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Economic News Release
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CES CES Program Links

Employment Situation News Release

Transmission of material in this news release is embargoed until	               USDL-23-2128
8:30 a.m. (ET) Friday, October 6, 2023

Technical information:
 Household data:      (202) 691-6378  *  cpsinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/cps
 Establishment data:  (202) 691-6555  *  cesinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/ces

Media contact:        (202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov


                          THE EMPLOYMENT SITUATION -- SEPTEMBER 2023
                          
                          
Total nonfarm payroll employment rose by 336,000 in September, and the unemployment rate 
was unchanged at 3.8 percent, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. Job gains 
occurred in leisure and hospitality; government; health care; professional, scientific, and 
technical services; and social assistance.

This news release presents statistics from two monthly surveys. The household survey measures 
labor force status, including unemployment, by demographic characteristics. The establishment
survey measures nonfarm employment, hours, and earnings by industry. For more information about
the concepts and statistical methodology used in these two surveys, see the Technical Note.

Household Survey Data

The major labor market indicators from the survey of households showed little or no change 
over the month. The unemployment rate held at 3.8 percent in September, and the number of 
unemployed persons was essentially unchanged at 6.4 million. (See table A-1.)

Among the major worker groups, the unemployment rates for adult men (3.8 percent), adult 
women (3.1 percent), teenagers (11.6 percent), Whites (3.4 percent), Blacks (5.7 percent), 
Asians (2.8 percent), and Hispanics (4.6 percent) showed little or no change in September. 
(See tables A-1, A-2, and A-3.)

The number of long-term unemployed (those jobless for 27 weeks or more) was little changed
at 1.2 million in September. The long-term unemployed accounted for 19.1 percent of all 
unemployed persons. (See table A-12.)

Both the labor force participation rate, at 62.8 percent, and the employment-population ratio,
at 60.4 percent, were unchanged over the month. (See table A-1.)

The number of persons employed part time for economic reasons, at 4.1 million, changed little 
in September. These individuals, who would have preferred full-time employment, were working
part time because their hours had been reduced or they were unable to find full-time jobs. 
(See table A-8.)

In September, the number of persons not in the labor force who currently want a job was 
5.5 million, little different from the prior month. These individuals were not counted as
unemployed because they were not actively looking for work during the 4 weeks preceding
the survey or were unavailable to take a job. (See table A-1.)

Among those not in the labor force who wanted a job, the number of persons marginally
attached to the labor force changed little at 1.5 million in September. These individuals
wanted and were available for work and had looked for a job sometime in the prior 12 months
but had not looked for work in the 4 weeks preceding the survey. The number of discouraged 
workers, a subset of the marginally attached who believed that no jobs were available for 
them, also changed little over the month at 367,000. (See Summary table A.) 

Establishment Survey Data

Total nonfarm payroll employment rose by 336,000 in September, above the average monthly 
gain of 267,000 over the prior 12 months. In September, job gains occurred in leisure and
hospitality; government; health care; professional, scientific, and technical services; 
and social assistance. (See table B-1.)

Leisure and hospitality added 96,000 jobs in September, above the average monthly gain 
of 61,000 over the prior 12 months. Employment in food services and drinking places rose
by 61,000 over the month and has returned to its pre-pandemic February 2020 level.
Accommodation employment continued to trend up over the month (+16,000) but remains
below its February 2020 level by 217,000, or 10.3 percent. 

In September, government employment increased by 73,000, above the average monthly gain 
of 47,000 over the prior 12 months. Over the month, job gains occurred in state government 
education (+29,000) and in local government, excluding education (+27,000). Employment 
in government is slightly below (-9,000) its February 2020 level.

Health care added 41,000 jobs in September, compared with the average monthly gain of 
53,000 over the prior 12 months. Over the month, employment continued to trend up in 
ambulatory health care services (+24,000), hospitals (+8,000), and nursing and residential
care facilities (+8,000).

Employment in professional, scientific, and technical services increased by 29,000 in 
September, in line with the average monthly gain of 27,000 over the prior 12 months. 

Social assistance added 25,000 jobs in September, about the same as the average monthly 
gain of 23,000 over the prior 12 months. Over the month, job growth occurred in individual 
and family services (+19,000).
 
In September, employment in transportation and warehousing changed little (+9,000). 
Truck transportation added 9,000 jobs, following a decline of 25,000 in August that 
largely reflected a business closure. Air transportation added 5,000 jobs in September. 
Employment in transportation and warehousing has shown little net change over the year.

Employment in information changed little in September (-5,000). Within the industry, 
employment in motion picture and sound recording industries continued to trend down 
(-7,000) and has declined by 45,000 since May, reflecting the impact of labor disputes. 

Employment showed little change over the month in other major industries, including mining, 
quarrying, and oil and gas extraction; construction; manufacturing; wholesale trade; retail 
trade; financial activities; and other services.

In September, average hourly earnings for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls rose 
by 7 cents, or 0.2 percent, to $33.88. Over the past 12 months, average hourly earnings 
have increased by 4.2 percent. In September, average hourly earnings of private-sector 
production and nonsupervisory employees rose by 6 cents, or 0.2 percent, to $29.06. 
(See tables B-3 and B-8.)

The average workweek for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls was unchanged at 
34.4 hours in September. In manufacturing, the average workweek was little changed at
40.1 hours, and overtime was unchanged at 3.1 hours. The average workweek for production
and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls remained at 33.8 hours. 
(See tables B-2 and B-7.)

The change in total nonfarm payroll employment for July was revised up by 79,000, from
+157,000 to +236,000, and the change for August was revised up by 40,000, from +187,000 
to +227,000. With these revisions, employment in July and August combined is 119,000 
higher than previously reported. (Monthly revisions result from additional reports 
received from businesses and government agencies since the last published estimates 
and from the recalculation of seasonal factors.)

_____________
The Employment Situation for October is scheduled to be released on Friday,
November 3, 2023, at 8:30 a.m. (ET).




HOUSEHOLD DATA
Summary table A. Household data, seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Category Sept.
2022
July
2023
Aug.
2023
Sept.
2023
Change from:
Aug.
2023-
Sept.
2023

Employment status

Civilian noninstitutional population

264,356 267,002 267,213 267,428 215

Civilian labor force

164,619 167,103 167,839 167,929 90

Participation rate

62.3 62.6 62.8 62.8 0.0

Employed

158,850 161,262 161,484 161,570 86

Employment-population ratio

60.1 60.4 60.4 60.4 0.0

Unemployed

5,770 5,841 6,355 6,360 5

Unemployment rate

3.5 3.5 3.8 3.8 0.0

Not in labor force

99,736 99,899 99,374 99,498 124

Unemployment rates

Total, 16 years and over

3.5 3.5 3.8 3.8 0.0

Adult men (20 years and over)

3.3 3.3 3.7 3.8 0.1

Adult women (20 years and over)

3.1 3.1 3.2 3.1 -0.1

Teenagers (16 to 19 years)

11.3 11.3 12.2 11.6 -0.6

White

3.1 3.1 3.4 3.4 0.0

Black or African American

5.9 5.8 5.3 5.7 0.4

Asian

2.5 2.3 3.1 2.8 -0.3

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

3.9 4.4 4.9 4.6 -0.3

Total, 25 years and over

2.8 2.8 3.0 3.1 0.1

Less than a high school diploma

5.5 5.2 5.4 5.5 0.1

High school graduates, no college

3.7 3.4 3.8 4.1 0.3

Some college or associate degree

2.9 3.1 3.0 3.0 0.0

Bachelor's degree and higher

1.8 2.0 2.2 2.1 -0.1

Reason for unemployment

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

2,530 2,620 2,914 2,858 -56

Job leavers

904 852 801 797 -4

Reentrants

1,834 1,853 1,930 2,043 113

New entrants

460 503 597 568 -29

Duration of unemployment

Less than 5 weeks

2,158 2,004 2,221 2,051 -170

5 to 14 weeks

1,643 1,698 1,877 2,044 167

15 to 26 weeks

901 997 1,002 1,072 70

27 weeks and over

1,089 1,164 1,296 1,216 -80

Employed persons at work part time

Part time for economic reasons

3,843 4,000 4,221 4,065 -156

Slack work or business conditions

2,576 2,717 2,799 2,793 -6

Could only find part-time work

942 1,014 1,021 938 -83

Part time for noneconomic reasons

21,260 21,971 21,975 22,152 177

Persons not in the labor force

Marginally attached to the labor force

1,590 1,398 1,505 1,457 -48

Discouraged workers

484 335 386 367 -19

NOTE: Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Summary table B. Establishment data, seasonally adjusted
Category Sept.
2022
July
2023
Aug.
2023(p)
Sept.
2023(p)

EMPLOYMENT BY SELECTED INDUSTRY
(Over-the-month change, in thousands)

Total nonfarm

350 236 227 336

Total private

344 145 177 263

Goods-producing

44 12 47 29

Mining and logging

2 2 0 1

Construction

16 12 36 11

Manufacturing

26 -2 11 17

Durable goods(1)

14 12 13 13

Motor vehicles and parts

4.3 2.6 -2.6 8.9

Nondurable goods

12 -14 -2 4

Private service-providing

300 133 130 234

Wholesale trade

8.3 15.4 0.0 11.7

Retail trade

-11.1 12.6 0.4 19.7

Transportation and warehousing

9.7 -6.8 -18.9 8.6

Utilities

0.1 -1.5 2.4 4.8

Information

3 -19 -21 -5

Financial activities

2 15 2 3

Professional and business services(1)

48 -29 11 21

Temporary help services

11.2 -17.4 -13.3 -4.2

Private education and health services(1)

80 104 97 70

Health care and social assistance

71.7 102.5 94.1 65.9

Leisure and hospitality

139 38 44 96

Other services

21 4 14 4

Government

6 91 50 73

(3-month average change, in thousands)

Total nonfarm

423 207 189 266

Total private

381 162 136 195

WOMEN AND PRODUCTION AND NONSUPERVISORY EMPLOYEES
AS A PERCENT OF ALL EMPLOYEES(2)

Total nonfarm women employees

49.8 49.8 49.8 49.8

Total private women employees

48.4 48.4 48.4 48.4

Total private production and nonsupervisory employees

81.5 81.4 81.4 81.4

HOURS AND EARNINGS
ALL EMPLOYEES

Total private

Average weekly hours

34.6 34.3 34.4 34.4

Average hourly earnings

$32.53 $33.73 $33.81 $33.88

Average weekly earnings

$1,125.54 $1,156.94 $1,163.06 $1,165.47

Index of aggregate weekly hours (2007=100)(3)

114.2 115.0 115.5 115.7

Over-the-month percent change

0.6 -0.2 0.4 0.2

Index of aggregate weekly payrolls (2007=100)(4)

177.6 185.5 186.7 187.5

Over-the-month percent change

0.9 0.2 0.6 0.4

DIFFUSION INDEX
(Over 1-month span)(5)

Total private (250 industries)

63.4 53.4 62.2 64.2

Manufacturing (72 industries)

54.9 44.4 52.8 52.8

Footnotes
(1) Includes other industries, not shown separately.
(2) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries.
(3) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding annual average aggregate hours.
(4) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding annual average aggregate weekly payrolls.
(5) Figures are the percent of industries with employment increasing plus one-half of the industries with unchanged employment, where 50 percent indicates an equal balance between industries with increasing and decreasing employment.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2022 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


Frequently Asked Questions about Employment and Unemployment Estimates

1. Why are there two monthly measures of employment?

   The household survey and establishment survey both produce sample-based estimates
   of employment, and both have strengths and limitations. The establishment survey
   employment series has a smaller margin of error on the measurement of month-to-
   month change than the household survey because of its much larger sample size. An
   over-the-month employment change of about 130,000 is statistically significant in
   the establishment survey, while the threshold for a statistically significant change
   in the household survey is about 600,000. However, the household survey has a more
   expansive scope than the establishment survey because it includes self-employed
   workers whose businesses are unincorporated, unpaid family workers, agricultural
   workers, and private household workers, who are excluded by the establishment survey.
   The household survey also provides estimates of employment for demographic groups.
   For more information on the differences between the two surveys, please visit
   www.bls.gov/web/empsit/ces_cps_trends.htm.

2. Are undocumented immigrants counted in the surveys?

   It is likely that both surveys include at least some undocumented immigrants. However,
   neither the establishment nor the household survey is designed to identify the legal
   status of workers. Therefore, it is not possible to determine how many are counted in
   either survey. The establishment survey does not collect data on the legal status of
   workers. The household survey does include questions which identify the foreign and
   native born, but it does not include questions about the legal status of the foreign
   born. Data on the foreign and native born are published each month in table A-7 of
   The Employment Situation news release.

3. Why does the establishment survey have revisions?

   The establishment survey revises published estimates to improve its data series by
   incorporating additional information that was not available at the time of the
   initial publication of the estimates. The establishment survey revises its initial
   monthly estimates twice, in the immediately succeeding 2 months, to incorporate
   additional sample receipts from respondents in the survey and recalculated seasonal
   adjustment factors. For more information on the monthly revisions, please visit
   www.bls.gov/web/empsit/cestn.htm#section7.

   On an annual basis, the establishment survey incorporates a benchmark revision that
   re-anchors estimates to nearly complete employment counts available from unemployment
   insurance tax records. The benchmark helps to control for sampling and modeling errors
   in the estimates. For more information on the annual benchmark revision, please visit
   www.bls.gov/web/empsit/cesbmart.htm.

4. Does the establishment survey sample include small firms?

   Yes; about 40 percent of the establishment survey sample is comprised of business
   establishments with fewer than 20 employees. The establishment survey sample is
   designed to maximize the reliability of the statewide total nonfarm employment
   estimate; firms from all states, size classes, and industries are appropriately
   sampled to achieve that goal.

5. Does the establishment survey account for employment from new businesses?

   Yes; monthly establishment survey estimates include an adjustment to account for
   the net employment change generated by business births and deaths. The adjustment
   comes from an econometric model that forecasts the monthly net jobs impact of
   business births and deaths based on the actual past values of the net impact that
   can be observed with a lag from the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages. The
   establishment survey uses modeling rather than sampling for this purpose because
   the survey is not immediately able to bring new businesses into the sample. There
   is an unavoidable lag between the birth of a new firm and its appearance on the
   sampling frame and availability for selection. BLS adds new businesses to the survey
   twice a year.

6. Is the count of unemployed persons limited to just those people receiving unemployment
   insurance benefits?

   No; the estimate of unemployment is based on a monthly sample survey of households.
   All persons who are without jobs and are actively seeking and available to work are
   included among the unemployed. (People on temporary layoff are included even if
   they do not actively seek work.) There is no requirement or question relating to
   unemployment insurance benefits in the monthly survey.

7. Does the official unemployment rate exclude people who want a job but are not currently
   looking for work?

   Yes; however, there are separate estimates of persons outside the labor force who
   want a job, including those who are not currently looking because they believe no
   jobs are available (discouraged workers). In addition, alternative measures of labor
   underutilization (some of which include discouraged workers and other groups not
   officially counted as unemployed) are published each month in table A-15 of The
   Employment Situation news release. For more information about these alternative
   measures, please visit www.bls.gov/cps/lfcharacteristics.htm#altmeasures.

8. How can unusually severe weather affect employment and hours estimates?

   In the establishment survey, the reference period is the pay period that includes
   the 12th of the month. Unusually severe weather is more likely to have an impact on
   average weekly hours than on employment. Average weekly hours are estimated for paid
   time during the pay period, including pay for holidays, sick leave, or other time off.
   The impact of severe weather on hours estimates typically, but not always, results in
   a reduction in average weekly hours. For example, some employees may be off work for
   part of the pay period and not receive pay for the time missed, while some workers,
   such as those dealing with cleanup or repair, may work extra hours.
   
   Typically, it is not possible to precisely quantify the effect of extreme weather on 
   payroll employment estimates. In order for severe weather conditions to reduce
   employment estimates, employees have to be off work without pay for the entire pay
   period. Employees who receive pay for any part of the pay period, even 1 hour, are
   counted in the payroll employment figures. For more information on how often employees
   are paid, please visit www.bls.gov/ces/publications/length-pay-period.htm.

   In the household survey, the reference period is generally the calendar week that
   includes the 12th of the month. Persons who miss the entire week's work for weather-
   related events are counted as employed whether or not they are paid for the time
   off. The household survey collects data on the number of persons who had a job but
   were not at work due to bad weather. It also provides a measure of the number of
   persons who usually work full time but had reduced hours due to bad weather. 
   Current and historical data are available on the household survey's most requested
   statistics page, please visit data.bls.gov/cgi-bin/surveymost?ln.




Technical Note


   This news release presents statistics from two major surveys, the Current
Population Survey (CPS; household survey) and the Current Employment Statistics
survey (CES; establishment survey). The household survey provides information
on the labor force, employment, and unemployment that appears in the "A" tables,
marked HOUSEHOLD DATA. It is a sample survey of about 60,000 eligible households
conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau for the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS).

   The establishment survey provides information on employment, hours, and
earnings of employees on nonfarm payrolls; the data appear in the "B" tables,
marked ESTABLISHMENT DATA. BLS collects these data each month from the payroll
records of a sample of nonagricultural business establishments. Each month
the CES program surveys about 122,000 businesses and government agencies,
representing approximately 666,000 individual worksites, in order to provide
detailed industry data on employment, hours, and earnings of workers on nonfarm
payrolls. The active sample includes approximately one-third of all nonfarm
payroll jobs.

   For both surveys, the data for a given month relate to a particular week or
pay period. In the household survey, the reference period is generally the
calendar week that contains the 12th day of the month. In the establishment
survey, the reference period is the pay period including the 12th, which may or
may not correspond directly to the calendar week.

Coverage, definitions, and differences between surveys

   Household survey. The sample is selected to reflect the entire civilian 
noninstitutional population. Based on responses to a series of questions on 
work and job search activities, each person 16 years and over in a sample
household is classified as employed, unemployed, or not in the labor force.

   People are classified as employed if they did any work at all as paid employees
during the reference week; worked in their own business, profession, or on their
own farm; or worked without pay at least 15 hours in a family business or farm.
People are also counted as employed if they were temporarily absent from their jobs
because of illness, bad weather, vacation, labor-management disputes, or personal
reasons.

   People are classified as unemployed if they meet all of the following criteria:
they had no employment during the reference week; they were available for work at
that time; and they made specific active efforts to find employment sometime during
the 4-week period ending with the reference week. Persons laid off from a job and
expecting recall need not be looking for work to be counted as unemployed. The
unemployment data derived from the household survey in no way depend upon the
eligibility for or receipt of unemployment insurance benefits.

   The civilian labor force is the sum of employed and unemployed persons.
Those persons not classified as employed or unemployed are not in the labor 
force. The unemployment rate is the number unemployed as a percent of the 
labor force. The labor force participation rate is the labor force as a 
percent of the population, and the employment-population ratio is the 
employed as a percent of the population. Additional information about the 
household survey can be found at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm.

   Establishment survey. The sample establishments are drawn from private
nonfarm businesses such as factories, offices, and stores, as well as
from federal, state, and local government entities. Employees on nonfarm
payrolls are those who worked or received pay for any part of the reference pay
period, including persons on paid leave. Persons are counted in each job
they hold. Hours and earnings data are produced for the private sector for
all employees and for production and nonsupervisory employees. Production
and nonsupervisory employees are defined as production and related employees
in manufacturing and mining and logging, construction workers in construction,
and nonsupervisory employees in private service-providing industries.

   Industries are classified on the basis of an establishment's principal
activity in accordance with the 2022 version of the North American Industry
Classification System. Additional information about the establishment survey
can be found at www.bls.gov/ces/.

   Differences in employment estimates. The numerous conceptual and methodological
differences between the household and establishment surveys result in important
distinctions in the employment estimates derived from the surveys. Among these are:

   --The household survey includes agricultural workers, self-employed workers
     whose businesses are unincorporated, unpaid family workers, and private
     household workers among the employed. These groups are excluded from the
     establishment survey.

   --The household survey includes people on unpaid leave among the employed.
     The establishment survey does not.

   --The household survey is limited to workers 16 years of age and older.
     The establishment survey is not limited by age.

   --The household survey has no duplication of individuals, because
     individuals are counted only once, even if they hold more than one
     job. In the establishment survey, employees working at more than one
     job and thus appearing on more than one payroll are counted separately
     for each appearance.

Seasonal adjustment

   Over the course of a year, the size of the nation's labor force and the levels
of employment and unemployment undergo regularly occurring fluctuations. These 
events may result from seasonal changes in weather, major holidays, and the opening
and closing of schools. The effect of such seasonal variation can be very large.

   Because these seasonal events follow a more or less regular pattern each year,
their influence on the level of a series can be tempered by adjusting for regular
seasonal variation. These adjustments make nonseasonal developments, such as
declines in employment or increases in the participation of women in the labor
force, easier to spot. For example, in the household survey, the large number of
youth entering the labor force each June is likely to obscure any other changes
that have taken place relative to May, making it difficult to determine if the 
level of economic activity has risen or declined. Similarly, in the establishment
survey, payroll employment in education declines by about 20 percent at the end
of the spring term and later rises with the start of the fall term, obscuring the
underlying employment trends in the industry. Because seasonal employment changes
at the end and beginning of the school year can be estimated, the statistics can be
adjusted to make underlying employment patterns more discernable.  The seasonally
adjusted figures provide a more useful tool with which to analyze changes in
month-to-month economic activity.

   Many seasonally adjusted series are independently adjusted in both the household
and establishment surveys. However, the adjusted series for many major estimates,
such as total payroll employment, employment in most major sectors, total employment,
and unemployment are computed by aggregating independently adjusted component series.
For example, total unemployment is derived by summing the adjusted series for four
major age-sex components; this differs from the unemployment estimate that would be
obtained by directly adjusting the total or by combining the duration, reasons, or 
more detailed age categories. Percentage distributions of unemployment by reason and
duration are derived from the sum of the independently seasonally adjusted component
series and will not necessarily match calculations made using the seasonally adjusted
total unemployment level. Additional information about seasonal adjustment in the 
household survey can be found at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#sa.

   For both the household and establishment surveys, a concurrent seasonal adjustment
methodology is used in which new seasonal factors are calculated each month using all
relevant data, up to and including the data for the current month. In the household
survey, new seasonal factors are used to adjust only the current month's data. In the
establishment survey, however, new seasonal factors are used each month to adjust the
three most recent monthly estimates. The prior 2 months are routinely revised to
incorporate additional sample reports and recalculated seasonal adjustment factors.
In both surveys, 5-year revisions to historical data are made once a year.

Reliability of the estimates

   Statistics based on the household and establishment surveys are subject to both
sampling and nonsampling error. When a sample, rather than the entire population,
is surveyed, there is a chance that the sample estimates may differ from the true
population values they represent. The component of this difference that occurs
because samples differ by chance is known as sampling error, and its variability
is measured by the standard error of the estimate. There is about a 90-percent
chance, or level of confidence, that an estimate based on a sample will differ by
no more than 1.6 standard errors from the true population value because of sampling
error. BLS analyses are generally conducted at the 90-percent level of confidence.

   For example, the confidence interval for the monthly change in total nonfarm
employment from the establishment survey is on the order of plus or minus 130,000.
Suppose the estimate of nonfarm employment increases by 50,000 from one month to
the next. The 90-percent confidence interval on the monthly change would range from
-80,000 to +180,000 (50,000 +/- 130,000). These figures do not mean that the sample
results are off by these magnitudes, but rather that there is about a 90-percent
chance that the true over-the-month change lies within this interval. Since this
range includes values of less than zero, we could not say with confidence that
nonfarm employment had, in fact, increased that month. If, however, the reported
nonfarm employment rise was 250,000, then all of the values within the 90-percent
confidence interval would be greater than zero. In this case, it is likely (at
least a 90-percent chance) that nonfarm employment had, in fact, risen that month.
At an unemployment rate of around 6.0 percent, the 90-percent confidence interval
for the monthly change in unemployment as measured by the household survey is
about +/- 300,000, and for the monthly change in the unemployment rate it is about
+/- 0.2 percentage point.

   In general, estimates involving many individuals or establishments have lower
standard errors (relative to the size of the estimate) than estimates which are based
on a small number of observations. The precision of estimates also is improved when
the data are cumulated over time, such as for quarterly and annual averages.

   The household and establishment surveys are also affected by nonsampling error,
which can occur for many reasons, including the failure to sample a segment of the
population, inability to obtain information for all respondents in the sample,
inability or unwillingness of respondents to provide correct information on a
timely basis, mistakes made by respondents, and errors made in the collection or
processing of the data.

   For example, in the establishment survey, estimates for the most recent 2 months
are based on incomplete returns; for this reason, these estimates are labeled
preliminary in the tables. It is only after two successive revisions to a monthly
estimate, when nearly all sample reports have been received, that the estimate is
considered final.

   Another major source of nonsampling error in the establishment survey is the
inability to capture, on a timely basis, employment generated by new firms. To
correct for this systematic underestimation of employment growth, an estimation
procedure with two components is used to account for business births. The first
component excludes employment losses from business deaths from sample-based
estimation in order to offset the missing employment gains from business births.
This is incorporated into the sample-based estimation procedure by simply not
reflecting sample units going out of business, but imputing to them the same
employment trend as the other firms in the sample. This procedure accounts for
most of the net birth/death employment.

   The second component is an ARIMA time series model designed to estimate the
residual net birth/death employment not accounted for by the imputation. The
historical time series used to create and test the ARIMA model was derived from
the unemployment insurance universe micro-level database, and reflects the actual
residual net of births and deaths over the past 5 years.

   The sample-based estimates from the establishment survey are adjusted once a
year (on a lagged basis) to universe counts of payroll employment obtained from
administrative records of the unemployment insurance program. The difference 
between the March sample-based employment estimates and the March universe counts
is known as a benchmark revision, and serves as a rough proxy for total survey
error. The new benchmarks also incorporate changes in the classification of
industries. Over the past decade, absolute benchmark revisions for total nonfarm
employment have averaged 0.1 percent, with a range from -0.3 percent to 0.3 percent.

Other information

   If you are deaf, hard of hearing, or have a speech disability, please dial 7-1-1
to access telecommunications relay services.




HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-1. Employment status of the civilian population by sex and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Sept.
2022
Aug.
2023
Sept.
2023
Sept.
2022
May
2023
June
2023
July
2023
Aug.
2023
Sept.
2023

TOTAL

Civilian noninstitutional population

264,356 267,213 267,428 264,356 266,618 266,801 267,002 267,213 267,428

Civilian labor force

164,463 168,049 167,718 164,619 166,818 166,951 167,103 167,839 167,929

Participation rate

62.2 62.9 62.7 62.3 62.6 62.6 62.6 62.8 62.8

Employed

159,003 161,427 161,669 158,850 160,721 160,994 161,262 161,484 161,570

Employment-population ratio

60.1 60.4 60.5 60.1 60.3 60.3 60.4 60.4 60.4

Unemployed

5,460 6,623 6,049 5,770 6,097 5,957 5,841 6,355 6,360

Unemployment rate

3.3 3.9 3.6 3.5 3.7 3.6 3.5 3.8 3.8

Not in labor force

99,893 99,164 99,710 99,736 99,800 99,850 99,899 99,374 99,498

Persons who currently want a job

5,650 5,482 5,299 5,813 5,477 5,389 5,247 5,370 5,450

Men, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

128,807 130,608 130,713 128,807 130,319 130,408 130,507 130,608 130,713

Civilian labor force

87,529 89,299 89,159 87,659 88,704 88,836 88,695 89,082 89,331

Participation rate

68.0 68.4 68.2 68.1 68.1 68.1 68.0 68.2 68.3

Employed

84,687 85,838 85,745 84,532 85,410 85,547 85,492 85,493 85,633

Employment-population ratio

65.7 65.7 65.6 65.6 65.5 65.6 65.5 65.5 65.5

Unemployed

2,842 3,461 3,414 3,127 3,294 3,289 3,203 3,589 3,697

Unemployment rate

3.2 3.9 3.8 3.6 3.7 3.7 3.6 4.0 4.1

Not in labor force

41,278 41,310 41,553 41,148 41,616 41,572 41,811 41,527 41,382

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

120,140 121,832 121,931 120,140 121,565 121,646 121,735 121,832 121,931

Civilian labor force

84,594 85,868 86,086 84,602 85,487 85,774 85,739 85,934 86,130

Participation rate

70.4 70.5 70.6 70.4 70.3 70.5 70.4 70.5 70.6

Employed

82,075 82,865 83,057 81,816 82,526 82,868 82,922 82,777 82,837

Employment-population ratio

68.3 68.0 68.1 68.1 67.9 68.1 68.1 67.9 67.9

Unemployed

2,519 3,003 3,029 2,786 2,961 2,906 2,817 3,157 3,293

Unemployment rate

3.0 3.5 3.5 3.3 3.5 3.4 3.3 3.7 3.8

Not in labor force

35,545 35,964 35,845 35,537 36,078 35,871 35,997 35,898 35,801

Women, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

135,548 136,605 136,715 135,548 136,299 136,393 136,496 136,605 136,715

Civilian labor force

76,934 78,750 78,559 76,960 78,114 78,115 78,408 78,757 78,599

Participation rate

56.8 57.6 57.5 56.8 57.3 57.3 57.4 57.7 57.5

Employed

74,316 75,589 75,924 74,318 75,311 75,448 75,769 75,991 75,936

Employment-population ratio

54.8 55.3 55.5 54.8 55.3 55.3 55.5 55.6 55.5

Unemployed

2,618 3,162 2,634 2,642 2,803 2,668 2,638 2,766 2,662

Unemployment rate

3.4 4.0 3.4 3.4 3.6 3.4 3.4 3.5 3.4

Not in labor force

58,615 57,854 58,156 58,588 58,185 58,277 58,088 57,847 58,116

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

127,117 128,132 128,237 127,117 127,845 127,932 128,028 128,132 128,237

Civilian labor force

73,842 75,305 75,602 73,729 75,005 74,927 75,205 75,541 75,497

Participation rate

58.1 58.8 59.0 58.0 58.7 58.6 58.7 59.0 58.9

Employed

71,590 72,515 73,292 71,457 72,518 72,567 72,877 73,121 73,163

Employment-population ratio

56.3 56.6 57.2 56.2 56.7 56.7 56.9 57.1 57.1

Unemployed

2,251 2,790 2,310 2,272 2,486 2,360 2,328 2,419 2,334

Unemployment rate

3.0 3.7 3.1 3.1 3.3 3.1 3.1 3.2 3.1

Not in labor force

53,276 52,826 52,635 53,388 52,840 53,005 52,822 52,591 52,740

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian noninstitutional population

17,099 17,249 17,260 17,099 17,208 17,223 17,239 17,249 17,260

Civilian labor force

6,027 6,876 6,030 6,288 6,326 6,250 6,159 6,365 6,303

Participation rate

35.2 39.9 34.9 36.8 36.8 36.3 35.7 36.9 36.5

Employed

5,337 6,046 5,321 5,576 5,676 5,559 5,462 5,586 5,570

Employment-population ratio

31.2 35.1 30.8 32.6 33.0 32.3 31.7 32.4 32.3

Unemployed

689 830 710 712 650 691 696 779 733

Unemployment rate

11.4 12.1 11.8 11.3 10.3 11.0 11.3 12.2 11.6

Not in labor force

11,072 10,373 11,230 10,811 10,882 10,973 11,080 10,885 10,957

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-2. Employment status of the civilian population by race, sex, and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, race, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Sept.
2022
Aug.
2023
Sept.
2023
Sept.
2022
May
2023
June
2023
July
2023
Aug.
2023
Sept.
2023

WHITE

Civilian noninstitutional population

203,420 204,645 204,756 203,420 204,345 204,433 204,536 204,645 204,756

Civilian labor force

126,036 128,092 127,706 126,117 127,273 127,306 127,329 127,976 127,829

Participation rate

62.0 62.6 62.4 62.0 62.3 62.3 62.3 62.5 62.4

Employed

122,403 123,531 123,547 122,261 123,112 123,389 123,393 123,571 123,456

Employment-population ratio

60.2 60.4 60.3 60.1 60.2 60.4 60.3 60.4 60.3

Unemployed

3,633 4,561 4,160 3,856 4,161 3,917 3,936 4,405 4,373

Unemployment rate

2.9 3.6 3.3 3.1 3.3 3.1 3.1 3.4 3.4

Not in labor force

77,383 76,553 77,049 77,303 77,072 77,127 77,207 76,669 76,926

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

65,872 66,480 66,622 65,884 66,433 66,543 66,414 66,565 66,643

Participation rate

70.2 70.2 70.3 70.2 70.2 70.3 70.2 70.3 70.3

Employed

64,221 64,374 64,514 64,012 64,343 64,545 64,423 64,324 64,321

Employment-population ratio

68.4 68.0 68.1 68.2 68.0 68.2 68.0 67.9 67.9

Unemployed

1,651 2,106 2,108 1,871 2,089 1,998 1,991 2,241 2,322

Unemployment rate

2.5 3.2 3.2 2.8 3.1 3.0 3.0 3.4 3.5

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

55,435 56,243 56,503 55,348 55,950 55,994 56,188 56,451 56,401

Participation rate

57.1 57.7 58.0 57.0 57.5 57.6 57.7 58.0 57.9

Employed

53,979 54,361 54,912 53,885 54,323 54,536 54,690 54,826 54,810

Employment-population ratio

55.6 55.8 56.3 55.5 55.9 56.1 56.2 56.3 56.2

Unemployed

1,456 1,882 1,592 1,463 1,627 1,458 1,498 1,625 1,591

Unemployment rate

2.6 3.3 2.8 2.6 2.9 2.6 2.7 2.9 2.8

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

4,730 5,369 4,581 4,885 4,890 4,769 4,727 4,960 4,785

Participation rate

37.8 42.9 36.6 39.1 39.1 38.1 37.8 39.6 38.2

Employed

4,203 4,796 4,121 4,364 4,445 4,308 4,281 4,421 4,324

Employment-population ratio

33.6 38.3 32.9 34.9 35.5 34.4 34.2 35.3 34.5

Unemployed

527 573 460 521 445 461 447 539 460

Unemployment rate

11.1 10.7 10.0 10.7 9.1 9.7 9.5 10.9 9.6

BLACK OR AFRICAN AMERICAN

Civilian noninstitutional population

34,204 34,714 34,751 34,204 34,613 34,644 34,678 34,714 34,751

Civilian labor force

21,218 21,837 21,808 21,260 21,874 21,695 21,751 21,746 21,868

Participation rate

62.0 62.9 62.8 62.2 63.2 62.6 62.7 62.6 62.9

Employed

20,041 20,613 20,622 20,016 20,641 20,402 20,496 20,596 20,616

Employment-population ratio

58.6 59.4 59.3 58.5 59.6 58.9 59.1 59.3 59.3

Unemployed

1,177 1,224 1,186 1,244 1,234 1,292 1,255 1,150 1,253

Unemployment rate

5.5 5.6 5.4 5.9 5.6 6.0 5.8 5.3 5.7

Not in labor force

12,986 12,878 12,943 12,944 12,738 12,949 12,927 12,969 12,883

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

9,907 10,182 10,197 9,892 10,084 10,053 10,114 10,131 10,185

Participation rate

68.1 68.7 68.7 68.0 68.2 68.0 68.3 68.4 68.6

Employed

9,368 9,678 9,650 9,322 9,519 9,465 9,576 9,620 9,611

Employment-population ratio

64.4 65.3 65.0 64.1 64.4 64.0 64.7 64.9 64.8

Unemployed

540 504 547 570 565 588 538 511 574

Unemployment rate

5.4 5.0 5.4 5.8 5.6 5.9 5.3 5.0 5.6

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

10,638 10,859 10,861 10,637 11,051 10,886 10,922 10,872 10,873

Participation rate

61.9 62.6 62.5 61.9 63.9 62.9 63.0 62.7 62.6

Employed

10,072 10,277 10,394 10,057 10,469 10,300 10,353 10,359 10,389

Employment-population ratio

58.6 59.2 59.8 58.6 60.5 59.5 59.7 59.7 59.8

Unemployed

565 582 467 579 582 586 569 514 485

Unemployment rate

5.3 5.4 4.3 5.4 5.3 5.4 5.2 4.7 4.5

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

673 796 750 731 740 756 715 742 810

Participation rate

27.1 31.3 29.5 29.4 29.2 29.8 28.2 29.2 31.8

Employed

601 658 579 636 653 638 568 617 616

Employment-population ratio

24.2 25.9 22.7 25.6 25.8 25.1 22.3 24.3 24.2

Unemployed

72 138 172 95 87 118 148 125 194

Unemployment rate

10.7 17.3 22.9 12.9 11.7 15.6 20.7 16.9 24.0

ASIAN

Civilian noninstitutional population

17,132 17,515 17,633 17,132 17,511 17,491 17,600 17,515 17,633

Civilian labor force

11,151 11,552 11,611 11,106 11,408 11,435 11,556 11,486 11,580

Participation rate

65.1 66.0 65.8 64.8 65.1 65.4 65.7 65.6 65.7

Employed

10,882 11,176 11,288 10,832 11,073 11,073 11,288 11,131 11,250

Employment-population ratio

63.5 63.8 64.0 63.2 63.2 63.3 64.1 63.6 63.8

Unemployed

269 376 323 274 335 363 267 355 330

Unemployment rate

2.4 3.3 2.8 2.5 2.9 3.2 2.3 3.1 2.8

Not in labor force

5,981 5,963 6,023 6,025 6,104 6,056 6,044 6,029 6,053

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Estimates for the above race groups will not sum to totals shown in table A-1 because data are not presented for all races. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-3. Employment status of the Hispanic or Latino population by sex and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Sept.
2022
Aug.
2023
Sept.
2023
Sept.
2022
May
2023
June
2023
July
2023
Aug.
2023
Sept.
2023

HISPANIC OR LATINO ETHNICITY

Civilian noninstitutional population

46,373 47,671 47,774 46,373 47,380 47,473 47,569 47,671 47,774

Civilian labor force

30,641 31,960 32,099 30,673 31,690 31,943 32,052 31,977 32,144

Participation rate

66.1 67.0 67.2 66.1 66.9 67.3 67.4 67.1 67.3

Employed

29,515 30,382 30,706 29,462 30,407 30,571 30,637 30,420 30,660

Employment-population ratio

63.6 63.7 64.3 63.5 64.2 64.4 64.4 63.8 64.2

Unemployed

1,126 1,578 1,393 1,211 1,283 1,372 1,416 1,557 1,484

Unemployment rate

3.7 4.9 4.3 3.9 4.0 4.3 4.4 4.9 4.6

Not in labor force

15,732 15,711 15,675 15,700 15,690 15,530 15,517 15,694 15,630

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

16,523 17,170 17,246 16,536 17,123 17,224 17,290 17,164 17,262

Participation rate

78.7 79.3 79.5 78.7 79.5 79.8 80.0 79.2 79.5

Employed

16,031 16,465 16,586 15,967 16,434 16,576 16,599 16,433 16,523

Employment-population ratio

76.3 76.0 76.4 76.0 76.3 76.8 76.8 75.9 76.1

Unemployed

493 706 660 569 690 649 691 731 739

Unemployment rate

3.0 4.1 3.8 3.4 4.0 3.8 4.0 4.3 4.3

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

12,792 13,279 13,395 12,771 13,150 13,182 13,271 13,343 13,379

Participation rate

60.7 61.5 61.9 60.6 61.2 61.3 61.6 61.8 61.8

Employed

12,339 12,663 12,826 12,314 12,700 12,638 12,745 12,752 12,805

Employment-population ratio

58.6 58.6 59.2 58.4 59.1 58.7 59.1 59.0 59.1

Unemployed

452 616 569 457 450 544 525 591 573

Unemployment rate

3.5 4.6 4.2 3.6 3.4 4.1 4.0 4.4 4.3

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

1,326 1,510 1,457 1,366 1,417 1,537 1,492 1,470 1,503

Participation rate

30.9 34.3 33.0 31.8 32.4 35.0 33.9 33.4 34.0

Employed

1,145 1,254 1,293 1,181 1,273 1,357 1,292 1,236 1,331

Employment-population ratio

26.7 28.5 29.3 27.5 29.1 31.0 29.4 28.0 30.1

Unemployed

181 257 164 185 144 180 200 235 172

Unemployment rate

13.6 17.0 11.3 13.6 10.1 11.7 13.4 16.0 11.4

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-4. Employment status of the civilian population 25 years and over by educational attainment
[Numbers in thousands]
Educational attainment Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Sept.
2022
Aug.
2023
Sept.
2023
Sept.
2022
May
2023
June
2023
July
2023
Aug.
2023
Sept.
2023

Less than a high school diploma

Civilian labor force

9,094 9,210 9,287 8,990 9,140 9,184 8,926 9,239 9,185

Participation rate

46.2 47.4 47.5 45.7 45.7 46.6 47.7 47.6 46.9

Employed

8,674 8,774 8,865 8,491 8,621 8,632 8,459 8,743 8,683

Employment-population ratio

44.1 45.2 45.3 43.1 43.1 43.8 45.2 45.0 44.4

Unemployed

420 436 422 499 519 552 467 496 501

Unemployment rate

4.6 4.7 4.5 5.5 5.7 6.0 5.2 5.4 5.5

High school graduates, no college(1)

Civilian labor force

35,488 36,349 36,416 35,282 36,022 36,038 35,980 36,243 36,205

Participation rate

56.5 56.7 57.2 56.2 56.8 57.0 56.5 56.5 56.8

Employed

34,244 34,957 34,993 33,975 34,611 34,638 34,763 34,851 34,722

Employment-population ratio

54.5 54.5 54.9 54.1 54.6 54.7 54.6 54.4 54.5

Unemployed

1,244 1,392 1,423 1,307 1,411 1,400 1,217 1,391 1,484

Unemployment rate

3.5 3.8 3.9 3.7 3.9 3.9 3.4 3.8 4.1

Some college or associate degree

Civilian labor force

35,597 35,560 36,016 35,575 35,407 35,564 35,730 35,867 35,960

Participation rate

62.8 62.7 62.9 62.7 63.1 62.5 62.7 63.3 62.8

Employed

34,609 34,393 34,976 34,558 34,273 34,472 34,612 34,780 34,886

Employment-population ratio

61.0 60.7 61.1 60.9 61.1 60.5 60.7 61.4 60.9

Unemployed

989 1,167 1,041 1,017 1,134 1,092 1,118 1,087 1,074

Unemployment rate

2.8 3.3 2.9 2.9 3.2 3.1 3.1 3.0 3.0

Bachelor's degree and higher(2)

Civilian labor force

63,574 64,112 64,285 63,519 64,201 64,274 64,817 64,398 64,277

Participation rate

73.0 73.2 73.5 72.9 73.1 73.4 73.4 73.5 73.5

Employed

62,473 62,469 62,946 62,381 62,879 63,010 63,522 62,986 62,907

Employment-population ratio

71.7 71.3 71.9 71.6 71.6 72.0 71.9 71.9 71.9

Unemployed

1,100 1,643 1,340 1,138 1,322 1,264 1,295 1,412 1,370

Unemployment rate

1.7 2.6 2.1 1.8 2.1 2.0 2.0 2.2 2.1

Footnotes
(1) Includes persons with a high school diploma or equivalent.
(2) Includes persons with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees.

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals for those 25 years and over because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-5. Employment status of the civilian population 18 years and over by veteran status, period of service, and sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, veteran status, and period of service Total Men Women
Sept.
2022
Sept.
2023
Sept.
2022
Sept.
2023
Sept.
2022
Sept.
2023

VETERANS, 18 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

18,313 17,856 16,283 15,812 2,030 2,044

Civilian labor force

8,807 8,488 7,621 7,293 1,187 1,195

Participation rate

48.1 47.5 46.8 46.1 58.5 58.5

Employed

8,579 8,189 7,436 7,047 1,143 1,141

Employment-population ratio

46.8 45.9 45.7 44.6 56.3 55.8

Unemployed

229 299 185 245 44 54

Unemployment rate

2.6 3.5 2.4 3.4 3.7 4.5

Not in labor force

9,506 9,368 8,662 8,519 843 849

Gulf War-era II veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

4,922 5,068 4,041 4,120 881 948

Civilian labor force

3,973 3,952 3,289 3,238 684 714

Participation rate

80.7 78.0 81.4 78.6 77.6 75.3

Employed

3,880 3,752 3,210 3,071 671 681

Employment-population ratio

78.8 74.0 79.4 74.5 76.1 71.8

Unemployed

92 200 79 167 13 33

Unemployment rate

2.3 5.1 2.4 5.2 1.9 4.6

Not in labor force

949 1,116 752 882 197 234

Gulf War-era I veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

3,248 2,961 2,753 2,534 495 427

Civilian labor force

2,280 2,082 1,986 1,812 294 270

Participation rate

70.2 70.3 72.1 71.5 59.4 63.1

Employed

2,207 2,031 1,931 1,763 276 268

Employment-population ratio

67.9 68.6 70.1 69.6 55.8 62.7

Unemployed

73 51 55 49 18 2

Unemployment rate

3.2 2.4 2.8 2.7 6.1 0.7

Not in labor force

968 879 768 722 201 157

World War II, Korean War, and Vietnam-era veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

6,178 5,918 5,932 5,667 246 251

Civilian labor force

904 802 877 768 27 35

Participation rate

14.6 13.6 14.8 13.5 11.1 13.8

Employed

878 786 850 759 27 27

Employment-population ratio

14.2 13.3 14.3 13.4 11.1 10.9

Unemployed

27 16 27 9 0 7

Unemployment rate

2.9 2.0 3.0 1.2 - -

Not in labor force

5,274 5,116 5,055 4,899 219 216

Veterans of other service periods

Civilian noninstitutional population

3,965 3,909 3,557 3,491 408 418

Civilian labor force

1,650 1,651 1,469 1,474 182 177

Participation rate

41.6 42.2 41.3 42.2 44.5 42.3

Employed

1,613 1,620 1,444 1,454 169 165

Employment-population ratio

40.7 41.4 40.6 41.7 41.4 39.6

Unemployed

37 32 25 20 12 12

Unemployment rate

2.2 1.9 1.7 1.4 6.8 6.5

Not in labor force

2,315 2,258 2,088 2,017 226 241

NONVETERANS, 18 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

236,598 240,361 107,682 110,172 128,916 130,189

Civilian labor force

153,284 156,823 78,826 80,635 74,458 76,188

Participation rate

64.8 65.2 73.2 73.2 57.8 58.5

Employed

148,309 151,346 76,293 77,634 72,016 73,712

Employment-population ratio

62.7 63.0 70.9 70.5 55.9 56.6

Unemployed

4,975 5,477 2,533 3,001 2,443 2,476

Unemployment rate

3.2 3.5 3.2 3.7 3.3 3.2

Not in labor force

83,314 83,538 28,857 29,537 54,458 54,002

NOTE: Veterans served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces and were not on active duty at the time of the survey. Nonveterans never served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces. Veterans could have served anywhere in the world during these periods of service: Gulf War era II (September 2001-present), Gulf War era I (August 1990-August 2001), Vietnam era (August 1964-April 1975), Korean War (July 1950-January 1955), World War II (December 1941-December 1946), and other service periods (all other time periods). Veterans who served in more than one wartime period are classified only in the most recent one. Veterans who served during one of the selected wartime periods and another period are classified only in the wartime period. Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria (values not shown where base is less than 75,000).


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-6. Employment status of the civilian population by sex, age, and disability status, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Persons with a disability Persons with no disability
Sept.
2022
Sept.
2023
Sept.
2022
Sept.
2023

TOTAL, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

33,223 34,146 231,132 233,282

Civilian labor force

7,710 8,275 156,753 159,443

Participation rate

23.2 24.2 67.8 68.3

Employed

7,145 7,674 151,858 153,995

Employment-population ratio

21.5 22.5 65.7 66.0

Unemployed

565 601 4,894 5,447

Unemployment rate

7.3 7.3 3.1 3.4

Not in labor force

25,513 25,871 74,380 73,839

Men, 16 to 64 years

Civilian labor force

3,126 3,543 78,109 79,399

Participation rate

37.9 41.9 82.7 83.0

Employed

2,868 3,278 75,652 76,409

Employment-population ratio

34.8 38.7 80.1 79.9

Unemployed

259 265 2,457 2,991

Unemployment rate

8.3 7.5 3.1 3.8

Not in labor force

5,124 4,916 16,395 16,260

Women, 16 to 64 years

Civilian labor force

3,243 3,313 68,733 70,044

Participation rate

38.2 38.8 71.6 72.9

Employed

2,974 3,045 66,506 67,809

Employment-population ratio

35.0 35.6 69.3 70.5

Unemployed

269 268 2,227 2,234

Unemployment rate

8.3 8.1 3.2 3.2

Not in labor force

5,249 5,234 27,228 26,089

Both sexes, 65 years and over

Civilian labor force

1,341 1,419 9,910 10,000

Participation rate

8.1 8.3 24.4 24.1

Employed

1,303 1,351 9,700 9,777

Employment-population ratio

7.9 7.9 23.9 23.6

Unemployed

37 68 210 222

Unemployment rate

2.8 4.8 2.1 2.2

Not in labor force

15,140 15,721 30,757 31,490

NOTE: A person with a disability has at least one of the following conditions: is deaf or has serious difficulty hearing; is blind or has serious difficulty seeing even when wearing glasses; has serious difficulty concentrating, remembering, or making decisions because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition; has serious difficulty walking or climbing stairs; has difficulty dressing or bathing; or has difficulty doing errands alone such as visiting a doctor's office or shopping because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-7. Employment status of the civilian population by nativity and sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status and nativity Total Men Women
Sept.
2022
Sept.
2023
Sept.
2022
Sept.
2023
Sept.
2022
Sept.
2023

Foreign born, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

45,351 46,707 22,003 22,753 23,348 23,953

Civilian labor force

30,213 31,336 17,219 17,769 12,994 13,567

Participation rate

66.6 67.1 78.3 78.1 55.7 56.6

Employed

29,349 30,213 16,750 17,154 12,599 13,059

Employment-population ratio

64.7 64.7 76.1 75.4 54.0 54.5

Unemployed

864 1,123 469 615 395 508

Unemployment rate

2.9 3.6 2.7 3.5 3.0 3.7

Not in labor force

15,138 15,371 4,784 4,985 10,354 10,386

Native born, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

219,005 220,721 106,805 107,959 112,200 112,762

Civilian labor force

134,250 136,382 70,310 71,391 63,939 64,992

Participation rate

61.3 61.8 65.8 66.1 57.0 57.6

Employed

129,654 131,457 67,938 68,591 61,717 62,865

Employment-population ratio

59.2 59.6 63.6 63.5 55.0 55.8

Unemployed

4,596 4,926 2,373 2,799 2,223 2,126

Unemployment rate

3.4 3.6 3.4 3.9 3.5 3.3

Not in labor force

84,755 84,339 36,494 36,569 48,261 47,770

NOTE: The foreign born are those residing in the United States who were not U.S. citizens at birth. That is, they were born outside the United States or one of its outlying areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam, to parents neither of whom was a U.S. citizen. The native born are persons who were born in the United States or one of its outlying areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam or who were born abroad of at least one parent who was a U.S. citizen. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-8. Employed persons by class of worker and part-time status
[In thousands]
Category Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Sept.
2022
Aug.
2023
Sept.
2023
Sept.
2022
May
2023
June
2023
July
2023
Aug.
2023
Sept.
2023

CLASS OF WORKER

Agriculture and related industries

2,165 2,326 2,288 2,178 2,301 2,311 2,261 2,296 2,303

Wage and salary workers(1)

1,448 1,582 1,551 1,473 1,569 1,591 1,519 1,559 1,571

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

700 717 699 696 672 674 688 695 693

Unpaid family workers

18 27 39 - - - - - -

Nonagricultural industries

156,838 159,101 159,381 156,762 158,416 158,853 159,099 159,321 159,388

Wage and salary workers(1)

147,538 150,171 150,233 147,291 149,512 149,632 149,974 150,217 150,090

Government

21,166 20,684 21,480 21,331 21,434 21,552 21,161 21,199 21,601

Private industries

126,372 129,487 128,753 126,371 128,050 128,110 128,778 128,891 128,821

Private households

705 681 665 - - - - - -

Other industries

125,667 128,807 128,089 125,712 127,337 127,470 128,166 128,282 128,209

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

9,235 8,886 9,114 9,155 8,731 8,917 8,814 8,809 9,033

Unpaid family workers

65 44 33 - - - - - -

PERSONS AT WORK PART TIME(2)

All industries

Part time for economic reasons(3)

3,523 4,143 3,742 3,843 3,739 4,191 4,000 4,221 4,065

Slack work or business conditions

2,393 2,712 2,608 2,576 2,582 2,890 2,717 2,799 2,793

Could only find part-time work

945 1,003 940 942 824 948 1,014 1,021 938

Part time for noneconomic reasons(4)

21,389 20,506 22,309 21,260 21,864 21,267 21,971 21,975 22,152

Nonagricultural industries

Part time for economic reasons(3)

3,479 4,084 3,698 3,762 3,725 4,095 3,913 4,110 3,991

Slack work or business conditions

2,353 2,670 2,579 2,526 2,566 2,835 2,657 2,757 2,752

Could only find part-time work

945 999 930 940 821 943 1,012 1,021 929

Part time for noneconomic reasons(4)

21,047 20,084 21,883 20,912 21,496 20,913 21,539 21,522 21,723

Footnotes
(1) Includes self-employed workers whose businesses are incorporated.
(2) Refers to those who worked 1 to 34 hours during the survey reference week and excludes employed persons who were absent from their jobs for the entire week.
(3) Refers to those who worked 1 to 34 hours during the reference week for an economic reason such as slack work or unfavorable business conditions, inability to find full-time work, or seasonal declines in demand.
(4) Refers to persons who usually work part time for noneconomic reasons such as childcare problems, family or personal obligations, school or training, retirement or Social Security limits on earnings, and other reasons. This excludes persons who usually work full time but worked only 1 to 34 hours during the reference week for reasons such as vacations, holidays, illness, and bad weather.

- Data not available.
NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-9. Selected employment indicators
[Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Sept.
2022
Aug.
2023
Sept.
2023
Sept.
2022
May
2023
June
2023
July
2023
Aug.
2023
Sept.
2023

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

159,003 161,427 161,669 158,850 160,721 160,994 161,262 161,484 161,570

16 to 19 years

5,337 6,046 5,321 5,576 5,676 5,559 5,462 5,586 5,570

16 to 17 years

2,115 2,362 2,134 2,100 2,240 2,177 2,083 2,098 2,119

18 to 19 years

3,222 3,684 3,186 3,462 3,450 3,372 3,353 3,461 3,427

20 years and over

153,666 155,381 156,349 153,274 155,045 155,435 155,799 155,898 156,000

20 to 24 years

13,666 14,787 14,569 13,752 14,816 14,741 14,559 14,606 14,676

25 years and over

140,000 140,593 141,780 139,503 140,314 140,612 141,160 141,194 141,293

25 to 54 years

102,291 103,133 103,831 101,954 103,209 103,384 103,539 103,531 103,537

25 to 34 years

35,451 35,810 36,008 35,349 35,814 35,755 36,168 35,974 35,940

35 to 44 years

34,735 35,375 35,625 34,619 35,257 35,391 35,379 35,478 35,518

45 to 54 years

32,105 31,948 32,199 31,986 32,138 32,238 31,992 32,080 32,079

55 years and over

37,709 37,461 37,949 37,550 37,105 37,228 37,620 37,663 37,756

Men, 16 years and over

84,687 85,838 85,745 84,532 85,410 85,547 85,492 85,493 85,633

16 to 19 years

2,612 2,973 2,688 2,716 2,884 2,679 2,570 2,716 2,797

16 to 17 years

958 1,158 1,064 962 1,043 972 943 1,009 1,060

18 to 19 years

1,653 1,815 1,624 1,750 1,844 1,695 1,606 1,668 1,720

20 years and over

82,075 82,865 83,057 81,816 82,526 82,868 82,922 82,777 82,837

20 to 24 years

7,003 7,530 7,248 7,040 7,509 7,541 7,435 7,369 7,310

25 years and over

75,072 75,335 75,809 74,703 75,088 75,233 75,462 75,297 75,466

25 to 54 years

54,560 55,335 55,489 54,325 55,174 55,263 55,358 55,300 55,291

25 to 34 years

18,926 19,198 19,175 18,829 19,145 19,130 19,338 19,215 19,114

35 to 44 years

18,656 19,097 19,188 18,579 18,998 19,143 19,103 19,053 19,120

45 to 54 years

16,979 17,040 17,126 16,917 17,031 16,990 16,917 17,032 17,057

55 years and over

20,512 20,000 20,319 20,378 19,914 19,971 20,104 19,997 20,175

Women, 16 years and over

74,316 75,589 75,924 74,318 75,311 75,448 75,769 75,991 75,936

16 to 19 years

2,726 3,073 2,633 2,861 2,793 2,880 2,892 2,870 2,773

16 to 17 years

1,157 1,204 1,071 1,138 1,196 1,205 1,140 1,089 1,059

18 to 19 years

1,568 1,869 1,562 1,712 1,606 1,677 1,746 1,793 1,708

20 years and over

71,590 72,515 73,292 71,457 72,518 72,567 72,877 73,121 73,163

20 to 24 years

6,663 7,257 7,321 6,712 7,307 7,201 7,125 7,237 7,366

25 years and over

64,928 65,258 65,971 64,801 65,226 65,378 65,697 65,897 65,827

25 to 54 years

47,731 47,797 48,342 47,628 48,035 48,121 48,181 48,232 48,245

25 to 34 years

16,525 16,611 16,832 16,519 16,669 16,625 16,830 16,759 16,826

35 to 44 years

16,079 16,279 16,437 16,040 16,259 16,248 16,276 16,425 16,398

45 to 54 years

15,127 14,908 15,073 15,069 15,107 15,248 15,075 15,048 15,022

55 years and over

17,197 17,461 17,629 17,172 17,191 17,258 17,516 17,665 17,582

MARITAL STATUS

Married men, spouse present(1)

46,100 45,754 46,588 45,920 45,647 45,844 45,886 45,911 46,357

Married women, spouse present(1)

36,616 36,930 37,300 36,582 36,964 36,847 37,413 37,430 37,279

Women who maintain families(2)

9,813 9,719 9,882 - - - - - -

FULL- OR PART-TIME STATUS

Full-time workers(3)

133,027 135,445 134,560 132,575 134,477 134,859 134,274 134,189 134,167

Part-time workers(4)

25,976 25,982 27,109 26,249 26,443 26,181 27,153 27,185 27,336

MULTIPLE JOBHOLDERS

Total multiple jobholders

7,739 7,778 8,146 7,755 7,762 7,995 8,113 8,028 8,151

Percent of total employed

4.9 4.8 5.0 4.9 4.8 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0

SELF-EMPLOYMENT

Self-employed workers, incorporated

6,710 6,989 6,684 - - - - - -

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

9,935 9,603 9,813 9,851 9,403 9,591 9,502 9,504 9,726

Footnotes
(1) Beginning with data for January 2020, refers to persons in both opposite-sex and same-sex married couples. Prior to January 2020, referred to persons in opposite-sex married couples only.
(2) Beginning with data for January 2020, refers to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not a spouse of either sex. Prior to January 2020, referred to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not an opposite-sex spouse.
(3) Employed full-time workers are persons who usually work 35 hours or more per week.
(4) Employed part-time workers are persons who usually work less than 35 hours per week.

- Data not available.
NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-10. Selected unemployment indicators, seasonally adjusted
Characteristic Number of
unemployed persons
(in thousands)
Unemployment rates
Sept.
2022
Aug.
2023
Sept.
2023
Sept.
2022
May
2023
June
2023
July
2023
Aug.
2023
Sept.
2023

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

5,770 6,355 6,360 3.5 3.7 3.6 3.5 3.8 3.8

16 to 19 years

712 779 733 11.3 10.3 11.0 11.3 12.2 11.6

16 to 17 years

291 280 307 12.2 9.5 11.2 11.2 11.8 12.7

18 to 19 years

426 506 429 11.0 10.6 10.5 11.4 12.7 11.1

20 years and over

5,058 5,576 5,627 3.2 3.4 3.3 3.2 3.5 3.5

20 to 24 years

1,030 1,125 1,115 7.0 6.3 6.1 6.7 7.2 7.1

25 years and over

3,984 4,395 4,453 2.8 3.0 3.0 2.8 3.0 3.1

25 to 54 years

3,075 3,353 3,438 2.9 3.1 3.1 3.0 3.1 3.2

25 to 34 years

1,320 1,446 1,505 3.6 3.9 3.9 3.6 3.9 4.0

35 to 44 years

1,063 1,085 1,012 3.0 2.9 2.9 3.0 3.0 2.8

45 to 54 years

692 822 921 2.1 2.6 2.4 2.3 2.5 2.8

55 years and over

938 1,036 1,029 2.4 2.8 2.6 2.3 2.7 2.7

Men, 16 years and over

3,127 3,589 3,697 3.6 3.7 3.7 3.6 4.0 4.1

16 to 19 years

342 432 404 11.2 10.4 12.5 13.0 13.7 12.6

16 to 17 years

145 138 190 13.1 8.0 14.1 13.2 12.0 15.2

18 to 19 years

200 302 222 10.3 11.5 10.5 12.9 15.3 11.4

20 years and over

2,786 3,157 3,293 3.3 3.5 3.4 3.3 3.7 3.8

20 to 24 years

604 677 673 7.9 7.1 6.7 7.2 8.4 8.4

25 years and over

2,162 2,422 2,583 2.8 3.0 3.0 2.9 3.1 3.3

25 to 54 years

1,669 1,842 2,064 3.0 3.1 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.6

25 to 34 years

709 776 925 3.6 3.7 4.0 3.8 3.9 4.6

35 to 44 years

556 587 587 2.9 2.7 2.5 2.8 3.0 3.0

45 to 54 years

403 479 552 2.3 2.7 2.5 2.6 2.7 3.1

55 years and over

493 580 518 2.4 2.9 3.0 2.2 2.8 2.5

Women, 16 years and over

2,642 2,766 2,662 3.4 3.6 3.4 3.4 3.5 3.4

16 to 19 years

370 347 329 11.5 10.2 9.7 9.7 10.8 10.6

16 to 17 years

145 143 117 11.3 10.7 8.7 9.4 11.6 9.9

18 to 19 years

225 204 207 11.6 9.5 10.4 10.0 10.2 10.8

20 years and over

2,272 2,419 2,334 3.1 3.3 3.1 3.1 3.2 3.1

20 to 24 years

425 448 441 6.0 5.4 5.3 6.2 5.8 5.7

25 years and over

1,822 1,973 1,870 2.7 3.1 3.0 2.7 2.9 2.8

25 to 54 years

1,407 1,511 1,374 2.9 3.2 3.2 2.8 3.0 2.8

25 to 34 years

611 670 579 3.6 4.0 3.9 3.3 3.8 3.3

35 to 44 years

507 498 426 3.1 3.1 3.5 3.2 2.9 2.5

45 to 54 years

289 343 369 1.9 2.6 2.3 1.9 2.2 2.4

55 years and over

421 449 492 2.4 2.6 2.1 2.3 2.5 2.7

MARITAL STATUS

Married men, spouse present(1)

846 942 989 1.8 2.0 1.8 1.7 2.0 2.1

Married women, spouse present(1)

712 794 821 1.9 2.3 2.2 2.0 2.1 2.2

Women who maintain families(2)

488 499 415 4.7 4.6 4.8 4.5 4.9 4.0

FULL- OR PART-TIME STATUS

Full-time workers(3)

4,754 5,129 5,099 3.5 3.6 3.5 3.4 3.7 3.7

Part-time workers(4)

1,010 1,258 1,239 3.7 4.0 4.0 4.1 4.4 4.3

Footnotes
(1) Beginning with data for January 2020, refers to persons in both opposite-sex and same-sex married couples. Prior to January 2020, referred to persons in opposite-sex married couples only.
(2) Data are not seasonally adjusted. Beginning with data for January 2020, refers to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not a spouse of either sex. Prior to January 2020, referred to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not an opposite-sex spouse.
(3) Full-time workers are unemployed persons who have expressed a desire to work full time (35 hours or more per week) or are on layoff from full-time jobs.
(4) Part-time workers are unemployed persons who have expressed a desire to work part time (less than 35 hours per week) or are on layoff from part-time jobs.

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-11. Unemployed persons by reason for unemployment
[Numbers in thousands]
Reason Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Sept.
2022
Aug.
2023
Sept.
2023
Sept.
2022
May
2023
June
2023
July
2023
Aug.
2023
Sept.
2023

NUMBER OF UNEMPLOYED

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

2,176 3,053 2,522 2,530 2,960 2,900 2,620 2,914 2,858

On temporary layoff

463 870 478 772 767 842 667 789 781

Not on temporary layoff

1,713 2,183 2,044 1,758 2,193 2,058 1,953 2,125 2,077

Permanent job losers

1,161 1,600 1,409 1,202 1,588 1,493 1,372 1,538 1,441

Persons who completed temporary jobs

552 583 634 555 605 565 581 587 636

Job leavers

976 876 859 904 765 794 852 801 797

Reentrants

1,867 2,014 2,114 1,834 1,821 1,745 1,853 1,930 2,043

New entrants

441 680 553 460 508 558 503 597 568

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

39.9 46.1 41.7 44.2 48.9 48.4 44.9 46.7 45.6

On temporary layoff

8.5 13.1 7.9 13.5 12.7 14.0 11.4 12.6 12.5

Not on temporary layoff

31.4 33.0 33.8 30.7 36.2 34.3 33.5 34.0 33.2

Job leavers

17.9 13.2 14.2 15.8 12.6 13.2 14.6 12.8 12.7

Reentrants

34.2 30.4 34.9 32.0 30.1 29.1 31.8 30.9 32.6

New entrants

8.1 10.3 9.1 8.0 8.4 9.3 8.6 9.6 9.1

UNEMPLOYED AS A PERCENT OF THE
CIVILIAN LABOR FORCE

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

1.3 1.8 1.5 1.5 1.8 1.7 1.6 1.7 1.7

Job leavers

0.6 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5

Reentrants

1.1 1.2 1.3 1.1 1.1 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.2

New entrants

0.3 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.3

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to total unemployed in table A-1 because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-12. Unemployed persons by duration of unemployment
[Numbers in thousands]
Duration Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Sept.
2022
Aug.
2023
Sept.
2023
Sept.
2022
May
2023
June
2023
July
2023
Aug.
2023
Sept.
2023

NUMBER OF UNEMPLOYED

Less than 5 weeks

2,127 2,173 2,023 2,158 2,083 2,068 2,004 2,221 2,051

5 to 14 weeks

1,474 2,280 1,865 1,643 1,865 1,889 1,698 1,877 2,044

15 weeks and over

1,859 2,171 2,161 1,990 2,046 2,021 2,161 2,298 2,288

15 to 26 weeks

751 796 928 901 858 917 997 1,002 1,072

27 weeks and over

1,109 1,374 1,233 1,089 1,188 1,105 1,164 1,296 1,216

Average (mean) duration, in weeks

20.7 20.2 21.9 20.3 21.2 20.7 20.6 20.4 21.5

Median duration, in weeks

8.8 8.8 9.7 8.5 8.6 8.7 8.7 8.7 9.2

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION

Less than 5 weeks

39.0 32.8 33.4 37.3 34.8 34.6 34.2 34.7 32.1

5 to 14 weeks

27.0 34.4 30.8 28.4 31.1 31.6 29.0 29.3 32.0

15 weeks and over

34.1 32.8 35.7 34.4 34.1 33.8 36.9 35.9 35.8

15 to 26 weeks

13.7 12.0 15.3 15.6 14.3 15.3 17.0 15.7 16.8

27 weeks and over

20.3 20.7 20.4 18.8 19.8 18.5 19.9 20.3 19.1

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to total unemployed in table A-1 because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-13. Employed and unemployed persons by occupation, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Occupation Employed Unemployed Unemployment
rates
Sept.
2022
Sept.
2023
Sept.
2022
Sept.
2023
Sept.
2022
Sept.
2023

Total, 16 years and over(1)

159,003 161,669 5,460 6,049 3.3 3.6

Management, professional, and related occupations

69,056 70,417 1,291 1,466 1.8 2.0

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

29,780 30,768 537 655 1.8 2.1

Professional and related occupations

39,276 39,649 754 811 1.9 2.0

Service occupations

25,738 26,659 1,178 1,134 4.4 4.1

Sales and office occupations

29,602 30,393 1,154 1,270 3.8 4.0

Sales and related occupations

13,878 14,353 553 612 3.8 4.1

Office and administrative support occupations

15,725 16,040 601 658 3.7 3.9

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

14,518 14,276 477 566 3.2 3.8

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

934 1,058 42 70 4.3 6.2

Construction and extraction occupations

8,628 8,248 343 416 3.8 4.8

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

4,956 4,970 92 80 1.8 1.6

Production, transportation, and material moving
occupations

20,088 19,924 904 1,038 4.3 5.0

Production occupations

8,222 8,163 304 277 3.6 3.3

Transportation and material moving occupations

11,866 11,761 600 761 4.8 6.1

Footnotes
(1) Persons with no previous work experience and persons whose last job was in the U.S. Armed Forces are included in the unemployed total.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data. Effective with January 2020 data, occupations reflect the introduction of the 2018 Census occupational classification system into the Current Population Survey, or household survey. This classification system is derived from the 2018 Standard Occupational Classification (SOC). No historical data have been revised. Data for 2020 are not strictly comparable with earlier years.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-14. Unemployed persons by industry and class of worker, not seasonally adjusted
Industry and class of worker Number of
unemployed
persons
(in thousands)
Unemployment
rates
Sept.
2022
Sept.
2023
Sept.
2022
Sept.
2023

Total, 16 years and over(1)

5,460 6,049 3.3 3.6

Nonagricultural private wage and salary workers

4,297 4,762 3.3 3.6

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

16 16 2.5 2.6

Construction

346 392 3.4 3.8

Manufacturing

416 495 2.8 3.2

Durable goods

236 278 2.5 2.8

Nondurable goods

181 217 3.3 3.9

Wholesale and retail trade

768 889 4.0 4.5

Transportation and utilities

337 379 4.0 4.7

Information

85 117 3.2 4.3

Financial activities

136 190 1.3 1.9

Professional and business services

544 699 2.9 3.6

Education and health services

659 638 2.6 2.4

Leisure and hospitality

802 734 5.9 5.4

Other services

189 211 2.8 3.1

Agriculture and related private wage and salary workers

46 62 3.2 3.9

Government workers

388 393 1.8 1.8

Self-employed workers, unincorporated, and unpaid family workers

288 278 2.8 2.7

Footnotes
(1) Persons with no previous work experience and persons whose last job was in the U.S. Armed Forces are included in the unemployed total.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data. Effective with January 2020 data, industries reflect the introduction of the 2017 Census industry classification system into the Current Population Survey. This industry classification system is derived from the 2017 North American Industry Classification System (NAICS). No historical data have been revised.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-15. Alternative measures of labor underutilization
[Percent]
Measure Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Sept.
2022
Aug.
2023
Sept.
2023
Sept.
2022
May
2023
June
2023
July
2023
Aug.
2023
Sept.
2023

U-1 Persons unemployed 15 weeks or longer, as a percent of the civilian labor force

1.1 1.3 1.3 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.4

U-2 Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs, as a percent of the civilian labor force

1.3 1.8 1.5 1.5 1.8 1.7 1.6 1.7 1.7

U-3 Total unemployed, as a percent of the civilian labor force (official unemployment rate)

3.3 3.9 3.6 3.5 3.7 3.6 3.5 3.8 3.8

U-4 Total unemployed plus discouraged workers, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus discouraged workers

3.6 4.1 3.8 3.8 3.9 3.7 3.7 4.0 4.0

U-5 Total unemployed, plus discouraged workers, plus all other persons marginally attached to the labor force, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force

4.3 4.8 4.5 4.4 4.5 4.4 4.3 4.6 4.6

U-6 Total unemployed, plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force, plus total employed part time for economic reasons, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force

6.4 7.2 6.7 6.7 6.7 6.9 6.7 7.1 7.0

NOTE: Persons marginally attached to the labor force are those who currently are neither working nor looking for work but indicate that they want and are available for a job and have looked for work sometime in the past 12 months. Discouraged workers, a subset of the marginally attached, have given a job-market related reason for not currently looking for work. Persons employed part time for economic reasons are those who want and are available for full-time work but have had to settle for a part-time schedule. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-16. Persons not in the labor force and multiple jobholders by sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Category Total Men Women
Sept.
2022
Sept.
2023
Sept.
2022
Sept.
2023
Sept.
2022
Sept.
2023

NOT IN THE LABOR FORCE

Total not in the labor force

99,893 99,710 41,278 41,553 58,615 58,156

Persons who currently want a job

5,650 5,299 2,627 2,364 3,024 2,935

Marginally attached to the labor force(1)

1,619 1,492 817 756 802 736

Discouraged workers(2)

462 351 286 189 176 162

Other persons marginally attached to the labor force(3)

1,157 1,141 531 567 626 575

MULTIPLE JOBHOLDERS

Total multiple jobholders(4)

7,739 8,146 3,753 3,959 3,986 4,186

Percent of total employed

4.9 5.0 4.4 4.6 5.4 5.5

Primary job full time, secondary job part time

4,307 4,730 2,300 2,469 2,007 2,262

Primary and secondary jobs both part time

1,925 1,888 664 659 1,261 1,229

Primary and secondary jobs both full time

420 447 251 272 169 175

Hours vary on primary or secondary job

1,042 1,008 518 520 525 489

Footnotes
(1) Data refer to persons who want a job, have searched for work during the prior 12 months, and were available to take a job during the reference week, but had not looked for work in the past 4 weeks.
(2) Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for reasons such as thinks no work available, could not find work, lacks schooling or training, employer thinks too young or old, and other types of discrimination.
(3) Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for such reasons as school or family responsibilities, ill health, and transportation problems, as well as a number for whom reason for nonparticipation was not determined.
(4) Includes a small number of persons who work part time on their primary job and full time on their secondary job(s), not shown separately.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-1. Employees on nonfarm payrolls by industry sector and selected industry detail
[In thousands]
Industry Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Sept.
2022
July
2023
Aug.
2023(p)
Sept.
2023(p)
Sept.
2022
July
2023
Aug.
2023(p)
Sept.
2023(p)
Change from:
Aug.2023 - Sept.2023(p)

Total nonfarm

153,809 156,022 156,416 157,001 153,682 156,311 156,538 156,874 336

Total private

131,486 134,461 134,447 134,048 131,445 133,572 133,749 134,012 263

Goods-producing

21,493 21,875 21,923 21,836 21,327 21,594 21,641 21,670 29

Mining and logging

619 652 652 649 613 644 644 645 1

Logging

46.4 48.5 48.0 48.2 45.9 47.3 46.5 47.5 1.0

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

572.1 603.7 603.8 601.1 567.3 596.8 597.3 597.4 0.1

Oil and gas extraction

116.1 119.2 120.0 119.4 115.8 118.3 118.8 119.0 0.2

Mining (except oil and gas)

186.3 191.4 190.6 189.0 183.7 187.6 187.1 186.7 -0.4

Coal mining

40.8 41.9 41.7 41.4 40.8 41.8 41.7 41.5 -0.2

Metal ore mining

43.1 44.3 44.2 43.7 43.2 43.7 43.9 43.8 -0.1

Nonmetallic mineral mining and quarrying

102.4 105.2 104.7 103.9 99.7 102.0 101.5 101.4 -0.1

Support activities for mining

269.7 293.1 293.2 292.7 267.8 290.9 291.4 291.7 0.3

Construction

7,956 8,185 8,215 8,173 7,797 7,967 8,003 8,014 11

Construction of buildings

1,773.8 1,834.7 1,838.1 1,828.0 1,754.3 1,796.2 1,804.3 1,810.8 6.5

Residential building construction

930.8 942.1 942.1 939.2 924.6 922.6 926.4 933.1 6.7

Nonresidential building construction

843.0 892.6 896.0 888.8 829.7 873.6 877.9 877.7 -0.2

Heavy and civil engineering construction

1,125.7 1,172.1 1,178.5 1,180.4 1,073.7 1,120.2 1,125.0 1,127.2 2.2

Specialty trade contractors

5,056.3 5,178.3 5,198.4 5,164.1 4,968.9 5,050.8 5,073.2 5,075.8 2.6

Residential specialty trade contractors

2,348.3 2,415.3 2,408.6 2,396.4 2,316.7 2,354.5 2,357.6 2,363.5 5.9

Nonresidential specialty trade contractors

2,708.0 2,763.0 2,789.8 2,767.7 2,652.2 2,696.3 2,715.6 2,712.3 -3.3

Manufacturing

12,918 13,038 13,056 13,014 12,917 12,983 12,994 13,011 17

Durable goods

8,022 8,155 8,182 8,156 8,032 8,137 8,150 8,163 13

Wood product manufacturing

429.6 422.2 425.6 424.7 430.9 420.6 424.1 425.5 1.4

Nonmetallic mineral product manufacturing

427.1 437.8 437.9 435.8 422.8 432.1 432.0 432.8 0.8

Primary metal manufacturing

364.7 372.0 372.0 369.8 366.8 371.7 371.9 371.4 -0.5

Fabricated metal product manufacturing

1,437.4 1,457.5 1,457.3 1,453.7 1,440.5 1,450.7 1,455.3 1,456.3 1.0

Machinery manufacturing

1,106.9 1,139.6 1,138.4 1,131.1 1,110.2 1,131.1 1,134.3 1,135.1 0.8

Computer and electronic product manufacturing

1,092.0 1,113.7 1,109.2 1,098.3 1,094.2 1,105.9 1,103.3 1,100.9 -2.4

Computer and peripheral equipment manufacturing

164.6 169.3 168.8 167.3 164.8 168.3 168.1 167.6 -0.5

Communications equipment manufacturing

83.5 86.6 85.9 86.2 84.1 85.8 85.9 86.4 0.5

Semiconductor and other electronic component manufacturing

389.6 390.6 388.3 382.8 390.8 386.8 385.9 384.3 -1.6

Navigational, measuring, electromedical, and control instruments manufacturing

422.1 433.2 432.6 428.8 422.5 431.4 430.3 429.4 -0.9

Manufacturing and reproducing magnetic and optical media and audio and video equipment manufacturing

32.2 34.0 33.6 33.2 32.0 33.5 33.1 33.2 0.1

Electrical equipment, appliance, and component manufacturing

405.4 406.7 407.3 407.8 406.4 404.4 406.8 407.8 1.0

Transportation equipment manufacturing(1)

1,751.4 1,808.2 1,842.2 1,848.9 1,747.7 1,827.8 1,833.1 1,843.4 10.3

Motor vehicles and parts(2)

1,032.9 1,051.2 1,075.3 1,083.9 1,029.5 1,073.2 1,070.6 1,079.5 8.9

Furniture and related product manufacturing

377.0 362.0 360.7 356.7 381.0 361.0 360.3 359.2 -1.1

Miscellaneous manufacturing

630.9 635.3 631.7 628.8 631.8 631.2 629.2 630.3 1.1

Nondurable goods

4,896 4,883 4,874 4,858 4,885 4,846 4,844 4,848 4

Food manufacturing

1,719.4 1,728.7 1,733.2 1,726.7 1,707.6 1,713.9 1,717.2 1,719.1 1.9

Textile mills

98.9 94.3 93.6 93.2 98.6 93.8 93.2 93.0 -0.2

Textile product mills

102.7 99.1 99.0 98.6 102.8 99.0 99.5 99.0 -0.5

Apparel manufacturing

92.5 91.3 91.5 90.9 92.7 91.3 91.6 91.3 -0.3

Paper manufacturing

361.1 349.3 345.9 348.5 362.2 349.7 347.3 348.9 1.6

Printing and related support activities

379.4 377.0 375.9 371.0 379.5 375.8 374.9 372.2 -2.7

Petroleum and coal products manufacturing

106.2 108.5 108.2 106.5 104.8 105.5 105.8 105.3 -0.5

Chemical manufacturing

910.3 919.3 916.1 913.3 914.3 914.5 914.9 917.5 2.6

Plastics and rubber products manufacturing

760.4 745.3 740.8 742.9 765.7 743.6 740.0 744.5 4.5

Beverage, tobacco, and leather and allied product manufacturing

365.3 370.4 369.9 365.9 356.9 358.7 359.4 357.4 -2.0

Private service-providing

109,993 112,586 112,524 112,212 110,118 111,978 112,108 112,342 234

Trade, transportation, and utilities

28,584 28,778 28,714 28,720 28,784 28,870 28,853 28,898 45

Wholesale trade

5,998.3 6,098.8 6,080.4 6,071.0 6,003.8 6,062.8 6,062.8 6,074.5 11.7

Merchant wholesalers, durable goods

3,304.5 3,366.4 3,358.7 3,354.2 3,310.1 3,348.9 3,351.5 3,358.7 7.2

Merchant wholesalers, nondurable goods

2,170.0 2,203.8 2,190.4 2,190.5 2,169.7 2,187.6 2,182.1 2,189.6 7.5

Wholesale trade agents and brokers

523.8 528.6 531.3 526.3 524.0 526.3 529.2 526.2 -3.0

Retail trade

15,358.8 15,546.6 15,505.8 15,422.7 15,502.3 15,538.0 15,538.4 15,558.1 19.7

Motor vehicle and parts dealers

2,017.4 2,050.9 2,055.9 2,059.7 2,013.5 2,040.2 2,044.8 2,054.2 9.4

Automobile dealers

1,253.5 1,260.6 1,265.8 1,269.3 1,253.0 1,259.4 1,261.8 1,267.1 5.3

Other motor vehicle dealers

178.7 185.6 183.5 176.8 177.1 176.9 176.5 175.5 -1.0

Automotive parts, accessories, and tire retailers

585.2 604.7 606.6 613.6 583.4 604.0 606.4 611.6 5.2

Building material and garden equipment and supplies dealers

1,396.7 1,405.0 1,379.9 1,356.6 1,419.4 1,372.1 1,374.5 1,375.0 0.5

Food and beverage retailers

3,196.3 3,266.4 3,256.8 3,228.3 3,211.7 3,247.5 3,248.4 3,249.1 0.7

Furniture, home furnishings, electronics, and appliance retailers

891.1 837.9 834.7 836.8 902.4 849.9 846.0 843.3 -2.7

Furniture and home furnishings retailers

447.6 429.0 427.8 429.6 454.4 435.2 434.8 435.5 0.7

Electronics and appliance retailers

443.5 408.9 406.9 407.2 453.2 416.0 412.9 411.4 -1.5

General merchandise retailers

3,063.8 3,137.6 3,125.3 3,128.3 3,123.7 3,181.2 3,176.9 3,181.3 4.4

Department stores

923.6 931.6 929.0 930.6 954.0 958.7 955.4 958.0 2.6

Warehouse clubs, supercenters, and other general merchandise retailers

2,140.2 2,206.0 2,196.3 2,197.7 2,169.7 2,222.5 2,221.5 2,223.3 1.8

Health and personal care retailers

1,095.4 1,090.3 1,085.8 1,088.7 1,106.2 1,104.0 1,098.7 1,099.7 1.0

Gasoline stations and fuel dealers

1,048.0 1,086.4 1,087.7 1,083.2 1,044.2 1,073.7 1,073.8 1,079.2 5.4

Clothing, clothing accessories, shoe, and jewelry retailers

1,126.9 1,131.3 1,140.5 1,116.2 1,145.1 1,135.3 1,139.5 1,137.6 -1.9

Sporting goods, hobby, musical instrument, book, and miscellaneous retailers

1,523.2 1,540.8 1,539.2 1,524.9 1,536.1 1,534.1 1,535.8 1,538.7 2.9

Transportation and warehousing

6,673.1 6,572.0 6,567.8 6,664.4 6,721.8 6,712.7 6,693.8 6,702.4 8.6

Air transportation

514.1 548.3 550.2 553.6 513.4 544.0 547.3 552.2 4.9

Rail transportation

147.3 150.5 150.5 150.5 147.1 150.3 150.3 150.4 0.1

Water transportation

67.2 71.2 71.5 70.4 65.9 67.5 68.8 68.7 -0.1

Truck transportation

1,607.3 1,619.9 1,589.0 1,587.7 1,598.3 1,600.9 1,575.7 1,584.5 8.8

Transit and ground passenger transportation

434.3 378.7 381.4 448.5 416.3 434.7 438.9 433.8 -5.1

Pipeline transportation

47.9 47.8 48.2 48.4 48.2 47.4 48.1 48.5 0.4

Scenic and sightseeing transportation

37.5 44.5 44.3 42.3 33.3 36.6 37.2 37.6 0.4

Support activities for transportation

801.4 812.7 817.3 816.8 801.9 816.1 816.8 818.6 1.8

Couriers and messengers

1,083.8 1,042.3 1,060.5 1,079.9 1,148.2 1,121.8 1,122.8 1,124.0 1.2

Warehousing and storage

1,932.3 1,856.1 1,854.9 1,866.3 1,949.2 1,893.4 1,887.9 1,884.1 -3.8

Utilities

553.7 560.2 559.8 562.2 555.6 556.0 558.4 563.2 4.8

Information

3,108 3,084 3,055 3,034 3,113 3,062 3,041 3,036 -5

Motion picture and sound recording industries

457.2 468.1 447.0 422.3 458.0 452.6 433.8 427.2 -6.6

Publishing industries

953.2 930.2 931.8 939.4 955.3 927.1 929.9 936.2 6.3

Broadcasting and content providers

357.0 351.3 346.1 345.3 356.9 352.4 346.6 346.4 -0.2

Telecommunications

665.3 644.2 639.9 640.7 666.1 642.4 640.5 640.3 -0.2

Computing infrastructure providers, data processing, web hosting, and related services

479.2 498.6 499.5 496.1 479.8 497.0 500.0 496.0 -4.0

Web search portals, libraries, archives, and other information services

196.5 191.8 191.1 189.8 197.3 190.3 189.7 190.0 0.3

Financial activities

9,066 9,222 9,210 9,152 9,068 9,152 9,154 9,157 3

Finance and insurance

6,663.0 6,751.7 6,741.5 6,700.7 6,681.4 6,722.0 6,720.9 6,717.8 -3.1

Monetary authorities-central bank

21.5 22.4 22.1 22.0 21.5 22.1 22.0 22.0 0.0

Credit intermediation and related
activities

2,680.3 2,675.7 2,667.2 2,643.1 2,688.2 2,665.2 2,658.4 2,650.9 -7.5

Depository credit intermediation(1)

1,763.7 1,793.5 1,787.6 1,772.5 1,770.7 1,784.9 1,782.5 1,780.4 -2.1

Commercial banking

1,363.8 1,379.1 1,374.9 1,361.9 1,369.9 1,372.2 1,370.6 1,368.7 -1.9

Nondepository credit intermediation

589.3 570.6 566.4 561.6 589.2 568.5 564.2 561.3 -2.9

Activities related to credit intermediation

327.3 311.6 313.2 309.0 328.3 311.9 311.7 309.2 -2.5

Securities, commodity contracts, funds, trusts, and other financial vehicles, investments, and related activities

1,054.8 1,099.0 1,098.9 1,084.9 1,058.6 1,085.6 1,088.3 1,088.8 0.5

Insurance carriers and related activities

2,906.4 2,954.6 2,953.3 2,950.7 2,913.1 2,949.1 2,952.2 2,956.1 3.9

Real estate and rental and leasing

2,402.6 2,470.5 2,468.4 2,451.7 2,387.0 2,430.2 2,433.4 2,439.1 5.7

Real estate

1,835.6 1,869.0 1,868.9 1,857.6 1,830.3 1,850.6 1,852.8 1,855.3 2.5

Rental and leasing services

544.5 578.8 576.7 571.5 534.1 557.2 558.1 561.1 3.0

Lessors of nonfinancial intangible assets (except copyrighted works)

22.5 22.7 22.8 22.6 22.6 22.4 22.5 22.7 0.2

Professional and business services

22,806 23,052 23,087 23,073 22,755 22,987 22,998 23,019 21

Professional, scientific, and technical services

10,538.3 10,952.5 10,925.4 10,867.8 10,622.1 10,910.9 10,924.8 10,953.8 29.0

Legal services

1,169.0 1,192.8 1,175.9 1,176.2 1,175.5 1,181.5 1,177.6 1,182.7 5.1

Accounting, tax preparation, bookkeeping, and payroll services

1,073.1 1,129.7 1,118.0 1,115.8 1,128.8 1,163.3 1,165.8 1,168.9 3.1

Architectural, engineering, and related services

1,633.2 1,708.9 1,707.8 1,691.1 1,627.6 1,683.3 1,686.2 1,687.4 1.2

Specialized design services

153.9 160.3 161.3 159.4 154.3 159.9 160.7 160.3 -0.4

Computer systems design and related services

2,460.0 2,524.3 2,528.8 2,500.7 2,476.4 2,513.0 2,517.2 2,516.5 -0.7

Management, scientific, and technical consulting services

1,801.7 1,887.3 1,884.7 1,881.6 1,807.7 1,883.7 1,884.4 1,891.8 7.4

Scientific research and development services

902.8 953.8 953.3 943.7 906.7 938.1 942.9 947.0 4.1

Advertising, public relations, and related services

492.5 500.2 500.7 501.6 494.0 497.7 499.1 502.1 3.0

Other professional, scientific, and technical services

852.1 895.2 894.9 897.7 851.1 890.4 890.8 897.1 6.3

Management of companies and enterprises

2,497.4 2,535.8 2,537.3 2,527.1 2,500.6 2,519.2 2,526.8 2,530.1 3.3

Administrative and support and waste management and remediation services

9,769.8 9,563.7 9,624.0 9,678.0 9,632.2 9,557.1 9,546.2 9,534.8 -11.4

Administrative and support services

9,283.6 9,061.8 9,120.7 9,177.3 9,149.3 9,060.9 9,049.1 9,037.6 -11.5

Office administrative services

605.9 626.8 627.4 632.3 603.7 621.9 622.8 630.0 7.2

Facilities support services

158.5 165.5 167.1 162.1 158.1 163.8 164.3 162.1 -2.2

Employment services(1)

3,964.2 3,617.1 3,681.0 3,776.3 3,910.5 3,736.1 3,723.1 3,708.4 -14.7

Temporary help services

3,172.0 2,856.3 2,906.2 2,996.4 3,131.2 2,960.9 2,947.6 2,943.4 -4.2

Business support services

779.1 745.5 741.3 741.3 785.5 757.0 751.0 747.2 -3.8

Travel arrangement and reservation services

174.6 185.9 186.6 187.0 173.1 183.2 184.1 185.6 1.5

Investigation and security services

969.1 978.7 983.0 978.1 966.3 979.8 980.5 976.9 -3.6

Services to buildings and dwellings

2,288.2 2,398.5 2,390.8 2,353.2 2,215.0 2,278.0 2,283.9 2,286.4 2.5

Other support services

344.0 343.8 343.5 347.0 337.0 341.0 339.5 341.0 1.5

Waste management and remediation services

486.2 501.9 503.3 500.7 482.9 496.2 497.1 497.2 0.1

Private education and health services

24,539 25,120 25,242 25,545 24,576 25,420 25,517 25,587 70

Private educational services

3,839.6 3,647.3 3,667.8 3,932.9 3,835.4 3,933.6 3,936.0 3,940.3 4.3

Health care and social assistance

20,699.5 21,472.5 21,574.5 21,612.2 20,740.5 21,486.4 21,580.5 21,646.4 65.9

Health care(3)

16,420.2 16,954.7 17,025.1 17,052.4 16,429.3 16,947.2 17,014.2 17,055.1 40.9

Ambulatory health care services

8,160.7 8,431.5 8,467.4 8,483.9 8,180.0 8,439.6 8,476.2 8,500.5 24.3

Offices of physicians

2,821.6 2,906.5 2,918.0 2,925.1 2,827.2 2,906.7 2,921.2 2,928.6 7.4

Offices of dentists

1,012.5 1,042.6 1,042.1 1,039.9 1,017.0 1,042.2 1,040.9 1,043.5 2.6

Offices of other health practitioners

1,094.0 1,136.9 1,144.2 1,142.8 1,099.5 1,137.8 1,143.4 1,147.1 3.7

Outpatient care centers

1,040.8 1,060.2 1,063.5 1,066.3 1,042.1 1,061.5 1,065.2 1,068.1 2.9

Medical and diagnostic laboratories

319.4 323.8 325.9 324.1 320.5 324.2 325.6 325.7 0.1

Home health care services

1,545.7 1,624.5 1,632.7 1,641.1 1,547.7 1,627.7 1,637.3 1,643.7 6.4

Other ambulatory health care services

326.7 337.0 341.0 344.6 326.1 339.5 342.6 343.7 1.1

Hospitals

5,215.5 5,338.5 5,358.7 5,367.9 5,208.7 5,335.8 5,349.9 5,358.3 8.4

Nursing and residential care facilities

3,044.0 3,184.7 3,199.0 3,200.6 3,040.6 3,171.8 3,188.1 3,196.3 8.2

Skilled nursing care facilities

1,365.3 1,425.4 1,434.7 1,437.0 1,362.1 1,419.6 1,430.2 1,432.6 2.4

Residential intellectual and developmental disability, mental health, and substance abuse facilities

616.6 639.5 641.4 644.1 616.6 637.2 639.7 643.3 3.6

Continuing care retirement communities and assisted living facilities for the elderly

909.5 962.6 965.6 962.3 909.2 958.6 961.3 963.0 1.7

Other residential care facilities

152.6 157.2 157.3 157.2 152.7 156.4 156.9 157.3 0.4

Social assistance

4,279.3 4,517.8 4,549.4 4,559.8 4,311.2 4,539.2 4,566.3 4,591.3 25.0

Individual and family services

2,847.2 3,044.6 3,057.5 3,056.5 2,868.6 3,035.7 3,057.6 3,076.8 19.2

Community food and housing, and emergency and other relief services

201.1 217.6 217.6 217.6 203.4 218.5 219.1 220.0 0.9

Vocational rehabilitation services

269.1 283.1 282.7 283.2 269.5 280.0 280.3 284.1 3.8

Child care services

961.9 972.5 991.6 1,002.5 969.7 1,005.0 1,009.3 1,010.4 1.1

Leisure and hospitality

16,157 17,388 17,288 16,822 16,074 16,621 16,665 16,761 96

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

2,397.0 2,795.4 2,737.4 2,541.9 2,348.5 2,460.2 2,477.8 2,497.1 19.3

Performing arts, spectator sports, and related industries

546.7 564.7 571.5 583.1 522.6 534.6 542.8 551.5 8.7

Museums, historical sites, and similar institutions

164.1 187.6 183.9 177.6 162.0 172.3 173.8 175.7 1.9

Amusement, gambling, and recreation industries

1,686.2 2,043.1 1,982.0 1,781.2 1,663.9 1,753.3 1,761.2 1,769.9 8.7

Accommodation and food services

13,759.6 14,592.7 14,550.1 14,280.1 13,725.5 14,161.2 14,187.6 14,263.9 76.3

Accommodation

1,819.3 2,016.7 1,992.6 1,909.4 1,800.4 1,867.9 1,879.9 1,895.5 15.6

Food services and drinking places

11,940.3 12,576.0 12,557.5 12,370.7 11,925.1 12,293.3 12,307.7 12,368.4 60.7

Other services

5,733 5,942 5,928 5,866 5,748 5,866 5,880 5,884 4

Repair and maintenance

1,403.7 1,463.9 1,460.3 1,456.2 1,405.5 1,452.3 1,453.3 1,457.4 4.1

Personal and laundry services

1,495.6 1,544.7 1,549.5 1,545.7 1,503.1 1,536.7 1,545.3 1,553.0 7.7

Religious, grantmaking, civic, professional, and similar organizations

2,833.8 2,932.9 2,918.2 2,863.6 2,838.9 2,877.3 2,881.5 2,873.1 -8.4

Government

22,323 21,561 21,969 22,953 22,237 22,739 22,789 22,862 73

Federal

2,875 2,946 2,954 2,963 2,867 2,935 2,946 2,952 6

Federal, except U.S. Postal Service

2,279.9 2,341.1 2,351.1 2,360.2 2,267.3 2,329.4 2,338.0 2,344.7 6.7

U.S. Postal Service

594.8 605.3 602.4 602.5 599.5 605.5 608.4 606.8 -1.6

State government

5,198 4,924 5,013 5,396 5,115 5,243 5,267 5,296 29

State government education

2,534.8 2,197.6 2,273.9 2,666.1 2,458.0 2,532.8 2,545.7 2,574.8 29.1

State government, excluding education

2,662.9 2,726.0 2,738.8 2,729.5 2,657.4 2,710.0 2,721.3 2,721.5 0.2

Local government

14,250 13,691 14,002 14,594 14,255 14,561 14,576 14,614 38

Local government education

7,806.8 6,841.4 7,200.8 7,954.3 7,811.4 7,944.9 7,956.1 7,966.9 10.8

Local government, excluding education

6,443.3 6,849.5 6,801.5 6,640.1 6,443.8 6,616.2 6,620.2 6,646.8 26.6

Footnotes
(1) Includes other industries, not shown separately.
(2) Includes motor vehicle manufacturing, motor vehicle body and trailer manufacturing, and motor vehicle parts manufacturing.
(3) Includes ambulatory health care services, hospitals, and nursing and residential care facilities.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2022 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-2. Average weekly hours and overtime of all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Sept.
2022
July
2023
Aug.
2023(p)
Sept.
2023(p)

AVERAGE WEEKLY HOURS

Total private

34.6 34.3 34.4 34.4

Goods-producing

39.9 39.8 39.8 39.8

Mining and logging

46.4 44.6 45.2 45.1

Construction

38.7 38.9 39.1 39.0

Manufacturing

40.3 40.1 40.0 40.1

Durable goods

40.7 40.6 40.6 40.6

Nondurable goods

39.7 39.1 39.0 39.2

Private service-providing

33.5 33.3 33.3 33.3

Trade, transportation, and utilities

34.1 33.9 34.0 33.9

Wholesale trade

38.9 38.7 38.8 38.8

Retail trade

30.1 29.9 29.9 29.8

Transportation and warehousing

38.5 38.2 38.4 38.3

Utilities

42.2 42.2 41.9 41.8

Information

36.6 36.3 36.3 36.3

Financial activities

37.4 37.4 37.4 37.4

Professional and business services

36.8 36.5 36.5 36.5

Private education and health services

33.5 33.3 33.4 33.3

Leisure and hospitality

25.6 25.3 25.3 25.6

Other services

32.3 32.2 32.3 32.4

AVERAGE OVERTIME HOURS

Manufacturing

3.2 3.0 3.1 3.1

Durable goods

3.3 3.2 3.2 3.2

Nondurable goods

3.0 2.7 2.8 2.8

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2022 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-3. Average hourly and weekly earnings of all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Average hourly earnings Average weekly earnings
Sept.
2022
July
2023
Aug.
2023(p)
Sept.
2023(p)
Sept.
2022
July
2023
Aug.
2023(p)
Sept.
2023(p)

Total private

$32.53 $33.73 $33.81 $33.88 $1,125.54 $1,156.94 $1,163.06 $1,165.47

Goods-producing

32.71 34.27 34.34 34.45 1,305.13 1,363.95 1,366.73 1,371.11

Mining and logging

36.31 38.17 38.27 38.35 1,684.78 1,702.38 1,729.80 1,729.59

Construction

35.05 36.66 36.73 36.85 1,356.44 1,426.07 1,436.14 1,437.15

Manufacturing

31.16 32.63 32.68 32.79 1,255.75 1,308.46 1,307.20 1,314.88

Durable goods

32.76 34.15 34.20 34.31 1,333.33 1,386.49 1,388.52 1,392.99

Nondurable goods

28.46 29.96 30.03 30.15 1,129.86 1,171.44 1,171.17 1,181.88

Private service-providing

32.49 33.61 33.69 33.75 1,088.42 1,119.21 1,121.88 1,123.88

Trade, transportation, and utilities

27.91 29.05 29.15 29.27 951.73 984.80 991.10 992.25

Wholesale trade

35.27 36.92 37.13 37.27 1,372.00 1,428.80 1,440.64 1,446.08

Retail trade

23.11 23.93 24.01 24.09 695.61 715.51 717.90 717.88

Transportation and warehousing

28.12 29.19 29.24 29.36 1,082.62 1,115.06 1,122.82 1,124.49

Utilities

47.97 50.19 50.09 50.19 2,024.33 2,118.02 2,098.77 2,097.94

Information

47.73 48.08 48.21 48.14 1,746.92 1,745.30 1,750.02 1,747.48

Financial activities

42.09 43.61 43.97 44.16 1,574.17 1,631.01 1,644.48 1,651.58

Professional and business services

39.00 40.59 40.56 40.67 1,435.20 1,481.54 1,480.44 1,484.46

Private education and health services

32.11 33.02 33.10 33.15 1,075.69 1,099.57 1,105.54 1,103.90

Leisure and hospitality

20.32 21.23 21.27 21.27 520.19 537.12 538.13 544.51

Other services

29.12 29.83 30.02 30.08 940.58 960.53 969.65 974.59

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2022 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-4. Indexes of aggregate weekly hours and payrolls for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
[2007=100]
Industry Index of aggregate weekly hours(1) Index of aggregate weekly payrolls(2)
Sept.
2022
July
2023
Aug.
2023(p)
Sept.
2023(p)
Percent change from:
Aug.
2023 - Sept.
2023(p)
Sept.
2022
July
2023
Aug.
2023(p)
Sept.
2023(p)
Percent change from:
Aug.
2023 - Sept.
2023(p)

Total private

114.2 115.0 115.5 115.7 0.2 177.6 185.5 186.7 187.5 0.4

Goods-producing

96.9 97.9 98.1 98.3 0.2 143.3 151.7 152.3 153.0 0.5

Mining and logging

89.4 90.3 91.5 91.4 -0.1 130.3 138.3 140.5 140.7 0.1

Construction

104.0 106.8 107.9 107.7 -0.2 158.4 170.2 172.1 172.5 0.2

Manufacturing

93.6 93.7 93.5 93.9 0.4 135.7 142.1 142.1 143.1 0.7

Durable goods

92.0 93.0 93.2 93.3 0.1 133.9 141.1 141.5 142.2 0.5

Nondurable goods

96.8 94.6 94.3 94.9 0.6 139.8 143.8 143.7 145.1 1.0

Private service-providing

118.8 120.0 120.2 120.4 0.2 187.6 196.1 196.8 197.6 0.4

Trade, transportation, and utilities

107.2 106.9 107.2 107.0 -0.2 161.4 167.5 168.5 169.0 0.3

Wholesale trade

103.0 103.5 103.8 104.0 0.2 152.0 159.8 161.2 162.1 0.6

Retail trade

95.0 94.6 94.6 94.4 -0.2 145.1 149.6 150.1 150.3 0.1

Transportation and warehousing

148.7 147.3 147.7 147.5 -0.1 212.7 218.8 219.7 220.3 0.3

Utilities

101.4 101.5 101.2 101.9 0.7 160.8 168.3 167.5 168.9 0.8

Information

104.1 101.5 100.8 100.7 -0.1 176.9 173.8 173.1 172.5 -0.3

Financial activities

111.1 112.1 112.2 112.2 0.0 182.4 190.7 192.3 193.2 0.5

Professional and business services

131.0 131.3 131.3 131.4 0.1 207.0 215.8 215.8 216.5 0.3

Private education and health services

134.4 138.2 139.2 139.1 -0.1 207.7 219.6 221.6 221.9 0.1

Leisure and hospitality

117.4 120.0 120.3 122.4 1.7 192.5 205.5 206.4 210.1 1.8

Other services

107.0 108.9 109.5 109.9 0.4 170.9 178.1 180.2 181.2 0.6

Footnotes
(1) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding 2007 annual average aggregate hours. Aggregate hours estimates are the product of estimates of average weekly hours and employment.
(2) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding 2007 annual average aggregate weekly payrolls. Aggregate payrolls estimates are the product of estimates of average hourly earnings, average weekly hours, and employment.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2022 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-5. Employment of women on nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Women employees (in thousands) Percent of all employees
Sept.
2022
July
2023
Aug.
2023(p)
Sept.
2023(p)
Sept.
2022
July
2023
Aug.
2023(p)
Sept.
2023(p)

Total nonfarm

76,500 77,883 78,011 78,196 49.8 49.8 49.8 49.8

Total private

63,558 64,619 64,719 64,877 48.4 48.4 48.4 48.4

Goods-producing

4,921 5,001 4,996 5,009 23.1 23.2 23.1 23.1

Mining and logging

79 83 83 83 12.9 12.9 12.9 12.9

Construction

1,099 1,137 1,138 1,143 14.1 14.3 14.2 14.3

Manufacturing

3,743 3,781 3,775 3,783 29.0 29.1 29.1 29.1

Durable goods

1,995 2,028 2,029 2,032 24.8 24.9 24.9 24.9

Nondurable goods

1,748 1,753 1,746 1,751 35.8 36.2 36.0 36.1

Private service-providing

58,637 59,618 59,723 59,868 53.2 53.2 53.3 53.3

Trade, transportation, and utilities

11,346 11,314 11,301 11,300 39.4 39.2 39.2 39.1

Wholesale trade

1,837.8 1,861.2 1,862.5 1,857.1 30.6 30.7 30.7 30.6

Retail trade

7,547.4 7,502.2 7,497.4 7,503.1 48.7 48.3 48.3 48.2

Transportation and warehousing

1,819.3 1,804.6 1,793.2 1,791.3 27.1 26.9 26.8 26.7

Utilities

141.9 145.7 147.4 148.1 25.5 26.2 26.4 26.3

Information

1,258 1,245 1,244 1,243 40.4 40.7 40.9 40.9

Financial activities

5,052 5,089 5,090 5,095 55.7 55.6 55.6 55.6

Professional and business services

10,486 10,570 10,577 10,589 46.1 46.0 46.0 46.0

Private education and health services

18,945 19,525 19,597 19,648 77.1 76.8 76.8 76.8

Leisure and hospitality

8,490 8,734 8,771 8,845 52.8 52.5 52.6 52.8

Other services

3,060 3,141 3,143 3,148 53.2 53.5 53.5 53.5

Government

12,942 13,264 13,292 13,319 58.2 58.3 58.3 58.3

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2022 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-6. Employment of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
[In thousands]
Industry Sept.
2022
July
2023
Aug.
2023(p)
Sept.
2023(p)

Total private

107,078 108,766 108,846 109,072

Goods-producing

15,313 15,467 15,475 15,489

Mining and logging

460 495 496 498

Construction

5,768 5,850 5,873 5,872

Manufacturing

9,085 9,122 9,106 9,119

Durable goods

5,581 5,630 5,619 5,629

Nondurable goods

3,504 3,492 3,487 3,490

Private service-providing

91,765 93,299 93,371 93,583

Trade, transportation, and utilities

24,259 24,329 24,323 24,374

Wholesale trade

4,768.3 4,795.5 4,784.6 4,789.1

Retail trade

13,196.0 13,236.3 13,242.4 13,281.5

Transportation and warehousing

5,852.9 5,855.8 5,852.0 5,855.3

Utilities

441.4 441.0 444.0 448.1

Information

2,465 2,452 2,425 2,421

Financial activities

6,830 6,863 6,861 6,870

Professional and business services

18,240 18,214 18,202 18,209

Private education and health services

21,368 22,111 22,195 22,286

Leisure and hospitality

13,938 14,548 14,562 14,623

Other services

4,665 4,782 4,803 4,800

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2022 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-7. Average weekly hours and overtime of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry Sept.
2022
July
2023
Aug.
2023(p)
Sept.
2023(p)

AVERAGE WEEKLY HOURS

Total private

34.0 33.8 33.8 33.8

Goods-producing

40.7 40.5 40.6 40.5

Mining and logging

48.1 47.1 47.7 47.8

Construction

39.6 39.5 39.7 39.6

Manufacturing

41.1 40.7 40.7 40.7

Durable goods

41.4 41.0 41.0 40.9

Nondurable goods

40.4 40.2 40.3 40.5

Private service-providing

32.9 32.7 32.7 32.7

Trade, transportation, and utilities

34.1 34.0 34.0 34.1

Wholesale trade

38.9 38.8 38.8 38.8

Retail trade

30.4 30.3 30.4 30.5

Transportation and warehousing

37.8 37.7 37.6 37.6

Utilities

42.1 43.0 42.4 42.3

Information

36.1 35.9 35.9 35.9

Financial activities

37.3 37.0 37.0 36.9

Professional and business services

36.5 36.2 36.4 36.2

Private education and health services

32.6 32.5 32.5 32.4

Leisure and hospitality

24.6 24.1 24.1 24.3

Other services

31.2 31.2 31.3 31.4

AVERAGE OVERTIME HOURS

Manufacturing

3.9 3.7 3.6 3.6

Durable goods

4.1 3.8 3.7 3.7

Nondurable goods

3.7 3.5 3.5 3.4

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2022 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-8. Average hourly and weekly earnings of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry Average hourly earnings Average weekly earnings
Sept.
2022
July
2023
Aug.
2023(p)
Sept.
2023(p)
Sept.
2022
July
2023
Aug.
2023(p)
Sept.
2023(p)

Total private

$27.85 $28.94 $29.00 $29.06 $946.90 $978.17 $980.20 $982.23

Goods-producing

28.27 29.63 29.74 29.86 1,150.59 1,200.02 1,207.44 1,209.33

Mining and logging

32.92 34.37 34.03 34.48 1,583.45 1,618.83 1,623.23 1,648.14

Construction

32.74 34.22 34.41 34.54 1,296.50 1,351.69 1,366.08 1,367.78

Manufacturing

25.26 26.49 26.54 26.63 1,038.19 1,078.14 1,080.18 1,083.84

Durable goods

26.40 27.62 27.62 27.75 1,092.96 1,132.42 1,132.42 1,134.98

Nondurable goods

23.40 24.62 24.75 24.80 945.36 989.72 997.43 1,004.40

Private service-providing

27.76 28.79 28.85 28.90 913.30 941.43 943.40 945.03

Trade, transportation, and utilities

24.28 25.28 25.38 25.39 827.95 859.52 862.92 865.80

Wholesale trade

29.55 30.46 30.65 30.63 1,149.50 1,181.85 1,189.22 1,188.44

Retail trade

19.85 20.53 20.62 20.69 603.44 622.06 626.85 631.05

Transportation and warehousing

26.38 27.89 27.96 27.94 997.16 1,051.45 1,051.30 1,050.54

Utilities

42.40 44.74 44.85 44.86 1,785.04 1,923.82 1,901.64 1,897.58

Information

38.62 39.49 39.62 39.63 1,394.18 1,417.69 1,422.36 1,422.72

Financial activities

32.56 33.90 34.01 34.19 1,214.49 1,254.30 1,258.37 1,261.61

Professional and business services

32.75 34.25 34.35 34.44 1,195.38 1,239.85 1,250.34 1,246.73

Private education and health services

29.30 30.18 30.14 30.26 955.18 980.85 979.55 980.42

Leisure and hospitality

18.05 18.84 18.87 18.89 444.03 454.04 454.77 459.03

Other services

25.11 25.80 25.93 25.97 783.43 804.96 811.61 815.46

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2022 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-9. Indexes of aggregate weekly hours and payrolls for production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
[2002=100]
Industry Index of aggregate weekly hours(2) Index of aggregate weekly payrolls(3)
Sept.
2022
July
2023
Aug.
2023(p)
Sept.
2023(p)
Percent change from:
Aug.
2023 - Sept.
2023(p)
Sept.
2022
July
2023
Aug.
2023(p)
Sept.
2023(p)
Percent change from:
Aug.
2023 - Sept.
2023(p)

Total private

121.3 122.5 122.6 122.8 0.2 225.8 237.0 237.6 238.6 0.4

Goods-producing

95.2 95.7 96.0 95.9 -0.1 164.9 173.7 174.8 175.3 0.3

Mining and logging

117.6 123.9 125.7 126.5 0.6 225.1 247.7 248.8 253.7 2.0

Construction

114.4 115.7 116.7 116.4 -0.3 202.2 213.8 216.9 217.1 0.1

Manufacturing

85.7 85.2 85.1 85.2 0.1 141.6 147.6 147.7 148.4 0.5

Durable goods

86.8 86.7 86.5 86.5 0.0 143.1 149.5 149.2 149.8 0.4

Nondurable goods

83.4 82.7 82.8 83.3 0.6 137.9 143.9 144.8 145.9 0.8

Private service-providing

128.6 130.0 130.1 130.4 0.2 244.9 256.7 257.4 258.5 0.4

Trade, transportation, and utilities

115.8 115.8 115.8 116.3 0.4 200.9 209.2 210.0 211.1 0.5

Wholesale trade

110.1 110.4 110.2 110.3 0.1 192.0 198.5 199.3 199.4 0.1

Retail trade

101.7 101.7 102.1 102.7 0.6 173.1 179.0 180.5 182.2 0.9

Transportation and warehousing

167.4 167.1 166.5 166.6 0.1 281.1 296.6 296.4 296.3 0.0

Utilities

95.0 97.0 96.3 96.9 0.6 168.2 181.1 180.2 181.5