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Economic News Release
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CES CES Program Links

Employment Situation News Release

Transmission of material in this news release is embargoed until	            USDL-21-1799
8:30 a.m. (ET) Friday, October 8, 2021

Technical information: 
 Household data:	(202) 691-6378  *  cpsinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/cps
 Establishment data:    (202) 691-6555  *  cesinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/ces

Media contact:	        (202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov

	
                        THE EMPLOYMENT SITUATION -- SEPTEMBER 2021


Total nonfarm payroll employment rose by 194,000 in September, and the unemployment rate
fell by 0.4 percentage point to 4.8 percent, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported 
today. Notable job gains occurred in leisure and hospitality, in professional and business
services, in retail trade, and in transportation and warehousing. Employment in public
education declined over the month. 

This news release presents statistics from two monthly surveys. The household survey measures
labor force status, including unemployment, by demographic characteristics. The establishment
survey measures nonfarm employment, hours, and earnings by industry. For more information
about the concepts and statistical methodology used in these two surveys, see the Technical
Note.

Household Survey Data

The unemployment rate fell by 0.4 percentage point to 4.8 percent in September. The number
of unemployed persons fell by 710,000 to 7.7 million. Both measures are down considerably
from their highs at the end of the February-April 2020 recession. However, they remain
above their levels prior to the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic (3.5 percent and 5.7 million,
respectively, in February 2020). (See table A-1. See the box note at the end of this news release
for more information about how the household survey and its measures were affected by the
coronavirus pandemic.)

Among the major worker groups, the unemployment rates for adult men (4.7 percent), adult
women (4.2 percent), Whites (4.2 percent), and Blacks (7.9 percent) declined in September. 
The jobless rates for teenagers (11.5 percent), Asians (4.2 percent), and Hispanics (6.3 
percent) showed little change over the month. (See tables A-1, A-2, and A-3.)

Among the unemployed, the number of permanent job losers declined by 236,000 to 2.3 million
in September but is 953,000 higher than in February 2020. The number of persons on temporary
layoff, at 1.1 million, changed little in September. This measure is down considerably from
the high of 18.0 million in April 2020 but is 374,000 above the February 2020 level. The
number of reentrants to the labor force decreased by 198,000 in September to 2.3 million,
after increasing by a similar amount in August. (Reentrants are persons who previously worked
but were not in the labor force prior to beginning their job search.) (See table A-11.)

The number of long-term unemployed (those jobless for 27 weeks or more) decreased by 496,000
in September to 2.7 million but is 1.6 million higher than in February 2020. The long-term 
unemployed accounted for 34.5 percent of the total unemployed in September. The number of
persons jobless less than 5 weeks, at 2.2 million, changed little. (See table A-12.)

The labor force participation rate was little changed at 61.6 percent in September and has
remained within a narrow range of 61.4 percent to 61.7 percent since June 2020. The 
participation rate is 1.7 percentage points lower than in February 2020. The employment-
population ratio, at 58.7 percent, edged up in September. This measure is up from its low
of 51.3 percent in April 2020 but remains below the figure of 61.1 percent in February 2020.
(See table A-1.)

In September, the number of persons employed part time for economic reasons, at 4.5 million,
was essentially unchanged for the second month in a row. There were 4.4 million persons in
this category in February 2020. These individuals, who would have preferred full-time
employment, were working part time because their hours had been reduced or they were unable
to find full-time jobs. (See table A-8.)

The number of persons not in the labor force who currently want a job was 6.0 million in
September, little changed over the month but up by 959,000 since February 2020. These
individuals were not counted as unemployed because they were not actively looking for work 
during the last 4 weeks or were unavailable to take a job. (See table A-1.) 

Among those not in the labor force who wanted a job, the number of persons marginally 
attached to the labor force edged up to 1.7 million in September, following a decline in 
the prior month. These individuals wanted and were available for work and had looked for a 
job sometime in the prior 12 months but had not looked for work in the 4 weeks preceding the
survey. The number of discouraged workers, a subset of the marginally attached who believed
that no jobs were available for them, was 450,000 in September, little changed from the 
previous month. (See Summary table A.) 

Household Survey Supplemental Data 

In September, 13.2 percent of employed persons teleworked because of the coronavirus pandemic,
little changed from the prior month. These data refer to employed persons who teleworked or
worked at home for pay at some point in the last 4 weeks specifically because of the pandemic. 

In September, 5.0 million persons reported that they had been unable to work because their
employer closed or lost business due to the pandemic--that is, they did not work at all or
worked fewer hours at some point in the last 4 weeks due to the pandemic. This measure is
down from 5.6 million in August. Among those who reported in September that they were unable
to work because of pandemic-related closures or lost business, 15.5 percent received at least
some pay from their employer for the hours not worked, little changed from the prior month. 

Among those not in the labor force in September, 1.6 million persons were prevented from 
looking for work due to the pandemic, little changed from August. (To be counted as unemployed,
by definition, individuals must be either actively looking for work or on temporary layoff.) 

These supplemental data come from questions added to the household survey beginning in May
2020 to help gauge the effects of the pandemic on the labor market. The data are not seasonally
adjusted. Tables with estimates from the supplemental questions for all months are available
online at www.bls.gov/cps/effects-of-the-coronavirus-covid-19-pandemic.htm.

Establishment Survey Data

Total nonfarm payroll employment increased by 194,000 in September. Thus far this year, monthly
job growth has averaged 561,000. Nonfarm employment has increased by 17.4 million since a
recent trough in April 2020 but is down by 5.0 million, or 3.3 percent, from its pre-pandemic
level in February 2020. In September, notable job gains occurred in leisure and hospitality,
in professional and business services, in retail trade, and in transportation and warehousing.
Employment in public education declined over the month. (See table B-1. See the box note at the
end of this news release for more information about how the establishment survey and its measures
were affected by the coronavirus pandemic.)

Employment in leisure and hospitality increased by 74,000 in September, with continued job growth
in arts, entertainment, and recreation (+43,000). Employment in food services and drinking places
changed little for the second consecutive month, compared with an average monthly gain of 197,000 
from January through July. Employment in leisure and hospitality is down by 1.6 million, or 9.4
percent, since February 2020.

Professional and business services added 60,000 jobs in September. Employment continued to increase
in architectural and engineering services (+15,000), management and technical consulting services
(+15,000), and computer systems design and related services (+9,000). Employment in professional
and business services is 385,000 below its level in February 2020.

In September, employment in retail trade rose by 56,000, following 2 months of little change. Over
the month, employment gains occurred in clothing and clothing accessories stores (+27,000), general
merchandise stores (+16,000), and building material and garden supply stores (+16,000). These
gains were partially offset by a loss in food and beverage stores (-12,000). Retail trade employment
is 202,000 lower than its level in February 2020.

Employment in transportation and warehousing increased by 47,000 in September, in line with gains
in the prior 2 months. In September, job gains continued in warehousing and storage (+16,000),
couriers and messengers (+13,000), and air transportation (+10,000). Employment in transportation
and warehousing is 72,000 above its pre-pandemic level in February 2020.

Employment in the information industry increased by 32,000 in September. Gains occurred in motion
picture and sound recording industries (+14,000); in publishing industries, except Internet (+11,000);
and in data processing, hosting, and related services (+6,000). Employment in information is down
by 108,000 since February 2020.

In September, social assistance added 30,000 jobs, led by a gain in child day care services (+18,000).
Employment in social assistance is 204,000 lower than in February 2020.

Employment in manufacturing increased by 26,000 in September, with gains in fabricated metal products
(+8,000), machinery (+6,000), and printing and related support activities (+4,000). These gains 
were partially offset by a decline of 6,000 in motor vehicles and parts. Manufacturing employment
is down by 353,000 since February 2020.

Construction employment rose by 22,000 in September but has shown little net change thus far this
year. Employment in construction is 201,000 below its February 2020 level.

In September, employment in wholesale trade increased by 17,000, almost entirely in the durable goods
component (+16,000). Employment in wholesale trade is down by 159,000 since February 2020.

Mining employment continued to trend up in September (+5,000), reflecting growth in support activities
for mining (+4,000). Mining employment has risen by 59,000 since a trough in August 2020 but is 93,000
below a peak in January 2019.

In September, employment decreased by 144,000 in local government education and by 17,000 in state 
government education. Employment changed little in private education (-19,000). Most back-to-school
hiring typically occurs in September. Hiring this September was lower than usual, resulting in a 
decline after seasonal adjustment. Recent employment changes are challenging to interpret, as pandemic-
related staffing fluctuations in public and private education have distorted the normal seasonal 
hiring and layoff patterns. Since February 2020, employment is down by 310,000 in local government 
education, by 194,000 in state government education, and by 172,000 in private education.

Employment in health care changed little in September (-18,000). Job losses occurred in nursing and
residential care facilities (-38,000) and hospitals (-8,000), while ambulatory health care services
added jobs (+28,000). Employment in health care is down by 524,000 since February 2020, with nursing
and residential care facilities accounting for about four-fifths of the loss.  

In September, employment showed little change in financial activities and in other services.

Average hourly earnings for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls rose by 19 cents to $30.85 in
September, following large increases in the prior 5 months. In September, average hourly earnings
of private-sector production and nonsupervisory employees rose by 14 cents to $26.15. The data for
recent months suggest that the rising demand for labor associated with the recovery from the
pandemic may have put upward pressure on wages. However, because average hourly earnings vary 
widely across industries, the large employment fluctuations since February 2020 complicate the
analysis of recent trends in average hourly earnings. (See tables B-3 and B-8.)

In September, the average workweek for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls increased by 0.2
hour to 34.8 hours. In manufacturing, the average workweek was unchanged at 40.4 hours, and overtime
edged up by 0.1 hour to 3.3 hours. The average workweek for production and nonsupervisory employees
on private nonfarm payrolls increased by 0.1 hour to 34.2 hours. (See tables B-2 and B-7.)

The change in total nonfarm payroll employment for July was revised up by 38,000, from +1,053,000 to
+1,091,000, and the change for August was revised up by 131,000, from +235,000 to +366,000. With 
these revisions, employment in July and August combined is 169,000 higher than previously reported.
(Monthly revisions result from additional reports received from businesses and government agencies
since the last published estimates and from the recalculation of seasonal factors.)

_____________
The Employment Situation for October is scheduled to be released on Friday, November 5, 2021,
at 8:30 a.m. (ET).


  ___________________________________________________________________________________________________
 |												     |
 |                   Coronavirus (COVID-19) Impact on September 2021 Household and                   | 
 |                                     Establishment Survey Data				     |
 |												     |
 |   Data collection for both surveys was affected by the pandemic. In the establishment survey,     |
 |   more data continued to be collected by web than in months prior to the pandemic. In the	     |
 |   household survey, for the safety of both interviewers and respondents, in-person interviews     |
 |   were conducted only when telephone interviews could not be done. 				     |
 |												     |
 |   As in previous months, some workers affected by the pandemic who should have been classified    |
 |   as unemployed on temporary layoff were instead misclassified as employed but not at work.	     |
 |   However, the share of responses that may have been misclassified was highest in the early	     |
 |   months of the pandemic and has been considerably lower in recent months. Since March 2020,      |
 |   BLS has published an estimate of what the unemployment rate might have been had misclassified   |
 |   workers been included among the unemployed. Repeating this same approach, the seasonally 	     |
 |   adjusted unemployment rate in September 2021 would have been 0.1 percentage point higher than   |
 |   reported. However, this represents the upper bound of our estimate of misclassification and     |
 |   probably overstates the size of the misclassification error. 				     |
 |												     |
 |   More information about the impact of the pandemic on the two surveys is available at	     |
 |   www.bls.gov/covid19/employment-situation-covid19-faq-september-2021.htm.			     |
 |___________________________________________________________________________________________________|




HOUSEHOLD DATA
Summary table A. Household data, seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Category Sept.
2020
July
2021
Aug.
2021
Sept.
2021
Change from:
Aug.
2021-
Sept.
2021

Employment status

Civilian noninstitutional population

260,742 261,469 261,611 261,766 155

Civilian labor force

160,078 161,347 161,537 161,354 -183

Participation rate

61.4 61.7 61.7 61.6 -0.1

Employed

147,543 152,645 153,154 153,680 526

Employment-population ratio

56.6 58.4 58.5 58.7 0.2

Unemployed

12,535 8,702 8,384 7,674 -710

Unemployment rate

7.8 5.4 5.2 4.8 -0.4

Not in labor force

100,664 100,123 100,074 100,412 338

Unemployment rates

Total, 16 years and over

7.8 5.4 5.2 4.8 -0.4

Adult men (20 years and over)

7.3 5.4 5.1 4.7 -0.4

Adult women (20 years and over)

7.7 5.0 4.8 4.2 -0.6

Teenagers (16 to 19 years)

16.3 9.6 11.2 11.5 0.3

White

7.0 4.8 4.5 4.2 -0.3

Black or African American

12.0 8.2 8.8 7.9 -0.9

Asian

8.8 5.3 4.6 4.2 -0.4

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

10.3 6.6 6.4 6.3 -0.1

Total, 25 years and over

7.0 4.8 4.5 4.2 -0.3

Less than a high school diploma

10.7 9.5 7.8 7.9 0.1

High school graduates, no college

9.0 6.3 6.0 5.8 -0.2

Some college or associate degree

8.1 5.0 5.1 4.5 -0.6

Bachelor's degree and higher

4.7 3.1 2.8 2.5 -0.3

Reason for unemployment

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

9,039 4,960 4,468 4,065 -403

Job leavers

808 930 822 788 -34

Reentrants

2,123 2,287 2,487 2,289 -198

New entrants

535 463 512 490 -22

Duration of unemployment

Less than 5 weeks

2,552 2,257 2,083 2,237 154

5 to 14 weeks

2,754 1,861 2,066 1,872 -194

15 to 26 weeks

4,934 1,174 1,164 990 -174

27 weeks and over

2,405 3,425 3,179 2,683 -496

Employed persons at work part time

Part time for economic reasons

6,283 4,483 4,469 4,468 -1

Slack work or business conditions

4,881 2,965 3,183 3,180 -3

Could only find part-time work

1,120 1,116 1,032 975 -57

Part time for noneconomic reasons

18,990 20,087 20,359 20,389 30

Persons not in the labor force

Marginally attached to the labor force

1,931 1,872 1,577 1,744 167

Discouraged workers

590 507 392 450 58

NOTE: Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Summary table B. Establishment data, seasonally adjusted
Category Sept.
2020
July
2021
Aug.
2021(p)
Sept.
2021(p)

EMPLOYMENT BY SELECTED INDUSTRY
(Over-the-month change, in thousands)

Total nonfarm

716 1,091 366 194

Total private

932 816 332 317

Goods-producing

91 74 37 52

Mining and logging

3 5 6 4

Construction

33 12 0 22

Manufacturing

55 57 31 26

Durable goods(1)

38 41 20 16

Motor vehicles and parts

5.1 14.1 9.9 -6.1

Nondurable goods

17 16 11 10

Private service-providing

841 742 295 265

Wholesale trade

33.9 15.0 -3.2 16.9

Retail trade

29.5 -6.1 -3.8 56.1

Transportation and warehousing

44.0 56.1 54.5 47.3

Utilities

1.7 0.3 -0.8 -0.5

Information

42 19 29 32

Financial activities

38 31 11 2

Professional and business services(1)

140 91 85 60

Temporary help services

18.3 18.6 -3.7 -5.2

Education and health services(1)

68 84 51 -7

Health care and social assistance

124.9 43.6 1.6 12.3

Leisure and hospitality

394 408 38 74

Other services

50 44 34 -16

Government

-216 275 34 -123

(3-month average change, in thousands)

Total nonfarm

1,342 889 806 550

Total private

1,174 726 652 488

WOMEN AND PRODUCTION AND NONSUPERVISORY EMPLOYEES
AS A PERCENT OF ALL EMPLOYEES(2)

Total nonfarm women employees

49.8 49.9 49.9 49.8

Total private women employees

48.4 48.4 48.4 48.3

Total private production and nonsupervisory employees

81.4 81.4 81.4 81.4

HOURS AND EARNINGS
ALL EMPLOYEES

Total private

Average weekly hours

34.8 34.7 34.6 34.8

Average hourly earnings

$29.50 $30.55 $30.66 $30.85

Average weekly earnings

$1,026.60 $1,060.09 $1,060.84 $1,073.58

Index of aggregate weekly hours (2007=100)(3)

104.8 108.8 108.8 109.7

Over-the-month percent change

1.1 0.6 0.0 0.8

Index of aggregate weekly payrolls (2007=100)(4)

147.9 158.9 159.5 161.8

Over-the-month percent change

1.2 1.0 0.4 1.4

DIFFUSION INDEX
(Over 1-month span)(5)

Total private (257 industries)

70.6 70.0 66.9 61.7

Manufacturing (75 industries)

66.7 67.3 56.0 54.0

Footnotes
(1) Includes other industries, not shown separately.
(2) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries.
(3) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding annual average aggregate hours.
(4) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding annual average aggregate weekly payrolls.
(5) Figures are the percent of industries with employment increasing plus one-half of the industries with unchanged employment, where 50 percent indicates an equal balance between industries with increasing and decreasing employment.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2020 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


Frequently Asked Questions about Employment and Unemployment Estimates

1. Why are there two monthly measures of employment?

   The household survey and establishment survey both produce sample-based estimates
   of employment, and both have strengths and limitations. The establishment survey
   employment series has a smaller margin of error on the measurement of month-to-
   month change than the household survey because of its much larger sample size. An
   over-the-month employment change of about 100,000 is statistically significant in
   the establishment survey, while the threshold for a statistically significant change
   in the household survey is about 500,000. However, the household survey has a more
   expansive scope than the establishment survey because it includes self-employed
   workers whose businesses are unincorporated, unpaid family workers, agricultural
   workers, and private household workers, who are excluded by the establishment survey.
   The household survey also provides estimates of employment for demographic groups.
   For more information on the differences between the two surveys, please visit
   https://www.bls.gov/web/empsit/ces_cps_trends.htm.

2. Are undocumented immigrants counted in the surveys?

   It is likely that both surveys include at least some undocumented immigrants. However,
   neither the establishment nor the household survey is designed to identify the legal
   status of workers. Therefore, it is not possible to determine how many are counted in
   either survey. The establishment survey does not collect data on the legal status of
   workers. The household survey does include questions which identify the foreign and
   native born, but it does not include questions about the legal status of the foreign
   born. Data on the foreign and native born are published each month in table A-7 of
   The Employment Situation news release.

3. Why does the establishment survey have revisions?

   The establishment survey revises published estimates to improve its data series by
   incorporating additional information that was not available at the time of the
   initial publication of the estimates. The establishment survey revises its initial
   monthly estimates twice, in the immediately succeeding 2 months, to incorporate
   additional sample receipts from respondents in the survey and recalculated seasonal
   adjustment factors. For more information on the monthly revisions, please visit
   https://www.bls.gov/ces/cesrevinfo.htm.

   On an annual basis, the establishment survey incorporates a benchmark revision that
   re-anchors estimates to nearly complete employment counts available from unemployment
   insurance tax records. The benchmark helps to control for sampling and modeling errors
   in the estimates. For more information on the annual benchmark revision, please visit
   https://www.bls.gov/web/empsit/cesbmart.htm.

4. Does the establishment survey sample include small firms?

   Yes; about 40 percent of the establishment survey sample is comprised of business
   establishments with fewer than 20 employees. The establishment survey sample is
   designed to maximize the reliability of the statewide total nonfarm employment
   estimate; firms from all states, size classes, and industries are appropriately
   sampled to achieve that goal.

5. Does the establishment survey account for employment from new businesses?

   Yes; monthly establishment survey estimates include an adjustment to account for
   the net employment change generated by business births and deaths. The adjustment
   comes from an econometric model that forecasts the monthly net jobs impact of
   business births and deaths based on the actual past values of the net impact that
   can be observed with a lag from the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages. The
   establishment survey uses modeling rather than sampling for this purpose because
   the survey is not immediately able to bring new businesses into the sample. There
   is an unavoidable lag between the birth of a new firm and its appearance on the
   sampling frame and availability for selection. BLS adds new businesses to the survey
   twice a year.

6. Is the count of unemployed persons limited to just those people receiving unemployment
   insurance benefits?

   No; the estimate of unemployment is based on a monthly sample survey of households.
   All persons who are without jobs and are actively seeking and available to work are
   included among the unemployed. (People on temporary layoff are included even if
   they do not actively seek work.) There is no requirement or question relating to
   unemployment insurance benefits in the monthly survey.

7. Does the official unemployment rate exclude people who want a job but are not currently
   looking for work?

   Yes; however, there are separate estimates of persons outside the labor force who
   want a job, including those who are not currently looking because they believe no
   jobs are available (discouraged workers). In addition, alternative measures of labor
   underutilization (some of which include discouraged workers and other groups not
   officially counted as unemployed) are published each month in table A-15 of The
   Employment Situation news release. For more information about these alternative
   measures, please visit https://www.bls.gov/cps/lfcharacteristics.htm#altmeasures.

8. How can unusually severe weather affect employment and hours estimates?

   In the establishment survey, the reference period is the pay period that includes
   the 12th of the month. Unusually severe weather is more likely to have an impact on
   average weekly hours than on employment. Average weekly hours are estimated for paid
   time during the pay period, including pay for holidays, sick leave, or other time off.
   The impact of severe weather on hours estimates typically, but not always, results in
   a reduction in average weekly hours. For example, some employees may be off work for
   part of the pay period and not receive pay for the time missed, while some workers,
   such as those dealing with cleanup or repair, may work extra hours.
   
   Typically, it is not possible to precisely quantify the effect of extreme weather on 
   payroll employment estimates. In order for severe weather conditions to reduce
   employment estimates, employees have to be off work without pay for the entire pay
   period. Employees who receive pay for any part of the pay period, even 1 hour, are
   counted in the payroll employment figures. For more information on how often employees
   are paid, please visit https://www.bls.gov/opub/btn/volume-3/how-frequently-do-private-
   businesses-pay-workers.htm.

   In the household survey, the reference period is generally the calendar week that
   includes the 12th of the month. Persons who miss the entire week's work for weather-
   related events are counted as employed whether or not they are paid for the time
   off. The household survey collects data on the number of persons who had a job but
   were not at work due to bad weather. It also provides a measure of the number of
   persons who usually work full time but had reduced hours due to bad weather. 
   Current and historical data are available on the household survey's most requested
   statistics page, please visit https://data.bls.gov/cgi-bin/surveymost?ln.




Technical Note


   This news release presents statistics from two major surveys, the Current
Population Survey (CPS; household survey) and the Current Employment Statistics
survey (CES; establishment survey). The household survey provides information
on the labor force, employment, and unemployment that appears in the "A" tables,
marked HOUSEHOLD DATA. It is a sample survey of about 60,000 eligible households
conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau for the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS).

   The establishment survey provides information on employment, hours, and
earnings of employees on nonfarm payrolls; the data appear in the "B" tables,
marked ESTABLISHMENT DATA. BLS collects these data each month from the payroll
records of a sample of nonagricultural business establishments. Each month
the CES program surveys about 144,000 businesses and government agencies,
representing approximately 697,000 individual worksites, in order to provide
detailed industry data on employment, hours, and earnings of workers on nonfarm
payrolls. The active sample includes approximately one-third of all nonfarm
payroll jobs.

   For both surveys, the data for a given month relate to a particular week or
pay period. In the household survey, the reference period is generally the
calendar week that contains the 12th day of the month. In the establishment
survey, the reference period is the pay period including the 12th, which may or
may not correspond directly to the calendar week.

Coverage, definitions, and differences between surveys

   Household survey. The sample is selected to reflect the entire civilian 
noninstitutional population. Based on responses to a series of questions on 
work and job search activities, each person 16 years and over in a sample
household is classified as employed, unemployed, or not in the labor force.

   People are classified as employed if they did any work at all as paid employees
during the reference week; worked in their own business, profession, or on their
own farm; or worked without pay at least 15 hours in a family business or farm.
People are also counted as employed if they were temporarily absent from their jobs
because of illness, bad weather, vacation, labor-management disputes, or personal
reasons.

   People are classified as unemployed if they meet all of the following criteria:
they had no employment during the reference week; they were available for work at
that time; and they made specific active efforts to find employment sometime during
the 4-week period ending with the reference week. Persons laid off from a job and
expecting recall need not be looking for work to be counted as unemployed. The
unemployment data derived from the household survey in no way depend upon the
eligibility for or receipt of unemployment insurance benefits.

   The civilian labor force is the sum of employed and unemployed persons.
Those persons not classified as employed or unemployed are not in the labor 
force. The unemployment rate is the number unemployed as a percent of the 
labor force. The labor force participation rate is the labor force as a 
percent of the population, and the employment-population ratio is the 
employed as a percent of the population. Additional information about the 
household survey can be found at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm.

   Establishment survey. The sample establishments are drawn from private
nonfarm businesses such as factories, offices, and stores, as well as
from federal, state, and local government entities. Employees on nonfarm
payrolls are those who worked or received pay for any part of the reference pay
period, including persons on paid leave. Persons are counted in each job
they hold. Hours and earnings data are produced for the private sector for
all employees and for production and nonsupervisory employees. Production
and nonsupervisory employees are defined as production and related employees
in manufacturing and mining and logging, construction workers in construction,
and nonsupervisory employees in private service-providing industries.

   Industries are classified on the basis of an establishment's principal
activity in accordance with the 2017 version of the North American Industry
Classification System. Additional information about the establishment survey
can be found at www.bls.gov/ces/.

   Differences in employment estimates. The numerous conceptual and methodological
differences between the household and establishment surveys result in important
distinctions in the employment estimates derived from the surveys. Among these are:

   --The household survey includes agricultural workers, self-employed workers
     whose businesses are unincorporated, unpaid family workers, and private
     household workers among the employed. These groups are excluded from the
     establishment survey.

   --The household survey includes people on unpaid leave among the employed.
     The establishment survey does not.

   --The household survey is limited to workers 16 years of age and older.
     The establishment survey is not limited by age.

   --The household survey has no duplication of individuals, because
     individuals are counted only once, even if they hold more than one
     job. In the establishment survey, employees working at more than one
     job and thus appearing on more than one payroll are counted separately
     for each appearance.

Seasonal adjustment

   Over the course of a year, the size of the nation's labor force and the levels
of employment and unemployment undergo regularly occurring fluctuations. These 
events may result from seasonal changes in weather, major holidays, and the opening
and closing of schools. The effect of such seasonal variation can be very large.

   Because these seasonal events follow a more or less regular pattern each year,
their influence on the level of a series can be tempered by adjusting for regular
seasonal variation. These adjustments make nonseasonal developments, such as
declines in employment or increases in the participation of women in the labor
force, easier to spot. For example, in the household survey, the large number of
youth entering the labor force each June is likely to obscure any other changes
that have taken place relative to May, making it difficult to determine if the 
level of economic activity has risen or declined. Similarly, in the establishment
survey, payroll employment in education declines by about 20 percent at the end
of the spring term and later rises with the start of the fall term, obscuring the
underlying employment trends in the industry. Because seasonal employment changes
at the end and beginning of the school year can be estimated, the statistics can be
adjusted to make underlying employment patterns more discernable.  The seasonally
adjusted figures provide a more useful tool with which to analyze changes in
month-to-month economic activity.

   Many seasonally adjusted series are independently adjusted in both the household
and establishment surveys. However, the adjusted series for many major estimates,
such as total payroll employment, employment in most major sectors, total employment,
and unemployment are computed by aggregating independently adjusted component series.
For example, total unemployment is derived by summing the adjusted series for four
major age-sex components; this differs from the unemployment estimate that would be
obtained by directly adjusting the total or by combining the duration, reasons, or 
more detailed age categories. Percentage distributions of unemployment by reason and
duration are derived from the sum of the independently seasonally adjusted component
series, and will not necessarily match calculations made using the seasonally adjusted
total unemployment level. Additional information about seasonal adjustment in the 
household survey can be found at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#sa.

   For both the household and establishment surveys, a concurrent seasonal adjustment
methodology is used in which new seasonal factors are calculated each month using all
relevant data, up to and including the data for the current month. In the household
survey, new seasonal factors are used to adjust only the current month's data. In the
establishment survey, however, new seasonal factors are used each month to adjust the
three most recent monthly estimates. The prior 2 months are routinely revised to
incorporate additional sample reports and recalculated seasonal adjustment factors.
In both surveys, 5-year revisions to historical data are made once a year.

Reliability of the estimates

   Statistics based on the household and establishment surveys are subject to both
sampling and nonsampling error. When a sample, rather than the entire population,
is surveyed, there is a chance that the sample estimates may differ from the true
population values they represent. The component of this difference that occurs
because samples differ by chance is known as sampling error, and its variability
is measured by the standard error of the estimate. There is about a 90-percent
chance, or level of confidence, that an estimate based on a sample will differ by
no more than 1.6 standard errors from the true population value because of sampling
error. BLS analyses are generally conducted at the 90-percent level of confidence.

   For example, the confidence interval for the monthly change in total nonfarm
employment from the establishment survey is on the order of plus or minus 110,000.
Suppose the estimate of nonfarm employment increases by 50,000 from one month to
the next. The 90-percent confidence interval on the monthly change would range from
-60,000 to +160,000 (50,000 +/- 110,000). These figures do not mean that the sample
results are off by these magnitudes, but rather that there is about a 90-percent
chance that the true over-the-month change lies within this interval. Since this
range includes values of less than zero, we could not say with confidence that
nonfarm employment had, in fact, increased that month. If, however, the reported
nonfarm employment rise was 250,000, then all of the values within the 90-percent
confidence interval would be greater than zero. In this case, it is likely (at
least a 90-percent chance) that nonfarm employment had, in fact, risen that month.
At an unemployment rate of around 6.0 percent, the 90-percent confidence interval
for the monthly change in unemployment as measured by the household survey is
about +/- 300,000, and for the monthly change in the unemployment rate it is about
+/- 0.2 percentage point.

   In general, estimates involving many individuals or establishments have lower
standard errors (relative to the size of the estimate) than estimates which are based
on a small number of observations. The precision of estimates also is improved when
the data are cumulated over time, such as for quarterly and annual averages.

   The household and establishment surveys are also affected by nonsampling error,
which can occur for many reasons, including the failure to sample a segment of the
population, inability to obtain information for all respondents in the sample,
inability or unwillingness of respondents to provide correct information on a
timely basis, mistakes made by respondents, and errors made in the collection or
processing of the data.

   For example, in the establishment survey, estimates for the most recent 2 months
are based on incomplete returns; for this reason, these estimates are labeled
preliminary in the tables. It is only after two successive revisions to a monthly
estimate, when nearly all sample reports have been received, that the estimate is
considered final.

   Another major source of nonsampling error in the establishment survey is the
inability to capture, on a timely basis, employment generated by new firms. To
correct for this systematic underestimation of employment growth, an estimation
procedure with two components is used to account for business births. The first
component excludes employment losses from business deaths from sample-based
estimation in order to offset the missing employment gains from business births.
This is incorporated into the sample-based estimation procedure by simply not
reflecting sample units going out of business, but imputing to them the same
employment trend as the other firms in the sample. This procedure accounts for
most of the net birth/death employment.

   The second component is an ARIMA time series model designed to estimate the
residual net birth/death employment not accounted for by the imputation. The
historical time series used to create and test the ARIMA model was derived from
the unemployment insurance universe micro-level database, and reflects the actual
residual net of births and deaths over the past 5 years.

   The sample-based estimates from the establishment survey are adjusted once a
year (on a lagged basis) to universe counts of payroll employment obtained from
administrative records of the unemployment insurance program. The difference 
between the March sample-based employment estimates and the March universe counts
is known as a benchmark revision, and serves as a rough proxy for total survey
error. The new benchmarks also incorporate changes in the classification of
industries. Over the past decade, absolute benchmark revisions for total nonfarm
employment have averaged 0.2 percent, with a range from -0.7 percent to 0.3 percent.

Other information

   Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired
individuals upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay
Service: (800) 877-8339.




HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-1. Employment status of the civilian population by sex and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Sept.
2020
Aug.
2021
Sept.
2021
Sept.
2020
May
2021
June
2021
July
2021
Aug.
2021
Sept.
2021

TOTAL

Civilian noninstitutional population

260,742 261,611 261,766 260,742 261,210 261,338 261,469 261,611 261,766

Civilian labor force

160,073 161,788 161,392 160,078 160,935 161,086 161,347 161,537 161,354

Participation rate

61.4 61.8 61.7 61.4 61.6 61.6 61.7 61.7 61.6

Employed

147,796 153,232 154,026 147,543 151,620 151,602 152,645 153,154 153,680

Employment-population ratio

56.7 58.6 58.8 56.6 58.0 58.0 58.4 58.5 58.7

Unemployed

12,277 8,556 7,366 12,535 9,316 9,484 8,702 8,384 7,674

Unemployment rate

7.7 5.3 4.6 7.8 5.8 5.9 5.4 5.2 4.8

Not in labor force

100,670 99,823 100,373 100,664 100,275 100,253 100,123 100,074 100,412

Persons who currently want a job

6,984 5,810 5,710 7,184 6,600 6,428 6,517 5,682 5,969

Men, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

126,127 126,570 126,648 126,127 126,369 126,434 126,499 126,570 126,648

Civilian labor force

85,068 86,074 85,715 85,199 85,210 85,320 85,507 85,684 85,797

Participation rate

67.4 68.0 67.7 67.6 67.4 67.5 67.6 67.7 67.7

Employed

78,817 81,670 81,731 78,663 80,062 80,176 80,712 81,100 81,501

Employment-population ratio

62.5 64.5 64.5 62.4 63.4 63.4 63.8 64.1 64.4

Unemployed

6,251 4,404 3,984 6,537 5,148 5,144 4,795 4,584 4,296

Unemployment rate

7.3 5.1 4.6 7.7 6.0 6.0 5.6 5.4 5.0

Not in labor force

41,059 40,496 40,933 40,928 41,159 41,114 40,992 40,886 40,850

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

117,763 118,261 118,337 117,763 118,059 118,125 118,192 118,261 118,337

Civilian labor force

82,248 82,817 82,865 82,293 82,182 82,414 82,526 82,665 82,847

Participation rate

69.8 70.0 70.0 69.9 69.6 69.8 69.8 69.9 70.0

Employed

76,468 78,783 79,230 76,258 77,340 77,545 78,041 78,440 78,927

Employment-population ratio

64.9 66.6 67.0 64.8 65.5 65.6 66.0 66.3 66.7

Unemployed

5,781 4,034 3,635 6,036 4,842 4,869 4,484 4,225 3,919

Unemployment rate

7.0 4.9 4.4 7.3 5.9 5.9 5.4 5.1 4.7

Not in labor force

35,515 35,444 35,472 35,470 35,877 35,711 35,667 35,597 35,490

Women, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

134,615 135,041 135,118 134,615 134,841 134,905 134,970 135,041 135,118

Civilian labor force

75,005 75,714 75,677 74,879 75,725 75,766 75,840 75,853 75,557

Participation rate

55.7 56.1 56.0 55.6 56.2 56.2 56.2 56.2 55.9

Employed

68,979 71,562 72,295 68,880 71,557 71,426 71,934 72,054 72,179

Employment-population ratio

51.2 53.0 53.5 51.2 53.1 52.9 53.3 53.4 53.4

Unemployed

6,026 4,152 3,382 5,998 4,168 4,340 3,906 3,799 3,378

Unemployment rate

8.0 5.5 4.5 8.0 5.5 5.7 5.2 5.0 4.5

Not in labor force

59,610 59,327 59,441 59,737 59,116 59,139 59,130 59,188 59,561

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

126,429 126,906 126,982 126,429 126,704 126,770 126,837 126,906 126,982

Civilian labor force

72,129 72,571 72,784 71,865 72,707 72,855 72,883 72,842 72,533

Participation rate

57.1 57.2 57.3 56.8 57.4 57.5 57.5 57.4 57.1

Employed

66,547 68,746 69,699 66,328 68,811 68,817 69,235 69,357 69,466

Employment-population ratio

52.6 54.2 54.9 52.5 54.3 54.3 54.6 54.7 54.7

Unemployed

5,582 3,825 3,085 5,537 3,895 4,038 3,648 3,485 3,067

Unemployment rate

7.7 5.3 4.2 7.7 5.4 5.5 5.0 4.8 4.2

Not in labor force

54,299 54,335 54,198 54,563 53,998 53,915 53,954 54,065 54,449

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian noninstitutional population

16,551 16,443 16,447 16,551 16,446 16,443 16,440 16,443 16,447

Civilian labor force

5,695 6,400 5,743 5,920 6,046 5,817 5,938 6,031 5,975

Participation rate

34.4 38.9 34.9 35.8 36.8 35.4 36.1 36.7 36.3

Employed

4,781 5,702 5,097 4,957 5,468 5,240 5,369 5,357 5,287

Employment-population ratio

28.9 34.7 31.0 29.9 33.2 31.9 32.7 32.6 32.1

Unemployed

914 697 647 963 578 577 569 674 687

Unemployment rate

16.0 10.9 11.3 16.3 9.6 9.9 9.6 11.2 11.5

Not in labor force

10,856 10,044 10,704 10,631 10,400 10,626 10,502 10,412 10,473

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-2. Employment status of the civilian population by race, sex, and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, race, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Sept.
2020
Aug.
2021
Sept.
2021
Sept.
2020
May
2021
June
2021
July
2021
Aug.
2021
Sept.
2021

WHITE

Civilian noninstitutional population

201,515 201,968 202,057 201,515 201,743 201,814 201,888 201,968 202,057

Civilian labor force

124,095 124,329 124,134 124,202 123,897 123,800 124,413 124,332 124,222

Participation rate

61.6 61.6 61.4 61.6 61.4 61.3 61.6 61.6 61.5

Employed

115,603 118,601 119,154 115,510 117,553 117,320 118,428 118,697 119,023

Employment-population ratio

57.4 58.7 59.0 57.3 58.3 58.1 58.7 58.8 58.9

Unemployed

8,492 5,728 4,980 8,691 6,344 6,480 5,985 5,635 5,199

Unemployment rate

6.8 4.6 4.0 7.0 5.1 5.2 4.8 4.5 4.2

Not in labor force

77,420 77,639 77,923 77,313 77,845 78,013 77,475 77,635 77,835

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

64,919 64,844 64,939 65,001 64,492 64,478 64,858 64,856 64,996

Participation rate

70.3 70.0 70.0 70.4 69.7 69.6 70.0 70.0 70.1

Employed

60,904 62,142 62,471 60,780 61,182 61,122 61,701 61,980 62,295

Employment-population ratio

65.9 67.1 67.4 65.8 66.1 66.0 66.6 66.9 67.2

Unemployed

4,014 2,702 2,467 4,220 3,311 3,357 3,157 2,875 2,700

Unemployment rate

6.2 4.2 3.8 6.5 5.1 5.2 4.9 4.4 4.2

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

54,696 54,494 54,690 54,568 54,698 54,800 54,993 54,816 54,578

Participation rate

56.4 56.0 56.2 56.3 56.3 56.4 56.6 56.4 56.1

Employed

50,917 51,930 52,666 50,813 52,079 52,084 52,538 52,496 52,571

Employment-population ratio

52.5 53.4 54.1 52.4 53.6 53.6 54.0 54.0 54.0

Unemployed

3,779 2,564 2,024 3,755 2,618 2,716 2,455 2,319 2,007

Unemployment rate

6.9 4.7 3.7 6.9 4.8 5.0 4.5 4.2 3.7

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

4,481 4,991 4,505 4,633 4,707 4,522 4,562 4,661 4,648

Participation rate

36.9 41.4 37.4 38.2 39.0 37.5 37.8 38.7 38.5

Employed

3,782 4,530 4,016 3,917 4,292 4,114 4,189 4,220 4,157

Employment-population ratio

31.2 37.6 33.3 32.3 35.6 34.1 34.7 35.0 34.5

Unemployed

699 462 489 716 415 408 373 441 492

Unemployment rate

15.6 9.2 10.9 15.5 8.8 9.0 8.2 9.5 10.6

BLACK OR AFRICAN AMERICAN

Civilian noninstitutional population

33,420 33,645 33,673 33,420 33,572 33,595 33,619 33,645 33,673

Civilian labor force

19,907 20,823 20,588 19,942 20,439 20,679 20,430 20,717 20,634

Participation rate

59.6 61.9 61.1 59.7 60.9 61.6 60.8 61.6 61.3

Employed

17,609 18,934 19,063 17,558 18,584 18,769 18,757 18,892 18,996

Employment-population ratio

52.7 56.3 56.6 52.5 55.4 55.9 55.8 56.2 56.4

Unemployed

2,298 1,889 1,524 2,385 1,854 1,910 1,673 1,825 1,638

Unemployment rate

11.5 9.1 7.4 12.0 9.1 9.2 8.2 8.8 7.9

Not in labor force

13,513 12,822 13,086 13,478 13,133 12,916 13,189 12,928 13,039

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

9,133 9,544 9,394 9,124 9,460 9,607 9,402 9,491 9,399

Participation rate

64.8 67.1 66.0 64.7 66.7 67.7 66.2 66.7 66.0

Employed

8,031 8,700 8,696 7,975 8,533 8,648 8,609 8,628 8,644

Employment-population ratio

57.0 61.2 61.1 56.6 60.1 60.9 60.6 60.7 60.7

Unemployed

1,102 844 698 1,149 927 958 793 864 755

Unemployment rate

12.1 8.8 7.4 12.6 9.8 10.0 8.4 9.1 8.0

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

10,102 10,495 10,451 10,093 10,293 10,358 10,293 10,480 10,442

Participation rate

59.7 61.6 61.3 59.7 60.6 60.9 60.5 61.5 61.2

Employed

9,026 9,589 9,725 8,999 9,448 9,473 9,511 9,652 9,683

Employment-population ratio

53.4 56.3 57.0 53.2 55.6 55.7 55.9 56.7 56.8

Unemployed

1,076 906 726 1,093 844 886 782 828 759

Unemployment rate

10.7 8.6 6.9 10.8 8.2 8.5 7.6 7.9 7.3

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

672 784 743 726 686 714 735 746 794

Participation rate

27.9 32.9 31.1 30.1 28.7 29.9 30.8 31.2 33.3

Employed

552 646 642 584 603 648 637 612 669

Employment-population ratio

22.9 27.1 26.9 24.2 25.2 27.1 26.7 25.6 28.0

Unemployed

120 138 101 142 83 67 98 134 125

Unemployment rate

17.8 17.6 13.5 19.6 12.1 9.3 13.3 17.9 15.7

ASIAN

Civilian noninstitutional population

16,668 16,555 16,540 16,668 16,529 16,428 16,514 16,555 16,540

Civilian labor force

10,507 10,672 10,683 10,480 10,471 10,387 10,654 10,610 10,635

Participation rate

63.0 64.5 64.6 62.9 63.4 63.2 64.5 64.1 64.3

Employed

9,581 10,181 10,245 9,553 9,890 9,789 10,094 10,122 10,190

Employment-population ratio

57.5 61.5 61.9 57.3 59.8 59.6 61.1 61.1 61.6

Unemployed

926 492 438 926 581 598 559 488 446

Unemployment rate

8.8 4.6 4.1 8.8 5.5 5.8 5.3 4.6 4.2

Not in labor force

6,162 5,883 5,857 6,188 6,057 6,042 5,861 5,945 5,905

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Estimates for the above race groups will not sum to totals shown in table A-1 because data are not presented for all races. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-3. Employment status of the Hispanic or Latino population by sex and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Sept.
2020
Aug.
2021
Sept.
2021
Sept.
2020
May
2021
June
2021
July
2021
Aug.
2021
Sept.
2021

HISPANIC OR LATINO ETHNICITY

Civilian noninstitutional population

44,388 45,004 45,083 44,388 44,786 44,857 44,927 45,004 45,083

Civilian labor force

28,771 29,449 29,577 28,804 29,243 29,367 29,529 29,534 29,617

Participation rate

64.8 65.4 65.6 64.9 65.3 65.5 65.7 65.6 65.7

Employed

25,897 27,635 27,813 25,834 27,110 27,183 27,576 27,652 27,738

Employment-population ratio

58.3 61.4 61.7 58.2 60.5 60.6 61.4 61.4 61.5

Unemployed

2,874 1,814 1,764 2,969 2,133 2,184 1,953 1,882 1,880

Unemployment rate

10.0 6.2 6.0 10.3 7.3 7.4 6.6 6.4 6.3

Not in labor force

15,617 15,555 15,506 15,584 15,543 15,490 15,398 15,470 15,466

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

15,833 16,239 16,369 15,859 16,079 16,068 16,228 16,285 16,403

Participation rate

79.0 79.8 80.3 79.1 79.5 79.3 79.9 80.1 80.5

Employed

14,529 15,374 15,488 14,463 15,006 15,005 15,225 15,318 15,411

Employment-population ratio

72.5 75.6 76.0 72.1 74.1 74.0 75.0 75.3 75.6

Unemployed

1,303 865 881 1,397 1,073 1,063 1,003 967 992

Unemployment rate

8.2 5.3 5.4 8.8 6.7 6.6 6.2 5.9 6.0

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

11,602 11,902 11,938 11,575 11,928 12,071 12,020 11,977 11,915

Participation rate

57.1 57.7 57.8 57.0 58.2 58.8 58.4 58.1 57.7

Employed

10,326 11,160 11,277 10,306 11,043 11,111 11,209 11,253 11,253

Employment-population ratio

50.8 54.1 54.6 50.7 53.8 54.1 54.5 54.6 54.5

Unemployed

1,276 742 661 1,270 884 959 811 725 662

Unemployment rate

11.0 6.2 5.5 11.0 7.4 7.9 6.7 6.0 5.6

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

1,336 1,308 1,270 1,370 1,236 1,228 1,280 1,271 1,300

Participation rate

33.2 32.3 31.3 34.0 30.6 30.4 31.6 31.3 32.0

Employed

1,042 1,101 1,048 1,066 1,061 1,066 1,142 1,081 1,074

Employment-population ratio

25.9 27.2 25.8 26.5 26.3 26.4 28.2 26.7 26.4

Unemployed

295 207 222 303 175 162 138 190 226

Unemployment rate

22.1 15.8 17.5 22.1 14.2 13.2 10.8 15.0 17.4

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-4. Employment status of the civilian population 25 years and over by educational attainment
[Numbers in thousands]
Educational attainment Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Sept.
2020
Aug.
2021
Sept.
2021
Sept.
2020
May
2021
June
2021
July
2021
Aug.
2021
Sept.
2021

Less than a high school diploma

Civilian labor force

8,946 9,188 9,263 8,811 8,790 9,142 9,254 9,158 9,127

Participation rate

44.2 45.9 45.9 43.5 42.8 44.1 46.7 45.8 45.3

Employed

8,093 8,542 8,644 7,872 7,993 8,210 8,377 8,448 8,406

Employment-population ratio

40.0 42.7 42.9 38.9 38.9 39.6 42.3 42.2 41.7

Unemployed

853 646 619 939 797 932 877 710 721

Unemployment rate

9.5 7.0 6.7 10.7 9.1 10.2 9.5 7.8 7.9

High school graduates, no college(1)

Civilian labor force

35,328 35,571 35,261 34,974 34,930 34,972 34,947 35,347 34,858

Participation rate

55.6 55.7 55.7 55.0 55.5 55.9 55.3 55.3 55.1

Employed

32,284 33,473 33,351 31,835 32,543 32,517 32,735 33,232 32,838

Employment-population ratio

50.8 52.4 52.7 50.1 51.7 52.0 51.8 52.0 51.9

Unemployed

3,044 2,098 1,910 3,139 2,388 2,455 2,211 2,115 2,020

Unemployment rate

8.6 5.9 5.4 9.0 6.8 7.0 6.3 6.0 5.8

Some college or associate degree

Civilian labor force

35,921 35,502 35,840 35,969 35,917 36,079 35,896 35,845 35,826

Participation rate

63.5 63.0 63.1 63.6 63.4 63.1 63.0 63.6 63.0

Employed

33,055 33,611 34,273 33,056 33,808 33,970 34,111 34,019 34,200

Employment-population ratio

58.4 59.7 60.3 58.4 59.7 59.4 59.9 60.4 60.2

Unemployed

2,866 1,890 1,567 2,912 2,108 2,109 1,785 1,826 1,626

Unemployment rate

8.0 5.3 4.4 8.1 5.9 5.8 5.0 5.1 4.5

Bachelor's degree and higher(2)

Civilian labor force

59,840 60,321 60,710 59,861 60,727 60,483 60,927 60,794 60,785

Participation rate

72.2 71.7 72.0 72.2 72.5 72.3 72.4 72.3 72.1

Employed

57,021 58,441 59,213 57,024 58,802 58,392 59,027 59,077 59,246

Employment-population ratio

68.8 69.5 70.3 68.8 70.2 69.8 70.1 70.2 70.3

Unemployed

2,818 1,880 1,497 2,837 1,925 2,091 1,900 1,717 1,539

Unemployment rate

4.7 3.1 2.5 4.7 3.2 3.5 3.1 2.8 2.5

Footnotes
(1) Includes persons with a high school diploma or equivalent.
(2) Includes persons with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees.

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals for those 25 years and over because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-5. Employment status of the civilian population 18 years and over by veteran status, period of service, and sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, veteran status, and period of service Total Men Women
Sept.
2020
Sept.
2021
Sept.
2020
Sept.
2021
Sept.
2020
Sept.
2021

VETERANS, 18 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

18,389 18,011 16,482 16,091 1,907 1,920

Civilian labor force

8,814 8,485 7,705 7,345 1,109 1,141

Participation rate

47.9 47.1 46.7 45.6 58.1 59.4

Employed

8,246 8,181 7,209 7,078 1,037 1,103

Employment-population ratio

44.8 45.4 43.7 44.0 54.4 57.5

Unemployed

568 304 496 266 72 37

Unemployment rate

6.4 3.6 6.4 3.6 6.5 3.3

Not in labor force

9,575 9,526 8,777 8,746 798 779

Gulf War-era II veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

4,579 4,641 3,827 3,876 752 765

Civilian labor force

3,643 3,651 3,114 3,084 529 567

Participation rate

79.6 78.7 81.4 79.6 70.4 74.1

Employed

3,371 3,522 2,872 2,966 499 555

Employment-population ratio

73.6 75.9 75.1 76.5 66.4 72.6

Unemployed

272 129 242 117 30 12

Unemployment rate

7.5 3.5 7.8 3.8 5.7 2.1

Not in labor force

936 990 713 792 223 198

Gulf War-era I veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

3,011 3,085 2,494 2,548 517 537

Civilian labor force

2,147 2,200 1,807 1,855 340 345

Participation rate

71.3 71.3 72.5 72.8 65.8 64.3

Employed

2,017 2,135 1,701 1,804 316 331

Employment-population ratio

67.0 69.2 68.2 70.8 61.2 61.7

Unemployed

131 65 107 50 24 14

Unemployment rate

6.1 2.9 5.9 2.7 7.0 4.1

Not in labor force

864 885 687 693 177 192

World War II, Korean War, and Vietnam-era veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

6,744 6,360 6,507 6,136 237 224

Civilian labor force

1,180 1,016 1,130 961 50 55

Participation rate

17.5 16.0 17.4 15.7 21.2 24.5

Employed

1,128 977 1,082 923 46 55

Employment-population ratio

16.7 15.4 16.6 15.0 19.4 24.5

Unemployed

52 39 48 39 4 0

Unemployment rate

4.4 3.8 4.2 4.0 - -

Not in labor force

5,564 5,344 5,377 5,175 187 169

Veterans of other service periods

Civilian noninstitutional population

4,055 3,925 3,654 3,531 401 394

Civilian labor force

1,844 1,618 1,655 1,445 189 173

Participation rate

45.5 41.2 45.3 40.9 47.2 44.0

Employed

1,730 1,547 1,555 1,385 176 162

Employment-population ratio

42.7 39.4 42.5 39.2 43.8 41.1

Unemployed

114 71 100 60 13 11

Unemployment rate

6.2 4.4 6.1 4.1 7.1 6.6

Not in labor force

2,211 2,307 1,999 2,086 212 221

NONVETERANS, 18 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

233,495 234,883 105,156 106,108 128,340 128,776

Civilian labor force

149,094 150,627 76,330 77,266 72,764 73,361

Participation rate

63.9 64.1 72.6 72.8 56.7 57.0

Employed

137,705 143,774 70,735 73,655 66,970 70,119

Employment-population ratio

59.0 61.2 67.3 69.4 52.2 54.5

Unemployed

11,389 6,853 5,595 3,611 5,794 3,243

Unemployment rate

7.6 4.5 7.3 4.7 8.0 4.4

Not in labor force

84,401 84,256 28,826 28,842 55,575 55,414

NOTE: Veterans served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces and were not on active duty at the time of the survey. Nonveterans never served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces. Veterans could have served anywhere in the world during these periods of service: Gulf War era II (September 2001-present), Gulf War era I (August 1990-August 2001), Vietnam era (August 1964-April 1975), Korean War (July 1950-January 1955), World War II (December 1941-December 1946), and other service periods (all other time periods). Veterans who served in more than one wartime period are classified only in the most recent one. Veterans who served during one of the selected wartime periods and another period are classified only in the wartime period. Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria (values not shown where base is less than 75,000). Updated population controls introduced with the release of January 2021 data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-6. Employment status of the civilian population by sex, age, and disability status, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Persons with a disability Persons with no disability
Sept.
2020
Sept.
2021
Sept.
2020
Sept.
2021

TOTAL, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

29,802 31,569 230,941 230,196

Civilian labor force

6,047 7,051 154,026 154,341

Participation rate

20.3 22.3 66.7 67.0

Employed

5,291 6,417 142,505 147,609

Employment-population ratio

17.8 20.3 61.7 64.1

Unemployed

755 634 11,521 6,732

Unemployment rate

12.5 9.0 7.5 4.4

Not in labor force

23,755 24,518 76,915 75,855

Men, 16 to 64 years

Civilian labor force

2,563 2,965 76,550 76,646

Participation rate

34.4 38.0 81.5 82.1

Employed

2,259 2,710 70,944 73,102

Employment-population ratio

30.3 34.7 75.5 78.3

Unemployed

304 255 5,606 3,544

Unemployment rate

11.9 8.6 7.3 4.6

Not in labor force

4,887 4,837 17,354 16,718

Women, 16 to 64 years

Civilian labor force

2,295 2,841 67,936 68,100

Participation rate

31.0 34.8 70.1 71.1

Employed

1,949 2,534 62,663 65,190

Employment-population ratio

26.3 31.1 64.7 68.0

Unemployed

346 307 5,273 2,910

Unemployment rate

15.1 10.8 7.8 4.3

Not in labor force

5,117 5,320 28,990 27,733

Both sexes, 65 years and over

Civilian labor force

1,188 1,244 9,539 9,596

Participation rate

8.0 8.0 23.8 23.4

Employed

1,082 1,173 8,898 9,317

Employment-population ratio

7.2 7.5 22.2 22.7

Unemployed

105 72 642 279

Unemployment rate

8.9 5.8 6.7 2.9

Not in labor force

13,752 14,362 30,571 31,404

NOTE: A person with a disability has at least one of the following conditions: is deaf or has serious difficulty hearing; is blind or has serious difficulty seeing even when wearing glasses; has serious difficulty concentrating, remembering, or making decisions because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition; has serious difficulty walking or climbing stairs; has difficulty dressing or bathing; or has difficulty doing errands alone such as visiting a doctor's office or shopping because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-7. Employment status of the civilian population by nativity and sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status and nativity Total Men Women
Sept.
2020
Sept.
2021
Sept.
2020
Sept.
2021
Sept.
2020
Sept.
2021

Foreign born, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

41,810 43,111 20,159 20,904 21,651 22,207

Civilian labor force

26,712 28,100 15,377 16,212 11,335 11,887

Participation rate

63.9 65.2 76.3 77.6 52.4 53.5

Employed

24,419 26,816 14,350 15,540 10,068 11,276

Employment-population ratio

58.4 62.2 71.2 74.3 46.5 50.8

Unemployed

2,293 1,284 1,027 672 1,266 611

Unemployment rate

8.6 4.6 6.7 4.1 11.2 5.1

Not in labor force

15,098 15,012 4,782 4,692 10,316 10,320

Native born, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

218,933 218,654 105,969 105,743 112,964 112,911

Civilian labor force

133,361 133,293 69,691 69,503 63,670 63,790

Participation rate

60.9 61.0 65.8 65.7 56.4 56.5

Employed

123,377 127,210 64,466 66,191 58,911 61,019

Employment-population ratio

56.4 58.2 60.8 62.6 52.1 54.0

Unemployed

9,983 6,083 5,224 3,312 4,759 2,771

Unemployment rate

7.5 4.6 7.5 4.8 7.5 4.3

Not in labor force

85,572 85,362 36,278 36,240 49,294 49,121

NOTE: The foreign born are those residing in the United States who were not U.S. citizens at birth. That is, they were born outside the United States or one of its outlying areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam, to parents neither of whom was a U.S. citizen. The native born are persons who were born in the United States or one of its outlying areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam or who were born abroad of at least one parent who was a U.S. citizen. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-8. Employed persons by class of worker and part-time status
[In thousands]
Category Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Sept.
2020
Aug.
2021
Sept.
2021
Sept.
2020
May
2021
June
2021
July
2021
Aug.
2021
Sept.
2021

CLASS OF WORKER

Agriculture and related industries

2,309 2,385 2,272 2,270 2,293 2,318 2,305 2,329 2,249

Wage and salary workers(1)

1,480 1,606 1,504 1,482 1,534 1,604 1,584 1,606 1,519

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

816 744 743 799 737 692 708 712 724

Unpaid family workers

12 34 26 - - - - - -

Nonagricultural industries

145,487 150,847 151,754 145,454 149,397 149,329 150,481 151,115 151,693

Wage and salary workers(1)

136,709 141,181 142,210 136,493 139,799 139,873 140,487 141,168 141,768

Government

20,361 20,277 20,343 20,466 20,454 20,578 20,761 20,793 20,487

Private industries

116,348 120,904 121,866 116,299 119,449 119,460 119,955 120,345 121,741

Private households

683 733 768 - - - - - -

Other industries

115,665 120,171 121,099 115,601 118,901 118,948 119,334 119,608 120,981

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

8,723 9,607 9,491 8,675 9,265 9,146 9,571 9,541 9,418

Unpaid family workers

54 60 53 - - - - - -

PERSONS AT WORK PART TIME(2)

All industries

Part time for economic reasons(3)

5,955 4,385 4,130 6,283 5,271 4,627 4,483 4,469 4,468

Slack work or business conditions

4,669 3,087 2,960 4,881 4,069 3,430 2,965 3,183 3,180

Could only find part-time work

1,124 958 982 1,120 966 1,007 1,116 1,032 975

Part time for noneconomic reasons(4)

19,012 18,871 20,432 18,990 19,160 20,337 20,087 20,359 20,389

Nonagricultural industries

Part time for economic reasons(3)

5,901 4,309 4,077 6,197 5,231 4,544 4,351 4,414 4,406

Slack work or business conditions

4,623 3,029 2,924 4,823 4,039 3,381 2,908 3,126 3,130

Could only find part-time work

1,120 943 967 1,112 963 996 1,099 1,019 960

Part time for noneconomic reasons(4)

18,612 18,557 20,037 18,589 18,774 19,982 19,736 20,027 20,003

Footnotes
(1) Includes self-employed workers whose businesses are incorporated.
(2) Refers to those who worked 1 to 34 hours during the survey reference week and excludes employed persons who were absent from their jobs for the entire week.
(3) Refers to those who worked 1 to 34 hours during the reference week for an economic reason such as slack work or unfavorable business conditions, inability to find full-time work, or seasonal declines in demand.
(4) Refers to persons who usually work part time for noneconomic reasons such as childcare problems, family or personal obligations, school or training, retirement or Social Security limits on earnings, and other reasons. This excludes persons who usually work full time but worked only 1 to 34 hours during the reference week for reasons such as vacations, holidays, illness, and bad weather.

- Data not available.
NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-9. Selected employment indicators
[Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Sept.
2020
Aug.
2021
Sept.
2021
Sept.
2020
May
2021
June
2021
July
2021
Aug.
2021
Sept.
2021

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

147,796 153,232 154,026 147,543 151,620 151,602 152,645 153,154 153,680

16 to 19 years

4,781 5,702 5,097 4,957 5,468 5,240 5,369 5,357 5,287

16 to 17 years

1,845 2,266 2,071 1,786 2,080 1,952 1,971 2,025 2,013

18 to 19 years

2,936 3,436 3,026 3,162 3,380 3,287 3,378 3,293 3,256

20 years and over

143,015 147,530 148,929 142,586 146,151 146,362 147,277 147,797 148,393

20 to 24 years

12,561 13,462 13,448 12,641 13,157 13,399 13,342 13,238 13,498

25 years and over

130,454 134,068 135,481 130,040 132,898 133,068 134,135 134,652 134,958

25 to 54 years

95,026 97,881 98,702 94,738 97,172 97,331 98,131 98,289 98,346

25 to 34 years

33,405 34,575 34,780 33,293 34,406 34,284 34,589 34,742 34,664

35 to 44 years

31,844 32,828 33,085 31,687 32,491 32,612 32,923 32,914 32,915

45 to 54 years

29,777 30,479 30,837 29,758 30,275 30,436 30,620 30,633 30,767

55 years and over

35,428 36,186 36,778 35,302 35,726 35,737 36,003 36,363 36,611

Men, 16 years and over

78,817 81,670 81,731 78,663 80,062 80,176 80,712 81,100 81,501

16 to 19 years

2,349 2,887 2,501 2,405 2,722 2,631 2,670 2,660 2,574

16 to 17 years

873 1,085 997 849 1,013 942 944 949 974

18 to 19 years

1,476 1,802 1,503 1,546 1,707 1,679 1,720 1,691 1,584

20 years and over

76,468 78,783 79,230 76,258 77,340 77,545 78,041 78,440 78,927

20 to 24 years

6,477 6,982 6,846 6,512 6,719 6,737 6,713 6,769 6,868

25 years and over

69,991 71,801 72,384 69,718 70,798 70,955 71,479 71,690 72,046

25 to 54 years

50,918 52,406 52,634 50,723 51,664 51,804 52,220 52,348 52,398

25 to 34 years

17,882 18,523 18,598 17,808 18,352 18,167 18,472 18,535 18,516

35 to 44 years

17,232 17,741 17,891 17,146 17,525 17,616 17,707 17,699 17,793

45 to 54 years

15,804 16,142 16,145 15,769 15,787 16,021 16,041 16,115 16,090

55 years and over

19,073 19,395 19,751 18,996 19,134 19,150 19,259 19,342 19,647

Women, 16 years and over

68,979 71,562 72,295 68,880 71,557 71,426 71,934 72,054 72,179

16 to 19 years

2,432 2,816 2,596 2,552 2,746 2,609 2,698 2,697 2,713

16 to 17 years

972 1,181 1,073 937 1,067 1,010 1,027 1,076 1,040

18 to 19 years

1,460 1,635 1,523 1,616 1,673 1,608 1,658 1,602 1,672

20 years and over

66,547 68,746 69,699 66,328 68,811 68,817 69,235 69,357 69,466

20 to 24 years

6,085 6,480 6,602 6,129 6,438 6,662 6,629 6,469 6,630

25 years and over

60,462 62,266 63,097 60,322 62,100 62,113 62,655 62,962 62,912

25 to 54 years

44,108 45,476 46,069 44,016 45,508 45,527 45,911 45,941 45,948

25 to 34 years

15,523 16,052 16,182 15,485 16,054 16,117 16,116 16,207 16,149

35 to 44 years

14,612 15,087 15,194 14,541 14,966 14,995 15,216 15,215 15,122

45 to 54 years

13,972 14,337 14,692 13,989 14,488 14,415 14,579 14,519 14,677

55 years and over

16,355 16,791 17,028 16,306 16,592 16,587 16,744 17,021 16,964

MARITAL STATUS

Married men, spouse present(1)

43,845 43,637 43,821 43,598 43,647 43,533 43,823 43,641 43,593

Married women, spouse present(1)

34,350 34,485 35,044 34,321 34,950 34,891 35,208 35,043 35,013

Women who maintain families(2)

9,109 9,642 9,618 - - - - - -

FULL- OR PART-TIME STATUS

Full-time workers(3)

122,998 128,664 128,484 122,569 126,384 126,201 127,466 127,436 128,027

Part-time workers(4)

24,798 24,568 25,542 25,067 25,202 25,610 25,360 25,783 25,747

MULTIPLE JOBHOLDERS

Total multiple jobholders

6,482 6,783 7,032 6,491 7,269 7,109 7,026 7,041 7,045

Percent of total employed

4.4 4.4 4.6 4.4 4.8 4.7 4.6 4.6 4.6

SELF-EMPLOYMENT

Self-employed workers, incorporated

6,275 6,091 6,146 - - - - - -

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

9,540 10,351 10,234 9,473 10,002 9,837 10,279 10,253 10,142

Footnotes
(1) Beginning with data for January 2020, refers to persons in both opposite-sex and same-sex married couples. Prior to January 2020, referred to persons in opposite-sex married couples only.
(2) Beginning with data for January 2020, refers to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not a spouse of either sex. Prior to January 2020, referred to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not an opposite-sex spouse.
(3) Employed full-time workers are persons who usually work 35 hours or more per week.
(4) Employed part-time workers are persons who usually work less than 35 hours per week.

- Data not available.
NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-10. Selected unemployment indicators, seasonally adjusted
Characteristic Number of
unemployed persons
(in thousands)
Unemployment rates
Sept.
2020
Aug.
2021
Sept.
2021
Sept.
2020
May
2021
June
2021
July
2021
Aug.
2021
Sept.
2021

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

12,535 8,384 7,674 7.8 5.8 5.9 5.4 5.2 4.8

16 to 19 years

963 674 687 16.3 9.6 9.9 9.6 11.2 11.5

16 to 17 years

371 264 258 17.2 8.9 9.6 9.7 11.6 11.4

18 to 19 years

593 407 429 15.8 9.5 10.1 9.4 11.0 11.6

20 years and over

11,572 7,710 6,987 7.5 5.6 5.7 5.2 5.0 4.5

20 to 24 years

1,810 1,365 1,166 12.5 10.1 9.1 9.1 9.3 8.0

25 years and over

9,801 6,358 5,902 7.0 5.1 5.4 4.8 4.5 4.2

25 to 54 years

7,280 4,870 4,566 7.1 5.2 5.5 4.9 4.7 4.4

25 to 34 years

3,151 2,069 1,958 8.6 5.8 6.5 6.1 5.6 5.3

35 to 44 years

2,098 1,512 1,374 6.2 5.0 5.3 4.7 4.4 4.0

45 to 54 years

2,031 1,289 1,235 6.4 4.8 4.6 3.8 4.0 3.9

55 years and over

2,513 1,489 1,349 6.6 4.9 4.9 4.4 3.9 3.6

Men, 16 years and over

6,537 4,584 4,296 7.7 6.0 6.0 5.6 5.4 5.0

16 to 19 years

501 359 377 17.3 10.1 9.5 10.4 11.9 12.8

16 to 17 years

190 119 136 18.3 8.0 10.5 10.1 11.2 12.3

18 to 19 years

313 243 243 16.8 11.2 8.8 10.5 12.6 13.3

20 years and over

6,036 4,225 3,919 7.3 5.9 5.9 5.4 5.1 4.7

20 to 24 years

966 727 706 12.9 10.9 10.2 10.4 9.7 9.3

25 years and over

5,081 3,515 3,238 6.8 5.3 5.4 4.9 4.7 4.3

25 to 54 years

3,821 2,699 2,502 7.0 5.5 5.6 5.1 4.9 4.6

25 to 34 years

1,694 1,159 1,120 8.7 6.2 7.0 6.2 5.9 5.7

35 to 44 years

1,115 837 767 6.1 5.2 5.0 4.7 4.5 4.1

45 to 54 years

1,012 703 614 6.0 5.0 4.7 4.1 4.2 3.7

55 years and over

1,261 815 737 6.2 4.6 4.8 4.4 4.0 3.6

Women, 16 years and over

5,998 3,799 3,378 8.0 5.5 5.7 5.2 5.0 4.5

16 to 19 years

462 314 310 15.3 9.0 10.4 8.7 10.4 10.3

16 to 17 years

181 145 122 16.2 9.7 8.8 9.3 11.9 10.5

18 to 19 years

280 164 186 14.8 7.7 11.3 8.3 9.3 10.0

20 years and over

5,537 3,485 3,067 7.7 5.4 5.5 5.0 4.8 4.2

20 to 24 years

845 638 460 12.1 9.2 7.9 7.7 9.0 6.5

25 years and over

4,720 2,843 2,664 7.3 4.9 5.3 4.7 4.3 4.1

25 to 54 years

3,459 2,171 2,064 7.3 4.9 5.3 4.8 4.5 4.3

25 to 34 years

1,457 910 837 8.6 5.4 5.8 6.0 5.3 4.9

35 to 44 years

984 675 607 6.3 4.7 5.5 4.7 4.2 3.9

45 to 54 years

1,019 586 621 6.8 4.5 4.6 3.5 3.9 4.1

55 years and over

1,259 674 604 7.2 5.0 5.0 4.3 3.8 3.4

MARITAL STATUS

Married men, spouse present(1)

2,195 1,464 1,279 4.8 3.5 3.8 3.4 3.2 2.9

Married women, spouse present(1)

2,154 1,035 1,040 5.9 3.7 3.7 3.3 2.9 2.9

Women who maintain families(2)

1,012 828 698 10.0 6.6 8.1 8.5 7.9 6.8

FULL- OR PART-TIME STATUS

Full-time workers(3)

10,301 6,972 6,589 7.8 5.8 6.0 5.5 5.2 4.9

Part-time workers(4)

2,286 1,418 1,135 8.4 5.1 5.4 5.0 5.2 4.2

Footnotes
(1) Beginning with data for January 2020, refers to persons in both opposite-sex and same-sex married couples. Prior to January 2020, referred to persons in opposite-sex married couples only.
(2) Data are not seasonally adjusted. Beginning with data for January 2020, refers to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not a spouse of either sex. Prior to January 2020, referred to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not an opposite-sex spouse.
(3) Full-time workers are unemployed persons who have expressed a desire to work full time (35 hours or more per week) or are on layoff from full-time jobs.
(4) Part-time workers are unemployed persons who have expressed a desire to work part time (less than 35 hours per week) or are on layoff from part-time jobs.

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-11. Unemployed persons by reason for unemployment
[Numbers in thousands]
Reason Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Sept.
2020
Aug.
2021
Sept.
2021
Sept.
2020
May
2021
June
2021
July
2021
Aug.
2021
Sept.
2021

NUMBER OF UNEMPLOYED

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

8,738 4,547 3,728 9,039 5,841 5,787 4,960 4,468 4,065

On temporary layoff

4,280 1,283 786 4,624 1,823 1,811 1,239 1,252 1,124

Not on temporary layoff

4,457 3,264 2,943 4,415 4,019 3,976 3,721 3,217 2,941

Permanent job losers

3,704 2,545 2,270 3,661 3,234 3,187 2,930 2,487 2,251

Persons who completed temporary jobs

754 719 672 754 785 789 791 730 689

Job leavers

869 905 852 808 778 942 930 822 788

Reentrants

2,139 2,514 2,301 2,123 2,149 2,298 2,287 2,487 2,289

New entrants

531 590 486 535 525 494 463 512 490

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

71.2 53.1 50.6 72.3 62.9 60.8 57.4 53.9 53.3

On temporary layoff

34.9 15.0 10.7 37.0 19.6 19.0 14.3 15.1 14.7

Not on temporary layoff

36.3 38.1 39.9 35.3 43.2 41.8 43.1 38.8 38.5

Job leavers

7.1 10.6 11.6 6.5 8.4 9.9 10.8 9.9 10.3

Reentrants

17.4 29.4 31.2 17.0 23.1 24.1 26.5 30.0 30.0

New entrants

4.3 6.9 6.6 4.3 5.7 5.2 5.4 6.2 6.4

UNEMPLOYED AS A PERCENT OF THE
CIVILIAN LABOR FORCE

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

5.5 2.8 2.3 5.6 3.6 3.6 3.1 2.8 2.5

Job leavers

0.5 0.6 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.6 0.5 0.5

Reentrants

1.3 1.6 1.4 1.3 1.3 1.4 1.4 1.5 1.4

New entrants

0.3 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to total unemployed in table A-1 because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-12. Unemployed persons by duration of unemployment
[Numbers in thousands]
Duration Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Sept.
2020
Aug.
2021
Sept.
2021
Sept.
2020
May
2021
June
2021
July
2021
Aug.
2021
Sept.
2021

NUMBER OF UNEMPLOYED

Less than 5 weeks

2,518 2,051 2,209 2,552 2,023 1,981 2,257 2,083 2,237

5 to 14 weeks

2,518 2,269 1,565 2,754 2,126 2,166 1,861 2,066 1,872

15 weeks and over

7,241 4,236 3,593 7,339 5,013 5,314 4,599 4,343 3,674

15 to 26 weeks

4,806 1,042 889 4,934 1,262 1,329 1,174 1,164 990

27 weeks and over

2,435 3,195 2,704 2,405 3,752 3,985 3,425 3,179 2,683

Average (mean) duration, in weeks

21.9 29.2 29.2 21.0 29.9 31.6 29.5 29.6 28.4

Median duration, in weeks

18.2 14.3 13.9 17.8 19.3 19.8 15.2 14.7 13.3

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION

Less than 5 weeks

20.5 24.0 30.0 20.2 22.1 20.9 25.9 24.5 28.7

5 to 14 weeks

20.5 26.5 21.2 21.8 23.2 22.9 21.3 24.3 24.1

15 weeks and over

59.0 49.5 48.8 58.0 54.7 56.2 52.8 51.1 47.2

15 to 26 weeks

39.1 12.2 12.1 39.0 13.8 14.0 13.5 13.7 12.7

27 weeks and over

19.8 37.3 36.7 19.0 40.9 42.1 39.3 37.4 34.5

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to total unemployed in table A-1 because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-13. Employed and unemployed persons by occupation, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Occupation Employed Unemployed Unemployment
rates
Sept.
2020
Sept.
2021
Sept.
2020
Sept.
2021
Sept.
2020
Sept.
2021

Total, 16 years and over(1)

147,796 154,026 12,277 7,366 7.7 4.6

Management, professional, and related occupations

62,759 65,163 2,946 1,580 4.5 2.4

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

26,747 27,952 1,336 669 4.8 2.3

Professional and related occupations

36,011 37,211 1,611 911 4.3 2.4

Service occupations

23,428 25,674 3,200 1,758 12.0 6.4

Sales and office occupations

29,696 29,593 2,610 1,525 8.1 4.9

Sales and related occupations

14,157 14,225 1,388 782 8.9 5.2

Office and administrative support occupations

15,539 15,368 1,222 743 7.3 4.6

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

13,683 14,295 1,023 700 7.0 4.7

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

966 1,024 61 71 5.9 6.5

Construction and extraction occupations

8,038 8,332 702 427 8.0 4.9

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

4,679 4,939 261 202 5.3 3.9

Production, transportation, and material moving
occupations

18,231 19,301 1,953 1,298 9.7 6.3

Production occupations

7,696 7,967 691 463 8.2 5.5

Transportation and material moving occupations

10,534 11,335 1,262 835 10.7 6.9

Footnotes
(1) Persons with no previous work experience and persons whose last job was in the U.S. Armed Forces are included in the unemployed total.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data. Effective with January 2020 data, occupations reflect the introduction of the 2018 Census occupational classification system into the Current Population Survey, or household survey. This classification system is derived from the 2018 Standard Occupational Classification (SOC). No historical data have been revised. Data for 2020 are not strictly comparable with earlier years.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-14. Unemployed persons by industry and class of worker, not seasonally adjusted
Industry and class of worker Number of
unemployed
persons
(in thousands)
Unemployment
rates
Sept.
2020
Sept.
2021
Sept.
2020
Sept.
2021

Total, 16 years and over(1)

12,277 7,366 7.7 4.6

Nonagricultural private wage and salary workers

10,098 5,868 8.0 4.6

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

108 48 14.9 7.3

Construction

700 444 7.1 4.5

Manufacturing

935 580 6.2 3.9

Durable goods

531 370 5.7 3.9

Nondurable goods

404 210 7.1 3.8

Wholesale and retail trade

1,545 1,102 7.8 5.7

Transportation and utilities

753 447 9.8 5.4

Information

202 97 8.6 4.0

Financial activities

442 246 4.4 2.5

Professional and business services

1,161 802 6.7 4.4

Education and health services

1,250 805 5.1 3.3

Leisure and hospitality

2,436 1,019 19.0 7.7

Other services

566 278 9.2 4.2

Agriculture and related private wage and salary workers

76 77 5.0 5.0

Government workers

884 497 4.1 2.4

Self-employed workers, unincorporated, and unpaid family workers

688 438 6.7 4.1

Footnotes
(1) Persons with no previous work experience and persons whose last job was in the U.S. Armed Forces are included in the unemployed total.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data. Effective with January 2020 data, industries reflect the introduction of the 2017 Census industry classification system into the Current Population Survey. This industry classification system is derived from the 2017 North American Industry Classification System (NAICS). No historical data have been revised.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-15. Alternative measures of labor underutilization
[Percent]
Measure Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Sept.
2020
Aug.
2021
Sept.
2021
Sept.
2020
May
2021
June
2021
July
2021
Aug.
2021
Sept.
2021

U-1 Persons unemployed 15 weeks or longer, as a percent of the civilian labor force

4.5 2.6 2.2 4.6 3.1 3.3 2.9 2.7 2.3

U-2 Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs, as a percent of the civilian labor force

5.5 2.8 2.3 5.6 3.6 3.6 3.1 2.8 2.5

U-3 Total unemployed, as a percent of the civilian labor force (official unemployment rate)

7.7 5.3 4.6 7.8 5.8 5.9 5.4 5.2 4.8

U-4 Total unemployed plus discouraged workers, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus discouraged workers

8.0 5.5 4.8 8.2 6.1 6.2 5.7 5.4 5.0

U-5 Total unemployed, plus discouraged workers, plus all other persons marginally attached to the labor force, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force

8.8 6.2 5.6 8.9 6.9 6.9 6.5 6.1 5.8

U-6 Total unemployed, plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force, plus total employed part time for economic reasons, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force

12.4 8.9 8.1 12.8 10.2 9.8 9.2 8.8 8.5

NOTE: Persons marginally attached to the labor force are those who currently are neither working nor looking for work but indicate that they want and are available for a job and have looked for work sometime in the past 12 months. Discouraged workers, a subset of the marginally attached, have given a job-market related reason for not currently looking for work. Persons employed part time for economic reasons are those who want and are available for full-time work but have had to settle for a part-time schedule. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-16. Persons not in the labor force and multiple jobholders by sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Category Total Men Women
Sept.
2020
Sept.
2021
Sept.
2020
Sept.
2021
Sept.
2020
Sept.
2021

NOT IN THE LABOR FORCE

Total not in the labor force

100,670 100,373 41,059 40,933 59,610 59,441

Persons who currently want a job

6,984 5,710 3,367 2,479 3,617 3,232

Marginally attached to the labor force(1)

1,921 1,732 1,016 887 905 844

Discouraged workers(2)

556 409 341 246 214 163

Other persons marginally attached to the labor force(3)

1,365 1,323 675 642 690 682

MULTIPLE JOBHOLDERS

Total multiple jobholders(4)

6,482 7,032 3,054 3,530 3,428 3,502

Percent of total employed

4.4 4.6 3.9 4.3 5.0 4.8

Primary job full time, secondary job part time

3,711 3,904 1,959 2,148 1,753 1,757

Primary and secondary jobs both part time

1,586 1,690 530 636 1,056 1,054

Primary and secondary jobs both full time

256 352 141 222 115 130

Hours vary on primary or secondary job

891 1,055 412 510 479 545

Footnotes
(1) Data refer to persons who want a job, have searched for work during the prior 12 months, and were available to take a job during the reference week, but had not looked for work in the past 4 weeks.
(2) Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for reasons such as thinks no work available, could not find work, lacks schooling or training, employer thinks too young or old, and other types of discrimination.
(3) Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for such reasons as school or family responsibilities, ill health, and transportation problems, as well as a number for whom reason for nonparticipation was not determined.
(4) Includes a small number of persons who work part time on their primary job and full time on their secondary job(s), not shown separately.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-1. Employees on nonfarm payrolls by industry sector and selected industry detail
[In thousands]
Industry Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Sept.
2020
July
2021
Aug.
2021(p)
Sept.
2021(p)
Sept.
2020
July
2021
Aug.
2021(p)
Sept.
2021(p)
Change from:
Aug.2021 - Sept.2021(p)

Total nonfarm

141,946 146,536 147,028 147,682 141,865 146,993 147,359 147,553 194

Total private

120,101 125,774 125,958 125,735 120,008 124,920 125,252 125,569 317

Goods-producing

20,154 20,742 20,781 20,739 19,971 20,451 20,488 20,540 52

Mining and logging

597 642 646 649 592 637 643 647 4

Logging

45.6 45.5 45.7 43.9 44.7 44.5 44.5 43.5 -1.0

Mining

551.2 596.5 599.8 604.6 547.1 592.5 598.3 603.0 4.7

Oil and gas extraction

137.0 139.5 140.5 141.9 136.6 138.3 139.3 140.4 1.1

Mining, except oil and gas

180.2 186.0 186.4 185.1 177.6 181.9 182.8 182.7 -0.1

Coal mining

41.2 41.4 42.4 42.3 40.8 41.4 42.2 42.3 0.1

Metal ore mining

41.7 43.0 42.7 42.2 41.8 42.7 42.5 42.4 -0.1

Nonmetallic mineral mining and quarrying

97.3 101.6 101.3 100.6 94.9 97.8 98.1 98.0 -0.1

Support activities for mining

234.0 271.0 272.9 277.6 232.9 272.3 276.2 279.9 3.7

Construction

7,419 7,640 7,651 7,628 7,256 7,425 7,425 7,447 22

Construction of buildings

1,644.5 1,732.0 1,724.5 1,719.7 1,626.3 1,692.9 1,690.6 1,696.9 6.3

Residential building

834.9 897.1 894.2 887.3 826.1 880.3 880.1 882.3 2.2

Nonresidential building

809.6 834.9 830.3 832.4 800.2 812.6 810.5 814.6 4.1

Heavy and civil engineering construction

1,079.1 1,096.3 1,098.0 1,100.5 1,017.8 1,042.5 1,033.4 1,036.5 3.1

Specialty trade contractors

4,695.3 4,811.8 4,828.0 4,808.0 4,611.4 4,689.7 4,700.7 4,713.3 12.6

Residential specialty trade contractors

2,123.6 2,215.0 2,221.3 2,211.2 2,098.4 2,167.7 2,177.3 2,178.5 1.2

Nonresidential specialty trade contractors

2,571.7 2,596.8 2,606.7 2,596.8 2,513.0 2,522.0 2,523.4 2,534.8 11.4

Manufacturing

12,138 12,460 12,484 12,462 12,123 12,389 12,420 12,446 26

Durable goods

7,532 7,728 7,747 7,734 7,538 7,704 7,724 7,740 16

Wood products

393.2 408.8 412.3 411.8 392.8 406.5 408.7 411.0 2.3

Nonmetallic mineral products

399.1 403.0 403.6 402.6 394.8 395.7 396.2 397.0 0.8

Primary metals

343.7 357.4 354.7 353.2 344.2 354.7 354.7 355.2 0.5

Fabricated metal products

1,373.2 1,421.1 1,416.5 1,419.5 1,375.8 1,411.8 1,416.6 1,424.8 8.2

Machinery

1,045.5 1,081.3 1,081.3 1,080.0 1,051.3 1,076.1 1,079.0 1,085.3 6.3

Computer and electronic products

1,067.8 1,090.7 1,091.2 1,088.1 1,070.1 1,086.1 1,087.3 1,089.3 2.0

Computer and peripheral equipment

161.3 165.8 166.6 166.8 161.5 165.9 165.9 166.6 0.7

Communications equipment

85.7 86.1 85.1 85.1 85.9 85.9 85.0 85.5 0.5

Semiconductors and electronic components

367.6 374.8 374.7 373.8 368.6 372.0 372.9 374.0 1.1

Electronic instruments

419.6 429.3 429.9 428.4 421.0 427.9 429.3 429.4 0.1

Miscellaneous computer and electronic products

33.6 34.7 34.9 34.0 33.1 34.4 34.2 33.8 -0.4

Electrical equipment and appliances

373.4 384.9 381.4 378.9 373.2 382.9 379.8 379.0 -0.8

Transportation equipment(1)

1,590.6 1,587.6 1,615.5 1,610.8 1,589.5 1,599.6 1,613.6 1,608.5 -5.1

Motor vehicles and parts(2)

895.3 886.6 915.0 911.6 895.7 902.8 912.7 906.6 -6.1

Furniture and related products

350.9 362.6 360.7 362.8 351.2 362.1 361.8 363.1 1.3

Miscellaneous durable goods manufacturing

594.4 630.1 629.9 626.6 595.5 628.3 626.3 626.5 0.2

Nondurable goods

4,606 4,732 4,737 4,728 4,585 4,685 4,696 4,706 10

Food manufacturing

1,633.4 1,663.6 1,660.3 1,658.2 1,618.0 1,640.6 1,643.8 1,647.3 3.5

Textile mills

94.5 98.3 98.7 98.3 94.5 97.9 98.0 97.8 -0.2

Textile product mills

104.7 107.3 107.3 108.0 104.5 106.5 107.1 107.5 0.4

Apparel

89.5 93.1 93.1 93.4 89.4 92.9 92.5 92.5 0.0

Paper and paper products

354.9 353.1 353.1 352.7 356.1 351.7 352.3 352.8 0.5

Printing and related support activities

367.9 373.6 375.6 378.7 366.8 373.1 373.0 377.2 4.2

Petroleum and coal products

105.5 103.1 103.3 103.1 103.1 100.3 100.8 100.9 0.1

Chemicals

837.9 863.5 859.9 854.8 840.3 858.2 858.7 858.4 -0.3

Plastics and rubber products

706.4 733.9 741.3 737.6 708.9 730.6 735.6 736.6 1.0

Miscellaneous nondurable goods manufacturing

311.3 342.7 344.3 343.6 303.1 333.2 333.9 335.0 1.1

Private service-providing

99,947 105,032 105,177 104,996 100,037 104,469 104,764 105,029 265

Trade, transportation, and utilities

26,512 27,338 27,328 27,422 26,662 27,409 27,456 27,576 120

Wholesale trade

5,575.7 5,744.9 5,737.4 5,735.6 5,578.4 5,722.1 5,718.9 5,735.8 16.9

Durable goods

3,043.7 3,150.4 3,149.1 3,150.6 3,044.0 3,138.4 3,135.7 3,151.2 15.5

Nondurable goods

2,055.2 2,113.9 2,108.0 2,106.8 2,056.8 2,105.8 2,105.2 2,107.0 1.8

Electronic markets and agents and brokers

476.8 480.6 480.3 478.2 477.6 477.9 478.0 477.6 -0.4

Retail trade

14,891.9 15,347.5 15,303.9 15,267.8 15,025.3 15,355.3 15,351.5 15,407.6 56.1

Motor vehicle and parts dealers

1,922.6 1,992.1 1,991.0 1,986.4 1,917.4 1,978.7 1,982.5 1,985.3 2.8

Automobile dealers

1,217.1 1,254.8 1,255.0 1,252.7 1,214.2 1,252.2 1,254.6 1,255.0 0.4

Other motor vehicle dealers

152.6 172.2 171.7 168.4 151.0 163.8 165.0 166.2 1.2

Auto parts, accessories, and tire stores

552.9 565.1 564.3 565.3 552.1 562.7 562.9 564.1 1.2

Furniture and home furnishings stores

412.5 441.6 441.0 440.8 418.7 447.6 447.3 447.1 -0.2

Electronics and appliance stores

411.9 410.2 412.1 418.1 421.8 422.1 423.9 425.6 1.7

Building material and garden supply stores

1,376.7 1,407.3 1,374.4 1,361.9 1,390.3 1,366.4 1,361.8 1,377.8 16.0

Food and beverage stores

3,113.6 3,120.7 3,106.6 3,069.4 3,123.6 3,099.2 3,091.6 3,079.3 -12.3

Health and personal care stores

947.5 1,000.2 997.1 1,005.5 958.7 1,005.6 1,006.2 1,011.3 5.1

Gasoline stations

935.4 968.6 968.8 955.7 933.4 956.0 952.8 950.4 -2.4

Clothing and clothing accessories stores

930.5 1,047.1 1,046.2 1,041.9 959.4 1,051.4 1,048.0 1,075.3 27.3

Sporting goods, hobby, book, and music stores

455.3 485.2 495.2 491.4 467.0 495.7 501.9 499.6 -2.3

General merchandise stores

3,032.4 3,014.1 3,011.0 3,045.8 3,072.5 3,084.8 3,080.4 3,096.5 16.1

Department stores

942.1 965.7 967.5 969.8 973.1 1,005.9 1,003.5 1,008.9 5.4

General merchandise stores, including warehouse clubs and supercenters

2,090.3 2,048.4 2,043.5 2,076.0 2,099.4 2,078.9 2,076.9 2,087.6 10.7

Miscellaneous store retailers

765.6 840.6 838.0 822.0 767.4 822.8 826.9 826.9 0.0

Nonstore retailers

587.9 619.8 622.5 628.9 595.1 625.0 628.2 632.5 4.3

Transportation and warehousing

5,504.6 5,703.0 5,747.3 5,882.3 5,516.4 5,792.9 5,847.4 5,894.7 47.3

Air transportation

409.4 441.6 449.8 456.1 409.5 436.7 446.0 455.7 9.7

Rail transportation

145.7 143.6 142.5 142.5 145.4 143.5 142.2 141.7 -0.5

Water transportation

59.9 62.6 61.2 60.1 58.9 59.7 59.2 59.3 0.1

Truck transportation

1,466.7 1,514.2 1,519.6 1,518.0 1,450.1 1,494.4 1,500.4 1,502.9 2.5

Transit and ground passenger transportation

356.4 340.0 332.9 416.2 343.4 404.0 397.8 403.0 5.2

Pipeline transportation

50.2 49.3 49.3 49.2 50.2 49.2 49.2 49.3 0.1

Scenic and sightseeing transportation

25.2 40.3 41.5 38.4 21.5 31.0 31.5 32.4 0.9

Support activities for transportation

681.6 716.7 724.5 724.8 682.3 715.3 723.3 724.5 1.2

Couriers and messengers

941.6 973.0 984.6 1,004.7 980.9 1,011.1 1,032.7 1,045.2 12.5

Warehousing and storage

1,367.9 1,421.7 1,441.4 1,472.3 1,374.2 1,448.0 1,465.1 1,480.7 15.6

Utilities

539.6 542.3 539.6 536.1 541.6 538.9 538.1 537.6 -0.5

Information

2,652 2,761 2,781 2,801 2,659 2,745 2,774 2,806 32

Publishing industries, except Internet

756.7 776.0 776.5 785.5 752.0 770.0 772.8 783.8 11.0

Motion picture and sound recording industries

264.8 320.4 332.8 335.6 269.6 312.6 325.7 339.4 13.7

Broadcasting, except Internet

245.7 236.3 238.2 239.7 244.7 238.7 239.9 239.5 -0.4

Telecommunications

680.9 677.0 671.1 673.4 684.2 676.1 674.0 672.9 -1.1

Data processing, hosting and related services

349.1 370.0 377.2 381.8 351.7 368.4 379.5 385.8 6.3

Other information services

355.0 381.5 384.9 385.2 356.3 378.7 382.1 384.8 2.7

Financial activities

8,710 8,897 8,900 8,847 8,712 8,837 8,848 8,850 2

Finance and insurance

6,497.7 6,561.6 6,559.7 6,529.5 6,509.3 6,545.1 6,546.1 6,541.0 -5.1

Monetary authorities - central bank

20.3 20.6 20.3 20.2 20.3 20.2 20.2 20.2 0.0

Credit intermediation and related
activities

2,644.9 2,670.8 2,669.7 2,656.4 2,652.7 2,665.7 2,667.1 2,665.9 -1.2

Depository credit intermediation(1)

1,753.1 1,733.9 1,729.9 1,715.8 1,761.8 1,726.3 1,724.7 1,723.3 -1.4

Commercial banking

1,369.9 1,344.3 1,340.8 1,326.8 1,376.9 1,338.2 1,336.2 1,333.2 -3.0

Nondepository credit intermediation

585.5 612.5 615.4 618.9 583.7 615.0 616.7 620.5 3.8

Activities related to credit intermediation

306.3 324.4 324.4 321.7 307.2 324.4 325.7 322.1 -3.6

Securities, commodity contracts, investments, and funds and trusts

968.5 1,005.9 1,006.0 994.2 969.7 996.4 995.3 994.3 -1.0

Insurance carriers and related activities

2,864.0 2,864.3 2,863.7 2,858.7 2,866.6 2,862.8 2,863.5 2,860.6 -2.9

Real estate and rental and leasing

2,212.2 2,335.7 2,340.3 2,317.4 2,202.7 2,291.9 2,302.0 2,308.9 6.9

Real estate

1,698.0 1,780.2 1,785.9 1,767.7 1,695.7 1,756.7 1,765.0 1,768.3 3.3

Rental and leasing services

491.9 533.0 531.9 527.6 484.6 513.1 514.8 518.4 3.6

Lessors of nonfinancial intangible assets

22.3 22.5 22.5 22.1 22.4 22.1 22.2 22.2 0.0

Professional and business services

20,115 21,067 21,193 21,203 20,055 20,939 21,024 21,084 60

Professional and technical services

9,306.8 9,881.8 9,914.3 9,882.8 9,397.4 9,839.0 9,897.2 9,952.7 55.5

Legal services

1,108.5 1,144.8 1,142.3 1,141.3 1,114.1 1,137.3 1,141.3 1,145.6 4.3

Accounting and bookkeeping services

930.0 1,012.8 1,013.8 1,001.5 993.6 1,061.7 1,065.2 1,065.5 0.3

Architectural and engineering services

1,514.6 1,593.1 1,597.2 1,592.5 1,514.0 1,560.7 1,577.8 1,592.9 15.1

Specialized design services

131.7 142.6 143.4 142.6 131.9 141.6 142.8 143.5 0.7

Computer systems design and related services

2,162.0 2,286.7 2,294.0 2,277.0 2,174.8 2,259.8 2,269.4 2,278.2 8.8

Management and technical consulting services

1,516.7 1,633.4 1,644.8 1,655.9 1,517.8 1,626.6 1,635.4 1,650.6 15.2

Scientific research and development services

765.5 833.1 836.4 829.0 770.4 824.2 831.1 836.3 5.2

Advertising and related services

436.0 447.5 449.9 450.9 437.8 445.0 447.6 452.1 4.5

Other professional and technical services

741.8 787.8 792.5 792.1 742.9 782.1 786.6 788.0 1.4

Management of companies and enterprises

2,328.6 2,346.6 2,347.3 2,340.3 2,333.0 2,329.8 2,336.2 2,339.3 3.1

Administrative and waste services

8,479.8 8,838.3 8,931.6 8,979.4 8,324.5 8,770.3 8,790.2 8,791.9 1.7

Administrative and support services

8,032.9 8,383.5 8,475.6 8,522.8 7,880.1 8,322.2 8,340.4 8,339.0 -1.4

Office administrative services

523.7 558.4 567.4 566.2 524.3 557.1 563.3 564.2 0.9

Facilities support services

153.2 150.5 152.9 150.7 153.3 151.0 153.0 151.3 -1.7

Employment services(1)

3,052.0 3,283.2 3,352.3 3,430.8 2,987.6 3,335.0 3,335.2 3,330.1 -5.1

Temporary help services

2,467.5 2,641.5 2,702.0 2,775.3 2,398.3 2,696.9 2,693.2 2,688.0 -5.2

Business support services

794.5 767.7 772.6 779.9 795.5 778.8 780.6 784.4 3.8

Travel arrangement and reservation services

152.0 160.8 163.3 166.4 151.4 158.7 161.5 166.3 4.8

Investigation and security services

898.2 897.1 903.9 904.8 888.6 898.8 901.0 899.2 -1.8

Services to buildings and dwellings

2,166.8 2,255.8 2,245.6 2,200.9 2,090.0 2,127.8 2,127.4 2,124.8 -2.6

Other support services

292.5 310.0 317.6 323.1 289.5 315.0 318.4 318.7 0.3

Waste management and remediation services

446.9 454.8 456.0 456.6 444.4 448.1 449.8 452.9 3.1

Education and health services

23,086 23,319 23,362 23,588 23,152 23,621 23,672 23,665 -7

Educational services

3,375.1 3,292.9 3,326.4 3,575.0 3,403.9 3,576.1 3,625.3 3,606.4 -18.9

Health care and social assistance

19,710.7 20,025.9 20,035.1 20,012.6 19,748.0 20,044.8 20,046.4 20,058.7 12.3

Health care(3)

15,818.1 16,008.1 16,003.5 15,958.6 15,835.9 15,984.2 15,985.9 15,968.4 -17.5

Ambulatory health care services

7,570.8 7,839.5 7,846.3 7,859.5 7,587.0 7,831.9 7,842.3 7,870.5 28.2

Offices of physicians

2,631.1 2,704.1 2,709.5 2,708.6 2,638.9 2,703.7 2,711.2 2,711.6 0.4

Offices of dentists

959.3 1,020.2 1,022.8 1,020.6 962.1 1,016.8 1,018.5 1,022.6 4.1

Offices of other health practitioners

924.8 991.7 995.9 999.2 928.8 989.3 993.0 1,003.5 10.5

Outpatient care centers

977.6 1,007.0 1,008.1 1,010.2 981.2 1,006.8 1,009.0 1,011.5 2.5

Medical and diagnostic laboratories

280.4 294.7 297.1 296.6 280.1 295.5 297.0 297.9 0.9

Home health care services

1,492.7 1,503.4 1,497.9 1,507.2 1,492.3 1,503.0 1,498.1 1,506.3 8.2

Other ambulatory health care services

304.9 318.4 315.0 317.1 303.7 316.8 315.5 317.1 1.6

Hospitals

5,109.0 5,151.8 5,153.4 5,145.5 5,109.7 5,148.6 5,152.3 5,144.2 -8.1

Nursing and residential care facilities

3,138.3 3,016.8 3,003.8 2,953.6 3,139.2 3,003.7 2,991.3 2,953.7 -37.6

Nursing care facilities

1,457.9 1,374.9 1,365.8 1,346.0 1,456.6 1,371.0 1,360.7 1,344.9 -15.8

Residential mental health facilities

613.5 599.0 596.2 590.5 614.8 594.9 594.0 590.3 -3.7

Community care facilities for the elderly

910.8 893.3 891.4 866.8 911.8 889.8 887.1 867.6 -19.5

Other residential care facilities

156.1 149.6 150.4 150.3 156.0 148.0 149.5 150.9 1.4

Social assistance

3,892.6 4,017.8 4,031.6 4,054.0 3,912.1 4,060.6 4,060.5 4,090.3 29.8

Individual and family services

2,568.6 2,674.6 2,674.5 2,658.6 2,585.8 2,668.8 2,673.2 2,683.4 10.2

Emergency and other relief services

181.5 183.2 182.6 184.1 182.4 184.0 184.6 185.4 0.8

Vocational rehabilitation services

278.8 286.4 284.8 281.3 280.0 282.4 282.7 283.7 1.0

Child day care services

863.7 873.6 889.7 930.0 863.8 925.4 920.0 937.8 17.8

Leisure and hospitality

13,446 15,864 15,827 15,414 13,357 15,209 15,247 15,321 74

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

1,760.1 2,390.8 2,379.8 2,221.1 1,735.2 2,093.4 2,142.7 2,185.7 43.0

Performing arts and spectator sports

301.6 428.5 451.6 474.2 290.7 408.3 432.2 455.9 23.7

Museums, historical sites, and similar institutions

131.5 157.5 153.5 145.7 130.3 142.6 143.0 145.4 2.4

Amusements, gambling, and recreation

1,327.0 1,804.8 1,774.7 1,601.2 1,314.2 1,542.5 1,567.5 1,584.4 16.9

Accommodation and food services

11,686.1 13,472.9 13,446.9 13,193.0 11,622.0 13,115.3 13,104.2 13,135.3 31.1

Accommodation

1,461.9 1,866.1 1,874.9 1,787.2 1,434.9 1,742.0 1,755.6 1,757.7 2.1

Food services and drinking places

10,224.2 11,606.8 11,572.0 11,405.8 10,187.1 11,373.3 11,348.6 11,377.6 29.0

Other services

5,426 5,786 5,786 5,721 5,440 5,709 5,743 5,727 -16

Repair and maintenance

1,293.5 1,371.3 1,378.2 1,373.2 1,293.5 1,360.4 1,369.6 1,369.7 0.1

Personal and laundry services

1,283.1 1,420.5 1,430.7 1,421.7 1,283.3 1,406.7 1,425.8 1,416.8 -9.0

Membership associations and organizations

2,849.3 2,993.9 2,977.1 2,925.9 2,862.8 2,941.4 2,947.8 2,940.7 -7.1

Government

21,845 20,762 21,070 21,947 21,857 22,073 22,107 21,984 -123

Federal

3,121 2,894 2,888 2,890 3,117 2,883 2,886 2,886 0

Federal, except U.S. Postal Service

2,519.9 2,292.5 2,289.2 2,286.5 2,513.9 2,276.1 2,278.9 2,277.9 -1.0

U.S. Postal Service

601.2 601.9 599.2 603.3 603.0 606.4 606.6 607.6 1.0

State government

5,066 4,737 4,791 5,091 5,010 5,074 5,068 5,046 -22

State government education

2,370.7 2,068.4 2,131.8 2,446.7 2,315.0 2,421.0 2,419.2 2,402.6 -16.6

State government, excluding education

2,695.5 2,668.3 2,658.8 2,643.8 2,695.0 2,653.4 2,648.8 2,643.7 -5.1

Local government

13,658 13,131 13,391 13,966 13,730 14,116 14,153 14,052 -101

Local government education

7,383.7 6,624.3 6,925.5 7,643.8 7,443.5 7,848.1 7,863.6 7,719.4 -144.2

Local government, excluding education

6,274.3 6,506.3 6,465.6 6,322.6 6,286.6 6,267.9 6,289.6 6,332.1 42.5

Footnotes
(1) Includes other industries, not shown separately.
(2) Includes motor vehicles, motor vehicle bodies and trailers, and motor vehicle parts.
(3) Includes ambulatory health care services, hospitals, and nursing and residential care facilities.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2020 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-2. Average weekly hours and overtime of all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Sept.
2020
July
2021
Aug.
2021(p)
Sept.
2021(p)

AVERAGE WEEKLY HOURS

Total private

34.8 34.7 34.6 34.8

Goods-producing

40.0 40.0 40.0 40.4

Mining and logging

44.4 45.3 45.0 45.6

Construction

39.0 38.8 38.8 40.0

Manufacturing

40.3 40.5 40.4 40.4

Durable goods

40.6 40.7 40.4 40.5

Nondurable goods

39.9 40.2 40.3 40.2

Private service-providing

33.7 33.7 33.6 33.6

Trade, transportation, and utilities

34.3 34.5 34.4 34.4

Wholesale trade

38.6 39.4 39.1 39.3

Retail trade

30.8 30.8 30.8 30.7

Transportation and warehousing

38.7 38.7 38.7 38.7

Utilities

42.8 42.7 42.8 42.3

Information

36.6 37.1 37.1 36.9

Financial activities

37.6 37.6 37.5 37.5

Professional and business services

36.6 36.7 36.5 36.7

Education and health services

33.5 33.3 33.3 33.4

Leisure and hospitality

26.1 26.5 26.2 26.2

Other services

32.4 32.1 32.0 32.1

AVERAGE OVERTIME HOURS

Manufacturing

3.1 3.2 3.2 3.3

Durable goods

3.0 3.0 3.1 3.1

Nondurable goods

3.2 3.4 3.4 3.5

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2020 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-3. Average hourly and weekly earnings of all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Average hourly earnings Average weekly earnings
Sept.
2020
July
2021
Aug.
2021(p)
Sept.
2021(p)
Sept.
2020
July
2021
Aug.
2021(p)
Sept.
2021(p)

Total private

$29.50 $30.55 $30.66 $30.85 $1,026.60 $1,060.09 $1,060.84 $1,073.58

Goods-producing

30.13 31.10 31.20 31.38 1,205.20 1,244.00 1,248.00 1,267.75

Mining and logging

34.89 35.33 35.53 35.62 1,549.12 1,600.45 1,598.85 1,624.27

Construction

31.82 32.97 33.08 33.25 1,240.98 1,279.24 1,283.50 1,330.00

Manufacturing

28.90 29.78 29.87 30.02 1,164.67 1,206.09 1,206.75 1,212.81

Durable goods

30.31 31.32 31.45 31.60 1,230.59 1,274.72 1,270.58 1,279.80

Nondurable goods

26.55 27.22 27.27 27.41 1,059.35 1,094.24 1,098.98 1,101.88

Private service-providing

29.35 30.42 30.54 30.72 989.10 1,025.15 1,026.14 1,032.19

Trade, transportation, and utilities

25.55 26.48 26.55 26.67 876.37 913.56 913.32 917.45

Wholesale trade

32.52 33.71 33.75 33.77 1,255.27 1,328.17 1,319.63 1,327.16

Retail trade

21.44 21.98 22.11 22.27 660.35 676.98 680.99 683.69

Transportation and warehousing

25.42 26.82 26.85 26.95 983.75 1,037.93 1,039.10 1,042.97

Utilities

44.08 44.89 44.97 45.07 1,886.62 1,916.80 1,924.72 1,906.46

Information

43.93 44.25 44.32 44.30 1,607.84 1,641.68 1,644.27 1,634.67

Financial activities

38.21 40.19 40.05 40.24 1,436.70 1,511.14 1,501.88 1,509.00

Professional and business services

35.35 36.76 36.95 37.02 1,293.81 1,349.09 1,348.68 1,358.63

Education and health services

28.70 29.82 29.93 30.37 961.45 993.01 996.67 1,014.36

Leisure and hospitality

17.10 18.58 18.85 18.95 446.31 492.37 493.87 496.49

Other services

26.58 27.32 27.44 27.49 861.19 876.97 878.08 882.43

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2020 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-4. Indexes of aggregate weekly hours and payrolls for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
[2007=100]
Industry Index of aggregate weekly hours(1) Index of aggregate weekly payrolls(2)
Sept.
2020
July
2021
Aug.
2021(p)
Sept.
2021(p)
Percent change from:
Aug.
2021 - Sept.
2021(p)
Sept.
2020
July
2021
Aug.
2021(p)
Sept.
2021(p)
Percent change from:
Aug.
2021 - Sept.
2021(p)

Total private

104.8 108.8 108.8 109.7 0.8 147.9 158.9 159.5 161.8 1.4

Goods-producing

91.0 93.2 93.4 94.5 1.2 123.9 131.0 131.7 134.1 1.8

Mining and logging

82.6 90.7 90.9 92.7 2.0 115.7 128.6 129.7 132.6 2.2

Construction

97.5 99.3 99.3 102.7 3.4 134.9 142.3 142.7 148.3 3.9

Manufacturing

87.9 90.3 90.3 90.5 0.2 118.1 125.0 125.4 126.3 0.7

Durable goods

86.2 88.3 87.9 88.3 0.5 116.0 122.8 122.7 123.9 1.0

Nondurable goods

91.3 94.0 94.5 94.4 -0.1 123.0 129.8 130.7 131.3 0.5

Private service-providing

108.5 113.3 113.3 113.6 0.3 154.8 167.6 168.2 169.6 0.8

Trade, transportation, and utilities

99.8 103.2 103.1 103.5 0.4 137.5 147.3 147.6 148.9 0.9

Wholesale trade

95.0 99.4 98.6 99.4 0.8 129.2 140.2 139.2 140.5 0.9

Retail trade

94.0 96.0 96.0 96.0 0.0 133.2 139.5 140.3 141.4 0.8

Transportation and warehousing

122.7 128.8 130.0 131.1 0.8 158.6 175.8 177.6 179.7 1.2

Utilities

100.3 99.6 99.6 98.4 -1.2 146.1 147.7 148.1 146.5 -1.1

Information

88.9 93.0 94.0 94.6 0.6 139.0 146.5 148.3 149.2 0.6

Financial activities

107.3 108.9 108.7 108.7 0.0 160.0 170.7 169.8 170.7 0.5

Professional and business services

115.1 120.5 120.3 121.3 0.8 164.7 179.3 180.0 181.9 1.1

Education and health services

126.6 128.4 128.7 129.1 0.3 174.9 184.3 185.3 188.6 1.8

Leisure and hospitality

99.5 115.0 114.0 114.5 0.4 137.2 172.4 173.3 175.1 1.0

Other services

101.6 105.7 106.0 106.0 0.0 148.0 158.2 159.4 159.7 0.2

Footnotes
(1) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding 2007 annual average aggregate hours. Aggregate hours estimates are the product of estimates of average weekly hours and employment.
(2) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding 2007 annual average aggregate weekly payrolls. Aggregate payrolls estimates are the product of estimates of average hourly earnings, average weekly hours, and employment.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2020 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-5. Employment of women on nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Women employees (in thousands) Percent of all employees
Sept.
2020
July
2021
Aug.
2021(p)
Sept.
2021(p)
Sept.
2020
July
2021
Aug.
2021(p)
Sept.
2021(p)

Total nonfarm

70,583 73,300 73,476 73,450 49.8 49.9 49.9 49.8

Total private

58,030 60,515 60,645 60,705 48.4 48.4 48.4 48.3

Goods-producing

4,516 4,648 4,666 4,680 22.6 22.7 22.8 22.8

Mining and logging

85 83 83 82 14.4 13.0 12.9 12.7

Construction

969 1,020 1,029 1,035 13.4 13.7 13.9 13.9

Manufacturing

3,462 3,545 3,554 3,563 28.6 28.6 28.6 28.6

Durable goods

1,840 1,879 1,884 1,890 24.4 24.4 24.4 24.4

Nondurable goods

1,622 1,666 1,670 1,673 35.4 35.6 35.6 35.6

Private service-providing

53,514 55,867 55,979 56,025 53.5 53.5 53.4 53.3

Trade, transportation, and utilities

10,485 10,791 10,793 10,870 39.3 39.4 39.3 39.4

Wholesale trade

1,672.3 1,727.3 1,729.2 1,731.0 30.0 30.2 30.2 30.2

Retail trade

7,315.3 7,435.8 7,429.6 7,469.6 48.7 48.4 48.4 48.5

Transportation and warehousing

1,362.6 1,493.7 1,499.2 1,533.2 24.7 25.8 25.6 26.0

Utilities

135.2 134.6 134.9 135.9 25.0 25.0 25.1 25.3

Information

1,062 1,087 1,099 1,099 39.9 39.6 39.6 39.2

Financial activities

4,921 4,958 4,965 4,964 56.5 56.1 56.1 56.1

Professional and business services

9,188 9,682 9,736 9,730 45.8 46.2 46.3 46.1

Education and health services

17,876 18,251 18,254 18,238 77.2 77.3 77.1 77.1

Leisure and hospitality

7,096 8,058 8,068 8,075 53.1 53.0 52.9 52.7

Other services

2,886 3,040 3,064 3,049 53.1 53.2 53.4 53.2

Government

12,553 12,785 12,831 12,745 57.4 57.9 58.0 58.0

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2020 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-6. Employment of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
[In thousands]
Industry Sept.
2020
July
2021
Aug.
2021(p)
Sept.
2021(p)

Total private

97,686 101,707 102,010 102,199

Goods-producing

14,192 14,606 14,629 14,652

Mining and logging

422 472 478 479

Construction

5,380 5,517 5,510 5,518

Manufacturing

8,390 8,617 8,641 8,655

Durable goods

5,106 5,270 5,299 5,304

Nondurable goods

3,284 3,347 3,342 3,351

Private service-providing

83,494 87,101 87,381 87,547

Trade, transportation, and utilities

22,491 23,098 23,126 23,210

Wholesale trade

4,435.7 4,547.8 4,549.8 4,568.8

Retail trade

12,831.6 13,068.6 13,073.8 13,110.8

Transportation and warehousing

4,795.9 5,052.6 5,074.5 5,102.9

Utilities

428.0 429.1 427.4 427.1

Information

2,103 2,183 2,201 2,233

Financial activities

6,628 6,647 6,661 6,659

Professional and business services

16,079 16,721 16,820 16,889

Education and health services

20,279 20,677 20,725 20,665

Leisure and hospitality

11,489 13,133 13,172 13,234

Other services

4,425 4,642 4,676 4,657

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2020 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-7. Average weekly hours and overtime of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry Sept.
2020
July
2021
Aug.
2021(p)
Sept.
2021(p)

AVERAGE WEEKLY HOURS

Total private

34.1 34.2 34.1 34.2

Goods-producing

40.6 40.9 40.8 41.4

Mining and logging

45.0 46.6 46.9 47.4

Construction

39.3 39.4 39.3 40.9

Manufacturing

41.2 41.5 41.5 41.4

Durable goods

41.4 41.5 41.5 41.4

Nondurable goods

40.8 41.5 41.5 41.4

Private service-providing

33.0 33.1 33.0 33.0

Trade, transportation, and utilities

34.2 34.4 34.3 34.3

Wholesale trade

38.5 39.1 38.9 39.0

Retail trade

30.9 30.8 30.7 30.7

Transportation and warehousing

38.3 38.6 38.6 38.5

Utilities

43.1 42.6 42.8 42.4

Information

36.2 36.9 37.5 36.7

Financial activities

37.3 37.4 37.3 37.4

Professional and business services

36.0 36.3 36.3 36.4

Education and health services

32.8 32.7 32.6 32.7

Leisure and hospitality

24.7 25.2 25.0 24.9

Other services

31.3 31.2 30.9 31.2

AVERAGE OVERTIME HOURS

Manufacturing

3.8 4.1 4.2 4.2

Durable goods

3.8 4.1 4.2 4.2

Nondurable goods

3.9 4.1 4.1 4.2

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2020 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-8. Average hourly and weekly earnings of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry Average hourly earnings Average weekly earnings
Sept.
2020
July
2021
Aug.
2021(p)
Sept.
2021(p)
Sept.
2020
July
2021
Aug.
2021(p)
Sept.
2021(p)

Total private

$24.79 $25.86 $26.01 $26.15 $845.34 $884.41 $886.94 $894.33

Goods-producing

25.49 26.61 26.74 26.92 1,034.89 1,088.35 1,090.99 1,114.49

Mining and logging

30.36 31.42 31.67 31.72 1,366.20 1,464.17 1,485.32 1,503.53

Construction

29.09 30.58 30.70 30.79 1,143.24 1,204.85 1,206.51 1,259.31

Manufacturing

23.01 23.91 24.04 24.18 948.01 992.27 997.66 1,001.05

Durable goods

23.99 24.95 25.07 25.22 993.19 1,035.43 1,040.41 1,044.11

Nondurable goods

21.46 22.26 22.39 22.55 875.57 923.79 929.19 933.57

Private service-providing

24.64 25.70 25.86 25.99 813.12 850.67 853.38 857.67

Trade, transportation, and utilities

21.47 22.54 22.60 22.70 734.27 775.38 775.18 778.61

Wholesale trade

26.93 27.88 27.83 28.01 1,036.81 1,090.11 1,082.59 1,092.39

Retail trade

17.78 18.62 18.67 18.68 549.40 573.50 573.17 573.48

Transportation and warehousing

22.59 24.15 24.29 24.54 865.20 932.19 937.59 944.79

Utilities

38.98 39.92 39.98 40.00 1,680.04 1,700.59 1,711.14 1,696.00

Information

36.16 36.75 36.60 36.50 1,308.99 1,356.08 1,372.50 1,339.55

Financial activities

29.48 30.39 30.55 30.65 1,099.60 1,136.59 1,139.52 1,146.31

Professional and business services

29.50 30.66 30.83 30.94 1,062.00 1,112.96 1,119.13 1,126.22

Education and health services

25.60 26.97 27.18 27.46 839.68 881.92 886.07 897.94

Leisure and hospitality

14.80 16.47 16.60 16.71 365.56 415.04 415.00 416.08

Other services

22.61 23.22 23.40 23.38 707.69 724.46 723.06 729.46

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2020 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-9. Indexes of aggregate weekly hours and payrolls for production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
[2002=100]
Industry Index of aggregate weekly hours(2) Index of aggregate weekly payrolls(3)
Sept.
2020
July
2021
Aug.
2021(p)
Sept.
2021(p)
Percent change from:
Aug.
2021 - Sept.
2021(p)
Sept.
2020
July
2021
Aug.
2021(p)
Sept.
2021(p)
Percent change from:
Aug.
2021 - Sept.
2021(p)

Total private

111.0 115.9 115.9 116.5 0.5 183.9 200.3 201.5 203.6 1.0

Goods-producing

88.1 91.3 91.2 92.7 1.6 137.4 148.7 149.3 152.8 2.3

Mining and logging

100.9 116.9 119.1 120.7 1.3 178.2 213.6 219.4 222.6 1.5

Construction

105.9 108.8 108.4 113.0 4.2 166.3 179.7 179.7 187.9 4.6

Manufacturing

79.4 82.1 82.3 82.3 0.0 119.4 128.4 129.4 130.1 0.5

Durable goods

79.4 82.2 82.6 82.5 -0.1 118.9 128.0 129.3 129.9 0.5

Nondurable goods

78.9 81.8 81.7 81.7 0.0 119.7 128.7 129.3 130.2 0.7

Private service-providing

117.4 122.8 122.9 123.1 0.2 198.4 216.5 217.9 219.4 0.7

Trade, transportation, and utilities

107.6 111.1 110.9 111.3 0.4 165.0 179.0 179.2 180.6 0.8

Wholesale trade

101.4 105.5 105.0 105.7 0.7 161.1 173.7 172.5 174.8 1.3

Retail trade

100.3 101.9 101.6 101.9 0.3 152.9 162.5 162.5 163.0 0.3

Transportation and warehousing

139.0 147.6 148.2 148.7 0.3 199.9 226.9 229.2 232.2 1.3

Utilities

94.3 93.5 93.6 92.6