Employment Situation News Release

Transmission of material in this news release is embargoed until            USDL-18-1739
8:30 a.m. (EDT) Friday, November 2, 2018

Technical information:
 Household data:     (202) 691-6378  *  cpsinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/cps
 Establishment data: (202) 691-6555  *  cesinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/ces

Media contact:        (202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov


                        THE EMPLOYMENT SITUATION -- OCTOBER 2018


Total nonfarm payroll employment rose by 250,000 in October, and the unemployment rate
was unchanged at 3.7 percent, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. Job
gains occurred in health care, in manufacturing, in construction, and in transportation
and warehousing.

   __________________________________________________________________________________
  |                                                                                  |
  |                               Hurricane Michael                                  |
  |                                                                                  |
  | Hurricane Michael made landfall in the Florida Panhandle on October 10, 2018,    |
  | during the reference periods for both the establishment and household surveys.   |
  | Hurricane Michael had no discernible effect on the national employment and       |
  | unemployment estimates for October, and response rates for the two surveys were  |
  | within normal ranges. For information on how severe weather can affect employment|
  | and hours data, see Question 8 in the Frequently Asked Questions section of this |
  | news release.                                                                    |
  |                                                                                  |
  | BLS will release the state estimates of employment and unemployment on           |
  | November 16, 2018, at 10:00 a.m. (EST).                                          |
  |__________________________________________________________________________________|


Household Survey Data

The unemployment rate remained at 3.7 percent in October, and the number of unemployed
persons was little changed at 6.1 million. Over the year, the unemployment rate and
the number of unemployed persons declined by 0.4 percentage point and 449,000,
respectively. (See table A-1.)

Among the major worker groups, the unemployment rates for adult men (3.5 percent),
adult women (3.4 percent), teenagers (11.9 percent), Whites (3.3 percent), Blacks
(6.2 percent), Asians (3.2 percent), and Hispanics (4.4 percent) showed little or no
change in October. (See tables A-1, A-2, and A-3.)

The number of long-term unemployed (those jobless for 27 weeks or more) was essentially
unchanged at 1.4 million in October and accounted for 22.5 percent of the unemployed.
(See table A-12.)

The labor force participation rate increased by 0.2 percentage point to 62.9 percent in
October but has shown little change over the year. The employment-population ratio
edged up by 0.2 percentage point to 60.6 percent in October and has increased by 0.4
percentage point over the year. (See table A-1.)

The number of persons employed part time for economic reasons (sometimes referred to as
involuntary part-time workers) was essentially unchanged at 4.6 million in October.
These individuals, who would have preferred full-time employment, were working part
time because their hours had been reduced or they were unable to find full-time jobs.
(See table A-8.)

In October, 1.5 million persons were marginally attached to the labor force, little
changed from a year earlier. (Data are not seasonally adjusted.) These individuals were
not in the labor force, wanted and were available for work, and had looked for a job
sometime in the prior 12 months. They were not counted as unemployed because they had
not searched for work in the 4 weeks preceding the survey. (See table A-16.)

Among the marginally attached, there were 506,000 discouraged workers in October, about
unchanged from a year earlier. (Data are not seasonally adjusted.) Discouraged workers
are persons not currently looking for work because they believe no jobs are available
for them. The remaining 984,000 persons marginally attached to the labor force in
October had not searched for work for reasons such as school attendance or family
responsibilities. (See table A-16.)

Establishment Survey Data

Total nonfarm payroll employment increased by 250,000 in October, following an average
monthly gain of 211,000 over the prior 12 months. In October, job growth occurred in
health care, in manufacturing, in construction, and in transportation and warehousing.
(See table B-1.)

Health care added 36,000 jobs in October. Within the industry, employment growth
occurred in hospitals (+13,000) and in nursing and residential care facilities
(+8,000). Employment in ambulatory health care services continued to trend up
(+14,000). Over the past 12 months, health care employment grew by 323,000.

In October, employment in manufacturing increased by 32,000. Most of the increase
occurred in durable goods manufacturing, with a gain in transportation equipment
(+10,000). Manufacturing has added 296,000 jobs over the year, largely in durable
goods industries.

Construction employment rose by 30,000 in October, with nearly half of the gain
occurring among residential specialty trade contractors (+14,000). Over the year,
construction has added 330,000 jobs.

Transportation and warehousing added 25,000 jobs in October. Within the industry,
employment growth occurred in couriers and messengers (+8,000) and in warehousing
and storage (+8,000). Over the year, employment in transportation and warehousing
has increased by 184,000.

Employment in leisure and hospitality edged up in October (+42,000). Employment was
unchanged in September, likely reflecting the impact of Hurricane Florence. The
average gain for the 2 months combined (+21,000) was the same as the average monthly
gain in the industry for the 12-month period prior to September.

In October, employment in professional and business services continued to trend up
(+35,000). Over the year, the industry has added 516,000 jobs.

Employment in mining also continued to trend up over the month (+5,000). The industry
has added 65,000 jobs over the year, with most of the gain in support activities for
mining.

Employment in other major industries--including wholesale trade, retail trade,
information, financial activities, and government--showed little change over the
month.

The average workweek for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls increased by 0.1
hour to 34.5 hours in October. In manufacturing, the workweek edged down by 0.1 hour
to 40.8 hours, and overtime was unchanged at 3.5 hours. The average workweek for
production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls, at 33.7 hours,
was unchanged over the month. (See tables B-2 and B-7.)

In October, average hourly earnings for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls
rose by 5 cents to $27.30. Over the year, average hourly earnings have increased by
83 cents, or 3.1 percent. Average hourly earnings of private-sector production and
nonsupervisory employees increased by 7 cents to $22.89 in October. (See tables B-3
and B-8.)

The change in total nonfarm payroll employment for September was revised down from
+134,000 to +118,000, and the change for August was revised up from +270,000 to
+286,000. The downward revision in September offset the upward revision in August.
(Monthly revisions result from additional reports received from businesses and
government agencies since the last published estimates and from the recalculation
of seasonal factors.) After revisions, job gains have averaged 218,000 over the
past 3 months.

_____________
The Employment Situation for November is scheduled to be released on Friday,
December 7, 2018, at 8:30 a.m. (EST).




HOUSEHOLD DATA
Summary table A. Household data, seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Category Oct.
2017
Aug.
2018
Sept.
2018
Oct.
2018
Change from:
Sept.
2018-
Oct.
2018

Employment status

Civilian noninstitutional population

255,766 258,066 258,290 258,514 224

Civilian labor force

160,371 161,776 161,926 162,637 711

Participation rate

62.7 62.7 62.7 62.9 0.2

Employed

153,846 155,542 155,962 156,562 600

Employment-population ratio

60.2 60.3 60.4 60.6 0.2

Unemployed

6,524 6,234 5,964 6,075 111

Unemployment rate

4.1 3.9 3.7 3.7 0.0

Not in labor force

95,395 96,290 96,364 95,877 -487

Unemployment rates

Total, 16 years and over

4.1 3.9 3.7 3.7 0.0

Adult men (20 years and over)

3.8 3.5 3.4 3.5 0.1

Adult women (20 years and over)

3.6 3.6 3.3 3.4 0.1

Teenagers (16 to 19 years)

13.7 12.8 12.8 11.9 -0.9

White

3.5 3.4 3.3 3.3 0.0

Black or African American

7.3 6.3 6.0 6.2 0.2

Asian

3.0 3.0 3.5 3.2 -0.3

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

4.8 4.7 4.5 4.4 -0.1

Total, 25 years and over

3.3 3.2 3.0 3.1 0.1

Less than a high school diploma

6.1 5.7 5.5 6.0 0.5

High school graduates, no college

4.3 3.9 3.7 4.0 0.3

Some college or associate degree

3.6 3.5 3.2 3.0 -0.2

Bachelor's degree and higher

2.0 2.1 2.0 2.0 0.0

Reason for unemployment

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

3,214 2,875 2,796 2,850 54

Job leavers

731 862 730 726 -4

Reentrants

2,001 1,846 1,877 1,906 29

New entrants

626 584 586 606 20

Duration of unemployment

Less than 5 weeks

2,128 2,208 2,065 2,057 -8

5 to 14 weeks

1,943 1,720 1,720 1,821 101

15 to 26 weeks

856 923 861 856 -5

27 weeks and over

1,645 1,332 1,384 1,373 -11

Employed persons at work part time

Part time for economic reasons

4,880 4,379 4,642 4,621 -21

Slack work or business conditions

2,960 2,551 2,782 2,816 34

Could only find part-time work

1,615 1,365 1,447 1,436 -11

Part time for noneconomic reasons

20,897 21,781 21,464 21,512 48

Persons not in the labor force (not seasonally adjusted)

Marginally attached to the labor force

1,535 1,443 1,577 1,491 -

Discouraged workers

524 434 383 506 -

- Over-the-month changes are not displayed for not seasonally adjusted data.
NOTE: Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Summary table B. Establishment data, seasonally adjusted
Category Oct.
2017
Aug.
2018
Sept.
2018(p)
Oct.
2018(p)

EMPLOYMENT BY SELECTED INDUSTRY
(Over-the-month change, in thousands)

Total nonfarm

271 286 118 250

Total private

277 267 121 246

Goods-producing

38 49 42 67

Mining and logging

1 7 4 5

Construction

17 31 20 30

Manufacturing

20 11 18 32

Durable goods(1)

10 11 14 21

Motor vehicles and parts

-1.6 2.7 1.0 6.8

Nondurable goods

10 0 4 11

Private service-providing

239 218 79 179

Wholesale trade

7.5 20.6 3.3 9.1

Retail trade

6.5 9.1 -32.4 2.4

Transportation and warehousing

13.7 23.1 20.8 24.8

Utilities

0.0 0.9 0.1 1.2

Information

0 -4 -4 7

Financial activities

9 9 15 7

Professional and business services(1)

60 54 46 35

Temporary help services

19.8 10.8 7.6 3.3

Education and health services(1)

15 67 26 44

Health care and social assistance

35.7 52.5 34.9 46.7

Leisure and hospitality

110 30 0 42

Other services

17 8 4 7

Government

-6 19 -3 4

(3-month average change, in thousands)

Total nonfarm

169 220 190 218

Total private

167 199 175 211

WOMEN AND PRODUCTION AND NONSUPERVISORY EMPLOYEES
AS A PERCENT OF ALL EMPLOYEES(2)

Total nonfarm women employees

49.5 49.7 49.7 49.7

Total private women employees

48.1 48.3 48.3 48.3

Total private production and nonsupervisory employees

82.4 82.4 82.4 82.4

HOURS AND EARNINGS
ALL EMPLOYEES

Total private

Average weekly hours

34.4 34.5 34.4 34.5

Average hourly earnings

$26.47 $27.17 $27.25 $27.30

Average weekly earnings

$910.57 $937.37 $937.40 $941.85

Index of aggregate weekly hours (2007=100)(3)

107.8 110.0 109.7 110.3

Over-the-month percent change

0.5 0.3 -0.3 0.5

Index of aggregate weekly payrolls (2007=100)(4)

136.5 142.8 143.0 143.9

Over-the-month percent change

0.4 0.6 0.1 0.6

DIFFUSION INDEX
(Over 1-month span)(5)

Total private (258 industries)

63.2 64.5 60.7 65.7

Manufacturing (76 industries)

63.8 56.6 65.1 62.5

Footnotes
(1) Includes other industries, not shown separately.
(2) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries.
(3) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding annual average aggregate hours.
(4) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding annual average aggregate weekly payrolls.
(5) Figures are the percent of industries with employment increasing plus one-half of the industries with unchanged employment, where 50 percent indicates an equal balance between industries with increasing and decreasing employment.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2017 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


Frequently Asked Questions about Employment and Unemployment Estimates

1. Why are there two monthly measures of employment?

   The household survey and establishment survey both produce sample-based estimates
   of employment, and both have strengths and limitations. The establishment survey
   employment series has a smaller margin of error on the measurement of month-to-
   month change than the household survey because of its much larger sample size. An
   over-the-month employment change of about 100,000 is statistically significant in
   the establishment survey, while the threshold for a statistically significant change
   in the household survey is about 500,000. However, the household survey has a more
   expansive scope than the establishment survey because it includes self-employed
   workers whose businesses are unincorporated, unpaid family workers, agricultural
   workers, and private household workers, who are excluded by the establishment survey.
   The household survey also provides estimates of employment for demographic groups.
   For more information on the differences between the two surveys, please visit
   https://www.bls.gov/web/empsit/ces_cps_trends.htm.

2. Are undocumented immigrants counted in the surveys?

   It is likely that both surveys include at least some undocumented immigrants. However,
   neither the establishment nor the household survey is designed to identify the legal
   status of workers. Therefore, it is not possible to determine how many are counted in
   either survey. The establishment survey does not collect data on the legal status of
   workers. The household survey does include questions which identify the foreign and
   native born, but it does not include questions about the legal status of the foreign
   born. Data on the foreign and native born are published each month in table A-7 of
   The Employment Situation news release.

3. Why does the establishment survey have revisions?

   The establishment survey revises published estimates to improve its data series by
   incorporating additional information that was not available at the time of the
   initial publication of the estimates. The establishment survey revises its initial
   monthly estimates twice, in the immediately succeeding 2 months, to incorporate
   additional sample receipts from respondents in the survey and recalculated seasonal
   adjustment factors. For more information on the monthly revisions, please visit
   https://www.bls.gov/ces/cesrevinfo.htm.

   On an annual basis, the establishment survey incorporates a benchmark revision that
   re-anchors estimates to nearly complete employment counts available from unemployment
   insurance tax records. The benchmark helps to control for sampling and modeling errors
   in the estimates. For more information on the annual benchmark revision, please visit
   https://www.bls.gov/web/empsit/cesbmart.htm.

4. Does the establishment survey sample include small firms?

   Yes; about 40 percent of the establishment survey sample is comprised of business
   establishments with fewer than 20 employees. The establishment survey sample is
   designed to maximize the reliability of the statewide total nonfarm employment
   estimate; firms from all states, size classes, and industries are appropriately
   sampled to achieve that goal.

5. Does the establishment survey account for employment from new businesses?

   Yes; monthly establishment survey estimates include an adjustment to account for
   the net employment change generated by business births and deaths. The adjustment
   comes from an econometric model that forecasts the monthly net jobs impact of
   business births and deaths based on the actual past values of the net impact that
   can be observed with a lag from the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages. The
   establishment survey uses modeling rather than sampling for this purpose because
   the survey is not immediately able to bring new businesses into the sample. There
   is an unavoidable lag between the birth of a new firm and its appearance on the
   sampling frame and availability for selection. BLS adds new businesses to the survey
   twice a year.

6. Is the count of unemployed persons limited to just those people receiving unemployment
   insurance benefits?

   No; the estimate of unemployment is based on a monthly sample survey of households.
   All persons who are without jobs and are actively seeking and available to work are
   included among the unemployed. (People on temporary layoff are included even if
   they do not actively seek work.) There is no requirement or question relating to
   unemployment insurance benefits in the monthly survey.

7. Does the official unemployment rate exclude people who want a job but are not currently
   looking for work?

   Yes; however, there are separate estimates of persons outside the labor force who
   want a job, including those who are not currently looking because they believe no
   jobs are available (discouraged workers). In addition, alternative measures of labor
   underutilization (some of which include discouraged workers and other groups not
   officially counted as unemployed) are published each month in table A-15 of The
   Employment Situation news release. For more information about these alternative
   measures, please visit https://www.bls.gov/cps/lfcharacteristics.htm#altmeasures.

8. How can unusually severe weather affect employment and hours estimates?

   In the establishment survey, the reference period is the pay period that includes
   the 12th of the month. Unusually severe weather is more likely to have an impact on
   average weekly hours than on employment. Average weekly hours are estimated for paid
   time during the pay period, including pay for holidays, sick leave, or other time off.
   The impact of severe weather on hours estimates typically, but not always, results in
   a reduction in average weekly hours. For example, some employees may be off work for
   part of the pay period and not receive pay for the time missed, while some workers,
   such as those dealing with cleanup or repair, may work extra hours.
   
   Typically, it is not possible to precisely quantify the effect of extreme weather on 
   payroll employment estimates. In order for severe weather conditions to reduce
   employment estimates, employees have to be off work without pay for the entire pay
   period. Employees who receive pay for any part of the pay period, even 1 hour, are
   counted in the payroll employment figures. For more information on how often employees
   are paid, please visit https://www.bls.gov/opub/btn/volume-3/how-frequently-do-private-
   businesses-pay-workers.htm.

   In the household survey, the reference period is generally the calendar week that
   includes the 12th of the month. Persons who miss the entire week's work for weather-
   related events are counted as employed whether or not they are paid for the time
   off. The household survey collects data on the number of persons who had a job but
   were not at work due to bad weather. It also provides a measure of the number of
   persons who usually work full time but had reduced hours due to bad weather. 
   Current and historical data are available on the household survey's most requested
   statistics page, please visit https://data.bls.gov/cgi-bin/surveymost?ln.




Technical Note


   This news release presents statistics from two major surveys, the Current
Population Survey (CPS; household survey) and the Current Employment Statistics
survey (CES; establishment survey). The household survey provides information
on the labor force, employment, and unemployment that appears in the "A" tables,
marked HOUSEHOLD DATA. It is a sample survey of about 60,000 eligible households
conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau for the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS).

   The establishment survey provides information on employment, hours, and
earnings of employees on nonfarm payrolls; the data appear in the "B" tables,
marked ESTABLISHMENT DATA. BLS collects these data each month from the payroll
records of a sample of nonagricultural business establishments. Each month
the CES program surveys about 149,000 businesses and government agencies,
representing approximately 651,000 individual worksites, in order to provide
detailed industry data on employment, hours, and earnings of workers on nonfarm
payrolls. The active sample includes approximately one-third of all nonfarm
payroll employees.

   For both surveys, the data for a given month relate to a particular week or
pay period. In the household survey, the reference period is generally the
calendar week that contains the 12th day of the month. In the establishment
survey, the reference period is the pay period including the 12th, which may or
may not correspond directly to the calendar week.

Coverage, definitions, and differences between surveys

   Household survey. The sample is selected to reflect the entire civilian 
noninstitutional population. Based on responses to a series of questions on 
work and job search activities, each person 16 years and over in a sample
household is classified as employed, unemployed, or not in the labor force.

   People are classified as employed if they did any work at all as paid employees
during the reference week; worked in their own business, profession, or on their
own farm; or worked without pay at least 15 hours in a family business or farm.
People are also counted as employed if they were temporarily absent from their jobs
because of illness, bad weather, vacation, labor-management disputes, or personal
reasons.

   People are classified as unemployed if they meet all of the following criteria:
they had no employment during the reference week; they were available for work at
that time; and they made specific efforts to find employment sometime during the
4-week period ending with the reference week. Persons laid off from a job and
expecting recall need not be looking for work to be counted as unemployed. The
unemployment data derived from the household survey in no way depend upon the
eligibility for or receipt of unemployment insurance benefits.

   The civilian labor force is the sum of employed and unemployed persons.
Those persons not classified as employed or unemployed are not in the labor 
force. The unemployment rate is the number unemployed as a percent of the 
labor force. The labor force participation rate is the labor force as a 
percent of the population, and the employment-population ratio is the 
employed as a percent of the population. Additional information about the 
household survey can be found at https://www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm.

   Establishment survey. The sample establishments are drawn from private
nonfarm businesses such as factories, offices, and stores, as well as
from federal, state, and local government entities. Employees on nonfarm
payrolls are those who received pay for any part of the reference pay
period, including persons on paid leave. Persons are counted in each job
they hold. Hours and earnings data are produced for the private sector for
all employees and for production and nonsupervisory employees. Production
and nonsupervisory employees are defined as production and related employees
in manufacturing and mining and logging, construction workers in construction,
and nonsupervisory employees in private service-providing industries.

   Industries are classified on the basis of an establishment's principal
activity in accordance with the 2017 version of the North American Industry
Classification System. Additional information about the establishment survey
can be found at https://www.bls.gov/ces/.

   Differences in employment estimates. The numerous conceptual and methodological
differences between the household and establishment  surveys result in important
distinctions in the employment estimates derived from the surveys. Among these are:

   --The household survey includes agricultural workers, self-employed workers
     whose businesses are unincorporated, unpaid family workers, and private
     household workers among the employed. These groups are excluded from the
     establishment survey.

   --The household survey includes people on unpaid leave among the employed.
     The establishment survey does not.

   --The household survey is limited to workers 16 years of age and older.
     The establishment survey is not limited by age.

   --The household survey has no duplication of individuals, because
     individuals are counted only once, even if they hold more than one
     job. In the establishment survey, employees working at more than one
     job and thus appearing on more than one payroll are counted separately
     for each appearance.

Seasonal adjustment

   Over the course of a year, the size of the nation's labor force and the levels
of employment and unemployment undergo regularly occurring fluctuations. These 
events may result from seasonal changes in weather, major holidays, and the opening
and closing of schools. The effect of such seasonal variation can be very large.

   Because these seasonal events follow a more or less regular pattern each year,
their influence on the level of a series can be tempered by adjusting for regular
seasonal variation. These adjustments make nonseasonal developments, such as
declines in employment or increases in the participation of women in the labor
force, easier to spot. For example, in the household survey, the large number of
youth entering the labor force each June is likely to obscure any other changes
that have taken place relative to May, making it difficult to determine if the 
level of economic activity has risen or declined. Similarly, in the establishment
survey, payroll employment in education declines by about 20 percent at the end
of the spring term and later rises with the start of the fall term, obscuring the
underlying employment trends in the industry. Because seasonal employment changes
at the end and beginning of the school year can be estimated, the statistics can be
adjusted to make underlying employment patterns more discernable.  The seasonally
adjusted figures provide a more useful tool with which to analyze changes in
month-to-month economic activity.

   Many seasonally adjusted series are independently adjusted in both the household
and establishment surveys. However, the adjusted series for many major estimates,
such as total payroll employment, employment in most major sectors, total employment,
and unemployment are computed by aggregating independently adjusted component series.
For example, total unemployment is derived by summing the adjusted series for four
major age-sex components; this differs from the unemployment estimate that would be
obtained by directly adjusting the total or by combining
the duration, reasons, or more detailed age categories.

   For both the household and establishment surveys, a concurrent seasonal adjustment
methodology is used in which new seasonal factors are calculated each month using all
relevant data, up to and including the data for the current month. In the household
survey, new seasonal factors are used to adjust only the current month's data. In the
establishment survey, however, new seasonal factors are used each month to adjust the
three most recent monthly estimates. The prior 2 months are routinely revised to
incorporate additional sample reports and recalculated seasonal adjustment factors.
In both surveys, 5-year revisions to historical data are made once a year.

Reliability of the estimates

   Statistics based on the household and establishment surveys are subject to both
sampling and nonsampling error. When a sample, rather than the entire population,
is surveyed, there is a chance that the sample estimates may differ from the true
population values they represent. The component of this difference that occurs
because samples differ by chance is known as sampling error, and its variability
is measured by the standard error of the estimate. There is about a 90-percent
chance, or level of confidence, that an estimate based on a sample will differ by
no more than 1.6 standard errors from the true population value because of sampling
error. BLS analyses are generally conducted at the 90-percent level of confidence.

   For example, the confidence interval for the monthly change in total nonfarm
employment from the establishment survey is on the order of plus or minus 115,000.
Suppose the estimate of nonfarm employment increases by 50,000 from one month to
the next. The 90-percent confidence interval on the monthly change would range from
-65,000 to +165,000 (50,000 +/- 115,000). These figures do not mean that the sample
results are off by these magnitudes, but rather that there is about a 90-percent
chance that the true over-the-month change lies within this interval. Since this
range includes values of less than zero, we could not say with confidence that
nonfarm employment had, in fact, increased that month. If, however, the reported
nonfarm employment rise was 250,000, then all of the values within the 90- percent
confidence interval would be greater than zero. In this case, it is likely (at
least a 90-percent chance) that nonfarm employment had, in fact, risen that month.
At an unemployment rate of around 6.0 percent, the 90-percent confidence interval
for the monthly change in unemployment as measured by the household survey is
about +/- 300,000, and for the monthly change in the unemployment rate it is about
+/- 0.2 percentage point.

   In general, estimates involving many individuals or establishments have lower
standard errors (relative to the size of the estimate) than estimates which are based
on a small number of observations. The precision of estimates also is improved when
the data are cumulated over time, such as for quarterly and annual averages.

   The household and establishment surveys are also affected by nonsampling error,
which can occur for many reasons, including the failure to sample a segment of the
population, inability to obtain information for all respondents in the sample,
inability or unwillingness of respondents to provide correct information on a
timely basis, mistakes made by respondents, and errors made in the collection or
processing of the data.

   For example, in the establishment survey, estimates for the most recent 2 months
are based on incomplete returns; for this reason, these estimates are labeled
preliminary in the tables. It is only after two successive revisions to a monthly
estimate, when nearly all sample reports have been received, that the estimate is
considered final.

   Another major source of nonsampling error in the establishment survey is the
inability to capture, on a timely basis, employment generated by new firms. To
correct for this systematic underestimation of employment growth, an estimation
procedure with two components is used to account for business births. The first
component excludes employment losses from business deaths from sample-based
estimation in order to offset the missing employment gains from business births.
This is incorporated into the sample-based estimation procedure by simply not
reflecting sample units going out of business, but imputing to them the same
employment trend as the other firms in the sample. This procedure accounts for
most of the net birth/death employment.

   The second component is an ARIMA time series model designed to estimate the
residual net birth/death employment not accounted for by the imputation. The
historical time series used to create and test the ARIMA model was derived from
the unemployment insurance universe micro- level database, and reflects the actual
residual net of births and deaths over the past 5 years.

   The sample-based estimates from the establishment survey are adjusted once a
year (on a lagged basis) to universe counts of payroll employment obtained from
administrative records of the unemployment insurance program. The difference 
between the March sample-based employment estimates and the March universe counts
is known as a benchmark revision, and serves as a rough proxy for total survey
error. The new benchmarks also incorporate changes in the classification of
industries. Over the past decade, absolute benchmark revisions for total nonfarm
employment have averaged 0.3 percent, with a range from -0.7 percent to 0.6 percent.

Other information

   Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired
individuals upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay
Service: (800) 877-8339.




HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-1. Employment status of the civilian population by sex and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Oct.
2017
Sept.
2018
Oct.
2018
Oct.
2017
June
2018
July
2018
Aug.
2018
Sept.
2018
Oct.
2018

TOTAL

Civilian noninstitutional population

255,766 258,290 258,514 255,766 257,642 257,843 258,066 258,290 258,514

Civilian labor force

160,465 161,958 162,723 160,371 162,140 162,245 161,776 161,926 162,637

Participation rate

62.7 62.7 62.9 62.7 62.9 62.9 62.7 62.7 62.9

Employed

154,223 156,191 156,952 153,846 155,576 155,965 155,542 155,962 156,562

Employment-population ratio

60.3 60.5 60.7 60.2 60.4 60.5 60.3 60.4 60.6

Unemployed

6,242 5,766 5,771 6,524 6,564 6,280 6,234 5,964 6,075

Unemployment rate

3.9 3.6 3.5 4.1 4.0 3.9 3.9 3.7 3.7

Not in labor force

95,301 96,332 95,792 95,395 95,502 95,598 96,290 96,364 95,877

Persons who currently want a job

4,938 5,070 5,048 5,232 5,258 5,163 5,389 5,237 5,309

Men, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

123,617 124,928 125,041 123,617 124,604 124,704 124,816 124,928 125,041

Civilian labor force

85,236 85,815 86,081 85,247 86,056 85,950 85,854 85,856 86,146

Participation rate

69.0 68.7 68.8 69.0 69.1 68.9 68.8 68.7 68.9

Employed

81,875 82,814 83,052 81,667 82,522 82,684 82,545 82,645 82,903

Employment-population ratio

66.2 66.3 66.4 66.1 66.2 66.3 66.1 66.2 66.3

Unemployed

3,362 3,002 3,029 3,580 3,534 3,266 3,309 3,211 3,243

Unemployment rate

3.9 3.5 3.5 4.2 4.1 3.8 3.9 3.7 3.8

Not in labor force

38,380 39,113 38,960 38,370 38,548 38,754 38,962 39,072 38,895

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

115,120 116,437 116,546 115,120 116,115 116,220 116,328 116,437 116,546

Civilian labor force

82,455 83,115 83,332 82,366 83,115 83,058 83,030 83,063 83,286

Participation rate

71.6 71.4 71.5 71.5 71.6 71.5 71.4 71.3 71.5

Employed

79,530 80,458 80,637 79,248 80,013 80,240 80,134 80,225 80,405

Employment-population ratio

69.1 69.1 69.2 68.8 68.9 69.0 68.9 68.9 69.0

Unemployed

2,925 2,658 2,694 3,118 3,102 2,818 2,895 2,837 2,881

Unemployment rate

3.5 3.2 3.2 3.8 3.7 3.4 3.5 3.4 3.5

Not in labor force

32,665 33,322 33,215 32,755 33,001 33,162 33,298 33,374 33,260

Women, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

132,149 133,362 133,474 132,149 133,038 133,139 133,250 133,362 133,474

Civilian labor force

75,228 76,142 76,642 75,124 76,084 76,295 75,922 76,070 76,491

Participation rate

56.9 57.1 57.4 56.8 57.2 57.3 57.0 57.0 57.3

Employed

72,348 73,378 73,900 72,179 73,054 73,281 72,997 73,317 73,659

Employment-population ratio

54.7 55.0 55.4 54.6 54.9 55.0 54.8 55.0 55.2

Unemployed

2,880 2,765 2,742 2,945 3,030 3,013 2,925 2,753 2,832

Unemployment rate

3.8 3.6 3.6 3.9 4.0 3.9 3.9 3.6 3.7

Not in labor force

56,921 57,220 56,832 57,026 56,954 56,844 57,328 57,292 56,983

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

123,882 125,091 125,200 123,882 124,771 124,875 124,983 125,091 125,200

Civilian labor force

72,443 73,280 73,683 72,187 73,139 73,285 73,154 73,039 73,391

Participation rate

58.5 58.6 58.9 58.3 58.6 58.7 58.5 58.4 58.6

Employed

69,872 70,858 71,270 69,576 70,419 70,598 70,529 70,656 70,909

Employment-population ratio

56.4 56.6 56.9 56.2 56.4 56.5 56.4 56.5 56.6

Unemployed

2,571 2,422 2,412 2,611 2,720 2,687 2,625 2,383 2,482

Unemployment rate

3.5 3.3 3.3 3.6 3.7 3.7 3.6 3.3 3.4

Not in labor force

51,440 51,811 51,517 51,696 51,633 51,590 51,829 52,052 51,809

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian noninstitutional population

16,763 16,762 16,768 16,763 16,755 16,748 16,755 16,762 16,768

Civilian labor force

5,567 5,562 5,708 5,818 5,886 5,902 5,592 5,824 5,960

Participation rate

33.2 33.2 34.0 34.7 35.1 35.2 33.4 34.7 35.5

Employed

4,821 4,876 5,045 5,022 5,144 5,127 4,879 5,081 5,248

Employment-population ratio

28.8 29.1 30.1 30.0 30.7 30.6 29.1 30.3 31.3

Unemployed

746 686 664 796 743 775 714 743 712

Unemployment rate

13.4 12.3 11.6 13.7 12.6 13.1 12.8 12.8 11.9

Not in labor force

11,196 11,199 11,060 10,945 10,869 10,846 11,163 10,938 10,808

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-2. Employment status of the civilian population by race, sex, and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, race, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Oct.
2017
Sept.
2018
Oct.
2018
Oct.
2017
June
2018
July
2018
Aug.
2018
Sept.
2018
Oct.
2018

WHITE

Civilian noninstitutional population

199,298 200,476 200,596 199,298 200,132 200,236 200,356 200,476 200,596

Civilian labor force

124,777 125,413 126,018 124,757 125,784 125,720 125,306 125,483 126,027

Participation rate

62.6 62.6 62.8 62.6 62.9 62.8 62.5 62.6 62.8

Employed

120,692 121,500 122,170 120,400 121,347 121,506 121,027 121,398 121,904

Employment-population ratio

60.6 60.6 60.9 60.4 60.6 60.7 60.4 60.6 60.8

Unemployed

4,085 3,913 3,848 4,356 4,437 4,214 4,279 4,085 4,123

Unemployment rate

3.3 3.1 3.1 3.5 3.5 3.4 3.4 3.3 3.3

Not in labor force

74,520 75,063 74,578 74,541 74,348 74,517 75,049 74,993 74,569

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

65,318 65,625 65,737 65,244 65,855 65,614 65,505 65,611 65,724

Participation rate

71.7 71.5 71.6 71.6 71.9 71.6 71.4 71.5 71.5

Employed

63,380 63,796 63,933 63,155 63,695 63,690 63,486 63,629 63,760

Employment-population ratio

69.6 69.5 69.6 69.3 69.5 69.5 69.2 69.3 69.4

Unemployed

1,937 1,829 1,803 2,090 2,159 1,924 2,019 1,982 1,964

Unemployment rate

3.0 2.8 2.7 3.2 3.3 2.9 3.1 3.0 3.0

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

55,149 55,404 55,941 55,014 55,420 55,534 55,351 55,297 55,752

Participation rate

57.5 57.5 58.0 57.4 57.6 57.7 57.5 57.4 57.8

Employed

53,515 53,811 54,325 53,298 53,608 53,746 53,592 53,722 54,067

Employment-population ratio

55.8 55.8 56.3 55.6 55.7 55.8 55.6 55.7 56.1

Unemployed

1,635 1,594 1,615 1,715 1,812 1,787 1,759 1,575 1,685

Unemployment rate

3.0 2.9 2.9 3.1 3.3 3.2 3.2 2.8 3.0

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

4,310 4,383 4,341 4,499 4,510 4,572 4,450 4,574 4,552

Participation rate

34.9 35.6 35.3 36.5 36.6 37.2 36.2 37.2 37.0

Employed

3,798 3,893 3,911 3,947 4,044 4,069 3,949 4,046 4,078

Employment-population ratio

30.8 31.6 31.8 32.0 32.8 33.1 32.1 32.9 33.1

Unemployed

513 490 429 552 466 502 501 528 474

Unemployment rate

11.9 11.2 9.9 12.3 10.3 11.0 11.3 11.5 10.4

BLACK OR AFRICAN AMERICAN

Civilian noninstitutional population

32,370 32,848 32,887 32,370 32,737 32,771 32,810 32,848 32,887

Civilian labor force

20,264 20,484 20,706 20,134 20,364 20,495 20,404 20,513 20,590

Participation rate

62.6 62.4 63.0 62.2 62.2 62.5 62.2 62.4 62.6

Employed

18,744 19,295 19,397 18,654 19,045 19,144 19,114 19,272 19,310

Employment-population ratio

57.9 58.7 59.0 57.6 58.2 58.4 58.3 58.7 58.7

Unemployed

1,520 1,189 1,309 1,479 1,319 1,351 1,289 1,240 1,280

Unemployment rate

7.5 5.8 6.3 7.3 6.5 6.6 6.3 6.0 6.2

Not in labor force

12,106 12,365 12,181 12,236 12,373 12,276 12,406 12,336 12,297

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

9,276 9,369 9,477 9,218 9,162 9,320 9,407 9,359 9,426

Participation rate

68.6 68.0 68.7 68.2 66.8 67.9 68.4 68.0 68.4

Employed

8,580 8,842 8,862 8,539 8,573 8,751 8,841 8,813 8,836

Employment-population ratio

63.4 64.2 64.3 63.1 62.5 63.7 64.3 64.0 64.1

Unemployed

696 526 615 679 589 569 566 546 590

Unemployment rate

7.5 5.6 6.5 7.4 6.4 6.1 6.0 5.8 6.3

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

10,291 10,421 10,415 10,204 10,406 10,426 10,361 10,427 10,337

Participation rate

63.0 62.8 62.7 62.5 63.0 63.0 62.5 62.9 62.3

Employed

9,609 9,892 9,892 9,560 9,838 9,793 9,766 9,874 9,834

Employment-population ratio

58.8 59.6 59.6 58.5 59.5 59.2 59.0 59.5 59.2

Unemployed

682 529 523 644 568 633 595 554 503

Unemployment rate

6.6 5.1 5.0 6.3 5.5 6.1 5.7 5.3 4.9

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

697 694 815 712 796 750 635 726 827

Participation rate

27.8 27.8 32.7 28.4 31.9 30.0 25.5 29.1 33.2

Employed

555 560 643 555 635 600 508 585 640

Employment-population ratio

22.1 22.5 25.8 22.1 25.4 24.1 20.3 23.5 25.7

Unemployed

142 134 172 157 162 149 128 140 187

Unemployment rate

20.4 19.3 21.1 22.0 20.3 19.9 20.1 19.3 22.6

ASIAN

Civilian noninstitutional population

15,466 16,011 16,030 15,466 15,934 15,922 16,093 16,011 16,030

Civilian labor force

9,794 10,289 10,213 9,864 10,140 10,153 10,259 10,300 10,284

Participation rate

63.3 64.3 63.7 63.8 63.6 63.8 63.7 64.3 64.2

Employed

9,507 9,933 9,899 9,565 9,817 9,838 9,950 9,938 9,959

Employment-population ratio

61.5 62.0 61.8 61.8 61.6 61.8 61.8 62.1 62.1

Unemployed

288 356 314 299 322 314 309 362 324

Unemployment rate

2.9 3.5 3.1 3.0 3.2 3.1 3.0 3.5 3.2

Not in labor force

5,671 5,722 5,817 5,602 5,794 5,769 5,834 5,712 5,746

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Estimates for the above race groups will not sum to totals shown in table A-1 because data are not presented for all races. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-3. Employment status of the Hispanic or Latino population by sex and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Oct.
2017
Sept.
2018
Oct.
2018
Oct.
2017
June
2018
July
2018
Aug.
2018
Sept.
2018
Oct.
2018

HISPANIC OR LATINO ETHNICITY

Civilian noninstitutional population

41,665 42,959 43,054 41,665 42,679 42,767 42,863 42,959 43,054

Civilian labor force

27,328 28,316 28,512 27,319 28,369 28,495 28,242 28,346 28,500

Participation rate

65.6 65.9 66.2 65.6 66.5 66.6 65.9 66.0 66.2

Employed

26,077 27,105 27,343 25,999 27,077 27,223 26,927 27,059 27,252

Employment-population ratio

62.6 63.1 63.5 62.4 63.4 63.7 62.8 63.0 63.3

Unemployed

1,250 1,211 1,169 1,321 1,292 1,273 1,315 1,287 1,248

Unemployment rate

4.6 4.3 4.1 4.8 4.6 4.5 4.7 4.5 4.4

Not in labor force

14,337 14,642 14,542 14,346 14,310 14,272 14,621 14,613 14,554

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

14,987 15,414 15,442 14,959 15,557 15,519 15,421 15,416 15,440

Participation rate

79.9 79.5 79.4 79.7 80.8 80.4 79.7 79.5 79.4

Employed

14,459 14,888 14,898 14,380 14,961 15,017 14,849 14,822 14,844

Employment-population ratio

77.1 76.8 76.6 76.7 77.7 77.8 76.7 76.4 76.4

Unemployed

528 526 544 579 596 502 572 594 596

Unemployment rate

3.5 3.4 3.5 3.9 3.8 3.2 3.7 3.9 3.9

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

11,158 11,682 11,778 11,146 11,626 11,684 11,593 11,673 11,756

Participation rate

58.6 59.6 59.9 58.5 59.7 59.8 59.2 59.5 59.8

Employed

10,639 11,175 11,305 10,601 11,065 11,131 11,009 11,172 11,255

Employment-population ratio

55.9 57.0 57.5 55.7 56.8 57.0 56.3 57.0 57.3

Unemployed

519 507 472 546 561 553 584 501 501

Unemployment rate

4.6 4.3 4.0 4.9 4.8 4.7 5.0 4.3 4.3

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

1,184 1,220 1,293 1,214 1,186 1,292 1,228 1,257 1,304

Participation rate

30.6 30.9 32.6 31.4 30.2 32.8 31.1 31.8 32.9

Employed

980 1,042 1,140 1,018 1,051 1,075 1,068 1,065 1,153

Employment-population ratio

25.3 26.3 28.8 26.3 26.7 27.3 27.1 26.9 29.1

Unemployed

204 179 152 196 135 218 160 192 151

Unemployment rate

17.2 14.6 11.8 16.1 11.4 16.8 13.0 15.3 11.6

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-4. Employment status of the civilian population 25 years and over by educational attainment
[Numbers in thousands]
Educational attainment Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Oct.
2017
Sept.
2018
Oct.
2018
Oct.
2017
June
2018
July
2018
Aug.
2018
Sept.
2018
Oct.
2018

Less than a high school diploma

Civilian labor force

10,141 10,273 10,078 10,328 10,508 10,212 10,311 10,189 10,262

Participation rate

45.3 46.4 46.9 46.2 45.9 46.9 46.3 46.0 47.7

Employed

9,624 9,773 9,567 9,699 9,926 9,695 9,728 9,626 9,651

Employment-population ratio

43.0 44.2 44.5 43.4 43.4 44.5 43.7 43.5 44.9

Unemployed

516 499 510 629 582 517 583 563 611

Unemployment rate

5.1 4.9 5.1 6.1 5.5 5.1 5.7 5.5 6.0

High school graduates, no college(1)

Civilian labor force

35,788 36,540 36,254 35,572 36,050 36,534 36,121 36,224 36,092

Participation rate

57.2 58.0 57.8 56.9 57.9 57.9 57.3 57.5 57.6

Employed

34,358 35,268 34,879 34,050 34,549 35,056 34,699 34,873 34,638

Employment-population ratio

54.9 56.0 55.6 54.4 55.5 55.5 55.0 55.3 55.3

Unemployed

1,431 1,272 1,375 1,522 1,501 1,478 1,422 1,351 1,454

Unemployment rate

4.0 3.5 3.8 4.3 4.2 4.0 3.9 3.7 4.0

Some college or associate degree

Civilian labor force

37,987 37,364 37,808 37,761 37,863 37,531 37,300 37,423 37,598

Participation rate

66.2 65.2 65.7 65.8 65.3 65.4 65.6 65.3 65.3

Employed

36,636 36,204 36,706 36,385 36,602 36,340 35,987 36,239 36,462

Employment-population ratio

63.8 63.1 63.8 63.4 63.2 63.3 63.3 63.2 63.4

Unemployed

1,351 1,160 1,102 1,376 1,261 1,191 1,313 1,184 1,136

Unemployment rate

3.6 3.1 2.9 3.6 3.3 3.2 3.5 3.2 3.0

Bachelor's degree and higher(2)

Civilian labor force

55,728 57,279 58,022 55,612 56,613 56,940 57,638 57,258 57,856

Participation rate

73.9 73.6 73.6 73.8 74.0 73.4 74.0 73.6 73.4

Employed

54,604 56,160 56,890 54,477 55,296 55,672 56,452 56,124 56,700

Employment-population ratio

72.4 72.2 72.2 72.3 72.2 71.8 72.5 72.1 71.9

Unemployed

1,124 1,120 1,132 1,135 1,317 1,268 1,186 1,134 1,156

Unemployment rate

2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.3 2.2 2.1 2.0 2.0

Footnotes
(1) Includes persons with a high school diploma or equivalent.
(2) Includes persons with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-5. Employment status of the civilian population 18 years and over by veteran status, period of service, and sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, veteran status, and period of service Total Men Women
Oct.
2017
Oct.
2018
Oct.
2017
Oct.
2018
Oct.
2017
Oct.
2018

VETERANS, 18 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

20,493 19,090 18,457 17,218 2,036 1,872

Civilian labor force

10,184 9,369 8,958 8,255 1,227 1,114

Participation rate

49.7 49.1 48.5 47.9 60.2 59.5

Employed

9,906 9,100 8,705 8,019 1,201 1,081

Employment-population ratio

48.3 47.7 47.2 46.6 59.0 57.7

Unemployed

278 269 253 236 26 33

Unemployment rate

2.7 2.9 2.8 2.9 2.1 3.0

Not in labor force

10,309 9,721 9,499 8,963 809 758

Gulf War-era II veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

4,161 4,141 3,421 3,405 740 736

Civilian labor force

3,316 3,384 2,816 2,861 500 523

Participation rate

79.7 81.7 82.3 84.0 67.5 71.1

Employed

3,196 3,279 2,713 2,770 483 509

Employment-population ratio

76.8 79.2 79.3 81.3 65.3 69.2

Unemployed

120 105 104 91 16 14

Unemployment rate

3.6 3.1 3.7 3.2 3.3 2.7

Not in labor force

845 757 605 545 241 213

Gulf War-era I veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

3,365 3,147 2,863 2,677 502 470

Civilian labor force

2,618 2,450 2,253 2,109 365 341

Participation rate

77.8 77.9 78.7 78.8 72.7 72.6

Employed

2,570 2,383 2,214 2,047 356 336

Employment-population ratio

76.4 75.7 77.3 76.5 70.9 71.4

Unemployed

49 67 40 61 9 5

Unemployment rate

1.9 2.7 1.8 2.9 2.5 1.6

Not in labor force

746 697 610 568 137 129

World War II, Korean War, and Vietnam-era veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

7,964 7,502 7,676 7,246 288 256

Civilian labor force

1,779 1,545 1,708 1,491 71 54

Participation rate

22.3 20.6 22.3 20.6 24.6 21.2

Employed

1,730 1,498 1,659 1,447 71 52

Employment-population ratio

21.7 20.0 21.6 20.0 24.6 20.2

Unemployed

50 47 50 44 0 3

Unemployment rate

2.8 3.0 2.9 3.0 - -

Not in labor force

6,185 5,957 5,968 5,755 217 202

Veterans of other service periods

Civilian noninstitutional population

5,003 4,300 4,497 3,890 506 410

Civilian labor force

2,471 1,990 2,179 1,795 291 195

Participation rate

49.4 46.3 48.5 46.1 57.5 47.6

Employed

2,411 1,940 2,120 1,755 291 184

Employment-population ratio

48.2 45.1 47.2 45.1 57.5 45.0

Unemployed

60 50 59 39 0 11

Unemployment rate

2.4 2.5 2.7 2.2 0.1 5.6

Not in labor force

2,532 2,310 2,318 2,095 215 215

NONVETERANS, 18 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

225,807 230,542 100,389 103,266 125,418 127,276

Civilian labor force

148,074 151,214 75,253 76,864 72,821 74,351

Participation rate

65.6 65.6 75.0 74.4 58.1 58.4

Employed

142,414 145,912 72,312 74,170 70,101 71,743

Employment-population ratio

63.1 63.3 72.0 71.8 55.9 56.4

Unemployed

5,660 5,302 2,941 2,694 2,719 2,608

Unemployment rate

3.8 3.5 3.9 3.5 3.7 3.5

Not in labor force

77,734 79,328 25,136 26,402 52,598 52,925

NOTE: Veterans served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces and were not on active duty at the time of the survey. Nonveterans never served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces. Veterans could have served anywhere in the world during these periods of service: Gulf War era II (September 2001-present), Gulf War era I (August 1990-August 2001), Vietnam era (August 1964-April 1975), Korean War (July 1950-January 1955), World War II (December 1941-December 1946), and other service periods (all other time periods). Veterans who served in more than one wartime period are classified only in the most recent one. Veterans who served during one of the selected wartime periods and another period are classified only in the wartime period. Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria (values not shown where base is less than 75,000).


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-6. Employment status of the civilian population by sex, age, and disability status, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Persons with a disability Persons with no disability
Oct.
2017
Oct.
2018
Oct.
2017
Oct.
2018

TOTAL, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

30,255 30,145 225,511 228,370

Civilian labor force

6,360 6,468 154,105 156,255

Participation rate

21.0 21.5 68.3 68.4

Employed

5,877 5,987 148,346 150,965

Employment-population ratio

19.4 19.9 65.8 66.1

Unemployed

482 480 5,760 5,290

Unemployment rate

7.6 7.4 3.7 3.4

Not in labor force

23,895 23,677 71,406 72,114

Men, 16 to 64 years

Civilian labor force

2,805 2,740 77,085 77,736

Participation rate

36.5 36.4 82.4 82.4

Employed

2,588 2,520 74,130 75,067

Employment-population ratio

33.7 33.5 79.2 79.6

Unemployed

217 221 2,955 2,669

Unemployment rate

7.8 8.1 3.8 3.4

Not in labor force

4,872 4,790 16,478 16,560

Women, 16 to 64 years

Civilian labor force

2,347 2,511 68,608 69,508

Participation rate

30.2 32.0 71.0 71.6

Employed

2,133 2,304 66,080 67,136

Employment-population ratio

27.4 29.4 68.3 69.2

Unemployed

214 207 2,528 2,372

Unemployment rate

9.1 8.2 3.7 3.4

Not in labor force

5,433 5,329 28,086 27,560

Both sexes, 65 years and over

Civilian labor force

1,208 1,216 8,412 9,011

Participation rate

8.2 8.2 23.9 24.4

Employed

1,156 1,163 8,136 8,762

Employment-population ratio

7.8 7.9 23.1 23.7

Unemployed

51 53 276 249

Unemployment rate

4.2 4.3 3.3 2.8

Not in labor force

13,590 13,559 26,841 27,994

NOTE: A person with a disability has at least one of the following conditions: is deaf or has serious difficulty hearing; is blind or has serious difficulty seeing even when wearing glasses; has serious difficulty concentrating, remembering, or making decisions because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition; has serious difficulty walking or climbing stairs; has difficulty dressing or bathing; or has difficulty doing errands alone such as visiting a doctor's office or shopping because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-7. Employment status of the civilian population by nativity and sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status and nativity Total Men Women
Oct.
2017
Oct.
2018
Oct.
2017
Oct.
2018
Oct.
2017
Oct.
2018

Foreign born, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

41,668 43,051 20,191 20,795 21,476 22,256

Civilian labor force

27,374 28,410 15,774 16,198 11,600 12,212

Participation rate

65.7 66.0 78.1 77.9 54.0 54.9

Employed

26,343 27,533 15,296 15,763 11,046 11,770

Employment-population ratio

63.2 64.0 75.8 75.8 51.4 52.9

Unemployed

1,031 877 477 436 554 441

Unemployment rate

3.8 3.1 3.0 2.7 4.8 3.6

Not in labor force

14,294 14,641 4,417 4,597 9,877 10,044

Native born, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

214,099 215,463 103,426 104,245 110,673 111,218

Civilian labor force

133,091 134,313 69,463 69,882 63,629 64,431

Participation rate

62.2 62.3 67.2 67.0 57.5 57.9

Employed

127,880 129,419 66,578 67,290 61,302 62,130

Employment-population ratio

59.7 60.1 64.4 64.5 55.4 55.9

Unemployed

5,211 4,894 2,884 2,593 2,327 2,301

Unemployment rate

3.9 3.6 4.2 3.7 3.7 3.6

Not in labor force

81,007 81,150 33,963 34,363 47,044 46,787

NOTE: The foreign born are those residing in the United States who were not U.S. citizens at birth. That is, they were born outside the United States or one of its outlying areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam, to parents neither of whom was a U.S. citizen. The native born are persons who were born in the United States or one of its outlying areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam or who were born abroad of at least one parent who was a U.S. citizen. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-8. Employed persons by class of worker and part-time status
[In thousands]
Category Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Oct.
2017
Sept.
2018
Oct.
2018
Oct.
2017
June
2018
July
2018
Aug.
2018
Sept.
2018
Oct.
2018

CLASS OF WORKER

Agriculture and related industries

2,559 2,555 2,484 2,471 2,350 2,498 2,345 2,474 2,406

Wage and salary workers(1)

1,814 1,726 1,771 1,707 1,567 1,658 1,528 1,640 1,658

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

721 806 692 749 736 783 772 812 731

Unpaid family workers

24 23 21 - - - - - -

Nonagricultural industries

151,664 153,636 154,468 151,334 153,309 153,473 153,262 153,474 154,152

Wage and salary workers(1)

142,564 144,570 145,325 142,294 144,524 144,447 144,276 144,389 145,109

Government

20,753 20,674 21,187 20,755 20,986 20,900 20,791 20,743 21,212

Private industries

121,811 123,896 124,139 121,578 123,478 123,541 123,513 123,634 123,968

Private households

571 741 769 - - - - - -

Other industries

121,240 123,154 123,370 121,012 122,757 122,772 122,749 122,842 123,167

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

9,067 8,970 9,055 8,956 8,728 8,880 8,861 8,959 8,943

Unpaid family workers

33 96 88 - - - - - -

PERSONS AT WORK PART TIME(2)

All industries

Part time for economic reasons(3)

4,553 4,306 4,246 4,880 4,743 4,567 4,379 4,642 4,621

Slack work or business conditions

2,762 2,606 2,600 2,960 3,042 2,877 2,551 2,782 2,816

Could only find part-time work

1,609 1,464 1,433 1,615 1,447 1,431 1,365 1,447 1,436

Part time for noneconomic reasons(4)

21,395 21,475 21,979 20,897 21,304 21,532 21,781 21,464 21,512

Nonagricultural industries

Part time for economic reasons(3)

4,496 4,238 4,169 4,799 4,662 4,482 4,311 4,547 4,523

Slack work or business conditions

2,734 2,572 2,541 2,944 3,004 2,836 2,522 2,752 2,763

Could only find part-time work

1,594 1,459 1,428 1,600 1,431 1,415 1,355 1,441 1,431

Part time for noneconomic reasons(4)

21,034 21,077 21,616 20,552 20,941 21,177 21,448 21,057 21,143

Footnotes
(1) Includes self-employed workers whose businesses are incorporated.
(2) Refers to those who worked 1 to 34 hours during the survey reference week and excludes employed persons who were absent from their jobs for the entire week.
(3) Refers to those who worked 1 to 34 hours during the reference week for an economic reason such as slack work or unfavorable business conditions, inability to find full-time work, or seasonal declines in demand.
(4) Refers to persons who usually work part time for noneconomic reasons such as childcare problems, family or personal obligations, school or training, retirement or Social Security limits on earnings, and other reasons. This excludes persons who usually work full time but worked only 1 to 34 hours during the reference week for reasons such as vacations, holidays, illness, and bad weather.

- Data not available.
NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-9. Selected employment indicators
[Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Oct.
2017
Sept.
2018
Oct.
2018
Oct.
2017
June
2018
July
2018
Aug.
2018
Sept.
2018
Oct.
2018

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

154,223 156,191 156,952 153,846 155,576 155,965 155,542 155,962 156,562

16 to 19 years

4,821 4,876 5,045 5,022 5,144 5,127 4,879 5,081 5,248

16 to 17 years

1,903 1,826 1,940 1,932 1,797 1,815 1,770 1,766 1,956

18 to 19 years

2,918 3,050 3,105 3,070 3,344 3,315 3,110 3,293 3,293

20 years and over

149,402 151,315 151,908 148,824 150,432 150,838 150,663 150,881 151,314

20 to 24 years

14,180 13,910 13,865 14,183 14,046 14,128 13,841 14,026 13,902

25 years and over

135,222 137,405 138,042 134,716 136,422 136,762 136,749 136,856 137,506

25 to 54 years

99,584 100,763 101,289 99,227 100,204 100,417 100,276 100,316 100,903

25 to 34 years

34,755 35,658 35,802 34,666 35,288 35,444 35,316 35,500 35,699

35 to 44 years

32,254 32,661 33,017 32,094 32,566 32,690 32,636 32,489 32,853

45 to 54 years

32,574 32,444 32,469 32,468 32,350 32,283 32,324 32,327 32,352

55 years and over

35,638 36,642 36,753 35,489 36,218 36,346 36,473 36,540 36,602

Men, 16 years and over

81,875 82,814 83,052 81,667 82,522 82,684 82,545 82,645 82,903

16 to 19 years

2,345 2,356 2,415 2,419 2,509 2,444 2,410 2,420 2,498

16 to 17 years

857 799 863 884 855 814 812 782 893

18 to 19 years

1,488 1,557 1,552 1,528 1,644 1,629 1,598 1,637 1,614

20 years and over

79,530 80,458 80,637 79,248 80,013 80,240 80,134 80,225 80,405

20 to 24 years

7,248 7,107 7,031 7,280 7,191 7,149 6,990 7,162 7,087

25 years and over

72,282 73,351 73,606 72,016 72,869 73,126 73,106 73,020 73,341

25 to 54 years

53,242 53,808 53,957 53,082 53,588 53,673 53,599 53,569 53,796

25 to 34 years

18,655 19,199 19,196 18,617 19,006 19,054 19,007 19,121 19,171

35 to 44 years

17,414 17,594 17,704 17,320 17,598 17,691 17,642 17,509 17,619

45 to 54 years

17,173 17,015 17,056 17,145 16,984 16,928 16,950 16,939 17,005

55 years and over

19,040 19,542 19,650 18,934 19,281 19,453 19,507 19,451 19,546

Women, 16 years and over

72,348 73,378 73,900 72,179 73,054 73,281 72,997 73,317 73,659

16 to 19 years

2,477 2,520 2,630 2,603 2,635 2,683 2,468 2,661 2,751

16 to 17 years

1,046 1,027 1,077 1,048 942 1,001 958 983 1,063

18 to 19 years

1,430 1,493 1,553 1,541 1,700 1,687 1,512 1,656 1,679

20 years and over

69,872 70,858 71,270 69,576 70,419 70,598 70,529 70,656 70,909

20 to 24 years

6,932 6,803 6,835 6,903 6,855 6,979 6,851 6,864 6,815

25 years and over

62,940 64,055 64,436 62,700 63,553 63,636 63,643 63,836 64,165

25 to 54 years

46,342 46,954 47,332 46,146 46,616 46,744 46,677 46,747 47,108

25 to 34 years

16,100 16,459 16,606 16,049 16,282 16,390 16,309 16,379 16,527

35 to 44 years

14,840 15,067 15,313 14,774 14,969 14,998 14,994 14,979 15,234

45 to 54 years

15,401 15,428 15,413 15,323 15,366 15,355 15,374 15,388 15,347

55 years and over

16,598 17,100 17,104 16,555 16,937 16,892 16,966 17,089 17,057

MARITAL STATUS

Married men, spouse present(1)

45,886 46,205 46,354 45,776 45,689 45,751 45,858 45,966 46,228

Married women, spouse present(1)

36,072 36,090 36,278 35,853 35,976 35,986 36,070 35,984 36,040

Women who maintain families(2)

9,829 9,887 10,060 - - - - - -

FULL- OR PART-TIME STATUS

Full-time workers(3)

127,055 129,466 129,627 126,636 128,568 129,021 128,577 128,894 129,212

Part-time workers(4)

27,168 26,726 27,325 27,142 27,028 26,992 26,913 27,055 27,297

MULTIPLE JOBHOLDERS

Total multiple jobholders

7,409 7,670 8,093 7,209 7,619 8,072 7,944 7,707 7,883

Percent of total employed

4.8 4.9 5.2 4.7 4.9 5.2 5.1 4.9 5.0

SELF-EMPLOYMENT

Self-employed workers, incorporated

6,171 5,840 6,057 - - - - - -

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

9,789 9,776 9,747 9,705 9,464 9,663 9,633 9,771 9,674

Footnotes
(1) Refers to persons in opposite-sex married couples only.
(2) Refers to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not an opposite-sex spouse.
(3) Employed full-time workers are persons who usually work 35 hours or more per week.
(4) Employed part-time workers are persons who usually work less than 35 hours per week.

- Data not available.
NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-10. Selected unemployment indicators, seasonally adjusted
Characteristic Number of
unemployed persons
(in thousands)
Unemployment rates
Oct.
2017
Sept.
2018
Oct.
2018
Oct.
2017
June
2018
July
2018
Aug.
2018
Sept.
2018
Oct.
2018

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

6,524 5,964 6,075 4.1 4.0 3.9 3.9 3.7 3.7

16 to 19 years

796 743 712 13.7 12.6 13.1 12.8 12.8 11.9

16 to 17 years

340 282 235 15.0 14.4 13.6 13.4 13.8 10.7

18 to 19 years

467 446 492 13.2 11.4 12.5 12.2 11.9 13.0

20 years and over

5,728 5,221 5,363 3.7 3.7 3.5 3.5 3.3 3.4

20 to 24 years

1,095 1,036 1,010 7.2 7.4 6.9 6.8 6.9 6.8

25 years and over

4,620 4,210 4,335 3.3 3.3 3.2 3.2 3.0 3.1

25 to 54 years

3,501 3,149 3,269 3.4 3.3 3.2 3.2 3.0 3.1

25 to 34 years

1,593 1,299 1,350 4.4 3.9 3.5 4.1 3.5 3.6

35 to 44 years

1,003 969 1,010 3.0 3.1 3.1 2.9 2.9 3.0

45 to 54 years

905 882 908 2.7 3.0 2.9 2.6 2.7 2.7

55 years and over

1,134 1,056 1,073 3.1 3.1 3.1 3.1 2.8 2.8

Men, 16 years and over

3,580 3,211 3,243 4.2 4.1 3.8 3.9 3.7 3.8

16 to 19 years

462 373 362 16.0 14.7 15.5 14.7 13.4 12.7

16 to 17 years

186 134 114 17.4 16.5 16.1 15.6 14.6 11.3

18 to 19 years

284 241 251 15.7 13.2 14.5 14.1 12.8 13.5

20 years and over

3,118 2,837 2,881 3.8 3.7 3.4 3.5 3.4 3.5

20 to 24 years

635 575 565 8.0 8.2 7.4 7.5 7.4 7.4

25 years and over

2,462 2,281 2,294 3.3 3.2 3.0 3.1 3.0 3.0

25 to 54 years

1,825 1,707 1,761 3.3 3.2 3.0 3.1 3.1 3.2

25 to 34 years

844 704 747 4.3 3.8 3.5 4.1 3.6 3.7

35 to 44 years

499 539 554 2.8 2.9 2.6 2.6 3.0 3.0

45 to 54 years

482 464 460 2.7 3.0 2.8 2.4 2.7 2.6

55 years and over

638 574 533 3.3 3.2 3.1 3.0 2.9 2.7

Women, 16 years and over

2,945 2,753 2,832 3.9 4.0 3.9 3.9 3.6 3.7

16 to 19 years

334 370 350 11.4 10.5 10.9 10.8 12.2 11.3

16 to 17 years

154 148 121 12.8 12.4 11.4 11.5 13.1 10.2

18 to 19 years

182 205 241 10.6 9.5 10.5 10.0 11.0 12.6

20 years and over

2,611 2,383 2,482 3.6 3.7 3.7 3.6 3.3 3.4

20 to 24 years

460 461 445 6.3 6.6 6.3 6.1 6.3 6.1

25 years and over

2,157 1,930 2,041 3.3 3.4 3.4 3.3 2.9 3.1

25 to 54 years

1,676 1,442 1,508 3.5 3.4 3.4 3.4 3.0 3.1

25 to 34 years

749 595 604 4.5 4.0 3.6 4.1 3.5 3.5

35 to 44 years

504 430 456 3.3 3.3 3.6 3.2 2.8 2.9

45 to 54 years

423 418 448 2.7 2.9 3.0 2.7 2.6 2.8

55 years and over

494 500 532 2.9 3.0 3.0 3.1 2.8 3.0

MARITAL STATUS

Married men, spouse present(1)

954 898 897 2.0 2.1 2.0 2.0 1.9 1.9

Married women, spouse present(1)

889 780 836 2.4 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.1 2.3

Women who maintain families(2)

578 529 565 5.6 5.5 5.6 5.4 5.1 5.3

FULL- OR PART-TIME STATUS

Full-time workers(3)

5,246 4,662 4,838 4.0 4.0 3.8 3.7 3.5 3.6

Part-time workers(4)

1,275 1,267 1,241 4.5 4.3 4.4 4.3 4.5 4.3

Footnotes
(1) Refers to persons in opposite-sex couples only.
(2) Data are not seasonally adjusted. Refers to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not an opposite-sex spouse.
(3) Full-time workers are unemployed persons who have expressed a desire to work full time (35 hours or more per week) or are on layoff from full-time jobs.
(4) Part-time workers are unemployed persons who have expressed a desire to work part time (less than 35 hours per week) or are on layoff from part-time jobs.

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-11. Unemployed persons by reason for unemployment
[Numbers in thousands]
Reason Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Oct.
2017
Sept.
2018
Oct.
2018
Oct.
2017
June
2018
July
2018
Aug.
2018
Sept.
2018
Oct.
2018

NUMBER OF UNEMPLOYED

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

2,859 2,474 2,510 3,214 3,065 3,017 2,875 2,796 2,850

On temporary layoff

561 507 507 862 906 890 872 820 793

Not on temporary layoff

2,298 1,967 2,003 2,352 2,159 2,127 2,003 1,975 2,057

Permanent job losers

1,648 1,238 1,317 1,688 1,486 1,455 1,345 1,248 1,355

Persons who completed temporary jobs

650 729 686 664 673 672 658 727 701

Job leavers

763 794 746 731 811 844 862 730 726

Reentrants

2,040 1,939 1,951 2,001 2,086 1,799 1,846 1,877 1,906

New entrants

580 559 564 626 578 591 584 586 606

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

45.8 42.9 43.5 48.9 46.9 48.3 46.6 46.7 46.8

On temporary layoff

9.0 8.8 8.8 13.1 13.9 14.2 14.1 13.7 13.0

Not on temporary layoff

36.8 34.1 34.7 35.8 33.0 34.0 32.5 33.0 33.8

Job leavers

12.2 13.8 12.9 11.1 12.4 13.5 14.0 12.2 11.9

Reentrants

32.7 33.6 33.8 30.5 31.9 28.8 29.9 31.3 31.3

New entrants

9.3 9.7 9.8 9.5 8.8 9.5 9.5 9.8 10.0

UNEMPLOYED AS A PERCENT OF THE
CIVILIAN LABOR FORCE

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

1.8 1.5 1.5 2.0 1.9 1.9 1.8 1.7 1.8

Job leavers

0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.4

Reentrants

1.3 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.3 1.1 1.1 1.2 1.2

New entrants

0.4 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-12. Unemployed persons by duration of unemployment
[Numbers in thousands]
Duration Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Oct.
2017
Sept.
2018
Oct.
2018
Oct.
2017
June
2018
July
2018
Aug.
2018
Sept.
2018
Oct.
2018

NUMBER OF UNEMPLOYED

Less than 5 weeks

1,958 2,043 1,866 2,128 2,227 2,091 2,208 2,065 2,057

5 to 14 weeks

1,839 1,566 1,734 1,943 1,882 1,820 1,720 1,720 1,821

15 weeks and over

2,445 2,157 2,171 2,500 2,314 2,406 2,255 2,245 2,229

15 to 26 weeks

847 790 824 856 836 971 923 861 856

27 weeks and over

1,598 1,366 1,347 1,645 1,478 1,435 1,332 1,384 1,373

Average (mean) duration, in weeks

27.1 24.7 23.8 25.8 21.2 23.2 22.6 24.0 22.5

Median duration, in weeks

10.1 9.4 9.9 9.8 8.9 9.5 9.1 9.2 9.4

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION

Less than 5 weeks

31.4 35.4 32.3 32.4 34.7 33.1 35.7 34.3 33.7

5 to 14 weeks

29.5 27.2 30.0 29.6 29.3 28.8 27.8 28.5 29.8

15 weeks and over

39.2 37.4 37.6 38.0 36.0 38.1 36.5 37.2 36.5

15 to 26 weeks

13.6 13.7 14.3 13.0 13.0 15.4 14.9 14.3 14.0

27 weeks and over

25.6 23.7 23.3 25.0 23.0 22.7 21.5 22.9 22.5

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-13. Employed and unemployed persons by occupation, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Occupation Employed Unemployed Unemployment
rates
Oct.
2017
Oct.
2018
Oct.
2017
Oct.
2018
Oct.
2017
Oct.
2018

Total, 16 years and over(1)

154,223 156,952 6,242 5,771 3.9 3.5

Management, professional, and related occupations

61,062 62,929 1,285 1,246 2.1 1.9

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

25,620 26,165 498 535 1.9 2.0

Professional and related occupations

35,442 36,764 787 711 2.2 1.9

Service occupations

27,075 26,689 1,444 1,247 5.1 4.5

Sales and office occupations

33,633 33,730 1,363 1,233 3.9 3.5

Sales and related occupations

15,795 15,927 656 599 4.0 3.6

Office and administrative support occupations

17,838 17,803 707 634 3.8 3.4

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

14,324 14,588 724 546 4.8 3.6

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

1,222 1,181 67 63 5.2 5.0

Construction and extraction occupations

8,183 8,558 495 400 5.7 4.5

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

4,920 4,849 163 83 3.2 1.7

Production, transportation, and material moving
occupations

18,129 19,015 833 920 4.4 4.6

Production occupations

8,575 8,904 311 414 3.5 4.4

Transportation and material moving occupations

9,554 10,112 522 506 5.2 4.8

Footnotes
(1) Persons with no previous work experience and persons whose last job was in the U.S. Armed Forces are included in the unemployed total.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-14. Unemployed persons by industry and class of worker, not seasonally adjusted
Industry and class of worker Number of
unemployed
persons
(in thousands)
Unemployment
rates
Oct.
2017
Oct.
2018
Oct.
2017
Oct.
2018

Total, 16 years and over(1)

6,242 5,771 3.9 3.5

Nonagricultural private wage and salary workers

4,810 4,458 3.8 3.5

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

39 14 4.8 1.7

Construction

418 352 4.5 3.6

Manufacturing

501 504 3.2 3.2

Durable goods

314 260 3.2 2.5

Nondurable goods

187 245 3.2 4.3

Wholesale and retail trade

849 794 4.2 3.9

Transportation and utilities

284 217 4.1 3.1

Information

105 84 3.9 3.2

Financial activities

214 205 2.2 2.0

Professional and business services

715 691 4.1 4.0

Education and health services

677 649 2.9 2.7

Leisure and hospitality

796 747 5.8 5.4

Other services

210 200 3.1 3.0

Agriculture and related private wage and salary workers

79 74 4.3 4.1

Government workers

462 411 2.2 1.9

Self-employed workers, unincorporated, and unpaid family workers

311 265 3.1 2.6

Footnotes
(1) Persons with no previous work experience and persons whose last job was in the U.S. Armed Forces are included in the unemployed total.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-15. Alternative measures of labor underutilization
[Percent]
Measure Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Oct.
2017
Sept.
2018
Oct.
2018
Oct.
2017
June
2018
July
2018
Aug.
2018
Sept.
2018
Oct.
2018

U-1 Persons unemployed 15 weeks or longer, as a percent of the civilian labor force

1.5 1.3 1.3 1.6 1.4 1.5 1.4 1.4 1.4

U-2 Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs, as a percent of the civilian labor force

1.8 1.5 1.5 2.0 1.9 1.9 1.8 1.7 1.8

U-3 Total unemployed, as a percent of the civilian labor force (official unemployment rate)

3.9 3.6 3.5 4.1 4.0 3.9 3.9 3.7 3.7

U-4 Total unemployed plus discouraged workers, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus discouraged workers

4.2 3.8 3.8 4.4 4.3 4.2 4.1 3.9 4.0

U-5 Total unemployed, plus discouraged workers, plus all other persons marginally attached to the labor force, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force

4.8 4.5 4.4 5.0 4.9 4.8 4.7 4.6 4.6

U-6 Total unemployed, plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force, plus total employed part time for economic reasons, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force

7.6 7.1 7.0 8.0 7.8 7.5 7.4 7.5 7.4

NOTE: Persons marginally attached to the labor force are those who currently are neither working nor looking for work but indicate that they want and are available for a job and have looked for work sometime in the past 12 months. Discouraged workers, a subset of the marginally attached, have given a job-market related reason for not currently looking for work. Persons employed part time for economic reasons are those who want and are available for full-time work but have had to settle for a part-time schedule. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-16. Persons not in the labor force and multiple jobholders by sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Category Total Men Women
Oct.
2017
Oct.
2018
Oct.
2017
Oct.
2018
Oct.
2017
Oct.
2018

NOT IN THE LABOR FORCE

Total not in the labor force

95,301 95,792 38,380 38,960 56,921 56,832

Persons who currently want a job

4,938 5,048 2,287 2,298 2,650 2,750

Marginally attached to the labor force(1)

1,535 1,491 837 823 698 668

Discouraged workers(2)

524 506 335 314 190 192

Other persons marginally attached to the labor force(3)

1,010 984 503 509 508 476

MULTIPLE JOBHOLDERS

Total multiple jobholders(4)

7,409 8,093 3,681 3,958 3,727 4,135

Percent of total employed

4.8 5.2 4.5 4.8 5.2 5.6

Primary job full time, secondary job part time

4,167 4,484 2,256 2,490 1,912 1,994

Primary and secondary jobs both part time

1,770 2,180 587 723 1,183 1,457

Primary and secondary jobs both full time

295 284 226 171 70 114

Hours vary on primary or secondary job

1,124 1,073 598 539 526 534

Footnotes
(1) Data refer to persons who want a job, have searched for work during the prior 12 months, and were available to take a job during the reference week, but had not looked for work in the past 4 weeks.
(2) Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for reasons such as thinks no work available, could not find work, lacks schooling or training, employer thinks too young or old, and other types of discrimination.
(3) Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for such reasons as school or family responsibilities, ill health, and transportation problems, as well as a number for whom reason for nonparticipation was not determined.
(4) Includes a small number of persons who work part time on their primary job and full time on their secondary job(s), not shown separately.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-1. Employees on nonfarm payrolls by industry sector and selected industry detail
[In thousands]
Industry Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Oct.
2017
Aug.
2018
Sept.
2018(p)
Oct.
2018(p)
Oct.
2017
Aug.
2018
Sept.
2018(p)
Oct.
2018(p)
Change from:
Sept.2018 - Oct.2018(p)

Total nonfarm

148,203 149,406 149,738 150,753 147,234 149,382 149,500 149,750 250

Total private

125,516 127,986 127,368 127,982 124,903 126,986 127,107 127,353 246

Goods-producing

20,391 21,115 21,024 21,064 20,168 20,750 20,792 20,859 67

Mining and logging

700 763 759 764 691 747 751 756 5

Logging

49.6 49.5 48.7 47.9 48.2 47.9 47.3 47.0 -0.3

Mining

650.5 713.3 710.0 716.5 643.2 698.8 703.5 708.6 5.1

Oil and gas extraction

146.3 155.5 152.6 153.4 145.8 152.8 152.4 153.2 0.8

Mining, except oil and gas

187.9 195.3 193.2 194.3 185.9 190.5 190.3 191.3 1.0

Coal mining

53.0 53.2 52.9 53.1 52.7 53.0 52.8 52.6 -0.2

Metal ore mining

38.5 39.6 39.0 39.0 38.7 39.1 38.9 39.1 0.2

Nonmetallic mineral mining and quarrying

96.4 102.5 101.3 102.2 94.5 98.4 98.6 99.6 1.0

Support activities for mining

316.3 362.5 364.2 368.8 311.5 355.5 360.8 364.1 3.3

Construction

7,182 7,529 7,474 7,500 6,988 7,268 7,288 7,318 30

Construction of buildings

1,576.4 1,656.5 1,639.5 1,644.2 1,543.5 1,615.8 1,615.6 1,617.3 1.7

Residential building

769.2 821.3 811.9 815.9 751.2 801.3 799.8 802.6 2.8

Nonresidential building

807.2 835.2 827.6 828.3 792.3 814.5 815.8 814.7 -1.1

Heavy and civil engineering construction

1,046.1 1,092.6 1,093.3 1,099.6 984.1 1,023.2 1,029.0 1,036.1 7.1

Specialty trade contractors

4,559.4 4,779.4 4,741.4 4,756.6 4,460.0 4,628.8 4,643.6 4,664.9 21.3

Residential specialty trade contractors

1,997.7 2,103.5 2,077.0 2,085.7 1,961.2 2,033.0 2,039.5 2,053.3 13.8

Nonresidential specialty trade contractors

2,561.7 2,675.9 2,664.4 2,670.9 2,498.8 2,595.8 2,604.1 2,611.6 7.5

Manufacturing

12,509 12,823 12,791 12,800 12,489 12,735 12,753 12,785 32

Durable goods

7,770 8,001 7,982 8,005 7,765 7,970 7,984 8,005 21

Wood products

398.4 409.1 407.6 409.0 398.1 406.3 407.3 407.8 0.5

Nonmetallic mineral products

416.9 426.2 425.6 428.8 410.9 419.1 422.5 424.3 1.8

Primary metals

374.3 382.2 381.7 381.7 374.4 382.1 382.2 381.9 -0.3

Fabricated metal products

1,443.7 1,500.3 1,495.2 1,494.8 1,443.0 1,494.4 1,495.5 1,495.4 -0.1

Machinery

1,082.5 1,132.7 1,127.6 1,131.7 1,083.8 1,129.1 1,130.7 1,135.5 4.8

Computer and electronic products

1,047.9 1,073.2 1,068.3 1,071.4 1,047.9 1,068.5 1,069.7 1,071.9 2.2

Computer and peripheral equipment

163.2 170.7 170.3 171.1 162.5 169.3 170.4 171.0 0.6

Communications equipment

86.8 85.1 85.1 85.5 87.0 85.1 85.2 85.6 0.4

Semiconductors and electronic components

363.4 371.7 369.1 368.7 363.7 370.0 369.7 369.1 -0.6

Electronic instruments

400.7 413.1 410.9 412.4 401.0 411.5 411.7 412.9 1.2

Miscellaneous computer and electronic products

33.8 32.6 32.9 33.7 33.6 32.5 32.8 33.3 0.5

Electrical equipment and appliances

392.3 408.3 408.9 407.8 392.8 406.7 408.3 408.1 -0.2

Transportation equipment(1)

1,627.9 1,674.6 1,678.5 1,684.6 1,630.0 1,673.0 1,676.3 1,686.5 10.2

Motor vehicles and parts(2)

950.1 961.3 963.4 968.5 950.5 961.7 962.7 969.5 6.8

Furniture and related products

393.4 393.2 390.4 391.0 393.3 389.9 391.0 390.7 -0.3

Miscellaneous durable goods manufacturing

592.2 601.0 598.2 604.4 590.9 600.5 600.5 603.3 2.8

Nondurable goods

4,739 4,822 4,809 4,795 4,724 4,765 4,769 4,780 11

Food manufacturing

1,623.7 1,675.1 1,669.2 1,658.7 1,613.4 1,637.4 1,642.1 1,648.9 6.8

Textile mills

112.5 112.6 111.9 111.0 112.5 112.3 111.6 111.0 -0.6

Textile product mills

113.0 112.0 111.3 110.9 112.4 110.9 110.8 110.4 -0.4

Apparel

117.3 112.9 111.3 110.9 116.3 113.2 110.9 110.8 -0.1

Paper and paper products

368.2 377.9 378.2 377.4 369.2 377.1 378.9 378.2 -0.7

Printing and related support activities

440.1 434.2 432.8 431.7 439.5 432.6 432.2 430.9 -1.3

Petroleum and coal products

118.5 120.8 119.9 118.9 116.0 116.9 116.6 116.2 -0.4

Chemicals

825.8 837.8 836.0 837.2 828.0 834.9 836.9 838.6 1.7

Plastics and rubber products

718.0 727.7 727.1 727.0 721.7 726.9 728.0 730.6 2.6

Miscellaneous nondurable goods manufacturing

302.3 311.2 310.8 311.6 294.5 303.1 301.4 304.0 2.6

Private service-providing

105,125 106,871 106,344 106,918 104,735 106,236 106,315 106,494 179

Trade, transportation, and utilities

27,604 27,797 27,715 27,910 27,553 27,836 27,828 27,865 37

Wholesale trade

5,933.2 6,028.7 6,011.2 6,028.6 5,923.3 6,004.8 6,008.1 6,017.2 9.1

Durable goods

2,977.4 3,045.9 3,035.8 3,041.5 2,978.5 3,033.5 3,035.9 3,042.6 6.7

Nondurable goods

2,059.7 2,062.3 2,054.8 2,065.0 2,049.3 2,055.3 2,052.5 2,053.9 1.4

Electronic markets and agents and brokers

896.1 920.5 920.6 922.1 895.5 916.0 919.7 920.7 1.0

Retail trade

15,869.5 15,927.6 15,770.8 15,893.7 15,859.8 15,926.4 15,894.0 15,896.4 2.4

Motor vehicle and parts dealers

2,019.3 2,047.9 2,043.3 2,046.4 2,017.3 2,036.6 2,037.0 2,042.5 5.5

Automobile dealers

1,304.2 1,315.0 1,315.8 1,316.4 1,301.7 1,311.1 1,312.2 1,313.1 0.9

Other motor vehicle dealers

154.3 163.1 158.6 157.1 155.6 156.3 157.2 158.3 1.1

Auto parts, accessories, and tire stores

560.8 569.8 568.9 572.9 559.9 569.2 567.6 571.1 3.5

Furniture and home furnishings stores

479.9 477.7 477.7 488.0 476.6 482.4 484.3 485.9 1.6

Electronics and appliance stores

499.4 490.7 486.8 490.0 500.4 494.8 491.8 490.9 -0.9

Building material and garden supply stores

1,268.2 1,305.3 1,278.8 1,277.2 1,288.9 1,306.3 1,303.8 1,304.1 0.3

Food and beverage stores

3,084.9 3,118.5 3,088.4 3,103.3 3,079.6 3,100.3 3,097.4 3,100.7 3.3

Health and personal care stores

1,057.3 1,048.7 1,047.0 1,058.6 1,058.1 1,057.3 1,057.9 1,060.0 2.1

Gasoline stations

934.0 950.5 944.1 939.9 932.0 938.5 940.6 938.4 -2.2

Clothing and clothing accessories stores

1,348.8 1,367.5 1,325.0 1,337.2 1,361.3 1,358.7 1,352.9 1,352.6 -0.3

Sporting goods, hobby, book, and music stores

605.2 557.5 554.9 557.4 606.0 571.0 566.5 560.4 -6.1

General merchandise stores

3,152.0 3,131.0 3,102.3 3,155.8 3,143.7 3,151.4 3,138.8 3,140.5 1.7

Department stores

1,183.2 1,161.9 1,144.1 1,169.8 1,185.2 1,178.8 1,170.0 1,168.5 -1.5

General merchandise stores, including warehouse clubs and supercenters

1,968.8 1,969.1 1,958.2 1,986.0 1,958.5 1,972.6 1,968.8 1,972.0 3.2

Miscellaneous store retailers

834.9 837.7 826.1 829.5 820.2 829.1 821.7 818.1 -3.6

Nonstore retailers

585.6 594.6 596.4 610.4 575.7 600.0 601.3 602.3 1.0

Transportation and warehousing

5,247.4 5,287.5 5,382.8 5,435.6 5,215.4 5,353.5 5,374.3 5,399.1 24.8

Air transportation

497.8 508.4 506.2 505.2 498.5 504.8 505.5 505.6 0.1

Rail transportation

213.2 215.6 215.6 215.6 212.7 214.4 215.3 215.0 -0.3

Water transportation

65.7 68.3 66.2 65.8 65.4 65.6 65.1 65.4 0.3

Truck transportation

1,472.8 1,505.9 1,508.1 1,509.0 1,455.6 1,484.0 1,489.8 1,492.2 2.4

Transit and ground passenger transportation

515.5 431.8 508.1 517.1 497.9 495.1 496.7 498.2 1.5

Pipeline transportation

47.6 46.9 46.9 47.0 47.7 46.9 46.8 47.0 0.2

Scenic and sightseeing transportation

37.5 45.6 40.6 36.5 36.5 35.3 34.7 35.3 0.6

Support activities for transportation

698.2 716.0 713.5 721.7 693.1 713.9 712.8 717.6 4.8

Couriers and messengers

684.5 715.2 729.3 746.8 704.2 751.8 757.0 764.6 7.6

Warehousing and storage

1,014.6 1,033.8 1,048.3 1,070.9 1,003.8 1,041.7 1,050.6 1,058.2 7.6

Utilities

553.4 553.2 549.7 551.6 554.2 551.2 551.3 552.5 1.2

Information

2,784 2,787 2,753 2,776 2,784 2,766 2,762 2,769 7

Publishing industries, except Internet

720.5 718.3 717.2 715.2 719.1 714.4 714.6 713.7 -0.9

Motion picture and sound recording industries

422.7 426.6 403.1 422.8 424.5 413.6 412.5 416.8 4.3

Broadcasting, except Internet

266.5 262.5 264.7 265.2 264.7 263.2 263.2 263.1 -0.1

Telecommunications

771.3 754.5 747.0 746.2 772.7 754.0 748.5 748.6 0.1

Data processing, hosting and related services

320.7 326.5 325.8 328.4 319.7 325.8 326.9 328.0 1.1

Other information services

282.6 298.6 294.8 298.5 283.3 295.4 296.0 298.6 2.6

Financial activities

8,499 8,654 8,606 8,616 8,494 8,587 8,602 8,609 7

Finance and insurance

6,287.0 6,353.7 6,326.1 6,331.9 6,287.6 6,331.0 6,334.0 6,332.4 -1.6

Monetary authorities - central bank

18.9 19.4 19.1 19.2 19.0 19.3 19.2 19.2 0.0

Credit intermediation and related
activities

2,651.5 2,675.3 2,661.8 2,659.2 2,656.7 2,664.4 2,665.1 2,664.0 -1.1

Depository credit intermediation(1)

1,710.3 1,725.1 1,712.3 1,711.9 1,717.4 1,718.3 1,718.6 1,718.3 -0.3

Commercial banking

1,318.6 1,323.9 1,313.3 1,311.2 1,323.8 1,319.0 1,318.7 1,316.3 -2.4

Nondepository credit intermediation

628.4 636.9 634.4 631.0 627.2 633.1 631.2 629.5 -1.7

Activities related to credit intermediation

312.8 313.3 315.1 316.3 312.1 312.9 315.3 316.1 0.8

Securities, commodity contracts, investments, and funds and trusts

948.8 978.0 969.5 968.9 945.6 968.9 970.0 967.3 -2.7

Insurance carriers and related activities

2,667.8 2,681.0 2,675.7 2,684.6 2,666.3 2,678.4 2,679.7 2,681.9 2.2

Real estate and rental and leasing

2,212.2 2,299.9 2,280.0 2,283.9 2,206.2 2,256.3 2,268.0 2,276.5 8.5

Real estate

1,610.5 1,658.0 1,644.1 1,651.4 1,605.2 1,634.4 1,641.2 1,645.5 4.3

Rental and leasing services

577.6 616.2 610.9 607.2 576.9 596.7 601.7 605.7 4.0

Lessors of nonfinancial intangible assets

24.1 25.7 25.0 25.3 24.1 25.2 25.1 25.3 0.2

Professional and business services

20,815 21,217 21,185 21,352 20,630 21,065 21,111 21,146 35

Professional and technical services

9,045.0 9,272.1 9,206.2 9,301.3 9,061.1 9,273.3 9,287.9 9,307.6 19.7

Legal services

1,139.1 1,137.5 1,131.3 1,140.7 1,137.0 1,136.5 1,137.5 1,138.1 0.6

Accounting and bookkeeping services

938.9 960.0 950.3 963.3 998.0 1,013.1 1,011.9 1,014.1 2.2

Architectural and engineering services

1,455.1 1,507.2 1,488.6 1,500.5 1,447.7 1,486.7 1,485.4 1,492.3 6.9

Specialized design services

139.0 139.2 140.0 139.7 137.4 138.8 140.0 138.4 -1.6

Computer systems design and related services

2,068.3 2,126.1 2,109.5 2,138.1 2,058.4 2,116.2 2,120.9 2,126.6 5.7

Management and technical consulting services

1,427.9 1,467.4 1,463.6 1,484.0 1,413.5 1,460.7 1,465.9 1,469.8 3.9

Scientific research and development services

661.3 689.0 681.6 685.4 663.8 682.9 684.6 687.1 2.5

Advertising and related services

492.6 500.2 495.8 497.6 489.8 497.3 496.8 495.6 -1.2

Other professional and technical services

722.8 745.5 745.5 752.0 715.4 741.0 744.9 745.5 0.6

Management of companies and enterprises

2,299.4 2,344.0 2,331.9 2,336.4 2,302.6 2,333.8 2,336.9 2,339.1 2.2

Administrative and waste services

9,470.8 9,600.7 9,646.4 9,714.6 9,266.3 9,457.4 9,486.5 9,498.9 12.4

Administrative and support services

9,054.3 9,162.6 9,209.4 9,276.8 8,850.8 9,025.2 9,051.9 9,062.5 10.6

Office administrative services

517.7 528.0 526.8 527.4 517.5 527.3 527.1 527.0 -0.1

Facilities support services

156.0 158.4 159.0 159.4 154.9 157.5 157.6 158.1 0.5

Employment services(1)

3,788.6 3,764.6 3,825.4 3,882.0 3,663.2 3,735.7 3,749.9 3,749.4 -0.5

Temporary help services

3,106.3 3,066.1 3,123.6 3,178.0 2,992.0 3,047.3 3,054.9 3,058.2 3.3

Business support services

921.4 899.8 910.6 924.9 906.4 911.4 911.7 910.5 -1.2

Travel arrangement and reservation services

216.8 219.1 218.3 216.9 216.9 216.5 217.1 216.8 -0.3

Investigation and security services

930.5 948.2 955.6 957.7 922.6 945.2 947.5 950.2 2.7

Services to buildings and dwellings

2,190.6 2,304.6 2,270.4 2,261.6 2,141.4 2,193.9 2,199.5 2,208.6 9.1

Other support services

332.7 339.9 343.3 346.9 327.9 337.7 341.6 341.9 0.3

Waste management and remediation services

416.5 438.1 437.0 437.8 415.5 432.2 434.6 436.4 1.8

Education and health services

23,515 23,430 23,691 24,018 23,312 23,741 23,767 23,811 44

Educational services

3,852.9 3,453.8 3,711.5 3,917.7 3,686.6 3,764.9 3,755.8 3,753.3 -2.5

Health care and social assistance

19,662.3 19,976.3 19,979.9 20,099.9 19,625.7 19,975.9 20,010.8 20,057.5 46.7

Health care(3)

15,845.5 16,100.5 16,089.4 16,171.0 15,814.7 16,074.3 16,101.6 16,137.2 35.6

Ambulatory health care services

7,383.8 7,529.6 7,522.3 7,571.2 7,357.5 7,518.9 7,531.2 7,545.4 14.2

Offices of physicians

2,613.1 2,643.8 2,643.5 2,661.2 2,603.1 2,643.4 2,648.1 2,651.8 3.7

Offices of dentists

937.4 954.3 949.4 955.3 935.0 949.8 949.0 952.5 3.5

Offices of other health practitioners

897.5 936.8 931.3 945.1 895.7 933.9 936.8 942.9 6.1

Outpatient care centers

910.3 938.1 935.8 942.5 909.9 937.1 938.4 942.0 3.6

Medical and diagnostic laboratories

272.9 282.4 284.8 284.0 271.9 282.4 283.9 283.4 -0.5

Home health care services

1,438.9 1,468.2 1,469.8 1,478.7 1,432.1 1,465.9 1,468.6 1,470.5 1.9

Other ambulatory health care services

313.7 306.0 307.7 304.4 309.8 306.3 306.5 302.3 -4.2

Hospitals

5,114.2 5,194.7 5,203.3 5,221.9 5,109.2 5,191.7 5,203.1 5,216.1 13.0

Nursing and residential care facilities

3,347.5 3,376.2 3,363.8 3,377.9 3,348.0 3,363.7 3,367.3 3,375.7 8.4

Nursing care facilities

1,622.9 1,617.2 1,611.3 1,617.4 1,621.7 1,612.1 1,611.7 1,615.2 3.5

Residential mental health facilities

628.9 639.2 636.8 636.7 629.8 637.1 637.9 637.7 -0.2

Community care facilities for the elderly

926.8 946.1 942.5 949.3 927.8 942.2 944.2 948.5 4.3

Other residential care facilities

168.9 173.7 173.2 174.5 168.7 172.4 173.5 174.3 0.8

Social assistance

3,816.8 3,875.8 3,890.5 3,928.9 3,811.0 3,901.6 3,909.2 3,920.3 11.1

Individual and family services

2,360.4 2,441.7 2,433.6 2,456.5 2,363.1 2,441.2 2,449.1 2,457.9 8.8

Emergency and other relief services

168.2 175.5 174.9 175.1 169.0 174.9 175.3 175.9 0.6

Vocational rehabilitation services

343.1 351.8 346.0 349.0 343.6 347.3 347.3 349.5 2.2

Child day care services

945.1 906.8 936.0 948.3 935.3 938.2 937.5 937.0 -0.5

Leisure and hospitality

16,100 17,076 16,530 16,360 16,156 16,368 16,368 16,410 42

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

2,299.4 2,650.9 2,412.1 2,334.1 2,347.7 2,349.1 2,363.3 2,372.3 9.0

Performing arts and spectator sports

504.8 514.1 511.1 511.1 499.0 485.2 498.6 501.9 3.3

Museums, historical sites, and similar institutions

168.7 186.6 176.8 176.2 168.0 173.8 174.5 175.5 1.0

Amusements, gambling, and recreation

1,625.9 1,950.2 1,724.2 1,646.8 1,680.7 1,690.1 1,690.2 1,694.9 4.7

Accommodation and food services

13,800.5 14,425.3 14,117.4 14,026.1 13,808.4 14,018.7 14,005.1 14,038.1 33.0

Accommodation

1,997.9 2,182.8 2,079.1 2,023.0 2,010.4 2,040.3 2,036.7 2,036.2 -0.5

Food services and drinking places

11,802.6 12,242.5 12,038.3 12,003.1 11,798.0 11,978.4 11,968.4 12,001.9 33.5

Other services

5,808 5,910 5,864 5,886 5,806 5,873 5,877 5,884 7

Repair and maintenance

1,312.2 1,323.3 1,324.5 1,328.7 1,311.3 1,323.3 1,324.6 1,327.5 2.9

Personal and laundry services

1,502.2 1,536.3 1,533.6 1,543.1 1,499.7 1,530.1 1,534.7 1,539.5 4.8

Membership associations and organizations

2,993.8 3,050.0 3,005.7 3,014.5 2,995.3 3,019.8 3,017.4 3,017.1 -0.3

Government

22,687 21,420 22,370 22,771 22,331 22,396 22,393 22,397 4

Federal

2,802.0 2,806.0 2,801.0 2,799.0 2,807.0 2,797.0 2,798.0 2,799.0 1.0

Federal, except U.S. Postal Service

2,187.7 2,202.3 2,196.4 2,194.8 2,190.3 2,191.0 2,191.9 2,194.5 2.6

U.S. Postal Service

614.5 603.6 604.3 603.7 616.9 606.3 605.7 604.9 -0.8

State government

5,279.0 4,863.0 5,194.0 5,297.0 5,135.0 5,137.0 5,138.0 5,139.0 1.0

State government education

2,616.1 2,180.8 2,527.6 2,641.1 2,462.7 2,472.3 2,473.6 2,474.9 1.3

State government, excluding education

2,662.7 2,682.5 2,666.5 2,656.0 2,671.8 2,664.4 2,664.8 2,663.7 -1.1

Local government

14,606.0 13,751.0 14,375.0 14,675.0 14,389.0 14,462.0 14,457.0 14,459.0 2.0

Local government education

8,190.6 7,079.3 7,895.2 8,226.5 7,936.7 7,974.0 7,968.9 7,968.7 -0.2

Local government, excluding education

6,415.6 6,671.3 6,479.6 6,448.7 6,452.0 6,488.3 6,488.3 6,490.1 1.8

Footnotes
(1) Includes other industries, not shown separately.
(2) Includes motor vehicles, motor vehicle bodies and trailers, and motor vehicle parts.
(3) Includes ambulatory health care services, hospitals, and nursing and residential care facilities.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2017 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-2. Average weekly hours and overtime of all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Oct.
2017
Aug.
2018
Sept.
2018(p)
Oct.
2018(p)

AVERAGE WEEKLY HOURS

Total private

34.4 34.5 34.4 34.5

Goods-producing

40.4 40.5 40.3 40.3

Mining and logging

45.3 46.0 45.8 45.9

Construction

39.0 39.2 38.9 38.9

Manufacturing

40.9 40.9 40.9 40.8

Durable goods

41.4 41.3 41.2 41.2

Nondurable goods

40.0 40.3 40.2 40.1

Private service-providing

33.2 33.3 33.3 33.3

Trade, transportation, and utilities

34.3 34.4 34.4 34.3

Wholesale trade

39.0 39.0 38.9 38.8

Retail trade

30.9 30.9 30.9 30.8

Transportation and warehousing

38.7 39.0 38.9 39.0

Utilities

42.1 42.0 42.2 42.1

Information

36.3 36.1 36.3 36.1

Financial activities

37.5 37.6 37.4 37.8

Professional and business services

36.0 36.1 36.1 36.2

Education and health services

32.9 33.0 33.0 33.0

Leisure and hospitality

26.1 26.1 26.0 26.1

Other services

31.7 31.8 31.8 31.9

AVERAGE OVERTIME HOURS

Manufacturing

3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5

Durable goods

3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5

Nondurable goods

3.5 3.6 3.4 3.5

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2017 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-3. Average hourly and weekly earnings of all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Average hourly earnings Average weekly earnings
Oct.
2017
Aug.
2018
Sept.
2018(p)
Oct.
2018(p)
Oct.
2017
Aug.
2018
Sept.
2018(p)
Oct.
2018(p)

Total private

$26.47 $27.17 $27.25 $27.30 $910.57 $937.37 $937.40 $941.85

Goods-producing

27.72 28.29 28.39 28.40 1,119.89 1,145.75 1,144.12 1,144.52

Mining and logging

32.13 32.75 33.06 32.85 1,455.49 1,506.50 1,514.15 1,507.82

Construction

29.09 30.00 30.17 30.21 1,134.51 1,176.00 1,173.61 1,175.17

Manufacturing

26.72 27.07 27.11 27.11 1,092.85 1,107.16 1,108.80 1,106.09

Durable goods

27.99 28.46 28.51 28.49 1,158.79 1,175.40 1,174.61 1,173.79

Nondurable goods

24.58 24.68 24.71 24.74 983.20 994.60 993.34 992.07

Private service-providing

26.18 26.91 26.98 27.04 869.18 896.10 898.43 900.43

Trade, transportation, and utilities

22.86 23.48 23.56 23.61 784.10 807.71 810.46 809.82

Wholesale trade

29.98 30.66 30.82 30.83 1,169.22 1,195.74 1,198.90 1,196.20

Retail trade

18.24 18.84 18.89 18.96 563.62 582.16 583.70 583.97

Transportation and warehousing

24.01 24.45 24.45 24.50 929.19 953.55 951.11 955.50

Utilities

39.62 40.78 41.08 41.00 1,668.00 1,712.76 1,733.58 1,726.10

Information

38.39 39.86 40.31 40.39 1,393.56 1,438.95 1,463.25 1,458.08

Financial activities

33.66 34.93 35.03 35.03 1,262.25 1,313.37 1,310.12 1,324.13

Professional and business services

31.77 32.65 32.70 32.76 1,143.72 1,178.67 1,180.47 1,185.91

Education and health services

26.47 27.09 27.10 27.19 870.86 893.97 894.30 897.27

Leisure and hospitality

15.58 16.03 16.07 16.11 406.64 418.38 417.82 420.47

Other services

24.10 24.42 24.50 24.55 763.97 776.56 779.10 783.15

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2017 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-4. Indexes of aggregate weekly hours and payrolls for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
[2007=100]
Industry Index of aggregate weekly hours(1) Index of aggregate weekly payrolls(2)
Oct.
2017
Aug.
2018
Sept.
2018(p)
Oct.
2018(p)
Percent change from:
Sept.
2018 - Oct.
2018(p)
Oct.
2017
Aug.
2018
Sept.
2018(p)
Oct.
2018(p)
Percent change from:
Sept.
2018 - Oct.
2018(p)

Total private

107.8 110.0 109.7 110.3 0.5 136.5 142.8 143.0 143.9 0.6

Goods-producing

92.8 95.7 95.5 95.8 0.3 116.3 122.4 122.5 122.9 0.3

Mining and logging

98.4 108.0 108.1 109.0 0.8 126.9 142.0 143.5 143.8 0.2

Construction

93.9 98.2 97.7 98.1 0.4 118.7 128.0 128.1 128.8 0.5

Manufacturing

91.9 93.7 93.8 93.8 0.0 114.2 118.0 118.3 118.3 0.0

Durable goods

90.5 92.7 92.6 92.9 0.3 112.5 117.1 117.3 117.5 0.2

Nondurable goods

94.3 95.8 95.7 95.7 0.0 117.6 120.0 120.0 120.1 0.1

Private service-providing

111.9 113.8 113.9 114.1 0.2 142.3 148.8 149.3 149.9 0.4

Trade, transportation, and utilities

102.8 104.1 104.1 103.9 -0.2 126.5 131.6 132.0 132.1 0.1

Wholesale trade

100.8 102.2 102.0 101.9 -0.1 126.1 130.7 131.2 131.1 -0.1

Retail trade

99.5 100.0 99.8 99.5 -0.3 120.0 124.5 124.6 124.7 0.1

Transportation and warehousing

115.5 119.5 119.7 120.5 0.7 140.8 148.3 148.5 149.8 0.9

Utilities

100.9 100.2 100.7 100.6 -0.1 132.1 135.0 136.6 136.3 -0.2

Information

92.3 91.2 91.6 91.3 -0.3 126.2 129.4 131.4 131.3 -0.1

Financial activities

104.3 105.7 105.4 106.6 1.1 137.0 144.1 144.0 145.6 1.1

Professional and business services

116.8 119.6 119.9 120.4 0.4 150.3 158.2 158.8 159.8 0.6

Education and health services

125.2 127.9 128.1 128.3 0.2 159.5 166.7 167.0 167.8 0.5

Leisure and hospitality

120.3 121.9 121.4 122.2 0.7 151.2 157.6 157.4 158.8 0.9

Other services

106.1 107.7 107.8 108.2 0.4 140.2 144.1 144.7 145.6 0.6

Footnotes
(1) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding 2007 annual average aggregate hours. Aggregate hours estimates are the product of estimates of average weekly hours and employment.
(2) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding 2007 annual average aggregate weekly payrolls. Aggregate payrolls estimates are the product of estimates of average hourly earnings, average weekly hours, and employment.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2017 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-5. Employment of women on nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Women employees (in thousands) Percent of all employees
Oct.
2017
Aug.
2018
Sept.
2018(p)
Oct.
2018(p)
Oct.
2017
Aug.
2018
Sept.
2018(p)
Oct.
2018(p)

Total nonfarm

72,880 74,213 74,285 74,441 49.5 49.7 49.7 49.7

Total private

60,063 61,290 61,363 61,512 48.1 48.3 48.3 48.3

Goods-producing

4,430 4,604 4,621 4,638 22.0 22.2 22.2 22.2

Mining and logging

91 95 94 95 13.2 12.7 12.5 12.6

Construction

889 933 940 943 12.7 12.8 12.9 12.9

Manufacturing

3,450 3,576 3,587 3,600 27.6 28.1 28.1 28.2

Durable goods

1,818 1,891 1,897 1,904 23.4 23.7 23.8 23.8

Nondurable goods

1,632 1,685 1,690 1,696 34.5 35.4 35.4 35.5

Private service-providing

55,633 56,686 56,742 56,874 53.1 53.4 53.4 53.4

Trade, transportation, and utilities

11,032 11,169 11,160 11,164 40.0 40.1 40.1 40.1

Wholesale trade

1,749.4 1,797.6 1,795.4 1,800.8 29.5 29.9 29.9 29.9

Retail trade

7,879.0 7,918.8 7,905.1 7,893.6 49.7 49.7 49.7 49.7

Transportation and warehousing

1,276.6 1,323.6 1,330.9 1,341.3 24.5 24.7 24.8 24.8

Utilities

127.1 128.7 128.5 128.5 22.9 23.3 23.3 23.3

Information

1,101 1,090 1,090 1,093 39.5 39.4 39.5 39.5

Financial activities

4,795 4,846 4,849 4,856 56.5 56.4 56.4 56.4

Professional and business services

9,284 9,538 9,558 9,599 45.0 45.3 45.3 45.4

Education and health services

17,938 18,307 18,335 18,376 76.9 77.1 77.1 77.2

Leisure and hospitality

8,408 8,610 8,621 8,651 52.0 52.6 52.7 52.7

Other services

3,075 3,126 3,129 3,135 53.0 53.2 53.2 53.3

Government

12,817 12,923 12,922 12,929 57.4 57.7 57.7 57.7

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2017 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-6. Employment of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
[In thousands]
Industry Oct.
2017
Aug.
2018
Sept.
2018(p)
Oct.
2018(p)

Total private

102,980 104,624 104,720 104,942

Goods-producing

14,497 14,899 14,919 14,986

Mining and logging

505 556 556 566

Construction

5,220 5,409 5,419 5,437

Manufacturing

8,772 8,934 8,944 8,983

Durable goods

5,332 5,482 5,494 5,524

Nondurable goods

3,440 3,452 3,450 3,459

Private service-providing

88,483 89,725 89,801 89,956

Trade, transportation, and utilities

23,262 23,522 23,532 23,548

Wholesale trade

4,749.7 4,813.6 4,819.8 4,824.5

Retail trade

13,526.8 13,602.3 13,587.6 13,576.3

Transportation and warehousing

4,539.6 4,664.7 4,682.2 4,703.6

Utilities

445.5 441.5 442.0 443.5

Information

2,243 2,230 2,222 2,231

Financial activities

6,608 6,654 6,671 6,682

Professional and business services

16,846 17,208 17,238 17,280

Education and health services

20,474 20,855 20,877 20,914

Leisure and hospitality

14,245 14,394 14,393 14,425

Other services

4,805 4,862 4,868 4,876

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2017 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-7. Average weekly hours and overtime of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry Oct.
2017
Aug.
2018
Sept.
2018(p)
Oct.
2018(p)

AVERAGE WEEKLY HOURS

Total private

33.7 33.8 33.7 33.7

Goods-producing

41.2 41.5 41.3 41.3

Mining and logging

46.0 47.0 46.5 46.7

Construction

39.5 39.9 39.6 39.6

Manufacturing

42.0 42.2 42.1 42.1

Durable goods

42.4 42.5 42.3 42.4

Nondurable goods

41.3 41.6 41.7 41.5

Private service-providing

32.4 32.5 32.4 32.4

Trade, transportation, and utilities

33.9 34.0 33.9 33.8

Wholesale trade

39.0 39.0 38.8 38.7

Retail trade

30.3 30.4 30.4 30.2

Transportation and warehousing

38.3 38.3 38.2 38.2

Utilities

42.5 42.8 42.6 42.6

Information

35.8 35.6 35.6 35.5

Financial activities

36.9 37.1 37.0 37.0

Professional and business services

35.4 35.4 35.2 35.3

Education and health services

32.2 32.2 32.2 32.2

Leisure and hospitality

24.8 24.9 24.8 24.8

Other services

30.6 30.8 30.8 31.0

AVERAGE OVERTIME HOURS

Manufacturing

4.5 4.5 4.5 4.5

Durable goods

4.6 4.6 4.6 4.7

Nondurable goods

4.3 4.4 4.3 4.3

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2017 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-8. Average hourly and weekly earnings of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry Average hourly earnings Average weekly earnings
Oct.
2017
Aug.
2018
Sept.
2018(p)
Oct.
2018(p)
Oct.
2017
Aug.
2018
Sept.
2018(p)
Oct.
2018(p)

Total private

$22.18 $22.76 $22.82 $22.89 $747.47 $769.29 $769.03 $771.39

Goods-producing

23.31 24.02 24.10 24.19 960.37 996.83 995.33 999.05

Mining and logging

27.45 28.55 28.93 28.89 1,262.70 1,341.85 1,345.25 1,349.16

Construction

26.88 27.80 27.90 28.01 1,061.76 1,109.22 1,104.84 1,109.20

Manufacturing

21.05 21.54 21.61 21.68 884.10 908.99 909.78 912.73

Durable goods

22.03 22.53 22.60 22.64 934.07 957.53 955.98 959.94

Nondurable goods

19.48 19.92 20.00 20.10 804.52 828.67 834.00 834.15

Private service-providing

21.94 22.50 22.55 22.61 710.86 731.25 730.62 732.56

Trade, transportation, and utilities

19.42 20.02 20.08 20.16 658.34 680.68 680.71 681.41

Wholesale trade

24.72 25.34 25.55 25.58 964.08 988.26 991.34 989.95

Retail trade

15.36 15.99 16.00 16.07 465.41 486.10 486.40 485.31

Transportation and warehousing

21.52 21.96 22.01 22.09 824.22 841.07 840.78 843.84

Utilities

36.26 36.95 37.05 36.87 1,541.05 1,581.46 1,578.33 1,570.66

Information

30.86 31.97 32.22 32.43 1,104.79 1,138.13 1,147.03 1,151.27

Financial activities

26.77 26.96 27.00 27.02 987.81 1,000.22 999.00 999.74

Professional and business services

26.16 26.85 26.90 26.94 926.06 950.49 946.88 950.98

Education and health services

23.15 23.72 23.72 23.77 745.43 763.78 763.78 765.39

Leisure and hospitality

13.49 13.94 14.00 14.05 334.55 347.11 347.20 348.44

Other services

20.33 20.66 20.73 20.78 622.10 636.33 638.48 644.18

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2017 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-9. Indexes of aggregate weekly hours and payrolls for production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
[2002=100]
Industry Index of aggregate weekly hours(2) Index of aggregate weekly payrolls(3)
Oct.
2017
Aug.
2018
Sept.
2018(p)
Oct.
2018(p)
Percent change from:
Sept.
2018 - Oct.
2018(p)
Oct.
2017
Aug.
2018
Sept.
2018(p)
Oct.
2018(p)
Percent change from:
Sept.
2018 - Oct.
2018(p)

Total private

115.6 117.8 117.6 117.8 0.2 171.4 179.2 179.3 180.2 0.5

Goods-producing

91.3 94.5 94.2 94.6 0.4 130.3 139.0 138.9 140.1 0.9

Mining and logging

123.4 138.9 137.4 140.5 2.3 197.1 230.6 231.2 236.0 2.1

Construction

103.2 108.1 107.4 107.8 0.4 149.8 162.2 161.9 163.0 0.7

Manufacturing

84.6 86.5 86.4 86.8 0.5 116.4 121.9 122.2 123.1 0.7

Durable goods

85.0 87.6 87.3 88.0 0.8 116.9 123.2 123.2 124.4 1.0

Nondurable goods

83.7 84.6 84.8 84.6 -0.2 115.2 119.1 119.8 120.1 0.3

Private service-providing

122.1 124.2 123.9 124.1 0.2 183.7 191.6 191.6 192.4 0.4

Trade, transportation, and utilities

109.9 111.5 111.2 111.0 -0.2 152.3 159.2 159.3 159.6 0.2

Wholesale trade

109.1 110.6 110.1 110.0 -0.1 158.9 165.0 165.8 165.7 -0.1

Retail trade

103.7 104.7 104.6 103.8 -0.8 136.6 143.4 143.4 142.9 -0.3

Transportation and warehousing

130.9 134.5 134.6 135.3 0.5 178.7 187.3 188.0 189.5 0.8

Utilities

96.8 96.6 96.3 96.6 0.3 146.6 149.0 148.9 148.7 -0.1

Information

91.6 90.6 90.3 90.4 0.1 140.0 143.4 144.0 145.1 0.8

Financial activities

114.8 116.2 116.2 116.4 0.2 189.1 192.8 193.0 193.5 0.3

Professional and business services

133.7 136.5 136.0 136.7 0.5 208.1 218.1 217.7 219.2 0.7

Education and health services

140.6 143.2 143.3 143.6 0.2 214.8 224.2 224.4 225.3 0.4

Leisure and hospitality

129.4 131.3 130.7 131.0 0.2 198.2 207.8 207.9 209.1 0.6

Other services

103.1 105.0 105.2 106.0 0.8 152.7 158.1 158.8 160.5 1.1

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(2) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding 2002 annual average aggregate hours. Aggregate hours estimates are the product of estimates of average weekly hours and employment.
(3) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding 2002 annual average aggregate weekly payrolls. Aggregate payrolls estimates are the product of estimates of average hourly earnings, average weekly hours, and employment.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2017 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


Last Modified Date: November 02, 2018