,868 1,886

Civilian labor force

9,388 9,196 8,250 8,110 1,138 1,086

Participation rate

49.0 49.0 47.7 48.0 60.9 57.6

Employed

9,031 8,873 7,944 7,821 1,087 1,052

Employment-population ratio

47.2 47.3 46.0 46.3 58.2 55.8

Unemployed

357 323 307 289 51 34

Unemployment rate

3.8 3.5 3.7 3.6 4.5 3.2

Not in labor force

9,763 9,580 9,033 8,780 730 800

Gulf War-era II veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

4,159 4,360 3,420 3,619 740 740

Civilian labor force

3,343 3,478 2,804 2,989 539 490

Participation rate

80.4 79.8 82.0 82.6 72.9 66.2

Employed

3,213 3,339 2,698 2,866 515 473

Employment-population ratio

77.3 76.6 78.9 79.2 69.6 63.9

Unemployed

130 140 106 123 24 17

Unemployment rate

3.9 4.0 3.8 4.1 4.4 3.4

Not in labor force

816 881 615 631 201 251

Gulf War-era I veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

3,099 3,059 2,639 2,567 459 493

Civilian labor force

2,449 2,336 2,122 1,998 327 338

Participation rate

79.0 76.4 80.4 77.8 71.2 68.6

Employed

2,373 2,257 2,056 1,927 317 330

Employment-population ratio

76.6 73.8 77.9 75.1 69.1 67.0

Unemployed

76 80 66 71 10 8

Unemployment rate

3.1 3.4 3.1 3.6 3.0 2.5

Not in labor force

649 723 517 569 132 155

World War II, Korean War, and Vietnam-era veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

7,573 7,162 7,315 6,915 258 247

Civilian labor force

1,551 1,429 1,508 1,380 44 49

Participation rate

20.5 19.9 20.6 20.0 16.9 19.8

Employed

1,481 1,387 1,440 1,345 41 43

Employment-population ratio

19.6 19.4 19.7 19.4 15.7 17.4

Unemployed

71 41 68 35 3 6

Unemployment rate

4.6 2.9 4.5 2.6 - -

Not in labor force

6,022 5,733 5,807 5,535 214 198

Veterans of other service periods

Civilian noninstitutional population

4,320 4,195 3,909 3,789 411 406

Civilian labor force

2,044 1,953 1,816 1,744 228 209

Participation rate

47.3 46.6 46.5 46.0 55.5 51.5

Employed

1,963 1,890 1,749 1,684 214 206

Employment-population ratio

45.4 45.1 44.7 44.4 52.1 50.8

Unemployed

81 63 67 59 14 3

Unemployment rate

4.0 3.2 3.7 3.4 6.2 1.5

Not in labor force

2,276 2,242 2,093 2,045 183 197

NONVETERANS, 18 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

230,011 232,023 103,000 104,201 127,012 127,821

Civilian labor force

150,271 152,502 76,886 77,872 73,386 74,630

Participation rate

65.3 65.7 74.6 74.7 57.8 58.4

Employed

144,538 146,893 74,183 75,226 70,355 71,667

Employment-population ratio

62.8 63.3 72.0 72.2 55.4 56.1

Unemployed

5,733 5,609 2,702 2,646 3,031 2,963

Unemployment rate

3.8 3.7 3.5 3.4 4.1 4.0

Not in labor force

79,740 79,520 26,114 26,329 53,626 53,191

NOTE: Veterans served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces and were not on active duty at the time of the survey. Nonveterans never served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces. Veterans could have served anywhere in the world during these periods of service: Gulf War era II (September 2001-present), Gulf War era I (August 1990-August 2001), Vietnam era (August 1964-April 1975), Korean War (July 1950-January 1955), World War II (December 1941-December 1946), and other service periods (all other time periods). Veterans who served in more than one wartime period are classified only in the most recent one. Veterans who served during one of the selected wartime periods and another period are classified only in the wartime period. Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria (values not shown where base is less than 75,000).


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-6. Employment status of the civilian population by sex, age, and disability status, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Persons with a disability Persons with no disability
Aug.
2018
Aug.
2019
Aug.
2018
Aug.
2019

TOTAL, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

29,823 30,067 228,243 229,365

Civilian labor force

6,207 6,413 155,702 157,606

Participation rate

20.8 21.3 68.2 68.7

Employed

5,713 5,954 149,826 151,862

Employment-population ratio

19.2 19.8 65.6 66.2

Unemployed

494 459 5,876 5,743

Unemployment rate

8.0 7.2 3.8 3.6

Not in labor force

23,616 23,654 72,540 71,759

Men, 16 to 64 years

Civilian labor force

2,651 2,700 77,953 78,432

Participation rate

35.1 36.4 82.8 83.3

Employed

2,429 2,506 75,207 75,717

Employment-population ratio

32.2 33.8 79.9 80.4

Unemployed

222 194 2,746 2,714

Unemployment rate

8.4 7.2 3.5 3.5

Not in labor force

4,896 4,713 16,221 15,756

Women, 16 to 64 years

Civilian labor force

2,377 2,509 68,862 69,635

Participation rate

31.0 33.0 70.9 71.8

Employed

2,172 2,303 66,043 66,881

Employment-population ratio

28.3 30.3 68.0 68.9

Unemployed

205 206 2,819 2,754

Unemployment rate

8.6 8.2 4.1 4.0

Not in labor force

5,291 5,097 28,314 27,398

Both sexes, 65 years and over

Civilian labor force

1,179 1,204 8,887 9,539

Participation rate

8.1 8.0 24.1 25.0

Employed

1,112 1,145 8,576 9,264

Employment-population ratio

7.6 7.6 23.2 24.3

Unemployed

67 59 311 275

Unemployment rate

5.7 4.9 3.5 2.9

Not in labor force

13,429 13,843 28,006 28,605

NOTE: A person with a disability has at least one of the following conditions: is deaf or has serious difficulty hearing; is blind or has serious difficulty seeing even when wearing glasses; has serious difficulty concentrating, remembering, or making decisions because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition; has serious difficulty walking or climbing stairs; has difficulty dressing or bathing; or has difficulty doing errands alone such as visiting a doctor's office or shopping because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-7. Employment status of the civilian population by nativity and sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status and nativity Total Men Women
Aug.
2018
Aug.
2019
Aug.
2018
Aug.
2019
Aug.
2018
Aug.
2019

Foreign born, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

42,695 42,764 20,671 20,498 22,023 22,266

Civilian labor force

28,053 28,153 16,140 15,912 11,914 12,241

Participation rate

65.7 65.8 78.1 77.6 54.1 55.0

Employed

27,110 27,272 15,716 15,524 11,395 11,747

Employment-population ratio

63.5 63.8 76.0 75.7 51.7 52.8

Unemployed

943 881 424 388 519 493

Unemployment rate

3.4 3.1 2.6 2.4 4.4 4.0

Not in labor force

14,642 14,611 4,532 4,586 10,110 10,025

Native born, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

215,371 216,668 104,145 104,983 111,226 111,685

Civilian labor force

133,856 135,866 70,073 71,242 63,783 64,624

Participation rate

62.2 62.7 67.3 67.9 57.3 57.9

Employed

128,429 130,545 67,346 68,552 61,082 61,992

Employment-population ratio

59.6 60.3 64.7 65.3 54.9 55.5

Unemployed

5,427 5,322 2,726 2,690 2,701 2,632

Unemployment rate

4.1 3.9 3.9 3.8 4.2 4.1

Not in labor force

81,515 80,802 34,072 33,741 47,443 47,061

NOTE: The foreign born are those residing in the United States who were not U.S. citizens at birth. That is, they were born outside the United States or one of its outlying areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam, to parents neither of whom was a U.S. citizen. The native born are persons who were born in the United States or one of its outlying areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam or who were born abroad of at least one parent who was a U.S. citizen. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-8. Employed persons by class of worker and part-time status
[In thousands]
Category Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Aug.
2018
July
2019
Aug.
2019
Aug.
2018
Apr.
2019
May
2019
June
2019
July
2019
Aug.
2019

CLASS OF WORKER

Agriculture and related industries

2,465 2,569 2,501 2,346 2,394 2,432 2,320 2,402 2,400

Wage and salary workers(1)

1,660 1,707 1,665 1,534 1,687 1,724 1,482 1,577 1,560

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

789 821 817 771 690 690 778 779 789

Unpaid family workers

17 42 19 - - - - - -

Nonagricultural industries

153,074 155,816 155,315 153,376 154,271 154,314 154,725 154,904 155,528

Wage and salary workers(1)

144,183 146,774 146,376 144,380 145,675 145,590 145,906 145,880 146,480

Government

20,218 20,006 20,362 20,785 20,831 20,730 20,952 20,823 20,913

Private industries

123,965 126,768 126,014 123,584 124,892 124,870 124,901 125,012 125,602

Private households

782 808 869 - - - - - -

Other industries

123,183 125,960 125,145 122,806 124,075 124,064 124,115 124,224 124,745

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

8,812 8,995 8,863 8,872 8,569 8,711 8,766 8,945 8,891

Unpaid family workers

79 46 76 - - - - - -

PERSONS AT WORK PART TIME(2)

All industries

Part time for economic reasons(3)

4,319 4,102 4,316 4,368 4,654 4,355 4,347 3,984 4,381

Slack work or business conditions

2,521 2,387 2,623 2,581 2,891 2,646 2,707 2,385 2,678

Could only find part-time work

1,268 1,374 1,252 1,377 1,446 1,339 1,337 1,364 1,351

Part time for noneconomic reasons(4)

19,991 20,038 20,138 21,803 21,322 21,366 21,524 21,437 21,697

Nonagricultural industries

Part time for economic reasons(3)

4,263 4,017 4,237 4,311 4,589 4,241 4,258 3,878 4,295

Slack work or business conditions

2,492 2,329 2,560 2,546 2,865 2,565 2,669 2,323 2,634

Could only find part-time work

1,263 1,354 1,242 1,367 1,437 1,333 1,326 1,350 1,337

Part time for noneconomic reasons(4)

19,653 19,656 19,727 21,501 20,985 21,038 21,188 21,049 21,322

Footnotes
(1) Includes self-employed workers whose businesses are incorporated.
(2) Refers to those who worked 1 to 34 hours during the survey reference week and excludes employed persons who were absent from their jobs for the entire week.
(3) Refers to those who worked 1 to 34 hours during the reference week for an economic reason such as slack work or unfavorable business conditions, inability to find full-time work, or seasonal declines in demand.
(4) Refers to persons who usually work part time for noneconomic reasons such as childcare problems, family or personal obligations, school or training, retirement or Social Security limits on earnings, and other reasons. This excludes persons who usually work full time but worked only 1 to 34 hours during the reference week for reasons such as vacations, holidays, illness, and bad weather.

- Data not available.
NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-9. Selected employment indicators
[Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Aug.
2018
July
2019
Aug.
2019
Aug.
2018
Apr.
2019
May
2019
June
2019
July
2019
Aug.
2019

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

155,539 158,385 157,816 155,604 156,645 156,758 157,005 157,288 157,878

16 to 19 years

5,250 6,409 5,560 4,892 4,938 5,011 5,148 5,239 5,184

16 to 17 years

1,971 2,154 2,050 1,776 1,723 1,704 1,756 1,704 1,835

18 to 19 years

3,280 4,254 3,510 3,118 3,198 3,294 3,398 3,559 3,360

20 years and over

150,289 151,976 152,256 150,712 151,707 151,747 151,857 152,050 152,694

20 to 24 years

14,122 14,787 14,337 13,829 14,192 14,303 14,291 14,233 14,057

25 years and over

136,167 137,189 137,918 136,816 137,481 137,369 137,547 137,837 138,508

25 to 54 years

99,902 99,911 100,626 100,328 100,687 100,636 100,665 100,373 101,042

25 to 34 years

35,200 35,369 35,806 35,352 35,582 35,616 35,708 35,486 35,937

35 to 44 years

32,568 32,904 33,062 32,655 32,918 32,961 32,973 33,044 33,149

45 to 54 years

32,134 31,638 31,759 32,322 32,187 32,059 31,985 31,842 31,956

55 years and over

36,265 37,278 37,292 36,489 36,794 36,733 36,882 37,464 37,467

Men, 16 years and over

83,062 84,798 84,077 82,565 82,959 83,192 83,293 83,584 83,600

16 to 19 years

2,653 3,237 2,804 2,416 2,383 2,426 2,575 2,603 2,561

16 to 17 years

935 1,115 1,029 813 893 841 896 855 894

18 to 19 years

1,718 2,123 1,775 1,605 1,486 1,590 1,681 1,762 1,657

20 years and over

80,409 81,561 81,272 80,149 80,576 80,766 80,718 80,981 81,039

20 to 24 years

7,227 7,620 7,332 6,987 7,203 7,285 7,279 7,228 7,099

25 years and over

73,182 73,941 73,941 73,099 73,379 73,477 73,430 73,761 73,827

25 to 54 years

53,638 53,775 53,774 53,605 53,813 53,727 53,630 53,688 53,749

25 to 34 years

19,020 19,143 19,213 19,011 19,186 19,181 19,009 19,088 19,194

35 to 44 years

17,692 17,842 17,805 17,643 17,768 17,753 17,792 17,790 17,764

45 to 54 years

16,927 16,789 16,756 16,952 16,859 16,793 16,829 16,810 16,791

55 years and over

19,543 20,166 20,167 19,494 19,566 19,750 19,800 20,073 20,078

Women, 16 years and over

72,477 73,587 73,740 73,039 73,687 73,566 73,712 73,705 74,278

16 to 19 years

2,597 3,172 2,756 2,476 2,555 2,585 2,573 2,636 2,623

16 to 17 years

1,036 1,040 1,021 962 830 863 860 849 941

18 to 19 years

1,561 2,132 1,735 1,513 1,712 1,704 1,718 1,797 1,703

20 years and over

69,880 70,415 70,983 70,563 71,131 70,981 71,139 71,069 71,655

20 to 24 years

6,895 7,168 7,006 6,842 6,989 7,018 7,012 7,005 6,958

25 years and over

62,985 63,248 63,978 63,718 64,102 63,891 64,117 64,076 64,682

25 to 54 years

46,264 46,136 46,852 46,723 46,874 46,908 47,035 46,685 47,293

25 to 34 years

16,180 16,225 16,593 16,341 16,396 16,434 16,698 16,398 16,743

35 to 44 years

14,876 15,062 15,257 15,012 15,150 15,208 15,181 15,254 15,385

45 to 54 years

15,207 14,848 15,003 15,369 15,327 15,266 15,156 15,032 15,165

55 years and over

16,722 17,112 17,125 16,995 17,228 16,983 17,082 17,392 17,389

MARITAL STATUS

Married men, spouse present(1)

45,882 45,868 46,259 45,876 45,734 45,789 45,681 46,005 46,215

Married women, spouse present(1)

35,542 35,338 35,829 36,066 36,206 35,971 36,013 36,110 36,366

Women who maintain families(2)

9,806 9,661 9,822 - - - - - -

FULL- OR PART-TIME STATUS

Full-time workers(3)

129,975 132,153 132,156 128,649 129,778 129,695 130,148 130,429 130,789

Part-time workers(4)

25,564 26,232 25,660 26,912 26,915 26,981 26,807 26,861 26,974

MULTIPLE JOBHOLDERS

Total multiple jobholders

7,540 8,310 8,038 7,924 7,798 7,855 8,156 8,389 8,373

Percent of total employed

4.8 5.2 5.1 5.1 5.0 5.0 5.2 5.3 5.3

SELF-EMPLOYMENT

Self-employed workers, incorporated

5,768 6,225 6,149 - - - - - -

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

9,601 9,816 9,681 9,644 9,259 9,401 9,544 9,724 9,681

Footnotes
(1) Refers to persons in opposite-sex married couples only.
(2) Refers to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not an opposite-sex spouse.
(3) Employed full-time workers are persons who usually work 35 hours or more per week.
(4) Employed part-time workers are persons who usually work less than 35 hours per week.

- Data not available.
NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-10. Selected unemployment indicators, seasonally adjusted
Characteristic Number of
unemployed persons
(in thousands)
Unemployment rates
Aug.
2018
July
2019
Aug.
2019
Aug.
2018
Apr.
2019
May
2019
June
2019
July
2019
Aug.
2019

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

6,197 6,063 6,044 3.8 3.6 3.6 3.7 3.7 3.7

16 to 19 years

712 770 747 12.7 13.0 12.7 12.7 12.8 12.6

16 to 17 years

272 312 273 13.3 13.7 14.1 14.6 15.5 12.9

18 to 19 years

427 438 459 12.0 12.4 11.9 11.5 10.9 12.0

20 years and over

5,485 5,293 5,297 3.5 3.2 3.3 3.3 3.4 3.4

20 to 24 years

1,013 1,032 1,065 6.8 6.5 7.0 6.3 6.8 7.0

25 years and over

4,451 4,268 4,207 3.2 2.9 2.9 3.0 3.0 2.9

25 to 54 years

3,327 3,225 3,210 3.2 3.0 2.9 3.0 3.1 3.1

25 to 34 years

1,512 1,377 1,348 4.1 3.9 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.6

35 to 44 years

963 963 944 2.9 2.7 2.6 2.8 2.8 2.8

45 to 54 years

852 885 917 2.6 2.5 2.5 2.7 2.7 2.8

55 years and over

1,148 1,052 1,018 3.0 2.6 2.7 3.0 2.7 2.6

Men, 16 years and over

3,303 3,221 3,233 3.8 3.7 3.7 3.7 3.7 3.7

16 to 19 years

407 407 403 14.4 15.1 13.9 13.5 13.5 13.6

16 to 17 years

147 155 150 15.3 12.5 15.5 14.0 15.3 14.4

18 to 19 years

262 235 254 14.0 16.6 12.8 12.9 11.8 13.3

20 years and over

2,895 2,814 2,830 3.5 3.4 3.3 3.3 3.4 3.4

20 to 24 years

570 591 607 7.5 7.7 8.3 7.4 7.6 7.9

25 years and over

2,307 2,221 2,199 3.1 2.9 2.8 2.9 2.9 2.9

25 to 54 years

1,710 1,705 1,709 3.1 3.1 2.9 3.0 3.1 3.1

25 to 34 years

811 737 734 4.1 3.6 3.4 3.6 3.7 3.7

35 to 44 years

473 484 470 2.6 2.7 2.6 2.4 2.6 2.6

45 to 54 years

427 483 506 2.5 2.8 2.6 2.8 2.8 2.9

55 years and over

596 517 490 3.0 2.6 2.6 2.7 2.5 2.4

Women, 16 years and over

2,895 2,841 2,812 3.8 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.6

16 to 19 years

305 363 344 11.0 11.0 11.5 12.0 12.1 11.6

16 to 17 years

125 157 123 11.5 15.0 12.6 15.2 15.7 11.6

18 to 19 years

165 203 205 9.9 8.3 11.0 10.1 10.1 10.8

20 years and over

2,590 2,479 2,468 3.5 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.3

20 to 24 years

442 440 458 6.1 5.3 5.6 5.2 5.9 6.2

25 years and over

2,145 2,047 2,007 3.3 2.9 2.9 3.1 3.1 3.0

25 to 54 years

1,617 1,521 1,501 3.3 3.0 2.9 3.1 3.2 3.1

25 to 34 years

701 639 615 4.1 4.2 3.6 3.5 3.8 3.5

35 to 44 years

491 480 475 3.2 2.6 2.7 3.3 3.0 3.0

45 to 54 years

425 402 411 2.7 2.2 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.6

55 years and over

536 513 503 3.1 2.6 3.1 3.3 2.9 2.8

MARITAL STATUS

Married men, spouse present(1)

933 869 839 2.0 1.8 1.7 1.8 1.9 1.8

Married women, spouse present(1)

916 816 831 2.5 1.8 2.4 2.3 2.2 2.2

Women who maintain families(2)

556 622 523 5.4 4.9 4.7 5.1 6.0 5.1

FULL- OR PART-TIME STATUS

Full-time workers(3)

4,944 4,872 4,742 3.7 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.6 3.5

Part-time workers(4)

1,205 1,210 1,251 4.3 4.1 4.2 4.4 4.3 4.4

Footnotes
(1) Refers to persons in opposite-sex couples only.
(2) Data are not seasonally adjusted. Refers to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not an opposite-sex spouse.
(3) Full-time workers are unemployed persons who have expressed a desire to work full time (35 hours or more per week) or are on layoff from full-time jobs.
(4) Part-time workers are unemployed persons who have expressed a desire to work part time (less than 35 hours per week) or are on layoff from part-time jobs.

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-11. Unemployed persons by reason for unemployment
[Numbers in thousands]
Reason Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Aug.
2018
July
2019
Aug.
2019
Aug.
2018
Apr.
2019
May
2019
June
2019
July
2019
Aug.
2019

NUMBER OF UNEMPLOYED

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

2,885 2,986 2,906 2,868 2,651 2,664 2,736 2,798 2,876

On temporary layoff

893 1,050 863 855 717 869 801 836 817

Not on temporary layoff

1,992 1,935 2,042 2,013 1,934 1,795 1,935 1,963 2,059

Permanent job losers

1,337 1,362 1,389 1,351 1,302 1,289 1,358 1,361 1,397

Persons who completed temporary jobs

655 573 653 663 632 506 577 602 661

Job leavers

967 877 865 866 737 803 888 833 781

Reentrants

1,869 1,881 1,801 1,864 1,926 1,870 1,868 1,810 1,801

New entrants

649 813 631 586 530 599 541 595 574

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

45.3 45.5 46.8 46.4 45.4 44.9 45.3 46.4 47.7

On temporary layoff

14.0 16.0 13.9 13.8 12.3 14.6 13.3 13.8 13.6

Not on temporary layoff

31.3 29.5 32.9 32.6 33.1 30.2 32.1 32.5 34.1

Job leavers

15.2 13.4 13.9 14.0 12.6 13.5 14.7 13.8 12.9

Reentrants

29.3 28.7 29.0 30.1 33.0 31.5 31.0 30.0 29.9

New entrants

10.2 12.4 10.2 9.5 9.1 10.1 9.0 9.9 9.5

UNEMPLOYED AS A PERCENT OF THE
CIVILIAN LABOR FORCE

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.6 1.6 1.7 1.7 1.8

Job leavers

0.6 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5

Reentrants

1.2 1.1 1.1 1.2 1.2 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1

New entrants

0.4 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.3 0.4 0.3 0.4 0.4

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-12. Unemployed persons by duration of unemployment
[Numbers in thousands]
Duration Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Aug.
2018
July
2019
Aug.
2019
Aug.
2018
Apr.
2019
May
2019
June
2019
July
2019
Aug.
2019

NUMBER OF UNEMPLOYED

Less than 5 weeks

2,183 2,387 2,216 2,199 1,904 2,147 1,961 2,201 2,207

5 to 14 weeks

2,037 2,164 2,009 1,722 1,842 1,559 1,830 1,797 1,757

15 weeks and over

2,149 2,005 1,978 2,247 2,084 2,097 2,182 2,071 2,078

15 to 26 weeks

809 773 708 927 854 799 769 905 835

27 weeks and over

1,341 1,232 1,270 1,320 1,230 1,298 1,414 1,166 1,243

Average (mean) duration, in weeks

22.2 18.7 21.7 22.6 22.9 24.1 22.2 19.6 22.1

Median duration, in weeks

9.0 7.9 8.6 9.2 9.4 9.1 9.6 8.9 8.9

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION

Less than 5 weeks

34.3 36.4 35.7 35.7 32.7 37.0 32.8 36.3 36.5

5 to 14 weeks

32.0 33.0 32.4 27.9 31.6 26.9 30.6 29.6 29.1

15 weeks and over

33.7 30.6 31.9 36.4 35.7 36.1 36.5 34.1 34.4

15 to 26 weeks

12.7 11.8 11.4 15.0 14.6 13.8 12.9 14.9 13.8

27 weeks and over

21.0 18.8 20.5 21.4 21.1 22.4 23.7 19.2 20.6

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-13. Employed and unemployed persons by occupation, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Occupation Employed Unemployed Unemployment
rates
Aug.
2018
Aug.
2019
Aug.
2018
Aug.
2019
Aug.
2018
Aug.
2019

Total, 16 years and over(1)

155,539 157,816 6,370 6,203 3.9 3.8

Management, professional, and related occupations

61,593 63,679 1,591 1,476 2.5 2.3

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

25,675 26,717 534 506 2.0 1.9

Professional and related occupations

35,918 36,962 1,057 970 2.9 2.6

Service occupations

27,032 27,416 1,317 1,178 4.6 4.1

Sales and office occupations

33,302 33,484 1,320 1,337 3.8 3.8

Sales and related occupations

15,786 15,777 575 625 3.5 3.8

Office and administrative support occupations

17,517 17,707 745 712 4.1 3.9

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

14,685 14,549 579 601 3.8 4.0

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

1,155 1,115 91 50 7.3 4.3

Construction and extraction occupations

8,508 8,415 357 398 4.0 4.5

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

5,021 5,019 131 152 2.5 2.9

Production, transportation, and material moving
occupations

18,927 18,688 887 955 4.5 4.9

Production occupations

8,694 8,861 324 358 3.6 3.9

Transportation and material moving occupations

10,234 9,827 562 597 5.2 5.7

Footnotes
(1) Persons with no previous work experience and persons whose last job was in the U.S. Armed Forces are included in the unemployed total.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-14. Unemployed persons by industry and class of worker, not seasonally adjusted
Industry and class of worker Number of
unemployed
persons
(in thousands)
Unemployment
rates
Aug.
2018
Aug.
2019
Aug.
2018
Aug.
2019

Total, 16 years and over(1)

6,370 6,203 3.9 3.8

Nonagricultural private wage and salary workers

4,708 4,566 3.7 3.5

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

15 8 1.9 1.1

Construction

328 361 3.4 3.6

Manufacturing

498 512 3.2 3.2

Durable goods

254 282 2.6 2.8

Nondurable goods

244 229 4.3 3.9

Wholesale and retail trade

874 799 4.3 4.1

Transportation and utilities

247 308 3.4 4.2

Information

94 121 3.5 4.7

Financial activities

266 217 2.7 2.1

Professional and business services

611 582 3.5 3.2

Education and health services

743 668 3.1 2.7

Leisure and hospitality

808 728 5.8 5.0

Other services

222 262 3.2 3.8

Agriculture and related private wage and salary workers

126 63 7.2 3.8

Government workers

584 659 2.8 3.1

Self-employed workers, unincorporated, and unpaid family workers

304 283 3.0 2.8

Footnotes
(1) Persons with no previous work experience and persons whose last job was in the U.S. Armed Forces are included in the unemployed total.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-15. Alternative measures of labor underutilization
[Percent]
Measure Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Aug.
2018
July
2019
Aug.
2019
Aug.
2018
Apr.
2019
May
2019
June
2019
July
2019
Aug.
2019

U-1 Persons unemployed 15 weeks or longer, as a percent of the civilian labor force

1.3 1.2 1.2 1.4 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3

U-2 Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs, as a percent of the civilian labor force

1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.6 1.6 1.7 1.7 1.8

U-3 Total unemployed, as a percent of the civilian labor force (official unemployment rate)

3.9 4.0 3.8 3.8 3.6 3.6 3.7 3.7 3.7

U-4 Total unemployed plus discouraged workers, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus discouraged workers

4.2 4.2 4.1 4.1 3.9 3.8 3.9 3.9 4.0

U-5 Total unemployed, plus discouraged workers, plus all other persons marginally attached to the labor force, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force

4.8 4.8 4.7 4.7 4.4 4.4 4.6 4.6 4.6

U-6 Total unemployed, plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force, plus total employed part time for economic reasons, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force

7.4 7.3 7.3 7.4 7.3 7.1 7.2 7.0 7.2

NOTE: Persons marginally attached to the labor force are those who currently are neither working nor looking for work but indicate that they want and are available for a job and have looked for work sometime in the past 12 months. Discouraged workers, a subset of the marginally attached, have given a job-market related reason for not currently looking for work. Persons employed part time for economic reasons are those who want and are available for full-time work but have had to settle for a part-time schedule. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-16. Persons not in the labor force and multiple jobholders by sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Category Total Men Women
Aug.
2018
Aug.
2019
Aug.
2018
Aug.
2019
Aug.
2018
Aug.
2019

NOT IN THE LABOR FORCE

Total not in the labor force

96,157 95,413 38,604 38,326 57,553 57,087

Persons who currently want a job

5,534 5,331 2,568 2,353 2,966 2,978

Marginally attached to the labor force(1)

1,443 1,564 783 843 660 721

Discouraged workers(2)

434 467 279 315 155 152

Other persons marginally attached to the labor force(3)

1,009 1,097 504 528 505 569

MULTIPLE JOBHOLDERS

Total multiple jobholders(4)

7,540 8,038 3,639 3,951 3,901 4,086

Percent of total employed

4.8 5.1 4.4 4.7 5.4 5.5

Primary job full time, secondary job part time

4,338 4,581 2,310 2,498 2,028 2,083

Primary and secondary jobs both part time

1,784 1,957 586 675 1,197 1,282

Primary and secondary jobs both full time

294 335 189 202 106 134

Hours vary on primary or secondary job

1,061 1,122 522 560 539 563

Footnotes
(1) Data refer to persons who want a job, have searched for work during the prior 12 months, and were available to take a job during the reference week, but had not looked for work in the past 4 weeks.
(2) Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for reasons such as thinks no work available, could not find work, lacks schooling or training, employer thinks too young or old, and other types of discrimination.
(3) Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for such reasons as school or family responsibilities, ill health, and transportation problems, as well as a number for whom reason for nonparticipation was not determined.
(4) Includes a small number of persons who work part time on their primary job and full time on their secondary job(s), not shown separately.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-1. Employees on nonfarm payrolls by industry sector and selected industry detail
[In thousands]
Industry Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Aug.
2018
June
2019
July
2019(p)
Aug.
2019(p)
Aug.
2018
June
2019
July
2019(p)
Aug.
2019(p)
Change from:
July2019 - Aug.2019(p)

Total nonfarm

149,453 152,243 151,169 151,517 149,467 151,252 151,411 151,541 130

Total private

127,949 129,800 129,890 129,894 126,973 128,723 128,854 128,950 96

Goods-producing

21,145 21,387 21,435 21,460 20,794 21,104 21,102 21,114 12

Mining and logging

757 762 763 762 742 756 752 747 -5

Logging

49.5 47.7 48.7 50.3 48.0 47.1 47.4 48.5 1.1

Mining

707.3 713.9 714.0 711.4 694.0 708.8 704.2 698.6 -5.6

Oil and gas extraction

148.7 160.5 161.6 161.8 146.2 158.9 159.2 159.3 0.1

Mining, except oil and gas

198.5 199.1 197.4 197.4 194.0 194.8 193.5 193.2 -0.3

Coal mining

52.1 53.0 52.1 53.5 52.1 53.0 52.3 53.5 1.2

Metal ore mining

42.2 41.8 42.1 41.3 41.7 41.3 41.3 40.7 -0.6

Nonmetallic mineral mining and quarrying

104.2 104.3 103.2 102.6 100.2 100.5 99.9 99.1 -0.8

Support activities for mining

360.1 354.3 355.0 352.2 353.8 355.1 351.5 346.1 -5.4

Construction

7,587 7,699 7,750 7,764 7,337 7,502 7,500 7,514 14

Construction of buildings

1,678.8 1,685.4 1,699.9 1,706.2 1,642.6 1,656.7 1,659.9 1,668.7 8.8

Residential building

831.4 850.0 856.6 863.2 812.5 833.9 837.2 844.2 7.0

Nonresidential building

847.4 835.4 843.3 843.0 830.1 822.8 822.7 824.5 1.8

Heavy and civil engineering construction

1,128.4 1,134.0 1,135.1 1,144.1 1,062.6 1,081.7 1,075.3 1,079.7 4.4

Specialty trade contractors

4,780.1 4,879.9 4,914.8 4,913.5 4,631.6 4,763.4 4,764.9 4,765.6 0.7

Residential specialty trade contractors

2,103.4 2,127.1 2,141.9 2,135.2 2,035.4 2,069.8 2,071.4 2,066.7 -4.7

Nonresidential specialty trade contractors

2,676.7 2,752.8 2,772.9 2,778.3 2,596.2 2,693.6 2,693.5 2,698.9 5.4

Manufacturing

12,801 12,926 12,922 12,934 12,715 12,846 12,850 12,853 3

Durable goods

8,002 8,116 8,092 8,096 7,973 8,067 8,069 8,069 0

Wood products

410.2 412.0 413.3 411.8 408.0 409.3 409.5 409.5 0.0

Nonmetallic mineral products

420.9 422.3 421.9 423.7 414.6 416.0 416.5 417.7 1.2

Primary metals

378.4 382.3 379.3 378.6 378.4 380.8 379.8 379.0 -0.8

Fabricated metal products

1,480.3 1,493.3 1,491.2 1,486.4 1,475.3 1,483.1 1,483.3 1,481.6 -1.7

Machinery

1,129.3 1,147.5 1,144.2 1,139.0 1,125.7 1,141.5 1,137.6 1,135.9 -1.7

Computer and electronic products

1,061.8 1,087.3 1,093.2 1,093.1 1,057.1 1,083.0 1,086.0 1,088.3 2.3

Computer and peripheral equipment

157.1 161.4 162.4 164.5 155.6 161.4 161.5 162.6 1.1

Communications equipment

84.9 86.0 86.2 86.3 84.8 85.5 85.8 86.2 0.4

Semiconductors and electronic components

371.7 380.3 382.9 381.2 370.1 378.3 379.8 379.8 0.0

Electronic instruments

414.2 425.5 427.9 427.4 413.0 423.9 425.2 426.2 1.0

Miscellaneous computer and electronic products

33.9 34.1 33.8 33.7 33.6 33.8 33.7 33.4 -0.3

Electrical equipment and appliances

402.3 403.4 406.4 404.9 400.8 402.6 403.4 403.6 0.2

Transportation equipment(1)

1,711.5 1,750.4 1,727.4 1,743.3 1,710.0 1,741.0 1,742.1 1,742.8 0.7

Motor vehicles and parts(2)

995.9 1,002.3 976.1 993.3 995.9 996.4 994.9 995.0 0.1

Furniture and related products

396.5 395.7 395.4 395.6 393.1 391.8 392.8 392.3 -0.5

Miscellaneous durable goods manufacturing

610.7 621.9 620.1 619.3 609.6 617.7 617.7 618.4 0.7

Nondurable goods

4,799 4,810 4,830 4,838 4,742 4,779 4,781 4,784 3

Food manufacturing

1,655.2 1,644.7 1,663.0 1,671.0 1,616.2 1,633.4 1,634.5 1,634.1 -0.4

Textile mills

113.8 112.3 111.9 112.3 113.6 112.1 111.9 112.1 0.2

Textile product mills

117.1 113.5 114.5 114.3 116.0 113.8 114.0 113.4 -0.6

Apparel

111.3 108.7 107.1 106.8 112.2 108.1 107.9 107.5 -0.4

Paper and paper products

368.8 371.1 371.7 371.2 368.2 369.5 370.5 370.4 -0.1

Printing and related support activities

431.3 422.3 421.4 421.2 430.2 421.3 419.9 419.8 -0.1

Petroleum and coal products

120.0 119.1 119.0 117.8 116.0 115.9 115.5 114.5 -1.0

Chemicals

843.1 860.5 862.9 859.0 840.1 856.8 858.2 857.0 -1.2

Plastics and rubber products

731.3 743.9 741.4 744.5 729.3 739.3 739.2 742.6 3.4

Miscellaneous nondurable goods manufacturing

307.3 313.6 317.4 320.2 300.0 308.8 309.8 312.6 2.8

Private service-providing

106,804 108,413 108,455 108,434 106,179 107,619 107,752 107,836 84

Trade, transportation, and utilities

27,661 27,831 27,801 27,748 27,693 27,815 27,817 27,806 -11

Wholesale trade

5,893.7 5,963.1 5,971.1 5,967.3 5,868.8 5,934.1 5,941.4 5,944.3 2.9

Durable goods

3,177.6 3,226.0 3,231.7 3,232.9 3,163.1 3,214.2 3,217.0 3,219.4 2.4

Nondurable goods

2,160.0 2,184.9 2,183.7 2,178.0 2,153.3 2,170.0 2,171.9 2,172.7 0.8

Electronic markets and agents and brokers

556.1 552.2 555.7 556.4 552.4 549.9 552.5 552.2 -0.3

Retail trade

15,834.9 15,775.5 15,784.1 15,736.9 15,830.3 15,762.8 15,757.7 15,746.6 -11.1

Motor vehicle and parts dealers

2,036.3 2,062.2 2,065.2 2,063.1 2,024.3 2,048.8 2,049.7 2,050.8 1.1

Automobile dealers

1,305.8 1,311.1 1,314.6 1,315.1 1,300.8 1,308.2 1,309.7 1,310.0 0.3

Other motor vehicle dealers

165.1 168.3 167.0 164.1 158.4 159.1 158.2 157.7 -0.5

Auto parts, accessories, and tire stores

565.4 582.8 583.6 583.9 565.1 581.4 581.8 583.0 1.2

Furniture and home furnishings stores

474.7 481.4 479.0 478.3 479.4 486.2 485.5 484.8 -0.7

Electronics and appliance stores

485.0 462.7 458.1 455.6 490.0 468.4 463.0 460.1 -2.9

Building material and garden supply stores

1,304.2 1,364.8 1,342.0 1,316.3 1,305.3 1,306.2 1,307.5 1,316.6 9.1

Food and beverage stores

3,103.4 3,138.4 3,144.7 3,136.0 3,084.9 3,116.0 3,120.8 3,120.2 -0.6

Health and personal care stores

1,051.8 1,039.4 1,036.3 1,036.2 1,059.7 1,042.2 1,043.5 1,044.6 1.1

Gasoline stations

944.8 963.4 966.4 965.8 933.0 952.0 954.4 954.8 0.4

Clothing and clothing accessories stores

1,366.9 1,301.4 1,318.1 1,317.0 1,365.1 1,324.5 1,323.5 1,320.6 -2.9

Sporting goods, hobby, book, and music stores

559.0 544.0 545.8 553.6 569.4 557.3 558.0 561.3 3.3

General merchandise stores

3,092.3 2,998.2 3,011.7 3,008.4 3,108.3 3,048.0 3,043.1 3,028.3 -14.8

Department stores

1,135.8 1,080.0 1,088.2 1,086.2 1,151.7 1,115.7 1,110.6 1,102.1 -8.5

General merchandise stores, including warehouse clubs and supercenters

1,956.5 1,918.2 1,923.5 1,922.2 1,956.6 1,932.3 1,932.5 1,926.2 -6.3

Miscellaneous store retailers

844.4 843.5 844.3 836.2 834.8 834.5 831.8 829.3 -2.5

Nonstore retailers

572.1 576.1 572.5 570.4 576.1 578.7 576.9 575.2 -1.7

Transportation and warehousing

5,377.3 5,534.0 5,486.9 5,489.8 5,441.0 5,563.6 5,563.3 5,562.8 -0.5

Air transportation

505.7 522.0 523.9 524.1 502.2 518.3 519.7 521.0 1.3

Rail transportation

215.8 206.0 205.1 205.1 215.1 206.2 205.3 204.7 -0.6

Water transportation

67.7 66.3 67.3 68.0 64.9 64.2 64.6 65.1 0.5

Truck transportation

1,517.5 1,534.5 1,538.9 1,537.5 1,495.3 1,520.9 1,521.2 1,516.7 -4.5

Transit and ground passenger transportation

426.3 487.4 422.8 422.5 487.2 492.8 484.3 484.3 0.0

Pipeline transportation

48.6 48.1 48.4 47.8 48.5 48.1 48.1 47.7 -0.4

Scenic and sightseeing transportation

44.1 44.2 45.5 45.1 33.8 35.0 34.5 34.6 0.1

Support activities for transportation

715.8 723.9 723.2 721.3 713.8 724.3 722.0 720.2 -1.8

Couriers and messengers

696.6 722.0 727.8 733.9 732.0 762.8 769.5 773.4 3.9

Warehousing and storage

1,139.2 1,179.6 1,184.0 1,184.5 1,148.2 1,191.0 1,194.1 1,195.1 1.0

Utilities

554.9 558.2 558.9 553.8 553.0 554.6 554.1 552.7 -1.4

Information

2,851 2,837 2,848 2,856 2,826 2,828 2,828 2,828 0

Publishing industries, except Internet

737.4 743.5 745.8 748.3 733.1 742.7 741.9 743.4 1.5

Motion picture and sound recording industries

451.2 440.8 446.5 449.9 436.4 433.8 434.1 432.8 -1.3

Broadcasting, except Internet

269.8 268.2 266.3 268.9 270.4 268.8 268.4 269.4 1.0

Telecommunications

748.7 717.2 712.0 708.2 746.7 716.8 710.9 707.3 -3.6

Data processing, hosting and related services

330.1 331.6 338.2 336.2 328.8 331.8 335.9 335.0 -0.9

Other information services

314.0 335.2 339.0 344.0 310.9 333.8 336.5 339.9 3.4

Financial activities

8,646 8,712 8,760 8,760 8,583 8,659 8,679 8,694 15

Finance and insurance

6,341.3 6,353.0 6,386.9 6,385.3 6,318.8 6,337.1 6,353.0 6,360.5 7.5

Monetary authorities - central bank

19.8 19.4 19.7 19.6 19.7 19.4 19.4 19.5 0.1

Credit intermediation and related
activities

2,658.6 2,640.5 2,648.3 2,648.2 2,648.0 2,631.5 2,631.8 2,635.5 3.7

Depository credit intermediation(1)

1,721.4 1,718.9 1,721.0 1,720.0 1,715.3 1,710.3 1,710.5 1,712.8 2.3

Commercial banking

1,323.3 1,313.8 1,315.9 1,313.8 1,319.3 1,308.3 1,308.0 1,309.2 1.2

Nondepository credit intermediation

630.3 617.8 621.7 623.3 626.0 617.0 617.2 617.5 0.3

Activities related to credit intermediation

306.9 303.8 305.6 304.9 306.6 304.1 304.2 305.2 1.0

Securities, commodity contracts, investments, and funds and trusts

968.2 976.4 988.5 983.3 958.9 973.9 978.0 974.6 -3.4

Insurance carriers and related activities

2,694.7 2,716.7 2,730.4 2,734.2 2,692.2 2,712.3 2,723.8 2,730.9 7.1

Real estate and rental and leasing

2,304.3 2,359.0 2,373.4 2,375.0 2,263.7 2,321.5 2,325.8 2,333.5 7.7

Real estate

1,688.6 1,724.5 1,736.8 1,741.1 1,667.7 1,707.7 1,712.2 1,719.0 6.8

Rental and leasing services

591.8 610.8 613.2 610.3 572.4 590.8 590.8 591.4 0.6

Lessors of nonfinancial intangible assets

23.9 23.7 23.4 23.6 23.6 23.0 22.8 23.1 0.3

Professional and business services

21,216 21,584 21,604 21,668 21,075 21,451 21,487 21,524 37

Professional and technical services

9,333.1 9,569.5 9,633.5 9,626.5 9,339.4 9,582.3 9,615.1 9,629.9 14.8

Legal services

1,141.4 1,154.8 1,154.1 1,147.9 1,142.4 1,144.1 1,144.0 1,148.1 4.1

Accounting and bookkeeping services

964.0 1,000.1 1,006.0 1,003.5 1,018.7 1,054.7 1,059.1 1,056.4 -2.7

Architectural and engineering services

1,503.2 1,536.2 1,544.4 1,541.2 1,483.2 1,517.5 1,520.2 1,521.2 1.0

Specialized design services

144.8 149.9 148.8 148.4 144.6 148.9 148.9 148.5 -0.4

Computer systems design and related services

2,140.0 2,208.9 2,236.3 2,243.5 2,130.7 2,211.5 2,223.3 2,233.5 10.2

Management and technical consulting services

1,498.1 1,530.1 1,541.4 1,547.2 1,490.9 1,527.4 1,534.5 1,539.3 4.8

Scientific research and development services

702.9 734.0 741.7 738.5 697.3 727.0 730.5 732.6 2.1

Advertising and related services

493.6 493.1 492.3 492.6 491.0 490.6 490.0 490.2 0.2

Other professional and technical services

745.1 762.4 768.5 763.7 740.7 760.7 764.5 760.1 -4.4

Management of companies and enterprises

2,391.9 2,435.2 2,440.6 2,441.9 2,382.9 2,419.4 2,421.0 2,431.3 10.3

Administrative and waste services

9,490.6 9,579.7 9,529.6 9,599.2 9,352.6 9,448.8 9,450.5 9,462.6 12.1

Administrative and support services

9,044.7 9,117.6 9,063.5 9,131.8 8,912.4 8,992.6 8,992.6 9,001.5 8.9

Office administrative services

518.5 534.0 534.1 533.8 517.6 530.4 532.0 532.5 0.5

Facilities support services

154.9 155.9 157.1 160.5 153.8 156.9 157.6 158.9 1.3

Employment services(1)

3,703.9 3,709.6 3,653.5 3,733.8 3,683.9 3,706.3 3,704.4 3,715.5 11.1

Temporary help services

3,027.6 3,025.7 2,969.8 3,046.6 3,017.0 3,029.4 3,021.5 3,036.9 15.4

Business support services

888.7 878.8 880.1 877.0 899.3 894.6 894.2 888.1 -6.1

Travel arrangement and reservation services

221.7 219.0 218.1 216.1 219.6 215.2 214.6 214.2 -0.4

Investigation and security services

953.4 954.3 953.6 956.4 948.4 953.7 953.1 952.3 -0.8

Services to buildings and dwellings

2,275.2 2,322.5 2,327.8 2,313.9 2,163.6 2,198.1 2,199.5 2,202.1 2.6

Other support services

328.4 343.5 339.2 340.3 326.2 337.5 337.4 338.0 0.6

Waste management and remediation services

445.9 462.1 466.1 467.4 440.2 456.2 457.9 461.1 3.2

Education and health services

23,444 24,032 23,944 24,021 23,754 24,224 24,295 24,327 32

Educational services

3,454.1 3,581.8 3,489.5 3,498.4 3,761.7 3,787.9 3,811.7 3,806.3 -5.4

Health care and social assistance

19,990.0 20,450.0 20,454.2 20,523.0 19,992.2 20,436.5 20,483.5 20,520.3 36.8

Health care(3)

16,069.7 16,401.1 16,431.2 16,462.1 16,044.6 16,383.4 16,412.8 16,436.7 23.9

Ambulatory health care services

7,532.5 7,756.3 7,770.1 7,787.1 7,525.5 7,746.4 7,769.6 7,781.7 12.1

Offices of physicians

2,624.7 2,684.0 2,687.8 2,687.1 2,623.6 2,684.4 2,685.6 2,687.5 1.9

Offices of dentists

962.4 984.0 984.6 989.0 958.8 981.6 985.1 986.7 1.6

Offices of other health practitioners

937.4 970.0 972.4 973.7 934.1 966.5 972.5 971.3 -1.2

Outpatient care centers

938.9 969.9 973.1 972.6 938.3 970.1 972.7 973.4 0.7

Medical and diagnostic laboratories

279.6 291.3 292.4 292.2 280.3 290.6 291.7 292.6 0.9

Home health care services

1,482.5 1,544.3 1,546.7 1,558.7 1,481.8 1,541.6 1,549.3 1,556.1 6.8

Other ambulatory health care services

307.0 312.8 313.1 313.8 308.7 311.6 312.7 313.9 1.2

Hospitals

5,158.5 5,243.1 5,248.2 5,256.0 5,155.8 5,242.8 5,244.4 5,253.2 8.8

Nursing and residential care facilities

3,378.7 3,401.7 3,412.9 3,419.0 3,363.3 3,394.2 3,398.8 3,401.8 3.0

Nursing care facilities

1,613.0 1,609.4 1,613.6 1,616.8 1,605.2 1,607.7 1,608.7 1,608.6 -0.1

Residential mental health facilities

647.8 655.7 657.3 655.8 646.2 653.2 654.3 654.2 -0.1

Community care facilities for the elderly

950.7 967.1 970.7 975.0 946.6 964.6 966.6 969.4 2.8

Other residential care facilities

167.2 169.5 171.3 171.4 165.3 168.6 169.2 169.5 0.3

Social assistance

3,920.3 4,048.9 4,023.0 4,060.9 3,947.6 4,053.1 4,070.7 4,083.6 12.9

Individual and family services

2,473.5 2,565.0 2,572.7 2,589.6 2,474.4 2,557.4 2,569.9 2,587.0 17.1

Emergency and other relief services

176.5 178.8 178.6 178.7 176.6 178.8 178.6 178.3 -0.3

Vocational rehabilitation services

335.2 330.7 332.0 329.2 330.8 327.2 325.9 325.0 -0.9

Child day care services

935.1 974.4 939.7 963.4 965.9 989.7 996.3 993.3 -3.0

Leisure and hospitality

17,096 17,403 17,478 17,398 16,395 16,703 16,700 16,712 12

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

2,697.6 2,753.5 2,818.4 2,743.7 2,391.6 2,447.4 2,445.0 2,444.3 -0.7

Performing arts and spectator sports

526.4 553.2 538.2 533.7 499.1 517.3 510.3 509.5 -0.8

Museums, historical sites, and similar institutions

182.6 190.8 193.5 187.4 170.1 174.9 174.8 175.0 0.2

Amusements, gambling, and recreation

1,988.6 2,009.5 2,086.7 2,022.6 1,722.4 1,755.2 1,759.9 1,759.8 -0.1

Accommodation and food services

14,398.1 14,649.0 14,659.5 14,654.0 14,003.0 14,255.5 14,255.1 14,267.3 12.2

Accommodation

2,180.5 2,172.8 2,220.1 2,202.6 2,036.9 2,066.2 2,058.8 2,059.1 0.3

Food services and drinking places

12,217.6 12,476.2 12,439.4 12,451.4 11,966.1 12,189.3 12,196.3 12,208.2 11.9

Other services

5,890 6,014 6,020 5,983 5,853 5,939 5,946 5,945 -1

Repair and maintenance

1,332.4 1,368.4 1,372.0 1,367.6 1,331.4 1,358.9 1,364.9 1,365.5 0.6

Personal and laundry services

1,519.9 1,549.4 1,543.2 1,540.4 1,513.6 1,532.8 1,533.4 1,534.6 1.2

Membership associations and organizations

3,037.8 3,096.0 3,104.5 3,074.8 3,008.1 3,047.3 3,047.6 3,045.1 -2.5

Government

21,504 22,443 21,279 21,623 22,494 22,529 22,557 22,591 34

Federal

2,805.0 2,832.0 2,834.0 2,855.0 2,796.0 2,817.0 2,819.0 2,847.0 28.0

Federal, except U.S. Postal Service

2,201.2 2,225.3 2,227.1 2,250.7 2,190.1 2,208.3 2,210.9 2,238.2 27.3

U.S. Postal Service

603.9 606.4 607.3 604.7 605.8 608.9 608.5 608.3 -0.2

State government

4,915.0 4,906.0 4,843.0 4,916.0 5,190.0 5,165.0 5,177.0 5,183.0 6.0

State government education

2,202.9 2,188.9 2,123.9 2,197.8 2,495.2 2,466.9 2,475.9 2,482.4 6.5

State government, excluding education

2,712.1 2,717.0 2,719.5 2,718.4 2,694.5 2,698.0 2,700.7 2,700.2 -0.5

Local government

13,784.0 14,705.0 13,602.0 13,852.0 14,508.0 14,547.0 14,561.0 14,561.0 0.0

Local government education

7,084.6 7,941.7 6,786.8 7,102.0 7,993.4 7,978.2 7,993.4 7,994.7 1.3

Local government, excluding education

6,699.6 6,763.3 6,815.4 6,749.8 6,515.0 6,568.8 6,567.2 6,565.9 -1.3

Footnotes
(1) Includes other industries, not shown separately.
(2) Includes motor vehicles, motor vehicle bodies and trailers, and motor vehicle parts.
(3) Includes ambulatory health care services, hospitals, and nursing and residential care facilities.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2018 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-2. Average weekly hours and overtime of all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Aug.
2018
June
2019
July
2019(p)
Aug.
2019(p)

AVERAGE WEEKLY HOURS

Total private

34.5 34.4 34.3 34.4

Goods-producing

40.5 40.4 40.2 40.4

Mining and logging

46.1 46.5 46.3 46.3

Construction

39.2 39.3 39.1 39.4

Manufacturing

41.0 40.7 40.4 40.6

Durable goods

41.4 41.1 40.9 41.0

Nondurable goods

40.3 40.0 39.6 39.8

Private service-providing

33.3 33.2 33.2 33.3

Trade, transportation, and utilities

34.5 34.2 34.2 34.3

Wholesale trade

39.1 38.9 38.8 38.8

Retail trade

30.9 30.7 30.7 30.8

Transportation and warehousing

39.1 38.4 38.2 38.4

Utilities

42.0 42.6 42.0 42.4

Information

36.1 36.4 36.1 36.3

Financial activities

37.6 37.5 37.5 37.7

Professional and business services

36.1 36.2 36.1 36.3

Education and health services

33.0 33.0 33.0 33.0

Leisure and hospitality

26.1 25.9 25.8 25.9

Other services

31.8 31.8 31.8 31.8

AVERAGE OVERTIME HOURS

Manufacturing

3.5 3.4 3.3 3.2

Durable goods

3.5 3.3 3.3 3.2

Nondurable goods

3.6 3.5 3.3 3.3

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2018 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-3. Average hourly and weekly earnings of all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Average hourly earnings Average weekly earnings
Aug.
2018
June
2019
July
2019(p)
Aug.
2019(p)
Aug.
2018
June
2019
July
2019(p)
Aug.
2019(p)

Total private

$27.23 $27.91 $28.00 $28.11 $939.44 $960.10 $960.40 $966.98

Goods-producing

28.33 28.98 29.05 29.13 1,147.37 1,170.79 1,167.81 1,176.85

Mining and logging

32.67 33.75 34.25 34.06 1,506.09 1,569.38 1,585.78 1,576.98

Construction

30.02 30.71 30.72 30.84 1,176.78 1,206.90 1,201.15 1,215.10

Manufacturing

27.11 27.69 27.76 27.83 1,111.51 1,126.98 1,121.50 1,129.90

Durable goods

28.49 29.16 29.21 29.30 1,179.49 1,198.48 1,194.69 1,201.30

Nondurable goods

24.71 25.13 25.23 25.28 995.81 1,005.20 999.11 1,006.14

Private service-providing

26.97 27.66 27.75 27.86 898.10 918.31 921.30 927.74

Trade, transportation, and utilities

23.46 24.23 24.31 24.40 809.37 828.67 831.40 836.92

Wholesale trade

30.59 31.45 31.48 31.71 1,196.07 1,223.41 1,221.42 1,230.35

Retail trade

18.87 19.65 19.75 19.75 583.08 603.26 606.33 608.30

Transportation and warehousing

24.40 24.85 25.00 25.12 954.04 954.24 955.00 964.61

Utilities

40.92 41.80 41.65 41.94 1,718.64 1,780.68 1,749.30 1,778.26

Information

40.04 41.67 42.05 42.37 1,445.44 1,516.79 1,518.01 1,538.03

Financial activities

34.92 35.96 36.00 36.32 1,312.99 1,348.50 1,350.00 1,369.26

Professional and business services

32.82 33.56 33.71 33.84 1,184.80 1,214.87 1,216.93 1,228.39

Education and health services

27.13 27.47 27.54 27.58 895.29 906.51 908.82 910.14

Leisure and hospitality

16.05 16.55 16.58 16.62 418.91 428.65 427.76 430.46

Other services

24.59 24.96 24.98 25.07 781.96 793.73 794.36 797.23

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2018 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-4. Indexes of aggregate weekly hours and payrolls for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
[2007=100]
Industry Index of aggregate weekly hours(1) Index of aggregate weekly payrolls(2)
Aug.
2018
June
2019
July
2019(p)
Aug.
2019(p)
Percent change from:
July
2019 - Aug.
2019(p)
Aug.
2018
June
2019
July
2019(p)
Aug.
2019(p)
Percent change from:
July
2019 - Aug.
2019(p)

Total private

110.0 111.1 110.9 111.3 0.4 143.1 148.3 148.5 149.6 0.7

Goods-producing

95.9 97.1 96.6 97.2 0.6 122.9 127.2 126.9 128.0 0.9

Mining and logging

107.5 110.5 109.4 108.7 -0.6 141.0 149.7 150.4 148.6 -1.2

Construction

99.1 101.6 101.1 102.1 1.0 129.3 135.6 134.9 136.8 1.4

Manufacturing

93.8 94.1 93.4 93.9 0.5 118.2 121.1 120.6 121.5 0.7

Durable goods

92.9 93.3 92.9 93.1 0.2 117.6 120.9 120.5 121.2 0.6

Nondurable goods

95.4 95.4 94.5 95.0 0.5 119.6 121.7 121.0 121.9 0.7

Private service-providing

113.8 114.9 115.1 115.5 0.3 149.1 154.5 155.2 156.4 0.8

Trade, transportation, and utilities

104.2 103.7 103.7 104.0 0.3 131.7 135.5 135.9 136.8 0.7

Wholesale trade

101.2 101.8 101.7 101.7 0.0 129.5 133.9 133.9 134.9 0.7

Retail trade

99.3 98.3 98.2 98.5 0.3 123.9 127.6 128.2 128.5 0.2

Transportation and warehousing

121.6 122.1 121.5 122.1 0.5 150.5 153.9 154.0 155.6 1.0

Utilities

100.5 102.2 100.7 101.4 0.7 135.9 141.2 138.6 140.5 1.4

Information

93.2 94.0 93.2 93.8 0.6 132.8 139.5 139.6 141.4 1.3

Financial activities

105.7 106.3 106.6 107.3 0.7 144.0 149.2 149.7 152.1 1.6

Professional and business services

119.3 121.8 121.6 122.5 0.7 158.5 165.5 166.0 167.9 1.1

Education and health services

128.0 130.5 130.9 131.1 0.2 167.1 172.5 173.4 173.9 0.3

Leisure and hospitality

122.1 123.4 122.9 123.5 0.5 158.1 164.8 164.4 165.6 0.7

Other services

107.3 108.9 109.0 109.0 0.0 144.6 149.0 149.3 149.8 0.3

Footnotes
(1) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding 2007 annual average aggregate hours. Aggregate hours estimates are the product of estimates of average weekly hours and employment.
(2) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding 2007 annual average aggregate weekly payrolls. Aggregate payrolls estimates are the product of estimates of average hourly earnings, average weekly hours, and employment.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2018 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-5. Employment of women on nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Women employees (in thousands) Percent of all employees
Aug.
2018
June
2019
July
2019(p)
Aug.
2019(p)
Aug.
2018
June
2019
July
2019(p)
Aug.
2019(p)

Total nonfarm

74,229 75,381 75,534 75,594 49.7 49.8 49.9 49.9

Total private

61,273 62,387 62,507 62,575 48.3 48.5 48.5 48.5

Goods-producing

4,602 4,710 4,727 4,728 22.1 22.3 22.4 22.4

Mining and logging

93 99 100 99 12.5 13.1 13.3 13.3

Construction

939 973 977 977 12.8 13.0 13.0 13.0

Manufacturing

3,570 3,638 3,650 3,652 28.1 28.3 28.4 28.4

Durable goods

1,894 1,938 1,946 1,950 23.8 24.0 24.1 24.2

Nondurable goods

1,676 1,700 1,704 1,702 35.3 35.6 35.6 35.6

Private service-providing

56,671 57,677 57,780 57,847 53.4 53.6 53.6 53.6

Trade, transportation, and utilities

11,113 11,143 11,157 11,149 40.1 40.1 40.1 40.1

Wholesale trade

1,752.4 1,786.8 1,791.7 1,790.2 29.9 30.1 30.2 30.1

Retail trade

7,875.2 7,816.6 7,811.6 7,799.0 49.7 49.6 49.6 49.5

Transportation and warehousing

1,355.7 1,406.4 1,420.2 1,427.0 24.9 25.3 25.5 25.7

Utilities

129.2 132.8 133.4 132.7 23.4 23.9 24.1 24.0

Information

1,115 1,124 1,130 1,137 39.5 39.7 40.0 40.2

Financial activities

4,856 4,892 4,901 4,903 56.6 56.5 56.5 56.4

Professional and business services

9,538 9,774 9,792 9,815 45.3 45.6 45.6 45.6

Education and health services

18,314 18,714 18,767 18,807 77.1 77.3 77.2 77.3

Leisure and hospitality

8,620 8,861 8,859 8,859 52.6 53.1 53.0 53.0

Other services

3,115 3,169 3,174 3,177 53.2 53.4 53.4 53.4

Government

12,956 12,994 13,027 13,019 57.6 57.7 57.8 57.6

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2018 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-6. Employment of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
[In thousands]
Industry Aug.
2018
June
2019
July
2019(p)
Aug.
2019(p)

Total private

104,624 105,969 106,077 106,145

Goods-producing

14,934 15,111 15,107 15,119

Mining and logging

553 555 550 546

Construction

5,467 5,583 5,587 5,597

Manufacturing

8,914 8,973 8,970 8,976

Durable goods

5,481 5,549 5,548 5,553

Nondurable goods

3,433 3,424 3,422 3,423

Private service-providing

89,690 90,858 90,970 91,026

Trade, transportation, and utilities

23,425 23,532 23,541 23,531

Wholesale trade

4,710.6 4,768.7 4,769.0 4,774.5

Retail trade

13,523.8 13,458.8 13,454.9 13,434.9

Transportation and warehousing

4,747.3 4,859.3 4,873.1 4,878.0

Utilities

442.9 444.8 444.0 444.0

Information

2,278 2,279 2,280 2,282

Financial activities

6,646 6,699 6,714 6,724

Professional and business services

17,199 17,457 17,477 17,492

Education and health services

20,866 21,283 21,341 21,375

Leisure and hospitality

14,428 14,689 14,695 14,701

Other services

4,848 4,919 4,922 4,921

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2018 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-7. Average weekly hours and overtime of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry Aug.
2018
June
2019
July
2019(p)
Aug.
2019(p)

AVERAGE WEEKLY HOURS

Total private

33.8 33.6 33.5 33.6

Goods-producing

41.5 41.2 41.0 41.1

Mining and logging

47.0 47.3 47.3 47.2

Construction

39.8 39.9 39.6 39.8

Manufacturing

42.2 41.7 41.5 41.6

Durable goods

42.6 42.0 41.9 42.0

Nondurable goods

41.6 41.1 41.0 41.0

Private service-providing

32.5 32.4 32.3 32.4

Trade, transportation, and utilities

34.0 33.8 33.7 33.8

Wholesale trade

39.0 38.7 38.6 38.6

Retail trade

30.4 30.3 30.2 30.4

Transportation and warehousing

38.4 37.9 37.7 37.8

Utilities

42.8 42.2 41.9 42.5

Information

35.6 35.5 35.0 35.1

Financial activities

37.1 36.7 36.7 36.8

Professional and business services

35.4 35.5 35.4 35.6

Education and health services

32.2 32.2 32.2 32.1

Leisure and hospitality

24.9 24.7 24.6 24.6

Other services

30.9 30.8 30.8 30.8

AVERAGE OVERTIME HOURS

Manufacturing

4.5 4.2 4.2 4.2

Durable goods

4.6 4.2 4.2 4.2

Nondurable goods

4.4 4.2 4.1 4.1

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2018 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-8. Average hourly and weekly earnings of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry Average hourly earnings Average weekly earnings
Aug.
2018
June
2019
July
2019(p)
Aug.
2019(p)
Aug.
2018
June
2019
July
2019(p)
Aug.
2019(p)

Total private

$22.80 $23.43 $23.48 $23.59 $770.64 $787.25 $786.58 $792.62

Goods-producing

24.05 24.72 24.73 24.81 998.08 1,018.46 1,013.93 1,019.69

Mining and logging

28.51 29.85 29.74 30.04 1,339.97 1,411.91 1,406.70 1,417.89

Construction

27.85 28.46 28.42 28.54 1,108.43 1,135.55 1,125.43 1,135.89

Manufacturing

21.55 22.13 22.19 22.23 909.41 922.82 920.89 924.77

Durable goods

22.55 23.05 23.08 23.11 960.63 968.10 967.05 970.62

Nondurable goods

19.92 20.61 20.70 20.77 828.67 847.07 848.70 851.57

Private service-providing

22.53 23.15 23.22 23.34 732.23 750.06 750.01 756.22

Trade, transportation, and utilities

20.00 20.66 20.69 20.81 680.00 698.31 697.25 703.38

Wholesale trade

25.30 26.17 26.11 26.40 986.70 1,012.78 1,007.85 1,019.04

Retail trade

16.00 16.59 16.64 16.72 486.40 502.68 502.53 508.29

Transportation and warehousing

21.90 22.53 22.59 22.62 840.96 853.89 851.64 855.04

Utilities

36.96 36.73 36.80 36.95 1,581.89 1,550.01 1,541.92 1,570.38

Information

32.04 33.52 33.52 33.87 1,140.62 1,189.96 1,173.20 1,188.84

Financial activities

26.95 27.67 27.74 27.87 999.85 1,015.49 1,018.06 1,025.62

Professional and business services

26.92 27.71 27.82 28.00 952.97 983.71 984.83 996.80

Education and health services

23.75 24.13 24.22 24.26 764.75 776.99 779.88 778.75

Leisure and hospitality

13.94 14.43 14.47 14.53 347.11 356.42 355.96 357.44

Other services

20.82 21.20 21.17 21.30 643.34 652.96 652.04 656.04

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2018 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-9. Indexes of aggregate weekly hours and payrolls for production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
[2002=100]
Industry Index of aggregate weekly hours(2) Index of aggregate weekly payrolls(3)
Aug.
2018
June
2019
July
2019(p)
Aug.
2019(p)
Percent change from:
July
2019 - Aug.
2019(p)
Aug.
2018
June
2019
July
2019(p)
Aug.
2019(p)
Percent change from:
July
2019 - Aug.
2019(p)

Total private

117.8 118.6 118.4 118.8 0.3 179.5 185.7 185.8 187.3 0.8

Goods-producing

94.7 95.1 94.7 95.0 0.3 139.5 144.0 143.3 144.3 0.7

Mining and logging

138.1 139.5 138.2 136.9 -0.9 229.0 242.2 239.1 239.3 0.1

Construction

108.9 111.5 110.8 111.5 0.6 163.8 171.4 170.0 171.9 1.1

Manufacturing

86.4 85.9 85.5 85.7 0.2 121.7 124.3 124.0 124.6 0.5

Durable goods

87.7 87.6 87.3 87.6 0.3 123.5 126.0 125.8 126.4 0.5

Nondurable goods

84.1 82.9 82.7 82.7 0.0 118.4 120.8 120.9 121.4 0.4

Private service-providing

124.1 125.4 125.1 125.6 0.4 191.8 199.0 199.3 201.0 0.9

Trade, transportation, and utilities

111.2 111.1 110.8 111.1 0.3 158.8 163.8 163.6 165.0 0.9

Wholesale trade

109.0 109.5 109.3 109.4 0.1 162.8 169.2 168.4 170.4 1.2

Retail trade

104.0 103.2 102.8 103.4 0.6 142.6 146.7 146.6 148.1 1.0

Transportation and warehousing

137.1 138.5 138.2 138.7 0.4 190.4 197.9 198.0 199.0 0.5

Utilities

96.9 96.0 95.1 96.5 1.5 149.6 147.2 146.1 148.8 1.8

Information

92.6 92.3 91.1 91.4 0.3 146.8 153.2 151.1 153.3 1.5

Financial activities

116.1 115.7 116.0 116.5 0.4 192.5 197.0 198.0 199.7 0.9

Professional and business services

136.1 138.6 138.3 139.2 0.7 217.9 228.3 228.9 231.8 1.3

Education and health services

143.3 146.1 146.5 146.3 -0.1 224.6 232.7 234.2 234.3 0.0

Leisure and hospitality

131.6 132.9 132.4 132.5 0.1 208.3 217.8 217.6 218.6 0.5

Other services

105.1 106.3 106.3 106.3 0.0 159.4 164.1 164.0 165.0 0.6

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(2) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding 2002 annual average aggregate hours. Aggregate hours estimates are the product of estimates of average weekly hours and employment.
(3) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding 2002 annual average aggregate weekly payrolls. Aggregate payrolls estimates are the product of estimates of average hourly earnings, average weekly hours, and employment.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2018 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


Last Modified Date: September 06, 2019