Employment Situation News Release

Transmission of material in this release is embargoed until                 USDL-16-2095
8:30 a.m. (EDT) Friday, November 4, 2016

Technical information:
 Household data:     (202) 691-6378  *  cpsinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/cps
 Establishment data: (202) 691-6555  *  cesinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/ces

Media contact:       (202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov


                           THE EMPLOYMENT SITUATION -- OCTOBER 2016


Total nonfarm payroll employment rose by 161,000 in October, and the unemployment rate
was little changed at 4.9 percent, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today.
Employment continued to trend up in health care, professional and business services,
and financial activities.


    _______________________________________________________________________________
   |                                                                               |
   |                               Hurricane Matthew                               |
   |                                                                               |
   |Hurricane Matthew affected parts of the East Coast during the October reference|
   |periods for the establishment and household surveys. For information on how    |
   |severe weather can affect employment and hours data, see Question 8 in the     |
   |Frequently Asked Questions section of this news release.                       |
   |_______________________________________________________________________________|


Household Survey Data

The unemployment rate, at 4.9 percent, and the number of unemployed persons, at 7.8
million, changed little in October. Both measures have shown little movement, on net,
since August 2015. (See table A-1.)

Among the major worker groups, the unemployment rate for Hispanics declined to 5.7
percent in October, while the rates for adult men (4.6 percent), adult women (4.3
percent), teenagers (15.6 percent), Whites (4.3 percent), Blacks (8.6 percent), and
Asians (3.4 percent) showed little change. (See tables A-1, A-2, and A-3.) 

The number of job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs declined by 218,000
over the month to 3.7 million. The number of long-term unemployed (those jobless for 27
weeks or more) was unchanged at 2.0 million in October and accounted for 25.2 percent
of the unemployed. (See tables A-11 and A-12.)

In October, both the labor force participation rate, at 62.8 percent, and the
employment-population ratio, at 59.7 percent, changed little. These measures have
shown little movement in recent months, although both are up over the year. (See
table A-1.)

The number of persons employed part time for economic reasons (also referred to as
involuntary part-time workers) was unchanged in October at 5.9 million. These
individuals, who would have preferred full-time employment, were working part time
because their hours had been cut back or because they were unable to find a full-time
job. (See table A-8.)

In October, 1.7 million persons were marginally attached to the labor force, down by
216,000 from a year earlier. (The data are not seasonally adjusted.) These individuals
were not in the labor force, wanted and were available for work, and had looked for a
job sometime in the prior 12 months. They were not counted as unemployed because they
had not searched for work in the 4 weeks preceding the survey. (See table A-16.)

Among the marginally attached, there were 487,000 discouraged workers in October, down
by 178,000 from a year earlier. (The data are not seasonally adjusted.) Discouraged
workers are persons not currently looking for work because they believe no jobs are
available for them. The remaining 1.2 million persons marginally attached to the labor
force in October had not searched for work for reasons such as school attendance or
family responsibilities. (See table A-16.)

Establishment Survey Data

Total nonfarm payroll employment rose by 161,000 in October. Thus far in 2016,
employment growth has averaged 181,000 per month, compared with an average monthly
increase of 229,000 in 2015. In October, employment continued to trend up in health
care, professional and business services, and financial activities. (See table B-1.)

Health care employment rose by 31,000 in October. Within the industry, employment growth
occurred in ambulatory health care services (+19,000) and hospitals (+13,000). Over the
past 12 months, health care has added 415,000 jobs.

Employment in professional and business services continued to trend up in October
(+43,000) and has risen by 542,000 over the year. Over the month, a job gain occurred
in computer systems design and related services (+8,000). Employment in management and
technical consulting services continued to trend up (+5,000).

In October, employment in financial activities continued on an upward trend (+14,000),
with a gain in insurance carriers and related activities (+8,000).

Employment in other major industries, including mining, construction, manufacturing,
wholesale trade, retail trade, transportation and warehousing, information, leisure and
hospitality, and government, changed little over the month.

The average workweek for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls was unchanged at
34.4 hours in October. In manufacturing, the workweek edged up by 0.1 hour to 40.8 hours,
while overtime was unchanged at 3.3 hours. The average workweek for production and
nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls was unchanged at 33.6 hours. (See
tables B-2 and B-7.)

In October, average hourly earnings for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls rose
by 10 cents to $25.92, following an 8-cent increase in September. Over the year, average
hourly earnings have risen by 2.8 percent. Average hourly earnings of private-sector
production and nonsupervisory employees increased by 4 cents to $21.72 in October. (See
tables B-3 and B-8.)

The change in total nonfarm payroll employment for August was revised up from +167,000
to +176,000, and the change for September was revised up from +156,000 to +191,000. With
these revisions, employment gains in August and September combined were 44,000 more than
previously reported. Over the past 3 months, job gains have averaged 176,000 per month.

_____________
The Employment Situation for November is scheduled to be released on Friday,
December 2, 2016, at 8:30 a.m. (EST).




HOUSEHOLD DATA
Summary table A. Household data, seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Category Oct.
2015
Aug.
2016
Sept.
2016
Oct.
2016
Change from:
Sept.
2016-
Oct.
2016

Employment status

Civilian noninstitutional population

251,541 253,854 254,091 254,321 230

Civilian labor force

157,096 159,463 159,907 159,712 -195

Participation rate

62.5 62.8 62.9 62.8 -0.1

Employed

149,197 151,614 151,968 151,925 -43

Employment-population ratio

59.3 59.7 59.8 59.7 -0.1

Unemployed

7,899 7,849 7,939 7,787 -152

Unemployment rate

5.0 4.9 5.0 4.9 -0.1

Not in labor force

94,446 94,391 94,184 94,609 425

Unemployment rates

Total, 16 years and over

5.0 4.9 5.0 4.9 -0.1

Adult men (20 years and over)

4.7 4.5 4.7 4.6 -0.1

Adult women (20 years and over)

4.5 4.5 4.4 4.3 -0.1

Teenagers (16 to 19 years)

15.8 15.7 15.8 15.6 -0.2

White

4.4 4.4 4.4 4.3 -0.1

Black or African American

9.2 8.1 8.3 8.6 0.3

Asian

3.5 4.2 3.9 3.4 -0.5

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

6.4 5.6 6.4 5.7 -0.7

Total, 25 years and over

4.1 4.1 4.2 4.0 -0.2

Less than a high school diploma

7.3 7.2 8.5 7.3 -1.2

High school graduates, no college

5.3 5.1 5.2 5.5 0.3

Some college or associate degree

4.3 4.3 4.2 3.8 -0.4

Bachelor's degree and higher

2.5 2.7 2.5 2.6 0.1

Reason for unemployment

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

3,944 3,791 3,967 3,749 -218

Job leavers

790 885 893 949 56

Reentrants

2,435 2,271 2,333 2,354 21

New entrants

812 861 805 793 -12

Duration of unemployment

Less than 5 weeks

2,339 2,290 2,574 2,397 -177

5 to 14 weeks

2,295 2,329 2,234 2,296 62

15 to 26 weeks

1,227 1,056 1,157 1,165 8

27 weeks and over

2,132 2,006 1,974 1,979 5

Employed persons at work part time

Part time for economic reasons

5,761 6,053 5,894 5,889 -5

Slack work or business conditions

3,289 3,727 3,618 3,505 -113

Could only find part-time work

2,189 1,929 1,969 2,118 149

Part time for noneconomic reasons

20,179 20,523 20,688 20,691 3

Persons not in the labor force (not seasonally adjusted)

Marginally attached to the labor force

1,916 1,713 1,844 1,700 -

Discouraged workers

665 576 553 487 -

- Over-the-month changes are not displayed for not seasonally adjusted data.
NOTE: Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Summary table B. Establishment data, seasonally adjusted
Category Oct.
2015
Aug.
2016
Sept.
2016(p)
Oct.
2016(p)

EMPLOYMENT BY SELECTED INDUSTRY
(Over-the-month change, in thousands)

Total nonfarm

295 176 191 161

Total private

304 132 188 142

Goods-producing

31 -26 14 0

Mining and logging

-4 -4 -1 -2

Construction

33 -6 23 11

Manufacturing

2 -16 -8 -9

Durable goods(1)

-4 -16 -7 -5

Motor vehicles and parts

0.9 -3.4 -2.2 -0.1

Nondurable goods

6 0 -1 -4

Private service-providing

273 158 174 142

Wholesale trade

9.3 3.4 11.9 6.3

Retail trade

21.4 16.8 22.2 -1.1

Transportation and warehousing

-6.6 18.9 -3.1 7.5

Utilities

-0.2 -0.7 0.2 0.9

Information

5 -1 1 4

Financial activities

11 18 4 14

Professional and business services(1)

91 28 78 43

Temporary help services

27.8 -2.8 31.0 6.4

Education and health services(1)

78 56 39 52

Health care and social assistance

66.6 37.6 21.8 39.1

Leisure and hospitality

53 10 7 10

Other services

11 9 13 6

Government

-9 44 3 19

(3-month average change, in thousands)

Total nonfarm

198 233 206 176

Total private

196 197 180 154

WOMEN AND PRODUCTION AND NONSUPERVISORY EMPLOYEES
AS A PERCENT OF ALL EMPLOYEES(2)

Total nonfarm women employees

49.4 49.7 49.7 49.6

Total private women employees

47.9 48.2 48.2 48.2

Total private production and nonsupervisory employees

82.4 82.3 82.3 82.3

HOURS AND EARNINGS
ALL EMPLOYEES

Total private

Average weekly hours

34.5 34.3 34.4 34.4

Average hourly earnings

$25.21 $25.74 $25.82 $25.92

Average weekly earnings

$869.75 $882.88 $888.21 $891.65

Index of aggregate weekly hours (2007=100)(3)

104.4 105.4 105.8 106.0

Over-the-month percent change

0.3 -0.2 0.4 0.2

Index of aggregate weekly payrolls (2007=100)(4)

125.8 129.6 130.6 131.3

Over-the-month percent change

0.6 -0.1 0.8 0.5

DIFFUSION INDEX
(Over 1-month span)(5)

Total private (262 industries)

59.7 58.6 57.1 59.2

Manufacturing (79 industries)

53.8 46.2 41.8 48.1

Footnotes
(1) Includes other industries, not shown separately.
(2) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries.
(3) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding annual average aggregate hours.
(4) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding annual average aggregate weekly payrolls.
(5) Figures are the percent of industries with employment increasing plus one-half of the industries with unchanged employment, where 50 percent indicates an equal balance between industries with increasing and decreasing employment.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2015 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


Frequently Asked Questions about Employment and Unemployment Estimates

1. Why are there two monthly measures of employment?

   The household survey and establishment survey both produce sample-based estimates
   of employment, and both have strengths and limitations. The establishment survey
   employment series has a smaller margin of error on the measurement of month-to-
   month change than the household survey because of its much larger sample size. An
   over-the-month employment change of about 100,000 is statistically significant in
   the establishment survey, while the threshold for a statistically significant change
   in the household survey is about 500,000. However, the household survey has a more
   expansive scope than the establishment survey because it includes self-employed
   workers whose businesses are unincorporated, unpaid family workers, agricultural
   workers, and private household workers, who are excluded by the establishment survey.
   The household survey also provides estimates of employment for demographic groups.
   For more information on the differences between the two surveys, please visit
   www.bls.gov/web/empsit/ces_cps_trends.pdf.

2. Are undocumented immigrants counted in the surveys?

   It is likely that both surveys include at least some undocumented immigrants. However,
   neither the establishment nor the household survey is designed to identify the legal
   status of workers. Therefore, it is not possible to determine how many are counted in
   either survey. The establishment survey does not collect data on the legal status of
   workers. The household survey does include questions which identify the foreign and
   native born, but it does not include questions about the legal status of the foreign
   born. Data on the foreign and native born are published each month in table A-7 of
   The Employment Situation news release.

3. Why does the establishment survey have revisions?

   The establishment survey revises published estimates to improve its data series by
   incorporating additional information that was not available at the time of the
   initial publication of the estimates. The establishment survey revises its initial
   monthly estimates twice, in the immediately succeeding 2 months, to incorporate
   additional sample receipts from respondents in the survey and recalculated seasonal
   adjustment factors. For more information on the monthly revisions, please visit
   www.bls.gov/ces/cesrevinfo.htm.

   On an annual basis, the establishment survey incorporates a benchmark revision that
   re-anchors estimates to nearly complete employment counts available from unemployment
   insurance tax records. The benchmark helps to control for sampling and modeling errors
   in the estimates. For more information on the annual benchmark revision, please visit
   www.bls.gov/web/empsit/cesbmart.htm.

4. Does the establishment survey sample include small firms?

   Yes; about 40 percent of the establishment survey sample is comprised of business
   establishments with fewer than 20 employees. The establishment survey sample is
   designed to maximize the reliability of the statewide total nonfarm employment
   estimate; firms from all states, size classes, and industries are appropriately
   sampled to achieve that goal.

5. Does the establishment survey account for employment from new businesses?

   Yes; monthly establishment survey estimates include an adjustment to account for
   the net employment change generated by business births and deaths. The adjustment
   comes from an econometric model that forecasts the monthly net jobs impact of
   business births and deaths based on the actual past values of the net impact that
   can be observed with a lag from the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages. The
   establishment survey uses modeling rather than sampling for this purpose because
   the survey is not immediately able to bring new businesses into the sample. There
   is an unavoidable lag between the birth of a new firm and its appearance on the
   sampling frame and availability for selection. BLS adds new businesses to the survey
   twice a year.

6. Is the count of unemployed persons limited to just those people receiving unemployment
   insurance benefits?

   No; the estimate of unemployment is based on a monthly sample survey of households.
   All persons who are without jobs and are actively seeking and available to work are
   included among the unemployed. (People on temporary layoff are included even if
   they do not actively seek work.) There is no requirement or question relating to
   unemployment insurance benefits in the monthly survey.

7. Does the official unemployment rate exclude people who want a job but are not currently
   looking for work?

   Yes; however, there are separate estimates of persons outside the labor force who
   want a job, including those who are not currently looking because they believe no
   jobs are available (discouraged workers). In addition, alternative measures of labor
   underutilization (some of which include discouraged workers and other groups not
   officially counted as unemployed) are published each month in table A-15 of The
   Employment Situation news release. For more information about these alternative
   measures, please visit www.bls.gov/cps/lfcharacteristics.htm#altmeasures.

8. How can unusually severe weather affect employment and hours estimates?

   In the establishment survey, the reference period is the pay period that includes
   the 12th of the month. Unusually severe weather is more likely to have an impact on
   average weekly hours than on employment. Average weekly hours are estimated for paid
   time during the pay period, including pay for holidays, sick leave, or other time off.
   The impact of severe weather on hours estimates typically, but not always, results in
   a reduction in average weekly hours. For example, some employees may be off work for
   part of the pay period and not receive pay for the time missed, while some workers,
   such as those dealing with cleanup or repair, may work extra hours.
   
   Typically, it is not possible to precisely quantify the effect of extreme weather on 
   payroll employment estimates. In order for severe weather conditions to reduce
   employment estimates, employees have to be off work without pay for the entire pay
   period. Employees who receive pay for any part of the pay period, even 1 hour, are
   counted in the payroll employment figures. For more information on how often employees
   are paid, please visit www.bls.gov/opub/btn/volume-3/how-frequently-do-private-
   businesses-pay-workers.htm.

   In the household survey, the reference period is generally the calendar week that
   includes the 12th of the month. Persons who miss the entire week's work for weather-
   related events are counted as employed whether or not they are paid for the time
   off. The household survey collects data on the number of persons who had a job but
   were not at work due to bad weather. It also provides a measure of the number of
   persons who usually work full time but had reduced hours due to bad weather. 
   Current and historical data are available on the household survey's most requested
   statistics page, please visit http://data.bls.gov/cgi-bin/surveymost?ln.




Technical Note


   This news release presents statistics from two major surveys, the Current
Population Survey (CPS; household survey) and the Current Employment Statistics
survey (CES; establishment survey). The household survey provides information
on the labor force, employment, and unemployment that appears in the "A" tables,
marked HOUSEHOLD DATA. It is a sample survey of about 60,000 eligible households
conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau for the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS).

   The establishment survey provides information on employment, hours, and
earnings of employees on nonfarm payrolls; the data appear in the "B" tables,
marked ESTABLISHMENT DATA. BLS collects these data each month from the payroll
records of a sample of nonagricultural business establishments. Each month
the CES program surveys about 146,000 businesses and government agencies,
representing approximately 623,000 individual worksites, in order to provide
detailed industry data on employment, hours, and earnings of workers on nonfarm
payrolls. The active sample includes approximately one-third of all nonfarm
payroll employees.

   For both surveys, the data for a given month relate to a particular week or
pay period. In the household survey, the reference period is generally the
calendar week that contains the 12th day of the month. In the establishment
survey, the reference period is the pay period including the 12th, which may or
may not correspond directly to the calendar week.

Coverage, definitions, and differences between surveys

   Household survey. The sample is selected to reflect the entire civilian 
noninstitutional population. Based on responses to a series of questions on 
work and job search activities, each person 16 years and over in a sample
household is classified as employed, unemployed, or not in the labor force.

   People are classified as employed if they did any work at all as paid employees
during the reference week; worked in their own business, profession, or on their
own farm; or worked without pay at least 15 hours in a family business or farm.
People are also counted as employed if they were temporarily absent from their jobs
because of illness, bad weather, vacation, labor-management disputes, or personal
reasons.

   People are classified as unemployed if they meet all of the following criteria:
they had no employment during the reference week; they were available for work at
that time; and they made specific efforts to find employment sometime during the
4-week period ending with the reference week. Persons laid off from a job and
expecting recall need not be looking for work to be counted as unemployed. The
unemployment data derived from the household survey in no way depend upon the
eligibility for or receipt of unemployment insurance benefits.

   The civilian labor force is the sum of employed and unemployed persons.
Those persons not classified as employed or unemployed are not in the labor 
force. The unemployment rate is the number unemployed as a percent of the 
labor force. The labor force participation rate is the labor force as a 
percent of the population, and the employment-population ratio is the 
employed as a percent of the population. Additional information about the 
household survey can be found at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm.

   Establishment survey. The sample establishments are drawn from private
nonfarm businesses such as factories, offices, and stores, as well as
from federal, state, and local government entities. Employees on nonfarm
payrolls are those who received pay for any part of the reference pay
period, including persons on paid leave. Persons are counted in each job
they hold. Hours and earnings data are produced for the private sector for
all employees and for production and nonsupervisory employees. Production
and nonsupervisory employees are defined as production and related employees
in manufacturing and mining and logging, construction workers in construction,
and nonsupervisory employees in private service-providing industries.

   Industries are classified on the basis of an establishment's principal
activity in accordance with the 2012 version of the North American Industry
Classification System. Additional information about the establishment survey
can be found at www.bls.gov/ces/.

   Differences in employment estimates. The numerous conceptual and methodological
differences between the household and establishment  surveys result in important
distinctions in the employment estimates derived from the surveys. Among these are:

   --The household survey includes agricultural workers, self-employed workers
     whose businesses are unincorporated, unpaid family workers, and private
     household workers among the employed. These groups are excluded from the
     establishment survey.

   --The household survey includes people on unpaid leave among the employed.
     The establishment survey does not.

   --The household survey is limited to workers 16 years of age and older.
     The establishment survey is not limited by age.

   --The household survey has no duplication of individuals, because
     individuals are counted only once, even if they hold more than one
     job. In the establishment survey, employees working at more than one
     job and thus appearing on more than one payroll are counted separately
     for each appearance.

Seasonal adjustment

   Over the course of a year, the size of the nation's labor force and the levels
of employment and unemployment undergo regularly occurring fluctuations. These 
events may result from seasonal changes in weather, major holidays, and the opening
and closing of schools. The effect of such seasonal variation can be very large.

   Because these seasonal events follow a more or less regular pattern each year,
their influence on the level of a series can be tempered by adjusting for regular
seasonal variation. These adjustments make nonseasonal developments, such as
declines in employment or increases in the participation of women in the labor
force, easier to spot. For example, in the household survey, the large number of
youth entering the labor force each June is likely to obscure any other changes
that have taken place relative to May, making it difficult to determine if the 
level of economic activity has risen or declined. Similarly, in the establishment
survey, payroll employment in education declines by about 20 percent at the end
of the spring term and later rises with the start of the fall term, obscuring the
underlying employment trends in the industry. Because seasonal employment changes
at the end and beginning of the school year can be estimated, the statistics can be
adjusted to make underlying employment patterns more discernable.  The seasonally
adjusted figures provide a more useful tool with which to analyze changes in
month-to-month economic activity.

   Many seasonally adjusted series are independently adjusted in both the household
and establishment surveys. However, the adjusted series for many major estimates,
such as total payroll employment, employment in most major sectors, total employment,
and unemployment are computed by aggregating independently adjusted component series.
For example, total unemployment is derived by summing the adjusted series for four
major age-sex components; this differs from the unemployment estimate that would be
obtained by directly adjusting the total or by combining
the duration, reasons, or more detailed age categories.

   For both the household and establishment surveys, a concurrent seasonal adjustment
methodology is used in which new seasonal factors are calculated each month using all
relevant data, up to and including the data for the current month. In the household
survey, new seasonal factors are used to adjust only the current month's data. In the
establishment survey, however, new seasonal factors are used each month to adjust the
three most recent monthly estimates. The prior 2 months are routinely revised to
incorporate additional sample reports and recalculated seasonal adjustment factors.
In both surveys, 5-year revisions to historical data are made once a year.

Reliability of the estimates

   Statistics based on the household and establishment surveys are subject to both
sampling and nonsampling error. When a sample, rather than the entire population,
is surveyed, there is a chance that the sample estimates may differ from the true
population values they represent. The component of this difference that occurs
because samples differ by chance is known as sampling error, and its variability
is measured by the standard error of the estimate. There is about a 90-percent
chance, or level of confidence, that an estimate based on a sample will differ by
no more than 1.6 standard errors from the true population value because of sampling
error. BLS analyses are generally conducted at the 90-percent level of confidence.

   For example, the confidence interval for the monthly change in total nonfarm
employment from the establishment survey is on the order of plus or minus 115,000.
Suppose the estimate of nonfarm employment increases by 50,000 from one month to
the next. The 90-percent confidence interval on the monthly change would range from
-65,000 to +165,000 (50,000 +/- 115,000). These figures do not mean that the sample
results are off by these magnitudes, but rather that there is about a 90-percent
chance that the true over-the-month change lies within this interval. Since this
range includes values of less than zero, we could not say with confidence that
nonfarm employment had, in fact, increased that month. If, however, the reported
nonfarm employment rise was 250,000, then all of the values within the 90- percent
confidence interval would be greater than zero. In this case, it is likely (at
least a 90-percent chance) that nonfarm employment had, in fact, risen that month.
At an unemployment rate of around 6.0 percent, the 90-percent confidence interval
for the monthly change in unemployment as measured by the household survey is
about +/- 300,000, and for the monthly change in the unemployment rate it is about
+/- 0.2 percentage point.

   In general, estimates involving many individuals or establishments have lower
standard errors (relative to the size of the estimate) than estimates which are based
on a small number of observations. The precision of estimates also is improved when
the data are cumulated over time, such as for quarterly and annual averages.

   The household and establishment surveys are also affected by nonsampling error,
which can occur for many reasons, including the failure to sample a segment of the
population, inability to obtain information for all respondents in the sample,
inability or unwillingness of respondents to provide correct information on a
timely basis, mistakes made by respondents, and errors made in the collection or
processing of the data.

   For example, in the establishment survey, estimates for the most recent 2 months
are based on incomplete returns; for this reason, these estimates are labeled
preliminary in the tables. It is only after two successive revisions to a monthly
estimate, when nearly all sample reports have been received, that the estimate is
considered final.

   Another major source of nonsampling error in the establishment survey is the
inability to capture, on a timely basis, employment generated by new firms. To
correct for this systematic underestimation of employment growth, an estimation
procedure with two components is used to account for business births. The first
component excludes employment losses from business deaths from sample-based
estimation in order to offset the missing employment gains from business births.
This is incorporated into the sample-based estimation procedure by simply not
reflecting sample units going out of business, but imputing to them the same
employment trend as the other firms in the sample. This procedure accounts for
most of the net birth/death employment.

   The second component is an ARIMA time series model designed to estimate the
residual net birth/death employment not accounted for by the imputation. The
historical time series used to create and test the ARIMA model was derived from
the unemployment insurance universe micro- level database, and reflects the actual
residual net of births and deaths over the past 5 years.

   The sample-based estimates from the establishment survey are adjusted once a
year (on a lagged basis) to universe counts of payroll employment obtained from
administrative records of the unemployment insurance program. The difference 
between the March sample-based employment estimates and the March universe counts
is known as a benchmark revision, and serves as a rough proxy for total survey
error. The new benchmarks also incorporate changes in the classification of
industries. Over the past decade, absolute benchmark revisions for total nonfarm
employment have averaged 0.3 percent, with a range from -0.7 percent to 0.6 percent.

Other information

   Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired
individuals upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay
Service: (800) 877-8339.




HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-1. Employment status of the civilian population by sex and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Oct.
2015
Sept.
2016
Oct.
2016
Oct.
2015
June
2016
July
2016
Aug.
2016
Sept.
2016
Oct.
2016

TOTAL

Civilian noninstitutional population

251,541 254,091 254,321 251,541 253,397 253,620 253,854 254,091 254,321

Civilian labor force

157,313 159,636 159,783 157,096 158,880 159,287 159,463 159,907 159,712

Participation rate

62.5 62.8 62.8 62.5 62.7 62.8 62.8 62.9 62.8

Employed

149,716 151,977 152,335 149,197 151,097 151,517 151,614 151,968 151,925

Employment-population ratio

59.5 59.8 59.9 59.3 59.6 59.7 59.7 59.8 59.7

Unemployed

7,597 7,658 7,447 7,899 7,783 7,770 7,849 7,939 7,787

Unemployment rate

4.8 4.8 4.7 5.0 4.9 4.9 4.9 5.0 4.9

Not in labor force

94,228 94,456 94,539 94,446 94,517 94,333 94,391 94,184 94,609

Persons who currently want a job

5,703 5,753 5,613 6,039 5,692 5,886 5,833 6,088 5,912

Men, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

121,474 122,775 122,889 121,474 122,427 122,539 122,656 122,775 122,889

Civilian labor force

83,572 84,996 84,991 83,505 84,766 84,826 84,906 85,084 85,034

Participation rate

68.8 69.2 69.2 68.7 69.2 69.2 69.2 69.3 69.2

Employed

79,579 80,952 80,966 79,225 80,596 80,548 80,674 80,755 80,722

Employment-population ratio

65.5 65.9 65.9 65.2 65.8 65.7 65.8 65.8 65.7

Unemployed

3,993 4,043 4,025 4,279 4,169 4,278 4,232 4,329 4,312

Unemployment rate

4.8 4.8 4.7 5.1 4.9 5.0 5.0 5.1 5.1

Not in labor force

37,902 37,779 37,898 37,969 37,662 37,713 37,750 37,691 37,855

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

113,049 114,289 114,401 113,049 113,951 114,058 114,173 114,289 114,401

Civilian labor force

80,817 82,020 82,065 80,660 81,788 81,834 81,838 82,019 82,004

Participation rate

71.5 71.8 71.7 71.3 71.8 71.7 71.7 71.8 71.7

Employed

77,258 78,459 78,538 76,857 78,127 78,048 78,143 78,195 78,233

Employment-population ratio

68.3 68.6 68.7 68.0 68.6 68.4 68.4 68.4 68.4

Unemployed

3,559 3,561 3,527 3,803 3,661 3,786 3,695 3,825 3,771

Unemployment rate

4.4 4.3 4.3 4.7 4.5 4.6 4.5 4.7 4.6

Not in labor force

32,232 32,269 32,337 32,389 32,163 32,224 32,335 32,269 32,398

Women, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

130,067 131,317 131,432 130,067 130,969 131,081 131,198 131,317 131,432

Civilian labor force

73,741 74,640 74,791 73,591 74,115 74,461 74,557 74,823 74,678

Participation rate

56.7 56.8 56.9 56.6 56.6 56.8 56.8 57.0 56.8

Employed

70,137 71,025 71,369 69,971 70,501 70,969 70,940 71,213 71,202

Employment-population ratio

53.9 54.1 54.3 53.8 53.8 54.1 54.1 54.2 54.2

Unemployed

3,604 3,615 3,423 3,620 3,614 3,492 3,617 3,610 3,475

Unemployment rate

4.9 4.8 4.6 4.9 4.9 4.7 4.9 4.8 4.7

Not in labor force

56,326 56,677 56,640 56,476 56,855 56,620 56,641 56,493 56,754

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

121,880 123,066 123,179 121,880 122,728 122,835 122,949 123,066 123,179

Civilian labor force

71,093 71,902 72,061 70,833 71,303 71,572 71,630 71,893 71,811

Participation rate

58.3 58.4 58.5 58.1 58.1 58.3 58.3 58.4 58.3

Employed

67,885 68,709 68,997 67,624 68,107 68,508 68,415 68,723 68,716

Employment-population ratio

55.7 55.8 56.0 55.5 55.5 55.8 55.6 55.8 55.8

Unemployed

3,209 3,193 3,064 3,209 3,196 3,065 3,215 3,169 3,094

Unemployment rate

4.5 4.4 4.3 4.5 4.5 4.3 4.5 4.4 4.3

Not in labor force

50,787 51,164 51,117 51,047 51,425 51,262 51,319 51,173 51,368

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian noninstitutional population

16,612 16,737 16,741 16,612 16,718 16,728 16,732 16,737 16,741

Civilian labor force

5,403 5,714 5,656 5,603 5,789 5,881 5,995 5,995 5,898

Participation rate

32.5 34.1 33.8 33.7 34.6 35.2 35.8 35.8 35.2

Employed

4,574 4,810 4,800 4,715 4,864 4,961 5,056 5,050 4,976

Employment-population ratio

27.5 28.7 28.7 28.4 29.1 29.7 30.2 30.2 29.7

Unemployed

830 904 856 887 926 920 938 945 922

Unemployment rate

15.4 15.8 15.1 15.8 16.0 15.6 15.7 15.8 15.6

Not in labor force

11,209 11,023 11,084 11,010 10,928 10,847 10,737 10,741 10,843

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-2. Employment status of the civilian population by race, sex, and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, race, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Oct.
2015
Sept.
2016
Oct.
2016
Oct.
2015
June
2016
July
2016
Aug.
2016
Sept.
2016
Oct.
2016

WHITE

Civilian noninstitutional population

197,271 198,509 198,633 197,271 198,132 198,253 198,380 198,509 198,633

Civilian labor force

123,572 124,689 124,779 123,375 124,551 124,793 124,756 124,873 124,739

Participation rate

62.6 62.8 62.8 62.5 62.9 62.9 62.9 62.9 62.8

Employed

118,474 119,465 119,677 117,978 119,133 119,426 119,281 119,427 119,333

Employment-population ratio

60.1 60.2 60.3 59.8 60.1 60.2 60.1 60.2 60.1

Unemployed

5,098 5,223 5,102 5,396 5,418 5,367 5,475 5,446 5,406

Unemployment rate

4.1 4.2 4.1 4.4 4.4 4.3 4.4 4.4 4.3

Not in labor force

73,699 73,820 73,854 73,896 73,581 73,460 73,624 73,636 73,894

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

64,711 65,326 65,359 64,563 65,112 65,232 65,226 65,310 65,292

Participation rate

71.8 72.0 72.0 71.7 71.9 72.0 72.0 72.0 71.9

Employed

62,280 62,834 62,886 61,921 62,526 62,556 62,546 62,608 62,614

Employment-population ratio

69.1 69.3 69.3 68.7 69.1 69.1 69.0 69.0 69.0

Unemployed

2,431 2,491 2,473 2,642 2,586 2,676 2,680 2,703 2,678

Unemployment rate

3.8 3.8 3.8 4.1 4.0 4.1 4.1 4.1 4.1

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

54,631 54,883 55,014 54,431 54,869 54,948 54,863 54,888 54,859

Participation rate

57.6 57.5 57.6 57.4 57.6 57.6 57.5 57.5 57.4

Employed

52,541 52,789 52,993 52,284 52,682 52,913 52,720 52,809 52,776

Employment-population ratio

55.4 55.3 55.5 55.1 55.3 55.5 55.3 55.3 55.3

Unemployed

2,090 2,094 2,021 2,147 2,187 2,035 2,144 2,080 2,082

Unemployment rate

3.8 3.8 3.7 3.9 4.0 3.7 3.9 3.8 3.8

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

4,230 4,480 4,406 4,381 4,570 4,613 4,666 4,674 4,588

Participation rate

34.4 36.3 35.7 35.6 37.0 37.4 37.8 37.8 37.2

Employed

3,653 3,842 3,799 3,773 3,925 3,957 4,014 4,010 3,943

Employment-population ratio

29.7 31.1 30.8 30.7 31.8 32.0 32.5 32.5 31.9

Unemployed

576 638 608 608 645 656 652 663 645

Unemployment rate

13.6 14.2 13.8 13.9 14.1 14.2 14.0 14.2 14.1

BLACK OR AFRICAN AMERICAN

Civilian noninstitutional population

31,518 31,987 32,028 31,518 31,866 31,904 31,945 31,987 32,028

Civilian labor force

19,502 19,789 19,904 19,402 19,532 19,522 19,768 19,825 19,797

Participation rate

61.9 61.9 62.1 61.6 61.3 61.2 61.9 62.0 61.8

Employed

17,734 18,168 18,222 17,623 17,854 17,885 18,165 18,174 18,104

Employment-population ratio

56.3 56.8 56.9 55.9 56.0 56.1 56.9 56.8 56.5

Unemployed

1,768 1,620 1,682 1,779 1,678 1,637 1,603 1,650 1,693

Unemployment rate

9.1 8.2 8.4 9.2 8.6 8.4 8.1 8.3 8.6

Not in labor force

12,016 12,199 12,124 12,116 12,334 12,382 12,178 12,163 12,231

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

8,809 9,021 9,046 8,770 9,000 8,994 8,947 8,998 9,011

Participation rate

67.2 67.7 67.8 66.9 67.8 67.7 67.3 67.5 67.5

Employed

8,038 8,306 8,284 7,964 8,262 8,254 8,264 8,259 8,228

Employment-population ratio

61.4 62.3 62.1 60.8 62.3 62.1 62.1 62.0 61.7

Unemployed

771 716 762 806 738 740 683 739 783

Unemployment rate

8.8 7.9 8.4 9.2 8.2 8.2 7.6 8.2 8.7

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

10,018 10,069 10,160 9,956 9,799 9,831 10,026 10,066 10,073

Participation rate

62.9 62.4 62.8 62.5 60.9 61.0 62.2 62.3 62.3

Employed

9,180 9,361 9,419 9,154 9,088 9,114 9,314 9,362 9,359

Employment-population ratio

57.6 58.0 58.3 57.5 56.5 56.6 57.8 58.0 57.9

Unemployed

838 708 740 802 711 717 712 704 714

Unemployment rate

8.4 7.0 7.3 8.1 7.3 7.3 7.1 7.0 7.1

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

675 698 698 677 733 697 795 761 713

Participation rate

27.1 27.7 27.7 27.2 29.2 27.7 31.6 30.2 28.3

Employed

515 502 518 505 504 518 587 553 516

Employment-population ratio

20.7 20.0 20.6 20.3 20.1 20.6 23.3 22.0 20.5

Unemployed

159 196 180 172 228 179 208 207 196

Unemployment rate

23.6 28.1 25.8 25.4 31.2 25.7 26.1 27.2 27.6

ASIAN

Civilian noninstitutional population

14,440 15,310 15,344 14,440 15,032 15,211 15,304 15,310 15,344

Civilian labor force

8,867 9,717 9,717 8,955 9,504 9,651 9,702 9,764 9,807

Participation rate

61.4 63.5 63.3 62.0 63.2 63.4 63.4 63.8 63.9

Employed

8,561 9,350 9,393 8,637 9,172 9,281 9,290 9,381 9,470

Employment-population ratio

59.3 61.1 61.2 59.8 61.0 61.0 60.7 61.3 61.7

Unemployed

307 367 324 318 332 369 412 382 337

Unemployment rate

3.5 3.8 3.3 3.5 3.5 3.8 4.2 3.9 3.4

Not in labor force

5,573 5,593 5,627 5,485 5,529 5,560 5,603 5,547 5,537

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Estimates for the above race groups will not sum to totals shown in table A-1 because data are not presented for all races. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-3. Employment status of the Hispanic or Latino population by sex and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Oct.
2015
Sept.
2016
Oct.
2016
Oct.
2015
June
2016
July
2016
Aug.
2016
Sept.
2016
Oct.
2016

HISPANIC OR LATINO ETHNICITY

Civilian noninstitutional population

39,916 40,919 41,011 39,916 40,646 40,732 40,825 40,919 41,011

Civilian labor force

26,223 27,019 26,954 26,200 26,675 26,785 26,987 27,064 26,922

Participation rate

65.7 66.0 65.7 65.6 65.6 65.8 66.1 66.1 65.6

Employed

24,643 25,366 25,482 24,535 25,136 25,347 25,468 25,327 25,381

Employment-population ratio

61.7 62.0 62.1 61.5 61.8 62.2 62.4 61.9 61.9

Unemployed

1,580 1,653 1,472 1,665 1,539 1,438 1,519 1,737 1,541

Unemployment rate

6.0 6.1 5.5 6.4 5.8 5.4 5.6 6.4 5.7

Not in labor force

13,693 13,901 14,057 13,716 13,971 13,947 13,838 13,856 14,089

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

14,494 14,837 14,902 14,464 14,751 14,842 14,897 14,837 14,865

Participation rate

80.5 80.4 80.6 80.4 80.5 80.8 80.9 80.4 80.4

Employed

13,819 14,109 14,208 13,723 14,095 14,141 14,184 14,035 14,120

Employment-population ratio

76.8 76.5 76.8 76.2 76.9 77.0 77.1 76.1 76.4

Unemployed

675 728 694 741 656 701 713 803 744

Unemployment rate

4.7 4.9 4.7 5.1 4.4 4.7 4.8 5.4 5.0

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

10,654 10,988 10,917 10,643 10,750 10,797 10,957 10,999 10,905

Participation rate

58.6 58.8 58.3 58.5 58.0 58.1 58.8 58.9 58.3

Employed

9,996 10,278 10,344 9,961 10,067 10,226 10,322 10,292 10,307

Employment-population ratio

54.9 55.0 55.3 54.7 54.3 55.0 55.4 55.1 55.1

Unemployed

659 710 573 682 683 571 635 707 598

Unemployment rate

6.2 6.5 5.2 6.4 6.4 5.3 5.8 6.4 5.5

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

1,074 1,193 1,135 1,093 1,175 1,146 1,133 1,227 1,153

Participation rate

28.9 31.4 29.8 29.4 31.1 30.3 29.9 32.3 30.3

Employed

828 979 930 851 974 980 963 1,000 954

Employment-population ratio

22.3 25.8 24.5 22.9 25.8 25.9 25.4 26.3 25.1

Unemployed

246 215 205 242 201 166 170 227 198

Unemployment rate

22.9 18.0 18.0 22.1 17.1 14.5 15.0 18.5 17.2

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-4. Employment status of the civilian population 25 years and over by educational attainment
[Numbers in thousands]
Educational attainment Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Oct.
2015
Sept.
2016
Oct.
2016
Oct.
2015
June
2016
July
2016
Aug.
2016
Sept.
2016
Oct.
2016

Less than a high school diploma

Civilian labor force

10,511 10,763 10,450 10,729 10,522 10,638 10,809 10,828 10,678

Participation rate

44.8 45.4 44.4 45.7 45.2 47.0 46.5 45.7 45.4

Employed

9,795 9,939 9,753 9,946 9,734 9,969 10,035 9,902 9,895

Employment-population ratio

41.7 41.9 41.5 42.4 41.9 44.0 43.2 41.8 42.1

Unemployed

715 824 698 784 787 669 774 926 783

Unemployment rate

6.8 7.7 6.7 7.3 7.5 6.3 7.2 8.5 7.3

High school graduates, no college(1)

Civilian labor force

35,675 35,955 36,168 35,354 35,260 35,547 35,793 35,704 35,852

Participation rate

57.6 57.8 58.3 57.1 57.2 57.1 57.1 57.4 57.8

Employed

33,930 34,171 34,314 33,492 33,480 33,758 33,985 33,857 33,895

Employment-population ratio

54.8 54.9 55.3 54.1 54.3 54.2 54.2 54.4 54.6

Unemployed

1,744 1,784 1,854 1,861 1,780 1,789 1,808 1,847 1,958

Unemployment rate

4.9 5.0 5.1 5.3 5.0 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.5

Some college or associate degree

Civilian labor force

37,467 37,820 38,196 37,464 37,804 37,791 37,571 37,900 38,158

Participation rate

66.2 66.9 66.5 66.2 66.0 66.2 66.5 67.0 66.5

Employed

35,860 36,258 36,773 35,838 36,231 36,182 35,970 36,296 36,706

Employment-population ratio

63.3 64.1 64.1 63.3 63.2 63.4 63.7 64.2 64.0

Unemployed

1,606 1,562 1,423 1,626 1,573 1,609 1,601 1,604 1,452

Unemployment rate

4.3 4.1 3.7 4.3 4.2 4.3 4.3 4.2 3.8

Bachelor's degree and higher(2)

Civilian labor force

52,784 54,279 54,179 52,697 54,102 54,100 54,068 54,341 54,101

Participation rate

74.3 74.1 74.3 74.2 74.4 74.0 74.1 74.2 74.1

Employed

51,476 52,916 52,801 51,366 52,723 52,741 52,618 52,967 52,709

Employment-population ratio

72.5 72.3 72.4 72.3 72.5 72.1 72.1 72.3 72.2

Unemployed

1,308 1,363 1,378 1,331 1,378 1,359 1,450 1,374 1,392

Unemployment rate

2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.7 2.5 2.6

Footnotes
(1) Includes persons with a high school diploma or equivalent.
(2) Includes persons with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-5. Employment status of the civilian population 18 years and over by veteran status, period of service, and sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, veteran status, and period of service Total Men Women
Oct.
2015
Oct.
2016
Oct.
2015
Oct.
2016
Oct.
2015
Oct.
2016

VETERANS, 18 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

21,120 20,808 19,119 18,789 2,001 2,019

Civilian labor force

10,772 10,678 9,535 9,362 1,237 1,316

Participation rate

51.0 51.3 49.9 49.8 61.8 65.2

Employed

10,349 10,218 9,180 8,976 1,169 1,242

Employment-population ratio

49.0 49.1 48.0 47.8 58.4 61.5

Unemployed

422 460 355 387 67 74

Unemployment rate

3.9 4.3 3.7 4.1 5.4 5.6

Not in labor force

10,348 10,130 9,584 9,427 764 703

Gulf War-era II veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

3,774 3,932 3,047 3,258 727 674

Civilian labor force

3,068 3,258 2,539 2,730 529 528

Participation rate

81.3 82.9 83.3 83.8 72.8 78.3

Employed

2,926 3,105 2,435 2,601 491 504

Employment-population ratio

77.5 79.0 79.9 79.8 67.5 74.7

Unemployed

142 153 104 130 38 24

Unemployment rate

4.6 4.7 4.1 4.7 7.2 4.5

Not in labor force

707 674 508 527 198 147

Gulf War-era I veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

3,323 3,381 2,876 2,847 447 534

Civilian labor force

2,672 2,701 2,341 2,290 331 411

Participation rate

80.4 79.9 81.4 80.4 74.0 77.1

Employed

2,578 2,603 2,265 2,217 314 386

Employment-population ratio

77.6 77.0 78.8 77.9 70.2 72.3

Unemployed

93 98 76 73 17 25

Unemployment rate

3.5 3.6 3.3 3.2 5.2 6.1

Not in labor force

651 680 535 557 116 122

World War II, Korean War, and Vietnam-era veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

8,783 8,373 8,471 8,073 312 300

Civilian labor force

2,284 2,089 2,224 2,005 60 85

Participation rate

26.0 25.0 26.3 24.8 19.2 28.2

Employed

2,208 1,998 2,156 1,921 53 77

Employment-population ratio

25.1 23.9 25.4 23.8 16.9 25.7

Unemployed

76 91 69 84 7 8

Unemployment rate

3.3 4.4 3.1 4.2 - 8.9

Not in labor force

6,499 6,284 6,247 6,068 252 215

Veterans of other service periods

Civilian noninstitutional population

5,240 5,122 4,725 4,611 515 511

Civilian labor force

2,748 2,629 2,431 2,337 317 292

Participation rate

52.4 51.3 51.5 50.7 61.5 57.2

Employed

2,637 2,512 2,325 2,237 312 275

Employment-population ratio

50.3 49.0 49.2 48.5 60.6 53.8

Unemployed

111 117 106 100 5 17

Unemployment rate

4.0 4.5 4.4 4.3 1.4 5.9

Not in labor force

2,492 2,493 2,294 2,274 198 219

NONVETERANS, 18 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

221,487 224,455 97,773 99,594 123,715 124,862

Civilian labor force

144,641 147,077 73,090 74,701 71,552 72,376

Participation rate

65.3 65.5 74.8 75.0 57.8 58.0

Employed

137,774 140,458 69,620 71,247 68,153 69,211

Employment-population ratio

62.2 62.6 71.2 71.5 55.1 55.4

Unemployed

6,868 6,619 3,470 3,454 3,398 3,165

Unemployment rate

4.7 4.5 4.7 4.6 4.7 4.4

Not in labor force

76,846 77,379 24,683 24,893 52,163 52,486

NOTE: Veterans served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces and were not on active duty at the time of the survey. Nonveterans never served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces. Veterans could have served anywhere in the world during these periods of service: Gulf War era II (September 2001-present), Gulf War era I (August 1990-August 2001), Vietnam era (August 1964-April 1975), Korean War (July 1950-January 1955), World War II (December 1941-December 1946), and other service periods (all other time periods). Veterans who served in more than one wartime period are classified only in the most recent one. Veterans who served during one of the selected wartime periods and another period are classified only in the wartime period.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-6. Employment status of the civilian population by sex, age, and disability status, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Persons with a disability Persons with no disability
Oct.
2015
Oct.
2016
Oct.
2015
Oct.
2016

TOTAL, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

30,026 30,227 221,515 224,094

Civilian labor force

5,811 6,052 151,502 153,730

Participation rate

19.4 20.0 68.4 68.6

Employed

5,199 5,454 144,518 146,881

Employment-population ratio

17.3 18.0 65.2 65.5

Unemployed

613 598 6,985 6,849

Unemployment rate

10.5 9.9 4.6 4.5

Not in labor force

24,215 24,175 70,013 70,363

Men, 16 to 64 years

Civilian labor force

2,443 2,662 76,128 77,065

Participation rate

31.9 34.1 82.0 82.5

Employed

2,163 2,406 72,574 73,511

Employment-population ratio

28.2 30.8 78.2 78.7

Unemployed

280 256 3,554 3,555

Unemployment rate

11.5 9.6 4.7 4.6

Not in labor force

5,217 5,143 16,732 16,362

Women, 16 to 64 years

Civilian labor force

2,291 2,265 67,429 68,387

Participation rate

28.3 28.5 70.3 70.8

Employed

2,010 1,991 64,232 65,381

Employment-population ratio

24.8 25.1 67.0 67.7

Unemployed

282 275 3,197 3,006

Unemployment rate

12.3 12.1 4.7 4.4

Not in labor force

5,815 5,675 28,509 28,222

Both sexes, 65 years and over

Civilian labor force

1,077 1,125 7,945 8,278

Participation rate

7.6 7.8 24.3 24.3

Employed

1,026 1,057 7,711 7,989

Employment-population ratio

7.2 7.3 23.6 23.5

Unemployed

51 68 234 289

Unemployment rate

4.7 6.0 2.9 3.5

Not in labor force

13,182 13,357 24,772 25,779

NOTE: A person with a disability has at least one of the following conditions: is deaf or has serious difficulty hearing; is blind or has serious difficulty seeing even when wearing glasses; has serious difficulty concentrating, remembering, or making decisions because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition; has serious difficulty walking or climbing stairs; has difficulty dressing or bathing; or has difficulty doing errands alone such as visiting a doctor's office or shopping because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-7. Employment status of the civilian population by nativity and sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status and nativity Total Men Women
Oct.
2015
Oct.
2016
Oct.
2015
Oct.
2016
Oct.
2015
Oct.
2016

Foreign born, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

40,074 41,785 19,463 20,153 20,610 21,632

Civilian labor force

26,267 27,060 15,262 15,485 11,004 11,575

Participation rate

65.5 64.8 78.4 76.8 53.4 53.5

Employed

25,120 25,965 14,688 14,913 10,431 11,051

Employment-population ratio

62.7 62.1 75.5 74.0 50.6 51.1

Unemployed

1,147 1,096 574 572 573 524

Unemployment rate

4.4 4.0 3.8 3.7 5.2 4.5

Not in labor force

13,807 14,725 4,201 4,668 9,606 10,057

Native born, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

211,468 212,536 102,011 102,736 109,457 109,799

Civilian labor force

131,047 132,722 68,310 69,506 62,737 63,216

Participation rate

62.0 62.4 67.0 67.7 57.3 57.6

Employed

124,597 126,370 64,891 66,053 59,706 60,317

Employment-population ratio

58.9 59.5 63.6 64.3 54.5 54.9

Unemployed

6,450 6,352 3,419 3,453 3,031 2,899

Unemployment rate

4.9 4.8 5.0 5.0 4.8 4.6

Not in labor force

80,421 79,814 33,701 33,230 46,720 46,583

NOTE: The foreign born are those residing in the United States who were not U.S. citizens at birth. That is, they were born outside the United States or one of its outlying areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam, to parents neither of whom was a U.S. citizen. The native born are persons who were born in the United States or one of its outlying areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam or who were born abroad of at least one parent who was a U.S. citizen. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-8. Employed persons by class of worker and part-time status
[In thousands]
Category Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Oct.
2015
Sept.
2016
Oct.
2016
Oct.
2015
June
2016
July
2016
Aug.
2016
Sept.
2016
Oct.
2016

CLASS OF WORKER

Agriculture and related industries

2,518 2,526 2,408 2,394 2,516 2,388 2,520 2,441 2,321

Wage and salary workers(1)

1,683 1,623 1,575 1,568 1,651 1,605 1,617 1,530 1,496

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

810 879 810 804 840 766 873 886 816

Unpaid family workers

25 24 23 - - - - - -

Nonagricultural industries

147,198 149,451 149,927 146,864 148,640 149,155 149,118 149,560 149,637

Wage and salary workers(1)

138,477 140,780 141,123 138,182 139,777 140,468 140,431 140,812 140,856

Government

20,667 20,708 20,746 20,597 20,186 20,430 20,670 20,798 20,654

Private industries

117,810 120,073 120,377 117,509 119,592 119,988 119,736 120,046 120,142

Private households

791 715 757 - - - - - -

Other industries

117,019 119,358 119,620 116,711 118,837 119,250 118,982 119,293 119,390

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

8,660 8,607 8,748 8,639 8,772 8,660 8,621 8,574 8,715

Unpaid family workers

61 64 57 - - - - - -

PERSONS AT WORK PART TIME(2)

All industries

Part time for economic reasons(3)

5,536 5,550 5,648 5,761 5,843 5,940 6,053 5,894 5,889

Slack work or business conditions

3,179 3,376 3,321 3,289 3,443 3,642 3,727 3,618 3,505

Could only find part-time work

2,147 1,921 2,085 2,189 2,062 1,981 1,929 1,969 2,118

Part time for noneconomic reasons(4)

20,754 20,782 21,265 20,179 20,505 20,717 20,523 20,688 20,691

Nonagricultural industries

Part time for economic reasons(3)

5,495 5,468 5,567 5,702 5,745 5,846 5,931 5,790 5,789

Slack work or business conditions

3,161 3,316 3,269 3,264 3,377 3,566 3,641 3,536 3,440

Could only find part-time work

2,145 1,914 2,079 2,176 2,052 1,965 1,911 1,956 2,100

Part time for noneconomic reasons(4)

20,352 20,419 20,930 19,817 20,101 20,337 20,185 20,333 20,369

Footnotes
(1) Includes self-employed workers whose businesses are incorporated.
(2) Refers to those who worked 1 to 34 hours during the survey reference week and excludes employed persons who were absent from their jobs for the entire week.
(3) Refers to those who worked 1 to 34 hours during the reference week for an economic reason such as slack work or unfavorable business conditions, inability to find full-time work, or seasonal declines in demand.
(4) Refers to persons who usually work part time for noneconomic reasons such as childcare problems, family or personal obligations, school or training, retirement or Social Security limits on earnings, and other reasons. This excludes persons who usually work full time but worked only 1 to 34 hours during the reference week for reasons such as vacations, holidays, illness, and bad weather.

- Data not available.
NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-9. Selected employment indicators
[Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Oct.
2015
Sept.
2016
Oct.
2016
Oct.
2015
June
2016
July
2016
Aug.
2016
Sept.
2016
Oct.
2016

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

149,716 151,977 152,335 149,197 151,097 151,517 151,614 151,968 151,925

16 to 19 years

4,574 4,810 4,800 4,715 4,864 4,961 5,056 5,050 4,976

16 to 17 years

1,593 1,867 1,659 1,577 1,839 1,811 1,829 1,843 1,667

18 to 19 years

2,981 2,943 3,141 3,130 3,032 3,149 3,225 3,189 3,283

20 years and over

145,143 147,168 147,535 144,481 146,234 146,556 146,558 146,918 146,949

20 to 24 years

14,080 13,883 13,895 14,034 14,023 13,865 14,139 14,006 13,886

25 years and over

131,062 133,285 133,640 130,518 132,251 132,756 132,464 132,869 133,133

25 to 54 years

97,112 98,580 98,806 96,721 97,793 98,042 97,870 98,204 98,444

25 to 34 years

32,919 34,094 34,015 32,793 33,662 33,812 33,947 33,989 33,914

35 to 44 years

31,521 31,736 31,758 31,360 31,543 31,627 31,404 31,557 31,601

45 to 54 years

32,672 32,750 33,034 32,568 32,588 32,602 32,520 32,658 32,929

55 years and over

33,951 34,705 34,834 33,796 34,459 34,714 34,594 34,666 34,690

Men, 16 years and over

79,579 80,952 80,966 79,225 80,596 80,548 80,674 80,755 80,722

16 to 19 years

2,321 2,494 2,429 2,368 2,469 2,500 2,531 2,560 2,490

16 to 17 years

779 872 743 778 906 869 895 852 752

18 to 19 years

1,542 1,622 1,685 1,595 1,571 1,627 1,631 1,710 1,727

20 years and over

77,258 78,459 78,538 76,857 78,127 78,048 78,143 78,195 78,233

20 to 24 years

7,164 7,134 7,105 7,151 7,229 7,120 7,238 7,185 7,123

25 years and over

70,094 71,324 71,433 69,766 70,899 70,987 70,913 70,968 71,149

25 to 54 years

52,064 52,775 52,815 51,836 52,493 52,395 52,401 52,497 52,620

25 to 34 years

17,817 18,313 18,273 17,730 18,209 18,197 18,238 18,232 18,208

35 to 44 years

17,013 17,076 17,126 16,914 17,084 17,048 16,996 16,968 17,033

45 to 54 years

17,234 17,386 17,416 17,192 17,200 17,149 17,167 17,298 17,379

55 years and over

18,029 18,549 18,618 17,931 18,406 18,592 18,512 18,471 18,529

Women, 16 years and over

70,137 71,025 71,369 69,971 70,501 70,969 70,940 71,213 71,202

16 to 19 years

2,253 2,316 2,372 2,347 2,394 2,461 2,525 2,490 2,486

16 to 17 years

814 995 916 799 934 942 934 991 915

18 to 19 years

1,438 1,321 1,456 1,535 1,461 1,522 1,594 1,478 1,556

20 years and over

67,885 68,709 68,997 67,624 68,107 68,508 68,415 68,723 68,716

20 to 24 years

6,916 6,749 6,790 6,883 6,794 6,745 6,901 6,820 6,763

25 years and over

60,969 61,960 62,207 60,752 61,353 61,768 61,551 61,902 61,984

25 to 54 years

45,047 45,804 45,991 44,886 45,300 45,646 45,469 45,707 45,824

25 to 34 years

15,103 15,780 15,741 15,064 15,453 15,614 15,709 15,757 15,706

35 to 44 years

14,508 14,660 14,632 14,445 14,460 14,579 14,408 14,589 14,567

45 to 54 years

15,437 15,364 15,618 15,377 15,387 15,453 15,352 15,360 15,550

55 years and over

15,921 16,156 16,216 15,866 16,053 16,122 16,082 16,195 16,161

MARITAL STATUS

Married men, spouse present

44,992 45,872 45,445 44,858 45,562 45,532 45,478 45,678 45,347

Married women, spouse present

35,340 35,675 35,608 35,146 35,171 35,316 35,350 35,493 35,406

Women who maintain families

9,852 9,958 10,034 - - - - - -

FULL- OR PART-TIME STATUS

Full-time workers(1)

122,466 124,728 124,588 122,054 123,586 123,892 124,301 124,296 124,193

Part-time workers(2)

27,250 27,250 27,747 27,209 27,445 27,595 27,207 27,637 27,727

MULTIPLE JOBHOLDERS

Total multiple jobholders

7,620 7,846 8,050 7,452 7,207 7,361 7,562 7,863 7,776

Percent of total employed

5.1 5.2 5.3 5.0 4.8 4.9 5.0 5.2 5.1

SELF-EMPLOYMENT

Self-employed workers, incorporated

5,283 5,734 5,704 - - - - - -

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

9,469 9,486 9,558 9,443 9,612 9,426 9,495 9,461 9,532

Footnotes
(1) Employed full-time workers are persons who usually work 35 hours or more per week.
(2) Employed part-time workers are persons who usually work less than 35 hours per week.

- Data not available.
NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-10. Selected unemployment indicators, seasonally adjusted
Characteristic Number of
unemployed persons
(in thousands)
Unemployment rates
Oct.
2015
Sept.
2016
Oct.
2016
Oct.
2015
June
2016
July
2016
Aug.
2016
Sept.
2016
Oct.
2016

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

7,899 7,939 7,787 5.0 4.9 4.9 4.9 5.0 4.9

16 to 19 years

887 945 922 15.8 16.0 15.6 15.7 15.8 15.6

16 to 17 years

347 385 407 18.0 17.0 15.3 16.7 17.3 19.6

18 to 19 years

542 573 513 14.8 15.5 15.9 15.2 15.2 13.5

20 years and over

7,012 6,994 6,865 4.6 4.5 4.5 4.5 4.5 4.5

20 to 24 years

1,453 1,242 1,278 9.4 8.7 9.0 8.1 8.1 8.4

25 years and over

5,592 5,759 5,595 4.1 4.0 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.0

25 to 54 years

4,412 4,446 4,286 4.4 4.1 4.1 4.3 4.3 4.2

25 to 34 years

1,852 1,855 1,839 5.3 5.1 5.0 5.2 5.2 5.1

35 to 44 years

1,349 1,363 1,287 4.1 3.7 3.5 4.1 4.1 3.9

45 to 54 years

1,211 1,229 1,160 3.6 3.5 3.6 3.6 3.6 3.4

55 years and over

1,209 1,279 1,333 3.5 3.5 3.7 3.5 3.6 3.7

Men, 16 years and over

4,279 4,329 4,312 5.1 4.9 5.0 5.0 5.1 5.1

16 to 19 years

476 504 541 16.7 17.1 16.5 17.5 16.5 17.9

16 to 17 years

197 197 210 20.2 18.3 15.0 17.9 18.8 21.9

18 to 19 years

284 316 335 15.1 16.9 17.4 17.5 15.6 16.2

20 years and over

3,803 3,825 3,771 4.7 4.5 4.6 4.5 4.7 4.6

20 to 24 years

850 726 775 10.6 9.4 10.1 9.3 9.2 9.8

25 years and over

2,968 3,106 3,004 4.1 3.9 4.0 4.0 4.2 4.1

25 to 54 years

2,334 2,355 2,248 4.3 4.0 4.1 4.1 4.3 4.1

25 to 34 years

1,039 1,003 999 5.5 5.1 5.0 5.0 5.2 5.2

35 to 44 years

669 723 665 3.8 3.5 3.5 3.8 4.1 3.8

45 to 54 years

625 629 585 3.5 3.3 3.7 3.5 3.5 3.3

55 years and over

634 751 755 3.4 3.8 3.8 3.6 3.9 3.9

Women, 16 years and over

3,620 3,610 3,475 4.9 4.9 4.7 4.9 4.8 4.7

16 to 19 years

411 441 381 14.9 14.8 14.8 13.7 15.0 13.3

16 to 17 years

150 188 197 15.8 15.6 15.6 15.5 15.9 17.7

18 to 19 years

258 257 178 14.4 14.0 14.2 12.8 14.8 10.3

20 years and over

3,209 3,169 3,094 4.5 4.5 4.3 4.5 4.4 4.3

20 to 24 years

603 516 502 8.1 7.9 7.8 6.8 7.0 6.9

25 years and over

2,624 2,652 2,591 4.1 4.1 3.9 4.2 4.1 4.0

25 to 54 years

2,078 2,091 2,038 4.4 4.3 4.0 4.6 4.4 4.3

25 to 34 years

813 852 841 5.1 5.2 5.0 5.4 5.1 5.1

35 to 44 years

679 640 622 4.5 4.1 3.5 4.4 4.2 4.1

45 to 54 years

586 599 575 3.7 3.7 3.4 3.8 3.8 3.6

55 years and over

560 550 570 3.4 3.4 3.4 3.4 3.3 3.4

MARITAL STATUS

Married men, spouse present

1,272 1,345 1,320 2.8 2.6 2.6 2.7 2.9 2.8

Married women, spouse present

1,075 1,101 1,091 3.0 3.2 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0

Women who maintain families(1)

795 680 652 7.5 7.3 7.2 7.9 6.4 6.1

FULL- OR PART-TIME STATUS

Full-time workers(2)

6,604 6,521 6,330 5.1 4.9 4.9 4.9 5.0 4.8

Part-time workers(3)

1,325 1,434 1,469 4.6 4.9 4.9 5.0 4.9 5.0

Footnotes
(1) Not seasonally adjusted.
(2) Full-time workers are unemployed persons who have expressed a desire to work full time (35 hours or more per week) or are on layoff from full-time jobs.
(3) Part-time workers are unemployed persons who have expressed a desire to work part time (less than 35 hours per week) or are on layoff from part-time jobs.

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-11. Unemployed persons by reason for unemployment
[Numbers in thousands]
Reason Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Oct.
2015
Sept.
2016
Oct.
2016
Oct.
2015
June
2016
July
2016
Aug.
2016
Sept.
2016
Oct.
2016

NUMBER OF UNEMPLOYED

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

3,576 3,536 3,352 3,944 3,776 3,739 3,791 3,967 3,749

On temporary layoff

645 694 673 936 1,097 997 998 1,075 994

Not on temporary layoff

2,931 2,842 2,679 3,007 2,679 2,743 2,792 2,892 2,755

Permanent job losers

2,077 1,968 1,856 2,115 1,917 2,021 2,005 1,986 1,907

Persons who completed temporary jobs

854 874 823 893 763 722 787 906 847

Job leavers

801 991 975 790 828 824 885 893 949

Reentrants

2,445 2,367 2,374 2,435 2,268 2,298 2,271 2,333 2,354

New entrants

775 764 746 812 902 826 861 805 793

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

47.1 46.2 45.0 49.4 48.6 48.6 48.6 49.6 47.8

On temporary layoff

8.5 9.1 9.0 11.7 14.1 13.0 12.8 13.4 12.7

Not on temporary layoff

38.6 37.1 36.0 37.7 34.5 35.7 35.8 36.2 35.1

Job leavers

10.5 12.9 13.1 9.9 10.7 10.7 11.3 11.2 12.1

Reentrants

32.2 30.9 31.9 30.5 29.2 29.9 29.1 29.2 30.0

New entrants

10.2 10.0 10.0 10.2 11.6 10.7 11.0 10.1 10.1

UNEMPLOYED AS A PERCENT OF THE
CIVILIAN LABOR FORCE

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

2.3 2.2 2.1 2.5 2.4 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.3

Job leavers

0.5 0.6 0.6 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.6 0.6

Reentrants

1.6 1.5 1.5 1.6 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.5 1.5

New entrants

0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-12. Unemployed persons by duration of unemployment
[Numbers in thousands]
Duration Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Oct.
2015
Sept.
2016
Oct.
2016
Oct.
2015
June
2016
July
2016
Aug.
2016
Sept.
2016
Oct.
2016

NUMBER OF UNEMPLOYED

Less than 5 weeks

2,160 2,562 2,218 2,339 2,418 2,160 2,290 2,574 2,397

5 to 14 weeks

2,136 2,092 2,142 2,295 2,140 2,266 2,329 2,234 2,296

15 weeks and over

3,301 3,004 3,087 3,359 3,108 3,170 3,062 3,131 3,144

15 to 26 weeks

1,211 1,083 1,157 1,227 1,129 1,150 1,056 1,157 1,165

27 weeks and over

2,090 1,921 1,930 2,132 1,979 2,020 2,006 1,974 1,979

Average (mean) duration, in weeks

28.9 27.2 27.9 28.0 27.7 28.1 27.6 27.5 27.2

Median duration, in weeks

11.7 10.2 10.5 11.1 10.3 11.6 11.2 10.3 10.2

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION

Less than 5 weeks

28.4 33.5 29.8 29.3 31.5 28.4 29.8 32.4 30.6

5 to 14 weeks

28.1 27.3 28.8 28.7 27.9 29.8 30.3 28.1 29.3

15 weeks and over

43.5 39.2 41.5 42.0 40.5 41.7 39.9 39.4 40.1

15 to 26 weeks

15.9 14.1 15.5 15.4 14.7 15.1 13.8 14.6 14.9

27 weeks and over

27.5 25.1 25.9 26.7 25.8 26.6 26.1 24.9 25.2

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-13. Employed and unemployed persons by occupation, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Occupation Employed Unemployed Unemployment
rates
Oct.
2015
Oct.
2016
Oct.
2015
Oct.
2016
Oct.
2015
Oct.
2016

Total, 16 years and over(1)

149,716 152,335 7,597 7,447 4.8 4.7

Management, professional, and related occupations

58,456 59,766 1,312 1,506 2.2 2.5

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

24,387 24,922 552 646 2.2 2.5

Professional and related occupations

34,070 34,844 760 860 2.2 2.4

Service occupations

25,890 27,013 1,800 1,749 6.5 6.1

Sales and office occupations

33,273 33,538 1,688 1,474 4.8 4.2

Sales and related occupations

15,330 15,757 858 730 5.3 4.4

Office and administrative support occupations

17,943 17,781 831 744 4.4 4.0

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

14,036 13,993 887 873 5.9 5.9

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

1,106 1,037 137 78 11.0 7.0

Construction and extraction occupations

7,773 7,933 592 594 7.1 7.0

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

5,156 5,023 158 202 3.0 3.9

Production, transportation, and material moving
occupations

18,061 18,025 1,112 1,078 5.8 5.6

Production occupations

8,579 8,410 429 488 4.8 5.5

Transportation and material moving occupations

9,482 9,614 683 590 6.7 5.8

Footnotes
(1) Persons with no previous work experience and persons whose last job was in the U.S. Armed Forces are included in the unemployed total.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-14. Unemployed persons by industry and class of worker, not seasonally adjusted
Industry and class of worker Number of
unemployed
persons
(in thousands)
Unemployment
rates
Oct.
2015
Oct.
2016
Oct.
2015
Oct.
2016

Total, 16 years and over(1)

7,597 7,447 4.8 4.7

Nonagricultural private wage and salary workers

5,860 5,689 4.7 4.5

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

89 46 9.4 5.8

Construction

534 512 6.2 5.7

Manufacturing

634 693 4.0 4.3

Durable goods

409 432 4.1 4.3

Nondurable goods

225 260 3.8 4.3

Wholesale and retail trade

1,006 898 5.0 4.4

Transportation and utilities

269 251 4.1 3.7

Information

82 114 3.0 4.1

Financial activities

227 264 2.4 2.7

Professional and business services

873 924 5.4 5.5

Education and health services

791 795 3.4 3.4

Leisure and hospitality

1,080 928 8.0 6.7

Other services

275 263 4.2 4.0

Agriculture and related private wage and salary workers

130 85 7.4 5.3

Government workers

506 470 2.4 2.2

Self-employed workers, unincorporated, and unpaid family workers

326 456 3.3 4.5

Footnotes
(1) Persons with no previous work experience and persons whose last job was in the U.S. Armed Forces are included in the unemployed total.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-15. Alternative measures of labor underutilization
[Percent]
Measure Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Oct.
2015
Sept.
2016
Oct.
2016
Oct.
2015
June
2016
July
2016
Aug.
2016
Sept.
2016
Oct.
2016

U-1 Persons unemployed 15 weeks or longer, as a percent of the civilian labor force

2.1 1.9 1.9 2.1 2.0 2.0 1.9 2.0 2.0

U-2 Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs, as a percent of the civilian labor force

2.3 2.2 2.1 2.5 2.4 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.3

U-3 Total unemployed, as a percent of the civilian labor force (official unemployment rate)

4.8 4.8 4.7 5.0 4.9 4.9 4.9 5.0 4.9

U-4 Total unemployed plus discouraged workers, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus discouraged workers

5.2 5.1 5.0 5.4 5.2 5.2 5.3 5.3 5.2

U-5 Total unemployed, plus discouraged workers, plus all other persons marginally attached to the labor force, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force

6.0 5.9 5.7 6.2 6.0 6.0 5.9 6.0 5.9

U-6 Total unemployed, plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force, plus total employed part time for economic reasons, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force

9.5 9.3 9.2 9.8 9.6 9.7 9.7 9.7 9.5

NOTE: Persons marginally attached to the labor force are those who currently are neither working nor looking for work but indicate that they want and are available for a job and have looked for work sometime in the past 12 months. Discouraged workers, a subset of the marginally attached, have given a job-market related reason for not currently looking for work. Persons employed part time for economic reasons are those who want and are available for full-time work but have had to settle for a part-time schedule. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-16. Persons not in the labor force and multiple jobholders by sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Category Total Men Women
Oct.
2015
Oct.
2016
Oct.
2015
Oct.
2016
Oct.
2015
Oct.
2016

NOT IN THE LABOR FORCE

Total not in the labor force

94,228 94,539 37,902 37,898 56,326 56,640

Persons who currently want a job

5,703 5,613 2,604 2,633 3,099 2,979

Marginally attached to the labor force(1)

1,916 1,700 1,017 880 899 820

Discouraged workers(2)

665 487 375 288 290 199

Other persons marginally attached to the labor force(3)

1,250 1,213 642 592 609 621

MULTIPLE JOBHOLDERS

Total multiple jobholders(4)

7,620 8,050 3,741 3,878 3,879 4,172

Percent of total employed

5.1 5.3 4.7 4.8 5.5 5.8

Primary job full time, secondary job part time

4,084 4,373 2,223 2,423 1,861 1,950

Primary and secondary jobs both part time

2,045 2,115 688 706 1,358 1,409

Primary and secondary jobs both full time

196 329 137 155 59 174

Hours vary on primary or secondary job

1,249 1,185 667 581 582 604

Footnotes
(1) Data refer to persons who want a job, have searched for work during the prior 12 months, and were available to take a job during the reference week, but had not looked for work in the past 4 weeks.
(2) Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for reasons such as thinks no work available, could not find work, lacks schooling or training, employer thinks too young or old, and other types of discrimination.
(3) Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for such reasons as school or family responsibilities, ill health, and transportation problems, as well as a number for whom reason for nonparticipation was not determined.
(4) Includes a small number of persons who work part time on their primary job and full time on their secondary job(s), not shown separately.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-1. Employees on nonfarm payrolls by industry sector and selected industry detail
[In thousands]
Industry Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Oct.
2015
Aug.
2016
Sept.
2016(p)
Oct.
2016(p)
Oct.
2015
Aug.
2016
Sept.
2016(p)
Oct.
2016(p)
Change from:
Sept.2016 - Oct.2016(p)

Total nonfarm

143,689 144,413 145,029 145,928 142,595 144,600 144,791 144,952 161

Total private

121,284 123,288 122,886 123,328 120,568 122,387 122,575 122,717 142

Goods-producing

19,845 19,974 19,884 19,861 19,581 19,601 19,615 19,615 0

Mining and logging

792 690 688 691 786 681 680 678 -2

Logging

53.5 51.3 50.7 50.7 50.9 49.1 49.1 49.0 -0.1

Mining

738.9 638.8 637.2 640.0 735.4 631.8 631.0 628.7 -2.3

Oil and gas extraction

186.8 173.9 171.9 172.3 186.7 172.4 172.1 171.9 -0.2

Mining, except oil and gas

197.8 185.2 184.3 184.2 194.6 180.4 181.0 180.9 -0.1

Coal mining

63.4 53.1 52.8 53.7 63.7 52.9 52.9 53.3 0.4

Metal ore mining

39.9 38.5 38.5 38.4 40.0 38.3 38.7 38.8 0.1

Nonmetallic mineral mining and quarrying

94.5 93.6 93.0 92.1 90.9 89.1 89.4 88.9 -0.5

Support activities for mining

354.3 279.7 281.0 283.5 354.1 279.0 277.9 275.9 -2.0

Construction

6,713 6,919 6,890 6,888 6,484 6,645 6,668 6,679 11

Construction of buildings

1,450.4 1,505.2 1,499.0 1,498.0 1,412.8 1,460.4 1,462.7 1,464.5 1.8

Residential building

713.0 749.6 754.7 756.1 691.3 727.9 734.7 737.3 2.6

Nonresidential building

737.4 755.6 744.3 741.9 721.5 732.5 728.0 727.2 -0.8

Heavy and civil engineering construction

1,000.0 991.1 995.7 997.9 937.2 927.3 932.6 936.0 3.4

Specialty trade contractors

4,262.4 4,422.4 4,394.8 4,391.7 4,134.4 4,257.0 4,272.6 4,278.6 6.0

Residential specialty trade contractors

1,848.9 1,949.2 1,939.6 1,930.1 1,787.1 1,872.5 1,878.9 1,880.8 1.9

Nonresidential specialty trade contractors

2,413.5 2,473.2 2,455.2 2,461.6 2,347.3 2,384.5 2,393.7 2,397.8 4.1

Manufacturing

12,340 12,365 12,306 12,282 12,311 12,275 12,267 12,258 -9

Durable goods

7,748 7,705 7,670 7,662 7,745 7,669 7,662 7,657 -5

Wood products

384.2 387.5 384.1 386.1 382.0 383.0 382.0 384.1 2.1

Nonmetallic mineral products

404.7 407.8 407.2 408.3 399.2 399.3 401.2 402.5 1.3

Primary metals

386.5 372.7 372.5 371.4 386.6 372.8 372.2 371.4 -0.8

Fabricated metal products

1,445.5 1,425.1 1,419.4 1,420.3 1,443.9 1,422.2 1,420.9 1,420.6 -0.3

Machinery

1,107.7 1,083.0 1,077.7 1,072.8 1,107.8 1,080.0 1,079.0 1,072.8 -6.2

Computer and electronic products

1,045.9 1,041.3 1,032.8 1,030.8 1,048.1 1,035.5 1,033.5 1,032.5 -1.0

Computer and peripheral equipment

161.5 163.7 162.2 161.8 161.4 161.8 162.3 162.7 0.4

Communications equipment

86.7 84.7 83.9 83.8 86.7 84.5 84.1 83.9 -0.2

Semiconductors and electronic components

365.4 361.9 357.4 356.1 366.5 359.7 357.9 356.6 -1.3

Electronic instruments

397.4 396.2 394.4 393.9 398.7 394.6 394.2 394.1 -0.1

Miscellaneous computer and electronic products

34.9 34.8 34.9 35.2 34.8 34.8 35.0 35.1 0.1

Electrical equipment and appliances

384.1 382.7 382.8 381.7 383.9 381.3 382.5 382.2 -0.3

Transportation equipment(1)

1,607.0 1,612.9 1,607.1 1,600.9 1,611.9 1,608.5 1,605.2 1,602.9 -2.3

Motor vehicles and parts(2)

919.8 932.4 928.4 925.3 922.0 928.4 926.2 926.1 -0.1

Furniture and related products

385.3 392.0 387.7 388.7 386.7 387.9 386.8 388.0 1.2

Miscellaneous durable goods manufacturing

597.1 599.6 598.7 601.0 594.4 598.4 599.0 600.3 1.3

Nondurable goods

4,592 4,660 4,636 4,620 4,566 4,606 4,605 4,601 -4

Food manufacturing

1,517.5 1,575.1 1,556.5 1,549.3 1,501.7 1,538.3 1,533.6 1,535.9 2.3

Textile mills

115.2 112.3 111.6 111.9 115.1 112.4 112.2 112.2 0.0

Textile product mills

117.9 115.3 116.6 115.1 117.1 115.1 116.7 114.3 -2.4

Apparel

137.0 131.0 133.2 131.0 136.0 130.9 131.6 129.8 -1.8

Paper and paper products

372.5 372.0 369.2 367.5 373.1 370.4 369.1 368.2 -0.9

Printing and related support activities

449.0 440.4 440.1 440.0 447.9 439.9 440.5 439.3 -1.2

Petroleum and coal products

117.9 117.9 117.0 118.1 116.3 115.6 115.6 115.4 -0.2

Chemicals

808.8 822.3 818.3 818.7 809.4 820.2 820.6 821.7 1.1

Plastics and rubber products

687.9 693.5 690.8 685.1 687.3 690.4 690.4 688.2 -2.2

Miscellaneous nondurable goods manufacturing

268.4 280.6 282.6 282.9 261.9 273.1 275.0 276.2 1.2

Private service-providing

101,439 103,314 103,002 103,467 100,987 102,786 102,960 103,102 142

Trade, transportation, and utilities

27,109 27,356 27,276 27,457 27,011 27,378 27,410 27,423 13

Wholesale trade

5,896.4 5,952.1 5,941.7 5,953.0 5,887.6 5,927.4 5,939.3 5,945.6 6.3

Durable goods

2,940.9 2,963.7 2,952.4 2,949.5 2,937.9 2,948.4 2,951.1 2,948.3 -2.8

Nondurable goods

2,049.4 2,073.5 2,076.5 2,088.5 2,044.0 2,066.4 2,075.5 2,083.5 8.0

Electronic markets and agents and brokers

906.1 914.9 912.8 915.0 905.7 912.6 912.7 913.8 1.1

Retail trade

15,759.2 15,965.5 15,839.4 15,994.0 15,702.4 15,971.5 15,993.7 15,992.6 -1.1

Motor vehicle and parts dealers

1,960.6 2,014.8 2,011.0 2,011.7 1,952.0 1,999.4 2,004.3 2,009.5 5.2

Automobile dealers

1,261.9 1,298.1 1,298.3 1,301.6 1,255.9 1,292.2 1,295.3 1,299.4 4.1

Other motor vehicle dealers

146.5 157.3 153.6 151.0 146.6 150.8 151.3 151.6 0.3

Auto parts, accessories, and tire stores

552.2 559.4 559.1 559.1 549.5 556.4 557.7 558.4 0.7

Furniture and home furnishings stores

473.4 482.4 479.5 487.1 468.0 486.2 484.8 482.0 -2.8

Electronics and appliance stores

536.3 514.8 518.1 517.8 528.3 524.6 525.5 514.6 -10.9

Building material and garden supply stores

1,222.2 1,298.0 1,266.8 1,265.2 1,241.7 1,293.5 1,289.1 1,291.1 2.0

Food and beverage stores

3,077.3 3,127.5 3,105.9 3,113.1 3,072.3 3,107.4 3,109.4 3,111.4 2.0

Health and personal care stores

1,031.2 1,045.1 1,042.5 1,052.3 1,027.9 1,047.8 1,048.9 1,051.3 2.4

Gasoline stations

912.3 938.6 936.6 933.9 910.3 923.0 930.9 931.5 0.6

Clothing and clothing accessories stores

1,385.0 1,372.0 1,340.6 1,358.8 1,369.6 1,372.5 1,381.4 1,365.8 -15.6

Sporting goods, hobby, book, and music stores

621.7 615.6 612.0 622.4 616.4 627.8 625.8 627.0 1.2

General merchandise stores

3,153.3 3,172.5 3,155.6 3,224.5 3,165.9 3,209.3 3,217.5 3,227.3 9.8

Department stores

1,314.0 1,294.4 1,280.7 1,315.6 1,326.9 1,320.0 1,322.9 1,325.7 2.8

Other general merchandise stores

1,839.3 1,878.1 1,874.9 1,908.9 1,838.9 1,889.3 1,894.7 1,901.6 6.9

Miscellaneous store retailers

852.0 852.1 837.2 855.0 828.1 841.5 838.4 841.9 3.5

Nonstore retailers

533.9 532.1 533.6 552.2 521.9 538.5 537.7 539.2 1.5

Transportation and warehousing

4,892.9 4,871.4 4,930.7 4,945.9 4,860.5 4,915.0 4,911.9 4,919.4 7.5

Air transportation

461.8 475.9 472.8 475.3 462.2 472.7 473.1 475.6 2.5

Rail transportation

236.4 217.4 217.0 217.0 236.5 216.8 216.3 216.7 0.4

Water transportation

63.0 65.0 62.6 60.5 62.6 62.5 61.7 60.6 -1.1

Truck transportation

1,473.9 1,480.4 1,478.2 1,480.3 1,456.0 1,459.1 1,460.9 1,463.9 3.0

Transit and ground passenger transportation

492.5 421.5 476.6 481.6 474.8 479.4 465.8 465.0 -0.8

Pipeline transportation

50.0 48.0 47.7 47.7 50.0 48.0 47.9 47.7 -0.2

Scenic and sightseeing transportation

32.3 41.0 36.3 31.7 32.1 30.7 30.4 30.5 0.1

Support activities for transportation

654.7 654.2 655.7 658.1 650.3 652.3 654.6 653.4 -1.2

Couriers and messengers

589.0 600.8 609.9 610.2 605.7 627.6 630.6 632.1 1.5

Warehousing and storage

839.3 867.2 873.9 883.5 830.3 865.9 870.6 873.9 3.3

Utilities

560.5 567.4 564.2 564.4 560.6 564.5 564.7 565.6 0.9

Information

2,770 2,788 2,764 2,778 2,771 2,776 2,777 2,781 4

Publishing industries, except Internet

725.7 732.1 727.2 726.8 724.6 728.8 726.8 725.2 -1.6

Motion picture and sound recording industries

405.9 427.7 413.4 429.8 410.2 419.6 424.8 433.4 8.6

Broadcasting, except Internet

279.2 276.6 276.4 277.1 278.5 277.5 276.7 276.7 0.0

Telecommunications

814.0 788.4 783.7 779.7 813.1 788.0 785.3 780.8 -4.5

Data processing, hosting and related services

298.4 299.9 299.9 300.4 298.8 300.0 300.3 300.5 0.2

Other information services

246.4 263.4 263.0 264.3 245.4 261.7 263.2 264.4 1.2

Financial activities

8,170 8,380 8,328 8,344 8,164 8,318 8,322 8,336 14

Finance and insurance

6,068.5 6,190.3 6,166.7 6,184.8 6,067.6 6,173.4 6,174.8 6,183.6 8.8

Monetary authorities - central bank

17.9 18.0 17.8 17.9 17.8 17.9 17.8 17.8 0.0

Credit intermediation and related
activities

2,567.6 2,619.7 2,608.8 2,613.9 2,569.4 2,610.2 2,612.8 2,616.1 3.3

Depository credit intermediation(1)

1,670.9 1,697.1 1,687.5 1,686.9 1,673.8 1,690.0 1,691.2 1,690.7 -0.5

Commercial banking

1,260.4 1,272.0 1,265.6 1,263.2 1,263.8 1,267.9 1,268.0 1,266.1 -1.9

Nondepository credit intermediation

601.2 609.3 611.0 614.9 599.0 608.1 610.9 613.7 2.8

Activities related to credit intermediation

295.5 313.3 310.3 312.1 296.7 312.2 310.6 311.7 1.1

Securities, commodity contracts, investments, and funds and trusts

917.1 939.8 931.2 930.8 916.6 933.9 930.5 928.3 -2.2

Insurance carriers and related activities

2,565.9 2,612.8 2,608.9 2,622.2 2,563.8 2,611.4 2,613.7 2,621.4 7.7

Real estate and rental and leasing

2,101.1 2,190.1 2,161.5 2,158.8 2,095.9 2,144.1 2,147.5 2,151.9 4.4

Real estate

1,533.5 1,594.7 1,580.2 1,584.0 1,529.4 1,569.0 1,574.2 1,578.4 4.2

Rental and leasing services

543.7 571.8 558.1 551.3 542.6 551.7 550.0 550.1 0.1

Lessors of nonfinancial intangible assets

23.9 23.6 23.2 23.5 23.9 23.4 23.3 23.4 0.1

Professional and business services

20,050 20,422 20,447 20,594 19,873 20,294 20,372 20,415 43

Professional and technical services

8,694.5 8,936.2 8,899.0 8,977.3 8,714.1 8,956.6 8,986.6 9,003.5 16.9

Legal services

1,125.4 1,128.0 1,121.8 1,127.5 1,123.8 1,125.1 1,125.4 1,125.3 -0.1

Accounting and bookkeeping services

938.7 960.5 959.6 975.4 998.3 1,026.2 1,033.1 1,036.6 3.5

Architectural and engineering services

1,431.6 1,460.8 1,447.8 1,454.5 1,423.0 1,443.3 1,444.9 1,447.9 3.0

Specialized design services

137.7 145.8 143.4 146.2 136.1 145.3 144.9 145.0 0.1

Computer systems design and related services

1,952.5 2,020.2 2,008.6 2,032.5 1,945.7 2,009.1 2,016.0 2,024.3 8.3

Management and technical consulting services

1,294.5 1,352.9 1,361.4 1,379.2 1,282.8 1,349.7 1,364.9 1,369.6 4.7

Scientific research and development services

659.2 681.6 671.8 673.9 661.4 676.7 675.1 675.7 0.6

Advertising and related services

491.2 499.4 496.9 498.0 488.3 497.6 497.4 496.0 -1.4

Other professional and technical services

663.7 687.0 687.7 690.1 654.9 683.7 684.8 683.0 -1.8

Management of companies and enterprises

2,234.5 2,285.5 2,278.0 2,278.8 2,235.1 2,274.8 2,277.0 2,281.1 4.1

Administrative and waste services

9,121.3 9,199.8 9,269.9 9,338.2 8,924.2 9,062.3 9,108.3 9,130.3 22.0

Administrative and support services

8,719.1 8,782.6 8,857.0 8,924.6 8,524.0 8,652.5 8,698.5 8,718.2 19.7

Office administrative services

475.7 497.3 497.2 500.1 473.6 495.8 497.3 499.2 1.9

Facilities support services

145.2 143.0 144.4 144.7 144.7 143.5 144.3 144.1 -0.2

Employment services(1)

3,696.4 3,620.2 3,713.5 3,763.9 3,579.8 3,592.3 3,626.9 3,635.0 8.1

Temporary help services

3,018.1 2,942.2 3,025.1 3,071.4 2,918.5 2,920.1 2,951.1 2,957.5 6.4

Business support services

912.4 911.3 920.3 935.1 900.2 921.4 925.4 922.8 -2.6

Travel arrangement and reservation services

203.4 207.7 205.1 204.6 203.4 205.4 204.8 205.0 0.2

Investigation and security services

885.4 902.6 904.5 909.7 872.9 900.0 897.2 900.4 3.2

Services to buildings and dwellings

2,081.8 2,176.3 2,141.6 2,131.0 2,035.1 2,069.1 2,074.8 2,082.0 7.2

Other support services

318.8 324.2 330.4 335.5 314.2 325.0 327.8 329.6 1.8

Waste management and remediation services

402.2 417.2 412.9 413.6 400.2 409.8 409.8 412.1 2.3

Education and health services

22,470 22,424 22,731 23,060 22,270 22,770 22,809 22,861 52

Educational services

3,642.2 3,217.5 3,518.6 3,740.3 3,482.6 3,543.6 3,560.0 3,573.5 13.5

Health care and social assistance

18,827.9 19,206.3 19,211.9 19,319.9 18,786.9 19,226.8 19,248.6 19,287.7 39.1

Health care(3)

15,261.9 15,608.7 15,604.4 15,675.5 15,232.6 15,588.1 15,617.4 15,647.9 30.5

Ambulatory health care services

6,973.3 7,167.1 7,172.1 7,227.7 6,951.7 7,160.6 7,184.1 7,202.6 18.5

Offices of physicians

2,566.7 2,619.3 2,622.3 2,639.7 2,560.1 2,618.1 2,626.1 2,629.6 3.5

Offices of dentists

918.1 943.2 940.8 949.2 915.7 940.2 944.1 946.6 2.5

Offices of other health practitioners

822.6 871.6 866.2 877.9 821.6 868.4 870.2 874.5 4.3

Outpatient care centers

754.4 785.7 789.7 795.6 753.8 785.7 790.6 794.8 4.2

Medical and diagnostic laboratories

259.7 258.9 258.0 260.5 261.1 259.2 259.5 260.4 0.9

Home health care services

1,356.0 1,393.5 1,400.6 1,409.4 1,346.8 1,395.6 1,400.2 1,404.2 4.0

Other ambulatory health care services

295.8 294.9 294.5 295.4 292.5 293.4 293.5 292.5 -1.0

Hospitals

4,979.8 5,101.5 5,107.8 5,121.3 4,973.0 5,098.7 5,104.5 5,117.2 12.7

Nursing and residential care facilities

3,308.8 3,340.1 3,324.5 3,326.5 3,307.9 3,328.8 3,328.8 3,328.1 -0.7

Nursing care facilities

1,658.8 1,661.8 1,657.2 1,656.1 1,657.1 1,657.2 1,657.3 1,655.0 -2.3

Residential mental health facilities

607.8 614.6 612.7 613.5 607.6 612.8 613.2 614.2 1.0

Community care facilities for the elderly

880.8 899.4 890.8 892.5 881.9 895.7 894.2 894.5 0.3

Other residential care facilities

161.4 164.3 163.8 164.4 161.3 163.1 164.1 164.4 0.3

Social assistance

3,566.0 3,597.6 3,607.5 3,644.4 3,554.3 3,638.7 3,631.2 3,639.8 8.6

Individual and family services

2,177.3 2,232.7 2,223.6 2,241.0 2,180.4 2,234.5 2,237.8 2,244.9 7.1

Emergency and other relief services

155.5 159.6 158.4 158.4 156.1 159.8 159.0 159.0 0.0

Vocational rehabilitation services

334.3 336.4 332.2 333.4 334.3 333.7 334.3 335.6 1.3

Child day care services

898.9 868.9 893.3 911.6 883.5 910.7 900.1 900.4 0.3

Leisure and hospitality

15,233 16,209 15,756 15,516 15,261 15,548 15,555 15,565 10

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

2,150.4 2,533.0 2,299.7 2,186.3 2,185.0 2,248.3 2,226.9 2,230.8 3.9

Performing arts and spectator sports

471.9 514.0 494.1 469.4 465.1 482.9 467.4 464.6 -2.8

Museums, historical sites, and similar institutions

154.3 171.7 159.6 158.3 154.1 159.5 158.3 158.1 -0.2

Amusements, gambling, and recreation

1,524.2 1,847.3 1,646.0 1,558.6 1,565.8 1,605.9 1,601.2 1,608.1 6.9

Accommodation and food services

13,082.1 13,675.5 13,456.0 13,330.0 13,076.1 13,300.1 13,327.9 13,334.2 6.3

Accommodation

1,909.1 2,068.1 1,971.8 1,914.7 1,920.0 1,929.0 1,930.5 1,926.9 -3.6

Food services and drinking places

11,173.0 11,607.4 11,484.2 11,415.3 11,156.1 11,371.1 11,397.4 11,407.3 9.9

Other services

5,637 5,735 5,700 5,718 5,637 5,702 5,715 5,721 6

Repair and maintenance

1,287.2 1,286.2 1,283.8 1,290.9 1,282.7 1,283.7 1,285.2 1,289.9 4.7

Personal and laundry services

1,411.5 1,443.5 1,446.2 1,446.4 1,411.9 1,439.5 1,445.8 1,446.8 1.0

Membership associations and organizations

2,938.4 3,005.7 2,970.1 2,980.7 2,941.9 2,978.6 2,983.9 2,983.9 0.0

Government

22,405 21,125 22,143 22,600 22,027 22,213 22,216 22,235 19

Federal

2,750.0 2,805.0 2,805.0 2,801.0 2,752.0 2,797.0 2,803.0 2,815.0 12.0

Federal, except U.S. Postal Service

2,156.9 2,195.6 2,194.0 2,191.7 2,157.5 2,184.9 2,188.3 2,199.4 11.1

U.S. Postal Service

593.0 609.0 611.1 609.7 594.3 612.2 614.2 615.1 0.9

State government

5,280.0 4,813.0 5,157.0 5,288.0 5,114.0 5,116.0 5,120.0 5,123.0 3.0

State government education

2,609.9 2,126.6 2,485.4 2,620.7 2,435.7 2,440.8 2,447.9 2,449.6 1.7

State government, excluding education

2,670.4 2,686.0 2,671.7 2,667.3 2,678.0 2,674.8 2,672.4 2,673.2 0.8

Local government

14,375.0 13,507.0 14,181.0 14,511.0 14,161.0 14,300.0 14,293.0 14,297.0 4.0

Local government education

8,071.5 6,907.5 7,767.0 8,124.9 7,821.4 7,889.1 7,877.9 7,874.9 -3.0

Local government, excluding education

6,303.9 6,599.7 6,414.1 6,386.3 6,339.7 6,410.9 6,414.6 6,421.9 7.3

Footnotes
(1) Includes other industries, not shown separately.
(2) Includes motor vehicles, motor vehicle bodies and trailers, and motor vehicle parts.
(3) Includes ambulatory health care services, hospitals, and nursing and residential care facilities.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2015 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-2. Average weekly hours and overtime of all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Oct.
2015
Aug.
2016
Sept.
2016(p)
Oct.
2016(p)

AVERAGE WEEKLY HOURS

Total private

34.5 34.3 34.4 34.4

Goods-producing

40.4 40.1 40.3 40.4

Mining and logging

44.1 43.0 43.5 44.3

Construction

39.5 38.8 39.2 39.2

Manufacturing

40.7 40.6 40.7 40.8

Durable goods

41.0 41.1 41.2 41.2

Nondurable goods

40.2 39.8 39.9 40.0

Private service-providing

33.4 33.2 33.3 33.3

Trade, transportation, and utilities

34.6 34.2 34.3 34.2

Wholesale trade

38.9 38.9 39.0 39.0

Retail trade

31.4 30.8 30.8 30.8

Transportation and warehousing

38.9 38.6 38.8 38.6

Utilities

42.6 42.3 42.5 43.1

Information

36.0 35.9 35.9 35.9

Financial activities

37.6 37.5 37.5 37.4

Professional and business services

36.2 36.0 36.1 36.2

Education and health services

32.8 32.9 32.9 32.9

Leisure and hospitality

26.3 26.0 26.1 26.1

Other services

31.9 31.9 31.9 32.0

AVERAGE OVERTIME HOURS

Manufacturing

3.3 3.3 3.3 3.3

Durable goods

3.2 3.3 3.3 3.3

Nondurable goods

3.4 3.2 3.3 3.2

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2015 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-3. Average hourly and weekly earnings of all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Average hourly earnings Average weekly earnings
Oct.
2015
Aug.
2016
Sept.
2016(p)
Oct.
2016(p)
Oct.
2015
Aug.
2016
Sept.
2016(p)
Oct.
2016(p)

Total private

$25.21 $25.74 $25.82 $25.92 $869.75 $882.88 $888.21 $891.65

Goods-producing

26.38 27.00 27.11 27.22 1,065.75 1,082.70 1,092.53 1,099.69

Mining and logging

31.39 31.75 32.05 32.56 1,384.30 1,365.25 1,394.18 1,442.41

Construction

27.51 28.24 28.31 28.39 1,086.65 1,095.71 1,109.75 1,112.89

Manufacturing

25.46 26.08 26.19 26.29 1,036.22 1,058.85 1,065.93 1,072.63

Durable goods

26.75 27.39 27.44 27.52 1,096.75 1,125.73 1,130.53 1,133.82

Nondurable goods

23.22 23.84 24.04 24.17 933.44 948.83 959.20 966.80

Private service-providing

24.94 25.45 25.52 25.61 833.00 844.94 849.82 852.81

Trade, transportation, and utilities

22.03 22.44 22.46 22.55 762.24 767.45 770.38 771.21

Wholesale trade

28.91 29.64 29.69 29.75 1,124.60 1,153.00 1,157.91 1,160.25

Retail trade

17.70 17.91 17.89 17.95 555.78 551.63 551.01 552.86

Transportation and warehousing

23.03 23.42 23.49 23.55 895.87 904.01 911.41 909.03

Utilities

37.53 38.35 38.33 39.10 1,598.78 1,622.21 1,629.03 1,685.21

Information

35.47 36.77 36.88 37.32 1,276.92 1,320.04 1,323.99 1,339.79

Financial activities

31.70 32.49 32.60 32.61 1,191.92 1,218.38 1,222.50 1,219.61

Professional and business services

30.30 30.90 30.97 31.07 1,096.86 1,112.40 1,118.02 1,124.73

Education and health services

25.44 25.73 25.83 25.89 834.43 846.52 849.81 851.78

Leisure and hospitality

14.45 14.98 15.05 15.12 380.04 389.48 392.81 394.63

Other services

22.63 22.97 23.01 23.19 721.90 732.74 734.02 742.08

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2015 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-4. Indexes of aggregate weekly hours and payrolls for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
[2007=100]
Industry Index of aggregate weekly hours(1) Index of aggregate weekly payrolls(2)
Oct.
2015
Aug.
2016
Sept.
2016(p)
Oct.
2016(p)
Percent change from:
Sept.
2016 - Oct.
2016(p)
Oct.
2015
Aug.
2016
Sept.
2016(p)
Oct.
2016(p)
Percent change from:
Sept.
2016 - Oct.
2016(p)

Total private

104.4 105.4 105.8 106.0 0.2 125.8 129.6 130.6 131.3 0.5

Goods-producing

90.1 89.5 90.1 90.3 0.2 107.5 109.3 110.4 111.1 0.6

Mining and logging

108.9 92.0 92.9 94.4 1.6 137.3 117.3 119.6 123.4 3.2

Construction

88.3 88.9 90.1 90.3 0.2 105.5 109.1 110.8 111.3 0.5

Manufacturing

90.1 89.7 89.8 90.0 0.2 106.7 108.7 109.4 110.0 0.5

Durable goods

89.4 88.7 88.9 88.8 -0.1 106.2 107.9 108.3 108.6 0.3

Nondurable goods

91.6 91.5 91.7 91.8 0.1 107.9 110.7 111.8 112.6 0.7

Private service-providing

108.5 109.8 110.3 110.5 0.2 131.5 135.8 136.8 137.5 0.5

Trade, transportation, and utilities

101.6 101.8 102.3 102.0 -0.3 120.5 123.0 123.6 123.8 0.2

Wholesale trade

99.9 100.6 101.1 101.2 0.1 120.6 124.4 125.2 125.6 0.3

Retail trade

100.2 99.9 100.1 100.1 0.0 117.2 118.3 118.3 118.7 0.3

Transportation and warehousing

108.2 108.6 109.1 108.7 -0.4 126.5 129.1 130.0 129.9 -0.1

Utilities

103.3 103.3 103.8 105.5 1.6 128.1 130.9 131.5 136.3 3.7

Information

91.1 91.0 91.0 91.2 0.2 115.1 119.2 119.6 121.2 1.3

Financial activities

100.5 102.2 102.2 102.1 -0.1 124.3 129.5 130.0 129.9 -0.1

Professional and business services

113.1 114.9 115.7 116.2 0.4 138.9 143.8 145.1 146.3 0.8

Education and health services

119.3 122.3 122.5 122.8 0.2 145.9 151.3 152.2 152.9 0.5

Leisure and hospitality

114.5 115.3 115.8 115.9 0.1 133.5 139.4 140.7 141.4 0.5

Other services

103.7 104.9 105.1 105.6 0.5 128.6 132.0 132.6 134.2 1.2

Footnotes
(1) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding 2007 annual average aggregate hours. Aggregate hours estimates are the product of estimates of average weekly hours and employment.
(2) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding 2007 annual average aggregate weekly payrolls. Aggregate payrolls estimates are the product of estimates of average hourly earnings, average weekly hours, and employment.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2015 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-5. Employment of women on nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Women employees (in thousands) Percent of all employees
Oct.
2015
Aug.
2016
Sept.
2016(p)
Oct.
2016(p)
Oct.
2015
Aug.
2016
Sept.
2016(p)
Oct.
2016(p)

Total nonfarm

70,404 71,835 71,892 71,966 49.4 49.7 49.7 49.6

Total private

57,797 59,043 59,137 59,210 47.9 48.2 48.2 48.2

Goods-producing

4,275 4,299 4,301 4,304 21.8 21.9 21.9 21.9

Mining and logging

110 99 100 100 14.0 14.5 14.7 14.7

Construction

811 832 835 841 12.5 12.5 12.5 12.6

Manufacturing

3,354 3,368 3,366 3,363 27.2 27.4 27.4 27.4

Durable goods

1,801 1,800 1,800 1,798 23.3 23.5 23.5 23.5

Nondurable goods

1,553 1,568 1,566 1,565 34.0 34.0 34.0 34.0

Private service-providing

53,522 54,744 54,836 54,906 53.0 53.3 53.3 53.3

Trade, transportation, and utilities

10,939 11,155 11,163 11,159 40.5 40.7 40.7 40.7

Wholesale trade

1,729.9 1,748.3 1,756.9 1,760.1 29.4 29.5 29.6 29.6

Retail trade

7,923.1 8,074.8 8,076.2 8,068.0 50.5 50.6 50.5 50.4

Transportation and warehousing

1,151.8 1,199.5 1,198.5 1,198.8 23.7 24.4 24.4 24.4

Utilities

134.2 131.9 131.2 131.7 23.9 23.4 23.2 23.3

Information

1,107 1,111 1,115 1,119 39.9 40.0 40.2 40.2

Financial activities

4,659 4,733 4,739 4,741 57.1 56.9 56.9 56.9

Professional and business services

8,860 9,111 9,159 9,167 44.6 44.9 45.0 44.9

Education and health services

17,138 17,566 17,576 17,622 77.0 77.1 77.1 77.1

Leisure and hospitality

7,881 8,080 8,082 8,095 51.6 52.0 52.0 52.0

Other services

2,938 2,988 3,002 3,003 52.1 52.4 52.5 52.5

Government

12,607 12,792 12,755 12,756 57.2 57.6 57.4 57.4

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2015 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-6. Employment of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
[In thousands]
Industry Oct.
2015
Aug.
2016
Sept.
2016(p)
Oct.
2016(p)

Total private

99,387 100,779 100,931 101,037

Goods-producing

14,124 14,088 14,098 14,092

Mining and logging

571 476 474 473

Construction

4,891 5,013 5,032 5,039

Manufacturing

8,662 8,599 8,592 8,580

Durable goods

5,338 5,261 5,255 5,252

Nondurable goods

3,324 3,338 3,337 3,328

Private service-providing

85,263 86,691 86,833 86,945

Trade, transportation, and utilities

22,714 22,985 23,010 23,022

Wholesale trade

4,721.9 4,743.7 4,753.3 4,758.2

Retail trade

13,332.3 13,546.7 13,562.8 13,563.4

Transportation and warehousing

4,210.7 4,241.1 4,239.8 4,244.6

Utilities

448.7 453.6 454.2 455.4

Information

2,249 2,236 2,234 2,242

Financial activities

6,319 6,455 6,459 6,473

Professional and business services

16,299 16,590 16,670 16,707

Education and health services

19,551 19,993 20,021 20,070

Leisure and hospitality

13,444 13,702 13,693 13,690

Other services

4,687 4,730 4,746 4,741

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2015 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-7. Average weekly hours and overtime of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry Oct.
2015
Aug.
2016
Sept.
2016(p)
Oct.
2016(p)

AVERAGE WEEKLY HOURS

Total private

33.7 33.6 33.6 33.6

Goods-producing

41.5 41.1 41.2 41.2

Mining and logging

45.4 45.1 45.7 45.8

Construction

40.5 39.4 39.7 39.6

Manufacturing

41.7 41.8 41.7 41.9

Durable goods

41.9 42.3 42.2 42.3

Nondurable goods

41.4 41.0 41.0 41.2

Private service-providing

32.4 32.3 32.4 32.4

Trade, transportation, and utilities

33.6 33.4 33.4 33.5

Wholesale trade

38.5 38.6 38.7 38.9

Retail trade

30.0 29.7 29.6 29.7

Transportation and warehousing

38.8 38.6 38.8 38.6

Utilities

42.1 42.5 42.7 43.3

Information

35.5 35.6 35.7 35.6

Financial activities

37.2 36.9 36.9 36.9

Professional and business services

35.5 35.4 35.4 35.5

Education and health services

32.1 32.2 32.2 32.2

Leisure and hospitality

25.0 24.8 24.9 24.9

Other services

30.7 30.8 30.8 30.8

AVERAGE OVERTIME HOURS

Manufacturing

4.2 4.3 4.3 4.3

Durable goods

4.2 4.4 4.4 4.4

Nondurable goods

4.3 4.1 4.1 4.1

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2015 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-8. Average hourly and weekly earnings of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry Average hourly earnings Average weekly earnings
Oct.
2015
Aug.
2016
Sept.
2016(p)
Oct.
2016(p)
Oct.
2015
Aug.
2016
Sept.
2016(p)
Oct.
2016(p)

Total private

$21.21 $21.62 $21.68 $21.72 $714.78 $726.43 $728.45 $729.79

Goods-producing

22.15 22.70 22.75 22.79 919.23 932.97 937.30 938.95

Mining and logging

26.65 27.03 27.03 27.04 1,209.91 1,219.05 1,235.27 1,238.43

Construction

25.39 26.14 26.21 26.24 1,028.30 1,029.92 1,040.54 1,039.10

Manufacturing

20.06 20.56 20.57 20.62 836.50 859.41 857.77 863.98

Durable goods

21.08 21.57 21.57 21.58 883.25 912.41 910.25 912.83

Nondurable goods

18.39 18.92 18.95 19.05 761.35 775.72 776.95 784.86

Private service-providing

21.01 21.40 21.46 21.50 680.72 691.22 695.30 696.60

Trade, transportation, and utilities

18.82 18.99 19.07 19.08 632.35 634.27 636.94 639.18

Wholesale trade

23.80 24.23 24.36 24.37 916.30 935.28 942.73 947.99

Retail trade

15.01 14.99 15.02 15.01 450.30 445.20 444.59 445.80

Transportation and warehousing

20.80 20.99 21.10 21.10 807.04 810.21 818.68 814.46

Utilities

34.53 35.53 35.48 35.96 1,453.71 1,510.03 1,515.00 1,557.07

Information

29.10 30.26 30.37 30.45 1,033.05 1,077.26 1,084.21 1,084.02

Financial activities

25.51 26.30 26.34 26.39 948.97 970.47 971.95 973.79

Professional and business services

25.01 25.52 25.59 25.63 887.86 903.41 905.89 909.87

Education and health services

22.27 22.55 22.58 22.63 714.87 726.11 727.08 728.69

Leisure and hospitality

12.50 12.93 12.98 13.00 312.50 320.66 323.20 323.70

Other services

19.14 19.28 19.30 19.40 587.60 593.82 594.44 597.52

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2015 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-9. Indexes of aggregate weekly hours and payrolls for production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
[2002=100]
Industry Index of aggregate weekly hours(2) Index of aggregate weekly payrolls(3)
Oct.
2015
Aug.
2016
Sept.
2016(p)
Oct.
2016(p)
Percent change from:
Sept.
2016 - Oct.
2016(p)
Oct.
2015
Aug.
2016
Sept.
2016(p)
Oct.
2016(p)
Percent change from:
Sept.
2016 - Oct.
2016(p)

Total private

111.6 112.8 113.0 113.1 0.1 158.2 163.0 163.7 164.2 0.3

Goods-producing

89.6 88.5 88.8 88.7 -0.1 121.5 123.0 123.6 123.8 0.2

Mining and logging

137.8 114.1 115.1 115.1 0.0 213.5 179.3 181.0 181.0 0.0

Construction

99.2 98.9 100.0 99.9 -0.1 136.0 139.6 141.6 141.6 0.0

Manufacturing

82.9 82.5 82.2 82.5 0.4 108.8 110.9 110.6 111.3 0.6

Durable goods

84.0 83.6 83.3 83.5 0.2 110.6 112.6 112.2 112.5 0.3

Nondurable goods

81.1 80.6 80.6 80.8 0.2 105.4 107.8 108.0 108.8 0.7

Private service-providing

117.6 119.3 119.8 120.0 0.2 169.5 175.0 176.3 176.9 0.3

Trade, transportation, and utilities

106.4 107.0 107.1 107.5 0.4 142.8 145.0 145.7 146.3 0.4

Wholesale trade

107.1 107.8 108.3 109.0 0.6 150.1 153.9 155.5 156.5 0.6

Retail trade

101.2 101.8 101.6 102.0 0.4 130.2 130.8 130.8 131.2 0.3

Transportation and warehousing

123.0 123.2 123.8 123.3 -0.4 162.3 164.1 165.7 165.1 -0.4

Utilities

96.6 98.6 99.2 100.8 1.6 139.2 146.2 146.9 151.4 3.1

Information

91.1 90.9 91.0 91.1 0.1 131.3 136.1 136.9 137.3 0.3

Financial activities

110.7 112.1 112.2 112.4 0.2 173.7 181.4 181.8 182.6 0.4

Professional and business services

129.7 131.6 132.3 132.9 0.5 193.0 199.9 201.4 202.7 0.6

Education and health services

133.8 137.2 137.4 137.8 0.3 196.7 204.3 204.8 205.8 0.5

Leisure and hospitality

123.1 124.5 124.9 124.9 0.0 174.8 182.8 184.1 184.3 0.1

Other services

100.9 102.2 102.5 102.4 -0.1 140.7 143.5 144.2 144.8 0.4

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(2) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding 2002 annual average aggregate hours. Aggregate hours estimates are the product of estimates of average weekly hours and employment.
(3) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding 2002 annual average aggregate weekly payrolls. Aggregate payrolls estimates are the product of estimates of average hourly earnings, average weekly hours, and employment.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2015 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


Last Modified Date: November 04, 2016