Employment Situation News Release

Transmission of material in this news release is embargoed until	                              USDL-18-1586
8:30 a.m. (EDT) Friday, October 5, 2018

Technical information: 
 Household data:	(202) 691-6378  *  cpsinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/cps
 Establishment data:	(202) 691-6555  *  cesinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/ces

Media contact:	        (202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov


                        THE EMPLOYMENT SITUATION -- SEPTEMBER 2018


The unemployment rate declined to 3.7 percent in September, and total nonfarm payroll employment increased 
by 134,000, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. Job gains occurred in professional and 
business services, in health care, and in transportation and warehousing.


    _________________________________________________________________________________________________
   |                                                                                                 |
   |                                   Hurricane Florence                                            |
   |                                                                                                 |
   |   Hurricane Florence affected parts of the East Coast during the September reference periods    |
   |   for the establishment and household surveys. Response rates for the two surveys were within   |
   |   normal ranges. For information on how severe weather can affect employment and hours data,    |
   |   see Question 8 in the Frequently Asked Questions section of this news release.                |
   |                                                                                                 |
   |   BLS will release the state estimates of employment and unemployment on October 19, 2018, at   |
   |   10:00 a.m. (EDT).                                                                             |
   |_________________________________________________________________________________________________|


Household Survey Data

The unemployment rate declined by 0.2 percentage point to 3.7 percent in September, and the number of 
unemployed persons decreased by 270,000 to 6.0 million. Over the year, the unemployment rate and the 
number of unemployed persons declined by 0.5 percentage point and 795,000, respectively. (See table A-1.)

Among the major worker groups, the unemployment rates for adult women (3.3 percent) and Whites (3.3 
percent) declined in September. The jobless rates for adult men (3.4 percent), teenagers (12.8 percent), 
Blacks (6.0 percent), Asians (3.5 percent), and Hispanics (4.5 percent) showed little or no change over 
the month. (See tables A-1, A-2, and A-3.)

The number of long-term unemployed (those jobless for 27 weeks or more) was little changed at 1.4 million
over the month; these individuals accounted for 22.9 percent of the unemployed. (See table A-12.)

In September, the labor force participation rate remained at 62.7 percent, and the employment-population 
ratio, at 60.4 percent, was little changed. (See table A-1.)

The number of persons employed part time for economic reasons (sometimes referred to as involuntary part-
time workers) increased by 263,000 to 4.6 million in September. These individuals, who would have 
preferred full-time employment, were working part time because their hours had been reduced or they were 
unable to find full-time jobs. (See table A-8.)

In September, 1.6 million persons were marginally attached to the labor force, essentially unchanged from 
a year earlier. (Data are not seasonally adjusted.) These individuals were not in the labor force, wanted 
and were available for work, and had looked for a job sometime in the prior 12 months. They were not 
counted as unemployed because they had not searched for work in the 4 weeks preceding the survey. (See 
table A-16.)

Among the marginally attached, there were 383,000 discouraged workers in September, about unchanged from a 
year earlier. (Data are not seasonally adjusted.) Discouraged workers are persons not currently looking 
for work because they believe no jobs are available for them. The remaining 1.2 million persons marginally 
attached to the labor force in September had not searched for work for reasons such as school attendance 
or family responsibilities. (See table A-16.)

Establishment Survey Data

Total nonfarm payroll employment rose by 134,000 in September, compared with an average monthly gain of 
201,000 over the prior 12 months. In September, job gains occurred in professional and business services, 
in health care, and in transportation and warehousing. (See table B-1.) 

Employment in professional and business services increased by 54,000 in September and has risen by 560,000 
over the year. 

Health care employment rose by 26,000 in September. Hospitals added 12,000 jobs, and employment in 
ambulatory health care services continued to trend up (+10,000). Over the year, health care employment has 
increased by 302,000. 

In September, employment in transportation and warehousing rose by 24,000. Job gains occurred in 
warehousing and storage (+8,000) and in couriers and messengers (+5,000). Over the year, employment in 
transportation and warehousing has increased by 174,000. 

Construction employment continued to trend up in September (+23,000). The industry has added 315,000 jobs 
over the past 12 months.

Employment in manufacturing continued to trend up in September (+18,000), reflecting a gain in durable 
goods industries. Over the year, manufacturing has added 278,000 jobs, with about four-fifths of the gain 
in the durable goods component. 

Within mining, employment in support activities for mining rose by 6,000 over the month and by 53,000 over 
the year. 

Employment in leisure and hospitality was little changed over the month (-17,000). Prior to September, 
employment in the industry had been on a modest upward trend. Some of the weakness in this industry in 
September may reflect the impact of Hurricane Florence. 

Employment showed little or no change over the month in other major industries, including wholesale trade, 
retail trade, information, financial activities, and government. 

The average workweek for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls remained unchanged at 34.5 hours in 
September. In manufacturing, the workweek edged down by 0.1 hour to 40.8 hours, and overtime edged down by 
0.1 hour to 3.4 hours. The average workweek for production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm 
payrolls was unchanged at 33.7 hours. (See tables B-2 and B-7.)

In September, average hourly earnings for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls rose by 8 cents to 
$27.24. Over the year, average hourly earnings have increased by 73 cents, or 2.8 percent. Average hourly 
earnings of private-sector production and nonsupervisory employees increased by 6 cents to $22.81 in 
September. (See tables B-3 and B-8.)

The change in total nonfarm payroll employment for July was revised up from +147,000 to +165,000, and the 
change for August was revised up from +201,000 to +270,000. With these revisions, employment gains in July 
and August combined were 87,000 more than previously reported. (Monthly revisions result from additional 
reports received from businesses and government agencies since the last published estimates and from the 
recalculation of seasonal factors.) After revisions, job gains have averaged 190,000 per month over the 
last 3 months.

_____________
The Employment Situation for October is scheduled to be released on Friday, November 2, 2018, at 8:30 a.m. 
(EDT).




HOUSEHOLD DATA
Summary table A. Household data, seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Category Sept.
2017
July
2018
Aug.
2018
Sept.
2018
Change from:
Aug.
2018-
Sept.
2018

Employment status

Civilian noninstitutional population

255,562 257,843 258,066 258,290 224

Civilian labor force

161,082 162,245 161,776 161,926 150

Participation rate

63.0 62.9 62.7 62.7 0.0

Employed

154,324 155,965 155,542 155,962 420

Employment-population ratio

60.4 60.5 60.3 60.4 0.1

Unemployed

6,759 6,280 6,234 5,964 -270

Unemployment rate

4.2 3.9 3.9 3.7 -0.2

Not in labor force

94,480 95,598 96,290 96,364 74

Unemployment rates

Total, 16 years and over

4.2 3.9 3.9 3.7 -0.2

Adult men (20 years and over)

3.8 3.4 3.5 3.4 -0.1

Adult women (20 years and over)

3.9 3.7 3.6 3.3 -0.3

Teenagers (16 to 19 years)

13.0 13.1 12.8 12.8 0.0

White

3.7 3.4 3.4 3.3 -0.1

Black or African American

7.0 6.6 6.3 6.0 -0.3

Asian

3.6 3.1 3.0 3.5 0.5

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

5.1 4.5 4.7 4.5 -0.2

Total, 25 years and over

3.5 3.2 3.2 3.0 -0.2

Less than a high school diploma

6.7 5.1 5.7 5.5 -0.2

High school graduates, no college

4.3 4.0 3.9 3.7 -0.2

Some college or associate degree

3.6 3.2 3.5 3.2 -0.3

Bachelor's degree and higher

2.2 2.2 2.1 2.0 -0.1

Reason for unemployment

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

3,316 3,017 2,875 2,796 -79

Job leavers

737 844 862 730 -132

Reentrants

2,068 1,799 1,846 1,877 31

New entrants

663 591 584 586 2

Duration of unemployment

Less than 5 weeks

2,223 2,091 2,208 2,065 -143

5 to 14 weeks

1,879 1,820 1,720 1,720 0

15 to 26 weeks

962 971 923 861 -62

27 weeks and over

1,733 1,435 1,332 1,384 52

Employed persons at work part time

Part time for economic reasons

5,148 4,567 4,379 4,642 263

Slack work or business conditions

3,098 2,877 2,551 2,782 231

Could only find part-time work

1,725 1,431 1,365 1,447 82

Part time for noneconomic reasons

20,951 21,532 21,781 21,464 -317

Persons not in the labor force (not seasonally adjusted)

Marginally attached to the labor force

1,569 1,498 1,443 1,577 -

Discouraged workers

421 512 434 383 -

- Over-the-month changes are not displayed for not seasonally adjusted data.
NOTE: Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Summary table B. Establishment data, seasonally adjusted
Category Sept.
2017
July
2018
Aug.
2018(p)
Sept.
2018(p)

EMPLOYMENT BY SELECTED INDUSTRY
(Over-the-month change, in thousands)

Total nonfarm

14 165 270 134

Total private

16 137 254 121

Goods-producing

15 41 37 46

Mining and logging

0 0 6 5

Construction

9 19 26 23

Manufacturing

6 22 5 18

Durable goods(1)

5 21 5 17

Motor vehicles and parts

-2.4 -1.0 1.6 -0.4

Nondurable goods

1 1 0 1

Private service-providing

1 96 217 75

Wholesale trade

7.6 10.3 21.3 4.4

Retail trade

1.8 2.0 11.5 -20.0

Transportation and warehousing

25.4 8.2 21.3 23.8

Utilities

0.4 -3.0 0.6 0.1

Information

-8 1 -3 0

Financial activities

8 3 12 13

Professional and business services(1)

27 39 65 54

Temporary help services

10.5 10.3 12.4 10.6

Education and health services(1)

14 36 58 18

Health care and social assistance

10.2 33.0 42.4 29.8

Leisure and hospitality

-75 13 21 -17

Other services

0 -13 9 -1

Government

-2 28 16 13

(3-month average change, in thousands)

Total nonfarm

142 214 214 190

Total private

137 196 194 171

WOMEN AND PRODUCTION AND NONSUPERVISORY EMPLOYEES
AS A PERCENT OF ALL EMPLOYEES(2)

Total nonfarm women employees

49.5 49.7 49.7 49.7

Total private women employees

48.1 48.3 48.3 48.3

Total private production and nonsupervisory employees

82.4 82.4 82.4 82.4

HOURS AND EARNINGS
ALL EMPLOYEES

Total private

Average weekly hours

34.3 34.5 34.5 34.5

Average hourly earnings

$26.51 $27.07 $27.16 $27.24

Average weekly earnings

$909.29 $933.92 $937.02 $939.78

Index of aggregate weekly hours (2007=100)(3)

107.3 109.7 110.0 110.1

Over-the-month percent change

-0.3 -0.2 0.3 0.1

Index of aggregate weekly payrolls (2007=100)(4)

136.0 142.0 142.8 143.3

Over-the-month percent change

0.2 0.1 0.6 0.4

DIFFUSION INDEX
(Over 1-month span)(5)

Total private (258 industries)

57.0 59.7 63.6 60.9

Manufacturing (76 industries)

54.6 59.9 61.8 62.5

Footnotes
(1) Includes other industries, not shown separately.
(2) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries.
(3) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding annual average aggregate hours.
(4) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding annual average aggregate weekly payrolls.
(5) Figures are the percent of industries with employment increasing plus one-half of the industries with unchanged employment, where 50 percent indicates an equal balance between industries with increasing and decreasing employment.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2017 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


Frequently Asked Questions about Employment and Unemployment Estimates

1. Why are there two monthly measures of employment?

   The household survey and establishment survey both produce sample-based estimates
   of employment, and both have strengths and limitations. The establishment survey
   employment series has a smaller margin of error on the measurement of month-to-
   month change than the household survey because of its much larger sample size. An
   over-the-month employment change of about 100,000 is statistically significant in
   the establishment survey, while the threshold for a statistically significant change
   in the household survey is about 500,000. However, the household survey has a more
   expansive scope than the establishment survey because it includes self-employed
   workers whose businesses are unincorporated, unpaid family workers, agricultural
   workers, and private household workers, who are excluded by the establishment survey.
   The household survey also provides estimates of employment for demographic groups.
   For more information on the differences between the two surveys, please visit
   https://www.bls.gov/web/empsit/ces_cps_trends.htm.

2. Are undocumented immigrants counted in the surveys?

   It is likely that both surveys include at least some undocumented immigrants. However,
   neither the establishment nor the household survey is designed to identify the legal
   status of workers. Therefore, it is not possible to determine how many are counted in
   either survey. The establishment survey does not collect data on the legal status of
   workers. The household survey does include questions which identify the foreign and
   native born, but it does not include questions about the legal status of the foreign
   born. Data on the foreign and native born are published each month in table A-7 of
   The Employment Situation news release.

3. Why does the establishment survey have revisions?

   The establishment survey revises published estimates to improve its data series by
   incorporating additional information that was not available at the time of the
   initial publication of the estimates. The establishment survey revises its initial
   monthly estimates twice, in the immediately succeeding 2 months, to incorporate
   additional sample receipts from respondents in the survey and recalculated seasonal
   adjustment factors. For more information on the monthly revisions, please visit
   https://www.bls.gov/ces/cesrevinfo.htm.

   On an annual basis, the establishment survey incorporates a benchmark revision that
   re-anchors estimates to nearly complete employment counts available from unemployment
   insurance tax records. The benchmark helps to control for sampling and modeling errors
   in the estimates. For more information on the annual benchmark revision, please visit
   https://www.bls.gov/web/empsit/cesbmart.htm.

4. Does the establishment survey sample include small firms?

   Yes; about 40 percent of the establishment survey sample is comprised of business
   establishments with fewer than 20 employees. The establishment survey sample is
   designed to maximize the reliability of the statewide total nonfarm employment
   estimate; firms from all states, size classes, and industries are appropriately
   sampled to achieve that goal.

5. Does the establishment survey account for employment from new businesses?

   Yes; monthly establishment survey estimates include an adjustment to account for
   the net employment change generated by business births and deaths. The adjustment
   comes from an econometric model that forecasts the monthly net jobs impact of
   business births and deaths based on the actual past values of the net impact that
   can be observed with a lag from the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages. The
   establishment survey uses modeling rather than sampling for this purpose because
   the survey is not immediately able to bring new businesses into the sample. There
   is an unavoidable lag between the birth of a new firm and its appearance on the
   sampling frame and availability for selection. BLS adds new businesses to the survey
   twice a year.

6. Is the count of unemployed persons limited to just those people receiving unemployment
   insurance benefits?

   No; the estimate of unemployment is based on a monthly sample survey of households.
   All persons who are without jobs and are actively seeking and available to work are
   included among the unemployed. (People on temporary layoff are included even if
   they do not actively seek work.) There is no requirement or question relating to
   unemployment insurance benefits in the monthly survey.

7. Does the official unemployment rate exclude people who want a job but are not currently
   looking for work?

   Yes; however, there are separate estimates of persons outside the labor force who
   want a job, including those who are not currently looking because they believe no
   jobs are available (discouraged workers). In addition, alternative measures of labor
   underutilization (some of which include discouraged workers and other groups not
   officially counted as unemployed) are published each month in table A-15 of The
   Employment Situation news release. For more information about these alternative
   measures, please visit https://www.bls.gov/cps/lfcharacteristics.htm#altmeasures.

8. How can unusually severe weather affect employment and hours estimates?

   In the establishment survey, the reference period is the pay period that includes
   the 12th of the month. Unusually severe weather is more likely to have an impact on
   average weekly hours than on employment. Average weekly hours are estimated for paid
   time during the pay period, including pay for holidays, sick leave, or other time off.
   The impact of severe weather on hours estimates typically, but not always, results in
   a reduction in average weekly hours. For example, some employees may be off work for
   part of the pay period and not receive pay for the time missed, while some workers,
   such as those dealing with cleanup or repair, may work extra hours.
   
   Typically, it is not possible to precisely quantify the effect of extreme weather on 
   payroll employment estimates. In order for severe weather conditions to reduce
   employment estimates, employees have to be off work without pay for the entire pay
   period. Employees who receive pay for any part of the pay period, even 1 hour, are
   counted in the payroll employment figures. For more information on how often employees
   are paid, please visit https://www.bls.gov/opub/btn/volume-3/how-frequently-do-private-
   businesses-pay-workers.htm.

   In the household survey, the reference period is generally the calendar week that
   includes the 12th of the month. Persons who miss the entire week's work for weather-
   related events are counted as employed whether or not they are paid for the time
   off. The household survey collects data on the number of persons who had a job but
   were not at work due to bad weather. It also provides a measure of the number of
   persons who usually work full time but had reduced hours due to bad weather. 
   Current and historical data are available on the household survey's most requested
   statistics page, please visit https://data.bls.gov/cgi-bin/surveymost?ln.




Technical Note


   This news release presents statistics from two major surveys, the Current
Population Survey (CPS; household survey) and the Current Employment Statistics
survey (CES; establishment survey). The household survey provides information
on the labor force, employment, and unemployment that appears in the "A" tables,
marked HOUSEHOLD DATA. It is a sample survey of about 60,000 eligible households
conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau for the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS).

   The establishment survey provides information on employment, hours, and
earnings of employees on nonfarm payrolls; the data appear in the "B" tables,
marked ESTABLISHMENT DATA. BLS collects these data each month from the payroll
records of a sample of nonagricultural business establishments. Each month
the CES program surveys about 149,000 businesses and government agencies,
representing approximately 651,000 individual worksites, in order to provide
detailed industry data on employment, hours, and earnings of workers on nonfarm
payrolls. The active sample includes approximately one-third of all nonfarm
payroll employees.

   For both surveys, the data for a given month relate to a particular week or
pay period. In the household survey, the reference period is generally the
calendar week that contains the 12th day of the month. In the establishment
survey, the reference period is the pay period including the 12th, which may or
may not correspond directly to the calendar week.

Coverage, definitions, and differences between surveys

   Household survey. The sample is selected to reflect the entire civilian 
noninstitutional population. Based on responses to a series of questions on 
work and job search activities, each person 16 years and over in a sample
household is classified as employed, unemployed, or not in the labor force.

   People are classified as employed if they did any work at all as paid employees
during the reference week; worked in their own business, profession, or on their
own farm; or worked without pay at least 15 hours in a family business or farm.
People are also counted as employed if they were temporarily absent from their jobs
because of illness, bad weather, vacation, labor-management disputes, or personal
reasons.

   People are classified as unemployed if they meet all of the following criteria:
they had no employment during the reference week; they were available for work at
that time; and they made specific efforts to find employment sometime during the
4-week period ending with the reference week. Persons laid off from a job and
expecting recall need not be looking for work to be counted as unemployed. The
unemployment data derived from the household survey in no way depend upon the
eligibility for or receipt of unemployment insurance benefits.

   The civilian labor force is the sum of employed and unemployed persons.
Those persons not classified as employed or unemployed are not in the labor 
force. The unemployment rate is the number unemployed as a percent of the 
labor force. The labor force participation rate is the labor force as a 
percent of the population, and the employment-population ratio is the 
employed as a percent of the population. Additional information about the 
household survey can be found at https://www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm.

   Establishment survey. The sample establishments are drawn from private
nonfarm businesses such as factories, offices, and stores, as well as
from federal, state, and local government entities. Employees on nonfarm
payrolls are those who received pay for any part of the reference pay
period, including persons on paid leave. Persons are counted in each job
they hold. Hours and earnings data are produced for the private sector for
all employees and for production and nonsupervisory employees. Production
and nonsupervisory employees are defined as production and related employees
in manufacturing and mining and logging, construction workers in construction,
and nonsupervisory employees in private service-providing industries.

   Industries are classified on the basis of an establishment's principal
activity in accordance with the 2017 version of the North American Industry
Classification System. Additional information about the establishment survey
can be found at https://www.bls.gov/ces/.

   Differences in employment estimates. The numerous conceptual and methodological
differences between the household and establishment  surveys result in important
distinctions in the employment estimates derived from the surveys. Among these are:

   --The household survey includes agricultural workers, self-employed workers
     whose businesses are unincorporated, unpaid family workers, and private
     household workers among the employed. These groups are excluded from the
     establishment survey.

   --The household survey includes people on unpaid leave among the employed.
     The establishment survey does not.

   --The household survey is limited to workers 16 years of age and older.
     The establishment survey is not limited by age.

   --The household survey has no duplication of individuals, because
     individuals are counted only once, even if they hold more than one
     job. In the establishment survey, employees working at more than one
     job and thus appearing on more than one payroll are counted separately
     for each appearance.

Seasonal adjustment

   Over the course of a year, the size of the nation's labor force and the levels
of employment and unemployment undergo regularly occurring fluctuations. These 
events may result from seasonal changes in weather, major holidays, and the opening
and closing of schools. The effect of such seasonal variation can be very large.

   Because these seasonal events follow a more or less regular pattern each year,
their influence on the level of a series can be tempered by adjusting for regular
seasonal variation. These adjustments make nonseasonal developments, such as
declines in employment or increases in the participation of women in the labor
force, easier to spot. For example, in the household survey, the large number of
youth entering the labor force each June is likely to obscure any other changes
that have taken place relative to May, making it difficult to determine if the 
level of economic activity has risen or declined. Similarly, in the establishment
survey, payroll employment in education declines by about 20 percent at the end
of the spring term and later rises with the start of the fall term, obscuring the
underlying employment trends in the industry. Because seasonal employment changes
at the end and beginning of the school year can be estimated, the statistics can be
adjusted to make underlying employment patterns more discernable.  The seasonally
adjusted figures provide a more useful tool with which to analyze changes in
month-to-month economic activity.

   Many seasonally adjusted series are independently adjusted in both the household
and establishment surveys. However, the adjusted series for many major estimates,
such as total payroll employment, employment in most major sectors, total employment,
and unemployment are computed by aggregating independently adjusted component series.
For example, total unemployment is derived by summing the adjusted series for four
major age-sex components; this differs from the unemployment estimate that would be
obtained by directly adjusting the total or by combining
the duration, reasons, or more detailed age categories.

   For both the household and establishment surveys, a concurrent seasonal adjustment
methodology is used in which new seasonal factors are calculated each month using all
relevant data, up to and including the data for the current month. In the household
survey, new seasonal factors are used to adjust only the current month's data. In the
establishment survey, however, new seasonal factors are used each month to adjust the
three most recent monthly estimates. The prior 2 months are routinely revised to
incorporate additional sample reports and recalculated seasonal adjustment factors.
In both surveys, 5-year revisions to historical data are made once a year.

Reliability of the estimates

   Statistics based on the household and establishment surveys are subject to both
sampling and nonsampling error. When a sample, rather than the entire population,
is surveyed, there is a chance that the sample estimates may differ from the true
population values they represent. The component of this difference that occurs
because samples differ by chance is known as sampling error, and its variability
is measured by the standard error of the estimate. There is about a 90-percent
chance, or level of confidence, that an estimate based on a sample will differ by
no more than 1.6 standard errors from the true population value because of sampling
error. BLS analyses are generally conducted at the 90-percent level of confidence.

   For example, the confidence interval for the monthly change in total nonfarm
employment from the establishment survey is on the order of plus or minus 115,000.
Suppose the estimate of nonfarm employment increases by 50,000 from one month to
the next. The 90-percent confidence interval on the monthly change would range from
-65,000 to +165,000 (50,000 +/- 115,000). These figures do not mean that the sample
results are off by these magnitudes, but rather that there is about a 90-percent
chance that the true over-the-month change lies within this interval. Since this
range includes values of less than zero, we could not say with confidence that
nonfarm employment had, in fact, increased that month. If, however, the reported
nonfarm employment rise was 250,000, then all of the values within the 90- percent
confidence interval would be greater than zero. In this case, it is likely (at
least a 90-percent chance) that nonfarm employment had, in fact, risen that month.
At an unemployment rate of around 6.0 percent, the 90-percent confidence interval
for the monthly change in unemployment as measured by the household survey is
about +/- 300,000, and for the monthly change in the unemployment rate it is about
+/- 0.2 percentage point.

   In general, estimates involving many individuals or establishments have lower
standard errors (relative to the size of the estimate) than estimates which are based
on a small number of observations. The precision of estimates also is improved when
the data are cumulated over time, such as for quarterly and annual averages.

   The household and establishment surveys are also affected by nonsampling error,
which can occur for many reasons, including the failure to sample a segment of the
population, inability to obtain information for all respondents in the sample,
inability or unwillingness of respondents to provide correct information on a
timely basis, mistakes made by respondents, and errors made in the collection or
processing of the data.

   For example, in the establishment survey, estimates for the most recent 2 months
are based on incomplete returns; for this reason, these estimates are labeled
preliminary in the tables. It is only after two successive revisions to a monthly
estimate, when nearly all sample reports have been received, that the estimate is
considered final.

   Another major source of nonsampling error in the establishment survey is the
inability to capture, on a timely basis, employment generated by new firms. To
correct for this systematic underestimation of employment growth, an estimation
procedure with two components is used to account for business births. The first
component excludes employment losses from business deaths from sample-based
estimation in order to offset the missing employment gains from business births.
This is incorporated into the sample-based estimation procedure by simply not
reflecting sample units going out of business, but imputing to them the same
employment trend as the other firms in the sample. This procedure accounts for
most of the net birth/death employment.

   The second component is an ARIMA time series model designed to estimate the
residual net birth/death employment not accounted for by the imputation. The
historical time series used to create and test the ARIMA model was derived from
the unemployment insurance universe micro- level database, and reflects the actual
residual net of births and deaths over the past 5 years.

   The sample-based estimates from the establishment survey are adjusted once a
year (on a lagged basis) to universe counts of payroll employment obtained from
administrative records of the unemployment insurance program. The difference 
between the March sample-based employment estimates and the March universe counts
is known as a benchmark revision, and serves as a rough proxy for total survey
error. The new benchmarks also incorporate changes in the classification of
industries. Over the past decade, absolute benchmark revisions for total nonfarm
employment have averaged 0.3 percent, with a range from -0.7 percent to 0.6 percent.

Other information

   Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired
individuals upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay
Service: (800) 877-8339.




HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-1. Employment status of the civilian population by sex and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Sept.
2017
Aug.
2018
Sept.
2018
Sept.
2017
May
2018
June
2018
July
2018
Aug.
2018
Sept.
2018

TOTAL

Civilian noninstitutional population

255,562 258,066 258,290 255,562 257,454 257,642 257,843 258,066 258,290

Civilian labor force

161,049 161,909 161,958 161,082 161,539 162,140 162,245 161,776 161,926

Participation rate

63.0 62.7 62.7 63.0 62.7 62.9 62.9 62.7 62.7

Employed

154,494 155,539 156,191 154,324 155,474 155,576 155,965 155,542 155,962

Employment-population ratio

60.5 60.3 60.5 60.4 60.4 60.4 60.5 60.3 60.4

Unemployed

6,556 6,370 5,766 6,759 6,065 6,564 6,280 6,234 5,964

Unemployment rate

4.1 3.9 3.6 4.2 3.8 4.0 3.9 3.9 3.7

Not in labor force

94,513 96,157 96,332 94,480 95,915 95,502 95,598 96,290 96,364

Persons who currently want a job

5,415 5,534 5,070 5,626 5,183 5,258 5,163 5,389 5,237

Men, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

123,516 124,816 124,928 123,516 124,509 124,604 124,704 124,816 124,928

Civilian labor force

85,516 86,212 85,815 85,519 86,157 86,056 85,950 85,854 85,856

Participation rate

69.2 69.1 68.7 69.2 69.2 69.1 68.9 68.8 68.7

Employed

82,119 83,062 82,814 81,902 82,784 82,522 82,684 82,545 82,645

Employment-population ratio

66.5 66.5 66.3 66.3 66.5 66.2 66.3 66.1 66.2

Unemployed

3,397 3,150 3,002 3,617 3,373 3,534 3,266 3,309 3,211

Unemployment rate

4.0 3.7 3.5 4.2 3.9 4.1 3.8 3.9 3.7

Not in labor force

37,999 38,604 39,113 37,996 38,352 38,548 38,754 38,962 39,072

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

115,020 116,328 116,437 115,020 116,017 116,115 116,220 116,328 116,437

Civilian labor force

82,633 83,140 83,115 82,561 83,234 83,115 83,058 83,030 83,063

Participation rate

71.8 71.5 71.4 71.8 71.7 71.6 71.5 71.4 71.3

Employed

79,662 80,409 80,458 79,393 80,329 80,013 80,240 80,134 80,225

Employment-population ratio

69.3 69.1 69.1 69.0 69.2 68.9 69.0 68.9 68.9

Unemployed

2,972 2,731 2,658 3,168 2,905 3,102 2,818 2,895 2,837

Unemployment rate

3.6 3.3 3.2 3.8 3.5 3.7 3.4 3.5 3.4

Not in labor force

32,387 33,188 33,322 32,459 32,783 33,001 33,162 33,298 33,374

Women, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

132,047 133,250 133,362 132,047 132,944 133,038 133,139 133,250 133,362

Civilian labor force

75,533 75,697 76,142 75,563 75,382 76,084 76,295 75,922 76,070

Participation rate

57.2 56.8 57.1 57.2 56.7 57.2 57.3 57.0 57.0

Employed

72,375 72,477 73,378 72,422 72,690 73,054 73,281 72,997 73,317

Employment-population ratio

54.8 54.4 55.0 54.8 54.7 54.9 55.0 54.8 55.0

Unemployed

3,158 3,220 2,765 3,142 2,692 3,030 3,013 2,925 2,753

Unemployment rate

4.2 4.3 3.6 4.2 3.6 4.0 3.9 3.9 3.6

Not in labor force

56,514 57,553 57,220 56,484 57,562 56,954 56,844 57,328 57,292

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

123,781 124,983 125,091 123,781 124,674 124,771 124,875 124,983 125,091

Civilian labor force

72,670 72,782 73,280 72,497 72,493 73,139 73,285 73,154 73,039

Participation rate

58.7 58.2 58.6 58.6 58.1 58.6 58.7 58.5 58.4

Employed

69,820 69,880 70,858 69,692 70,077 70,419 70,598 70,529 70,656

Employment-population ratio

56.4 55.9 56.6 56.3 56.2 56.4 56.5 56.4 56.5

Unemployed

2,849 2,902 2,422 2,804 2,415 2,720 2,687 2,625 2,383

Unemployment rate

3.9 4.0 3.3 3.9 3.3 3.7 3.7 3.6 3.3

Not in labor force

51,111 52,201 51,811 51,284 52,181 51,633 51,590 51,829 52,052

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian noninstitutional population

16,761 16,755 16,762 16,761 16,763 16,755 16,748 16,755 16,762

Civilian labor force

5,746 5,987 5,562 6,024 5,812 5,886 5,902 5,592 5,824

Participation rate

34.3 35.7 33.2 35.9 34.7 35.1 35.2 33.4 34.7

Employed

5,011 5,250 4,876 5,238 5,068 5,144 5,127 4,879 5,081

Employment-population ratio

29.9 31.3 29.1 31.3 30.2 30.7 30.6 29.1 30.3

Unemployed

735 737 686 786 745 743 775 714 743

Unemployment rate

12.8 12.3 12.3 13.0 12.8 12.6 13.1 12.8 12.8

Not in labor force

11,015 10,767 11,199 10,737 10,951 10,869 10,846 11,163 10,938

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-2. Employment status of the civilian population by race, sex, and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, race, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Sept.
2017
Aug.
2018
Sept.
2018
Sept.
2017
May
2018
June
2018
July
2018
Aug.
2018
Sept.
2018

WHITE

Civilian noninstitutional population

199,191 200,356 200,476 199,191 200,039 200,132 200,236 200,356 200,476

Civilian labor force

125,320 125,462 125,413 125,397 125,688 125,784 125,720 125,306 125,483

Participation rate

62.9 62.6 62.6 63.0 62.8 62.9 62.8 62.5 62.6

Employed

120,857 121,040 121,500 120,754 121,303 121,347 121,506 121,027 121,398

Employment-population ratio

60.7 60.4 60.6 60.6 60.6 60.6 60.7 60.4 60.6

Unemployed

4,463 4,421 3,913 4,643 4,385 4,437 4,214 4,279 4,085

Unemployment rate

3.6 3.5 3.1 3.7 3.5 3.5 3.4 3.4 3.3

Not in labor force

73,871 74,894 75,063 73,794 74,350 74,348 74,517 75,049 74,993

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

65,412 65,601 65,625 65,348 65,890 65,855 65,614 65,505 65,611

Participation rate

71.8 71.5 71.5 71.8 72.0 71.9 71.6 71.4 71.5

Employed

63,378 63,702 63,796 63,159 63,785 63,695 63,690 63,486 63,629

Employment-population ratio

69.6 69.4 69.5 69.4 69.7 69.5 69.5 69.2 69.3

Unemployed

2,034 1,899 1,829 2,189 2,106 2,159 1,924 2,019 1,982

Unemployment rate

3.1 2.9 2.8 3.3 3.2 3.3 2.9 3.1 3.0

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

55,501 55,100 55,404 55,447 55,197 55,420 55,534 55,351 55,297

Participation rate

57.9 57.2 57.5 57.9 57.4 57.6 57.7 57.5 57.4

Employed

53,577 53,100 53,811 53,538 53,450 53,608 53,746 53,592 53,722

Employment-population ratio

55.9 55.1 55.8 55.9 55.6 55.7 55.8 55.6 55.7

Unemployed

1,924 2,000 1,594 1,909 1,747 1,812 1,787 1,759 1,575

Unemployment rate

3.5 3.6 2.9 3.4 3.2 3.3 3.2 3.2 2.8

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

4,407 4,761 4,383 4,602 4,601 4,510 4,572 4,450 4,574

Participation rate

35.7 38.7 35.6 37.3 37.3 36.6 37.2 36.2 37.2

Employed

3,902 4,239 3,893 4,057 4,068 4,044 4,069 3,949 4,046

Employment-population ratio

31.6 34.4 31.6 32.9 33.0 32.8 33.1 32.1 32.9

Unemployed

505 522 490 545 533 466 502 501 528

Unemployment rate

11.5 11.0 11.2 11.8 11.6 10.3 11.0 11.3 11.5

BLACK OR AFRICAN AMERICAN

Civilian noninstitutional population

32,333 32,810 32,848 32,333 32,704 32,737 32,771 32,810 32,848

Civilian labor force

20,227 20,452 20,484 20,254 20,296 20,364 20,495 20,404 20,513

Participation rate

62.6 62.3 62.4 62.6 62.1 62.2 62.5 62.2 62.4

Employed

18,842 19,114 19,295 18,838 19,092 19,045 19,144 19,114 19,272

Employment-population ratio

58.3 58.3 58.7 58.3 58.4 58.2 58.4 58.3 58.7

Unemployed

1,385 1,338 1,189 1,416 1,204 1,319 1,351 1,289 1,240

Unemployment rate

6.8 6.5 5.8 7.0 5.9 6.5 6.6 6.3 6.0

Not in labor force

12,106 12,358 12,365 12,079 12,408 12,373 12,276 12,406 12,336

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

9,315 9,431 9,369 9,294 9,382 9,162 9,320 9,407 9,359

Participation rate

69.0 68.6 68.0 68.8 68.5 66.8 67.9 68.4 68.0

Employed

8,708 8,884 8,842 8,668 8,792 8,573 8,751 8,841 8,813

Employment-population ratio

64.5 64.6 64.2 64.2 64.2 62.5 63.7 64.3 64.0

Unemployed

606 546 526 626 590 589 569 566 546

Unemployment rate

6.5 5.8 5.6 6.7 6.3 6.4 6.1 6.0 5.8

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

10,153 10,345 10,421 10,166 10,233 10,406 10,426 10,361 10,427

Participation rate

62.2 62.4 62.8 62.3 62.0 63.0 63.0 62.5 62.9

Employed

9,549 9,690 9,892 9,550 9,754 9,838 9,793 9,766 9,874

Employment-population ratio

58.5 58.5 59.6 58.5 59.1 59.5 59.2 59.0 59.5

Unemployed

604 655 529 616 479 568 633 595 554

Unemployment rate

5.9 6.3 5.1 6.1 4.7 5.5 6.1 5.7 5.3

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

759 676 694 794 681 796 750 635 726

Participation rate

30.2 27.1 27.8 31.6 27.3 31.9 30.0 25.5 29.1

Employed

584 539 560 619 547 635 600 508 585

Employment-population ratio

23.3 21.6 22.5 24.7 21.9 25.4 24.1 20.3 23.5

Unemployed

174 137 134 174 135 162 149 128 140

Unemployment rate

23.0 20.3 19.3 22.0 19.8 20.3 19.9 20.1 19.3

ASIAN

Civilian noninstitutional population

15,483 16,093 16,011 15,483 15,874 15,934 15,922 16,093 16,011

Civilian labor force

9,973 10,279 10,289 9,985 9,932 10,140 10,153 10,259 10,300

Participation rate

64.4 63.9 64.3 64.5 62.6 63.6 63.8 63.7 64.3

Employed

9,619 9,967 9,933 9,626 9,720 9,817 9,838 9,950 9,938

Employment-population ratio

62.1 61.9 62.0 62.2 61.2 61.6 61.8 61.8 62.1

Unemployed

353 312 356 359 212 322 314 309 362

Unemployment rate

3.5 3.0 3.5 3.6 2.1 3.2 3.1 3.0 3.5

Not in labor force

5,510 5,814 5,722 5,498 5,942 5,794 5,769 5,834 5,712

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Estimates for the above race groups will not sum to totals shown in table A-1 because data are not presented for all races. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-3. Employment status of the Hispanic or Latino population by sex and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Sept.
2017
Aug.
2018
Sept.
2018
Sept.
2017
May
2018
June
2018
July
2018
Aug.
2018
Sept.
2018

HISPANIC OR LATINO ETHNICITY

Civilian noninstitutional population

41,579 42,863 42,959 41,579 42,592 42,679 42,767 42,863 42,959

Civilian labor force

27,599 28,219 28,316 27,609 28,205 28,369 28,495 28,242 28,346

Participation rate

66.4 65.8 65.9 66.4 66.2 66.5 66.6 65.9 66.0

Employed

26,270 26,898 27,105 26,209 26,827 27,077 27,223 26,927 27,059

Employment-population ratio

63.2 62.8 63.1 63.0 63.0 63.4 63.7 62.8 63.0

Unemployed

1,329 1,322 1,211 1,400 1,378 1,292 1,273 1,315 1,287

Unemployment rate

4.8 4.7 4.3 5.1 4.9 4.6 4.5 4.7 4.5

Not in labor force

13,980 14,644 14,642 13,970 14,387 14,310 14,272 14,621 14,613

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

15,124 15,428 15,414 15,110 15,444 15,557 15,519 15,421 15,416

Participation rate

80.8 79.7 79.5 80.7 80.3 80.8 80.4 79.7 79.5

Employed

14,584 14,899 14,888 14,502 14,845 14,961 15,017 14,849 14,822

Employment-population ratio

77.9 77.0 76.8 77.5 77.2 77.7 77.8 76.7 76.4

Unemployed

540 528 526 608 599 596 502 572 594

Unemployment rate

3.6 3.4 3.4 4.0 3.9 3.8 3.2 3.7 3.9

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

11,251 11,513 11,682 11,249 11,507 11,626 11,684 11,593 11,673

Participation rate

59.2 58.8 59.6 59.2 59.2 59.7 59.8 59.2 59.5

Employed

10,630 10,902 11,175 10,637 10,917 11,065 11,131 11,009 11,172

Employment-population ratio

55.9 55.7 57.0 56.0 56.2 56.8 57.0 56.3 57.0

Unemployed

621 611 507 612 590 561 553 584 501

Unemployment rate

5.5 5.3 4.3 5.4 5.1 4.8 4.7 5.0 4.3

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

1,224 1,279 1,220 1,250 1,254 1,186 1,292 1,228 1,257

Participation rate

31.7 32.4 30.9 32.4 31.9 30.2 32.8 31.1 31.8

Employed

1,056 1,097 1,042 1,070 1,065 1,051 1,075 1,068 1,065

Employment-population ratio

27.4 27.8 26.3 27.7 27.1 26.7 27.3 27.1 26.9

Unemployed

168 182 179 180 189 135 218 160 192

Unemployment rate

13.7 14.2 14.6 14.4 15.1 11.4 16.8 13.0 15.3

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-4. Employment status of the civilian population 25 years and over by educational attainment
[Numbers in thousands]
Educational attainment Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Sept.
2017
Aug.
2018
Sept.
2018
Sept.
2017
May
2018
June
2018
July
2018
Aug.
2018
Sept.
2018

Less than a high school diploma

Civilian labor force

10,611 10,307 10,273 10,552 10,242 10,508 10,212 10,311 10,189

Participation rate

46.4 46.3 46.4 46.2 45.2 45.9 46.9 46.3 46.0

Employed

9,985 9,790 9,773 9,846 9,688 9,926 9,695 9,728 9,626

Employment-population ratio

43.7 44.0 44.2 43.1 42.7 43.4 44.5 43.7 43.5

Unemployed

626 516 499 706 554 582 517 583 563

Unemployment rate

5.9 5.0 4.9 6.7 5.4 5.5 5.1 5.7 5.5

High school graduates, no college(1)

Civilian labor force

36,147 36,344 36,540 35,916 35,702 36,050 36,534 36,121 36,224

Participation rate

57.8 57.6 58.0 57.4 57.2 57.9 57.9 57.3 57.5

Employed

34,676 34,919 35,268 34,377 34,306 34,549 35,056 34,699 34,873

Employment-population ratio

55.4 55.4 56.0 55.0 54.9 55.5 55.5 55.0 55.3

Unemployed

1,471 1,425 1,272 1,539 1,395 1,501 1,478 1,422 1,351

Unemployment rate

4.1 3.9 3.5 4.3 3.9 4.2 4.0 3.9 3.7

Some college or associate degree

Civilian labor force

37,583 36,930 37,364 37,540 37,921 37,863 37,531 37,300 37,423

Participation rate

65.9 64.9 65.2 65.9 65.7 65.3 65.4 65.6 65.3

Employed

36,249 35,552 36,204 36,189 36,694 36,602 36,340 35,987 36,239

Employment-population ratio

63.6 62.5 63.1 63.5 63.6 63.2 63.3 63.3 63.2

Unemployed

1,333 1,378 1,160 1,351 1,228 1,261 1,191 1,313 1,184

Unemployment rate

3.5 3.7 3.1 3.6 3.2 3.3 3.2 3.5 3.2

Bachelor's degree and higher(2)

Civilian labor force

55,711 57,237 57,279 55,621 56,739 56,613 56,940 57,638 57,258

Participation rate

74.2 73.5 73.6 74.1 74.1 74.0 73.4 74.0 73.6

Employed

54,464 55,906 56,160 54,378 55,593 55,296 55,672 56,452 56,124

Employment-population ratio

72.6 71.8 72.2 72.5 72.6 72.2 71.8 72.5 72.1

Unemployed

1,247 1,331 1,120 1,242 1,147 1,317 1,268 1,186 1,134

Unemployment rate

2.2 2.3 2.0 2.2 2.0 2.3 2.2 2.1 2.0

Footnotes
(1) Includes persons with a high school diploma or equivalent.
(2) Includes persons with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-5. Employment status of the civilian population 18 years and over by veteran status, period of service, and sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, veteran status, and period of service Total Men Women
Sept.
2017
Sept.
2018
Sept.
2017
Sept.
2018
Sept.
2017
Sept.
2018

VETERANS, 18 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

20,511 19,120 18,477 17,251 2,034 1,869

Civilian labor force

10,373 9,482 9,085 8,313 1,288 1,169

Participation rate

50.6 49.6 49.2 48.2 63.3 62.5

Employed

10,063 9,161 8,834 8,055 1,230 1,107

Employment-population ratio

49.1 47.9 47.8 46.7 60.5 59.2

Unemployed

309 320 251 258 58 62

Unemployment rate

3.0 3.4 2.8 3.1 4.5 5.3

Not in labor force

10,138 9,638 9,392 8,938 746 700

Gulf War-era II veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

4,119 4,121 3,373 3,389 746 733

Civilian labor force

3,306 3,355 2,769 2,807 537 548

Participation rate

80.3 81.4 82.1 82.8 72.0 74.8

Employed

3,176 3,224 2,675 2,709 500 515

Employment-population ratio

77.1 78.2 79.3 79.9 67.1 70.3

Unemployed

131 131 94 98 37 33

Unemployment rate

3.9 3.9 3.4 3.5 6.9 6.0

Not in labor force

813 766 604 582 209 184

Gulf War-era I veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

3,389 3,152 2,896 2,682 493 469

Civilian labor force

2,749 2,519 2,361 2,160 388 358

Participation rate

81.1 79.9 81.5 80.5 78.7 76.4

Employed

2,679 2,447 2,307 2,110 372 337

Employment-population ratio

79.0 77.6 79.6 78.7 75.4 71.9

Unemployed

71 71 55 50 16 21

Unemployment rate

2.6 2.8 2.3 2.3 4.1 5.9

Not in labor force

640 633 535 522 105 111

World War II, Korean War, and Vietnam-era veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

7,992 7,537 7,703 7,280 289 257

Civilian labor force

1,830 1,580 1,757 1,531 73 49

Participation rate

22.9 21.0 22.8 21.0 25.4 19.0

Employed

1,784 1,521 1,711 1,472 73 49

Employment-population ratio

22.3 20.2 22.2 20.2 25.4 19.0

Unemployed

46 60 46 60 0 0

Unemployment rate

2.5 3.8 2.6 3.9 - -

Not in labor force

6,162 5,957 5,946 5,749 216 208

Veterans of other service periods

Civilian noninstitutional population

5,011 4,310 4,505 3,900 506 410

Civilian labor force

2,487 2,028 2,198 1,814 290 213

Participation rate

49.6 47.0 48.8 46.5 57.3 52.1

Employed

2,425 1,970 2,140 1,765 284 205

Employment-population ratio

48.4 45.7 47.5 45.2 56.2 50.0

Unemployed

63 58 57 49 5 8

Unemployment rate

2.5 2.9 2.6 2.7 1.9 4.0

Not in labor force

2,524 2,282 2,307 2,086 216 197

NONVETERANS, 18 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

225,860 230,212 100,353 103,100 125,507 127,112

Civilian labor force

148,380 150,416 75,362 76,597 73,018 73,819

Participation rate

65.7 65.3 75.1 74.3 58.2 58.1

Employed

142,394 145,204 72,353 73,960 70,041 71,244

Employment-population ratio

63.0 63.1 72.1 71.7 55.8 56.0

Unemployed

5,986 5,212 3,009 2,637 2,977 2,575

Unemployment rate

4.0 3.5 4.0 3.4 4.1 3.5

Not in labor force

77,480 79,796 24,991 26,503 52,489 53,293

NOTE: Veterans served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces and were not on active duty at the time of the survey. Nonveterans never served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces. Veterans could have served anywhere in the world during these periods of service: Gulf War era II (September 2001-present), Gulf War era I (August 1990-August 2001), Vietnam era (August 1964-April 1975), Korean War (July 1950-January 1955), World War II (December 1941-December 1946), and other service periods (all other time periods). Veterans who served in more than one wartime period are classified only in the most recent one. Veterans who served during one of the selected wartime periods and another period are classified only in the wartime period. Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria (values not shown where base is less than 75,000).


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-6. Employment status of the civilian population by sex, age, and disability status, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Persons with a disability Persons with no disability
Sept.
2017
Sept.
2018
Sept.
2017
Sept.
2018

TOTAL, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

30,635 30,254 224,927 228,036

Civilian labor force

6,481 6,489 154,568 155,469

Participation rate

21.2 21.4 68.7 68.2

Employed

5,994 6,018 148,499 150,173

Employment-population ratio

19.6 19.9 66.0 65.9

Unemployed

487 470 6,068 5,296

Unemployment rate

7.5 7.3 3.9 3.4

Not in labor force

24,154 23,765 70,359 72,567

Men, 16 to 64 years

Civilian labor force

2,866 2,793 77,168 77,334

Participation rate

35.8 36.4 82.8 82.2

Employed

2,645 2,589 74,141 74,717

Employment-population ratio

33.0 33.7 79.5 79.4

Unemployed

221 204 3,027 2,617

Unemployment rate

7.7 7.3 3.9 3.4

Not in labor force

5,144 4,882 16,044 16,772

Women, 16 to 64 years

Civilian labor force

2,356 2,488 68,889 69,058

Participation rate

30.4 31.8 71.2 71.2

Employed

2,153 2,275 66,094 66,677

Employment-population ratio

27.8 29.1 68.3 68.7

Unemployed

203 213 2,794 2,381

Unemployment rate

8.6 8.6 4.1 3.4

Not in labor force

5,393 5,335 27,830 27,989

Both sexes, 65 years and over

Civilian labor force

1,260 1,208 8,512 9,077

Participation rate

8.5 8.2 24.3 24.6

Employed

1,197 1,154 8,264 8,779

Employment-population ratio

8.0 7.8 23.6 23.8

Unemployed

63 54 247 298

Unemployment rate

5.0 4.4 2.9 3.3

Not in labor force

13,617 13,547 26,485 27,806

NOTE: A person with a disability has at least one of the following conditions: is deaf or has serious difficulty hearing; is blind or has serious difficulty seeing even when wearing glasses; has serious difficulty concentrating, remembering, or making decisions because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition; has serious difficulty walking or climbing stairs; has difficulty dressing or bathing; or has difficulty doing errands alone such as visiting a doctor's office or shopping because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-7. Employment status of the civilian population by nativity and sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status and nativity Total Men Women
Sept.
2017
Sept.
2018
Sept.
2017
Sept.
2018
Sept.
2017
Sept.
2018

Foreign born, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

41,642 43,112 20,308 20,929 21,334 22,183

Civilian labor force

27,846 28,315 16,058 16,168 11,788 12,147

Participation rate

66.9 65.7 79.1 77.3 55.3 54.8

Employed

26,754 27,471 15,529 15,776 11,225 11,696

Employment-population ratio

64.2 63.7 76.5 75.4 52.6 52.7

Unemployed

1,092 844 529 393 563 451

Unemployment rate

3.9 3.0 3.3 2.4 4.8 3.7

Not in labor force

13,796 14,796 4,250 4,761 9,546 10,035

Native born, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

213,920 215,178 103,207 103,999 110,713 111,179

Civilian labor force

133,203 133,642 69,458 69,647 63,745 63,995

Participation rate

62.3 62.1 67.3 67.0 57.6 57.6

Employed

127,739 128,720 66,590 67,038 61,149 61,682

Employment-population ratio

59.7 59.8 64.5 64.5 55.2 55.5

Unemployed

5,464 4,922 2,868 2,609 2,596 2,313

Unemployment rate

4.1 3.7 4.1 3.7 4.1 3.6

Not in labor force

80,717 81,536 33,749 34,352 46,968 47,184

NOTE: The foreign born are those residing in the United States who were not U.S. citizens at birth. That is, they were born outside the United States or one of its outlying areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam, to parents neither of whom was a U.S. citizen. The native born are persons who were born in the United States or one of its outlying areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam or who were born abroad of at least one parent who was a U.S. citizen. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-8. Employed persons by class of worker and part-time status
[In thousands]
Category Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Sept.
2017
Aug.
2018
Sept.
2018
Sept.
2017
May
2018
June
2018
July
2018
Aug.
2018
Sept.
2018

CLASS OF WORKER

Agriculture and related industries

2,367 2,465 2,555 2,311 2,345 2,350 2,498 2,345 2,474

Wage and salary workers(1)

1,616 1,660 1,726 1,554 1,573 1,567 1,658 1,528 1,640

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

732 789 806 745 742 736 783 772 812

Unpaid family workers

19 17 23 - - - - - -

Nonagricultural industries

152,126 153,074 153,636 151,942 153,211 153,309 153,473 153,262 153,474

Wage and salary workers(1)

143,214 144,183 144,570 142,959 144,124 144,524 144,447 144,276 144,389

Government

20,873 20,218 20,674 20,908 21,045 20,986 20,900 20,791 20,743

Private industries

122,341 123,965 123,896 122,055 123,090 123,478 123,541 123,513 123,634

Private households

583 782 741 - - - - - -

Other industries

121,758 123,183 123,154 121,423 122,319 122,757 122,772 122,749 122,842

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

8,871 8,812 8,970 8,861 9,013 8,728 8,880 8,861 8,959

Unpaid family workers

42 79 96 - - - - - -

PERSONS AT WORK PART TIME(2)

All industries

Part time for economic reasons(3)

4,818 4,319 4,306 5,148 4,948 4,743 4,567 4,379 4,642

Slack work or business conditions

2,908 2,521 2,606 3,098 3,004 3,042 2,877 2,551 2,782

Could only find part-time work

1,702 1,268 1,464 1,725 1,480 1,447 1,431 1,365 1,447

Part time for noneconomic reasons(4)

21,001 19,991 21,475 20,951 21,095 21,304 21,532 21,781 21,464

Nonagricultural industries

Part time for economic reasons(3)

4,740 4,263 4,238 5,048 4,872 4,662 4,482 4,311 4,547

Slack work or business conditions

2,864 2,492 2,572 3,054 2,948 3,004 2,836 2,522 2,752

Could only find part-time work

1,682 1,263 1,459 1,702 1,464 1,431 1,415 1,355 1,441

Part time for noneconomic reasons(4)

20,677 19,653 21,077 20,619 20,766 20,941 21,177 21,448 21,057

Footnotes
(1) Includes self-employed workers whose businesses are incorporated.
(2) Refers to those who worked 1 to 34 hours during the survey reference week and excludes employed persons who were absent from their jobs for the entire week.
(3) Refers to those who worked 1 to 34 hours during the reference week for an economic reason such as slack work or unfavorable business conditions, inability to find full-time work, or seasonal declines in demand.
(4) Refers to persons who usually work part time for noneconomic reasons such as childcare problems, family or personal obligations, school or training, retirement or Social Security limits on earnings, and other reasons. This excludes persons who usually work full time but worked only 1 to 34 hours during the reference week for reasons such as vacations, holidays, illness, and bad weather.

- Data not available.
NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-9. Selected employment indicators
[Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Sept.
2017
Aug.
2018
Sept.
2018
Sept.
2017
May
2018
June
2018
July
2018
Aug.
2018
Sept.
2018

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

154,494 155,539 156,191 154,324 155,474 155,576 155,965 155,542 155,962

16 to 19 years

5,011 5,250 4,876 5,238 5,068 5,144 5,127 4,879 5,081

16 to 17 years

2,036 1,971 1,826 1,972 1,771 1,797 1,815 1,770 1,766

18 to 19 years

2,975 3,280 3,050 3,206 3,285 3,344 3,315 3,110 3,293

20 years and over

149,482 150,289 151,315 149,085 150,406 150,432 150,838 150,663 150,881

20 to 24 years

14,108 14,122 13,910 14,211 14,069 14,046 14,128 13,841 14,026

25 years and over

135,375 136,167 137,405 134,845 136,373 136,422 136,762 136,749 136,856

25 to 54 years

99,686 99,902 100,763 99,235 100,105 100,204 100,417 100,276 100,316

25 to 34 years

34,793 35,200 35,658 34,652 35,221 35,288 35,444 35,316 35,500

35 to 44 years

32,232 32,568 32,661 32,045 32,492 32,566 32,690 32,636 32,489

45 to 54 years

32,661 32,134 32,444 32,538 32,392 32,350 32,283 32,324 32,327

55 years and over

35,688 36,265 36,642 35,610 36,268 36,218 36,346 36,473 36,540

Men, 16 years and over

82,119 83,062 82,814 81,902 82,784 82,522 82,684 82,545 82,645

16 to 19 years

2,457 2,653 2,356 2,509 2,455 2,509 2,444 2,410 2,420

16 to 17 years

932 935 799 899 849 855 814 812 782

18 to 19 years

1,525 1,718 1,557 1,600 1,610 1,644 1,629 1,598 1,637

20 years and over

79,662 80,409 80,458 79,393 80,329 80,013 80,240 80,134 80,225

20 to 24 years

7,263 7,227 7,107 7,313 7,205 7,191 7,149 6,990 7,162

25 years and over

72,398 73,182 73,351 72,028 73,131 72,869 73,126 73,106 73,020

25 to 54 years

53,247 53,638 53,808 52,980 53,728 53,588 53,673 53,599 53,569

25 to 34 years

18,684 19,020 19,199 18,605 18,992 19,006 19,054 19,007 19,121

35 to 44 years

17,361 17,692 17,594 17,262 17,634 17,598 17,691 17,642 17,509

45 to 54 years

17,202 16,927 17,015 17,114 17,101 16,984 16,928 16,950 16,939

55 years and over

19,152 19,543 19,542 19,048 19,403 19,281 19,453 19,507 19,451

Women, 16 years and over

72,375 72,477 73,378 72,422 72,690 73,054 73,281 72,997 73,317

16 to 19 years

2,554 2,597 2,520 2,729 2,613 2,635 2,683 2,468 2,661

16 to 17 years

1,104 1,036 1,027 1,073 922 942 1,001 958 983

18 to 19 years

1,450 1,561 1,493 1,606 1,675 1,700 1,687 1,512 1,656

20 years and over

69,820 69,880 70,858 69,692 70,077 70,419 70,598 70,529 70,656

20 to 24 years

6,844 6,895 6,803 6,898 6,864 6,855 6,979 6,851 6,864

25 years and over

62,976 62,985 64,055 62,817 63,243 63,553 63,636 63,643 63,836

25 to 54 years

46,440 46,264 46,954 46,255 46,377 46,616 46,744 46,677 46,747

25 to 34 years

16,110 16,180 16,459 16,047 16,229 16,282 16,390 16,309 16,379

35 to 44 years

14,871 14,876 15,067 14,784 14,858 14,969 14,998 14,994 14,979

45 to 54 years

15,460 15,207 15,428 15,425 15,291 15,366 15,355 15,374 15,388

55 years and over

16,536 16,722 17,100 16,562 16,865 16,937 16,892 16,966 17,089

MARITAL STATUS

Married men, spouse present(1)

45,846 45,882 46,205 45,594 46,041 45,689 45,751 45,858 45,966

Married women, spouse present(1)

35,696 35,542 36,090 35,591 35,978 35,976 35,986 36,070 35,984

Women who maintain families(2)

9,673 9,806 9,887 - - - - - -

FULL- OR PART-TIME STATUS

Full-time workers(3)

127,235 129,975 129,466 126,676 128,657 128,568 129,021 128,577 128,894

Part-time workers(4)

27,259 25,564 26,726 27,603 26,883 27,028 26,992 26,913 27,055

MULTIPLE JOBHOLDERS

Total multiple jobholders

7,359 7,540 7,670 7,350 7,442 7,619 8,072 7,944 7,707

Percent of total employed

4.8 4.8 4.9 4.8 4.8 4.9 5.2 5.1 4.9

SELF-EMPLOYMENT

Self-employed workers, incorporated

5,974 5,768 5,840 - - - - - -

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

9,602 9,601 9,776 9,605 9,755 9,464 9,663 9,633 9,771

Footnotes
(1) Refers to persons in opposite-sex married couples only.
(2) Refers to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not an opposite-sex spouse.
(3) Employed full-time workers are persons who usually work 35 hours or more per week.
(4) Employed part-time workers are persons who usually work less than 35 hours per week.

- Data not available.
NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-10. Selected unemployment indicators, seasonally adjusted
Characteristic Number of
unemployed persons
(in thousands)
Unemployment rates
Sept.
2017
Aug.
2018
Sept.
2018
Sept.
2017
May
2018
June
2018
July
2018
Aug.
2018
Sept.
2018

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

6,759 6,234 5,964 4.2 3.8 4.0 3.9 3.9 3.7

16 to 19 years

786 714 743 13.0 12.8 12.6 13.1 12.8 12.8

16 to 17 years

319 274 282 13.9 14.8 14.4 13.6 13.4 13.8

18 to 19 years

472 430 446 12.8 12.2 11.4 12.5 12.2 11.9

20 years and over

5,973 5,520 5,221 3.9 3.4 3.7 3.5 3.5 3.3

20 to 24 years

1,162 1,012 1,036 7.6 7.1 7.4 6.9 6.8 6.9

25 years and over

4,842 4,483 4,210 3.5 3.0 3.3 3.2 3.2 3.0

25 to 54 years

3,648 3,337 3,149 3.5 3.1 3.3 3.2 3.2 3.0

25 to 34 years

1,578 1,510 1,299 4.4 3.8 3.9 3.5 4.1 3.5

35 to 44 years

1,042 972 969 3.2 2.8 3.1 3.1 2.9 2.9

45 to 54 years

1,027 855 882 3.1 2.7 3.0 2.9 2.6 2.7

55 years and over

1,174 1,155 1,056 3.2 2.8 3.1 3.1 3.1 2.8

Men, 16 years and over

3,617 3,309 3,211 4.2 3.9 4.1 3.8 3.9 3.7

16 to 19 years

449 414 373 15.2 16.0 14.7 15.5 14.7 13.4

16 to 17 years

166 150 134 15.6 18.0 16.5 16.1 15.6 14.6

18 to 19 years

287 262 241 15.2 15.1 13.2 14.5 14.1 12.8

20 years and over

3,168 2,895 2,837 3.8 3.5 3.7 3.4 3.5 3.4

20 to 24 years

693 570 575 8.7 7.9 8.2 7.4 7.5 7.4

25 years and over

2,499 2,317 2,281 3.4 3.1 3.2 3.0 3.1 3.0

25 to 54 years

1,887 1,717 1,707 3.4 3.1 3.2 3.0 3.1 3.1

25 to 34 years

836 821 704 4.3 3.8 3.8 3.5 4.1 3.6

35 to 44 years

514 470 539 2.9 2.7 2.9 2.6 2.6 3.0

45 to 54 years

537 426 464 3.0 2.8 3.0 2.8 2.4 2.7

55 years and over

613 600 574 3.1 3.0 3.2 3.1 3.0 2.9

Women, 16 years and over

3,142 2,925 2,753 4.2 3.6 4.0 3.9 3.9 3.6

16 to 19 years

337 300 370 11.0 9.6 10.5 10.9 10.8 12.2

16 to 17 years

153 125 148 12.5 11.6 12.4 11.4 11.5 13.1

18 to 19 years

185 168 205 10.3 9.2 9.5 10.5 10.0 11.0

20 years and over

2,804 2,625 2,383 3.9 3.3 3.7 3.7 3.6 3.3

20 to 24 years

468 442 461 6.4 6.2 6.6 6.3 6.1 6.3

25 years and over

2,343 2,166 1,930 3.6 3.0 3.4 3.4 3.3 2.9

25 to 54 years

1,761 1,620 1,442 3.7 3.2 3.4 3.4 3.4 3.0

25 to 34 years

742 689 595 4.4 3.9 4.0 3.6 4.1 3.5

35 to 44 years

529 502 430 3.5 3.0 3.3 3.6 3.2 2.8

45 to 54 years

490 430 418 3.1 2.6 2.9 3.0 2.7 2.6

55 years and over

576 539 500 3.4 2.7 3.0 3.0 3.1 2.8

MARITAL STATUS

Married men, spouse present(1)

1,050 931 898 2.3 1.9 2.1 2.0 2.0 1.9

Married women, spouse present(1)

922 931 780 2.5 2.3 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.1

Women who maintain families(2)

672 556 529 6.5 4.7 5.5 5.6 5.4 5.1

FULL- OR PART-TIME STATUS

Full-time workers(3)

5,504 4,993 4,662 4.2 3.7 4.0 3.8 3.7 3.5

Part-time workers(4)

1,231 1,196 1,267 4.3 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.3 4.5

Footnotes
(1) Refers to persons in opposite-sex couples only.
(2) Data are not seasonally adjusted. Refers to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not an opposite-sex spouse.
(3) Full-time workers are unemployed persons who have expressed a desire to work full time (35 hours or more per week) or are on layoff from full-time jobs.
(4) Part-time workers are unemployed persons who have expressed a desire to work part time (less than 35 hours per week) or are on layoff from part-time jobs.

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-11. Unemployed persons by reason for unemployment
[Numbers in thousands]
Reason Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Sept.
2017
Aug.
2018
Sept.
2018
Sept.
2017
May
2018
June
2018
July
2018
Aug.
2018
Sept.
2018

NUMBER OF UNEMPLOYED

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

2,992 2,885 2,474 3,316 2,854 3,065 3,017 2,875 2,796

On temporary layoff

568 893 507 891 803 906 890 872 820

Not on temporary layoff

2,424 1,992 1,967 2,425 2,052 2,159 2,127 2,003 1,975

Permanent job losers

1,742 1,337 1,238 1,728 1,439 1,486 1,455 1,345 1,248

Persons who completed temporary jobs

682 655 729 697 612 673 672 658 727

Job leavers

805 967 794 737 852 811 844 862 730

Reentrants

2,127 1,869 1,939 2,068 1,882 2,086 1,799 1,846 1,877

New entrants

631 649 559 663 571 578 591 584 586

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

45.6 45.3 42.9 48.9 46.3 46.9 48.3 46.6 46.7

On temporary layoff

8.7 14.0 8.8 13.1 13.0 13.9 14.2 14.1 13.7

Not on temporary layoff

37.0 31.3 34.1 35.8 33.3 33.0 34.0 32.5 33.0

Job leavers

12.3 15.2 13.8 10.9 13.8 12.4 13.5 14.0 12.2

Reentrants

32.4 29.3 33.6 30.5 30.6 31.9 28.8 29.9 31.3

New entrants

9.6 10.2 9.7 9.8 9.3 8.8 9.5 9.5 9.8

UNEMPLOYED AS A PERCENT OF THE
CIVILIAN LABOR FORCE

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

1.9 1.8 1.5 2.1 1.8 1.9 1.9 1.8 1.7

Job leavers

0.5 0.6 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5

Reentrants

1.3 1.2 1.2 1.3 1.2 1.3 1.1 1.1 1.2

New entrants

0.4 0.4 0.3 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-12. Unemployed persons by duration of unemployment
[Numbers in thousands]
Duration Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Sept.
2017
Aug.
2018
Sept.
2018
Sept.
2017
May
2018
June
2018
July
2018
Aug.
2018
Sept.
2018

NUMBER OF UNEMPLOYED

Less than 5 weeks

2,227 2,183 2,043 2,223 2,034 2,227 2,091 2,208 2,065

5 to 14 weeks

1,740 2,037 1,566 1,879 1,945 1,882 1,820 1,720 1,720

15 weeks and over

2,589 2,149 2,157 2,695 2,166 2,314 2,406 2,255 2,245

15 to 26 weeks

889 809 790 962 977 836 971 923 861

27 weeks and over

1,700 1,341 1,366 1,733 1,189 1,478 1,435 1,332 1,384

Average (mean) duration, in weeks

26.9 22.2 24.7 26.6 21.3 21.2 23.2 22.6 24.0

Median duration, in weeks

10.3 9.0 9.4 10.1 9.2 8.9 9.5 9.1 9.2

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION

Less than 5 weeks

34.0 34.3 35.4 32.7 33.1 34.7 33.1 35.7 34.3

5 to 14 weeks

26.5 32.0 27.2 27.6 31.7 29.3 28.8 27.8 28.5

15 weeks and over

39.5 33.7 37.4 39.7 35.2 36.0 38.1 36.5 37.2

15 to 26 weeks

13.6 12.7 13.7 14.2 15.9 13.0 15.4 14.9 14.3

27 weeks and over

25.9 21.0 23.7 25.5 19.4 23.0 22.7 21.5 22.9

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-13. Employed and unemployed persons by occupation, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Occupation Employed Unemployed Unemployment
rates
Sept.
2017
Sept.
2018
Sept.
2017
Sept.
2018
Sept.
2017
Sept.
2018

Total, 16 years and over(1)

154,494 156,191 6,556 5,766 4.1 3.6

Management, professional, and related occupations

60,990 62,181 1,463 1,299 2.3 2.0

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

25,309 26,068 636 554 2.5 2.1

Professional and related occupations

35,681 36,112 827 745 2.3 2.0

Service occupations

27,429 26,606 1,414 1,207 4.9 4.3

Sales and office occupations

33,697 33,510 1,415 1,257 4.0 3.6

Sales and related occupations

15,798 15,609 605 656 3.7 4.0

Office and administrative support occupations

17,899 17,901 810 600 4.3 3.2

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

14,110 14,855 746 582 5.0 3.8

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

1,155 1,180 105 52 8.3 4.2

Construction and extraction occupations

8,010 8,570 470 434 5.5 4.8

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

4,945 5,105 171 95 3.4 1.8

Production, transportation, and material moving
occupations

18,268 19,039 873 847 4.6 4.3

Production occupations

8,282 8,639 405 346 4.7 3.9

Transportation and material moving occupations

9,986 10,400 468 501 4.5 4.6

Footnotes
(1) Persons with no previous work experience and persons whose last job was in the U.S. Armed Forces are included in the unemployed total.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-14. Unemployed persons by industry and class of worker, not seasonally adjusted
Industry and class of worker Number of
unemployed
persons
(in thousands)
Unemployment
rates
Sept.
2017
Sept.
2018
Sept.
2017
Sept.
2018

Total, 16 years and over(1)

6,556 5,766 4.1 3.6

Nonagricultural private wage and salary workers

5,063 4,468 4.0 3.5

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

24 13 3.0 1.7

Construction

433 412 4.7 4.1

Manufacturing

587 547 3.8 3.5

Durable goods

365 305 3.8 3.1

Nondurable goods

221 242 3.9 4.3

Wholesale and retail trade

843 810 4.1 4.0

Transportation and utilities

282 189 4.1 2.6

Information

141 62 5.1 2.3

Financial activities

240 271 2.5 2.7

Professional and business services

723 557 4.1 3.2

Education and health services

804 666 3.4 2.8

Leisure and hospitality

708 722 5.0 5.4

Other services

280 219 4.2 3.3

Agriculture and related private wage and salary workers

111 71 6.7 4.1

Government workers

438 416 2.1 2.0

Self-employed workers, unincorporated, and unpaid family workers

312 251 3.1 2.5

Footnotes
(1) Persons with no previous work experience and persons whose last job was in the U.S. Armed Forces are included in the unemployed total.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-15. Alternative measures of labor underutilization
[Percent]
Measure Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Sept.
2017
Aug.
2018
Sept.
2018
Sept.
2017
May
2018
June
2018
July
2018
Aug.
2018
Sept.
2018

U-1 Persons unemployed 15 weeks or longer, as a percent of the civilian labor force

1.6 1.3 1.3 1.7 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.4 1.4

U-2 Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs, as a percent of the civilian labor force

1.9 1.8 1.5 2.1 1.8 1.9 1.9 1.8 1.7

U-3 Total unemployed, as a percent of the civilian labor force (official unemployment rate)

4.1 3.9 3.6 4.2 3.8 4.0 3.9 3.9 3.7

U-4 Total unemployed plus discouraged workers, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus discouraged workers

4.3 4.2 3.8 4.4 4.0 4.3 4.2 4.1 3.9

U-5 Total unemployed, plus discouraged workers, plus all other persons marginally attached to the labor force, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force

5.0 4.8 4.5 5.1 4.6 4.9 4.8 4.7 4.6

U-6 Total unemployed, plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force, plus total employed part time for economic reasons, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force

8.0 7.4 7.1 8.3 7.6 7.8 7.5 7.4 7.5

NOTE: Persons marginally attached to the labor force are those who currently are neither working nor looking for work but indicate that they want and are available for a job and have looked for work sometime in the past 12 months. Discouraged workers, a subset of the marginally attached, have given a job-market related reason for not currently looking for work. Persons employed part time for economic reasons are those who want and are available for full-time work but have had to settle for a part-time schedule. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-16. Persons not in the labor force and multiple jobholders by sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Category Total Men Women
Sept.
2017
Sept.
2018
Sept.
2017
Sept.
2018
Sept.
2017
Sept.
2018

NOT IN THE LABOR FORCE

Total not in the labor force

94,513 96,332 37,999 39,113 56,514 57,220

Persons who currently want a job

5,415 5,070 2,494 2,381 2,922 2,689

Marginally attached to the labor force(1)

1,569 1,577 798 832 772 745

Discouraged workers(2)

421 383 275 223 146 160

Other persons marginally attached to the labor force(3)

1,148 1,194 522 608 625 585

MULTIPLE JOBHOLDERS

Total multiple jobholders(4)

7,359 7,670 3,699 3,736 3,660 3,934

Percent of total employed

4.8 4.9 4.5 4.5 5.1 5.4

Primary job full time, secondary job part time

4,053 4,200 2,236 2,253 1,816 1,946

Primary and secondary jobs both part time

2,040 2,050 753 736 1,287 1,315

Primary and secondary jobs both full time

305 331 190 201 115 130

Hours vary on primary or secondary job

923 1,044 502 519 421 525

Footnotes
(1) Data refer to persons who want a job, have searched for work during the prior 12 months, and were available to take a job during the reference week, but had not looked for work in the past 4 weeks.
(2) Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for reasons such as thinks no work available, could not find work, lacks schooling or training, employer thinks too young or old, and other types of discrimination.
(3) Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for such reasons as school or family responsibilities, ill health, and transportation problems, as well as a number for whom reason for nonparticipation was not determined.
(4) Includes a small number of persons who work part time on their primary job and full time on their secondary job(s), not shown separately.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-1. Employees on nonfarm payrolls by industry sector and selected industry detail
[In thousands]
Industry Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Sept.
2017
July
2018
Aug.
2018(p)
Sept.
2018(p)
Sept.
2017
July
2018
Aug.
2018(p)
Sept.
2018(p)
Change from:
Aug.2018 - Sept.2018(p)

Total nonfarm

147,177 148,897 149,391 149,741 146,963 149,096 149,366 149,500 134

Total private

124,904 127,807 127,981 127,363 124,626 126,719 126,973 127,094 121

Goods-producing

20,382 21,053 21,107 21,023 20,130 20,701 20,738 20,784 46

Mining and logging

696 751 763 759 690 740 746 751 5

Logging

50.0 49.9 49.5 48.7 48.7 48.4 48.0 47.4 -0.6

Mining

646.3 700.7 713.1 710.7 641.0 691.2 698.2 703.3 5.1

Oil and gas extraction

147.1 154.7 155.7 152.6 146.9 152.6 152.8 152.3 -0.5

Mining, except oil and gas

188.8 193.7 195.3 193.2 186.1 189.5 190.0 189.6 -0.4

Coal mining

52.9 53.0 53.2 52.8 52.8 53.0 52.9 52.6 -0.3

Metal ore mining

38.6 39.8 39.6 39.0 38.7 39.2 39.0 38.8 -0.2

Nonmetallic mineral mining and quarrying

97.3 100.9 102.5 101.4 94.6 97.3 98.0 98.2 0.2

Support activities for mining

310.4 352.3 362.1 364.9 308.0 349.1 355.4 361.4 6.0

Construction

7,177 7,496 7,525 7,477 6,971 7,237 7,263 7,286 23

Construction of buildings

1,571.1 1,653.4 1,655.7 1,639.9 1,535.1 1,608.3 1,616.6 1,617.0 0.4

Residential building

758.6 819.9 821.1 811.3 741.5 796.4 801.0 799.2 -1.8

Nonresidential building

812.5 833.5 834.6 828.6 793.6 811.9 815.6 817.8 2.2

Heavy and civil engineering construction

1,057.1 1,084.9 1,090.6 1,094.7 990.4 1,018.8 1,021.5 1,028.6 7.1

Specialty trade contractors

4,548.5 4,757.8 4,778.2 4,742.3 4,445.0 4,610.1 4,625.3 4,640.8 15.5

Residential specialty trade contractors

1,999.4 2,091.6 2,102.7 2,078.5 1,954.3 2,022.6 2,030.0 2,036.2 6.2

Nonresidential specialty trade contractors

2,549.1 2,666.2 2,675.5 2,663.8 2,490.7 2,587.5 2,595.3 2,604.6 9.3

Manufacturing

12,509 12,806 12,819 12,787 12,469 12,724 12,729 12,747 18

Durable goods

7,760 7,986 7,994 7,980 7,755 7,959 7,964 7,981 17

Wood products

394.7 409.8 407.6 405.6 395.6 405.9 405.6 406.9 1.3

Nonmetallic mineral products

416.8 426.6 426.2 425.2 410.8 419.3 418.8 421.5 2.7

Primary metals

373.3 381.2 382.3 381.8 373.5 381.2 382.1 382.3 0.2

Fabricated metal products

1,439.2 1,498.7 1,499.0 1,496.8 1,439.6 1,491.7 1,495.9 1,499.6 3.7

Machinery

1,082.7 1,136.4 1,132.3 1,128.1 1,083.7 1,129.1 1,128.1 1,129.8 1.7

Computer and electronic products

1,044.7 1,075.5 1,073.1 1,069.3 1,045.2 1,069.3 1,068.5 1,070.6 2.1

Computer and peripheral equipment

161.8 170.7 170.7 171.2 161.3 170.1 169.4 171.0 1.6

Communications equipment

86.7 86.0 85.1 84.9 86.9 85.5 85.1 85.0 -0.1

Semiconductors and electronic components

362.0 373.5 371.7 369.7 362.9 370.9 370.3 370.5 0.2

Electronic instruments

400.2 413.0 413.0 410.6 400.2 410.6 411.4 411.5 0.1

Miscellaneous computer and electronic products

34.0 32.3 32.6 32.9 33.9 32.2 32.4 32.7 0.3

Electrical equipment and appliances

389.6 408.7 408.4 408.6 389.8 405.9 407.0 408.4 1.4

Transportation equipment(1)

1,636.7 1,653.2 1,671.3 1,674.4 1,632.9 1,666.0 1,668.6 1,669.8 1.2

Motor vehicles and parts(2)

954.9 942.9 961.4 962.3 952.1 959.0 960.6 960.2 -0.4

Furniture and related products

391.7 394.2 393.0 391.1 392.8 391.7 389.7 391.6 1.9

Miscellaneous durable goods manufacturing

590.2 601.4 601.1 599.1 590.7 599.0 599.8 600.0 0.2

Nondurable goods

4,749 4,820 4,825 4,807 4,714 4,765 4,765 4,766 1

Food manufacturing

1,638.8 1,671.3 1,675.9 1,667.9 1,613.0 1,640.0 1,636.7 1,639.3 2.6

Textile mills

112.7 111.7 112.6 111.7 113.0 111.7 112.4 111.6 -0.8

Textile product mills

114.2 111.4 112.0 111.2 113.7 110.8 110.8 110.7 -0.1

Apparel

116.8 113.6 113.4 112.2 116.0 114.4 113.5 111.7 -1.8

Paper and paper products

368.6 377.5 377.9 375.8 368.9 375.5 376.6 376.9 0.3

Printing and related support activities

438.9 434.9 434.0 432.3 439.4 433.4 432.7 432.4 -0.3

Petroleum and coal products

117.7 120.5 120.8 120.1 115.7 117.0 117.2 117.2 0.0

Chemicals

822.0 836.3 838.1 837.2 823.4 831.5 835.3 837.7 2.4

Plastics and rubber products

719.4 731.2 727.9 727.4 719.6 727.6 726.3 726.7 0.4

Miscellaneous nondurable goods manufacturing

299.9 312.0 312.3 311.6 291.7 303.3 303.5 302.2 -1.3

Private service-providing

104,522 106,754 106,874 106,340 104,496 106,018 106,235 106,310 75

Trade, transportation, and utilities

27,402 27,770 27,797 27,729 27,525 27,782 27,837 27,845 8

Wholesale trade

5,916.7 6,012.3 6,029.5 6,010.7 5,915.8 5,984.2 6,005.5 6,009.9 4.4

Durable goods

2,976.1 3,033.7 3,046.9 3,039.9 2,976.0 3,020.2 3,035.2 3,041.5 6.3

Nondurable goods

2,048.4 2,060.3 2,062.2 2,054.3 2,046.3 2,050.2 2,055.0 2,051.6 -3.4

Electronic markets and agents and brokers

892.2 918.3 920.4 916.5 893.5 913.8 915.3 916.8 1.5

Retail trade

15,720.2 15,944.8 15,928.6 15,782.8 15,853.3 15,917.3 15,928.8 15,908.8 -20.0

Motor vehicle and parts dealers

2,013.5 2,049.6 2,047.8 2,043.2 2,009.4 2,033.2 2,035.4 2,036.2 0.8

Automobile dealers

1,298.6 1,313.4 1,314.6 1,314.7 1,298.2 1,308.7 1,310.7 1,311.4 0.7

Other motor vehicle dealers

155.9 164.6 163.2 158.5 153.3 155.4 156.0 156.5 0.5

Auto parts, accessories, and tire stores

559.0 571.6 570.0 570.0 558.0 569.1 568.8 568.3 -0.5

Furniture and home furnishings stores

470.0 477.5 477.7 477.1 476.0 483.4 482.3 483.8 1.5

Electronics and appliance stores

495.0 491.1 490.8 487.3 502.5 496.9 494.5 491.4 -3.1

Building material and garden supply stores

1,261.7 1,346.4 1,305.6 1,276.0 1,282.8 1,309.5 1,305.9 1,301.4 -4.5

Food and beverage stores

3,072.3 3,122.5 3,118.9 3,092.1 3,077.6 3,097.2 3,100.3 3,098.2 -2.1

Health and personal care stores

1,050.5 1,047.2 1,048.4 1,044.7 1,059.0 1,052.7 1,055.9 1,055.2 -0.7

Gasoline stations

937.4 950.2 950.2 944.7 931.4 938.7 939.1 941.9 2.8

Clothing and clothing accessories stores

1,325.9 1,377.6 1,367.8 1,326.4 1,361.8 1,380.1 1,359.2 1,355.3 -3.9

Sporting goods, hobby, book, and music stores

592.4 550.9 557.3 554.7 604.1 564.3 572.1 569.5 -2.6

General merchandise stores

3,099.3 3,098.7 3,131.1 3,113.2 3,146.5 3,135.1 3,153.2 3,149.2 -4.0

Department stores

1,149.3 1,148.6 1,162.4 1,155.6 1,183.4 1,174.3 1,180.7 1,180.4 -0.3

General merchandise stores, including warehouse clubs and supercenters

1,950.0 1,950.1 1,968.7 1,957.6 1,963.1 1,960.8 1,972.5 1,968.9 -3.6

Miscellaneous store retailers

830.0 840.7 838.5 828.1 826.7 828.4 830.7 825.3 -5.4

Nonstore retailers

572.2 592.4 594.5 595.3 575.5 597.8 600.2 601.4 1.2

Transportation and warehousing

5,211.4 5,257.2 5,285.7 5,385.7 5,201.7 5,330.4 5,351.7 5,375.5 23.8

Air transportation

496.3 508.8 508.4 505.8 496.1 504.4 504.8 505.3 0.5

Rail transportation

213.7 214.6 215.6 215.6 212.8 214.1 214.6 215.5 0.9

Water transportation

66.8 68.3 68.1 65.6 66.0 65.2 65.1 64.4 -0.7

Truck transportation

1,469.2 1,492.9 1,504.8 1,505.4 1,454.8 1,477.1 1,483.0 1,487.9 4.9

Transit and ground passenger transportation

512.3 430.7 430.9 513.5 501.0 491.6 495.3 500.7 5.4

Pipeline transportation

47.5 47.3 46.9 46.9 47.7 47.2 46.8 46.8 0.0

Scenic and sightseeing transportation

42.0 46.1 45.6 40.9 35.3 34.9 35.3 34.7 -0.6

Support activities for transportation

696.7 712.2 716.4 714.8 694.2 711.0 713.9 713.8 -0.1

Couriers and messengers

671.8 708.5 715.2 729.1 696.4 747.9 751.5 756.6 5.1

Warehousing and storage

995.1 1,027.8 1,033.8 1,048.1 997.4 1,037.0 1,041.4 1,049.8 8.4

Utilities

553.3 555.2 553.1 549.8 554.2 550.3 550.9 551.0 0.1

Information

2,778 2,786 2,788 2,763 2,784 2,770 2,767 2,767 0

Publishing industries, except Internet

719.0 717.8 718.3 717.4 719.3 714.6 714.7 715.1 0.4

Motion picture and sound recording industries

411.5 422.8 427.3 406.0 420.8 413.9 413.2 412.9 -0.3

Broadcasting, except Internet

264.6 261.1 262.5 266.2 264.3 263.0 263.5 264.3 0.8

Telecommunications

781.6 758.7 754.4 751.8 778.1 757.4 754.5 751.5 -3.0

Data processing, hosting and related services

318.3 328.1 326.5 326.6 318.6 326.7 325.9 327.5 1.6

Other information services

283.0 297.2 298.7 294.9 283.3 294.1 295.0 295.4 0.4

Financial activities

8,490 8,662 8,656 8,608 8,485 8,578 8,590 8,603 13

Finance and insurance

6,282.0 6,361.2 6,355.0 6,324.6 6,289.8 6,326.9 6,333.0 6,333.4 0.4

Monetary authorities - central bank

18.9 19.5 19.4 19.1 19.0 19.2 19.3 19.3 0.0

Credit intermediation and related
activities

2,649.1 2,683.4 2,676.4 2,662.0 2,653.9 2,666.9 2,665.8 2,666.1 0.3

Depository credit intermediation(1)

1,708.4 1,731.6 1,726.3 1,713.4 1,714.3 1,720.4 1,719.2 1,719.4 0.2

Commercial banking

1,317.7 1,330.3 1,325.1 1,314.5 1,321.6 1,322.8 1,320.2 1,320.0 -0.2

Nondepository credit intermediation

626.3 635.7 636.6 634.8 626.6 632.8 633.5 632.4 -1.1

Activities related to credit intermediation

314.4 316.1 313.5 313.8 313.0 313.6 313.1 314.2 1.1

Securities, commodity contracts, investments, and funds and trusts

946.9 975.0 977.7 967.0 945.9 964.7 969.4 968.2 -1.2

Insurance carriers and related activities

2,667.1 2,683.3 2,681.5 2,676.5 2,671.0 2,676.1 2,678.5 2,679.8 1.3

Real estate and rental and leasing

2,207.8 2,300.4 2,300.7 2,283.2 2,195.6 2,250.9 2,256.7 2,269.6 12.9

Real estate

1,602.2 1,658.1 1,658.7 1,646.6 1,599.5 1,632.7 1,634.8 1,642.5 7.7

Rental and leasing services

581.6 616.3 616.3 611.5 571.9 593.0 596.7 602.0 5.3

Lessors of nonfinancial intangible assets

24.0 26.0 25.7 25.1 24.2 25.2 25.2 25.1 -0.1

Professional and business services

20,629 21,135 21,223 21,201 20,570 21,011 21,076 21,130 54

Professional and technical services

8,958.9 9,264.4 9,274.4 9,216.7 9,045.8 9,248.0 9,278.5 9,297.4 18.9

Legal services

1,132.3 1,148.2 1,137.7 1,132.2 1,136.4 1,137.8 1,136.7 1,138.1 1.4

Accounting and bookkeeping services

929.9 955.5 960.1 953.2 998.8 1,010.0 1,013.3 1,013.1 -0.2

Architectural and engineering services

1,444.3 1,503.9 1,507.0 1,489.3 1,443.8 1,480.1 1,486.2 1,484.8 -1.4

Specialized design services

136.4 137.8 139.2 140.3 137.7 137.1 139.3 140.4 1.1

Computer systems design and related services

2,043.4 2,126.2 2,127.5 2,109.9 2,053.0 2,112.4 2,117.5 2,122.3 4.8

Management and technical consulting services

1,408.5 1,458.5 1,467.2 1,465.6 1,409.5 1,451.7 1,461.7 1,468.3 6.6

Scientific research and development services

659.9 693.7 689.4 682.0 663.7 682.9 682.9 684.2 1.3

Advertising and related services

488.2 498.1 500.7 498.5 489.0 496.0 499.2 500.3 1.1

Other professional and technical services

716.0 742.5 745.6 745.7 713.9 740.0 741.8 746.0 4.2

Management of companies and enterprises

2,298.4 2,346.3 2,347.0 2,333.8 2,298.6 2,330.7 2,336.1 2,339.0 2.9

Administrative and waste services

9,371.9 9,524.5 9,601.2 9,650.0 9,225.1 9,432.7 9,461.2 9,493.1 31.9

Administrative and support services

8,956.3 9,084.8 9,163.2 9,213.7 8,811.9 9,001.9 9,029.4 9,059.4 30.0

Office administrative services

514.6 526.0 528.0 530.2 515.4 525.7 528.2 530.2 2.0

Facilities support services

154.9 156.5 158.5 158.8 154.3 156.8 157.4 157.3 -0.1

Employment services(1)

3,706.8 3,693.1 3,763.0 3,827.4 3,634.1 3,728.0 3,739.2 3,756.9 17.7

Temporary help services

3,033.8 2,998.1 3,065.9 3,128.2 2,972.2 3,036.5 3,048.9 3,059.5 10.6

Business support services

902.5 894.7 899.7 906.3 906.2 909.3 911.1 908.9 -2.2

Travel arrangement and reservation services

216.8 219.1 219.1 218.6 216.8 216.0 216.7 217.5 0.8

Investigation and security services

927.7 942.9 948.6 955.2 921.1 943.8 944.9 946.7 1.8

Services to buildings and dwellings

2,204.5 2,313.1 2,306.0 2,274.7 2,137.1 2,184.7 2,194.3 2,201.0 6.7

Other support services

328.5 339.4 340.3 342.5 326.9 337.5 337.8 340.9 3.1

Waste management and remediation services

415.6 439.7 438.0 436.3 413.2 430.8 431.8 433.7 1.9

Education and health services

23,221 23,320 23,422 23,668 23,297 23,674 23,732 23,750 18

Educational services

3,668.4 3,422.8 3,452.4 3,704.0 3,706.8 3,750.8 3,766.4 3,754.4 -12.0

Health care and social assistance

19,552.9 19,897.1 19,969.3 19,964.1 19,590.0 19,923.4 19,965.8 19,995.6 29.8

Health care(3)

15,782.9 16,055.8 16,094.0 16,081.0 15,791.3 16,035.6 16,067.1 16,092.8 25.7

Ambulatory health care services

7,334.1 7,499.9 7,524.9 7,512.9 7,345.7 7,496.5 7,514.4 7,524.7 10.3

Offices of physicians

2,602.5 2,640.3 2,642.0 2,640.3 2,604.4 2,637.7 2,641.9 2,646.0 4.1

Offices of dentists

930.3 947.5 954.2 949.5 934.4 946.6 949.0 948.5 -0.5

Offices of other health practitioners

893.1 929.7 936.3 929.2 896.6 929.1 932.2 934.2 2.0

Outpatient care centers

905.7 934.5 937.5 935.0 906.8 933.3 936.4 937.4 1.0

Medical and diagnostic laboratories

270.4 282.8 282.2 284.4 271.2 282.3 282.5 283.8 1.3

Home health care services

1,424.5 1,457.4 1,467.0 1,467.6 1,424.7 1,459.7 1,465.0 1,467.2 2.2

Other ambulatory health care services

307.6 307.7 305.7 306.9 307.7 307.9 307.5 307.6 0.1

Hospitals

5,104.5 5,187.5 5,194.4 5,205.0 5,100.2 5,182.1 5,190.9 5,202.9 12.0

Nursing and residential care facilities

3,344.3 3,368.4 3,374.7 3,363.1 3,345.4 3,357.0 3,361.8 3,365.2 3.4

Nursing care facilities

1,621.6 1,613.3 1,617.2 1,613.1 1,620.3 1,609.7 1,611.6 1,611.8 0.2

Residential mental health facilities

628.9 636.3 638.7 636.1 629.3 634.2 637.1 637.8 0.7

Community care facilities for the elderly

925.7 945.3 945.0 940.1 927.5 941.8 940.8 941.9 1.1

Other residential care facilities

168.1 173.5 173.8 173.8 168.4 171.3 172.4 173.8 1.4

Social assistance

3,770.0 3,841.3 3,875.3 3,883.1 3,798.7 3,887.8 3,898.7 3,902.8 4.1

Individual and family services

2,329.6 2,444.5 2,441.0 2,433.5 2,348.9 2,436.6 2,440.7 2,448.6 7.9

Emergency and other relief services

167.6 172.4 175.0 174.4 168.6 172.6 174.5 174.8 0.3

Vocational rehabilitation services

342.3 353.2 351.7 345.5 343.6 346.5 346.7 346.1 -0.6

Child day care services

930.5 871.2 907.6 929.7 937.6 932.1 936.8 933.3 -3.5

Leisure and hospitality

16,227 17,144 17,076 16,509 16,046 16,338 16,359 16,342 -17

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

2,377.5 2,715.4 2,649.7 2,393.7 2,321.7 2,347.1 2,344.8 2,351.1 6.3

Performing arts and spectator sports

516.1 518.0 513.2 504.0 492.8 487.5 483.8 491.3 7.5

Museums, historical sites, and similar institutions

170.1 192.8 186.5 176.9 168.1 173.6 173.5 174.3 0.8

Amusements, gambling, and recreation

1,691.3 2,004.6 1,950.0 1,712.8 1,660.8 1,686.0 1,687.5 1,685.5 -2.0

Accommodation and food services

13,849.8 14,428.1 14,426.5 14,115.4 13,723.8 13,991.3 14,013.8 13,990.9 -22.9

Accommodation

2,045.4 2,197.8 2,183.5 2,078.9 2,007.3 2,037.1 2,041.2 2,036.5 -4.7

Food services and drinking places

11,804.4 12,230.3 12,243.0 12,036.5 11,716.5 11,954.2 11,972.6 11,954.4 -18.2

Other services

5,775 5,937 5,912 5,862 5,789 5,865 5,874 5,873 -1

Repair and maintenance

1,307.3 1,325.8 1,324.5 1,326.4 1,308.4 1,320.3 1,323.8 1,325.4 1.6

Personal and laundry services

1,487.3 1,534.5 1,536.7 1,533.4 1,488.7 1,523.9 1,529.6 1,533.8 4.2

Membership associations and organizations

2,980.4 3,076.2 3,051.2 3,001.7 2,992.0 3,020.8 3,020.4 3,013.5 -6.9

Government

22,273 21,090 21,410 22,378 22,337 22,377 22,393 22,406 13

Federal

2,809.0 2,811.0 2,804.0 2,799.0 2,803.0 2,796.0 2,795.0 2,794.0 -1.0

Federal, except U.S. Postal Service

2,196.7 2,205.8 2,200.5 2,194.2 2,188.7 2,189.3 2,188.5 2,188.2 -0.3

U.S. Postal Service

612.0 605.0 603.6 604.4 614.6 606.4 606.6 606.0 -0.6

State government

5,174.0 4,800.0 4,865.0 5,211.0 5,140.0 5,134.0 5,142.0 5,164.0 22.0

State government education

2,502.2 2,116.1 2,183.1 2,543.7 2,465.5 2,467.4 2,476.9 2,498.1 21.2

State government, excluding education

2,671.9 2,683.4 2,682.1 2,667.1 2,674.4 2,666.3 2,664.9 2,666.3 1.4

Local government

14,290.0 13,479.0 13,741.0 14,368.0 14,394.0 14,447.0 14,456.0 14,448.0 -8.0

Local government education

7,837.2 6,751.5 7,069.5 7,898.2 7,939.5 7,963.8 7,970.0 7,969.0 -1.0

Local government, excluding education

6,452.8 6,727.7 6,671.5 6,469.9 6,454.1 6,483.2 6,485.7 6,479.4 -6.3

Footnotes
(1) Includes other industries, not shown separately.
(2) Includes motor vehicles, motor vehicle bodies and trailers, and motor vehicle parts.
(3) Includes ambulatory health care services, hospitals, and nursing and residential care facilities.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2017 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-2. Average weekly hours and overtime of all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Sept.
2017
July
2018
Aug.
2018(p)
Sept.
2018(p)

AVERAGE WEEKLY HOURS

Total private

34.3 34.5 34.5 34.5

Goods-producing

40.2 40.6 40.5 40.3

Mining and logging

45.3 46.0 46.0 45.8

Construction

38.9 39.4 39.2 38.9

Manufacturing

40.7 41.0 40.9 40.8

Durable goods

41.2 41.4 41.3 41.2

Nondurable goods

39.9 40.3 40.3 40.2

Private service-providing

33.2 33.4 33.3 33.3

Trade, transportation, and utilities

34.4 34.5 34.5 34.4

Wholesale trade

39.1 39.0 39.0 38.9

Retail trade

30.9 31.1 31.0 31.0

Transportation and warehousing

38.6 39.0 38.9 38.9

Utilities

42.5 41.8 41.9 41.9

Information

36.3 36.1 36.2 36.4

Financial activities

37.5 37.5 37.6 37.5

Professional and business services

36.0 36.2 36.1 36.1

Education and health services

32.8 33.0 33.0 33.0

Leisure and hospitality

26.0 26.1 26.1 26.0

Other services

31.6 31.8 31.9 31.8

AVERAGE OVERTIME HOURS

Manufacturing

3.4 3.5 3.5 3.4

Durable goods

3.4 3.5 3.5 3.5

Nondurable goods

3.4 3.5 3.5 3.3

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2017 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-3. Average hourly and weekly earnings of all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Average hourly earnings Average weekly earnings
Sept.
2017
July
2018
Aug.
2018(p)
Sept.
2018(p)
Sept.
2017
July
2018
Aug.
2018(p)
Sept.
2018(p)

Total private

$26.51 $27.07 $27.16 $27.24 $909.29 $933.92 $937.02 $939.78

Goods-producing

27.77 28.22 28.29 28.36 1,116.35 1,145.73 1,145.75 1,142.91

Mining and logging

32.07 32.62 32.73 32.96 1,452.77 1,500.52 1,505.58 1,509.57

Construction

29.26 29.92 30.00 30.18 1,138.21 1,178.85 1,176.00 1,174.00

Manufacturing

26.71 27.01 27.07 27.07 1,087.10 1,107.41 1,107.16 1,104.46

Durable goods

27.98 28.37 28.44 28.45 1,152.78 1,174.52 1,174.57 1,172.14

Nondurable goods

24.54 24.67 24.71 24.71 979.15 994.20 995.81 993.34

Private service-providing

26.22 26.79 26.89 26.97 870.50 894.79 895.44 898.10

Trade, transportation, and utilities

22.92 23.36 23.48 23.55 788.45 805.92 810.06 810.12

Wholesale trade

30.23 30.56 30.71 30.88 1,181.99 1,191.84 1,197.69 1,201.23

Retail trade

18.24 18.73 18.83 18.87 563.62 582.50 583.73 584.97

Transportation and warehousing

24.00 24.35 24.44 24.46 926.40 949.65 950.72 951.49

Utilities

39.41 40.86 40.77 41.06 1,674.93 1,707.95 1,708.26 1,720.41

Information

38.46 39.55 39.79 40.27 1,396.10 1,427.76 1,440.40 1,465.83

Financial activities

33.48 34.82 34.95 35.03 1,255.50 1,305.75 1,314.12 1,313.63

Professional and business services

31.82 32.48 32.64 32.69 1,145.52 1,175.78 1,178.30 1,180.11

Education and health services

26.52 27.01 27.03 27.07 869.86 891.33 891.99 893.31

Leisure and hospitality

15.61 15.98 16.03 16.06 405.86 417.08 418.38 417.56

Other services

24.09 24.39 24.40 24.48 761.24 775.60 778.36 778.46

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2017 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-4. Indexes of aggregate weekly hours and payrolls for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
[2007=100]
Industry Index of aggregate weekly hours(1) Index of aggregate weekly payrolls(2)
Sept.
2017
July
2018
Aug.
2018(p)
Sept.
2018(p)
Percent change from:
Aug.
2018 - Sept.
2018(p)
Sept.
2017
July
2018
Aug.
2018(p)
Sept.
2018(p)
Percent change from:
Aug.
2018 - Sept.
2018(p)

Total private

107.3 109.7 110.0 110.1 0.1 136.0 142.0 142.8 143.3 0.4

Goods-producing

92.2 95.8 95.7 95.4 -0.3 115.7 122.1 122.4 122.3 -0.1

Mining and logging

98.2 107.0 107.8 108.1 0.3 126.5 140.1 141.7 143.0 0.9

Construction

93.5 98.3 98.1 97.7 -0.4 118.8 127.8 127.9 128.1 0.2

Manufacturing

91.3 93.9 93.7 93.6 -0.1 113.4 117.9 117.9 117.8 -0.1

Durable goods

90.0 92.8 92.6 92.6 0.0 111.8 116.9 117.0 117.0 0.0

Nondurable goods

93.9 95.8 95.8 95.6 -0.2 116.9 120.0 120.2 119.9 -0.2

Private service-providing

111.6 113.9 113.8 113.9 0.1 142.2 148.3 148.7 149.3 0.4

Trade, transportation, and utilities

103.0 104.2 104.5 104.2 -0.3 127.0 131.1 132.0 132.0 0.0

Wholesale trade

100.9 101.8 102.2 102.0 -0.2 127.3 129.9 131.0 131.5 0.4

Retail trade

99.5 100.6 100.3 100.2 -0.1 120.0 124.5 124.9 125.0 0.1

Transportation and warehousing

114.9 119.0 119.1 119.7 0.5 140.0 147.0 147.8 148.6 0.5

Utilities

101.9 99.5 99.9 99.9 0.0 132.7 134.4 134.5 135.5 0.7

Information

92.3 91.3 91.5 92.0 0.5 126.4 128.6 129.6 131.9 1.8

Financial activities

104.2 105.4 105.8 105.7 -0.1 136.1 143.1 144.2 144.4 0.1

Professional and business services

116.5 119.6 119.7 120.0 0.3 150.1 157.4 158.2 158.9 0.4

Education and health services

124.8 127.6 127.9 128.0 0.1 159.2 165.8 166.3 166.7 0.2

Leisure and hospitality

119.0 121.7 121.8 121.2 -0.5 149.9 156.9 157.6 157.1 -0.3

Other services

105.5 107.5 108.0 107.7 -0.3 139.3 143.7 144.5 144.5 0.0

Footnotes
(1) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding 2007 annual average aggregate hours. Aggregate hours estimates are the product of estimates of average weekly hours and employment.
(2) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding 2007 annual average aggregate weekly payrolls. Aggregate payrolls estimates are the product of estimates of average hourly earnings, average weekly hours, and employment.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2017 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-5. Employment of women on nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Women employees (in thousands) Percent of all employees
Sept.
2017
July
2018
Aug.
2018(p)
Sept.
2018(p)
Sept.
2017
July
2018
Aug.
2018(p)
Sept.
2018(p)

Total nonfarm

72,769 74,050 74,196 74,246 49.5 49.7 49.7 49.7

Total private

59,945 61,160 61,276 61,324 48.1 48.3 48.3 48.3

Goods-producing

4,424 4,595 4,607 4,623 22.0 22.2 22.2 22.2

Mining and logging

91 94 95 94 13.2 12.7 12.7 12.5

Construction

889 930 933 939 12.8 12.9 12.8 12.9

Manufacturing

3,444 3,571 3,579 3,590 27.6 28.1 28.1 28.2

Durable goods

1,816 1,887 1,892 1,898 23.4 23.7 23.8 23.8

Nondurable goods

1,628 1,684 1,687 1,692 34.5 35.3 35.4 35.5

Private service-providing

55,521 56,565 56,669 56,701 53.1 53.4 53.3 53.3

Trade, transportation, and utilities

11,035 11,164 11,173 11,173 40.1 40.2 40.1 40.1

Wholesale trade

1,745.1 1,787.7 1,797.8 1,796.1 29.5 29.9 29.9 29.9

Retail trade

7,888.2 7,928.3 7,925.6 7,919.8 49.8 49.8 49.8 49.8

Transportation and warehousing

1,274.1 1,319.2 1,321.3 1,329.0 24.5 24.7 24.7 24.7

Utilities

127.2 128.6 128.6 128.4 23.0 23.4 23.3 23.3

Information

1,102 1,092 1,088 1,088 39.6 39.4 39.3 39.3

Financial activities

4,794 4,844 4,846 4,847 56.5 56.5 56.4 56.3

Professional and business services

9,253 9,498 9,541 9,554 45.0 45.2 45.3 45.2

Education and health services

17,934 18,254 18,289 18,297 77.0 77.1 77.1 77.0

Leisure and hospitality

8,343 8,594 8,605 8,615 52.0 52.6 52.6 52.7

Other services

3,060 3,119 3,127 3,127 52.9 53.2 53.2 53.2

Government

12,824 12,890 12,920 12,922 57.4 57.6 57.7 57.7

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2017 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-6. Employment of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
[In thousands]
Industry Sept.
2017
July
2018
Aug.
2018(p)
Sept.
2018(p)

Total private

102,719 104,410 104,599 104,696

Goods-producing

14,479 14,871 14,888 14,912

Mining and logging

504 549 554 553

Construction

5,220 5,395 5,405 5,414

Manufacturing

8,755 8,927 8,929 8,945

Durable goods

5,322 5,472 5,476 5,493

Nondurable goods

3,433 3,455 3,453 3,452

Private service-providing

88,240 89,539 89,711 89,784

Trade, transportation, and utilities

23,227 23,495 23,533 23,550

Wholesale trade

4,741.3 4,800.7 4,816.0 4,822.7

Retail trade

13,521.0 13,607.9 13,610.2 13,603.6

Transportation and warehousing

4,518.8 4,646.5 4,665.5 4,681.6

Utilities

446.1 440.2 441.4 441.8

Information

2,243 2,228 2,230 2,229

Financial activities

6,603 6,640 6,654 6,673

Professional and business services

16,794 17,157 17,207 17,236

Education and health services

20,463 20,794 20,847 20,871

Leisure and hospitality

14,116 14,370 14,376 14,359

Other services

4,794 4,855 4,864 4,866

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2017 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-7. Average weekly hours and overtime of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry Sept.
2017
July
2018
Aug.
2018(p)
Sept.
2018(p)

AVERAGE WEEKLY HOURS

Total private

33.6 33.8 33.7 33.7

Goods-producing

41.1 41.6 41.5 41.4

Mining and logging

46.2 46.7 46.9 46.2

Construction

39.4 40.1 39.9 39.7

Manufacturing

41.8 42.2 42.2 42.1

Durable goods

42.3 42.5 42.5 42.3

Nondurable goods

41.2 41.9 41.6 41.6

Private service-providing

32.4 32.5 32.4 32.4

Trade, transportation, and utilities

33.8 34.0 34.0 34.0

Wholesale trade

38.9 38.9 39.0 38.8

Retail trade

30.2 30.5 30.4 30.5

Transportation and warehousing

38.2 38.5 38.3 38.4

Utilities

42.7 42.5 42.8 42.4

Information

35.9 35.7 35.7 35.9

Financial activities

36.9 37.0 37.1 37.1

Professional and business services

35.4 35.3 35.3 35.2

Education and health services

32.2 32.3 32.2 32.2

Leisure and hospitality

24.7 24.9 24.8 24.7

Other services

30.6 30.7 30.8 30.8

AVERAGE OVERTIME HOURS

Manufacturing

4.4 4.5 4.5 4.4

Durable goods

4.5 4.6 4.6 4.5

Nondurable goods

4.2 4.4 4.4 4.3

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2017 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-8. Average hourly and weekly earnings of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry Average hourly earnings Average weekly earnings
Sept.
2017
July
2018
Aug.
2018(p)
Sept.
2018(p)
Sept.
2017
July
2018
Aug.
2018(p)
Sept.
2018(p)

Total private

$22.20 $22.67 $22.75 $22.81 $745.92 $766.25 $766.68 $768.70

Goods-producing

23.35 23.91 24.00 24.07 959.69 994.66 996.00 996.50

Mining and logging

27.40 28.25 28.56 28.90 1,265.88 1,319.28 1,339.46 1,335.18

Construction

27.11 27.71 27.76 27.87 1,068.13 1,111.17 1,107.62 1,106.44

Manufacturing

20.99 21.44 21.53 21.57 877.38 904.77 908.57 908.10

Durable goods

21.99 22.45 22.52 22.58 930.18 954.13 957.10 955.13

Nondurable goods

19.39 19.81 19.91 19.93 798.87 830.04 828.26 829.09

Private service-providing

21.95 22.41 22.49 22.54 711.18 728.33 728.68 730.30

Trade, transportation, and utilities

19.45 19.89 20.01 20.06 657.41 676.26 680.34 682.04

Wholesale trade

24.85 25.17 25.33 25.51 966.67 979.11 987.87 989.79

Retail trade

15.38 15.91 15.98 16.00 464.48 485.26 485.79 488.00

Transportation and warehousing

21.47 21.87 21.94 21.99 820.15 842.00 840.30 844.42

Utilities

36.31 36.61 36.98 37.05 1,550.44 1,555.93 1,582.74 1,570.92

Information

30.83 31.65 31.85 32.02 1,106.80 1,129.91 1,137.05 1,149.52

Financial activities

26.71 26.91 26.95 27.02 985.60 995.67 999.85 1,002.44

Professional and business services

26.16 26.79 26.84 26.89 926.06 945.69 947.45 946.53

Education and health services

23.15 23.64 23.71 23.71 745.43 763.57 763.46 763.46

Leisure and hospitality

13.47 13.88 13.93 13.99 332.71 345.61 345.46 345.55

Other services

20.31 20.65 20.63 20.71 621.49 633.96 635.40 637.87

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2017 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-9. Indexes of aggregate weekly hours and payrolls for production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
[2002=100]
Industry Index of aggregate weekly hours(2) Index of aggregate weekly payrolls(3)
Sept.
2017
July
2018
Aug.
2018(p)
Sept.
2018(p)
Percent change from:
Aug.
2018 - Sept.
2018(p)
Sept.
2017
July
2018
Aug.
2018(p)
Sept.
2018(p)
Percent change from:
Aug.
2018 - Sept.
2018(p)

Total private

115.0 117.6 117.4 117.6 0.2 170.6 178.1 178.5 179.2 0.4

Goods-producing

90.9 94.5 94.4 94.3 -0.1 130.0 138.4 138.7 139.0 0.2

Mining and logging

123.7 136.2 138.1 135.8 -1.7 197.2 223.8 229.3 228.2 -0.5

Construction

103.0 108.3 108.0 107.6 -0.4 150.7 162.1 161.9 162.0 0.1

Manufacturing

84.0 86.5 86.5 86.4 -0.1 115.3 121.3 121.8 121.9 0.1

Durable goods

84.6 87.4 87.5 87.3 -0.2 116.2 122.5 123.0 123.1 0.1

Nondurable goods

83.3 85.3 84.6 84.6 0.0 114.2 119.4 119.1 119.2 0.1

Private service-providing

121.8 123.9 123.8 123.9 0.1 183.3 190.4 190.9 191.5 0.3

Trade, transportation, and utilities

109.4 111.4 111.5 111.6 0.1 151.9 158.0 159.2 159.7 0.3

Wholesale trade

108.6 110.0 110.6 110.2 -0.4 159.0 163.1 165.0 165.6 0.4

Retail trade

103.4 105.1 104.7 105.0 0.3 136.2 143.3 143.4 144.0 0.4

Transportation and warehousing

129.9 134.7 134.5 135.3 0.6 177.0 186.8 187.2 188.8 0.9

Utilities

97.4 95.7 96.6 95.8 -0.8 147.6 146.2 149.1 148.1 -0.7

Information

91.9 90.8 90.9 91.3 0.4 140.3 142.2 143.3 144.8 1.0

Financial activities

114.7 115.7 116.2 116.5 0.3 188.5 191.5 192.7 193.7 0.5

Professional and business services

133.2 135.7 136.1 136.0 -0.1 207.4 216.4 217.4 217.6 0.1

Education and health services

140.5 143.2 143.1 143.3 0.1 214.7 223.4 224.0 224.2 0.1

Leisure and hospitality

127.7 131.1 130.6 129.9 -0.5 195.4 206.6 206.6 206.4 -0.1

Other services

102.9 104.5 105.1 105.1 0.0 152.2 157.3 157.9 158.6 0.4

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(2) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding 2002 annual average aggregate hours. Aggregate hours estimates are the product of estimates of average weekly hours and employment.
(3) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding 2002 annual average aggregate weekly payrolls. Aggregate payrolls estimates are the product of estimates of average hourly earnings, average weekly hours, and employment.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2017 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


Last Modified Date: October 05, 2018