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Employment Situation News Release

Transmission of material in this news release is embargoed until	      USDL-19-1868
8:30 a.m. (EDT) Friday, November 1, 2019

Technical information: 
 Household data:	(202) 691-6378  *  cpsinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/cps
 Establishment data:	(202) 691-6555  *  cesinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/ces

Media contact:	        (202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov

	
                THE EMPLOYMENT SITUATION -- OCTOBER 2019


Total nonfarm payroll employment rose by 128,000 in October, and the
unemployment rate was little changed at 3.6 percent, the U.S. Bureau
of Labor Statistics reported today. Notable job gains occurred in food
services and drinking places, social assistance, and financial activities.
Within manufacturing, employment in motor vehicles and parts decreased
due to strike activity. Federal government employment was down, reflecting
a drop in the number of temporary jobs for the 2020 Census. 
 
This news release presents statistics from two monthly surveys. The
household survey measures labor force status, including unemployment,
by demographic characteristics. The establishment survey measures nonfarm
employment, hours, and earnings by industry. For more information about
the concepts and statistical methodology used in these two surveys, see
the Technical Note.

Household Survey Data

Both the unemployment rate, at 3.6 percent, and the number of unemployed
persons, at 5.9 million, changed little in October. (See table A-1.)

Among the major worker groups, the unemployment rates for adult men
(3.2 percent), adult women (3.2 percent), teenagers (12.3 percent),
Whites (3.2 percent), Blacks (5.4 percent), Asians (2.9 percent), and
Hispanics (4.1 percent) showed little or no change in October. (See
tables A-1, A-2, and A-3.)

The number of long-term unemployed (those jobless for 27 weeks or more)
was essentially unchanged at 1.3 million in October and accounted for 21.5
percent of the unemployed. (See table A-12.)

The labor force participation rate was little changed at 63.3 percent in
October, and the employment-population ratio held at 61.0 percent. Both
measures were up by 0.4 percentage point over the year. (See table A-1.)

The number of persons employed part time for economic reasons, at 4.4 million,
changed little in October. These individuals, who would have preferred
full-time employment, were working part time because their hours had been
reduced or they were unable to find full-time jobs. (See table A-8.)

In October, 1.2 million persons were marginally attached to the labor force,
down by 262,000 from a year earlier. (Data are not seasonally adjusted.)
These individuals were not in the labor force, wanted and were available
for work, and had looked for a job sometime in the prior 12 months. They
were not counted as unemployed because they had not searched for work in
the 4 weeks preceding the survey. (See table A-16.)

Among the marginally attached, there were 341,000 discouraged workers in 
October, down by 165,000 from a year earlier. (Data are not seasonally adjusted.)
Discouraged workers are persons not currently looking for work because they
believe no jobs are available for them. The remaining 888,000 persons marginally
attached to the labor force in October had not searched for work for reasons
such as school attendance or family responsibilities. (See table A-16.)

Establishment Survey Data

Total nonfarm payroll employment increased by 128,000 in October. Job growth
has averaged 167,000 per month thus far in 2019, compared with an average
monthly gain of 223,000 in 2018. In October, notable job gains occurred in
food services and drinking places, social assistance, and financial activities.
Employment declined in motor vehicles and parts manufacturing due to strike
activity. Federal government employment also was down, reflecting a drop in
the number of temporary jobs for the 2020 Census. (See table B-1.)

In October, food services and drinking places added 48,000 jobs. Job growth
in the industry has averaged 38,000 over the past 3 months, compared with an
average monthly gain of 16,000 in the first 7 months of 2019. 

Employment in social assistance increased by 20,000 in October and by 139,000
over the last 12 months. Most of the gain occurred in individual and family
services, which added 17,000 jobs over the month and 111,000 over the year.  

In October, employment in financial activities rose by 16,000, with gains
in real estate and rental and leasing (+10,000) and in credit intermediation
and related activities (+6,000). Financial activities has added 108,000
jobs over the last 12 months.

Employment in professional and business services continued to trend up in
October (+22,000). The industry has added an average of 33,000 jobs per
month thus far in 2019, compared with an average gain of 47,000 jobs per 
month in 2018.

Health care employment continued on an upward trend in October (+15,000).
Health care has added 402,000 jobs over the last 12 months.

Manufacturing employment decreased by 36,000 in October. Within manufacturing,
employment in motor vehicles and parts declined by 42,000, reflecting strike
activity. 

Federal government employment was down by 17,000 over the month, as 20,000
temporary workers who had been preparing for the 2020 Census completed their
work.

Employment in other major industries--including mining, construction, wholesale
trade, retail trade, transportation and warehousing, and information--showed
little change over the month.

In October, average hourly earnings for all employees on private nonfarm
payrolls rose by 6 cents to $28.18. Over the past 12 months, average hourly
earnings have increased by 3.0 percent. In October, average hourly earnings of
private-sector production and nonsupervisory employees rose by 4 cents to $23.70.
(See tables B-3 and B-8.)

The average workweek for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls was unchanged
at 34.4 hours in October. In manufacturing, the average workweek decreased by
0.2 hour to 40.3 hours, while overtime was unchanged at 3.2 hours. The average
workweek of private-sector production and nonsupervisory employees held at 33.6
hours. (See tables B-2 and B-7.)

The change in total nonfarm payroll employment for August was revised up by 51,000
from +168,000 to +219,000, and the change for September was revised up by 44,000
from +136,000 to +180,000. With these revisions, employment gains in August and
September combined were 95,000 more than previously reported. (Monthly revisions
result from additional reports received from businesses and government agencies
since the last published estimates and from the recalculation of seasonal factors.)
After revisions, job gains have averaged 176,000 over the last 3 months.

_____________
The Employment Situation for November is scheduled to be released on
Friday, December 6, 2019, at 8:30 a.m. (EST).




HOUSEHOLD DATA
Summary table A. Household data, seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Category Oct.
2018
Aug.
2019
Sept.
2019
Oct.
2019
Change from:
Sept.
2019-
Oct.
2019

Employment status

Civilian noninstitutional population

258,514 259,432 259,638 259,845 207

Civilian labor force

162,694 163,922 164,039 164,364 325

Participation rate

62.9 63.2 63.2 63.3 0.1

Employed

156,582 157,878 158,269 158,510 241

Employment-population ratio

60.6 60.9 61.0 61.0 0.0

Unemployed

6,112 6,044 5,769 5,855 86

Unemployment rate

3.8 3.7 3.5 3.6 0.1

Not in labor force

95,821 95,510 95,599 95,481 -118

Unemployment rates

Total, 16 years and over

3.8 3.7 3.5 3.6 0.1

Adult men (20 years and over)

3.5 3.4 3.2 3.2 0.0

Adult women (20 years and over)

3.4 3.3 3.1 3.2 0.1

Teenagers (16 to 19 years)

12.0 12.6 12.5 12.3 -0.2

White

3.3 3.4 3.2 3.2 0.0

Black or African American

6.2 5.5 5.5 5.4 -0.1

Asian

3.1 2.8 2.5 2.9 0.4

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

4.4 4.2 3.9 4.1 0.2

Total, 25 years and over

3.1 2.9 2.8 2.9 0.1

Less than a high school diploma

5.9 5.4 4.8 5.6 0.8

High school graduates, no college

4.0 3.6 3.6 3.7 0.1

Some college or associate degree

3.0 3.1 2.9 2.9 0.0

Bachelor's degree and higher

2.0 2.1 2.0 2.1 0.1

Reason for unemployment

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

2,858 2,876 2,572 2,674 102

Job leavers

731 781 840 849 9

Reentrants

1,914 1,801 1,669 1,703 34

New entrants

605 574 677 627 -50

Duration of unemployment

Less than 5 weeks

2,062 2,207 1,868 1,968 100

5 to 14 weeks

1,845 1,757 1,781 1,749 -32

15 to 26 weeks

859 835 819 899 80

27 weeks and over

1,370 1,243 1,314 1,264 -50

Employed persons at work part time

Part time for economic reasons

4,630 4,381 4,350 4,438 88

Slack work or business conditions

2,837 2,678 2,588 2,754 166

Could only find part-time work

1,461 1,351 1,322 1,287 -35

Part time for noneconomic reasons

21,448 21,697 21,573 21,549 -24

Persons not in the labor force (not seasonally adjusted)

Marginally attached to the labor force

1,491 1,564 1,299 1,229 -

Discouraged workers

506 467 321 341 -

- Over-the-month changes are not displayed for not seasonally adjusted data.
NOTE: Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Summary table B. Establishment data, seasonally adjusted
Category Oct.
2018
Aug.
2019
Sept.
2019(p)
Oct.
2019(p)

EMPLOYMENT BY SELECTED INDUSTRY
(Over-the-month change, in thousands)

Total nonfarm

277 219 180 128

Total private

285 163 167 131

Goods-producing

60 4 7 -26

Mining and logging

6 -5 1 0

Construction

25 7 11 10

Manufacturing

29 2 -5 -36

Durable goods(1)

19 -2 -6 -41

Motor vehicles and parts

7.1 -2.6 -3.5 -41.6

Nondurable goods

10 4 1 5

Private service-providing

225 159 160 157

Wholesale trade

6.7 2.4 7.1 10.8

Retail trade

-9.9 -1.3 6.7 6.1

Transportation and warehousing

24.3 -7.6 6.3 9.9

Utilities

1.4 -0.9 -1.3 -1.4

Information

10 -4 4 -4

Financial activities

14 17 8 16

Professional and business services(1)

55 38 37 22

Temporary help services

14.3 9.5 20.1 -8.1

Education and health services(1)

37 63 49 39

Health care and social assistance

46.7 54.8 44.8 34.2

Leisure and hospitality

79 48 45 61

Other services

7 5 -2 -3

Government

-8 56 13 -3

(3-month average change, in thousands)

Total nonfarm

222 188 188 176

Total private

213 149 151 154

WOMEN AND PRODUCTION AND NONSUPERVISORY EMPLOYEES
AS A PERCENT OF ALL EMPLOYEES(2)

Total nonfarm women employees

49.7 49.9 49.9 49.9

Total private women employees

48.3 48.5 48.6 48.6

Total private production and nonsupervisory employees

82.4 82.3 82.3 82.2

HOURS AND EARNINGS
ALL EMPLOYEES

Total private

Average weekly hours

34.5 34.4 34.4 34.4

Average hourly earnings

$27.35 $28.11 $28.12 $28.18

Average weekly earnings

$943.58 $966.98 $967.33 $969.39

Index of aggregate weekly hours (2007=100)(3)

110.3 111.4 111.5 111.6

Over-the-month percent change

0.3 0.5 0.1 0.1

Index of aggregate weekly payrolls (2007=100)(4)

144.2 149.7 149.9 150.4

Over-the-month percent change

0.4 0.9 0.1 0.3

DIFFUSION INDEX
(Over 1-month span)(5)

Total private (258 industries)

67.4 55.8 55.4 55.4

Manufacturing (76 industries)

59.9 48.7 40.8 43.4

Footnotes
(1) Includes other industries, not shown separately.
(2) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries.
(3) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding annual average aggregate hours.
(4) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding annual average aggregate weekly payrolls.
(5) Figures are the percent of industries with employment increasing plus one-half of the industries with unchanged employment, where 50 percent indicates an equal balance between industries with increasing and decreasing employment.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2018 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


Frequently Asked Questions about Employment and Unemployment Estimates

1. Why are there two monthly measures of employment?

   The household survey and establishment survey both produce sample-based estimates
   of employment, and both have strengths and limitations. The establishment survey
   employment series has a smaller margin of error on the measurement of month-to-
   month change than the household survey because of its much larger sample size. An
   over-the-month employment change of about 100,000 is statistically significant in
   the establishment survey, while the threshold for a statistically significant change
   in the household survey is about 500,000. However, the household survey has a more
   expansive scope than the establishment survey because it includes self-employed
   workers whose businesses are unincorporated, unpaid family workers, agricultural
   workers, and private household workers, who are excluded by the establishment survey.
   The household survey also provides estimates of employment for demographic groups.
   For more information on the differences between the two surveys, please visit
   https://www.bls.gov/web/empsit/ces_cps_trends.htm.

2. Are undocumented immigrants counted in the surveys?

   It is likely that both surveys include at least some undocumented immigrants. However,
   neither the establishment nor the household survey is designed to identify the legal
   status of workers. Therefore, it is not possible to determine how many are counted in
   either survey. The establishment survey does not collect data on the legal status of
   workers. The household survey does include questions which identify the foreign and
   native born, but it does not include questions about the legal status of the foreign
   born. Data on the foreign and native born are published each month in table A-7 of
   The Employment Situation news release.

3. Why does the establishment survey have revisions?

   The establishment survey revises published estimates to improve its data series by
   incorporating additional information that was not available at the time of the
   initial publication of the estimates. The establishment survey revises its initial
   monthly estimates twice, in the immediately succeeding 2 months, to incorporate
   additional sample receipts from respondents in the survey and recalculated seasonal
   adjustment factors. For more information on the monthly revisions, please visit
   https://www.bls.gov/ces/cesrevinfo.htm.

   On an annual basis, the establishment survey incorporates a benchmark revision that
   re-anchors estimates to nearly complete employment counts available from unemployment
   insurance tax records. The benchmark helps to control for sampling and modeling errors
   in the estimates. For more information on the annual benchmark revision, please visit
   https://www.bls.gov/web/empsit/cesbmart.htm.

4. Does the establishment survey sample include small firms?

   Yes; about 40 percent of the establishment survey sample is comprised of business
   establishments with fewer than 20 employees. The establishment survey sample is
   designed to maximize the reliability of the statewide total nonfarm employment
   estimate; firms from all states, size classes, and industries are appropriately
   sampled to achieve that goal.

5. Does the establishment survey account for employment from new businesses?

   Yes; monthly establishment survey estimates include an adjustment to account for
   the net employment change generated by business births and deaths. The adjustment
   comes from an econometric model that forecasts the monthly net jobs impact of
   business births and deaths based on the actual past values of the net impact that
   can be observed with a lag from the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages. The
   establishment survey uses modeling rather than sampling for this purpose because
   the survey is not immediately able to bring new businesses into the sample. There
   is an unavoidable lag between the birth of a new firm and its appearance on the
   sampling frame and availability for selection. BLS adds new businesses to the survey
   twice a year.

6. Is the count of unemployed persons limited to just those people receiving unemployment
   insurance benefits?

   No; the estimate of unemployment is based on a monthly sample survey of households.
   All persons who are without jobs and are actively seeking and available to work are
   included among the unemployed. (People on temporary layoff are included even if
   they do not actively seek work.) There is no requirement or question relating to
   unemployment insurance benefits in the monthly survey.

7. Does the official unemployment rate exclude people who want a job but are not currently
   looking for work?

   Yes; however, there are separate estimates of persons outside the labor force who
   want a job, including those who are not currently looking because they believe no
   jobs are available (discouraged workers). In addition, alternative measures of labor
   underutilization (some of which include discouraged workers and other groups not
   officially counted as unemployed) are published each month in table A-15 of The
   Employment Situation news release. For more information about these alternative
   measures, please visit https://www.bls.gov/cps/lfcharacteristics.htm#altmeasures.

8. How can unusually severe weather affect employment and hours estimates?

   In the establishment survey, the reference period is the pay period that includes
   the 12th of the month. Unusually severe weather is more likely to have an impact on
   average weekly hours than on employment. Average weekly hours are estimated for paid
   time during the pay period, including pay for holidays, sick leave, or other time off.
   The impact of severe weather on hours estimates typically, but not always, results in
   a reduction in average weekly hours. For example, some employees may be off work for
   part of the pay period and not receive pay for the time missed, while some workers,
   such as those dealing with cleanup or repair, may work extra hours.
   
   Typically, it is not possible to precisely quantify the effect of extreme weather on 
   payroll employment estimates. In order for severe weather conditions to reduce
   employment estimates, employees have to be off work without pay for the entire pay
   period. Employees who receive pay for any part of the pay period, even 1 hour, are
   counted in the payroll employment figures. For more information on how often employees
   are paid, please visit https://www.bls.gov/opub/btn/volume-3/how-frequently-do-private-
   businesses-pay-workers.htm.

   In the household survey, the reference period is generally the calendar week that
   includes the 12th of the month. Persons who miss the entire week's work for weather-
   related events are counted as employed whether or not they are paid for the time
   off. The household survey collects data on the number of persons who had a job but
   were not at work due to bad weather. It also provides a measure of the number of
   persons who usually work full time but had reduced hours due to bad weather. 
   Current and historical data are available on the household survey's most requested
   statistics page, please visit https://data.bls.gov/cgi-bin/surveymost?ln.




Technical Note


   This news release presents statistics from two major surveys, the Current
Population Survey (CPS; household survey) and the Current Employment Statistics
survey (CES; establishment survey). The household survey provides information
on the labor force, employment, and unemployment that appears in the "A" tables,
marked HOUSEHOLD DATA. It is a sample survey of about 60,000 eligible households
conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau for the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS).

   The establishment survey provides information on employment, hours, and
earnings of employees on nonfarm payrolls; the data appear in the "B" tables,
marked ESTABLISHMENT DATA. BLS collects these data each month from the payroll
records of a sample of nonagricultural business establishments. Each month
the CES program surveys about 142,000 businesses and government agencies,
representing approximately 689,000 individual worksites, in order to provide
detailed industry data on employment, hours, and earnings of workers on nonfarm
payrolls. The active sample includes approximately one-third of all nonfarm
payroll employees.

   For both surveys, the data for a given month relate to a particular week or
pay period. In the household survey, the reference period is generally the
calendar week that contains the 12th day of the month. In the establishment
survey, the reference period is the pay period including the 12th, which may or
may not correspond directly to the calendar week.

Coverage, definitions, and differences between surveys

   Household survey. The sample is selected to reflect the entire civilian 
noninstitutional population. Based on responses to a series of questions on 
work and job search activities, each person 16 years and over in a sample
household is classified as employed, unemployed, or not in the labor force.

   People are classified as employed if they did any work at all as paid employees
during the reference week; worked in their own business, profession, or on their
own farm; or worked without pay at least 15 hours in a family business or farm.
People are also counted as employed if they were temporarily absent from their jobs
because of illness, bad weather, vacation, labor-management disputes, or personal
reasons.

   People are classified as unemployed if they meet all of the following criteria:
they had no employment during the reference week; they were available for work at
that time; and they made specific efforts to find employment sometime during the
4-week period ending with the reference week. Persons laid off from a job and
expecting recall need not be looking for work to be counted as unemployed. The
unemployment data derived from the household survey in no way depend upon the
eligibility for or receipt of unemployment insurance benefits.

   The civilian labor force is the sum of employed and unemployed persons.
Those persons not classified as employed or unemployed are not in the labor 
force. The unemployment rate is the number unemployed as a percent of the 
labor force. The labor force participation rate is the labor force as a 
percent of the population, and the employment-population ratio is the 
employed as a percent of the population. Additional information about the 
household survey can be found at https://www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm.

   Establishment survey. The sample establishments are drawn from private
nonfarm businesses such as factories, offices, and stores, as well as
from federal, state, and local government entities. Employees on nonfarm
payrolls are those who worked or received pay for any part of the reference pay
period, including persons on paid leave. Persons are counted in each job
they hold. Hours and earnings data are produced for the private sector for
all employees and for production and nonsupervisory employees. Production
and nonsupervisory employees are defined as production and related employees
in manufacturing and mining and logging, construction workers in construction,
and nonsupervisory employees in private service-providing industries.

   Industries are classified on the basis of an establishment's principal
activity in accordance with the 2017 version of the North American Industry
Classification System. Additional information about the establishment survey
can be found at https://www.bls.gov/ces/.

   Differences in employment estimates. The numerous conceptual and methodological
differences between the household and establishment  surveys result in important
distinctions in the employment estimates derived from the surveys. Among these are:

   --The household survey includes agricultural workers, self-employed workers
     whose businesses are unincorporated, unpaid family workers, and private
     household workers among the employed. These groups are excluded from the
     establishment survey.

   --The household survey includes people on unpaid leave among the employed.
     The establishment survey does not.

   --The household survey is limited to workers 16 years of age and older.
     The establishment survey is not limited by age.

   --The household survey has no duplication of individuals, because
     individuals are counted only once, even if they hold more than one
     job. In the establishment survey, employees working at more than one
     job and thus appearing on more than one payroll are counted separately
     for each appearance.

Seasonal adjustment

   Over the course of a year, the size of the nation's labor force and the levels
of employment and unemployment undergo regularly occurring fluctuations. These 
events may result from seasonal changes in weather, major holidays, and the opening
and closing of schools. The effect of such seasonal variation can be very large.

   Because these seasonal events follow a more or less regular pattern each year,
their influence on the level of a series can be tempered by adjusting for regular
seasonal variation. These adjustments make nonseasonal developments, such as
declines in employment or increases in the participation of women in the labor
force, easier to spot. For example, in the household survey, the large number of
youth entering the labor force each June is likely to obscure any other changes
that have taken place relative to May, making it difficult to determine if the 
level of economic activity has risen or declined. Similarly, in the establishment
survey, payroll employment in education declines by about 20 percent at the end
of the spring term and later rises with the start of the fall term, obscuring the
underlying employment trends in the industry. Because seasonal employment changes
at the end and beginning of the school year can be estimated, the statistics can be
adjusted to make underlying employment patterns more discernable.  The seasonally
adjusted figures provide a more useful tool with which to analyze changes in
month-to-month economic activity.

   Many seasonally adjusted series are independently adjusted in both the household
and establishment surveys. However, the adjusted series for many major estimates,
such as total payroll employment, employment in most major sectors, total employment,
and unemployment are computed by aggregating independently adjusted component series.
For example, total unemployment is derived by summing the adjusted series for four
major age-sex components; this differs from the unemployment estimate that would be
obtained by directly adjusting the total or by combining
the duration, reasons, or more detailed age categories.

   For both the household and establishment surveys, a concurrent seasonal adjustment
methodology is used in which new seasonal factors are calculated each month using all
relevant data, up to and including the data for the current month. In the household
survey, new seasonal factors are used to adjust only the current month's data. In the
establishment survey, however, new seasonal factors are used each month to adjust the
three most recent monthly estimates. The prior 2 months are routinely revised to
incorporate additional sample reports and recalculated seasonal adjustment factors.
In both surveys, 5-year revisions to historical data are made once a year.

Reliability of the estimates

   Statistics based on the household and establishment surveys are subject to both
sampling and nonsampling error. When a sample, rather than the entire population,
is surveyed, there is a chance that the sample estimates may differ from the true
population values they represent. The component of this difference that occurs
because samples differ by chance is known as sampling error, and its variability
is measured by the standard error of the estimate. There is about a 90-percent
chance, or level of confidence, that an estimate based on a sample will differ by
no more than 1.6 standard errors from the true population value because of sampling
error. BLS analyses are generally conducted at the 90-percent level of confidence.

   For example, the confidence interval for the monthly change in total nonfarm
employment from the establishment survey is on the order of plus or minus 110,000.
Suppose the estimate of nonfarm employment increases by 50,000 from one month to
the next. The 90-percent confidence interval on the monthly change would range from
-60,000 to +160,000 (50,000 +/- 110,000). These figures do not mean that the sample
results are off by these magnitudes, but rather that there is about a 90-percent
chance that the true over-the-month change lies within this interval. Since this
range includes values of less than zero, we could not say with confidence that
nonfarm employment had, in fact, increased that month. If, however, the reported
nonfarm employment rise was 250,000, then all of the values within the 90- percent
confidence interval would be greater than zero. In this case, it is likely (at
least a 90-percent chance) that nonfarm employment had, in fact, risen that month.
At an unemployment rate of around 6.0 percent, the 90-percent confidence interval
for the monthly change in unemployment as measured by the household survey is
about +/- 300,000, and for the monthly change in the unemployment rate it is about
+/- 0.2 percentage point.

   In general, estimates involving many individuals or establishments have lower
standard errors (relative to the size of the estimate) than estimates which are based
on a small number of observations. The precision of estimates also is improved when
the data are cumulated over time, such as for quarterly and annual averages.

   The household and establishment surveys are also affected by nonsampling error,
which can occur for many reasons, including the failure to sample a segment of the
population, inability to obtain information for all respondents in the sample,
inability or unwillingness of respondents to provide correct information on a
timely basis, mistakes made by respondents, and errors made in the collection or
processing of the data.

   For example, in the establishment survey, estimates for the most recent 2 months
are based on incomplete returns; for this reason, these estimates are labeled
preliminary in the tables. It is only after two successive revisions to a monthly
estimate, when nearly all sample reports have been received, that the estimate is
considered final.

   Another major source of nonsampling error in the establishment survey is the
inability to capture, on a timely basis, employment generated by new firms. To
correct for this systematic underestimation of employment growth, an estimation
procedure with two components is used to account for business births. The first
component excludes employment losses from business deaths from sample-based
estimation in order to offset the missing employment gains from business births.
This is incorporated into the sample-based estimation procedure by simply not
reflecting sample units going out of business, but imputing to them the same
employment trend as the other firms in the sample. This procedure accounts for
most of the net birth/death employment.

   The second component is an ARIMA time series model designed to estimate the
residual net birth/death employment not accounted for by the imputation. The
historical time series used to create and test the ARIMA model was derived from
the unemployment insurance universe micro- level database, and reflects the actual
residual net of births and deaths over the past 5 years.

   The sample-based estimates from the establishment survey are adjusted once a
year (on a lagged basis) to universe counts of payroll employment obtained from
administrative records of the unemployment insurance program. The difference 
between the March sample-based employment estimates and the March universe counts
is known as a benchmark revision, and serves as a rough proxy for total survey
error. The new benchmarks also incorporate changes in the classification of
industries. Over the past decade, absolute benchmark revisions for total nonfarm
employment have averaged 0.3 percent, with a range from -0.7 percent to 0.6 percent.

Other information

   Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired
individuals upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay
Service: (800) 877-8339.




HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-1. Employment status of the civilian population by sex and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Oct.
2018
Sept.
2019
Oct.
2019
Oct.
2018
June
2019
July
2019
Aug.
2019
Sept.
2019
Oct.
2019

TOTAL

Civilian noninstitutional population

258,514 259,638 259,845 258,514 259,037 259,225 259,432 259,638 259,845

Civilian labor force

162,723 163,943 164,576 162,694 162,981 163,351 163,922 164,039 164,364

Participation rate

62.9 63.1 63.3 62.9 62.9 63.0 63.2 63.2 63.3

Employed

156,952 158,478 159,067 156,582 157,005 157,288 157,878 158,269 158,510

Employment-population ratio

60.7 61.0 61.2 60.6 60.6 60.7 60.9 61.0 61.0

Unemployed

5,771 5,465 5,510 6,112 5,975 6,063 6,044 5,769 5,855

Unemployment rate

3.5 3.3 3.3 3.8 3.7 3.7 3.7 3.5 3.6

Not in labor force

95,792 95,694 95,269 95,821 96,057 95,874 95,510 95,599 95,481

Persons who currently want a job

5,048 4,637 4,412 5,333 5,322 5,043 5,150 4,880 4,753

Men, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

125,041 125,583 125,687 125,041 125,285 125,378 125,481 125,583 125,687

Civilian labor force

86,081 86,729 86,824 86,146 86,479 86,805 86,832 86,839 86,884

Participation rate

68.8 69.1 69.1 68.9 69.0 69.2 69.2 69.1 69.1

Employed

83,052 83,862 83,918 82,894 83,293 83,584 83,600 83,732 83,753

Employment-population ratio

66.4 66.8 66.8 66.3 66.5 66.7 66.6 66.7 66.6

Unemployed

3,029 2,867 2,906 3,252 3,185 3,221 3,233 3,107 3,132

Unemployment rate

3.5 3.3 3.3 3.8 3.7 3.7 3.7 3.6 3.6

Not in labor force

38,960 38,855 38,863 38,895 38,806 38,573 38,649 38,744 38,802

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

116,546 117,140 117,242 116,546 116,843 116,939 117,040 117,140 117,242

Civilian labor force

83,332 83,837 83,967 83,277 83,501 83,794 83,868 83,829 83,902

Participation rate

71.5 71.6 71.6 71.5 71.5 71.7 71.7 71.6 71.6

Employed

80,637 81,348 81,433 80,388 80,718 80,981 81,039 81,135 81,181

Employment-population ratio

69.2 69.4 69.5 69.0 69.1 69.3 69.2 69.3 69.2

Unemployed

2,694 2,488 2,534 2,889 2,783 2,814 2,830 2,694 2,721

Unemployment rate

3.2 3.0 3.0 3.5 3.3 3.4 3.4 3.2 3.2

Not in labor force

33,215 33,304 33,275 33,269 33,341 33,144 33,171 33,311 33,340

Women, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

133,474 134,054 134,158 133,474 133,753 133,847 133,951 134,054 134,158

Civilian labor force

76,642 77,214 77,752 76,548 76,502 76,546 77,090 77,199 77,480

Participation rate

57.4 57.6 58.0 57.4 57.2 57.2 57.6 57.6 57.8

Employed

73,900 74,616 75,149 73,688 73,712 73,705 74,278 74,537 74,757

Employment-population ratio

55.4 55.7 56.0 55.2 55.1 55.1 55.5 55.6 55.7

Unemployed

2,742 2,598 2,603 2,860 2,790 2,841 2,812 2,662 2,723

Unemployment rate

3.6 3.4 3.3 3.7 3.6 3.7 3.6 3.4 3.5

Not in labor force

56,832 56,840 56,406 56,926 57,251 57,301 56,861 56,855 56,678

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

125,200 125,806 125,907 125,200 125,509 125,604 125,705 125,806 125,907

Civilian labor force

73,683 74,501 74,891 73,442 73,579 73,548 74,123 74,314 74,517

Participation rate

58.9 59.2 59.5 58.7 58.6 58.6 59.0 59.1 59.2

Employed

71,270 72,204 72,584 70,935 71,139 71,069 71,655 71,974 72,112

Employment-population ratio

56.9 57.4 57.6 56.7 56.7 56.6 57.0 57.2 57.3

Unemployed

2,412 2,297 2,307 2,507 2,441 2,479 2,468 2,340 2,405

Unemployment rate

3.3 3.1 3.1 3.4 3.3 3.4 3.3 3.1 3.2

Not in labor force

51,517 51,304 51,016 51,757 51,929 52,057 51,582 51,491 51,390

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian noninstitutional population

16,768 16,691 16,696 16,768 16,686 16,682 16,687 16,691 16,696

Civilian labor force

5,708 5,605 5,718 5,974 5,900 6,009 5,931 5,895 5,946

Participation rate

34.0 33.6 34.2 35.6 35.4 36.0 35.5 35.3 35.6

Employed

5,045 4,926 5,050 5,258 5,148 5,239 5,184 5,160 5,217

Employment-population ratio

30.1 29.5 30.2 31.4 30.9 31.4 31.1 30.9 31.2

Unemployed

664 680 668 715 751 770 747 735 729

Unemployment rate

11.6 12.1 11.7 12.0 12.7 12.8 12.6 12.5 12.3

Not in labor force

11,060 11,086 10,978 10,795 10,786 10,673 10,756 10,796 10,750

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-2. Employment status of the civilian population by race, sex, and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, race, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Oct.
2018
Sept.
2019
Oct.
2019
Oct.
2018
June
2019
July
2019
Aug.
2019
Sept.
2019
Oct.
2019

WHITE

Civilian noninstitutional population

200,596 201,062 201,172 200,596 200,746 200,843 200,953 201,062 201,172

Civilian labor force

126,018 126,928 127,165 126,100 126,244 126,345 126,765 127,053 127,114

Participation rate

62.8 63.1 63.2 62.9 62.9 62.9 63.1 63.2 63.2

Employed

122,170 123,055 123,402 121,923 122,125 122,144 122,471 122,972 123,012

Employment-population ratio

60.9 61.2 61.3 60.8 60.8 60.8 60.9 61.2 61.1

Unemployed

3,848 3,873 3,763 4,177 4,119 4,201 4,293 4,081 4,102

Unemployment rate

3.1 3.1 3.0 3.3 3.3 3.3 3.4 3.2 3.2

Not in labor force

74,578 74,133 74,007 74,496 74,502 74,498 74,188 74,008 74,058

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

65,737 66,100 66,081 65,771 65,928 65,994 66,066 66,134 66,119

Participation rate

71.6 71.8 71.7 71.6 71.7 71.7 71.8 71.8 71.7

Employed

63,933 64,380 64,316 63,785 64,009 64,005 64,094 64,246 64,168

Employment-population ratio

69.6 69.9 69.8 69.4 69.6 69.6 69.6 69.7 69.6

Unemployed

1,803 1,720 1,765 1,986 1,919 1,989 1,972 1,888 1,951

Unemployment rate

2.7 2.6 2.7 3.0 2.9 3.0 3.0 2.9 3.0

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

55,941 56,449 56,682 55,778 55,704 55,663 56,063 56,356 56,394

Participation rate

58.0 58.4 58.6 57.8 57.7 57.6 58.0 58.3 58.3

Employed

54,325 54,807 55,143 54,062 53,993 53,988 54,286 54,707 54,750

Employment-population ratio

56.3 56.7 57.0 56.1 55.9 55.9 56.2 56.6 56.6

Unemployed

1,615 1,643 1,539 1,716 1,711 1,675 1,776 1,649 1,644

Unemployment rate

2.9 2.9 2.7 3.1 3.1 3.0 3.2 2.9 2.9

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

4,341 4,379 4,402 4,551 4,612 4,687 4,636 4,563 4,601

Participation rate

35.3 35.8 36.0 37.0 37.7 38.3 37.9 37.3 37.6

Employed

3,911 3,868 3,943 4,076 4,123 4,151 4,091 4,019 4,093

Employment-population ratio

31.8 31.6 32.2 33.1 33.7 33.9 33.4 32.8 33.4

Unemployed

429 511 460 476 489 536 545 545 508

Unemployment rate

9.9 11.7 10.4 10.5 10.6 11.4 11.8 11.9 11.0

BLACK OR AFRICAN AMERICAN

Civilian noninstitutional population

32,887 33,116 33,152 32,887 33,014 33,045 33,081 33,116 33,152

Civilian labor force

20,706 20,656 20,834 20,564 20,430 20,714 20,588 20,669 20,682

Participation rate

63.0 62.4 62.8 62.5 61.9 62.7 62.2 62.4 62.4

Employed

19,397 19,611 19,695 19,290 19,199 19,481 19,463 19,540 19,559

Employment-population ratio

59.0 59.2 59.4 58.7 58.2 59.0 58.8 59.0 59.0

Unemployed

1,309 1,045 1,139 1,274 1,231 1,233 1,125 1,129 1,123

Unemployment rate

6.3 5.1 5.5 6.2 6.0 6.0 5.5 5.5 5.4

Not in labor force

12,181 12,460 12,317 12,323 12,584 12,331 12,492 12,447 12,470

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

9,477 9,509 9,552 9,400 9,303 9,502 9,490 9,490 9,484

Participation rate

68.7 68.3 68.5 68.2 67.1 68.4 68.3 68.2 68.0

Employed

8,862 9,032 9,068 8,814 8,768 8,953 8,931 8,975 9,005

Employment-population ratio

64.3 64.9 65.0 63.9 63.2 64.5 64.2 64.5 64.6

Unemployed

615 477 484 586 535 549 559 515 480

Unemployment rate

6.5 5.0 5.1 6.2 5.8 5.8 5.9 5.4 5.1

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

10,415 10,480 10,567 10,327 10,396 10,421 10,379 10,460 10,471

Participation rate

62.7 62.6 63.1 62.2 62.3 62.4 62.1 62.5 62.5

Employed

9,892 10,024 10,039 9,825 9,846 9,877 9,926 9,978 9,967

Employment-population ratio

59.6 59.9 59.9 59.2 59.0 59.2 59.4 59.6 59.5

Unemployed

523 456 528 501 550 544 453 482 503

Unemployment rate

5.0 4.3 5.0 4.9 5.3 5.2 4.4 4.6 4.8

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

815 668 715 837 731 790 719 719 726

Participation rate

32.7 27.2 29.1 33.6 29.7 32.1 29.2 29.3 29.6

Employed

643 556 588 650 586 650 605 587 587

Employment-population ratio

25.8 22.6 23.9 26.1 23.8 26.4 24.6 23.9 23.9

Unemployed

172 112 127 187 145 140 113 132 139

Unemployment rate

21.1 16.8 17.8 22.4 19.9 17.7 15.7 18.3 19.2

ASIAN

Civilian noninstitutional population

16,030 16,400 16,399 16,030 16,557 16,399 16,433 16,400 16,399

Civilian labor force

10,213 10,518 10,669 10,280 10,526 10,449 10,524 10,519 10,721

Participation rate

63.7 64.1 65.1 64.1 63.6 63.7 64.0 64.1 65.4

Employed

9,899 10,261 10,371 9,956 10,303 10,160 10,225 10,260 10,416

Employment-population ratio

61.8 62.6 63.2 62.1 62.2 62.0 62.2 62.6 63.5

Unemployed

314 257 298 324 222 289 299 258 306

Unemployment rate

3.1 2.4 2.8 3.1 2.1 2.8 2.8 2.5 2.9

Not in labor force

5,817 5,881 5,730 5,750 6,032 5,950 5,909 5,881 5,678

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Estimates for the above race groups will not sum to totals shown in table A-1 because data are not presented for all races. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-3. Employment status of the Hispanic or Latino population by sex and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Oct.
2018
Sept.
2019
Oct.
2019
Oct.
2018
June
2019
July
2019
Aug.
2019
Sept.
2019
Oct.
2019

HISPANIC OR LATINO ETHNICITY

Civilian noninstitutional population

43,054 43,722 43,814 43,054 43,453 43,537 43,630 43,722 43,814

Civilian labor force

28,512 29,258 29,542 28,513 28,855 28,896 29,082 29,287 29,486

Participation rate

66.2 66.9 67.4 66.2 66.4 66.4 66.7 67.0 67.3

Employed

27,343 28,210 28,419 27,266 27,602 27,581 27,866 28,152 28,282

Employment-population ratio

63.5 64.5 64.9 63.3 63.5 63.4 63.9 64.4 64.6

Unemployed

1,169 1,048 1,123 1,248 1,253 1,314 1,216 1,135 1,204

Unemployment rate

4.1 3.6 3.8 4.4 4.3 4.5 4.2 3.9 4.1

Not in labor force

14,542 14,464 14,272 14,541 14,599 14,642 14,548 14,435 14,328

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

15,442 15,783 15,858 15,448 15,659 15,651 15,718 15,791 15,841

Participation rate

79.4 80.0 80.2 79.5 79.8 79.6 79.8 80.0 80.1

Employed

14,898 15,390 15,377 14,854 15,093 15,017 15,186 15,320 15,307

Employment-population ratio

76.6 78.0 77.7 76.4 76.9 76.4 77.1 77.6 77.4

Unemployed

544 393 481 594 566 634 532 471 533

Unemployment rate

3.5 2.5 3.0 3.8 3.6 4.0 3.4 3.0 3.4

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

11,778 12,210 12,376 11,767 11,885 11,929 12,113 12,191 12,327

Participation rate

59.9 61.1 61.8 59.9 59.9 60.0 60.8 61.0 61.6

Employed

11,305 11,737 11,922 11,266 11,382 11,480 11,604 11,724 11,844

Employment-population ratio

57.5 58.8 59.5 57.3 57.3 57.7 58.2 58.7 59.2

Unemployed

472 472 455 501 503 449 509 467 483

Unemployment rate

4.0 3.9 3.7 4.3 4.2 3.8 4.2 3.8 3.9

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

1,293 1,265 1,307 1,298 1,310 1,316 1,251 1,305 1,318

Participation rate

32.6 31.6 32.6 32.8 32.9 33.0 31.3 32.6 32.9

Employed

1,140 1,083 1,121 1,145 1,126 1,084 1,076 1,108 1,130

Employment-population ratio

28.8 27.0 27.9 28.9 28.3 27.2 26.9 27.7 28.2

Unemployed

152 182 187 153 184 232 175 197 188

Unemployment rate

11.8 14.4 14.3 11.8 14.0 17.6 14.0 15.1 14.3

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-4. Employment status of the civilian population 25 years and over by educational attainment
[Numbers in thousands]
Educational attainment Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Oct.
2018
Sept.
2019
Oct.
2019
Oct.
2018
June
2019
July
2019
Aug.
2019
Sept.
2019
Oct.
2019

Less than a high school diploma

Civilian labor force

10,078 10,008 9,588 10,268 10,025 9,975 10,032 9,929 9,786

Participation rate

46.9 46.3 46.3 47.8 45.4 47.1 47.1 46.0 47.2

Employed

9,567 9,608 9,137 9,658 9,489 9,466 9,490 9,448 9,242

Employment-population ratio

44.5 44.5 44.1 44.9 43.0 44.7 44.6 43.7 44.6

Unemployed

510 400 452 610 536 509 542 480 544

Unemployment rate

5.1 4.0 4.7 5.9 5.3 5.1 5.4 4.8 5.6

High school graduates, no college(1)

Civilian labor force

36,254 36,701 36,439 36,103 36,120 36,286 36,318 36,313 36,270

Participation rate

57.8 58.4 58.0 57.6 57.8 57.5 57.3 57.8 57.8

Employed

34,879 35,474 35,160 34,650 34,715 34,982 35,023 35,005 34,941

Employment-population ratio

55.6 56.5 56.0 55.3 55.6 55.4 55.3 55.7 55.7

Unemployed

1,375 1,227 1,279 1,454 1,404 1,304 1,295 1,308 1,328

Unemployment rate

3.8 3.3 3.5 4.0 3.9 3.6 3.6 3.6 3.7

Some college or associate degree

Civilian labor force

37,808 37,404 37,881 37,531 37,200 37,222 37,710 37,452 37,581

Participation rate

65.7 65.0 65.3 65.2 64.7 65.0 65.6 65.1 64.8

Employed

36,706 36,348 36,862 36,392 36,069 36,028 36,549 36,363 36,510

Employment-population ratio

63.8 63.1 63.6 63.2 62.7 62.9 63.6 63.2 63.0

Unemployed

1,102 1,056 1,018 1,139 1,132 1,194 1,161 1,089 1,072

Unemployment rate

2.9 2.8 2.7 3.0 3.0 3.2 3.1 2.9 2.9

Bachelor's degree and higher(2)

Civilian labor force

58,022 59,077 59,700 57,968 58,510 58,664 58,800 59,080 59,517

Participation rate

73.6 73.9 74.0 73.5 73.8 73.4 73.9 73.9 73.8

Employed

56,890 57,919 58,520 56,782 57,275 57,399 57,551 57,884 58,274

Employment-population ratio

72.2 72.5 72.6 72.0 72.3 71.8 72.3 72.4 72.3

Unemployed

1,132 1,157 1,180 1,186 1,235 1,265 1,249 1,196 1,243

Unemployment rate

2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.1 2.0 2.1

Footnotes
(1) Includes persons with a high school diploma or equivalent.
(2) Includes persons with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-5. Employment status of the civilian population 18 years and over by veteran status, period of service, and sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, veteran status, and period of service Total Men Women
Oct.
2018
Oct.
2019
Oct.
2018
Oct.
2019
Oct.
2018
Oct.
2019

VETERANS, 18 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

19,090 18,710 17,218 16,821 1,872 1,889

Civilian labor force

9,369 9,169 8,255 8,105 1,114 1,064

Participation rate

49.1 49.0 47.9 48.2 59.5 56.3

Employed

9,100 8,895 8,019 7,891 1,081 1,004

Employment-population ratio

47.7 47.5 46.6 46.9 57.7 53.1

Unemployed

269 274 236 214 33 60

Unemployment rate

2.9 3.0 2.9 2.6 3.0 5.7

Not in labor force

9,721 9,541 8,963 8,716 758 825

Gulf War-era II veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

4,141 4,370 3,405 3,597 736 772

Civilian labor force

3,384 3,441 2,861 2,943 523 498

Participation rate

81.7 78.7 84.0 81.8 71.1 64.5

Employed

3,279 3,320 2,770 2,869 509 451

Employment-population ratio

79.2 76.0 81.3 79.8 69.2 58.4

Unemployed

105 121 91 74 14 47

Unemployment rate

3.1 3.5 3.2 2.5 2.7 9.5

Not in labor force

757 929 545 654 213 274

Gulf War-era I veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

3,147 3,074 2,677 2,609 470 466

Civilian labor force

2,450 2,297 2,109 1,965 341 332

Participation rate

77.9 74.7 78.8 75.3 72.6 71.3

Employed

2,383 2,216 2,047 1,889 336 328

Employment-population ratio

75.7 72.1 76.5 72.4 71.4 70.3

Unemployed

67 81 61 77 5 4

Unemployment rate

2.7 3.5 2.9 3.9 1.6 1.3

Not in labor force

697 777 568 643 129 134

World War II, Korean War, and Vietnam-era veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

7,502 7,094 7,246 6,848 256 246

Civilian labor force

1,545 1,443 1,491 1,396 54 47

Participation rate

20.6 20.3 20.6 20.4 21.2 19.0

Employed

1,498 1,409 1,447 1,363 52 47

Employment-population ratio

20.0 19.9 20.0 19.9 20.2 18.9

Unemployed

47 34 44 34 3 0

Unemployment rate

3.0 2.3 3.0 2.4 - -

Not in labor force

5,957 5,651 5,755 5,452 202 199

Veterans of other service periods

Civilian noninstitutional population

4,300 4,172 3,890 3,767 410 405

Civilian labor force

1,990 1,987 1,795 1,800 195 187

Participation rate

46.3 47.6 46.1 47.8 47.6 46.3

Employed

1,940 1,949 1,755 1,770 184 179

Employment-population ratio

45.1 46.7 45.1 47.0 45.0 44.1

Unemployed

50 39 39 30 11 9

Unemployment rate

2.5 1.9 2.2 1.7 5.6 4.6

Not in labor force

2,310 2,185 2,095 1,967 215 218

NONVETERANS, 18 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

230,542 232,012 103,266 104,279 127,276 127,733

Civilian labor force

151,214 153,292 76,864 77,718 74,351 75,575

Participation rate

65.6 66.1 74.4 74.5 58.4 59.2

Employed

145,912 148,318 74,170 75,158 71,743 73,160

Employment-population ratio

63.3 63.9 71.8 72.1 56.4 57.3

Unemployed

5,302 4,974 2,694 2,559 2,608 2,415

Unemployment rate

3.5 3.2 3.5 3.3 3.5 3.2

Not in labor force

79,328 78,719 26,402 26,561 52,925 52,158

NOTE: Veterans served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces and were not on active duty at the time of the survey. Nonveterans never served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces. Veterans could have served anywhere in the world during these periods of service: Gulf War era II (September 2001-present), Gulf War era I (August 1990-August 2001), Vietnam era (August 1964-April 1975), Korean War (July 1950-January 1955), World War II (December 1941-December 1946), and other service periods (all other time periods). Veterans who served in more than one wartime period are classified only in the most recent one. Veterans who served during one of the selected wartime periods and another period are classified only in the wartime period. Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria (values not shown where base is less than 75,000).


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-6. Employment status of the civilian population by sex, age, and disability status, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Persons with a disability Persons with no disability
Oct.
2018
Oct.
2019
Oct.
2018
Oct.
2019

TOTAL, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

30,145 29,797 228,370 230,048

Civilian labor force

6,468 6,125 156,255 158,451

Participation rate

21.5 20.6 68.4 68.9

Employed

5,987 5,705 150,965 153,362

Employment-population ratio

19.9 19.1 66.1 66.7

Unemployed

480 420 5,290 5,090

Unemployment rate

7.4 6.9 3.4 3.2

Not in labor force

23,677 23,672 72,114 71,596

Men, 16 to 64 years

Civilian labor force

2,740 2,665 77,736 78,118

Participation rate

36.4 35.9 82.4 82.9

Employed

2,520 2,460 75,067 75,558

Employment-population ratio

33.5 33.2 79.6 80.1

Unemployed

221 205 2,669 2,560

Unemployment rate

8.1 7.7 3.4 3.3

Not in labor force

4,790 4,749 16,560 16,170

Women, 16 to 64 years

Civilian labor force

2,511 2,255 69,508 70,619

Participation rate

32.0 30.6 71.6 72.6

Employed

2,304 2,088 67,136 68,317

Employment-population ratio

29.4 28.3 69.2 70.2

Unemployed

207 167 2,372 2,303

Unemployment rate

8.2 7.4 3.4 3.3

Not in labor force

5,329 5,122 27,560 26,646

Both sexes, 65 years and over

Civilian labor force

1,216 1,204 9,011 9,714

Participation rate

8.2 8.0 24.4 25.2

Employed

1,163 1,157 8,762 9,487

Employment-population ratio

7.9 7.7 23.7 24.6

Unemployed

53 47 249 227

Unemployment rate

4.3 3.9 2.8 2.3

Not in labor force

13,559 13,802 27,994 28,780

NOTE: A person with a disability has at least one of the following conditions: is deaf or has serious difficulty hearing; is blind or has serious difficulty seeing even when wearing glasses; has serious difficulty concentrating, remembering, or making decisions because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition; has serious difficulty walking or climbing stairs; has difficulty dressing or bathing; or has difficulty doing errands alone such as visiting a doctor's office or shopping because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-7. Employment status of the civilian population by nativity and sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status and nativity Total Men Women
Oct.
2018
Oct.
2019
Oct.
2018
Oct.
2019
Oct.
2018
Oct.
2019

Foreign born, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

43,051 42,326 20,795 20,385 22,256 21,940

Civilian labor force

28,410 28,067 16,198 15,931 12,212 12,137

Participation rate

66.0 66.3 77.9 78.1 54.9 55.3

Employed

27,533 27,346 15,763 15,565 11,770 11,780

Employment-population ratio

64.0 64.6 75.8 76.4 52.9 53.7

Unemployed

877 722 436 365 441 356

Unemployment rate

3.1 2.6 2.7 2.3 3.6 2.9

Not in labor force

14,641 14,258 4,597 4,455 10,044 9,803

Native born, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

215,463 217,519 104,245 105,301 111,218 112,218

Civilian labor force

134,313 136,509 69,882 70,893 64,431 65,615

Participation rate

62.3 62.8 67.0 67.3 57.9 58.5

Employed

129,419 131,721 67,290 68,352 62,130 63,369

Employment-population ratio

60.1 60.6 64.5 64.9 55.9 56.5

Unemployed

4,894 4,788 2,593 2,541 2,301 2,247

Unemployment rate

3.6 3.5 3.7 3.6 3.6 3.4

Not in labor force

81,150 81,010 34,363 34,408 46,787 46,603

NOTE: The foreign born are those residing in the United States who were not U.S. citizens at birth. That is, they were born outside the United States or one of its outlying areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam, to parents neither of whom was a U.S. citizen. The native born are persons who were born in the United States or one of its outlying areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam or who were born abroad of at least one parent who was a U.S. citizen. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-8. Employed persons by class of worker and part-time status
[In thousands]
Category Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Oct.
2018
Sept.
2019
Oct.
2019
Oct.
2018
June
2019
July
2019
Aug.
2019
Sept.
2019
Oct.
2019

CLASS OF WORKER

Agriculture and related industries

2,484 2,479 2,553 2,418 2,320 2,402 2,400 2,404 2,461

Wage and salary workers(1)

1,771 1,672 1,738 1,674 1,482 1,577 1,560 1,610 1,630

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

692 781 786 722 778 779 789 769 796

Unpaid family workers

21 27 30 - - - - - -

Nonagricultural industries

154,468 155,999 156,513 154,135 154,725 154,904 155,528 155,830 155,998

Wage and salary workers(1)

145,325 147,030 147,522 145,071 145,906 145,880 146,480 146,837 147,161

Government

21,187 21,089 21,598 21,186 20,952 20,823 20,913 21,088 21,469

Private industries

124,139 125,942 125,924 124,063 124,901 125,012 125,602 125,756 125,805

Private households

769 842 784 - - - - - -

Other industries

123,370 125,100 125,140 123,239 124,115 124,224 124,745 124,867 124,974

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

9,055 8,889 8,926 8,949 8,766 8,945 8,891 8,843 8,802

Unpaid family workers

88 80 66 - - - - - -

PERSONS AT WORK PART TIME(2)

All industries

Part time for economic reasons(3)

4,246 3,992 4,046 4,630 4,347 3,984 4,381 4,350 4,438

Slack work or business conditions

2,600 2,377 2,533 2,837 2,707 2,385 2,678 2,588 2,754

Could only find part-time work

1,433 1,327 1,268 1,461 1,337 1,364 1,351 1,322 1,287

Part time for noneconomic reasons(4)

21,979 21,666 22,088 21,448 21,524 21,437 21,697 21,573 21,549

Nonagricultural industries

Part time for economic reasons(3)

4,169 3,925 3,961 4,549 4,258 3,878 4,295 4,264 4,337

Slack work or business conditions

2,541 2,337 2,469 2,779 2,669 2,323 2,634 2,537 2,692

Could only find part-time work

1,428 1,317 1,258 1,453 1,326 1,350 1,337 1,311 1,275

Part time for noneconomic reasons(4)

21,616 21,291 21,679 21,083 21,188 21,049 21,322 21,190 21,138

Footnotes
(1) Includes self-employed workers whose businesses are incorporated.
(2) Refers to those who worked 1 to 34 hours during the survey reference week and excludes employed persons who were absent from their jobs for the entire week.
(3) Refers to those who worked 1 to 34 hours during the reference week for an economic reason such as slack work or unfavorable business conditions, inability to find full-time work, or seasonal declines in demand.
(4) Refers to persons who usually work part time for noneconomic reasons such as childcare problems, family or personal obligations, school or training, retirement or Social Security limits on earnings, and other reasons. This excludes persons who usually work full time but worked only 1 to 34 hours during the reference week for reasons such as vacations, holidays, illness, and bad weather.

- Data not available.
NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-9. Selected employment indicators
[Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Oct.
2018
Sept.
2019
Oct.
2019
Oct.
2018
June
2019
July
2019
Aug.
2019
Sept.
2019
Oct.
2019

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

156,952 158,478 159,067 156,582 157,005 157,288 157,878 158,269 158,510

16 to 19 years

5,045 4,926 5,050 5,258 5,148 5,239 5,184 5,160 5,217

16 to 17 years

1,940 1,870 1,854 1,954 1,756 1,704 1,835 1,797 1,835

18 to 19 years

3,105 3,056 3,197 3,305 3,398 3,559 3,360 3,321 3,404

20 years and over

151,908 153,553 154,016 151,324 151,857 152,050 152,694 153,109 153,293

20 to 24 years

13,865 14,203 14,337 13,897 14,291 14,233 14,057 14,297 14,363

25 years and over

138,042 139,350 139,679 137,504 137,547 137,837 138,508 138,742 138,999

25 to 54 years

101,289 101,621 101,942 100,892 100,665 100,373 101,042 101,151 101,414

25 to 34 years

35,802 36,073 36,230 35,693 35,708 35,486 35,937 35,910 36,057

35 to 44 years

33,017 33,581 33,594 32,857 32,973 33,044 33,149 33,377 33,393

45 to 54 years

32,469 31,967 32,118 32,343 31,985 31,842 31,956 31,864 31,964

55 years and over

36,753 37,729 37,738 36,612 36,882 37,464 37,467 37,592 37,585

Men, 16 years and over

83,052 83,862 83,918 82,894 83,293 83,584 83,600 83,732 83,753

16 to 19 years

2,415 2,514 2,485 2,506 2,575 2,603 2,561 2,597 2,572

16 to 17 years

863 916 868 895 896 855 894 895 899

18 to 19 years

1,552 1,598 1,617 1,621 1,681 1,762 1,657 1,679 1,684

20 years and over

80,637 81,348 81,433 80,388 80,718 80,981 81,039 81,135 81,181

20 to 24 years

7,031 7,167 7,157 7,082 7,279 7,228 7,099 7,218 7,215

25 years and over

73,606 74,181 74,276 73,331 73,430 73,761 73,827 73,871 73,966

25 to 54 years

53,957 54,061 54,139 53,789 53,630 53,688 53,749 53,843 53,941

25 to 34 years

19,196 19,256 19,353 19,169 19,009 19,088 19,194 19,182 19,305

35 to 44 years

17,704 18,012 17,954 17,625 17,792 17,790 17,764 17,926 17,877

45 to 54 years

17,056 16,792 16,832 16,995 16,829 16,810 16,791 16,735 16,759

55 years and over

19,650 20,121 20,137 19,542 19,800 20,073 20,078 20,028 20,026

Women, 16 years and over

73,900 74,616 75,149 73,688 73,712 73,705 74,278 74,537 74,757

16 to 19 years

2,630 2,412 2,565 2,753 2,573 2,636 2,623 2,563 2,645

16 to 17 years

1,077 954 985 1,059 860 849 941 901 937

18 to 19 years

1,553 1,458 1,580 1,684 1,718 1,797 1,703 1,641 1,720

20 years and over

71,270 72,204 72,584 70,935 71,139 71,069 71,655 71,974 72,112

20 to 24 years

6,835 7,036 7,180 6,816 7,012 7,005 6,958 7,079 7,148

25 years and over

64,436 65,168 65,403 64,173 64,117 64,076 64,682 64,871 65,033

25 to 54 years

47,332 47,561 47,803 47,103 47,035 46,685 47,293 47,308 47,473

25 to 34 years

16,606 16,817 16,877 16,524 16,698 16,398 16,743 16,728 16,752

35 to 44 years

15,313 15,568 15,640 15,231 15,181 15,254 15,385 15,451 15,517

45 to 54 years

15,413 15,175 15,286 15,348 15,156 15,032 15,165 15,129 15,204

55 years and over

17,104 17,608 17,601 17,070 17,082 17,392 17,389 17,563 17,560

MARITAL STATUS

Married men, spouse present(1)

46,354 46,256 46,113 46,192 45,681 46,005 46,215 46,009 45,946

Married women, spouse present(1)

36,278 36,477 36,933 36,089 36,013 36,110 36,366 36,432 36,696

Women who maintain families(2)

10,060 10,006 9,791 - - - - - -

FULL- OR PART-TIME STATUS

Full-time workers(3)

129,627 131,704 131,990 129,255 130,148 130,429 130,789 131,094 131,545

Part-time workers(4)

27,325 26,774 27,077 27,311 26,807 26,861 26,974 27,095 27,021

MULTIPLE JOBHOLDERS

Total multiple jobholders

8,093 8,331 8,351 7,873 8,156 8,389 8,373 8,357 8,158

Percent of total employed

5.2 5.3 5.3 5.0 5.2 5.3 5.3 5.3 5.1

SELF-EMPLOYMENT

Self-employed workers, incorporated

6,057 6,227 6,358 - - - - - -

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

9,747 9,669 9,712 9,671 9,544 9,724 9,681 9,612 9,599

Footnotes
(1) Refers to persons in opposite-sex married couples only.
(2) Refers to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not an opposite-sex spouse.
(3) Employed full-time workers are persons who usually work 35 hours or more per week.
(4) Employed part-time workers are persons who usually work less than 35 hours per week.

- Data not available.
NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-10. Selected unemployment indicators, seasonally adjusted
Characteristic Number of
unemployed persons
(in thousands)
Unemployment rates
Oct.
2018
Sept.
2019
Oct.
2019
Oct.
2018
June
2019
July
2019
Aug.
2019
Sept.
2019
Oct.
2019

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

6,112 5,769 5,855 3.8 3.7 3.7 3.7 3.5 3.6

16 to 19 years

715 735 729 12.0 12.7 12.8 12.6 12.5 12.3

16 to 17 years

230 271 299 10.6 14.6 15.5 12.9 13.1 14.0

18 to 19 years

488 461 435 12.9 11.5 10.9 12.0 12.2 11.3

20 years and over

5,396 5,034 5,126 3.4 3.3 3.4 3.4 3.2 3.2

20 to 24 years

1,013 963 948 6.8 6.3 6.8 7.0 6.3 6.2

25 years and over

4,359 4,057 4,153 3.1 3.0 3.0 2.9 2.8 2.9

25 to 54 years

3,276 3,127 3,154 3.1 3.0 3.1 3.1 3.0 3.0

25 to 34 years

1,353 1,326 1,399 3.7 3.6 3.7 3.6 3.6 3.7

35 to 44 years

1,004 891 901 3.0 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.6 2.6

45 to 54 years

919 910 854 2.8 2.7 2.7 2.8 2.8 2.6

55 years and over

1,077 925 1,004 2.9 3.0 2.7 2.6 2.4 2.6

Men, 16 years and over

3,252 3,107 3,132 3.8 3.7 3.7 3.7 3.6 3.6

16 to 19 years

363 413 411 12.6 13.5 13.5 13.6 13.7 13.8

16 to 17 years

112 135 150 11.1 14.0 15.3 14.4 13.1 14.3

18 to 19 years

252 275 257 13.5 12.9 11.8 13.3 14.1 13.2

20 years and over

2,889 2,694 2,721 3.5 3.3 3.4 3.4 3.2 3.2

20 to 24 years

567 561 589 7.4 7.4 7.6 7.9 7.2 7.6

25 years and over

2,297 2,142 2,114 3.0 2.9 2.9 2.9 2.8 2.8

25 to 54 years

1,767 1,674 1,617 3.2 3.0 3.1 3.1 3.0 2.9

25 to 34 years

743 760 743 3.7 3.6 3.7 3.7 3.8 3.7

35 to 44 years

551 434 435 3.0 2.4 2.6 2.6 2.4 2.4

45 to 54 years

473 481 439 2.7 2.8 2.8 2.9 2.8 2.6

55 years and over

530 468 497 2.6 2.7 2.5 2.4 2.3 2.4

Women, 16 years and over

2,860 2,662 2,723 3.7 3.6 3.7 3.6 3.4 3.5

16 to 19 years

353 322 319 11.4 12.0 12.1 11.6 11.2 10.7

16 to 17 years

119 137 149 10.1 15.2 15.7 11.6 13.2 13.7

18 to 19 years

236 185 178 12.3 10.1 10.1 10.8 10.1 9.4

20 years and over

2,507 2,340 2,405 3.4 3.3 3.4 3.3 3.1 3.2

20 to 24 years

446 402 359 6.1 5.2 5.9 6.2 5.4 4.8

25 years and over

2,062 1,915 2,039 3.1 3.1 3.1 3.0 2.9 3.0

25 to 54 years

1,509 1,453 1,537 3.1 3.1 3.2 3.1 3.0 3.1

25 to 34 years

610 566 656 3.6 3.5 3.8 3.5 3.3 3.8

35 to 44 years

453 457 466 2.9 3.3 3.0 3.0 2.9 2.9

45 to 54 years

446 430 415 2.8 2.5 2.6 2.6 2.8 2.7

55 years and over

530 475 491 3.0 3.3 2.9 2.8 2.6 2.7

MARITAL STATUS

Married men, spouse present(1)

914 815 818 1.9 1.8 1.9 1.8 1.7 1.7

Married women, spouse present(1)

846 824 845 2.3 2.3 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.3

Women who maintain families(2)

565 492 558 5.3 5.1 6.0 5.1 4.7 5.4

FULL- OR PART-TIME STATUS

Full-time workers(3)

4,853 4,640 4,788 3.6 3.5 3.6 3.5 3.4 3.5

Part-time workers(4)

1,245 1,098 1,067 4.4 4.4 4.3 4.4 3.9 3.8

Footnotes
(1) Refers to persons in opposite-sex couples only.
(2) Data are not seasonally adjusted. Refers to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not an opposite-sex spouse.
(3) Full-time workers are unemployed persons who have expressed a desire to work full time (35 hours or more per week) or are on layoff from full-time jobs.
(4) Part-time workers are unemployed persons who have expressed a desire to work part time (less than 35 hours per week) or are on layoff from part-time jobs.

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-11. Unemployed persons by reason for unemployment
[Numbers in thousands]
Reason Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Oct.
2018
Sept.
2019
Oct.
2019
Oct.
2018
June
2019
July
2019
Aug.
2019
Sept.
2019
Oct.
2019

NUMBER OF UNEMPLOYED

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

2,510 2,227 2,340 2,858 2,736 2,798 2,876 2,572 2,674

On temporary layoff

507 428 468 793 801 836 817 731 762

Not on temporary layoff

2,003 1,799 1,872 2,066 1,935 1,963 2,059 1,841 1,912

Permanent job losers

1,317 1,269 1,216 1,365 1,358 1,361 1,397 1,308 1,259

Persons who completed temporary jobs

686 530 656 701 577 602 661 532 653

Job leavers

746 897 859 731 888 833 781 840 849

Reentrants

1,951 1,691 1,719 1,914 1,868 1,810 1,801 1,669 1,703

New entrants

564 650 592 605 541 595 574 677 627

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

43.5 40.7 42.5 46.8 45.3 46.4 47.7 44.7 45.7

On temporary layoff

8.8 7.8 8.5 13.0 13.3 13.8 13.6 12.7 13.0

Not on temporary layoff

34.7 32.9 34.0 33.8 32.1 32.5 34.1 32.0 32.7

Job leavers

12.9 16.4 15.6 12.0 14.7 13.8 12.9 14.6 14.5

Reentrants

33.8 30.9 31.2 31.3 31.0 30.0 29.9 29.0 29.1

New entrants

9.8 11.9 10.7 9.9 9.0 9.9 9.5 11.8 10.7

UNEMPLOYED AS A PERCENT OF THE
CIVILIAN LABOR FORCE

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

1.5 1.4 1.4 1.8 1.7 1.7 1.8 1.6 1.6

Job leavers

0.5 0.5 0.5 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5

Reentrants

1.2 1.0 1.0 1.2 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.0 1.0

New entrants

0.3 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.3 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-12. Unemployed persons by duration of unemployment
[Numbers in thousands]
Duration Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Oct.
2018
Sept.
2019
Oct.
2019
Oct.
2018
June
2019
July
2019
Aug.
2019
Sept.
2019
Oct.
2019

NUMBER OF UNEMPLOYED

Less than 5 weeks

1,866 1,820 1,755 2,062 1,961 2,201 2,207 1,868 1,968

5 to 14 weeks

1,734 1,588 1,651 1,845 1,830 1,797 1,757 1,781 1,749

15 weeks and over

2,171 2,057 2,104 2,229 2,182 2,071 2,078 2,132 2,163

15 to 26 weeks

824 737 856 859 769 905 835 819 899

27 weeks and over

1,347 1,320 1,249 1,370 1,414 1,166 1,243 1,314 1,264

Average (mean) duration, in weeks

23.8 23.0 23.1 22.4 22.2 19.6 22.1 22.0 21.8

Median duration, in weeks

9.9 9.8 9.8 9.4 9.6 8.9 8.9 9.4 9.3

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION

Less than 5 weeks

32.3 33.3 31.9 33.6 32.8 36.3 36.5 32.3 33.5

5 to 14 weeks

30.0 29.1 30.0 30.1 30.6 29.6 29.1 30.8 29.7

15 weeks and over

37.6 37.6 38.2 36.3 36.5 34.1 34.4 36.9 36.8

15 to 26 weeks

14.3 13.5 15.5 14.0 12.9 14.9 13.8 14.2 15.3

27 weeks and over

23.3 24.1 22.7 22.3 23.7 19.2 20.6 22.7 21.5

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-13. Employed and unemployed persons by occupation, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Occupation Employed Unemployed Unemployment
rates
Oct.
2018
Oct.
2019
Oct.
2018
Oct.
2019
Oct.
2018
Oct.
2019

Total, 16 years and over(1)

156,952 159,067 5,771 5,510 3.5 3.3

Management, professional, and related occupations

62,929 64,997 1,246 1,161 1.9 1.8

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

26,165 27,517 535 471 2.0 1.7

Professional and related occupations

36,764 37,480 711 690 1.9 1.8

Service occupations

26,689 27,132 1,247 1,257 4.5 4.4

Sales and office occupations

33,730 34,055 1,233 1,145 3.5 3.3

Sales and related occupations

15,927 16,050 599 572 3.6 3.4

Office and administrative support occupations

17,803 18,005 634 573 3.4 3.1

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

14,588 14,389 546 534 3.6 3.6

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

1,181 1,123 63 55 5.0 4.7

Construction and extraction occupations

8,558 8,365 400 402 4.5 4.6

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

4,849 4,901 83 76 1.7 1.5

Production, transportation, and material moving
occupations

19,015 18,494 920 797 4.6 4.1

Production occupations

8,904 8,412 414 386 4.4 4.4

Transportation and material moving occupations

10,112 10,083 506 411 4.8 3.9

Footnotes
(1) Persons with no previous work experience and persons whose last job was in the U.S. Armed Forces are included in the unemployed total.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-14. Unemployed persons by industry and class of worker, not seasonally adjusted
Industry and class of worker Number of
unemployed
persons
(in thousands)
Unemployment
rates
Oct.
2018
Oct.
2019
Oct.
2018
Oct.
2019

Total, 16 years and over(1)

5,771 5,510 3.5 3.3

Nonagricultural private wage and salary workers

4,458 4,233 3.5 3.3

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

14 23 1.7 2.8

Construction

352 398 3.6 4.0

Manufacturing

504 484 3.2 3.1

Durable goods

260 286 2.5 2.9

Nondurable goods

245 198 4.3 3.5

Wholesale and retail trade

794 732 3.9 3.6

Transportation and utilities

217 197 3.1 2.6

Information

84 79 3.2 3.3

Financial activities

205 198 2.0 2.0

Professional and business services

691 625 4.0 3.5

Education and health services

649 552 2.7 2.2

Leisure and hospitality

747 747 5.4 5.3

Other services

200 197 3.0 2.9

Agriculture and related private wage and salary workers

74 62 4.1 3.6

Government workers

411 414 1.9 1.9

Self-employed workers, unincorporated, and unpaid family workers

265 209 2.6 2.1

Footnotes
(1) Persons with no previous work experience and persons whose last job was in the U.S. Armed Forces are included in the unemployed total.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-15. Alternative measures of labor underutilization
[Percent]
Measure Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Oct.
2018
Sept.
2019
Oct.
2019
Oct.
2018
June
2019
July
2019
Aug.
2019
Sept.
2019
Oct.
2019

U-1 Persons unemployed 15 weeks or longer, as a percent of the civilian labor force

1.3 1.3 1.3 1.4 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3

U-2 Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs, as a percent of the civilian labor force

1.5 1.4 1.4 1.8 1.7 1.7 1.8 1.6 1.6

U-3 Total unemployed, as a percent of the civilian labor force (official unemployment rate)

3.5 3.3 3.3 3.8 3.7 3.7 3.7 3.5 3.6

U-4 Total unemployed plus discouraged workers, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus discouraged workers

3.8 3.5 3.5 4.1 3.9 3.9 4.0 3.7 3.8

U-5 Total unemployed, plus discouraged workers, plus all other persons marginally attached to the labor force, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force

4.4 4.1 4.1 4.6 4.6 4.6 4.6 4.3 4.3

U-6 Total unemployed, plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force, plus total employed part time for economic reasons, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force

7.0 6.5 6.5 7.5 7.2 7.0 7.2 6.9 7.0

NOTE: Persons marginally attached to the labor force are those who currently are neither working nor looking for work but indicate that they want and are available for a job and have looked for work sometime in the past 12 months. Discouraged workers, a subset of the marginally attached, have given a job-market related reason for not currently looking for work. Persons employed part time for economic reasons are those who want and are available for full-time work but have had to settle for a part-time schedule. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-16. Persons not in the labor force and multiple jobholders by sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Category Total Men Women
Oct.
2018
Oct.
2019
Oct.
2018
Oct.
2019
Oct.
2018
Oct.
2019

NOT IN THE LABOR FORCE

Total not in the labor force

95,792 95,269 38,960 38,863 56,832 56,406

Persons who currently want a job

5,048 4,412 2,298 2,093 2,750 2,318

Marginally attached to the labor force(1)

1,491 1,229 823 668 668 561

Discouraged workers(2)

506 341 314 227 192 114

Other persons marginally attached to the labor force(3)

984 888 509 441 476 447

MULTIPLE JOBHOLDERS

Total multiple jobholders(4)

8,093 8,351 3,958 4,065 4,135 4,286

Percent of total employed

5.2 5.3 4.8 4.8 5.6 5.7

Primary job full time, secondary job part time

4,484 4,602 2,490 2,471 1,994 2,131

Primary and secondary jobs both part time

2,180 2,172 723 801 1,457 1,370

Primary and secondary jobs both full time

284 377 171 207 114 169

Hours vary on primary or secondary job

1,073 1,149 539 564 534 585

Footnotes
(1) Data refer to persons who want a job, have searched for work during the prior 12 months, and were available to take a job during the reference week, but had not looked for work in the past 4 weeks.
(2) Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for reasons such as thinks no work available, could not find work, lacks schooling or training, employer thinks too young or old, and other types of discrimination.
(3) Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for such reasons as school or family responsibilities, ill health, and transportation problems, as well as a number for whom reason for nonparticipation was not determined.
(4) Includes a small number of persons who work part time on their primary job and full time on their secondary job(s), not shown separately.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-1. Employees on nonfarm payrolls by industry sector and selected industry detail
[In thousands]
Industry Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Oct.
2018
Aug.
2019
Sept.
2019(p)
Oct.
2019(p)
Oct.
2018
Aug.
2019
Sept.
2019(p)
Oct.
2019(p)
Change from:
Sept.2019 - Oct.2019(p)

Total nonfarm

150,853 151,607 152,015 152,962 149,852 151,637 151,817 151,945 128

Total private

128,001 129,955 129,385 129,941 127,366 129,008 129,175 129,306 131

Goods-producing

21,092 21,452 21,332 21,280 20,892 21,104 21,111 21,085 -26

Mining and logging

759 760 754 755 751 746 747 747 0

Logging

48.1 50.3 49.9 49.6 47.2 48.6 48.4 48.5 0.1

Mining

710.9 709.6 704.4 705.3 703.6 697.2 698.3 698.5 0.2

Oil and gas extraction

146.7 164.8 164.1 163.7 146.5 161.8 163.5 163.8 0.3

Mining, except oil and gas

197.5 196.4 195.1 195.1 194.6 192.2 192.7 192.5 -0.2

Coal mining

52.2 53.4 53.3 53.3 51.9 53.2 53.2 53.1 -0.1

Metal ore mining

41.4 40.3 39.7 39.6 41.6 39.8 39.8 39.7 -0.1

Nonmetallic mineral mining and quarrying

103.9 102.7 102.1 102.2 101.1 99.2 99.8 99.6 -0.2

Support activities for mining

366.7 348.4 345.2 346.5 362.5 343.2 342.1 342.2 0.1

Construction

7,559 7,758 7,698 7,705 7,379 7,506 7,517 7,527 10

Construction of buildings

1,669.2 1,707.1 1,687.2 1,691.4 1,641.5 1,666.2 1,664.6 1,665.8 1.2

Residential building

827.8 864.1 853.3 857.6 813.7 843.6 843.8 846.7 2.9

Nonresidential building

841.4 843.0 833.9 833.8 827.8 822.6 820.8 819.1 -1.7

Heavy and civil engineering construction

1,129.8 1,141.8 1,143.1 1,147.3 1,071.8 1,078.2 1,082.5 1,088.5 6.0

Specialty trade contractors

4,759.5 4,909.0 4,867.7 4,866.2 4,665.8 4,761.4 4,770.3 4,772.2 1.9

Residential specialty trade contractors

2,086.3 2,134.1 2,108.8 2,111.3 2,054.0 2,067.2 2,072.5 2,074.7 2.2

Nonresidential specialty trade contractors

2,673.2 2,774.9 2,758.9 2,754.9 2,611.8 2,694.2 2,697.8 2,697.5 -0.3

Manufacturing

12,774 12,934 12,880 12,820 12,762 12,852 12,847 12,811 -36

Durable goods

8,003 8,098 8,059 8,013 8,006 8,067 8,061 8,020 -41

Wood products

410.0 412.0 412.5 414.2 409.2 410.1 411.2 412.6 1.4

Nonmetallic mineral products

420.5 423.5 420.7 424.2 416.9 417.3 417.6 419.6 2.0

Primary metals

377.9 379.0 377.1 374.1 377.9 378.7 377.7 374.8 -2.9

Fabricated metal products

1,475.3 1,486.9 1,477.7 1,478.9 1,476.1 1,482.1 1,480.0 1,481.3 1.3

Machinery

1,126.6 1,139.6 1,127.7 1,125.6 1,130.5 1,135.9 1,131.5 1,130.9 -0.6

Computer and electronic products

1,059.1 1,093.8 1,091.4 1,091.3 1,059.9 1,089.0 1,092.3 1,092.7 0.4

Computer and peripheral equipment

157.2 164.1 163.8 163.7 157.2 162.6 163.4 163.6 0.2

Communications equipment

85.3 86.6 86.1 86.2 85.3 86.5 86.3 86.3 0.0

Semiconductors and electronic components

369.0 381.4 380.1 378.1 369.6 379.7 380.5 379.4 -1.1

Electronic instruments

413.5 427.7 427.0 429.5 414.1 426.5 428.2 430.0 1.8

Miscellaneous computer and electronic products

34.1 34.0 34.4 33.8 33.7 33.7 33.9 33.5 -0.4

Electrical equipment and appliances

402.5 405.5 402.9 403.1 403.0 403.8 402.5 403.3 0.8

Transportation equipment(1)

1,722.3 1,741.6 1,738.8 1,694.4 1,724.9 1,739.1 1,737.4 1,698.3 -39.1

Motor vehicles and parts(2)

1,003.7 992.3 988.7 943.6 1,005.8 991.4 987.9 946.3 -41.6

Furniture and related products

394.7 395.9 392.6 391.6 394.4 392.6 392.8 391.6 -1.2

Miscellaneous durable goods manufacturing

613.8 620.1 617.4 615.8 612.8 618.3 617.8 614.8 -3.0

Nondurable goods

4,771 4,836 4,821 4,807 4,756 4,785 4,786 4,791 5

Food manufacturing

1,638.6 1,668.5 1,666.0 1,661.7 1,628.6 1,636.7 1,641.1 1,648.9 7.8

Textile mills

112.2 112.1 111.1 110.7 111.9 111.8 111.1 110.6 -0.5

Textile product mills

116.0 114.3 112.8 113.6 115.8 113.4 112.5 113.4 0.9

Apparel

110.5 106.7 105.2 104.4 110.1 107.0 105.5 104.2 -1.3

Paper and paper products

367.8 370.7 369.0 369.0 369.2 370.0 369.6 370.2 0.6

Printing and related support activities

429.5 421.9 420.5 419.4 428.7 420.2 419.5 418.2 -1.3

Petroleum and coal products

118.2 118.2 117.7 115.8 115.5 114.6 114.5 113.7 -0.8

Chemicals

841.2 859.6 858.5 858.2 842.9 857.8 860.2 861.0 0.8

Plastics and rubber products

730.4 743.9 739.2 734.3 733.1 740.9 739.2 737.3 -1.9

Miscellaneous nondurable goods manufacturing

306.4 319.8 321.1 319.9 299.8 312.2 313.1 313.8 0.7

Private service-providing

106,909 108,503 108,053 108,661 106,474 107,904 108,064 108,221 157

Trade, transportation, and utilities

27,764 27,750 27,698 27,897 27,715 27,809 27,828 27,854 26

Wholesale trade

5,886.5 5,961.8 5,946.0 5,965.1 5,877.5 5,941.7 5,948.8 5,959.6 10.8

Durable goods

3,170.8 3,236.8 3,227.2 3,231.9 3,173.8 3,223.9 3,228.9 3,235.4 6.5

Nondurable goods

2,164.0 2,173.8 2,166.5 2,173.4 2,152.9 2,168.5 2,167.1 2,165.3 -1.8

Electronic markets and agents and brokers

551.7 551.2 552.3 559.8 550.8 549.3 552.8 558.9 6.1

Retail trade

15,796.5 15,748.6 15,634.2 15,771.4 15,794.4 15,759.5 15,766.2 15,772.3 6.1

Motor vehicle and parts dealers

2,035.8 2,070.1 2,070.4 2,066.1 2,031.8 2,057.3 2,061.7 2,061.0 -0.7

Automobile dealers

1,306.1 1,314.0 1,314.7 1,312.4 1,302.6 1,309.1 1,310.5 1,309.1 -1.4

Other motor vehicle dealers

159.1 164.5 163.2 161.1 160.3 158.4 161.2 161.6 0.4

Auto parts, accessories, and tire stores

570.6 591.6 592.5 592.6 568.9 589.9 589.9 590.3 0.4

Furniture and home furnishings stores

486.2 478.3 476.7 486.8 483.5 484.6 484.4 484.8 0.4

Electronics and appliance stores

482.5 454.8 456.0 472.7 482.8 462.4 463.4 469.7 6.3

Building material and garden supply stores

1,275.4 1,316.1 1,296.0 1,288.6 1,300.6 1,314.9 1,316.5 1,313.7 -2.8

Food and beverage stores

3,091.7 3,133.1 3,116.3 3,135.7 3,089.5 3,119.8 3,130.9 3,136.2 5.3

Health and personal care stores

1,058.6 1,034.7 1,028.8 1,044.3 1,061.3 1,043.6 1,040.3 1,045.4 5.1

Gasoline stations

935.8 966.4 959.0 962.3 934.1 955.6 956.7 960.5 3.8

Clothing and clothing accessories stores

1,339.5 1,320.7 1,268.3 1,280.1 1,352.3 1,318.0 1,305.4 1,297.7 -7.7

Sporting goods, hobby, book, and music stores

559.2 558.3 554.6 560.5 561.4 563.6 562.4 561.2 -1.2

General merchandise stores

3,109.4 3,009.1 3,018.3 3,072.2 3,094.8 3,039.2 3,050.5 3,052.9 2.4

Department stores

1,149.3 1,086.8 1,086.1 1,124.6 1,146.5 1,108.2 1,113.9 1,119.2 5.3

General merchandise stores, including warehouse clubs and supercenters

1,960.1 1,922.3 1,932.2 1,947.6 1,948.3 1,931.0 1,936.6 1,933.6 -3.0

Miscellaneous store retailers

838.2 835.3 823.9 829.7 826.5 827.2 824.1 822.3 -1.8

Nonstore retailers

584.2 571.7 565.9 572.4 575.8 573.3 569.9 566.9 -3.0

Transportation and warehousing

5,527.1 5,484.4 5,567.6 5,611.3 5,488.5 5,555.3 5,561.6 5,571.5 9.9

Air transportation

503.4 520.1 517.5 519.7 503.7 517.4 517.7 520.7 3.0

Rail transportation

216.6 203.0 199.5 199.5 216.2 202.5 199.6 199.3 -0.3

Water transportation

65.3 67.3 65.5 64.8 64.9 64.5 64.5 64.4 -0.1

Truck transportation

1,518.8 1,537.9 1,528.5 1,529.0 1,502.6 1,516.6 1,512.3 1,513.6 1.3

Transit and ground passenger transportation

505.1 422.0 503.1 508.7 486.9 483.8 489.0 490.1 1.1

Pipeline transportation

48.6 47.8 47.7 47.7 48.7 47.7 47.6 47.6 0.0

Scenic and sightseeing transportation

34.5 45.2 40.4 35.4 33.4 34.7 34.5 34.7 0.2

Support activities for transportation

720.8 721.5 722.7 728.9 716.7 720.4 723.2 725.0 1.8

Couriers and messengers

729.6 735.0 747.6 764.5 744.2 773.0 776.1 778.5 2.4

Warehousing and storage

1,184.4 1,184.6 1,195.1 1,213.1 1,171.2 1,194.7 1,197.1 1,197.6 0.5

Utilities

553.8 555.0 549.9 549.3 554.5 552.9 551.6 550.2 -1.4

Information

2,839 2,849 2,822 2,831 2,832 2,822 2,826 2,822 -4

Publishing industries, except Internet

734.5 746.9 748.0 747.4 732.9 742.5 744.8 745.5 0.7

Motion picture and sound recording industries

445.7 439.2 424.7 430.0 441.0 424.6 429.2 422.9 -6.3

Broadcasting, except Internet

271.0 266.6 268.3 270.1 269.5 267.7 267.3 268.3 1.0

Telecommunications

741.3 713.9 704.2 702.9 742.6 711.4 706.0 704.7 -1.3

Data processing, hosting and related services

331.7 338.9 337.2 339.4 331.4 336.8 337.6 338.2 0.6

Other information services

314.7 343.2 339.8 341.3 315.0 339.1 340.8 342.0 1.2

Financial activities

8,618 8,761 8,708 8,732 8,611 8,695 8,703 8,719 16

Finance and insurance

6,328.6 6,387.1 6,363.5 6,379.9 6,328.0 6,362.4 6,369.7 6,375.6 5.9

Monetary authorities - central bank

19.6 19.6 19.4 19.4 19.6 19.5 19.5 19.4 -0.1

Credit intermediation and related
activities

2,646.1 2,649.5 2,638.3 2,646.5 2,649.5 2,638.2 2,640.8 2,646.3 5.5

Depository credit intermediation(1)

1,709.7 1,718.7 1,709.2 1,709.2 1,715.7 1,712.5 1,714.7 1,714.2 -0.5

Commercial banking

1,312.9 1,312.8 1,305.0 1,303.7 1,317.8 1,308.7 1,309.5 1,308.1 -1.4

Nondepository credit intermediation

626.0 624.9 624.5 626.7 624.0 619.4 620.5 622.4 1.9

Activities related to credit intermediation

310.4 305.9 304.6 310.6 309.8 306.2 305.7 309.7 4.0

Securities, commodity contracts, investments, and funds and trusts

961.9 985.2 974.4 976.9 961.1 975.8 975.9 976.4 0.5

Insurance carriers and related activities

2,701.0 2,732.8 2,731.4 2,737.1 2,697.8 2,728.9 2,733.5 2,733.5 0.0

Real estate and rental and leasing

2,289.8 2,374.3 2,344.4 2,352.5 2,282.7 2,332.1 2,333.7 2,343.3 9.6

Real estate

1,684.1 1,740.8 1,718.9 1,731.4 1,678.3 1,717.4 1,716.7 1,724.1 7.4

Rental and leasing services

582.1 609.9 602.5 598.0 580.8 591.6 593.9 596.2 2.3

Lessors of nonfinancial intangible assets

23.6 23.6 23.0 23.1 23.6 23.1 23.1 23.0 -0.1

Professional and business services

21,397 21,668 21,637 21,812 21,183 21,526 21,563 21,585 22

Professional and technical services

9,385.2 9,629.6 9,558.9 9,656.4 9,387.8 9,631.8 9,642.9 9,659.4 16.5

Legal services

1,145.6 1,148.6 1,142.4 1,151.4 1,142.7 1,148.4 1,147.6 1,147.9 0.3

Accounting and bookkeeping services

974.2 1,003.0 993.4 1,009.6 1,023.3 1,057.2 1,058.3 1,060.1 1.8

Architectural and engineering services

1,498.0 1,540.4 1,525.0 1,533.8 1,489.7 1,520.9 1,522.9 1,525.4 2.5

Specialized design services

145.8 148.7 150.3 153.2 144.3 149.3 150.5 151.8 1.3

Computer systems design and related services

2,158.5 2,241.6 2,217.5 2,245.2 2,146.6 2,229.6 2,228.9 2,233.4 4.5

Management and technical consulting services

1,516.6 1,550.0 1,545.8 1,570.4 1,502.2 1,542.4 1,547.3 1,554.5 7.2

Scientific research and development services

702.3 738.6 733.0 735.3 703.9 732.5 735.4 736.9 1.5

Advertising and related services

490.8 491.1 488.0 492.8 488.9 489.4 489.7 490.9 1.2

Other professional and technical services

753.4 767.6 763.5 764.7 746.1 762.3 762.2 758.5 -3.7

Management of companies and enterprises

2,388.3 2,438.0 2,426.8 2,425.8 2,391.2 2,426.5 2,430.0 2,428.0 -2.0

Administrative and waste services

9,623.3 9,600.7 9,651.7 9,730.0 9,404.0 9,467.9 9,489.9 9,497.6 7.7

Administrative and support services

9,177.8 9,132.5 9,185.9 9,263.4 8,959.8 9,006.2 9,026.7 9,032.6 5.9

Office administrative services

520.0 532.8 530.1 534.2 519.2 531.6 531.1 533.4 2.3

Facilities support services

156.2 159.0 157.6 158.5 154.9 157.5 156.2 157.2 1.0

Employment services(1)

3,850.4 3,727.6 3,816.4 3,883.6 3,712.1 3,716.3 3,740.5 3,736.8 -3.7

Temporary help services

3,169.9 3,033.8 3,114.6 3,173.0 3,045.0 3,028.4 3,048.5 3,040.4 -8.1

Business support services

913.4 876.9 883.7 894.4 899.0 887.2 884.2 880.3 -3.9

Travel arrangement and reservation services

220.0 219.6 216.4 217.1 220.2 216.6 215.5 216.4 0.9

Investigation and security services

954.1 960.1 958.5 964.1 949.1 954.9 951.1 957.4 6.3

Services to buildings and dwellings

2,229.6 2,316.0 2,278.4 2,264.9 2,175.8 2,203.2 2,206.1 2,209.2 3.1

Other support services

334.1 340.5 344.8 346.6 329.5 339.0 342.0 341.9 -0.1

Waste management and remediation services

445.5 468.2 465.8 466.6 444.2 461.7 463.2 465.0 1.8

Education and health services

24,018 24,067 24,343 24,662 23,816 24,363 24,412 24,451 39

Educational services

3,899.7 3,523.3 3,795.4 4,000.9 3,739.2 3,824.6 3,829.0 3,833.9 4.9

Health care and social assistance

20,118.2 20,543.6 20,548.0 20,660.6 20,076.6 20,538.2 20,583.0 20,617.2 34.2

Health care(3)

16,136.6 16,478.2 16,475.0 16,533.7 16,101.3 16,451.2 16,488.8 16,503.4 14.6

Ambulatory health care services

7,576.5 7,800.7 7,802.3 7,842.6 7,548.2 7,791.9 7,815.7 7,823.5 7.8

Offices of physicians

2,642.1 2,693.5 2,694.2 2,706.8 2,631.9 2,692.7 2,699.8 2,699.1 -0.7

Offices of dentists

965.2 990.5 983.0 981.7 962.3 986.1 985.3 981.7 -3.6

Offices of other health practitioners

945.1 977.2 976.2 985.4 943.0 975.0 981.2 983.6 2.4

Outpatient care centers

944.4 974.9 975.2 982.2 943.8 975.3 978.8 982.2 3.4

Medical and diagnostic laboratories

281.8 292.8 294.2 298.1 281.1 293.5 294.3 297.3 3.0

Home health care services

1,493.3 1,558.5 1,561.8 1,571.4 1,485.2 1,556.0 1,560.9 1,565.1 4.2

Other ambulatory health care services

304.6 313.3 317.7 317.0 300.9 313.4 315.4 314.6 -0.8

Hospitals

5,185.3 5,261.6 5,270.0 5,277.8 5,179.3 5,258.6 5,268.5 5,270.6 2.1

Nursing and residential care facilities

3,374.8 3,415.9 3,402.7 3,413.3 3,373.8 3,400.7 3,404.6 3,409.3 4.7

Nursing care facilities

1,608.9 1,615.6 1,610.2 1,609.8 1,607.6 1,608.2 1,609.4 1,608.1 -1.3

Residential mental health facilities

645.7 656.1 652.9 655.1 646.8 654.2 654.4 655.7 1.3

Community care facilities for the elderly

952.6 972.6 968.0 976.6 951.9 968.2 969.4 974.0 4.6

Other residential care facilities

167.6 171.6 171.6 171.8 167.5 170.1 171.4 171.6 0.2

Social assistance

3,981.6 4,065.4 4,073.0 4,126.9 3,975.3 4,087.0 4,094.2 4,113.8 19.6

Individual and family services

2,493.3 2,589.6 2,570.0 2,608.8 2,496.5 2,586.6 2,589.8 2,607.0 17.2

Emergency and other relief services

176.6 178.1 178.6 178.3 177.5 178.1 178.9 178.6 -0.3

Vocational rehabilitation services

331.1 329.6 326.0 329.8 331.6 326.1 327.5 329.8 2.3

Child day care services

980.6 968.1 998.4 1,010.0 969.8 996.0 997.9 998.4 0.5

Leisure and hospitality

16,402 17,416 16,909 16,781 16,450 16,738 16,783 16,844 61

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

2,392.6 2,750.5 2,518.0 2,444.5 2,430.3 2,456.3 2,478.2 2,485.4 7.2

Performing arts and spectator sports

538.3 538.7 535.4 521.9 527.2 512.9 521.4 511.6 -9.8

Museums, historical sites, and similar institutions

172.9 187.9 177.2 178.0 172.3 175.5 175.7 177.6 1.9

Amusements, gambling, and recreation

1,681.4 2,023.9 1,805.4 1,744.6 1,730.8 1,767.9 1,781.1 1,796.2 15.1

Accommodation and food services

14,009.7 14,665.2 14,390.9 14,336.0 14,019.4 14,281.9 14,305.0 14,358.2 53.2

Accommodation

2,019.3 2,196.3 2,091.4 2,043.6 2,032.4 2,053.3 2,051.7 2,057.4 5.7

Food services and drinking places

11,990.4 12,468.9 12,299.5 12,292.4 11,987.0 12,228.6 12,253.3 12,300.8 47.5

Other services

5,871 5,992 5,936 5,946 5,867 5,951 5,949 5,946 -3

Repair and maintenance

1,338.7 1,370.8 1,368.3 1,372.9 1,337.4 1,367.8 1,368.2 1,370.8 2.6

Personal and laundry services

1,527.5 1,540.1 1,536.1 1,537.7 1,523.0 1,533.6 1,536.4 1,534.4 -2.0

Membership associations and organizations

3,004.5 3,081.2 3,031.2 3,035.6 3,006.2 3,050.0 3,044.1 3,040.9 -3.2

Government

22,852 21,652 22,630 23,021 22,486 22,629 22,642 22,639 -3

Federal

2,798.0 2,854.0 2,846.0 2,827.0 2,798.0 2,844.0 2,844.0 2,827.0 -17.0

Federal, except U.S. Postal Service

2,194.1 2,249.7 2,243.0 2,223.8 2,193.3 2,236.9 2,238.0 2,221.0 -17.0

U.S. Postal Service

604.0 604.7 603.3 603.3 604.9 607.1 606.2 606.0 -0.2

State government

5,350.0 4,925.0 5,248.0 5,349.0 5,197.0 5,191.0 5,186.0 5,189.0 3.0

State government education

2,661.4 2,200.7 2,536.4 2,638.9 2,501.8 2,484.7 2,475.7 2,473.9 -1.8

State government, excluding education

2,688.5 2,724.1 2,711.6 2,709.7 2,695.2 2,706.4 2,709.9 2,714.7 4.8

Local government

14,704.0 13,873.0 14,536.0 14,845.0 14,491.0 14,594.0 14,612.0 14,623.0 11.0

Local government education

8,224.8 7,128.8 7,972.7 8,316.3 7,969.5 8,032.3 8,040.0 8,049.7 9.7

Local government, excluding education

6,478.9 6,744.2 6,563.2 6,528.8 6,521.0 6,561.6 6,571.8 6,573.7 1.9

Footnotes
(1) Includes other industries, not shown separately.
(2) Includes motor vehicles, motor vehicle bodies and trailers, and motor vehicle parts.
(3) Includes ambulatory health care services, hospitals, and nursing and residential care facilities.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2018 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-2. Average weekly hours and overtime of all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Oct.
2018
Aug.
2019
Sept.
2019(p)
Oct.
2019(p)

AVERAGE WEEKLY HOURS

Total private

34.5 34.4 34.4 34.4

Goods-producing

40.3 40.3 40.5 40.2

Mining and logging

46.1 46.3 46.3 46.4

Construction

38.8 39.4 39.8 39.3

Manufacturing

40.8 40.5 40.5 40.3

Durable goods

41.2 41.0 40.9 40.8

Nondurable goods

40.1 39.7 39.8 39.6

Private service-providing

33.3 33.2 33.2 33.2

Trade, transportation, and utilities

34.4 34.1 34.2 34.2

Wholesale trade

38.9 38.9 38.9 38.9

Retail trade

30.8 30.6 30.7 30.6

Transportation and warehousing

39.0 38.3 38.5 38.6

Utilities

42.1 42.3 42.1 42.1

Information

36.2 36.4 36.5 36.4

Financial activities

37.8 37.7 37.5 37.6

Professional and business services

36.2 36.2 36.1 36.2

Education and health services

32.9 33.0 33.0 33.0

Leisure and hospitality

26.1 25.9 25.8 25.8

Other services

31.9 31.8 31.8 31.8

AVERAGE OVERTIME HOURS

Manufacturing

3.5 3.2 3.2 3.2

Durable goods

3.5 3.2 3.2 3.2

Nondurable goods

3.6 3.3 3.3 3.3

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2018 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-3. Average hourly and weekly earnings of all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Average hourly earnings Average weekly earnings
Oct.
2018
Aug.
2019
Sept.
2019(p)
Oct.
2019(p)
Oct.
2018
Aug.
2019
Sept.
2019(p)
Oct.
2019(p)

Total private

$27.35 $28.11 $28.12 $28.18 $943.58 $966.98 $967.33 $969.39

Goods-producing

28.43 29.14 29.21 29.28 1,145.73 1,174.34 1,183.01 1,177.06

Mining and logging

32.72 34.30 34.58 35.03 1,508.39 1,588.09 1,601.05 1,625.39

Construction

30.23 30.84 30.84 30.95 1,172.92 1,215.10 1,227.43 1,216.34

Manufacturing

27.16 27.83 27.91 27.94 1,108.13 1,127.12 1,130.36 1,125.98

Durable goods

28.57 29.27 29.38 29.40 1,177.08 1,200.07 1,201.64 1,199.52

Nondurable goods

24.73 25.33 25.37 25.44 991.67 1,005.60 1,009.73 1,007.42

Private service-providing

27.10 27.87 27.86 27.92 902.43 925.28 924.95 926.94

Trade, transportation, and utilities

23.58 24.40 24.38 24.42 811.15 832.04 833.80 835.16

Wholesale trade

30.73 31.72 31.60 31.68 1,195.40 1,233.91 1,229.24 1,232.35

Retail trade

19.02 19.78 19.83 19.85 585.82 605.27 608.78 607.41

Transportation and warehousing

24.42 24.98 24.99 24.99 952.38 956.73 962.12 964.61

Utilities

40.97 42.02 41.83 41.62 1,724.84 1,777.45 1,761.04 1,752.20

Information

40.68 42.60 42.08 42.23 1,472.62 1,550.64 1,535.92 1,537.17

Financial activities

34.96 36.20 36.09 36.23 1,321.49 1,364.74 1,353.38 1,362.25

Professional and business services

32.89 33.82 33.88 34.00 1,190.62 1,224.28 1,223.07 1,230.80

Education and health services

27.22 27.64 27.65 27.67 895.54 912.12 912.45 913.11

Leisure and hospitality

16.14 16.61 16.67 16.69 421.25 430.20 430.09 430.60

Other services

24.74 25.07 25.09 25.18 789.21 797.23 797.86 800.72

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2018 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-4. Indexes of aggregate weekly hours and payrolls for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
[2007=100]
Industry Index of aggregate weekly hours(1) Index of aggregate weekly payrolls(2)
Oct.
2018
Aug.
2019
Sept.
2019(p)
Oct.
2019(p)
Percent change from:
Sept.
2019 - Oct.
2019(p)
Oct.
2018
Aug.
2019
Sept.
2019(p)
Oct.
2019(p)
Percent change from:
Sept.
2019 - Oct.
2019(p)

Total private

110.3 111.4 111.5 111.6 0.1 144.2 149.7 149.9 150.4 0.3

Goods-producing

95.9 96.9 97.4 96.6 -0.8 123.3 127.6 128.6 127.8 -0.6

Mining and logging

108.8 108.5 108.7 108.9 0.2 142.9 149.5 150.9 153.2 1.5

Construction

98.7 101.9 103.1 102.0 -1.1 129.6 136.6 138.2 137.1 -0.8

Manufacturing

93.7 93.6 93.6 92.9 -0.7 118.3 121.2 121.5 120.7 -0.7

Durable goods

92.9 93.1 92.8 92.1 -0.8 117.8 121.0 121.1 120.3 -0.7

Nondurable goods

95.2 94.8 95.1 94.7 -0.4 119.5 121.9 122.4 122.2 -0.2

Private service-providing

114.1 115.3 115.4 115.6 0.2 150.2 156.1 156.3 156.8 0.3

Trade, transportation, and utilities

104.0 103.4 103.8 103.9 0.1 132.1 136.0 136.4 136.7 0.2

Wholesale trade

100.9 102.0 102.1 102.3 0.2 129.6 135.3 134.9 135.5 0.4

Retail trade

98.8 97.9 98.3 98.0 -0.3 124.2 128.0 128.8 128.6 -0.2

Transportation and warehousing

122.3 121.6 122.4 122.9 0.4 151.6 154.1 155.1 155.8 0.5

Utilities

101.0 101.2 100.5 100.2 -0.3 136.7 140.5 138.9 137.8 -0.8

Information

93.6 93.8 94.2 93.8 -0.4 135.6 142.3 141.1 141.1 0.0

Financial activities

106.6 107.4 106.9 107.4 0.5 145.4 151.6 150.5 151.7 0.8

Professional and business services

120.2 122.2 122.1 122.5 0.3 160.1 167.3 167.4 168.7 0.8

Education and health services

127.9 131.3 131.5 131.8 0.2 167.5 174.6 175.0 175.4 0.2

Leisure and hospitality

122.5 123.7 123.5 124.0 0.4 159.5 165.8 166.2 167.0 0.5

Other services

107.9 109.1 109.1 109.0 -0.1 146.3 149.9 150.0 150.5 0.3

Footnotes
(1) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding 2007 annual average aggregate hours. Aggregate hours estimates are the product of estimates of average weekly hours and employment.
(2) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding 2007 annual average aggregate weekly payrolls. Aggregate payrolls estimates are the product of estimates of average hourly earnings, average weekly hours, and employment.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2018 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-5. Employment of women on nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Women employees (in thousands) Percent of all employees
Oct.
2018
Aug.
2019
Sept.
2019(p)
Oct.
2019(p)
Oct.
2018
Aug.
2019
Sept.
2019(p)
Oct.
2019(p)

Total nonfarm

74,480 75,668 75,818 75,891 49.7 49.9 49.9 49.9

Total private

61,514 62,600 62,744 62,818 48.3 48.5 48.6 48.6

Goods-producing

4,637 4,724 4,733 4,732 22.2 22.4 22.4 22.4

Mining and logging

94 100 102 101 12.5 13.4 13.7 13.5

Construction

950 977 976 980 12.9 13.0 13.0 13.0

Manufacturing

3,593 3,647 3,655 3,651 28.2 28.4 28.5 28.5

Durable goods

1,907 1,942 1,942 1,936 23.8 24.1 24.1 24.1

Nondurable goods

1,686 1,705 1,713 1,715 35.4 35.6 35.8 35.8

Private service-providing

56,877 57,876 58,011 58,086 53.4 53.6 53.7 53.7

Trade, transportation, and utilities

11,104 11,151 11,166 11,168 40.1 40.1 40.1 40.1

Wholesale trade

1,760.1 1,787.5 1,795.9 1,792.0 29.9 30.1 30.2 30.1

Retail trade

7,842.5 7,809.2 7,812.7 7,813.0 49.7 49.6 49.6 49.5

Transportation and warehousing

1,371.6 1,421.1 1,425.5 1,430.7 25.0 25.6 25.6 25.7

Utilities

129.3 132.8 132.3 132.2 23.3 24.0 24.0 24.0

Information

1,117 1,130 1,128 1,127 39.4 40.0 39.9 39.9

Financial activities

4,871 4,903 4,909 4,911 56.6 56.4 56.4 56.3

Professional and business services

9,620 9,809 9,849 9,844 45.4 45.6 45.7 45.6

Education and health services

18,375 18,827 18,869 18,911 77.2 77.3 77.3 77.3

Leisure and hospitality

8,666 8,878 8,917 8,953 52.7 53.0 53.1 53.2

Other services

3,124 3,178 3,173 3,172 53.2 53.4 53.3 53.3

Government

12,966 13,068 13,074 13,073 57.7 57.7 57.7 57.7

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2018 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-6. Employment of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
[In thousands]
Industry Oct.
2018
Aug.
2019
Sept.
2019(p)
Oct.
2019(p)

Total private

104,921 106,176 106,277 106,351

Goods-producing

14,998 15,104 15,103 15,076

Mining and logging

562 544 541 544

Construction

5,492 5,592 5,601 5,607

Manufacturing

8,944 8,968 8,961 8,925

Durable goods

5,507 5,550 5,537 5,495

Nondurable goods

3,437 3,418 3,424 3,430

Private service-providing

89,923 91,072 91,174 91,275

Trade, transportation, and utilities

23,445 23,524 23,539 23,536

Wholesale trade

4,716.1 4,768.0 4,770.5 4,769.7

Retail trade

13,487.9 13,448.6 13,461.6 13,464.3

Transportation and warehousing

4,795.7 4,863.7 4,864.0 4,861.6

Utilities

445.2 443.7 442.9 440.7

Information

2,282 2,277 2,276 2,268

Financial activities

6,669 6,726 6,729 6,742

Professional and business services

17,294 17,504 17,528 17,555

Education and health services

20,914 21,401 21,441 21,474

Leisure and hospitality

14,459 14,717 14,742 14,783

Other services

4,860 4,923 4,919 4,917

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2018 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-7. Average weekly hours and overtime of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry Oct.
2018
Aug.
2019
Sept.
2019(p)
Oct.
2019(p)

AVERAGE WEEKLY HOURS

Total private

33.7 33.6 33.6 33.6

Goods-producing

41.2 41.1 41.2 41.0

Mining and logging

46.4 47.4 47.3 48.0

Construction

39.4 39.9 40.2 39.7

Manufacturing

42.1 41.5 41.5 41.4

Durable goods

42.5 41.9 41.9 41.7

Nondurable goods

41.4 40.9 40.9 40.9

Private service-providing

32.5 32.4 32.3 32.3

Trade, transportation, and utilities

33.9 33.8 33.8 33.8

Wholesale trade

38.8 38.7 38.7 38.7

Retail trade

30.4 30.3 30.3 30.3

Transportation and warehousing

38.3 37.9 37.9 38.0

Utilities

42.6 42.7 42.2 42.7

Information

35.5 35.2 35.5 35.2

Financial activities

37.1 36.8 36.9 36.9

Professional and business services

35.4 35.6 35.4 35.4

Education and health services

32.2 32.2 32.1 32.2

Leisure and hospitality

24.8 24.6 24.6 24.6

Other services

30.9 30.8 30.7 30.7

AVERAGE OVERTIME HOURS

Manufacturing

4.5 4.2 4.2 4.2

Durable goods

4.6 4.2 4.2 4.2

Nondurable goods

4.3 4.2 4.1 4.2

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2018 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-8. Average hourly and weekly earnings of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry Average hourly earnings Average weekly earnings
Oct.
2018
Aug.
2019
Sept.
2019(p)
Oct.
2019(p)
Oct.
2018
Aug.
2019
Sept.
2019(p)
Oct.
2019(p)

Total private

$22.90 $23.60 $23.66 $23.70 $771.73 $792.96 $794.98 $796.32

Goods-producing

24.21 24.83 24.89 24.94 997.45 1,020.51 1,025.47 1,022.54

Mining and logging

28.79 30.25 30.64 31.24 1,335.86 1,433.85 1,449.27 1,499.52

Construction

28.05 28.55 28.58 28.62 1,105.17 1,139.15 1,148.92 1,136.21

Manufacturing

21.69 22.22 22.27 22.28 913.15 922.13 924.21 922.39

Durable goods

22.63 23.11 23.20 23.21 961.78 968.31 972.08 967.86

Nondurable goods

20.13 20.75 20.73 20.76 833.38 848.68 847.86 849.08

Private service-providing

22.62 23.35 23.39 23.44 735.15 756.54 755.50 757.11

Trade, transportation, and utilities

20.10 20.79 20.77 20.79 681.39 702.70 702.03 702.70

Wholesale trade

25.50 26.34 26.29 26.41 989.40 1,019.36 1,017.42 1,022.07

Retail trade

16.06 16.71 16.73 16.73 488.22 506.31 506.92 506.92

Transportation and warehousing

21.99 22.59 22.56 22.50 842.22 856.16 855.02 855.00

Utilities

36.98 37.00 36.95 36.81 1,575.35 1,579.90 1,559.29 1,571.79

Information

32.37 34.01 34.32 34.37 1,149.14 1,197.15 1,218.36 1,209.82

Financial activities

26.94 27.83 27.85 27.93 999.47 1,024.14 1,027.67 1,030.62

Professional and business services

27.00 27.94 28.01 28.14 955.80 994.66 991.55 996.16

Education and health services

23.79 24.38 24.46 24.50 766.04 785.04 785.17 788.90

Leisure and hospitality

14.04 14.54 14.62 14.65 348.19 357.68 359.65 360.39

Other services

20.95 21.27 21.28 21.29 647.36 655.12 653.30 653.60

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2018 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-9. Indexes of aggregate weekly hours and payrolls for production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
[2002=100]
Industry Index of aggregate weekly hours(2) Index of aggregate weekly payrolls(3)
Oct.
2018
Aug.
2019
Sept.
2019(p)
Oct.
2019(p)
Percent change from:
Sept.
2019 - Oct.
2019(p)
Oct.
2018
Aug.
2019
Sept.
2019(p)
Oct.
2019(p)
Percent change from:
Sept.
2019 - Oct.
2019(p)

Total private

117.8 118.9 119.0 119.1 0.1 180.3 187.5 188.1 188.6 0.3

Goods-producing

94.4 94.9 95.1 94.5 -0.6 140.0 144.2 144.9 144.2 -0.5

Mining and logging

138.6 137.0 136.0 138.8 2.1 232.0 241.1 242.3 252.1 4.0

Construction

108.3 111.7 112.7 111.5 -1.1 164.1 172.2 174.0 172.2 -1.0

Manufacturing

86.4 85.4 85.4 84.8 -0.7 122.6 124.1 124.3 123.6 -0.6

Durable goods

87.9 87.4 87.2 86.1 -1.3 124.2 126.0 126.2 124.7 -1.2

Nondurable goods

83.8 82.4 82.5 82.7 0.2 119.3 120.8 120.9 121.3 0.3

Private service-providing

124.5 125.7 125.4 125.6 0.2 193.1 201.2 201.2 201.8 0.3

Trade, transportation, and utilities

111.0 111.0 111.1 111.1 0.0 159.3 164.8 164.7 164.9 0.1

Wholesale trade

108.6 109.5 109.6 109.6 0.0 163.5 170.3 170.0 170.8 0.5

Retail trade

103.8 103.1 103.2 103.2 0.0 142.8 147.7 148.0 148.0 0.0

Transportation and warehousing

138.2 138.6 138.7 139.0 0.2 192.7 198.6 198.4 198.3 -0.1

Utilities

97.0 96.9 95.6 96.2 0.6 149.7 149.6 147.4 147.9 0.3

Information

92.5 91.5 92.2 91.1 -1.2 148.2 154.0 156.7 155.0 -1.1

Financial activities

116.5 116.5 116.9 117.1 0.2 193.0 199.5 200.3 201.2 0.4

Professional and business services

136.9 139.3 138.7 138.9 0.1 219.8 231.5 231.1 232.5 0.6

Education and health services

143.6 146.9 146.7 147.4 0.5 225.5 236.4 236.9 238.4 0.6

Leisure and hospitality

131.3 132.6 132.8 133.2 0.3 209.4 219.0 220.6 221.6 0.5

Other services

105.3 106.3 105.9 105.9 0.0 160.8 164.8 164.2 164.2 0.0

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(2) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding 2002 annual average aggregate hours. Aggregate hours estimates are the product of estimates of average weekly hours and employment.
(3) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding 2002 annual average aggregate weekly payrolls. Aggregate payrolls estimates are the product of estimates of average hourly earnings, average weekly hours, and employment.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2018 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


Last Modified Date: November 01, 2019