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Economic News Release
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Employment Situation News Release

Transmission of material in this news release is embargoed until		USDL-20-1838
8:30 a.m. (ET) Friday, October 2, 2020

Technical information:
 Household data:	cpsinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/cps
 Establishment data:	cesinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/ces

Media contact:		(202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov


			THE EMPLOYMENT SITUATION -- SEPTEMBER 2020


Total nonfarm payroll employment rose by 661,000 in September, and the unemployment
rate declined to 7.9 percent, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today.
These improvements in the labor market reflect the continued resumption of economic
activity that had been curtailed due to the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic and 
efforts to contain it. In September, notable job gains occurred in leisure and 
hospitality, in retail trade, in health care and social assistance, and in 
professional and business services. Employment in government declined over the month,
mainly in state and local government education.

This news release presents statistics from two monthly surveys. The household survey
measures labor force status, including unemployment, by demographic characteristics.
The establishment survey measures nonfarm employment, hours, and earnings by industry.
For more information about the concepts and statistical methodology used in these 
two surveys, see the Technical Note.

Household Survey Data

In September, the unemployment rate declined by 0.5 percentage point to 7.9 percent,
and the number of unemployed persons fell by 1.0 million to 12.6 million. Both 
measures have declined for 5 consecutive months but are higher than in February, by
4.4 percentage points and 6.8 million, respectively. (See table A-1. For more 
information about how the household survey and its measures were affected by the 
coronavirus pandemic, see the box note at the end of this news release.)

Among the major worker groups, the unemployment rates declined in September for adult
men (7.4 percent), adult women (7.7 percent), Whites (7.0 percent), and Asians 
(8.9 percent). The jobless rates for teenagers (15.9 percent), Blacks (12.1 percent),
and Hispanics (10.3 percent) showed little change over the month. (See tables A-1,
A-2, and A-3.)

Among the unemployed, the number of persons on temporary layoff decreased by 1.5 
million in September to 4.6 million. This measure is down considerably from the high
of 18.1 million in April but is 3.8 million higher than in February. In September, 
the number of permanent job losers increased by 345,000 to 3.8 million; this measure
has risen by 2.5 million since February. The number of unemployed job leavers rose by
212,000 to 801,000 in September. (Job leavers are persons who quit or voluntarily 
left their previous job and immediately began looking for new employment.) (See table
A-11.)

In September, the number of unemployed persons who were jobless less than 5 weeks
increased by 271,000 to 2.6 million. The number of persons jobless 5 to 14 weeks 
decreased by 402,000 to 2.7 million, and the number of persons jobless 15 to 26 weeks
fell by 1.6 million to 4.9 million. The number of long-term unemployed (those jobless
for 27 weeks or more) increased by 781,000 to 2.4 million. (See table A-12.)

The labor force participation rate decreased by 0.3 percentage point to 61.4 percent
in September and is 2.0 percentage points lower than in February. The employment-
population ratio, at 56.6 percent, changed little over the month but is 4.5 percentage
points lower than in February. (See table A-1.)

In September, the number of persons employed part time for economic reasons (sometimes
referred to as involuntary part-time workers) declined by 1.3 million to 6.3 million,
reflecting a decrease in the number of persons whose hours were cut due to slack work
or business conditions. The number of involuntary part-time workers is 2.0 million
higher than in February. These individuals, who would have preferred full-time 
employment, were working part time because their hours had been reduced or they were
unable to find full-time jobs. (See table A-8.)

The number of persons not in the labor force who currently want a job, at 7.2 million,
changed little in September; this measure is 2.3 million higher than in February. 
These individuals were not counted as unemployed because they were not actively 
looking for work during the last 4 weeks or were unavailable to take a job. (See 
table A-1.)

Among those not in the labor force who currently want a job, the number of persons 
marginally attached to the labor force, at 1.9 million, changed little in September. 
These individuals were not in the labor force, wanted and were available for work, and 
had looked for a job sometime in the prior 12 months but had not looked for work in the
4 weeks preceding the survey. The number of discouraged workers, a subset of the 
marginally attached who believed that no jobs were available for them, was 581,000 in 
September, also little changed from the previous month. (See Summary table A.)

Household Survey Supplemental Data 

In September, 22.7 percent of employed persons teleworked because of the coronavirus
pandemic, down from 24.3 percent in August. These data refer to employed persons who 
teleworked or worked at home for pay at some point in the last 4 weeks specifically 
because of the pandemic. 

In September, 19.4 million persons reported that they had been unable to work because 
their employer closed or lost business due to the pandemic--that is, they did not work
at all or worked fewer hours at some point in the last 4 weeks due to the pandemic. 
This measure is down from 24.2 million in August. Among those who reported in 
September that they were unable to work because of pandemic-related closures or lost 
business, 10.3 percent received at least some pay from their employer for the hours not
worked. 

About 4.5 million persons not in the labor force in September were prevented from 
looking for work due to the pandemic. This is down from 5.2 million in August. (To be
counted as unemployed, by definition, individuals must either be actively looking for
work or on temporary layoff.) 

These supplemental data come from questions added to the household survey beginning in
May to help gauge the effects of the pandemic on the labor market. The data are not 
seasonally adjusted. Tables with estimates from the supplemental questions for all 
months are available online at 
www.bls.gov/cps/effects-of-the-coronavirus-covid-19-pandemic.htm.

Establishment Survey Data

Total nonfarm payroll employment rose by 661,000 in September, following larger gains
in the prior 4 months. In September, nonfarm employment was below its February level
by 10.7 million, or 7.0 percent. Notable job gains occurred in leisure and hospitality,
in retail trade, in health care and social assistance, and in professional and business
services. Employment declined in government, mainly in state and local government 
education. (See table B-1. For more information about how the establishment survey and
its measures were affected by the coronavirus pandemic, see the box note at the end of 
this news release.)

Employment in leisure and hospitality increased by 318,000 in September, with almost 
two-thirds of the gain occurring in food services and drinking places (+200,000). 
Despite job growth totaling 3.8 million over the last 5 months, employment in food 
services and drinking places is down by 2.3 million since February. Amusements, 
gambling, and recreation (+69,000) and accommodation (+51,000) also added jobs in 
September.

Retail trade added 142,000 jobs over the month, with gains widespread in the industry.
Clothing and clothing accessories stores (+40,000) accounted for about one-fourth of 
the over-the-month change in retail trade. Notable employment increases also occurred 
in general merchandise stores (+20,000), motor vehicle and parts dealers (+16,000), and
health and personal care stores (+16,000). Employment in retail trade is 483,000 lower
than in February.

Employment in health care and social assistance rose by 108,000 in September but is 
down by 1.0 million since February. Health care added 53,000 jobs in September, with 
continued growth in offices of physicians (+18,000), home health care services 
(+16,000), and offices of other health practitioners (+14,000). Social assistance added
55,000 jobs, mostly in individual and family services (+32,000) and in child day care 
services (+18,000).

Professional and business services added 89,000 jobs in September. Employment increased
in services to buildings and dwellings (+22,000), architectural and engineering 
services (+13,000), and computer systems design and related services (+12,000). Despite
gains of 910,000 since April, employment in professional and business services is 1.4
million lower than in February. 

Employment in transportation and warehousing rose by 74,000 in September. Within the
industry, job gains continued in warehousing and storage (+32,000), transit and ground
passenger transportation (+21,000), and couriers and messengers (+10,000). Although the
industry has added 291,000 jobs since May, employment in transportation and warehousing
is 304,000 lower than in February. 

Manufacturing added 66,000 jobs over the month. Durable goods accounted for about two-
thirds of the gain, led by motor vehicles and parts (+14,000) and machinery (+14,000).
Despite gains over the past 5 months, employment in manufacturing is 647,000 below 
February's level. 

Financial activities added 37,000 jobs in September. Job growth occurred in real estate
and rental and leasing (+20,000) and in finance and insurance (+16,000). Employment in
financial activities is 162,000 below the level in February.

In September, the other services industry added 36,000 jobs, largely in membership
associations and organizations (+31,000). Employment in other services is 495,000 
lower than in February.

Employment in information grew by 27,000 in September but is down by 276,000 since
February. Motion picture and sound recording industries accounted for most of the 
September gain (+23,000). 

Construction employment increased by 26,000 in September, with growth in residential
specialty trade contractors (+16,000) and construction of buildings (+12,000). 
Construction employment is below its February level by 394,000.

In September, wholesale trade added 19,000 jobs, with gains in both the durable and
nondurable goods components (+13,000 and +8,000, respectively). Employment in 
wholesale trade is 312,000 lower than in February. 

Government employment declined by 216,000 in September. Employment in local 
government education and state government education fell by 231,000 and 49,000, 
respectively. A decrease of 34,000 in federal government was driven by a decline in
the number of temporary Census 2020 workers. Partially offsetting these declines, 
employment in local government, excluding education, rose by 96,000.

Employment in private education decreased by 69,000 in September, after a gain of 
similar magnitude in August. Employment in the industry is down by 355,000 since 
February. 

Employment changed little in mining in September (+1,000). Employment in the 
industry is down by 133,000 since a recent peak in January 2019; about three-fourths
of this decline has occurred since February of this year. 

In September, average hourly earnings for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls,
at $29.47, changed little (+2 cents). Average hourly earnings of private-sector 
production and nonsupervisory employees were also little changed in September 
(+1 cent) at $24.79. The large employment fluctuations over the past several months--
especially in industries with lower-paid workers--complicate the analysis of recent
trends in average hourly earnings. (See tables B-3 and B-8.)  

The average workweek for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls rose by 0.1 hour
to 34.7 hours in September. In manufacturing, the workweek rose by 0.2 hour to 40.2
hours, and overtime decreased by 0.1 hour to 2.9 hours. The average workweek for
production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls rose by 0.1 hour
to 34.1 hours. (See tables B-2 and B-7.)

The change in total nonfarm payroll employment for July was revised up by 27,000,
from +1,734,000 to +1,761,000, and the change for August was revised up by 118,000,
from +1,371,000 to +1,489,000. With these revisions, employment in July and August 
combined was 145,000 more than previously reported. (Monthly revisions result from
additional reports received from businesses and government agencies since the last 
published estimates and from the recalculation of seasonal factors.)

_____________
The Employment Situation for October is scheduled to be released on Friday, November 6,
2020, at 8:30 a.m. (ET).


 _______________________________________________________________________________________
|											|
|                    Coronavirus (COVID-19) Impact on September 2020                    |
|			 Establishment and Household Survey Data    			|
|											|
| Data collection for both surveys was affected by the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic. |
| In the establishment survey, approximately one-fifth of the establishments are 	|
| assigned to four regional data collection centers for collection. Although these 	|
| centers were closed, interviewers at these centers worked remotely to collect data by |
| telephone. Additionally, BLS encouraged businesses to report electronically. The 	|
| collection rate for the establishment survey was 70 percent in September, 5 		|
| percentage points lower than the average for the 12 months ending in February 2020.	|
| The household survey is generally conducted through in-person and telephone 		|
| interviews. However, for the safety of both interviewers and respondents, in-person 	|
| interviews were conducted only when telephone interviews could not be done. The 	|
| household survey response rate was 79 percent in September, considerably higher than	|
| the low of 65 percent in June but below the average rate of 83 percent for the 12 	|
| months ending in February 2020.							|
|											|
| In the establishment survey, workers who are paid by their employer for all or any 	|
| part of the pay period including the 12th of the month are counted as employed, even  |
| if they were not actually at their jobs. Workers who are temporarily or permanently 	|
| absent from their jobs and are not being paid are not counted as employed, even if 	|
| they are continuing to receive benefits.						|
|											|
| In the household survey, individuals are classified as employed, unemployed, or not 	|
| in the labor force based on their answers to a series of questions about their 	|
| activities during the survey reference week (September 6th through September 12th). 	|
| Workers who indicate they were not working during the entire survey reference week 	|
| and expect to be recalled to their jobs should be classified as unemployed on 	|
| temporary layoff. As in recent months, a large number of persons were classified as 	|
| unemployed on temporary layoff in September.						|
|											|
| Since March, household survey interviewers have been instructed to classify employed 	|
| persons absent from work due to temporary, coronavirus-related business closures or 	|
| cutbacks as unemployed on temporary layoff. BLS and Census Bureau analyses of the 	|
| underlying data suggest there still may be some workers affected by the pandemic who 	|
| should have been classified as unemployed on temporary layoff. However, the share of  |
| responses that may have been misclassified was much smaller in July, August, and 	|
| September than in prior months.							|
|											|
| For March through August, BLS published an estimate of what the unemployment rate 	|
| would have been had misclassified workers been included. Repeating this same approach,|
| the overall September unemployment rate would have been 0.4 percentage point higher 	|
| than reported. However, this represents the upper bound of our estimate of 		|
| misclassification and probably overstates the size of the misclassification error.	|
|											|
| According to usual practice, the data from the household survey are accepted as 	|
| recorded. To maintain data integrity, no ad hoc actions are taken to reclassify 	|
| survey responses.									|
|											|
| More information is available at 							|
| www.bls.gov/covid19/employment-situation-covid19-faq-september-2020.htm.		|
|_______________________________________________________________________________________|




HOUSEHOLD DATA
Summary table A. Household data, seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Category Sept.
2019
July
2020
Aug.
2020
Sept.
2020
Change from:
Aug.
2020-
Sept.
2020

Employment status

Civilian noninstitutional population

259,638 260,373 260,558 260,742 184

Civilian labor force

164,051 159,870 160,838 160,143 -695

Participation rate

63.2 61.4 61.7 61.4 -0.3

Employed

158,298 143,532 147,288 147,563 275

Employment-population ratio

61.0 55.1 56.5 56.6 0.1

Unemployed

5,753 16,338 13,550 12,580 -970

Unemployment rate

3.5 10.2 8.4 7.9 -0.5

Not in labor force

95,587 100,503 99,720 100,599 879

Unemployment rates

Total, 16 years and over

3.5 10.2 8.4 7.9 -0.5

Adult men (20 years and over)

3.2 9.4 8.0 7.4 -0.6

Adult women (20 years and over)

3.1 10.5 8.4 7.7 -0.7

Teenagers (16 to 19 years)

12.5 19.3 16.1 15.9 -0.2

White

3.2 9.2 7.3 7.0 -0.3

Black or African American

5.5 14.6 13.0 12.1 -0.9

Asian

2.5 12.0 10.7 8.9 -1.8

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

3.9 12.9 10.5 10.3 -0.2

Total, 25 years and over

2.9 9.1 7.6 7.1 -0.5

Less than a high school diploma

4.8 15.4 12.6 10.6 -2.0

High school graduates, no college

3.6 10.8 9.8 9.0 -0.8

Some college or associate degree

2.9 10.0 8.0 8.1 0.1

Bachelor's degree and higher

2.0 6.7 5.3 4.8 -0.5

Reason for unemployment

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

2,575 12,924 10,307 9,135 -1,172

Job leavers

840 571 589 801 212

Reentrants

1,669 2,358 2,095 2,146 51

New entrants

673 513 554 537 -17

Duration of unemployment

Less than 5 weeks

1,869 3,202 2,281 2,552 271

5 to 14 weeks

1,778 5,169 3,134 2,732 -402

15 to 26 weeks

806 6,484 6,517 4,918 -1,599

27 weeks and over

1,318 1,501 1,624 2,405 781

Employed persons at work part time

Part time for economic reasons

4,336 8,443 7,572 6,300 -1,272

Slack work or business conditions

2,600 7,281 6,214 4,936 -1,278

Could only find part-time work

1,310 1,048 1,139 1,122 -17

Part time for noneconomic reasons

21,559 17,792 18,630 18,918 288

Persons not in the labor force

Marginally attached to the labor force

1,293 1,979 2,080 1,922 -158

Discouraged workers

341 665 535 581 46

NOTE: Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Summary table B. Establishment data, seasonally adjusted
Category Sept.
2019
July
2020
Aug.
2020(p)
Sept.
2020(p)

EMPLOYMENT BY SELECTED INDUSTRY
(Over-the-month change, in thousands)

Total nonfarm

208 1,761 1,489 661

Total private

195 1,526 1,022 877

Goods-producing

19 66 45 93

Mining and logging

0 -6 -8 1

Construction

16 31 17 26

Manufacturing

3 41 36 66

Durable goods(1)

0 27 7 46

Motor vehicles and parts

-0.5 43.7 -4.3 14.3

Nondurable goods

3 14 29 20

Private service-providing

176 1,460 977 784

Wholesale trade

6.4 -19.4 10.9 18.7

Retail trade

9.0 253.9 261.2 142.4

Transportation and warehousing

10.5 48.0 81.7 73.6

Utilities

-1.4 1.0 0.2 2.8

Information

5 -11 26 27

Financial activities

3 15 26 37

Professional and business services(1)

25 162 188 89

Temporary help services

7.4 125.7 101.5 8.1

Education and health services(1)

61 219 170 40

Health care and social assistance

48.7 193.9 100.0 107.7

Leisure and hospitality

61 633 143 318

Other services

-3 158 70 36

Government

13 235 467 -216

(3-month average change, in thousands)

Total nonfarm

203 3,089 2,677 1,304

Total private

171 3,164 2,426 1,142

WOMEN AND PRODUCTION AND NONSUPERVISORY EMPLOYEES
AS A PERCENT OF ALL EMPLOYEES(2)

Total nonfarm women employees

50.0 49.7 49.8 49.7

Total private women employees

48.6 48.2 48.3 48.3

Total private production and nonsupervisory employees

82.3 81.2 81.3 81.4

HOURS AND EARNINGS
ALL EMPLOYEES

Total private

Average weekly hours

34.4 34.6 34.6 34.7

Average hourly earnings

$28.16 $29.35 $29.45 $29.47

Average weekly earnings

$968.70 $1,015.51 $1,018.97 $1,022.61

Index of aggregate weekly hours (2007=100)(3)

111.2 102.5 103.4 104.5

Over-the-month percent change

0.2 1.3 0.9 1.1

Index of aggregate weekly payrolls (2007=100)(4)

149.7 143.8 145.6 147.2

Over-the-month percent change

0.2 1.4 1.3 1.1

DIFFUSION INDEX
(Over 1-month span)(5)

Total private (258 industries)

58.1 60.5 70.5 70.3

Manufacturing (76 industries)

44.7 52.0 63.2 63.8

Footnotes
(1) Includes other industries, not shown separately.
(2) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries.
(3) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding annual average aggregate hours.
(4) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding annual average aggregate weekly payrolls.
(5) Figures are the percent of industries with employment increasing plus one-half of the industries with unchanged employment, where 50 percent indicates an equal balance between industries with increasing and decreasing employment.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2019 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


Frequently Asked Questions about Employment and Unemployment Estimates

1. Why are there two monthly measures of employment?

   The household survey and establishment survey both produce sample-based estimates
   of employment, and both have strengths and limitations. The establishment survey
   employment series has a smaller margin of error on the measurement of month-to-
   month change than the household survey because of its much larger sample size. An
   over-the-month employment change of about 100,000 is statistically significant in
   the establishment survey, while the threshold for a statistically significant change
   in the household survey is about 500,000. However, the household survey has a more
   expansive scope than the establishment survey because it includes self-employed
   workers whose businesses are unincorporated, unpaid family workers, agricultural
   workers, and private household workers, who are excluded by the establishment survey.
   The household survey also provides estimates of employment for demographic groups.
   For more information on the differences between the two surveys, please visit
   https://www.bls.gov/web/empsit/ces_cps_trends.htm.

2. Are undocumented immigrants counted in the surveys?

   It is likely that both surveys include at least some undocumented immigrants. However,
   neither the establishment nor the household survey is designed to identify the legal
   status of workers. Therefore, it is not possible to determine how many are counted in
   either survey. The establishment survey does not collect data on the legal status of
   workers. The household survey does include questions which identify the foreign and
   native born, but it does not include questions about the legal status of the foreign
   born. Data on the foreign and native born are published each month in table A-7 of
   The Employment Situation news release.

3. Why does the establishment survey have revisions?

   The establishment survey revises published estimates to improve its data series by
   incorporating additional information that was not available at the time of the
   initial publication of the estimates. The establishment survey revises its initial
   monthly estimates twice, in the immediately succeeding 2 months, to incorporate
   additional sample receipts from respondents in the survey and recalculated seasonal
   adjustment factors. For more information on the monthly revisions, please visit
   https://www.bls.gov/ces/cesrevinfo.htm.

   On an annual basis, the establishment survey incorporates a benchmark revision that
   re-anchors estimates to nearly complete employment counts available from unemployment
   insurance tax records. The benchmark helps to control for sampling and modeling errors
   in the estimates. For more information on the annual benchmark revision, please visit
   https://www.bls.gov/web/empsit/cesbmart.htm.

4. Does the establishment survey sample include small firms?

   Yes; about 40 percent of the establishment survey sample is comprised of business
   establishments with fewer than 20 employees. The establishment survey sample is
   designed to maximize the reliability of the statewide total nonfarm employment
   estimate; firms from all states, size classes, and industries are appropriately
   sampled to achieve that goal.

5. Does the establishment survey account for employment from new businesses?

   Yes; monthly establishment survey estimates include an adjustment to account for
   the net employment change generated by business births and deaths. The adjustment
   comes from an econometric model that forecasts the monthly net jobs impact of
   business births and deaths based on the actual past values of the net impact that
   can be observed with a lag from the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages. The
   establishment survey uses modeling rather than sampling for this purpose because
   the survey is not immediately able to bring new businesses into the sample. There
   is an unavoidable lag between the birth of a new firm and its appearance on the
   sampling frame and availability for selection. BLS adds new businesses to the survey
   twice a year.

6. Is the count of unemployed persons limited to just those people receiving unemployment
   insurance benefits?

   No; the estimate of unemployment is based on a monthly sample survey of households.
   All persons who are without jobs and are actively seeking and available to work are
   included among the unemployed. (People on temporary layoff are included even if
   they do not actively seek work.) There is no requirement or question relating to
   unemployment insurance benefits in the monthly survey.

7. Does the official unemployment rate exclude people who want a job but are not currently
   looking for work?

   Yes; however, there are separate estimates of persons outside the labor force who
   want a job, including those who are not currently looking because they believe no
   jobs are available (discouraged workers). In addition, alternative measures of labor
   underutilization (some of which include discouraged workers and other groups not
   officially counted as unemployed) are published each month in table A-15 of The
   Employment Situation news release. For more information about these alternative
   measures, please visit https://www.bls.gov/cps/lfcharacteristics.htm#altmeasures.

8. How can unusually severe weather affect employment and hours estimates?

   In the establishment survey, the reference period is the pay period that includes
   the 12th of the month. Unusually severe weather is more likely to have an impact on
   average weekly hours than on employment. Average weekly hours are estimated for paid
   time during the pay period, including pay for holidays, sick leave, or other time off.
   The impact of severe weather on hours estimates typically, but not always, results in
   a reduction in average weekly hours. For example, some employees may be off work for
   part of the pay period and not receive pay for the time missed, while some workers,
   such as those dealing with cleanup or repair, may work extra hours.
   
   Typically, it is not possible to precisely quantify the effect of extreme weather on 
   payroll employment estimates. In order for severe weather conditions to reduce
   employment estimates, employees have to be off work without pay for the entire pay
   period. Employees who receive pay for any part of the pay period, even 1 hour, are
   counted in the payroll employment figures. For more information on how often employees
   are paid, please visit https://www.bls.gov/opub/btn/volume-3/how-frequently-do-private-
   businesses-pay-workers.htm.

   In the household survey, the reference period is generally the calendar week that
   includes the 12th of the month. Persons who miss the entire week's work for weather-
   related events are counted as employed whether or not they are paid for the time
   off. The household survey collects data on the number of persons who had a job but
   were not at work due to bad weather. It also provides a measure of the number of
   persons who usually work full time but had reduced hours due to bad weather. 
   Current and historical data are available on the household survey's most requested
   statistics page, please visit https://data.bls.gov/cgi-bin/surveymost?ln.




Technical Note


   This news release presents statistics from two major surveys, the Current
Population Survey (CPS; household survey) and the Current Employment Statistics
survey (CES; establishment survey). The household survey provides information
on the labor force, employment, and unemployment that appears in the "A" tables,
marked HOUSEHOLD DATA. It is a sample survey of about 60,000 eligible households
conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau for the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS).

   The establishment survey provides information on employment, hours, and
earnings of employees on nonfarm payrolls; the data appear in the "B" tables,
marked ESTABLISHMENT DATA. BLS collects these data each month from the payroll
records of a sample of nonagricultural business establishments. Each month
the CES program surveys about 145,000 businesses and government agencies,
representing approximately 697,000 individual worksites, in order to provide
detailed industry data on employment, hours, and earnings of workers on nonfarm
payrolls. The active sample includes approximately one-third of all nonfarm
payroll jobs.

   For both surveys, the data for a given month relate to a particular week or
pay period. In the household survey, the reference period is generally the
calendar week that contains the 12th day of the month. In the establishment
survey, the reference period is the pay period including the 12th, which may or
may not correspond directly to the calendar week.

Coverage, definitions, and differences between surveys

   Household survey. The sample is selected to reflect the entire civilian 
noninstitutional population. Based on responses to a series of questions on 
work and job search activities, each person 16 years and over in a sample
household is classified as employed, unemployed, or not in the labor force.

   People are classified as employed if they did any work at all as paid employees
during the reference week; worked in their own business, profession, or on their
own farm; or worked without pay at least 15 hours in a family business or farm.
People are also counted as employed if they were temporarily absent from their jobs
because of illness, bad weather, vacation, labor-management disputes, or personal
reasons.

   People are classified as unemployed if they meet all of the following criteria:
they had no employment during the reference week; they were available for work at
that time; and they made specific active efforts to find employment sometime during
the 4-week period ending with the reference week. Persons laid off from a job and
expecting recall need not be looking for work to be counted as unemployed. The
unemployment data derived from the household survey in no way depend upon the
eligibility for or receipt of unemployment insurance benefits.

   The civilian labor force is the sum of employed and unemployed persons.
Those persons not classified as employed or unemployed are not in the labor 
force. The unemployment rate is the number unemployed as a percent of the 
labor force. The labor force participation rate is the labor force as a 
percent of the population, and the employment-population ratio is the 
employed as a percent of the population. Additional information about the 
household survey can be found at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm.

   Establishment survey. The sample establishments are drawn from private
nonfarm businesses such as factories, offices, and stores, as well as
from federal, state, and local government entities. Employees on nonfarm
payrolls are those who worked or received pay for any part of the reference pay
period, including persons on paid leave. Persons are counted in each job
they hold. Hours and earnings data are produced for the private sector for
all employees and for production and nonsupervisory employees. Production
and nonsupervisory employees are defined as production and related employees
in manufacturing and mining and logging, construction workers in construction,
and nonsupervisory employees in private service-providing industries.

   Industries are classified on the basis of an establishment's principal
activity in accordance with the 2017 version of the North American Industry
Classification System. Additional information about the establishment survey
can be found at www.bls.gov/ces/.

   Differences in employment estimates. The numerous conceptual and methodological
differences between the household and establishment surveys result in important
distinctions in the employment estimates derived from the surveys. Among these are:

   --The household survey includes agricultural workers, self-employed workers
     whose businesses are unincorporated, unpaid family workers, and private
     household workers among the employed. These groups are excluded from the
     establishment survey.

   --The household survey includes people on unpaid leave among the employed.
     The establishment survey does not.

   --The household survey is limited to workers 16 years of age and older.
     The establishment survey is not limited by age.

   --The household survey has no duplication of individuals, because
     individuals are counted only once, even if they hold more than one
     job. In the establishment survey, employees working at more than one
     job and thus appearing on more than one payroll are counted separately
     for each appearance.

Seasonal adjustment

   Over the course of a year, the size of the nation's labor force and the levels
of employment and unemployment undergo regularly occurring fluctuations. These 
events may result from seasonal changes in weather, major holidays, and the opening
and closing of schools. The effect of such seasonal variation can be very large.

   Because these seasonal events follow a more or less regular pattern each year,
their influence on the level of a series can be tempered by adjusting for regular
seasonal variation. These adjustments make nonseasonal developments, such as
declines in employment or increases in the participation of women in the labor
force, easier to spot. For example, in the household survey, the large number of
youth entering the labor force each June is likely to obscure any other changes
that have taken place relative to May, making it difficult to determine if the 
level of economic activity has risen or declined. Similarly, in the establishment
survey, payroll employment in education declines by about 20 percent at the end
of the spring term and later rises with the start of the fall term, obscuring the
underlying employment trends in the industry. Because seasonal employment changes
at the end and beginning of the school year can be estimated, the statistics can be
adjusted to make underlying employment patterns more discernable.  The seasonally
adjusted figures provide a more useful tool with which to analyze changes in
month-to-month economic activity.

   Many seasonally adjusted series are independently adjusted in both the household
and establishment surveys. However, the adjusted series for many major estimates,
such as total payroll employment, employment in most major sectors, total employment,
and unemployment are computed by aggregating independently adjusted component series.
For example, total unemployment is derived by summing the adjusted series for four
major age-sex components; this differs from the unemployment estimate that would be
obtained by directly adjusting the total or by combining the duration, reasons, or 
more detailed age categories. Percentage distributions of unemployment by reason and
duration are derived from the sum of the independently seasonally adjusted component
series, and will not necessarily match calculations made using the seasonally adjusted
total unemployment level. Additional information about seasonal adjustment in the 
household survey can be found at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#sa.

   For both the household and establishment surveys, a concurrent seasonal adjustment
methodology is used in which new seasonal factors are calculated each month using all
relevant data, up to and including the data for the current month. In the household
survey, new seasonal factors are used to adjust only the current month's data. In the
establishment survey, however, new seasonal factors are used each month to adjust the
three most recent monthly estimates. The prior 2 months are routinely revised to
incorporate additional sample reports and recalculated seasonal adjustment factors.
In both surveys, 5-year revisions to historical data are made once a year.

Reliability of the estimates

   Statistics based on the household and establishment surveys are subject to both
sampling and nonsampling error. When a sample, rather than the entire population,
is surveyed, there is a chance that the sample estimates may differ from the true
population values they represent. The component of this difference that occurs
because samples differ by chance is known as sampling error, and its variability
is measured by the standard error of the estimate. There is about a 90-percent
chance, or level of confidence, that an estimate based on a sample will differ by
no more than 1.6 standard errors from the true population value because of sampling
error. BLS analyses are generally conducted at the 90-percent level of confidence.

   For example, the confidence interval for the monthly change in total nonfarm
employment from the establishment survey is on the order of plus or minus 110,000.
Suppose the estimate of nonfarm employment increases by 50,000 from one month to
the next. The 90-percent confidence interval on the monthly change would range from
-60,000 to +160,000 (50,000 +/- 110,000). These figures do not mean that the sample
results are off by these magnitudes, but rather that there is about a 90-percent
chance that the true over-the-month change lies within this interval. Since this
range includes values of less than zero, we could not say with confidence that
nonfarm employment had, in fact, increased that month. If, however, the reported
nonfarm employment rise was 250,000, then all of the values within the 90-percent
confidence interval would be greater than zero. In this case, it is likely (at
least a 90-percent chance) that nonfarm employment had, in fact, risen that month.
At an unemployment rate of around 6.0 percent, the 90-percent confidence interval
for the monthly change in unemployment as measured by the household survey is
about +/- 300,000, and for the monthly change in the unemployment rate it is about
+/- 0.2 percentage point.

   In general, estimates involving many individuals or establishments have lower
standard errors (relative to the size of the estimate) than estimates which are based
on a small number of observations. The precision of estimates also is improved when
the data are cumulated over time, such as for quarterly and annual averages.

   The household and establishment surveys are also affected by nonsampling error,
which can occur for many reasons, including the failure to sample a segment of the
population, inability to obtain information for all respondents in the sample,
inability or unwillingness of respondents to provide correct information on a
timely basis, mistakes made by respondents, and errors made in the collection or
processing of the data.

   For example, in the establishment survey, estimates for the most recent 2 months
are based on incomplete returns; for this reason, these estimates are labeled
preliminary in the tables. It is only after two successive revisions to a monthly
estimate, when nearly all sample reports have been received, that the estimate is
considered final.

   Another major source of nonsampling error in the establishment survey is the
inability to capture, on a timely basis, employment generated by new firms. To
correct for this systematic underestimation of employment growth, an estimation
procedure with two components is used to account for business births. The first
component excludes employment losses from business deaths from sample-based
estimation in order to offset the missing employment gains from business births.
This is incorporated into the sample-based estimation procedure by simply not
reflecting sample units going out of business, but imputing to them the same
employment trend as the other firms in the sample. This procedure accounts for
most of the net birth/death employment.

   The second component is an ARIMA time series model designed to estimate the
residual net birth/death employment not accounted for by the imputation. The
historical time series used to create and test the ARIMA model was derived from
the unemployment insurance universe micro-level database, and reflects the actual
residual net of births and deaths over the past 5 years.

   The sample-based estimates from the establishment survey are adjusted once a
year (on a lagged basis) to universe counts of payroll employment obtained from
administrative records of the unemployment insurance program. The difference 
between the March sample-based employment estimates and the March universe counts
is known as a benchmark revision, and serves as a rough proxy for total survey
error. The new benchmarks also incorporate changes in the classification of
industries. Over the past decade, absolute benchmark revisions for total nonfarm
employment have averaged 0.2 percent, with a range from -0.7 percent to 0.3 percent.

Other information

   Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired
individuals upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay
Service: (800) 877-8339.




HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-1. Employment status of the civilian population by sex and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Sept.
2019
Aug.
2020
Sept.
2020
Sept.
2019
May
2020
June
2020
July
2020
Aug.
2020
Sept.
2020

TOTAL

Civilian noninstitutional population

259,638 260,558 260,742 259,638 260,047 260,204 260,373 260,558 260,742

Civilian labor force

163,943 160,966 160,073 164,051 158,227 159,932 159,870 160,838 160,143

Participation rate

63.1 61.8 61.4 63.2 60.8 61.5 61.4 61.7 61.4

Employed

158,478 147,224 147,796 158,298 137,242 142,182 143,532 147,288 147,563

Employment-population ratio

61.0 56.5 56.7 61.0 52.8 54.6 55.1 56.5 56.6

Unemployed

5,465 13,742 12,277 5,753 20,985 17,750 16,338 13,550 12,580

Unemployment rate

3.3 8.5 7.7 3.5 13.3 11.1 10.2 8.4 7.9

Not in labor force

95,694 99,592 100,670 95,587 101,820 100,273 100,503 99,720 100,599

Persons who currently want a job

4,637 7,184 6,984 4,861 8,962 8,195 7,732 6,985 7,227

Men, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

125,583 126,036 126,127 125,583 125,782 125,860 125,944 126,036 126,127

Civilian labor force

86,729 85,600 85,068 86,855 83,900 84,596 84,533 85,315 85,237

Participation rate

69.1 67.9 67.4 69.2 66.7 67.2 67.1 67.7 67.6

Employed

83,862 78,711 78,817 83,747 73,702 75,629 76,212 78,255 78,674

Employment-population ratio

66.8 62.5 62.5 66.7 58.6 60.1 60.5 62.1 62.4

Unemployed

2,867 6,889 6,251 3,109 10,199 8,967 8,321 7,061 6,563

Unemployment rate

3.3 8.0 7.3 3.6 12.2 10.6 9.8 8.3 7.7

Not in labor force

38,855 40,436 41,059 38,728 41,881 41,264 41,411 40,720 40,890

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

117,140 117,672 117,763 117,140 117,410 117,492 117,580 117,672 117,763

Civilian labor force

83,837 82,554 82,248 83,841 81,057 81,995 81,904 82,512 82,296

Participation rate

71.6 70.2 69.8 71.6 69.0 69.8 69.7 70.1 69.9

Employed

81,348 76,178 76,468 81,146 71,672 73,641 74,184 75,945 76,231

Employment-population ratio

69.4 64.7 64.9 69.3 61.0 62.7 63.1 64.5 64.7

Unemployed

2,488 6,376 5,781 2,695 9,385 8,354 7,720 6,567 6,065

Unemployment rate

3.0 7.7 7.0 3.2 11.6 10.2 9.4 8.0 7.4

Not in labor force

33,304 35,118 35,515 33,300 36,352 35,497 35,676 35,160 35,467

Women, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

134,054 134,523 134,615 134,054 134,265 134,344 134,429 134,523 134,615

Civilian labor force

77,214 75,366 75,005 77,195 74,327 75,336 75,337 75,523 74,906

Participation rate

57.6 56.0 55.7 57.6 55.4 56.1 56.0 56.1 55.6

Employed

74,616 68,513 68,979 74,551 63,540 66,552 67,320 69,033 68,890

Employment-population ratio

55.7 50.9 51.2 55.6 47.3 49.5 50.1 51.3 51.2

Unemployed

2,598 6,853 6,026 2,644 10,787 8,783 8,017 6,489 6,016

Unemployment rate

3.4 9.1 8.0 3.4 14.5 11.7 10.6 8.6 8.0

Not in labor force

56,840 59,156 59,610 56,859 59,938 59,009 59,092 59,000 59,709

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

125,806 126,336 126,429 125,806 126,072 126,155 126,243 126,336 126,429

Civilian labor force

74,501 72,415 72,129 74,313 71,558 72,580 72,720 72,715 71,850

Participation rate

59.2 57.3 57.1 59.1 56.8 57.5 57.6 57.6 56.8

Employed

72,204 65,997 66,547 71,990 61,638 64,426 65,113 66,637 66,289

Employment-population ratio

57.4 52.2 52.6 57.2 48.9 51.1 51.6 52.7 52.4

Unemployed

2,297 6,418 5,582 2,323 9,920 8,154 7,607 6,078 5,561

Unemployment rate

3.1 8.9 7.7 3.1 13.9 11.2 10.5 8.4 7.7

Not in labor force

51,304 53,921 54,299 51,493 54,514 53,575 53,523 53,622 54,578

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian noninstitutional population

16,691 16,550 16,551 16,691 16,566 16,557 16,550 16,550 16,551

Civilian labor force

5,605 5,998 5,695 5,897 5,612 5,356 5,245 5,611 5,997

Participation rate

33.6 36.2 34.4 35.3 33.9 32.3 31.7 33.9 36.2

Employed

4,926 5,049 4,781 5,162 3,932 4,114 4,235 4,706 5,043

Employment-population ratio

29.5 30.5 28.9 30.9 23.7 24.8 25.6 28.4 30.5

Unemployed

680 949 914 735 1,681 1,242 1,011 905 954

Unemployment rate

12.1 15.8 16.0 12.5 29.9 23.2 19.3 16.1 15.9

Not in labor force

11,086 10,552 10,856 10,794 10,953 11,201 11,304 10,939 10,554

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-2. Employment status of the civilian population by race, sex, and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, race, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Sept.
2019
Aug.
2020
Sept.
2020
Sept.
2019
May
2020
June
2020
July
2020
Aug.
2020
Sept.
2020

WHITE

Civilian noninstitutional population

201,062 201,417 201,515 201,062 201,154 201,233 201,319 201,417 201,515

Civilian labor force

126,928 124,491 124,095 127,018 122,661 124,009 123,618 124,471 124,213

Participation rate

63.1 61.8 61.6 63.2 61.0 61.6 61.4 61.8 61.6

Employed

123,055 115,205 115,603 122,955 107,499 111,538 112,226 115,354 115,496

Employment-population ratio

61.2 57.2 57.4 61.2 53.4 55.4 55.7 57.3 57.3

Unemployed

3,873 9,286 8,492 4,063 15,162 12,470 11,392 9,118 8,717

Unemployment rate

3.1 7.5 6.8 3.2 12.4 10.1 9.2 7.3 7.0

Not in labor force

74,133 76,927 77,420 74,044 78,493 77,224 77,701 76,946 77,302

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

66,100 64,909 64,919 66,109 64,125 64,688 64,420 64,911 64,976

Participation rate

71.8 70.3 70.3 71.8 69.5 70.1 69.8 70.3 70.3

Employed

64,380 60,577 60,904 64,224 57,263 58,898 59,054 60,425 60,738

Employment-population ratio

69.9 65.6 65.9 69.7 62.1 63.8 64.0 65.4 65.7

Unemployed

1,720 4,331 4,014 1,886 6,862 5,790 5,367 4,485 4,238

Unemployment rate

2.6 6.7 6.2 2.9 10.7 9.0 8.3 6.9 6.5

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

56,449 54,837 54,696 56,348 54,294 55,147 55,124 55,124 54,568

Participation rate

58.4 56.6 56.4 58.3 56.1 56.9 56.9 56.9 56.3

Employed

54,807 50,557 50,917 54,709 47,195 49,440 49,822 51,124 50,794

Employment-population ratio

56.7 52.2 52.5 56.6 48.8 51.1 51.4 52.7 52.4

Unemployed

1,643 4,279 3,779 1,639 7,099 5,707 5,302 4,000 3,774

Unemployment rate

2.9 7.8 6.9 2.9 13.1 10.3 9.6 7.3 6.9

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

4,379 4,746 4,481 4,561 4,242 4,174 4,074 4,437 4,669

Participation rate

35.8 39.1 36.9 37.3 34.9 34.4 33.6 36.6 38.5

Employed

3,868 4,070 3,782 4,022 3,041 3,201 3,350 3,805 3,965

Employment-population ratio

31.6 33.5 31.2 32.9 25.0 26.4 27.6 31.4 32.7

Unemployed

511 676 699 539 1,202 973 724 632 704

Unemployment rate

11.7 14.2 15.6 11.8 28.3 23.3 17.8 14.2 15.1

BLACK OR AFRICAN AMERICAN

Civilian noninstitutional population

33,116 33,386 33,420 33,116 33,294 33,323 33,353 33,386 33,420

Civilian labor force

20,656 20,199 19,907 20,685 19,858 20,010 20,094 20,150 19,956

Participation rate

62.4 60.5 59.6 62.5 59.6 60.0 60.2 60.4 59.7

Employed

19,611 17,551 17,609 19,550 16,523 16,927 17,161 17,528 17,537

Employment-population ratio

59.2 52.6 52.7 59.0 49.6 50.8 51.5 52.5 52.5

Unemployed

1,045 2,648 2,298 1,135 3,334 3,083 2,933 2,621 2,420

Unemployment rate

5.1 13.1 11.5 5.5 16.8 15.4 14.6 13.0 12.1

Not in labor force

12,460 13,187 13,513 12,431 13,436 13,313 13,258 13,237 13,464

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

9,509 9,331 9,133 9,488 8,970 9,161 9,229 9,277 9,117

Participation rate

68.3 66.3 64.8 68.1 63.9 65.2 65.6 65.9 64.7

Employed

9,032 8,125 8,031 8,976 7,583 7,670 7,827 8,051 7,967

Employment-population ratio

64.9 57.7 57.0 64.5 54.1 54.6 55.7 57.2 56.5

Unemployed

477 1,206 1,102 512 1,388 1,492 1,402 1,225 1,150

Unemployment rate

5.0 12.9 12.1 5.4 15.5 16.3 15.2 13.2 12.6

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

10,480 10,141 10,102 10,478 10,097 10,113 10,156 10,174 10,116

Participation rate

62.6 60.0 59.7 62.6 59.9 60.0 60.2 60.2 59.8

Employed

10,024 8,870 9,026 9,987 8,426 8,693 8,785 8,949 8,997

Employment-population ratio

59.9 52.5 53.4 59.7 50.0 51.6 52.0 53.0 53.2

Unemployed

456 1,271 1,076 491 1,671 1,420 1,371 1,224 1,120

Unemployment rate

4.3 12.5 10.7 4.7 16.5 14.0 13.5 12.0 11.1

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

668 727 672 719 791 735 709 699 723

Participation rate

27.2 30.1 27.9 29.3 32.7 30.4 29.4 29.0 30.0

Employed

556 556 552 588 515 564 549 527 573

Employment-population ratio

22.6 23.0 22.9 23.9 21.3 23.3 22.7 21.9 23.8

Unemployed

112 171 120 132 276 171 160 172 150

Unemployment rate

16.8 23.5 17.8 18.3 34.9 23.2 22.5 24.6 20.7

ASIAN

Civilian noninstitutional population

16,400 16,597 16,668 16,400 16,385 16,471 16,420 16,597 16,668

Civilian labor force

10,518 10,627 10,507 10,521 9,968 10,108 10,408 10,595 10,501

Participation rate

64.1 64.0 63.0 64.2 60.8 61.4 63.4 63.8 63.0

Employed

10,261 9,491 9,581 10,262 8,475 8,717 9,163 9,462 9,568

Employment-population ratio

62.6 57.2 57.5 62.6 51.7 52.9 55.8 57.0 57.4

Unemployed

257 1,136 926 259 1,493 1,392 1,245 1,133 933

Unemployment rate

2.4 10.7 8.8 2.5 15.0 13.8 12.0 10.7 8.9

Not in labor force

5,881 5,969 6,162 5,879 6,417 6,362 6,012 6,001 6,167

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Estimates for the above race groups will not sum to totals shown in table A-1 because data are not presented for all races. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-3. Employment status of the Hispanic or Latino population by sex and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Sept.
2019
Aug.
2020
Sept.
2020
Sept.
2019
May
2020
June
2020
July
2020
Aug.
2020
Sept.
2020

HISPANIC OR LATINO ETHNICITY

Civilian noninstitutional population

43,722 44,300 44,388 43,722 44,053 44,132 44,212 44,300 44,388

Civilian labor force

29,258 28,901 28,771 29,293 28,218 28,907 28,560 28,925 28,798

Participation rate

66.9 65.2 64.8 67.0 64.1 65.5 64.6 65.3 64.9

Employed

28,210 25,859 25,897 28,156 23,241 24,711 24,885 25,886 25,834

Employment-population ratio

64.5 58.4 58.3 64.4 52.8 56.0 56.3 58.4 58.2

Unemployed

1,048 3,042 2,874 1,137 4,977 4,195 3,675 3,040 2,964

Unemployment rate

3.6 10.5 10.0 3.9 17.6 14.5 12.9 10.5 10.3

Not in labor force

14,464 15,399 15,617 14,430 15,834 15,225 15,652 15,375 15,590

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

15,783 15,763 15,833 15,793 15,493 15,588 15,488 15,761 15,848

Participation rate

80.0 78.8 79.0 80.0 77.9 78.2 77.6 78.8 79.1

Employed

15,390 14,261 14,529 15,320 13,154 13,590 13,728 14,213 14,463

Employment-population ratio

78.0 71.3 72.5 77.6 66.1 68.2 68.8 71.0 72.1

Unemployed

393 1,502 1,303 473 2,338 1,999 1,761 1,549 1,386

Unemployment rate

2.5 9.5 8.2 3.0 15.1 12.8 11.4 9.8 8.7

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

12,210 11,831 11,602 12,192 11,510 11,999 11,881 11,904 11,580

Participation rate

61.1 58.4 57.1 61.0 57.1 59.4 58.7 58.7 57.0

Employed

11,737 10,547 10,326 11,723 9,326 10,158 10,217 10,649 10,307

Employment-population ratio

58.8 52.0 50.8 58.7 46.3 50.3 50.5 52.5 50.7

Unemployed

472 1,284 1,276 468 2,184 1,841 1,664 1,255 1,272

Unemployment rate

3.9 10.9 11.0 3.8 19.0 15.3 14.0 10.5 11.0

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

1,265 1,307 1,336 1,308 1,216 1,319 1,191 1,260 1,370

Participation rate

31.6 32.5 33.2 32.7 30.3 32.9 29.7 31.3 34.0

Employed

1,083 1,051 1,042 1,112 761 964 940 1,024 1,063

Employment-population ratio

27.0 26.1 25.9 27.8 19.0 24.0 23.4 25.5 26.4

Unemployed

182 256 295 196 454 355 251 236 306

Unemployment rate

14.4 19.6 22.1 15.0 37.4 26.9 21.0 18.7 22.4

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-4. Employment status of the civilian population 25 years and over by educational attainment
[Numbers in thousands]
Educational attainment Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Sept.
2019
Aug.
2020
Sept.
2020
Sept.
2019
May
2020
June
2020
July
2020
Aug.
2020
Sept.
2020

Less than a high school diploma

Civilian labor force

10,008 8,545 8,946 9,917 8,212 8,342 8,255 8,500 8,835

Participation rate

46.3 45.1 44.2 45.9 41.9 42.9 44.9 44.9 43.7

Employed

9,608 7,536 8,093 9,440 6,577 6,958 6,981 7,427 7,898

Employment-population ratio

44.5 39.8 40.0 43.7 33.5 35.7 38.0 39.2 39.0

Unemployed

400 1,009 853 477 1,634 1,385 1,274 1,073 937

Unemployment rate

4.0 11.8 9.5 4.8 19.9 16.6 15.4 12.6 10.6

High school graduates, no college(1)

Civilian labor force

36,701 34,365 35,328 36,305 33,792 33,598 33,942 34,129 34,953

Participation rate

58.4 55.3 55.6 57.8 55.0 55.3 55.4 54.9 55.0

Employed

35,474 31,007 32,284 34,990 28,605 29,519 30,266 30,768 31,803

Employment-population ratio

56.5 49.9 50.8 55.7 46.6 48.6 49.4 49.5 50.0

Unemployed

1,227 3,358 3,044 1,315 5,187 4,079 3,677 3,361 3,150

Unemployment rate

3.3 9.8 8.6 3.6 15.3 12.1 10.8 9.8 9.0

Some college or associate degree

Civilian labor force

37,404 36,155 35,921 37,455 36,381 36,661 36,455 36,427 35,970

Participation rate

65.0 63.5 63.5 65.1 63.3 63.8 63.4 64.0 63.6

Employed

36,348 33,169 33,055 36,370 31,559 32,662 32,816 33,504 33,060

Employment-population ratio

63.1 58.3 58.4 63.2 54.9 56.9 57.1 58.9 58.5

Unemployed

1,056 2,987 2,866 1,085 4,821 3,999 3,639 2,922 2,910

Unemployment rate

2.8 8.3 8.0 2.9 13.3 10.9 10.0 8.0 8.1

Bachelor's degree and higher(2)

Civilian labor force

59,077 61,379 59,840 59,159 60,442 61,861 61,847 61,930 59,954

Participation rate

73.9 72.1 72.2 74.0 71.9 72.7 72.1 72.8 72.3

Employed

57,919 57,935 57,021 57,966 55,992 57,614 57,710 58,654 57,098

Employment-population ratio

72.5 68.1 68.8 72.5 66.6 67.7 67.3 68.9 68.9

Unemployed

1,157 3,444 2,818 1,193 4,450 4,247 4,137 3,276 2,857

Unemployment rate

2.0 5.6 4.7 2.0 7.4 6.9 6.7 5.3 4.8

Footnotes
(1) Includes persons with a high school diploma or equivalent.
(2) Includes persons with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees.

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals for those 25 years and over because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-5. Employment status of the civilian population 18 years and over by veteran status, period of service, and sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, veteran status, and period of service Total Men Women
Sept.
2019
Sept.
2020
Sept.
2019
Sept.
2020
Sept.
2019
Sept.
2020

VETERANS, 18 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

18,744 18,389 16,854 16,482 1,890 1,907

Civilian labor force

9,229 8,814 8,125 7,705 1,104 1,109

Participation rate

49.2 47.9 48.2 46.7 58.4 58.1

Employed

8,947 8,246 7,887 7,209 1,060 1,037

Employment-population ratio

47.7 44.8 46.8 43.7 56.1 54.4

Unemployed

282 568 238 496 45 72

Unemployment rate

3.1 6.4 2.9 6.4 4.0 6.5

Not in labor force

9,515 9,575 8,729 8,777 786 798

Gulf War-era II veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

4,377 4,579 3,626 3,827 751 752

Civilian labor force

3,516 3,643 3,022 3,114 495 529

Participation rate

80.3 79.6 83.3 81.4 65.8 70.4

Employed

3,360 3,371 2,900 2,872 460 499

Employment-population ratio

76.8 73.6 80.0 75.1 61.2 66.4

Unemployed

157 272 122 242 35 30

Unemployment rate

4.5 7.5 4.0 7.8 7.0 5.7

Not in labor force

861 936 604 713 257 223

Gulf War-era I veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

3,055 3,011 2,569 2,494 486 517

Civilian labor force

2,320 2,147 1,945 1,807 374 340

Participation rate

75.9 71.3 75.7 72.5 77.1 65.8

Employed

2,260 2,017 1,890 1,701 370 316

Employment-population ratio

74.0 67.0 73.6 68.2 76.1 61.2

Unemployed

60 131 55 107 5 24

Unemployment rate

2.6 6.1 2.8 5.9 1.2 7.0

Not in labor force

735 864 624 687 111 177

World War II, Korean War, and Vietnam-era veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

7,129 6,744 6,882 6,507 247 237

Civilian labor force

1,459 1,180 1,407 1,130 53 50

Participation rate

20.5 17.5 20.4 17.4 21.3 21.2

Employed

1,427 1,128 1,374 1,082 52 46

Employment-population ratio

20.0 16.7 20.0 16.6 21.2 19.4

Unemployed

33 52 32 48 0 4

Unemployment rate

2.2 4.4 2.3 4.2 - -

Not in labor force

5,670 5,564 5,475 5,377 194 187

Veterans of other service periods

Civilian noninstitutional population

4,183 4,055 3,777 3,654 406 401

Civilian labor force

1,934 1,844 1,751 1,655 183 189

Participation rate

46.2 45.5 46.4 45.3 45.0 47.2

Employed

1,901 1,730 1,723 1,555 178 176

Employment-population ratio

45.4 42.7 45.6 42.5 43.8 43.8

Unemployed

33 114 28 100 5 13

Unemployment rate

1.7 6.2 1.6 6.1 2.6 7.1

Not in labor force

2,249 2,211 2,026 1,999 223 212

NONVETERANS, 18 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

231,979 233,495 104,218 105,156 127,761 128,340

Civilian labor force

152,624 149,094 77,584 76,330 75,040 72,764

Participation rate

65.8 63.9 74.4 72.6 58.7 56.7

Employed

147,662 137,705 75,059 70,735 72,603 66,970

Employment-population ratio

63.7 59.0 72.0 67.3 56.8 52.2

Unemployed

4,962 11,389 2,525 5,595 2,437 5,794

Unemployment rate

3.3 7.6 3.3 7.3 3.2 8.0

Not in labor force

79,355 84,401 26,634 28,826 52,721 55,575

NOTE: Veterans served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces and were not on active duty at the time of the survey. Nonveterans never served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces. Veterans could have served anywhere in the world during these periods of service: Gulf War era II (September 2001-present), Gulf War era I (August 1990-August 2001), Vietnam era (August 1964-April 1975), Korean War (July 1950-January 1955), World War II (December 1941-December 1946), and other service periods (all other time periods). Veterans who served in more than one wartime period are classified only in the most recent one. Veterans who served during one of the selected wartime periods and another period are classified only in the wartime period. Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria (values not shown where base is less than 75,000). Updated population controls introduced with the release of January 2020 data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-6. Employment status of the civilian population by sex, age, and disability status, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Persons with a disability Persons with no disability
Sept.
2019
Sept.
2020
Sept.
2019
Sept.
2020

TOTAL, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

30,105 29,802 229,533 230,941

Civilian labor force

6,193 6,047 157,751 154,026

Participation rate

20.6 20.3 68.7 66.7

Employed

5,817 5,291 152,661 142,505

Employment-population ratio

19.3 17.8 66.5 61.7

Unemployed

376 755 5,089 11,521

Unemployment rate

6.1 12.5 3.2 7.5

Not in labor force

23,912 23,755 71,782 76,915

Men, 16 to 64 years

Civilian labor force

2,632 2,563 78,114 76,550

Participation rate

35.4 34.4 82.9 81.5

Employed

2,458 2,259 75,564 70,944

Employment-population ratio

33.0 30.3 80.2 75.5

Unemployed

174 304 2,549 5,606

Unemployment rate

6.6 11.9 3.3 7.3

Not in labor force

4,805 4,887 16,089 17,354

Women, 16 to 64 years

Civilian labor force

2,419 2,295 69,975 67,936

Participation rate

32.0 31.0 72.1 70.1

Employed

2,256 1,949 67,657 62,663

Employment-population ratio

29.8 26.3 69.7 64.7

Unemployed

163 346 2,318 5,273

Unemployment rate

6.7 15.1 3.3 7.8

Not in labor force

5,139 5,117 27,104 28,990

Both sexes, 65 years and over

Civilian labor force

1,142 1,188 9,662 9,539

Participation rate

7.6 8.0 25.3 23.8

Employed

1,104 1,082 9,440 8,898

Employment-population ratio

7.3 7.2 24.7 22.2

Unemployed

38 105 222 642

Unemployment rate

3.4 8.9 2.3 6.7

Not in labor force

13,969 13,752 28,588 30,571

NOTE: A person with a disability has at least one of the following conditions: is deaf or has serious difficulty hearing; is blind or has serious difficulty seeing even when wearing glasses; has serious difficulty concentrating, remembering, or making decisions because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition; has serious difficulty walking or climbing stairs; has difficulty dressing or bathing; or has difficulty doing errands alone such as visiting a doctor's office or shopping because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-7. Employment status of the civilian population by nativity and sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status and nativity Total Men Women
Sept.
2019
Sept.
2020
Sept.
2019
Sept.
2020
Sept.
2019
Sept.
2020

Foreign born, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

42,685 41,810 20,523 20,159 22,162 21,651

Civilian labor force

28,121 26,712 15,938 15,377 12,183 11,335

Participation rate

65.9 63.9 77.7 76.3 55.0 52.4

Employed

27,392 24,419 15,586 14,350 11,806 10,068

Employment-population ratio

64.2 58.4 75.9 71.2 53.3 46.5

Unemployed

729 2,293 352 1,027 377 1,266

Unemployment rate

2.6 8.6 2.2 6.7 3.1 11.2

Not in labor force

14,563 15,098 4,585 4,782 9,979 10,316

Native born, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

216,953 218,933 105,061 105,969 111,893 112,964

Civilian labor force

135,822 133,361 70,790 69,691 65,031 63,670

Participation rate

62.6 60.9 67.4 65.8 58.1 56.4

Employed

131,086 123,377 68,276 64,466 62,810 58,911

Employment-population ratio

60.4 56.4 65.0 60.8 56.1 52.1

Unemployed

4,736 9,983 2,515 5,224 2,221 4,759

Unemployment rate

3.5 7.5 3.6 7.5 3.4 7.5

Not in labor force

81,131 85,572 34,270 36,278 46,861 49,294

NOTE: The foreign born are those residing in the United States who were not U.S. citizens at birth. That is, they were born outside the United States or one of its outlying areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam, to parents neither of whom was a U.S. citizen. The native born are persons who were born in the United States or one of its outlying areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam or who were born abroad of at least one parent who was a U.S. citizen. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-8. Employed persons by class of worker and part-time status
[In thousands]
Category Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Sept.
2019
Aug.
2020
Sept.
2020
Sept.
2019
May
2020
June
2020
July
2020
Aug.
2020
Sept.
2020

CLASS OF WORKER

Agriculture and related industries

2,479 2,259 2,309 2,416 2,341 2,297 2,128 2,159 2,257

Wage and salary workers(1)

1,672 1,457 1,480 1,634 1,569 1,530 1,446 1,422 1,454

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

781 788 816 765 738 716 677 736 792

Unpaid family workers

27 14 12 - - - - - -

Nonagricultural industries

155,999 144,965 145,487 155,816 134,966 139,944 141,487 145,156 145,235

Wage and salary workers(1)

147,030 136,073 136,709 146,852 126,943 131,444 132,888 136,258 136,509

Government

21,089 20,445 20,361 21,144 19,763 20,895 20,597 21,132 20,483

Private industries

125,942 115,628 116,348 125,734 107,164 110,584 112,361 115,172 116,088

Private households

842 715 683 - - - - - -

Other industries

125,100 114,913 115,665 124,864 106,660 110,045 111,663 114,478 115,385

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

8,889 8,815 8,723 8,850 7,944 8,376 8,559 8,808 8,680

Unpaid family workers

80 77 54 - - - - - -

PERSONS AT WORK PART TIME(2)

All industries

Part time for economic reasons(3)

3,992 7,488 5,955 4,336 10,633 9,062 8,443 7,572 6,300

Slack work or business conditions

2,377 6,106 4,669 2,600 9,543 7,939 7,281 6,214 4,936

Could only find part-time work

1,327 1,039 1,124 1,310 843 942 1,048 1,139 1,122

Part time for noneconomic reasons(4)

21,666 17,110 19,012 21,559 14,394 17,137 17,792 18,630 18,918

Nonagricultural industries

Part time for economic reasons(3)

3,925 7,387 5,901 4,257 10,485 8,961 8,382 7,468 6,224

Slack work or business conditions

2,337 6,033 4,623 2,554 9,408 7,860 7,234 6,148 4,881

Could only find part-time work

1,317 1,027 1,120 1,300 836 941 1,047 1,124 1,116

Part time for noneconomic reasons(4)

21,291 16,744 18,612 21,178 14,009 16,793 17,404 18,264 18,519

Footnotes
(1) Includes self-employed workers whose businesses are incorporated.
(2) Refers to those who worked 1 to 34 hours during the survey reference week and excludes employed persons who were absent from their jobs for the entire week.
(3) Refers to those who worked 1 to 34 hours during the reference week for an economic reason such as slack work or unfavorable business conditions, inability to find full-time work, or seasonal declines in demand.
(4) Refers to persons who usually work part time for noneconomic reasons such as childcare problems, family or personal obligations, school or training, retirement or Social Security limits on earnings, and other reasons. This excludes persons who usually work full time but worked only 1 to 34 hours during the reference week for reasons such as vacations, holidays, illness, and bad weather.

- Data not available.
NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-9. Selected employment indicators
[Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Sept.
2019
Aug.
2020
Sept.
2020
Sept.
2019
May
2020
June
2020
July
2020
Aug.
2020
Sept.
2020

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

158,478 147,224 147,796 158,298 137,242 142,182 143,532 147,288 147,563

16 to 19 years

4,926 5,049 4,781 5,162 3,932 4,114 4,235 4,706 5,043

16 to 17 years

1,870 2,042 1,845 1,809 1,420 1,501 1,727 1,845 1,787

18 to 19 years

3,056 3,007 2,936 3,321 2,495 2,649 2,581 2,838 3,202

20 years and over

153,553 142,175 143,015 153,136 133,310 138,068 139,297 142,582 142,521

20 to 24 years

14,203 12,528 12,561 14,282 10,608 11,249 11,593 12,253 12,635

25 years and over

139,350 129,647 130,454 138,787 122,691 126,771 127,741 130,231 129,859

25 to 54 years

101,621 94,500 95,026 101,201 89,943 92,702 93,068 94,928 94,606

25 to 34 years

36,073 32,765 33,405 35,928 31,299 32,028 32,105 32,889 33,253

35 to 44 years

33,581 31,873 31,844 33,385 30,088 30,991 31,398 31,972 31,656

45 to 54 years

31,967 29,863 29,777 31,887 28,555 29,683 29,565 30,067 29,697

55 years and over

37,729 35,147 35,428 37,586 32,748 34,069 34,673 35,304 35,253

Men, 16 years and over

83,862 78,711 78,817 83,747 73,702 75,629 76,212 78,255 78,674

16 to 19 years

2,514 2,533 2,349 2,601 2,030 1,988 2,028 2,310 2,442

16 to 17 years

916 982 873 896 659 714 753 860 839

18 to 19 years

1,598 1,552 1,476 1,686 1,355 1,302 1,297 1,435 1,577

20 years and over

81,348 76,178 76,468 81,146 71,672 73,641 74,184 75,945 76,231

20 to 24 years

7,167 6,563 6,477 7,208 5,445 5,726 5,949 6,345 6,521

25 years and over

74,181 69,615 69,991 73,896 66,271 67,865 68,243 69,503 69,688

25 to 54 years

54,061 50,761 50,918 53,870 48,488 49,471 49,683 50,763 50,721

25 to 34 years

19,256 17,572 17,882 19,197 16,822 16,987 17,019 17,566 17,808

35 to 44 years

18,012 17,240 17,232 17,928 16,335 16,582 16,867 17,210 17,151

45 to 54 years

16,792 15,949 15,804 16,745 15,330 15,903 15,796 15,987 15,762

55 years and over

20,121 18,855 19,073 20,026 17,783 18,394 18,560 18,740 18,966

Women, 16 years and over

74,616 68,513 68,979 74,551 63,540 66,552 67,320 69,033 68,890

16 to 19 years

2,412 2,516 2,432 2,561 1,902 2,126 2,207 2,396 2,600

16 to 17 years

954 1,060 972 914 761 788 974 984 948

18 to 19 years

1,458 1,456 1,460 1,635 1,140 1,347 1,284 1,402 1,626

20 years and over

72,204 65,997 66,547 71,990 61,638 64,426 65,113 66,637 66,289

20 to 24 years

7,036 5,965 6,085 7,073 5,163 5,523 5,644 5,908 6,114

25 years and over

65,168 60,032 60,462 64,891 56,420 58,906 59,498 60,728 60,171

25 to 54 years

47,561 43,739 44,108 47,331 41,455 43,231 43,385 44,164 43,885

25 to 34 years

16,817 15,193 15,523 16,731 14,478 15,041 15,086 15,323 15,444

35 to 44 years

15,568 14,633 14,612 15,457 13,753 14,409 14,531 14,762 14,505

45 to 54 years

15,175 13,914 13,972 15,143 13,225 13,781 13,769 14,079 13,936

55 years and over

17,608 16,292 16,355 17,560 14,964 15,675 16,113 16,564 16,286

MARITAL STATUS

Married men, spouse present(1)

46,256 44,420 43,845 46,011 42,822 43,702 43,768 44,391 43,605

Married women, spouse present(1)

36,477 34,703 34,350 36,478 32,978 34,440 34,794 35,275 34,326

Women who maintain families(2)

10,006 8,689 9,109 - - - - - -

FULL- OR PART-TIME STATUS

Full-time workers(3)

131,704 123,619 122,998 131,123 116,523 118,941 119,532 122,369 122,423

Part-time workers(4)

26,774 23,605 24,798 27,079 20,741 23,179 23,982 24,973 25,161

MULTIPLE JOBHOLDERS

Total multiple jobholders

8,331 6,541 6,482 8,312 5,598 6,279 6,602 6,784 6,445

Percent of total employed

5.3 4.4 4.4 5.3 4.1 4.4 4.6 4.6 4.4

SELF-EMPLOYMENT

Self-employed workers, incorporated

6,227 6,327 6,275 - - - - - -

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

9,669 9,603 9,540 9,615 8,681 9,092 9,236 9,544 9,473

Footnotes
(1) Beginning with data for January 2020, refers to persons in both opposite-sex and same-sex married couples. Prior to January 2020, referred to persons in opposite-sex married couples only.
(2) Beginning with data for January 2020, refers to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not a spouse of either sex. Prior to January 2020, referred to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not an opposite-sex spouse.
(3) Employed full-time workers are persons who usually work 35 hours or more per week.
(4) Employed part-time workers are persons who usually work less than 35 hours per week.

- Data not available.
NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-10. Selected unemployment indicators, seasonally adjusted
Characteristic Number of
unemployed persons
(in thousands)
Unemployment rates
Sept.
2019
Aug.
2020
Sept.
2020
Sept.
2019
May
2020
June
2020
July
2020
Aug.
2020
Sept.
2020

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

5,753 13,550 12,580 3.5 13.3 11.1 10.2 8.4 7.9

16 to 19 years

735 905 954 12.5 29.9 23.2 19.3 16.1 15.9

16 to 17 years

274 298 367 13.1 30.1 23.8 17.6 13.9 17.0

18 to 19 years

460 607 582 12.2 29.8 22.5 19.8 17.6 15.4

20 years and over

5,018 12,645 11,626 3.2 12.6 10.7 9.9 8.1 7.5

20 to 24 years

964 2,010 1,807 6.3 23.2 19.8 18.3 14.1 12.5

25 years and over

4,072 10,636 9,858 2.9 11.6 9.7 9.1 7.6 7.1

25 to 54 years

3,126 7,715 7,322 3.0 11.5 9.8 9.2 7.5 7.2

25 to 34 years

1,331 3,515 3,173 3.6 13.4 11.7 11.4 9.7 8.7

35 to 44 years

892 2,206 2,105 2.6 10.2 9.1 8.1 6.5 6.2

45 to 54 years

903 1,994 2,045 2.8 10.7 8.3 7.8 6.2 6.4

55 years and over

923 2,927 2,524 2.4 11.8 9.7 8.8 7.7 6.7

Men, 16 years and over

3,109 7,061 6,563 3.6 12.2 10.6 9.8 8.3 7.7

16 to 19 years

414 493 499 13.7 28.6 23.6 22.8 17.6 17.0

16 to 17 years

135 148 196 13.1 27.8 19.0 24.2 14.7 19.0

18 to 19 years

275 365 303 14.0 29.1 25.6 21.5 20.3 16.1

20 years and over

2,695 6,567 6,065 3.2 11.6 10.2 9.4 8.0 7.4

20 to 24 years

563 1,048 956 7.2 22.4 19.0 17.8 14.2 12.8

25 years and over

2,132 5,520 5,111 2.8 10.5 9.3 8.6 7.4 6.8

25 to 54 years

1,668 4,037 3,830 3.0 10.6 9.5 8.9 7.4 7.0

25 to 34 years

758 1,899 1,687 3.8 13.0 11.8 11.7 9.8 8.7

35 to 44 years

437 1,171 1,119 2.4 9.5 8.9 7.9 6.4 6.1

45 to 54 years

472 967 1,023 2.7 9.2 7.5 6.7 5.7 6.1

55 years and over

464 1,483 1,281 2.3 10.3 8.9 8.0 7.3 6.3

Women, 16 years and over

2,644 6,489 6,016 3.4 14.5 11.7 10.6 8.6 8.0

16 to 19 years

321 412 456 11.2 31.3 22.8 15.7 14.7 14.9

16 to 17 years

139 151 171 13.2 32.0 27.8 11.6 13.3 15.3

18 to 19 years

185 243 279 10.2 30.6 19.4 18.0 14.8 14.7

20 years and over

2,323 6,078 5,561 3.1 13.9 11.2 10.5 8.4 7.7

20 to 24 years

401 962 850 5.4 24.0 20.6 18.8 14.0 12.2

25 years and over

1,941 5,116 4,747 2.9 12.8 10.2 9.6 7.8 7.3

25 to 54 years

1,459 3,678 3,493 3.0 12.5 10.1 9.5 7.7 7.4

25 to 34 years

573 1,616 1,486 3.3 13.9 11.6 11.1 9.5 8.8

35 to 44 years

455 1,035 986 2.9 11.0 9.4 8.4 6.6 6.4

45 to 54 years

431 1,027 1,021 2.8 12.5 9.3 9.0 6.8 6.8

55 years and over

475 1,434 1,265 2.6 13.6 10.5 9.6 8.0 7.2

MARITAL STATUS

Married men, spouse present(1)

815 2,329 2,217 1.7 8.3 6.9 6.2 5.0 4.8

Married women, spouse present(1)

825 2,430 2,172 2.2 11.5 8.9 8.6 6.4 6.0

Women who maintain families(2)

492 1,011 1,012 4.7 15.8 13.1 12.4 10.4 10.0

FULL- OR PART-TIME STATUS

Full-time workers(3)

4,669 11,082 10,311 3.4 12.0 10.4 9.8 8.3 7.8

Part-time workers(4)

1,087 2,459 2,299 3.9 19.7 14.7 12.6 9.0 8.4

Footnotes
(1) Beginning with data for January 2020, refers to persons in both opposite-sex and same-sex married couples. Prior to January 2020, referred to persons in opposite-sex married couples only.
(2) Data are not seasonally adjusted. Beginning with data for January 2020, refers to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not a spouse of either sex. Prior to January 2020, referred to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not an opposite-sex spouse.
(3) Full-time workers are unemployed persons who have expressed a desire to work full time (35 hours or more per week) or are on layoff from full-time jobs.
(4) Part-time workers are unemployed persons who have expressed a desire to work part time (less than 35 hours per week) or are on layoff from part-time jobs.

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-11. Unemployed persons by reason for unemployment
[Numbers in thousands]
Reason Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Sept.
2019
Aug.
2020
Sept.
2020
Sept.
2019
May
2020
June
2020
July
2020
Aug.
2020
Sept.
2020

NUMBER OF UNEMPLOYED

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

2,227 10,347 8,738 2,575 18,291 14,272 12,924 10,307 9,135

On temporary layoff

428 6,206 4,280 729 15,343 10,565 9,225 6,160 4,637

Not on temporary layoff

1,799 4,141 4,457 1,846 2,948 3,707 3,699 4,147 4,498

Permanent job losers

1,269 3,398 3,704 1,318 2,295 2,883 2,877 3,411 3,756

Persons who completed temporary jobs

530 743 754 528 653 824 823 736 742

Job leavers

897 672 869 840 554 565 571 589 801

Reentrants

1,691 2,103 2,139 1,669 1,645 2,356 2,358 2,095 2,146

New entrants

650 620 531 673 536 563 513 554 537

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

40.7 75.3 71.2 44.7 87.0 80.4 79.0 76.1 72.4

On temporary layoff

7.8 45.2 34.9 12.7 73.0 59.5 56.4 45.5 36.7

Not on temporary layoff

32.9 30.1 36.3 32.1 14.0 20.9 22.6 30.6 35.6

Job leavers

16.4 4.9 7.1 14.6 2.6 3.2 3.5 4.4 6.4

Reentrants

30.9 15.3 17.4 29.0 7.8 13.3 14.4 15.5 17.0

New entrants

11.9 4.5 4.3 11.7 2.5 3.2 3.1 4.1 4.3

UNEMPLOYED AS A PERCENT OF THE
CIVILIAN LABOR FORCE

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

1.4 6.4 5.5 1.6 11.6 8.9 8.1 6.4 5.7

Job leavers

0.5 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.5

Reentrants

1.0 1.3 1.3 1.0 1.0 1.5 1.5 1.3 1.3

New entrants

0.4 0.4 0.3 0.4 0.3 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.3

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to total unemployed in table A-1 because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-12. Unemployed persons by duration of unemployment
[Numbers in thousands]
Duration Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Sept.
2019
Aug.
2020
Sept.
2020
Sept.
2019
May
2020
June
2020
July
2020
Aug.
2020
Sept.
2020

NUMBER OF UNEMPLOYED

Less than 5 weeks

1,820 2,283 2,518 1,869 3,875 2,838 3,202 2,281 2,552

5 to 14 weeks

1,588 3,442 2,518 1,778 14,814 11,496 5,169 3,134 2,732

15 weeks and over

2,057 8,018 7,241 2,124 2,242 3,294 7,986 8,140 7,323

15 to 26 weeks

737 6,381 4,806 806 1,078 1,903 6,484 6,517 4,918

27 weeks and over

1,320 1,637 2,435 1,318 1,164 1,391 1,501 1,624 2,405

Average (mean) duration, in weeks

23.0 19.7 21.9 21.7 9.9 15.7 17.9 20.2 20.7

Median duration, in weeks

9.8 16.2 18.2 9.4 7.7 13.6 15.0 16.7 17.8

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION

Less than 5 weeks

33.3 16.6 20.5 32.4 18.5 16.1 19.6 16.8 20.2

5 to 14 weeks

29.1 25.0 20.5 30.8 70.8 65.2 31.6 23.1 21.7

15 weeks and over

37.6 58.3 59.0 36.8 10.7 18.7 48.8 60.1 58.1

15 to 26 weeks

13.5 46.4 39.1 14.0 5.2 10.8 39.6 48.1 39.0

27 weeks and over

24.1 11.9 19.8 22.8 5.6 7.9 9.2 12.0 19.1

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to total unemployed in table A-1 because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-13. Employed and unemployed persons by occupation, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Occupation Employed Unemployed Unemployment
rates
Sept.
2019
Sept.
2020
Sept.
2019
Sept.
2020
Sept.
2019
Sept.
2020

Total, 16 years and over(1)

158,478 147,796 5,465 12,277 3.3 7.7

Management, professional, and related occupations

64,343 62,759 1,235 2,946 1.9 4.5

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

27,218 26,747 450 1,336 1.6 4.8

Professional and related occupations

37,124 36,011 786 1,611 2.1 4.3

Service occupations

27,303 23,428 1,068 3,200 3.8 12.0

Sales and office occupations

33,675 29,696 1,158 2,610 3.3 8.1

Sales and related occupations

15,733 14,157 581 1,388 3.6 8.9

Office and administrative support occupations

17,942 15,539 577 1,222 3.1 7.3

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

14,534 13,683 489 1,023 3.3 7.0

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

1,149 966 63 61 5.2 5.9

Construction and extraction occupations

8,347 8,038 314 702 3.6 8.0

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

5,037 4,679 111 261 2.2 5.3

Production, transportation, and material moving
occupations

18,624 18,231 846 1,953 4.3 9.7

Production occupations

8,502 7,696 379 691 4.3 8.2

Transportation and material moving occupations

10,123 10,534 467 1,262 4.4 10.7

Footnotes
(1) Persons with no previous work experience and persons whose last job was in the U.S. Armed Forces are included in the unemployed total.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data. Effective with January 2020 data, occupations reflect the introduction of the 2018 Census occupational classification system into the Current Population Survey, or household survey. This classification system is derived from the 2018 Standard Occupational Classification (SOC). No historical data have been revised. Data for 2020 are not strictly comparable with earlier years.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-14. Unemployed persons by industry and class of worker, not seasonally adjusted
Industry and class of worker Number of
unemployed
persons
(in thousands)
Unemployment
rates
Sept.
2019
Sept.
2020
Sept.
2019
Sept.
2020

Total, 16 years and over(1)

5,465 12,277 3.3 7.7

Nonagricultural private wage and salary workers

4,099 10,098 3.2 8.0

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

13 108 1.7 14.9

Construction

319 700 3.2 7.1

Manufacturing

530 935 3.4 6.2

Durable goods

266 531 2.7 5.7

Nondurable goods

263 404 4.5 7.1

Wholesale and retail trade

666 1,545 3.4 7.8

Transportation and utilities

235 753 3.2 9.8

Information

109 202 4.4 8.6

Financial activities

192 442 1.9 4.4

Professional and business services

585 1,161 3.2 6.7

Education and health services

557 1,250 2.2 5.1

Leisure and hospitality

678 2,436 4.8 19.0

Other services

215 566 3.2 9.2

Agriculture and related private wage and salary workers

68 76 4.0 5.0

Government workers

389 884 1.8 4.1

Self-employed workers, unincorporated, and unpaid family workers

259 688 2.6 6.7

Footnotes
(1) Persons with no previous work experience and persons whose last job was in the U.S. Armed Forces are included in the unemployed total.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data. Effective with January 2020 data, industries reflect the introduction of the 2017 Census industry classification system into the Current Population Survey. This industry classification system is derived from the 2017 North American Industry Classification System (NAICS). No historical data have been revised.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-15. Alternative measures of labor underutilization
[Percent]
Measure Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Sept.
2019
Aug.
2020
Sept.
2020
Sept.
2019
May
2020
June
2020
July
2020
Aug.
2020
Sept.
2020

U-1 Persons unemployed 15 weeks or longer, as a percent of the civilian labor force

1.3 5.0 4.5 1.3 1.4 2.1 5.0 5.1 4.6

U-2 Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs, as a percent of the civilian labor force

1.4 6.4 5.5 1.6 11.6 8.9 8.1 6.4 5.7

U-3 Total unemployed, as a percent of the civilian labor force (official unemployment rate)

3.3 8.5 7.7 3.5 13.3 11.1 10.2 8.4 7.9

U-4 Total unemployed plus discouraged workers, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus discouraged workers

3.5 8.8 8.0 3.7 13.6 11.5 10.6 8.7 8.2

U-5 Total unemployed, plus discouraged workers, plus all other persons marginally attached to the labor force, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force

4.1 9.7 8.8 4.3 14.6 12.5 11.3 9.6 8.9

U-6 Total unemployed, plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force, plus total employed part time for economic reasons, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force

6.5 14.3 12.4 6.9 21.2 18.0 16.5 14.2 12.8

NOTE: Persons marginally attached to the labor force are those who currently are neither working nor looking for work but indicate that they want and are available for a job and have looked for work sometime in the past 12 months. Discouraged workers, a subset of the marginally attached, have given a job-market related reason for not currently looking for work. Persons employed part time for economic reasons are those who want and are available for full-time work but have had to settle for a part-time schedule. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-16. Persons not in the labor force and multiple jobholders by sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Category Total Men Women
Sept.
2019
Sept.
2020
Sept.
2019
Sept.
2020
Sept.
2019
Sept.
2020

NOT IN THE LABOR FORCE

Total not in the labor force

95,694 100,670 38,855 41,059 56,840 59,610

Persons who currently want a job

4,637 6,984 2,146 3,367 2,492 3,617

Marginally attached to the labor force(1)

1,299 1,921 629 1,016 670 905

Discouraged workers(2)

321 556 171 341 151 214

Other persons marginally attached to the labor force(3)

978 1,365 458 675 519 690

MULTIPLE JOBHOLDERS

Total multiple jobholders(4)

8,331 6,482 3,901 3,054 4,430 3,428

Percent of total employed

5.3 4.4 4.7 3.9 5.9 5.0

Primary job full time, secondary job part time

4,787 3,711 2,353 1,959 2,435 1,753

Primary and secondary jobs both part time

2,114 1,586 725 530 1,389 1,056

Primary and secondary jobs both full time

279 256 211 141 67 115

Hours vary on primary or secondary job

1,115 891 593 412 522 479

Footnotes
(1) Data refer to persons who want a job, have searched for work during the prior 12 months, and were available to take a job during the reference week, but had not looked for work in the past 4 weeks.
(2) Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for reasons such as thinks no work available, could not find work, lacks schooling or training, employer thinks too young or old, and other types of discrimination.
(3) Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for such reasons as school or family responsibilities, ill health, and transportation problems, as well as a number for whom reason for nonparticipation was not determined.
(4) Includes a small number of persons who work part time on their primary job and full time on their secondary job(s), not shown separately.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-1. Employees on nonfarm payrolls by industry sector and selected industry detail
[In thousands]
Industry Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Sept.
2019
July
2020
Aug.
2020(p)
Sept.
2020(p)
Sept.
2019
July
2020
Aug.
2020(p)
Sept.
2020(p)
Change from:
Aug.2020 - Sept.2020(p)

Total nonfarm

151,556 139,076 140,718 141,855 151,368 139,570 141,059 141,720 661

Total private

128,917 118,808 119,731 120,059 128,718 118,018 119,040 119,917 877

Goods-producing

21,318 20,232 20,293 20,258 21,106 19,925 19,970 20,063 93

Mining and logging

738 630 620 619 731 620 612 613 1

Logging

52.6 52.3 52.1 51.6 51.5 51.2 50.5 50.6 0.1

Mining

685.8 577.6 567.7 567.4 679.8 569.0 561.5 562.4 0.9

Oil and gas extraction

154.4 156.6 157.4 157.3 154.3 155.2 156.0 156.9 0.9

Mining, except oil and gas

192.5 182.8 183.2 181.9 190.0 180.1 180.0 179.8 -0.2

Coal mining

52.3 45.3 45.4 44.6 52.2 45.9 45.4 44.5 -0.9

Metal ore mining

40.9 40.7 40.9 40.6 41.0 40.4 40.6 40.8 0.2

Nonmetallic mineral mining and quarrying

99.3 96.8 96.9 96.7 96.8 93.8 94.0 94.5 0.5

Support activities for mining

338.9 238.2 227.1 228.2 335.5 233.7 225.5 225.7 0.2

Construction

7,700 7,427 7,461 7,415 7,524 7,202 7,219 7,245 26

Construction of buildings

1,686.0 1,637.5 1,648.5 1,639.7 1,664.6 1,598.8 1,609.0 1,620.9 11.9

Residential building

835.1 831.0 835.7 836.8 825.4 818.4 820.7 827.3 6.6

Nonresidential building

850.9 806.5 812.8 802.9 839.2 780.4 788.3 793.6 5.3

Heavy and civil engineering construction

1,140.6 1,072.3 1,074.0 1,066.8 1,079.1 1,014.9 1,009.1 1,005.7 -3.4

Specialty trade contractors

4,873.1 4,717.5 4,738.9 4,708.5 4,780.1 4,588.3 4,600.7 4,618.3 17.6

Residential specialty trade contractors

2,125.0 2,098.7 2,117.0 2,107.7 2,089.5 2,036.4 2,059.5 2,075.0 15.5

Nonresidential specialty trade contractors

2,748.1 2,618.8 2,621.9 2,600.8 2,690.6 2,551.9 2,541.2 2,543.3 2.1

Manufacturing

12,880 12,175 12,212 12,224 12,851 12,103 12,139 12,205 66

Durable goods

8,063 7,585 7,596 7,609 8,066 7,561 7,568 7,614 46

Wood products

411.3 390.9 392.5 393.6 410.3 387.7 388.3 392.2 3.9

Nonmetallic mineral products

425.7 410.0 406.1 409.7 422.2 403.8 399.4 405.6 6.2

Primary metals

383.5 338.8 339.0 335.2 384.0 338.1 339.0 335.6 -3.4

Fabricated metal products

1,487.3 1,387.9 1,390.0 1,388.0 1,489.9 1,380.5 1,386.3 1,390.5 4.2

Machinery

1,117.7 1,045.8 1,039.2 1,044.8 1,122.2 1,039.3 1,036.9 1,050.7 13.8

Computer and electronic products

1,088.0 1,090.5 1,090.6 1,083.8 1,089.0 1,084.0 1,085.7 1,086.4 0.7

Computer and peripheral equipment

165.3 169.4 170.6 168.9 165.1 169.5 169.8 169.1 -0.7

Communications equipment

83.4 82.3 83.0 81.6 83.5 82.3 82.5 82.0 -0.5

Semiconductors and electronic components

378.9 376.1 374.6 371.0 379.4 372.3 372.3 372.1 -0.2

Electronic instruments

426.8 427.3 426.7 427.1 427.8 424.9 425.9 428.6 2.7

Miscellaneous computer and electronic products

33.6 35.4 35.7 35.2 33.1 35.0 35.2 34.6 -0.6

Electrical equipment and appliances

405.1 382.5 378.9 378.4 404.9 380.0 377.3 378.1 0.8

Transportation equipment(1)

1,739.6 1,594.4 1,612.2 1,627.4 1,737.4 1,607.5 1,609.8 1,625.1 15.3

Motor vehicles and parts(2)

998.4 891.3 905.3 919.5 997.7 909.0 904.7 919.0 14.3

Furniture and related products

386.8 351.2 353.3 352.4 386.9 349.0 353.0 352.7 -0.3

Miscellaneous durable goods manufacturing

618.1 592.7 594.2 595.9 619.1 591.0 592.6 597.0 4.4

Nondurable goods

4,817 4,590 4,616 4,615 4,785 4,542 4,571 4,591 20

Food manufacturing

1,669.6 1,621.2 1,635.5 1,631.3 1,645.2 1,593.8 1,607.3 1,612.3 5.0

Textile mills

107.9 92.0 94.3 96.4 107.9 92.1 94.0 96.4 2.4

Textile product mills

112.2 102.0 102.4 104.4 111.9 100.8 102.1 104.0 1.9

Apparel

109.4 82.5 86.0 86.2 109.7 83.0 85.7 86.1 0.4

Paper and paper products

364.0 357.0 355.1 355.9 364.9 355.1 354.0 357.0 3.0

Printing and related support activities

424.9 364.4 361.6 365.3 424.2 364.1 360.2 364.9 4.7

Petroleum and coal products

116.3 107.2 106.7 106.5 113.2 103.3 104.0 103.8 -0.2

Chemicals

850.6 837.9 840.4 834.9 851.7 833.9 839.2 837.2 -2.0

Plastics and rubber products

736.3 723.4 726.0 721.7 738.2 719.4 723.2 724.2 1.0

Miscellaneous nondurable goods manufacturing

325.4 302.0 308.2 312.7 317.6 296.9 300.9 304.9 4.0

Private service-providing

107,599 98,576 99,438 99,801 107,612 98,093 99,070 99,854 784

Trade, transportation, and utilities

27,575 26,095 26,403 26,591 27,712 26,136 26,490 26,727 237

Wholesale trade

5,910.9 5,619.3 5,624.2 5,620.0 5,913.2 5,592.9 5,603.8 5,622.5 18.7

Durable goods

3,213.2 3,060.6 3,059.9 3,059.4 3,215.5 3,047.4 3,046.7 3,059.7 13.0

Nondurable goods

2,169.3 2,059.5 2,060.8 2,061.5 2,168.8 2,046.5 2,054.6 2,062.9 8.3

Electronic markets and agents and brokers

528.4 499.2 503.5 499.1 528.9 499.0 502.5 499.9 -2.6

Retail trade

15,487.4 14,794.4 15,022.7 15,060.6 15,622.8 14,785.4 15,046.6 15,189.0 142.4

Motor vehicle and parts dealers

2,050.5 1,914.4 1,939.6 1,950.3 2,042.4 1,902.8 1,927.8 1,943.9 16.1

Automobile dealers

1,305.1 1,188.6 1,207.7 1,217.7 1,300.7 1,186.0 1,204.5 1,214.7 10.2

Other motor vehicle dealers

167.0 158.4 160.5 157.6 165.0 149.8 153.8 155.6 1.8

Auto parts, accessories, and tire stores

578.4 567.4 571.4 575.0 576.7 567.0 569.5 573.6 4.1

Furniture and home furnishings stores

463.9 391.5 401.4 406.5 470.5 397.5 408.2 413.5 5.3

Electronics and appliance stores

464.1 398.7 414.5 423.0 472.5 411.4 430.6 432.9 2.3

Building material and garden supply stores

1,283.6 1,413.9 1,403.8 1,385.8 1,306.0 1,376.6 1,391.4 1,399.4 8.0

Food and beverage stores

3,070.4 3,147.1 3,148.7 3,128.9 3,084.5 3,124.7 3,131.6 3,139.6 8.0

Health and personal care stores

1,034.5 951.4 963.1 975.9 1,046.7 955.8 970.4 986.3 15.9

Gasoline stations

951.3 924.9 931.7 923.6 949.7 912.1 917.8 921.1 3.3

Clothing and clothing accessories stores

1,246.1 911.3 923.3 934.7 1,282.3 912.2 924.4 964.2 39.8

Sporting goods, hobby, book, and music stores

546.8 429.9 445.5 456.3 554.8 441.4 454.9 466.4 11.5

General merchandise stores

2,993.4 3,056.6 3,176.3 3,196.0 3,025.7 3,101.9 3,218.2 3,237.7 19.5

Department stores

1,043.6 985.7 1,021.1 1,028.6 1,070.1 1,018.6 1,050.7 1,060.6 9.9

General merchandise stores, including warehouse clubs and supercenters

1,949.8 2,070.9 2,155.2 2,167.4 1,955.7 2,083.3 2,167.5 2,177.1 9.6

Miscellaneous store retailers

830.8 719.4 733.6 731.4 830.3 708.8 725.8 729.2 3.4

Nonstore retailers

552.0 535.3 541.2 548.2 557.4 540.2 545.5 554.8 9.3

Transportation and warehousing

5,631.1 5,139.8 5,215.7 5,370.2 5,628.6 5,218.5 5,300.2 5,373.8 73.6

Air transportation

503.2 398.9 409.4 404.1 503.5 395.4 405.9 404.3 -1.6

Rail transportation

170.5 145.5 146.0 146.0 170.0 145.3 145.8 145.9 0.1

Water transportation

66.6 57.5 57.3 57.2 65.7 55.0 54.9 56.1 1.2

Truck transportation

1,543.4 1,458.3 1,467.0 1,470.2 1,528.0 1,439.8 1,449.8 1,454.4 4.6

Transit and ground passenger transportation

513.8 273.5 282.4 380.5 500.7 335.0 346.2 367.6 21.4

Pipeline transportation

51.4 50.0 49.8 49.5 51.3 50.0 49.8 49.5 -0.3

Scenic and sightseeing transportation

42.3 27.3 27.3 25.4 35.9 20.7 20.9 21.7 0.8

Support activities for transportation

755.1 674.5 680.4 683.2 755.0 672.3 679.0 683.9 4.9

Couriers and messengers

792.4 877.1 883.2 903.7 825.3 917.8 926.3 936.6 10.3

Warehousing and storage

1,192.4 1,177.2 1,212.9 1,250.4 1,193.2 1,187.2 1,221.6 1,253.8 32.2

Utilities

545.8 541.3 539.9 539.9 547.5 538.8 539.0 541.8 2.8

Information

2,860 2,583 2,601 2,607 2,866 2,565 2,591 2,618 27

Publishing industries, except Internet

769.0 734.8 737.8 737.7 765.2 730.4 734.2 733.7 -0.5

Motion picture and sound recording industries

439.9 225.9 250.8 256.6 445.5 214.0 241.1 264.3 23.2

Broadcasting, except Internet

266.0 238.3 240.8 247.5 265.0 239.1 242.0 246.4 4.4

Telecommunications

700.5 684.3 677.7 675.0 704.4 684.4 680.1 678.8 -1.3

Data processing, hosting and related services

341.3 342.0 336.1 335.3 341.9 341.1 337.8 337.7 -0.1

Other information services

343.2 358.1 357.9 355.0 344.4 355.5 355.4 357.3 1.9

Financial activities

8,775 8,681 8,703 8,682 8,771 8,620 8,646 8,683 37

Finance and insurance

6,435.2 6,473.3 6,483.2 6,472.6 6,442.1 6,452.9 6,466.1 6,482.4 16.3

Monetary authorities - central bank

19.6 20.2 20.0 19.9 19.7 19.8 19.8 20.0 0.2

Credit intermediation and related
activities

2,649.1 2,661.2 2,663.1 2,654.5 2,650.9 2,650.2 2,656.9 2,661.5 4.6

Depository credit intermediation(1)

1,771.3 1,774.0 1,768.6 1,752.8 1,777.1 1,765.1 1,762.7 1,760.7 -2.0

Commercial banking

1,385.6 1,384.9 1,379.4 1,365.5 1,390.3 1,377.3 1,375.1 1,372.9 -2.2

Nondepository credit intermediation

579.4 577.9 585.0 588.5 575.3 574.8 582.5 586.7 4.2

Activities related to credit intermediation

298.4 309.3 309.5 313.2 298.5 310.3 311.7 314.1 2.4

Securities, commodity contracts, investments, and funds and trusts

964.8 975.4 980.0 973.7 967.1 969.4 970.6 974.6 4.0

Insurance carriers and related activities

2,801.7 2,816.5 2,820.1 2,824.5 2,804.4 2,813.5 2,818.8 2,826.3 7.5

Real estate and rental and leasing

2,339.5 2,207.5 2,220.0 2,209.0 2,328.9 2,167.3 2,180.2 2,200.2 20.0

Real estate

1,727.7 1,695.1 1,703.9 1,694.1 1,725.9 1,674.0 1,680.4 1,692.3 11.9

Rental and leasing services

588.6 488.9 492.6 492.1 579.8 470.3 476.8 484.9 8.1

Lessors of nonfinancial intangible assets

23.2 23.5 23.5 22.8 23.2 23.0 23.0 23.0 0.0

Professional and business services

21,479 20,010 20,220 20,239 21,402 19,887 20,075 20,164 89

Professional and technical services

9,516.9 9,307.8 9,338.9 9,295.7 9,603.0 9,294.8 9,339.8 9,387.1 47.3

Legal services

1,146.9 1,116.6 1,112.4 1,108.0 1,152.4 1,108.4 1,110.4 1,113.5 3.1

Accounting and bookkeeping services

969.9 947.6 950.8 946.7 1,032.6 1,012.7 1,011.8 1,014.0 2.2

Architectural and engineering services

1,520.4 1,496.4 1,505.6 1,501.6 1,518.4 1,470.7 1,487.7 1,500.8 13.1

Specialized design services

144.7 132.1 133.0 134.5 145.1 132.1 133.0 134.6 1.6

Computer systems design and related services

2,210.9 2,178.2 2,188.1 2,167.0 2,223.5 2,154.2 2,167.6 2,179.3 11.7

Management and technical consulting services

1,541.9 1,497.2 1,504.0 1,498.1 1,543.8 1,490.9 1,495.9 1,499.0 3.1

Scientific research and development services

732.4 749.3 753.4 748.0 735.7 739.9 747.6 752.6 5.0

Advertising and related services

490.2 448.4 443.0 443.1 492.4 445.4 440.5 444.9 4.4

Other professional and technical services

759.6 742.0 748.6 748.7 759.1 740.5 745.3 748.4 3.1

Management of companies and enterprises

2,434.1 2,354.7 2,353.0 2,348.0 2,438.3 2,336.6 2,340.0 2,351.3 11.3

Administrative and waste services

9,527.6 8,347.1 8,527.9 8,594.8 9,360.2 8,255.3 8,394.7 8,425.7 31.0

Administrative and support services

9,066.1 7,886.9 8,068.7 8,137.3 8,901.2 7,803.9 7,942.4 7,970.6 28.2

Office administrative services

526.9 508.1 507.9 509.6 527.9 506.9 505.7 510.2 4.5

Facilities support services

165.6 158.3 156.9 155.7 164.4 158.4 156.9 155.3 -1.6

Employment services(1)

3,722.8 2,941.0 3,108.7 3,176.5 3,644.6 2,977.9 3,098.2 3,098.7 0.5

Temporary help services

3,016.9 2,319.4 2,473.9 2,542.8 2,949.1 2,365.1 2,466.6 2,474.7 8.1

Business support services

871.3 752.0 766.5 780.9 871.6 761.3 773.5 781.9 8.4

Travel arrangement and reservation services

219.6 161.4 157.6 155.5 218.3 158.7 156.0 154.7 -1.3

Investigation and security services

962.2 899.6 908.1 911.8 952.5 901.3 904.9 902.3 -2.6

Services to buildings and dwellings

2,252.6 2,172.5 2,165.1 2,147.2 2,180.1 2,044.2 2,048.5 2,070.9 22.4

Other support services

345.1 294.0 297.9 300.1 341.7 295.2 298.7 296.6 -2.1

Waste management and remediation services

461.5 460.2 459.2 457.5 459.0 451.4 452.3 455.1 2.8

Education and health services

24,257 22,646 22,835 23,125 24,323 22,979 23,149 23,189 40

Educational services

3,763.5 3,164.5 3,233.5 3,445.7 3,791.6 3,471.5 3,542.2 3,473.7 -68.5

Health care and social assistance

20,493.4 19,481.0 19,601.3 19,678.9 20,531.1 19,507.2 19,607.2 19,714.9 107.7

Health care(3)

16,342.4 15,736.4 15,806.0 15,824.0 16,356.8 15,712.8 15,786.8 15,839.6 52.8

Ambulatory health care services

7,735.4 7,411.7 7,492.6 7,529.3 7,748.9 7,404.2 7,487.1 7,544.7 57.6

Offices of physicians

2,678.6 2,592.1 2,617.7 2,629.1 2,684.6 2,591.9 2,618.1 2,636.3 18.2

Offices of dentists

969.4 918.8 939.6 937.2 972.1 917.6 936.0 939.9 3.9

Offices of other health practitioners

975.0 885.9 898.4 906.2 979.4 883.1 896.2 910.0 13.8

Outpatient care centers

965.3 942.8 951.6 952.3 968.6 943.1 952.3 955.5 3.2

Medical and diagnostic laboratories

285.7 273.9 273.8 276.4 285.1 273.0 273.6 276.0 2.4

Home health care services

1,542.8 1,496.3 1,509.0 1,524.6 1,542.0 1,494.0 1,508.4 1,524.6 16.2

Other ambulatory health care services

318.6 301.9 302.5 303.5 317.2 301.5 302.5 302.4 -0.1

Hospitals

5,219.9 5,135.7 5,142.1 5,136.0 5,218.8 5,133.1 5,141.6 5,135.2 -6.4

Nursing and residential care facilities

3,387.1 3,189.0 3,171.3 3,158.7 3,389.1 3,175.5 3,158.1 3,159.7 1.6

Nursing care facilities

1,602.5 1,480.3 1,472.5 1,463.8 1,601.5 1,476.6 1,467.3 1,462.5 -4.8

Residential mental health facilities

647.9 620.7 620.8 619.9 649.6 616.6 618.3 621.2 2.9

Community care facilities for the elderly

970.6 927.1 918.9 916.1 972.0 923.0 914.4 917.1 2.7

Other residential care facilities

166.1 160.9 159.1 158.9 166.0 159.3 158.1 158.9 0.8

Social assistance

4,151.0 3,744.6 3,795.3 3,854.9 4,174.3 3,794.4 3,820.4 3,875.3 54.9

Individual and family services

2,619.4 2,513.6 2,525.2 2,537.4 2,639.4 2,508.3 2,524.0 2,555.7 31.7

Emergency and other relief services

185.0 182.7 179.4 181.6 185.4 183.0 180.8 182.2 1.4

Vocational rehabilitation services

320.7 279.6 283.2 283.0 322.4 274.7 280.3 284.4 4.1

Child day care services

1,025.9 768.7 807.5 852.9 1,027.0 828.4 835.3 853.0 17.7

Leisure and hospitality

16,759 13,152 13,231 13,124 16,631 12,566 12,709 13,027 318

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

2,483.7 1,826.5 1,798.1 1,702.6 2,440.7 1,587.4 1,609.6 1,676.6 67.0

Performing arts and spectator sports

537.7 273.3 287.4 279.0 521.0 257.4 274.0 269.6 -4.4

Museums, historical sites, and similar institutions

174.3 138.6 135.7 130.0 172.5 124.8 126.3 128.9 2.6

Amusements, gambling, and recreation

1,771.7 1,414.6 1,375.0 1,293.6 1,747.2 1,205.2 1,209.3 1,278.1 68.8

Accommodation and food services

14,275.4 11,325.5 11,432.8 11,421.2 14,189.8 10,978.6 11,099.7 11,350.7 251.0

Accommodation

2,115.1 1,450.4 1,456.4 1,404.3 2,076.5 1,298.1 1,314.9 1,365.6 50.7

Food services and drinking places

12,160.3 9,875.1 9,976.4 10,016.9 12,113.3 9,680.5 9,784.8 9,985.1 200.3

Other services

5,894 5,409 5,445 5,433 5,907 5,340 5,410 5,446 36

Repair and maintenance

1,360.6 1,289.9 1,308.9 1,310.7 1,360.3 1,282.6 1,305.8 1,310.6 4.8

Personal and laundry services

1,528.0 1,248.7 1,258.4 1,255.2 1,527.8 1,239.7 1,255.0 1,255.4 0.4

Membership associations and organizations

3,005.0 2,870.2 2,877.6 2,866.6 3,018.4 2,817.6 2,849.3 2,879.9 30.6

Government

22,639 20,268 20,987 21,796 22,650 21,552 22,019 21,803 -216

Federal

2,859.0 2,929 3,172 3,133 2,857.0 2,912 3,162 3,128 -34

Federal, except U.S. Postal Service

2,256.1 2,335.0 2,571.8 2,531.6 2,250.4 2,314.2 2,559.2 2,525.3 -33.9

U.S. Postal Service

603.1 593.6 599.8 601.3 606.2 598.2 602.5 602.3 -0.2

State government

5,238.0 4,634 4,707 4,993 5,181.0 4,964 4,983 4,935 -48

State government education

2,538.5 1,924.7 2,000.4 2,297.6 2,483.2 2,269.8 2,288.9 2,239.5 -49.4

State government, excluding education

2,699.4 2,709.0 2,706.6 2,695.8 2,697.7 2,694.0 2,694.3 2,695.1 0.8

Local government

14,542.0 12,705 13,108 13,670 14,612.0 13,676 13,874 13,740 -134

Local government education

7,967.5 6,347.9 6,749.0 7,400.0 8,027.0 7,549.2 7,687.8 7,456.7 -231.1

Local government, excluding education

6,574.9 6,357.2 6,358.7 6,270.2 6,585.2 6,127.1 6,186.4 6,282.8 96.4

Footnotes
(1) Includes other industries, not shown separately.
(2) Includes motor vehicles, motor vehicle bodies and trailers, and motor vehicle parts.
(3) Includes ambulatory health care services, hospitals, and nursing and residential care facilities.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2019 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-2. Average weekly hours and overtime of all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Sept.
2019
July
2020
Aug.
2020(p)
Sept.
2020(p)

AVERAGE WEEKLY HOURS

Total private

34.4 34.6 34.6 34.7

Goods-producing

40.4 39.5 39.7 39.8

Mining and logging

46.2 43.9 44.0 44.2

Construction

39.7 38.8 38.8 38.8

Manufacturing

40.5 39.8 40.0 40.2

Durable goods

41.0 40.0 40.2 40.4

Nondurable goods

39.7 39.4 39.6 39.7

Private service-providing

33.2 33.5 33.6 33.7

Trade, transportation, and utilities

34.2 34.1 34.1 34.3

Wholesale trade

38.9 38.4 38.4 38.5

Retail trade

30.7 30.6 30.7 30.9

Transportation and warehousing

38.4 38.3 38.4 38.7

Utilities

42.1 42.6 43.3 42.7

Information

36.5 36.3 36.5 36.4

Financial activities

37.6 37.5 37.5 37.6

Professional and business services

36.1 36.4 36.5 36.5

Education and health services

33.0 33.4 33.4 33.5

Leisure and hospitality

25.9 25.5 25.7 26.0

Other services

31.8 32.2 32.2 32.3

AVERAGE OVERTIME HOURS

Manufacturing

3.2 2.9 3.0 2.9

Durable goods

3.2 2.7 2.9 2.9

Nondurable goods

3.3 3.1 3.1 3.0

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2019 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-3. Average hourly and weekly earnings of all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Average hourly earnings Average weekly earnings
Sept.
2019
July
2020
Aug.
2020(p)
Sept.
2020(p)
Sept.
2019
July
2020
Aug.
2020(p)
Sept.
2020(p)

Total private

$28.16 $29.35 $29.45 $29.47 $968.70 $1,015.51 $1,018.97 $1,022.61

Goods-producing

29.18 30.05 30.16 30.11 1,178.87 1,186.98 1,197.35 1,198.38

Mining and logging

34.44 35.19 35.13 35.02 1,591.13 1,544.84 1,545.72 1,547.88

Construction

30.87 31.74 31.83 31.83 1,225.54 1,231.51 1,235.00 1,235.00

Manufacturing

27.88 28.77 28.93 28.85 1,129.14 1,145.05 1,157.20 1,159.77

Durable goods

29.33 30.19 30.41 30.24 1,202.53 1,207.60 1,222.48 1,221.70

Nondurable goods

25.34 26.37 26.44 26.50 1,006.00 1,038.98 1,047.02 1,052.05

Private service-providing

27.92 29.19 29.28 29.32 926.94 977.87 983.81 988.08

Trade, transportation, and utilities

24.38 25.34 25.43 25.59 833.80 864.09 867.16 877.74

Wholesale trade

31.56 32.48 32.55 32.56 1,227.68 1,247.23 1,249.92 1,253.56

Retail trade

19.84 20.98 21.15 21.50 609.09 641.99 649.31 664.35

Transportation and warehousing

24.94 25.46 25.49 25.51 957.70 975.12 978.82 987.24

Utilities

41.75 43.53 44.05 44.02 1,757.68 1,854.38 1,907.37 1,879.65

Information

42.28 44.10 43.94 43.77 1,543.22 1,600.83 1,603.81 1,593.23

Financial activities

36.03 37.73 38.05 38.17 1,354.73 1,414.88 1,426.88 1,435.19

Professional and business services

33.94 35.04 35.18 35.26 1,225.23 1,275.46 1,284.07 1,286.99

Education and health services

27.74 28.46 28.54 28.62 915.42 950.56 953.24 958.77

Leisure and hospitality

16.67 16.88 16.99 17.02 431.75 430.44 436.64 442.52

Other services

25.32 26.52 26.44 26.45 805.18 853.94 851.37 854.34

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2019 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-4. Indexes of aggregate weekly hours and payrolls for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
[2007=100]
Industry Index of aggregate weekly hours(1) Index of aggregate weekly payrolls(2)
Sept.
2019
July
2020
Aug.
2020(p)
Sept.
2020(p)
Percent change from:
Aug.
2020 - Sept.
2020(p)
Sept.
2019
July
2020
Aug.
2020(p)
Sept.
2020(p)
Percent change from:
Aug.
2020 - Sept.
2020(p)

Total private

111.2 102.5 103.4 104.5 1.1 149.7 143.8 145.6 147.2 1.1

Goods-producing

97.1 89.7 90.3 91.0 0.8 128.1 121.8 123.1 123.8 0.6

Mining and logging

106.1 85.5 84.6 85.1 0.6 146.7 120.8 119.3 119.7 0.3

Construction

103.0 96.3 96.6 96.9 0.3 138.1 132.8 133.5 134.0 0.4

Manufacturing

93.6 86.7 87.4 88.3 1.0 121.4 115.9 117.5 118.4 0.8

Durable goods

93.1 85.1 85.7 86.6 1.1 121.3 114.2 115.7 116.3 0.5

Nondurable goods

94.8 89.3 90.4 91.0 0.7 121.9 119.5 121.2 122.3 0.9

Private service-providing

115.0 105.8 107.2 108.3 1.0 156.1 150.1 152.5 154.4 1.2

Trade, transportation, and utilities

103.4 97.2 98.6 100.0 1.4 136.0 132.9 135.2 138.0 2.1

Wholesale trade

101.5 94.7 94.9 95.5 0.6 133.9 128.7 129.2 130.0 0.6

Retail trade

97.4 91.9 93.8 95.3 1.6 127.7 127.4 131.1 135.4 3.3

Transportation and warehousing

124.2 114.8 116.9 119.5 2.2 157.6 148.7 151.6 155.1 2.3

Utilities

99.7 99.3 101.0 100.1 -0.9 137.6 142.8 147.0 145.6 -1.0

Information

95.5 85.0 86.4 87.0 0.7 143.8 133.5 135.1 135.6 0.4

Financial activities

108.1 105.9 106.2 107.0 0.8 151.9 155.9 157.7 159.3 1.0

Professional and business services

121.1 113.5 114.9 115.4 0.4 166.5 161.0 163.7 164.8 0.7

Education and health services

131.1 125.3 126.2 126.8 0.5 174.9 171.6 173.3 174.6 0.8

Leisure and hospitality

122.9 91.4 93.2 96.6 3.6 165.3 124.5 127.7 132.7 3.9

Other services

108.3 99.1 100.4 101.4 1.0 150.3 144.1 145.5 147.0 1.0

Footnotes
(1) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding 2007 annual average aggregate hours. Aggregate hours estimates are the product of estimates of average weekly hours and employment.
(2) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding 2007 annual average aggregate weekly payrolls. Aggregate payrolls estimates are the product of estimates of average hourly earnings, average weekly hours, and employment.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2019 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-5. Employment of women on nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Women employees (in thousands) Percent of all employees
Sept.
2019
July
2020
Aug.
2020(p)
Sept.
2020(p)
Sept.
2019
July
2020
Aug.
2020(p)
Sept.
2020(p)

Total nonfarm

75,610 69,341 70,214 70,500 50.0 49.7 49.8 49.7

Total private

62,533 56,923 57,516 57,959 48.6 48.2 48.3 48.3

Goods-producing

4,734 4,493 4,528 4,544 22.4 22.5 22.7 22.6

Mining and logging

99 92 92 91 13.5 14.8 15.0 14.8

Construction

974 958 965 966 12.9 13.3 13.4 13.3

Manufacturing

3,661 3,443 3,471 3,487 28.5 28.4 28.6 28.6

Durable goods

1,945 1,834 1,849 1,858 24.1 24.3 24.4 24.4

Nondurable goods

1,716 1,609 1,622 1,629 35.9 35.4 35.5 35.5

Private service-providing

57,799 52,430 52,988 53,415 53.7 53.4 53.5 53.5

Trade, transportation, and utilities

11,099 10,225 10,399 10,545 40.1 39.1 39.3 39.5

Wholesale trade

1,782.0 1,673.8 1,680.5 1,680.5 30.1 29.9 30.0 29.9

Retail trade

7,740.9 7,161.9 7,305.8 7,398.0 49.5 48.4 48.6 48.7

Transportation and warehousing

1,444.1 1,257.0 1,280.7 1,331.6 25.7 24.1 24.2 24.8

Utilities

131.7 132.2 131.8 135.2 24.1 24.5 24.5 25.0

Information

1,140 1,023 1,038 1,047 39.8 39.9 40.1 40.0

Financial activities

4,963 4,868 4,884 4,897 56.6 56.5 56.5 56.4

Professional and business services

9,787 9,095 9,210 9,242 45.7 45.7 45.9 45.8

Education and health services

18,809 17,712 17,842 17,901 77.3 77.1 77.1 77.2

Leisure and hospitality

8,849 6,697 6,770 6,918 53.2 53.3 53.3 53.1

Other services

3,152 2,810 2,845 2,865 53.4 52.6 52.6 52.6

Government

13,077 12,418 12,698 12,541 57.7 57.6 57.7 57.5

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2019 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-6. Employment of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
[In thousands]
Industry Sept.
2019
July
2020
Aug.
2020(p)
Sept.
2020(p)

Total private

105,885 95,830 96,754 97,557

Goods-producing

15,107 14,139 14,148 14,195

Mining and logging

532 434 432 428

Construction

5,607 5,297 5,312 5,329

Manufacturing

8,968 8,408 8,404 8,438

Durable goods

5,547 5,142 5,128 5,154

Nondurable goods

3,421 3,266 3,276 3,284

Private service-providing

90,778 81,691 82,606 83,362

Trade, transportation, and utilities

23,448 21,976 22,327 22,557

Wholesale trade

4,741.9 4,437.3 4,456.4 4,469.1

Retail trade

13,340.7 12,601.1 12,849.3 12,986.5

Transportation and warehousing

4,925.3 4,509.7 4,594.4 4,672.3

Utilities

439.7 428.1 426.5 428.6

Information

2,306 2,041 2,049 2,067

Financial activities

6,782 6,567 6,575 6,592

Professional and business services

17,387 15,884 16,085 16,200

Education and health services

21,359 20,105 20,264 20,305

Leisure and hospitality

14,611 10,779 10,919 11,210

Other services

4,885 4,339 4,387 4,431

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2019 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-7. Average weekly hours and overtime of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry Sept.
2019
July
2020
Aug.
2020(p)
Sept.
2020(p)

AVERAGE WEEKLY HOURS

Total private

33.6 34.0 34.0 34.1

Goods-producing

41.2 40.3 40.5 40.5

Mining and logging

47.1 44.1 44.6 44.8

Construction

40.1 39.3 39.3 39.3

Manufacturing

41.5 40.7 41.0 41.0

Durable goods

41.9 41.0 41.3 41.2

Nondurable goods

40.9 40.3 40.7 40.7

Private service-providing

32.3 32.9 32.9 33.0

Trade, transportation, and utilities

33.8 34.2 34.0 34.1

Wholesale trade

38.7 38.1 38.1 38.3

Retail trade

30.3 30.9 30.8 30.8

Transportation and warehousing

37.9 38.6 38.3 38.4

Utilities

42.2 42.6 43.0 43.2

Information

35.5 35.8 36.8 36.2

Financial activities

36.9 37.1 36.8 37.2

Professional and business services

35.4 35.8 35.9 35.9

Education and health services

32.1 32.6 32.7 32.7

Leisure and hospitality

24.6 24.0 24.4 24.7

Other services

30.8 31.3 31.2 31.3

AVERAGE OVERTIME HOURS

Manufacturing

4.2 3.7 3.7 3.6

Durable goods

4.2 3.7 3.7 3.6

Nondurable goods

4.1 3.7 3.7 3.7

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2019 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-8. Average hourly and weekly earnings of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry Average hourly earnings Average weekly earnings
Sept.
2019
July
2020
Aug.
2020(p)
Sept.
2020(p)
Sept.
2019
July
2020
Aug.
2020(p)
Sept.
2020(p)

Total private

$23.70 $24.64 $24.78 $24.79 $796.32 $837.76 $842.52 $845.34

Goods-producing

24.90 25.44 25.47 25.42 1,025.88 1,025.23 1,031.54 1,029.51

Mining and logging

30.52 30.59 30.56 30.21 1,437.49 1,349.02 1,362.98 1,353.41

Construction

28.63 29.30 29.40 29.07 1,148.06 1,151.49 1,155.42 1,142.45

Manufacturing

22.26 22.81 22.81 22.94 923.79 928.37 935.21 940.54

Durable goods

23.19 23.79 23.79 23.91 971.66 975.39 982.53 985.09

Nondurable goods

20.73 21.24 21.24 21.39 847.86 855.97 864.47 870.57

Private service-providing

23.44 24.47 24.64 24.66 757.11 805.06 810.66 813.78

Trade, transportation, and utilities

20.76 21.32 21.63 21.63 701.69 729.14 735.42 737.58

Wholesale trade

26.20 26.90 26.99 26.96 1,013.94 1,024.89 1,028.32 1,032.57

Retail trade

16.74 17.50 17.80 17.85 507.22 540.75 548.24 549.78

Transportation and warehousing

22.52 22.61 23.28 23.18 853.51 872.75 891.62 890.11

Utilities

36.93 38.64 39.03 38.83 1,558.45 1,646.06 1,678.29 1,677.46

Information

34.42 35.87 35.88 35.69 1,221.91 1,284.15 1,320.38 1,291.98

Financial activities

27.81 29.15 29.35 29.51 1,026.19 1,081.47 1,080.08 1,097.77

Professional and business services

28.06 29.23 29.41 29.45 993.32 1,046.43 1,055.82 1,057.26

Education and health services

24.54 25.28 25.39 25.52 787.73 824.13 830.25 834.50

Leisure and hospitality

14.63 14.54 14.68 14.78 359.90 348.96 358.19 365.07

Other services

21.50 22.41 22.39 22.44 662.20 701.43 698.57 702.37

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2019 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-9. Indexes of aggregate weekly hours and payrolls for production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
[2002=100]
Industry Index of aggregate weekly hours(2) Index of aggregate weekly payrolls(3)
Sept.
2019
July
2020
Aug.
2020(p)
Sept.
2020(p)
Percent change from:
Aug.
2020 - Sept.
2020(p)
Sept.
2019
July
2020
Aug.
2020(p)
Sept.
2020(p)
Percent change from:
Aug.
2020 - Sept.
2020(p)

Total private

118.6 108.6 109.6 110.9 1.2 187.8 178.8 181.6 183.7 1.2

Goods-producing

95.1 87.1 87.6 87.9 0.3 145.0 135.6 136.6 136.8 0.1

Mining and logging

133.2 101.7 102.4 101.9 -0.5 236.3 180.9 182.0 179.0 -1.6

Construction

112.6 104.2 104.5 104.9 0.4 174.0 164.9 165.9 164.6 -0.8

Manufacturing

85.4 78.6 79.1 79.4 0.4 124.4 117.2 118.0 119.1 0.9

Durable goods

87.3 79.2 79.6 79.8 0.3 126.4 117.7 118.2 119.1 0.8

Nondurable goods

82.4 77.5 78.6 78.8 0.3 120.8 116.4 117.9 119.0 0.9

Private service-providing

124.9 114.5 115.8 117.2 1.2 200.9 192.2 195.7 198.3 1.3

Trade, transportation, and utilities

110.8 105.1 106.2 107.6 1.3 164.4 160.1 164.1 166.3 1.3

Wholesale trade

108.9 100.3 100.8 101.6 0.8 168.4 159.3 160.5 161.6 0.7

Retail trade

102.3 98.5 100.2 101.2 1.0 146.7 147.8 152.8 154.8 1.3