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Economic News Release
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CPS CPS Program Links
CES CES Program Links

Employment Situation News Release

Transmission of material in this news release is embargoed until		USDL-21-1930
8:30 a.m. (ET) Friday, November 5, 2021

Technical information: 
 Household data:	(202) 691-6378  *  cpsinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/cps
 Establishment data:	(202) 691-6555  *  cesinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/ces

Media contact:		(202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov

	
			THE EMPLOYMENT SITUATION -- OCTOBER 2021


Total nonfarm payroll employment rose by 531,000 in October, and the unemployment rate
edged down by 0.2 percentage point to 4.6 percent, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics 
reported today. Job growth was widespread, with notable job gains in leisure and 
hospitality, in professional and business services, in manufacturing, and in 
transportation and warehousing. Employment in public education declined over the month. 

This news release presents statistics from two monthly surveys. The household survey 
measures labor force status, including unemployment, by demographic characteristics. The
establishment survey measures nonfarm employment, hours, and earnings by industry. For
more information about the concepts and statistical methodology used in these two surveys,
see the Technical Note.

Household Survey Data

The unemployment rate edged down to 4.6 percent in October. The number of unemployed 
persons, at 7.4 million, continued to trend down. Both measures are down considerably
from their highs at the end of the February-April 2020 recession. However, they remain 
above their levels prior to the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic (3.5 percent and 5.7 
million, respectively, in February 2020). (See table A-1. See the box note at the end
of this news release for more information about how the household survey and its measures
were affected by the coronavirus pandemic.)

Among the major worker groups, the unemployment rate for adult men (4.3 percent) declined
in October. The jobless rates for adult women (4.4 percent), teenagers (11.9 percent),
Whites (4.0 percent), Blacks (7.9 percent), Asians (4.2 percent), and Hispanics (5.9 
percent) showed little or no change over the month. (See tables A-1, A-2, and A-3.)

Among the unemployed, the number of permanent job losers, at 2.1 million, changed little
in October but is 828,000 higher than in February 2020. The number of persons on temporary
layoff, at 1.1 million, was little changed over the month. This measure is down 
considerably from the high of 18.0 million in April 2020 but is 306,000 above the February
2020 level. (See table A-11.)

In October, the number of long-term unemployed (those jobless for 27 weeks or more) 
decreased by 357,000 to 2.3 million but is 1.2 million higher than in February 2020. The 
long-term unemployed accounted for 31.6 percent of the total unemployed in October. 
(See table A-12.)

The labor force participation rate was unchanged at 61.6 percent in October and has 
remained within a narrow range of 61.4 percent to 61.7 percent since June 2020. The 
participation rate is 1.7 percentage points lower than in February 2020. The employment-
population ratio, at 58.8 percent, was little changed over the month. This measure is up
from its low of 51.3 percent in April 2020 but remains below the figure of 61.1 percent in
February 2020. (See table A-1.)

The number of persons employed part time for economic reasons, at 4.4 million, was little
changed in October. These individuals, who would have preferred full-time employment, were
working part time because their hours had been reduced or they were unable to find full-
time jobs. This measure has essentially returned to its February 2020 level. (See table A-8.)

The number of persons not in the labor force who currently want a job was 6.0 million in 
October, essentially unchanged over the month but up by 968,000 since February 2020. These
individuals were not counted as unemployed because they were not actively looking for work
during the 4 weeks preceding the survey or were unavailable to take a job. (See table A-1.)

Among those not in the labor force who wanted a job, the number of persons marginally 
attached to the labor force was little changed at 1.7 million in October. These individuals
wanted and were available for work and had looked for a job sometime in the prior 12 
months but had not looked for work in the 4 weeks preceding the survey. The number of 
discouraged workers, a subset of the marginally attached who believed that no jobs were 
available for them, was essentially unchanged over the month at 455,000. (See Summary
table A.)

Household Survey Supplemental Data

In October, 11.6 percent of employed persons teleworked because of the coronavirus pandemic,
down from 13.2 percent in the prior month. These data refer to employed persons who 
teleworked or worked at home for pay at some point in the 4 weeks preceding the survey 
specifically because of the pandemic.

In October, 3.8 million persons reported that they had been unable to work because their 
employer closed or lost business due to the pandemic--that is, they did not work at all or
worked fewer hours at some point in the 4 weeks preceding the survey due to the pandemic. 
This measure is down from 5.0 million in September. Among those who reported in October that
they were unable to work because of pandemic-related closures or lost business, 13.3 percent
received at least some pay from their employer for the hours not worked, little changed from
the prior month.

Among those not in the labor force in October, 1.3 million persons were prevented from 
looking for work due to the pandemic. This measure is down from 1.6 million in September. 
(To be counted as unemployed, by definition, individuals must be either actively looking for
work or on temporary layoff.)

These supplemental data come from questions added to the household survey beginning in May 
2020 to help gauge the effects of the pandemic on the labor market. The data are not 
seasonally adjusted. Tables with estimates from the supplemental questions for all months 
are available online at www.bls.gov/cps/effects-of-the-coronavirus-covid-19-pandemic.htm.

Establishment Survey Data

Total nonfarm payroll employment rose by 531,000 in October. Thus far this year, monthly job
growth has averaged 582,000. Nonfarm employment has increased by 18.2 million since a recent
trough in April 2020 but is down by 4.2 million, or 2.8 percent, from its pre-pandemic level
in February 2020. Job growth was widespread in October, with notable job gains occurring in
leisure and hospitality, in professional and business services, in manufacturing, and in 
transportation and warehousing. Employment in public education declined over the month. (See
table B-1. See the box note at the end of this news release for more information about how
the establishment survey and its measures were affected by the coronavirus pandemic.)

Employment in leisure and hospitality increased by 164,000 in October and has risen by 2.4
million thus far in 2021. Over the month, employment rose by 119,000 in food services and 
drinking places and by 23,000 in accommodation. Employment in leisure and hospitality is 
down by 1.4 million, or 8.2 percent, since February 2020.

Professional and business services added 100,000 jobs in October, including a gain of 41,000
in temporary help services. Employment continued to rise in management and technical 
consulting services (+14,000), other professional and technical services (+9,000), 
scientific research and development services (+6,000), and legal services (+5,000). 
Employment in professional and business services is 215,000 below its level in February 2020.

Employment in manufacturing increased by 60,000 in October, led by a gain in motor vehicles 
and parts (+28,000). Employment also rose in fabricated metal products (+6,000), chemicals 
(+6,000), and printing and related support activities (+4,000). Manufacturing employment is 
down by 270,000 since February 2020.

Employment in transportation and warehousing increased by 54,000 in October and is 149,000 
above its February 2020 level. In October, job gains occurred in warehousing and storage 
(+20,000), transit and ground passenger transportation (+16,000), air transportation (+9,000),
and truck transportation (+8,000). Employment in couriers and messengers decreased by 5,000
in October, after increasing in the prior 3 months. 

Construction employment rose by 44,000 in October, following an increase of 30,000 in 
September. In October, employment increased in nonresidential specialty trade contractors 
(+19,000) and in heavy and civil engineering construction (+12,000). Construction employment
is 150,000 below its February 2020 level.

Health care added 37,000 jobs in October, with most of the gain occurring in home health 
care services (+16,000) and nursing care facilities (+12,000). Employment in health care is 
down by 460,000 since February 2020.

In October, employment in retail trade rose by 35,000. Employment gains occurred in food and
beverage stores (+16,000), general merchandise stores (+15,000), health and personal care
stores (+8,000), and electronics and appliance stores (+6,000). These gains were partially 
offset by a job loss in building material and garden supply stores (-10,000). Retail trade 
employment is 140,000 lower than its level in February 2020.

Employment in the other services industry increased by 33,000 in October, as personal and
laundry services added 28,000 jobs. Employment in other services is 169,000 below its 
February 2020 level. 

Employment in financial activities rose by 21,000 in October and has returned to its 
February 2020 level. Over the month, job growth occurred in real estate and rental and 
leasing (+12,000) and in securities, commodity contracts, and investments (+11,000). 

Employment in wholesale trade increased by 14,000 in October, reflecting a gain in the
durable goods component. Employment in wholesale trade is 158,000 lower than in February
2020.

Mining employment continued to trend up in October (+5,000) but is down by 87,000 from a 
peak in January 2019. 

In October, employment decreased in local government education and state government 
education (-43,000 and -22,000, respectively). Employment changed little in private 
education (+17,000). Recent employment changes in public and private education are 
challenging to interpret, as pandemic-related staffing fluctuations have distorted the normal
seasonal hiring and layoff patterns. Since February 2020, employment is down by 370,000 in
local government education, by 205,000 in state government education, and by 148,000 in 
private education.

Employment in information changed little in October (+10,000) but is 122,000 lower than in 
February 2020. 

In October, average hourly earnings for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls increased
by 11 cents to $30.96, following large increases in the prior 6 months. Over the past 12 
months, average hourly earnings have increased by 4.9 percent. In October, average hourly 
earnings of private-sector production and nonsupervisory employees rose by 10 cents to 
$26.26. (See tables B-3 and B-8.)

The average workweek for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls decreased by 0.1 hour to
34.7 hours. In manufacturing, the average workweek edged down by 0.1 hour to 40.3 hours, and
overtime edged down by 0.1 hour to 3.2 hours. The average workweek for production and 
nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls decreased by 0.1 hour to 34.1 hours. 
(See tables B-2 and B-7.)

The change in total nonfarm payroll employment for August was revised up by 117,000, from 
+366,000 to +483,000, and the change for September was revised up by 118,000, from +194,000
to +312,000. With these revisions, employment in August and September combined is 235,000 
higher than previously reported. (Monthly revisions result from additional reports received
from businesses and government agencies since the last published estimates and from the 
recalculation of seasonal factors.)

_____________
The Employment Situation for November is scheduled to be released on Friday, December 3, 
2021, at 8:30 a.m. (ET).


 _______________________________________________________________________________________
|											|
|                Coronavirus (COVID-19) Impact on October 2021 Household                |
|			      and Establishment Survey Data				|
|											|
| Data collection for both surveys was affected by the pandemic. In the establishment 	|
| survey, more data continued to be collected by web than in months prior to the 	|
| pandemic. In the household survey, for the safety of both interviewers and 		|
| respondents, in-person interviews were conducted only when telephone interviews could |
| not be done. 										|
|											|
| To reflect the net effect of the contribution of business births (openings) and 	|
| deaths (closings) to the establishment survey estimates, BLS uses a model to account  |
| for the relatively stable net employment change generated by business births and 	|
| deaths. Beginning with data for March 2020, BLS introduced special adjustments to its |
| birth-death model to better reflect the net contribution of births and deaths during  |
| the pandemic. BLS has determined that these adjustments are no longer necessary. 	|
| Therefore, beginning with data for October 2021, BLS reverted back to the methodology |
| used prior to the onset of the pandemic. More information about changes to the 	|
| establishment survey's birth-death model is available at 				|
| www.bls.gov/web/empsit/cesbdqa.htm#qa9. 						|
|											|
| As in previous months, some workers affected by the pandemic who should have been 	|
| classified in the household survey as unemployed on temporary layoff were instead 	|
| misclassified as employed but not at work. However, the share of responses that may   |
| have been misclassified was highest in the early months of the pandemic and has been  |
| considerably lower in recent months. 							|
|											|
| Since March 2020, BLS has published an estimate of what the unemployment rate might 	|
| have been had misclassified workers been included among the unemployed. Repeating 	|
| this same approach, the seasonally adjusted unemployment rate in October 2021 would 	|
| have been 0.1 percentage point higher than reported. However, this represents the 	|
| upper bound of our estimate of misclassification and probably overstates the size of  |
| the misclassification error. 								|
|											|
| More information about the impact of the pandemic on the two surveys is available at  |
| www.bls.gov/covid19/employment-situation-covid19-faq-october-2021.htm.		|
|_______________________________________________________________________________________|




HOUSEHOLD DATA
Summary table A. Household data, seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Category Oct.
2020
Aug.
2021
Sept.
2021
Oct.
2021
Change from:
Sept.
2021-
Oct.
2021

Employment status

Civilian noninstitutional population

260,925 261,611 261,766 261,908 142

Civilian labor force

160,718 161,537 161,354 161,458 104

Participation rate

61.6 61.7 61.6 61.6 0.0

Employed

149,669 153,154 153,680 154,039 359

Employment-population ratio

57.4 58.5 58.7 58.8 0.1

Unemployed

11,049 8,384 7,674 7,419 -255

Unemployment rate

6.9 5.2 4.8 4.6 -0.2

Not in labor force

100,207 100,074 100,412 100,450 38

Unemployment rates

Total, 16 years and over

6.9 5.2 4.8 4.6 -0.2

Adult men (20 years and over)

6.7 5.1 4.7 4.3 -0.4

Adult women (20 years and over)

6.5 4.8 4.2 4.4 0.2

Teenagers (16 to 19 years)

14.0 11.2 11.5 11.9 0.4

White

6.0 4.5 4.2 4.0 -0.2

Black or African American

10.8 8.8 7.9 7.9 0.0

Asian

7.6 4.6 4.2 4.2 0.0

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

8.8 6.4 6.3 5.9 -0.4

Total, 25 years and over

6.2 4.5 4.2 4.0 -0.2

Less than a high school diploma

9.9 7.8 7.9 7.4 -0.5

High school graduates, no college

8.1 6.0 5.8 5.4 -0.4

Some college or associate degree

6.6 5.1 4.5 4.4 -0.1

Bachelor's degree and higher

4.2 2.8 2.5 2.4 -0.1

Reason for unemployment

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

7,685 4,468 4,065 3,719 -346

Job leavers

763 822 788 840 52

Reentrants

2,017 2,487 2,289 2,210 -79

New entrants

526 512 490 537 47

Duration of unemployment

Less than 5 weeks

2,494 2,083 2,237 2,085 -152

5 to 14 weeks

2,341 2,066 1,872 1,966 94

15 to 26 weeks

2,651 1,164 990 994 4

27 weeks and over

3,534 3,179 2,683 2,326 -357

Employed persons at work part time

Part time for economic reasons

6,668 4,469 4,468 4,423 -45

Slack work or business conditions

5,298 3,183 3,180 3,178 -2

Could only find part-time work

1,135 1,032 975 947 -28

Part time for noneconomic reasons

19,465 20,359 20,389 20,605 216

Persons not in the labor force

Marginally attached to the labor force

1,958 1,577 1,744 1,681 -63

Discouraged workers

590 392 450 455 5

NOTE: Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Summary table B. Establishment data, seasonally adjusted
Category Oct.
2020
Aug.
2021
Sept.
2021(p)
Oct.
2021(p)

EMPLOYMENT BY SELECTED INDUSTRY
(Over-the-month change, in thousands)

Total nonfarm

680 483 312 531

Total private

954 504 365 604

Goods-producing

107 54 65 108

Mining and logging

2 6 4 4

Construction

73 -1 30 44

Manufacturing

32 49 31 60

Durable goods(1)

12 34 20 41

Motor vehicles and parts

-6.5 14.6 -5.6 27.7

Nondurable goods

20 15 11 19

Private service-providing

847 450 300 496

Wholesale trade

9.2 -5.2 7.3 13.5

Retail trade

106.5 22.2 57.3 35.3

Transportation and warehousing

71.3 67.3 57.4 54.4

Utilities

-1.5 -2.2 -0.2 0.2

Information

-9 33 4 10

Financial activities

34 17 7 21

Professional and business services(1)

241 139 76 100

Temporary help services

121.2 27.4 6.1 41.1

Education and health services(1)

83 72 13 64

Health care and social assistance

93.0 13.7 34.0 46.9

Leisure and hospitality

265 71 88 164

Other services

48 36 -10 33

Government

-274 -21 -53 -73

(3-month average change, in thousands)

Total nonfarm

993 845 629 442

Total private

984 709 562 491

WOMEN AND PRODUCTION AND NONSUPERVISORY EMPLOYEES
AS A PERCENT OF ALL EMPLOYEES(2)

Total nonfarm women employees

49.8 49.9 49.8 49.8

Total private women employees

48.4 48.4 48.4 48.4

Total private production and nonsupervisory employees

81.5 81.4 81.4 81.5

HOURS AND EARNINGS
ALL EMPLOYEES

Total private

Average weekly hours

34.8 34.6 34.8 34.7

Average hourly earnings

$29.52 $30.67 $30.85 $30.96

Average weekly earnings

$1,027.30 $1,061.18 $1,073.58 $1,074.31

Index of aggregate weekly hours (2007=100)(3)

105.7 108.9 109.9 110.1

Over-the-month percent change

0.9 0.1 0.9 0.2

Index of aggregate weekly payrolls (2007=100)(4)

149.1 159.7 162.1 163.0

Over-the-month percent change

0.8 0.5 1.5 0.6

DIFFUSION INDEX
(Over 1-month span)(5)

Total private (257 industries)

70.4 71.2 63.6 71.8

Manufacturing (75 industries)

60.0 64.7 57.3 70.0

Footnotes
(1) Includes other industries, not shown separately.
(2) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries.
(3) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding annual average aggregate hours.
(4) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding annual average aggregate weekly payrolls.
(5) Figures are the percent of industries with employment increasing plus one-half of the industries with unchanged employment, where 50 percent indicates an equal balance between industries with increasing and decreasing employment.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2020 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


Frequently Asked Questions about Employment and Unemployment Estimates

1. Why are there two monthly measures of employment?

   The household survey and establishment survey both produce sample-based estimates
   of employment, and both have strengths and limitations. The establishment survey
   employment series has a smaller margin of error on the measurement of month-to-
   month change than the household survey because of its much larger sample size. An
   over-the-month employment change of about 100,000 is statistically significant in
   the establishment survey, while the threshold for a statistically significant change
   in the household survey is about 500,000. However, the household survey has a more
   expansive scope than the establishment survey because it includes self-employed
   workers whose businesses are unincorporated, unpaid family workers, agricultural
   workers, and private household workers, who are excluded by the establishment survey.
   The household survey also provides estimates of employment for demographic groups.
   For more information on the differences between the two surveys, please visit
   https://www.bls.gov/web/empsit/ces_cps_trends.htm.

2. Are undocumented immigrants counted in the surveys?

   It is likely that both surveys include at least some undocumented immigrants. However,
   neither the establishment nor the household survey is designed to identify the legal
   status of workers. Therefore, it is not possible to determine how many are counted in
   either survey. The establishment survey does not collect data on the legal status of
   workers. The household survey does include questions which identify the foreign and
   native born, but it does not include questions about the legal status of the foreign
   born. Data on the foreign and native born are published each month in table A-7 of
   The Employment Situation news release.

3. Why does the establishment survey have revisions?

   The establishment survey revises published estimates to improve its data series by
   incorporating additional information that was not available at the time of the
   initial publication of the estimates. The establishment survey revises its initial
   monthly estimates twice, in the immediately succeeding 2 months, to incorporate
   additional sample receipts from respondents in the survey and recalculated seasonal
   adjustment factors. For more information on the monthly revisions, please visit
   https://www.bls.gov/ces/cesrevinfo.htm.

   On an annual basis, the establishment survey incorporates a benchmark revision that
   re-anchors estimates to nearly complete employment counts available from unemployment
   insurance tax records. The benchmark helps to control for sampling and modeling errors
   in the estimates. For more information on the annual benchmark revision, please visit
   https://www.bls.gov/web/empsit/cesbmart.htm.

4. Does the establishment survey sample include small firms?

   Yes; about 40 percent of the establishment survey sample is comprised of business
   establishments with fewer than 20 employees. The establishment survey sample is
   designed to maximize the reliability of the statewide total nonfarm employment
   estimate; firms from all states, size classes, and industries are appropriately
   sampled to achieve that goal.

5. Does the establishment survey account for employment from new businesses?

   Yes; monthly establishment survey estimates include an adjustment to account for
   the net employment change generated by business births and deaths. The adjustment
   comes from an econometric model that forecasts the monthly net jobs impact of
   business births and deaths based on the actual past values of the net impact that
   can be observed with a lag from the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages. The
   establishment survey uses modeling rather than sampling for this purpose because
   the survey is not immediately able to bring new businesses into the sample. There
   is an unavoidable lag between the birth of a new firm and its appearance on the
   sampling frame and availability for selection. BLS adds new businesses to the survey
   twice a year.

6. Is the count of unemployed persons limited to just those people receiving unemployment
   insurance benefits?

   No; the estimate of unemployment is based on a monthly sample survey of households.
   All persons who are without jobs and are actively seeking and available to work are
   included among the unemployed. (People on temporary layoff are included even if
   they do not actively seek work.) There is no requirement or question relating to
   unemployment insurance benefits in the monthly survey.

7. Does the official unemployment rate exclude people who want a job but are not currently
   looking for work?

   Yes; however, there are separate estimates of persons outside the labor force who
   want a job, including those who are not currently looking because they believe no
   jobs are available (discouraged workers). In addition, alternative measures of labor
   underutilization (some of which include discouraged workers and other groups not
   officially counted as unemployed) are published each month in table A-15 of The
   Employment Situation news release. For more information about these alternative
   measures, please visit https://www.bls.gov/cps/lfcharacteristics.htm#altmeasures.

8. How can unusually severe weather affect employment and hours estimates?

   In the establishment survey, the reference period is the pay period that includes
   the 12th of the month. Unusually severe weather is more likely to have an impact on
   average weekly hours than on employment. Average weekly hours are estimated for paid
   time during the pay period, including pay for holidays, sick leave, or other time off.
   The impact of severe weather on hours estimates typically, but not always, results in
   a reduction in average weekly hours. For example, some employees may be off work for
   part of the pay period and not receive pay for the time missed, while some workers,
   such as those dealing with cleanup or repair, may work extra hours.
   
   Typically, it is not possible to precisely quantify the effect of extreme weather on 
   payroll employment estimates. In order for severe weather conditions to reduce
   employment estimates, employees have to be off work without pay for the entire pay
   period. Employees who receive pay for any part of the pay period, even 1 hour, are
   counted in the payroll employment figures. For more information on how often employees
   are paid, please visit https://www.bls.gov/opub/btn/volume-3/how-frequently-do-private-
   businesses-pay-workers.htm.

   In the household survey, the reference period is generally the calendar week that
   includes the 12th of the month. Persons who miss the entire week's work for weather-
   related events are counted as employed whether or not they are paid for the time
   off. The household survey collects data on the number of persons who had a job but
   were not at work due to bad weather. It also provides a measure of the number of
   persons who usually work full time but had reduced hours due to bad weather. 
   Current and historical data are available on the household survey's most requested
   statistics page, please visit https://data.bls.gov/cgi-bin/surveymost?ln.




Technical Note


   This news release presents statistics from two major surveys, the Current
Population Survey (CPS; household survey) and the Current Employment Statistics
survey (CES; establishment survey). The household survey provides information
on the labor force, employment, and unemployment that appears in the "A" tables,
marked HOUSEHOLD DATA. It is a sample survey of about 60,000 eligible households
conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau for the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS).

   The establishment survey provides information on employment, hours, and
earnings of employees on nonfarm payrolls; the data appear in the "B" tables,
marked ESTABLISHMENT DATA. BLS collects these data each month from the payroll
records of a sample of nonagricultural business establishments. Each month
the CES program surveys about 144,000 businesses and government agencies,
representing approximately 697,000 individual worksites, in order to provide
detailed industry data on employment, hours, and earnings of workers on nonfarm
payrolls. The active sample includes approximately one-third of all nonfarm
payroll jobs.

   For both surveys, the data for a given month relate to a particular week or
pay period. In the household survey, the reference period is generally the
calendar week that contains the 12th day of the month. In the establishment
survey, the reference period is the pay period including the 12th, which may or
may not correspond directly to the calendar week.

Coverage, definitions, and differences between surveys

   Household survey. The sample is selected to reflect the entire civilian 
noninstitutional population. Based on responses to a series of questions on 
work and job search activities, each person 16 years and over in a sample
household is classified as employed, unemployed, or not in the labor force.

   People are classified as employed if they did any work at all as paid employees
during the reference week; worked in their own business, profession, or on their
own farm; or worked without pay at least 15 hours in a family business or farm.
People are also counted as employed if they were temporarily absent from their jobs
because of illness, bad weather, vacation, labor-management disputes, or personal
reasons.

   People are classified as unemployed if they meet all of the following criteria:
they had no employment during the reference week; they were available for work at
that time; and they made specific active efforts to find employment sometime during
the 4-week period ending with the reference week. Persons laid off from a job and
expecting recall need not be looking for work to be counted as unemployed. The
unemployment data derived from the household survey in no way depend upon the
eligibility for or receipt of unemployment insurance benefits.

   The civilian labor force is the sum of employed and unemployed persons.
Those persons not classified as employed or unemployed are not in the labor 
force. The unemployment rate is the number unemployed as a percent of the 
labor force. The labor force participation rate is the labor force as a 
percent of the population, and the employment-population ratio is the 
employed as a percent of the population. Additional information about the 
household survey can be found at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm.

   Establishment survey. The sample establishments are drawn from private
nonfarm businesses such as factories, offices, and stores, as well as
from federal, state, and local government entities. Employees on nonfarm
payrolls are those who worked or received pay for any part of the reference pay
period, including persons on paid leave. Persons are counted in each job
they hold. Hours and earnings data are produced for the private sector for
all employees and for production and nonsupervisory employees. Production
and nonsupervisory employees are defined as production and related employees
in manufacturing and mining and logging, construction workers in construction,
and nonsupervisory employees in private service-providing industries.

   Industries are classified on the basis of an establishment's principal
activity in accordance with the 2017 version of the North American Industry
Classification System. Additional information about the establishment survey
can be found at www.bls.gov/ces/.

   Differences in employment estimates. The numerous conceptual and methodological
differences between the household and establishment surveys result in important
distinctions in the employment estimates derived from the surveys. Among these are:

   --The household survey includes agricultural workers, self-employed workers
     whose businesses are unincorporated, unpaid family workers, and private
     household workers among the employed. These groups are excluded from the
     establishment survey.

   --The household survey includes people on unpaid leave among the employed.
     The establishment survey does not.

   --The household survey is limited to workers 16 years of age and older.
     The establishment survey is not limited by age.

   --The household survey has no duplication of individuals, because
     individuals are counted only once, even if they hold more than one
     job. In the establishment survey, employees working at more than one
     job and thus appearing on more than one payroll are counted separately
     for each appearance.

Seasonal adjustment

   Over the course of a year, the size of the nation's labor force and the levels
of employment and unemployment undergo regularly occurring fluctuations. These 
events may result from seasonal changes in weather, major holidays, and the opening
and closing of schools. The effect of such seasonal variation can be very large.

   Because these seasonal events follow a more or less regular pattern each year,
their influence on the level of a series can be tempered by adjusting for regular
seasonal variation. These adjustments make nonseasonal developments, such as
declines in employment or increases in the participation of women in the labor
force, easier to spot. For example, in the household survey, the large number of
youth entering the labor force each June is likely to obscure any other changes
that have taken place relative to May, making it difficult to determine if the 
level of economic activity has risen or declined. Similarly, in the establishment
survey, payroll employment in education declines by about 20 percent at the end
of the spring term and later rises with the start of the fall term, obscuring the
underlying employment trends in the industry. Because seasonal employment changes
at the end and beginning of the school year can be estimated, the statistics can be
adjusted to make underlying employment patterns more discernable.  The seasonally
adjusted figures provide a more useful tool with which to analyze changes in
month-to-month economic activity.

   Many seasonally adjusted series are independently adjusted in both the household
and establishment surveys. However, the adjusted series for many major estimates,
such as total payroll employment, employment in most major sectors, total employment,
and unemployment are computed by aggregating independently adjusted component series.
For example, total unemployment is derived by summing the adjusted series for four
major age-sex components; this differs from the unemployment estimate that would be
obtained by directly adjusting the total or by combining the duration, reasons, or 
more detailed age categories. Percentage distributions of unemployment by reason and
duration are derived from the sum of the independently seasonally adjusted component
series, and will not necessarily match calculations made using the seasonally adjusted
total unemployment level. Additional information about seasonal adjustment in the 
household survey can be found at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#sa.

   For both the household and establishment surveys, a concurrent seasonal adjustment
methodology is used in which new seasonal factors are calculated each month using all
relevant data, up to and including the data for the current month. In the household
survey, new seasonal factors are used to adjust only the current month's data. In the
establishment survey, however, new seasonal factors are used each month to adjust the
three most recent monthly estimates. The prior 2 months are routinely revised to
incorporate additional sample reports and recalculated seasonal adjustment factors.
In both surveys, 5-year revisions to historical data are made once a year.

Reliability of the estimates

   Statistics based on the household and establishment surveys are subject to both
sampling and nonsampling error. When a sample, rather than the entire population,
is surveyed, there is a chance that the sample estimates may differ from the true
population values they represent. The component of this difference that occurs
because samples differ by chance is known as sampling error, and its variability
is measured by the standard error of the estimate. There is about a 90-percent
chance, or level of confidence, that an estimate based on a sample will differ by
no more than 1.6 standard errors from the true population value because of sampling
error. BLS analyses are generally conducted at the 90-percent level of confidence.

   For example, the confidence interval for the monthly change in total nonfarm
employment from the establishment survey is on the order of plus or minus 110,000.
Suppose the estimate of nonfarm employment increases by 50,000 from one month to
the next. The 90-percent confidence interval on the monthly change would range from
-60,000 to +160,000 (50,000 +/- 110,000). These figures do not mean that the sample
results are off by these magnitudes, but rather that there is about a 90-percent
chance that the true over-the-month change lies within this interval. Since this
range includes values of less than zero, we could not say with confidence that
nonfarm employment had, in fact, increased that month. If, however, the reported
nonfarm employment rise was 250,000, then all of the values within the 90-percent
confidence interval would be greater than zero. In this case, it is likely (at
least a 90-percent chance) that nonfarm employment had, in fact, risen that month.
At an unemployment rate of around 6.0 percent, the 90-percent confidence interval
for the monthly change in unemployment as measured by the household survey is
about +/- 300,000, and for the monthly change in the unemployment rate it is about
+/- 0.2 percentage point.

   In general, estimates involving many individuals or establishments have lower
standard errors (relative to the size of the estimate) than estimates which are based
on a small number of observations. The precision of estimates also is improved when
the data are cumulated over time, such as for quarterly and annual averages.

   The household and establishment surveys are also affected by nonsampling error,
which can occur for many reasons, including the failure to sample a segment of the
population, inability to obtain information for all respondents in the sample,
inability or unwillingness of respondents to provide correct information on a
timely basis, mistakes made by respondents, and errors made in the collection or
processing of the data.

   For example, in the establishment survey, estimates for the most recent 2 months
are based on incomplete returns; for this reason, these estimates are labeled
preliminary in the tables. It is only after two successive revisions to a monthly
estimate, when nearly all sample reports have been received, that the estimate is
considered final.

   Another major source of nonsampling error in the establishment survey is the
inability to capture, on a timely basis, employment generated by new firms. To
correct for this systematic underestimation of employment growth, an estimation
procedure with two components is used to account for business births. The first
component excludes employment losses from business deaths from sample-based
estimation in order to offset the missing employment gains from business births.
This is incorporated into the sample-based estimation procedure by simply not
reflecting sample units going out of business, but imputing to them the same
employment trend as the other firms in the sample. This procedure accounts for
most of the net birth/death employment.

   The second component is an ARIMA time series model designed to estimate the
residual net birth/death employment not accounted for by the imputation. The
historical time series used to create and test the ARIMA model was derived from
the unemployment insurance universe micro-level database, and reflects the actual
residual net of births and deaths over the past 5 years.

   The sample-based estimates from the establishment survey are adjusted once a
year (on a lagged basis) to universe counts of payroll employment obtained from
administrative records of the unemployment insurance program. The difference 
between the March sample-based employment estimates and the March universe counts
is known as a benchmark revision, and serves as a rough proxy for total survey
error. The new benchmarks also incorporate changes in the classification of
industries. Over the past decade, absolute benchmark revisions for total nonfarm
employment have averaged 0.2 percent, with a range from -0.7 percent to 0.3 percent.

Other information

   Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired
individuals upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay
Service: (800) 877-8339.




HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-1. Employment status of the civilian population by sex and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Oct.
2020
Sept.
2021
Oct.
2021
Oct.
2020
June
2021
July
2021
Aug.
2021
Sept.
2021
Oct.
2021

TOTAL

Civilian noninstitutional population

260,925 261,766 261,908 260,925 261,338 261,469 261,611 261,766 261,908

Civilian labor force

161,053 161,392 161,863 160,718 161,086 161,347 161,537 161,354 161,458

Participation rate

61.7 61.7 61.8 61.6 61.6 61.7 61.7 61.6 61.6

Employed

150,433 154,026 154,966 149,669 151,602 152,645 153,154 153,680 154,039

Employment-population ratio

57.7 58.8 59.2 57.4 58.0 58.4 58.5 58.7 58.8

Unemployed

10,620 7,366 6,896 11,049 9,484 8,702 8,384 7,674 7,419

Unemployment rate

6.6 4.6 4.3 6.9 5.9 5.4 5.2 4.8 4.6

Not in labor force

99,872 100,373 100,045 100,207 100,253 100,123 100,074 100,412 100,450

Persons who currently want a job

6,317 5,710 5,567 6,682 6,428 6,517 5,682 5,969 5,978

Men, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

126,218 126,648 126,719 126,218 126,434 126,499 126,570 126,648 126,719

Civilian labor force

85,464 85,715 85,725 85,495 85,320 85,507 85,684 85,797 85,720

Participation rate

67.7 67.7 67.6 67.7 67.5 67.6 67.7 67.7 67.6

Employed

79,794 81,731 82,163 79,537 80,176 80,712 81,100 81,501 81,825

Employment-population ratio

63.2 64.5 64.8 63.0 63.4 63.8 64.1 64.4 64.6

Unemployed

5,670 3,984 3,562 5,958 5,144 4,795 4,584 4,296 3,896

Unemployment rate

6.6 4.6 4.2 7.0 6.0 5.6 5.4 5.0 4.5

Not in labor force

40,754 40,933 40,994 40,722 41,114 40,992 40,886 40,850 40,998

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

117,854 118,337 118,406 117,854 118,125 118,192 118,261 118,337 118,406

Civilian labor force

82,575 82,865 82,786 82,505 82,414 82,526 82,665 82,847 82,689

Participation rate

70.1 70.0 69.9 70.0 69.8 69.8 69.9 70.0 69.8

Employed

77,330 79,230 79,556 77,013 77,545 78,041 78,440 78,927 79,163

Employment-population ratio

65.6 67.0 67.2 65.3 65.6 66.0 66.3 66.7 66.9

Unemployed

5,245 3,635 3,230 5,492 4,869 4,484 4,225 3,919 3,526

Unemployment rate

6.4 4.4 3.9 6.7 5.9 5.4 5.1 4.7 4.3

Not in labor force

35,279 35,472 35,620 35,349 35,711 35,667 35,597 35,490 35,717

Women, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

134,707 135,118 135,189 134,707 134,905 134,970 135,041 135,118 135,189

Civilian labor force

75,589 75,677 76,138 75,222 75,766 75,840 75,853 75,557 75,737

Participation rate

56.1 56.0 56.3 55.8 56.2 56.2 56.2 55.9 56.0

Employed

70,639 72,295 72,803 70,131 71,426 71,934 72,054 72,179 72,214

Employment-population ratio

52.4 53.5 53.9 52.1 52.9 53.3 53.4 53.4 53.4

Unemployed

4,950 3,382 3,335 5,091 4,340 3,906 3,799 3,378 3,523

Unemployment rate

6.5 4.5 4.4 6.8 5.7 5.2 5.0 4.5 4.7

Not in labor force

59,118 59,441 59,052 59,485 59,139 59,130 59,188 59,561 59,452

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

126,520 126,982 127,051 126,520 126,770 126,837 126,906 126,982 127,051

Civilian labor force

72,728 72,784 73,296 72,255 72,855 72,883 72,842 72,533 72,784

Participation rate

57.5 57.3 57.7 57.1 57.5 57.5 57.4 57.1 57.3

Employed

68,109 69,699 70,274 67,534 68,817 69,235 69,357 69,466 69,604

Employment-population ratio

53.8 54.9 55.3 53.4 54.3 54.6 54.7 54.7 54.8

Unemployed

4,619 3,085 3,022 4,721 4,038 3,648 3,485 3,067 3,179

Unemployment rate

6.4 4.2 4.1 6.5 5.5 5.0 4.8 4.2 4.4

Not in labor force

53,792 54,198 53,755 54,265 53,915 53,954 54,065 54,449 54,267

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian noninstitutional population

16,551 16,447 16,451 16,551 16,443 16,440 16,443 16,447 16,451

Civilian labor force

5,750 5,743 5,780 5,958 5,817 5,938 6,031 5,975 5,984

Participation rate

34.7 34.9 35.1 36.0 35.4 36.1 36.7 36.3 36.4

Employed

4,994 5,097 5,137 5,122 5,240 5,369 5,357 5,287 5,271

Employment-population ratio

30.2 31.0 31.2 30.9 31.9 32.7 32.6 32.1 32.0

Unemployed

756 647 644 836 577 569 674 687 714

Unemployment rate

13.1 11.3 11.1 14.0 9.9 9.6 11.2 11.5 11.9

Not in labor force

10,801 10,704 10,670 10,593 10,626 10,502 10,412 10,473 10,466

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-2. Employment status of the civilian population by race, sex, and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, race, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Oct.
2020
Sept.
2021
Oct.
2021
Oct.
2020
June
2021
July
2021
Aug.
2021
Sept.
2021
Oct.
2021

WHITE

Civilian noninstitutional population

201,610 202,057 202,138 201,610 201,814 201,888 201,968 202,057 202,138

Civilian labor force

124,735 124,134 124,407 124,672 123,800 124,413 124,332 124,222 124,333

Participation rate

61.9 61.4 61.5 61.8 61.3 61.6 61.6 61.5 61.5

Employed

117,599 119,154 119,891 117,146 117,320 118,428 118,697 119,023 119,338

Employment-population ratio

58.3 59.0 59.3 58.1 58.1 58.7 58.8 58.9 59.0

Unemployed

7,135 4,980 4,517 7,525 6,480 5,985 5,635 5,199 4,995

Unemployment rate

5.7 4.0 3.6 6.0 5.2 4.8 4.5 4.2 4.0

Not in labor force

76,876 77,923 77,731 76,939 78,013 77,475 77,635 77,835 77,805

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

65,076 64,939 64,725 65,123 64,478 64,858 64,856 64,996 64,784

Participation rate

70.4 70.0 69.8 70.4 69.6 70.0 70.0 70.1 69.9

Employed

61,491 62,471 62,644 61,314 61,122 61,701 61,980 62,295 62,424

Employment-population ratio

66.5 67.4 67.5 66.3 66.0 66.6 66.9 67.2 67.3

Unemployed

3,585 2,467 2,081 3,808 3,357 3,157 2,875 2,700 2,360

Unemployment rate

5.5 3.8 3.2 5.8 5.2 4.9 4.4 4.2 3.6

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

55,151 54,690 55,170 54,866 54,800 54,993 54,816 54,578 54,870

Participation rate

56.8 56.2 56.7 56.5 56.4 56.6 56.4 56.1 56.4

Employed

52,153 52,666 53,184 51,761 52,084 52,538 52,496 52,571 52,736

Employment-population ratio

53.7 54.1 54.6 53.3 53.6 54.0 54.0 54.0 54.2

Unemployed

2,998 2,024 1,986 3,105 2,716 2,455 2,319 2,007 2,134

Unemployment rate

5.4 3.7 3.6 5.7 5.0 4.5 4.2 3.7 3.9

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

4,507 4,505 4,512 4,683 4,522 4,562 4,661 4,648 4,679

Participation rate

37.1 37.4 37.4 38.6 37.5 37.8 38.7 38.5 38.8

Employed

3,955 4,016 4,062 4,071 4,114 4,189 4,220 4,157 4,177

Employment-population ratio

32.6 33.3 33.7 33.5 34.1 34.7 35.0 34.5 34.6

Unemployed

552 489 450 612 408 373 441 492 501

Unemployment rate

12.3 10.9 10.0 13.1 9.0 8.2 9.5 10.6 10.7

BLACK OR AFRICAN AMERICAN

Civilian noninstitutional population

33,453 33,673 33,699 33,453 33,595 33,619 33,645 33,673 33,699

Civilian labor force

20,249 20,588 20,689 20,123 20,679 20,430 20,717 20,634 20,590

Participation rate

60.5 61.1 61.4 60.2 61.6 60.8 61.6 61.3 61.1

Employed

18,109 19,063 19,120 17,955 18,769 18,757 18,892 18,996 18,959

Employment-population ratio

54.1 56.6 56.7 53.7 55.9 55.8 56.2 56.4 56.3

Unemployed

2,140 1,524 1,568 2,169 1,910 1,673 1,825 1,638 1,631

Unemployment rate

10.6 7.4 7.6 10.8 9.2 8.2 8.8 7.9 7.9

Not in labor force

13,204 13,086 13,011 13,330 12,916 13,189 12,928 13,039 13,109

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

9,285 9,394 9,540 9,224 9,607 9,402 9,491 9,399 9,484

Participation rate

65.8 66.0 66.9 65.4 67.7 66.2 66.7 66.0 66.5

Employed

8,249 8,696 8,779 8,166 8,648 8,609 8,628 8,644 8,693

Employment-population ratio

58.5 61.1 61.6 57.9 60.9 60.6 60.7 60.7 61.0

Unemployed

1,036 698 761 1,058 958 793 864 755 791

Unemployment rate

11.2 7.4 8.0 11.5 10.0 8.4 9.1 8.0 8.3

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

10,245 10,451 10,447 10,169 10,358 10,293 10,480 10,442 10,390

Participation rate

60.5 61.3 61.2 60.1 60.9 60.5 61.5 61.2 60.9

Employed

9,296 9,725 9,742 9,230 9,473 9,511 9,652 9,683 9,665

Employment-population ratio

54.9 57.0 57.1 54.5 55.7 55.9 56.7 56.8 56.6

Unemployed

949 726 705 939 886 782 828 759 725

Unemployment rate

9.3 6.9 6.7 9.2 8.5 7.6 7.9 7.3 7.0

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

718 743 702 731 714 735 746 794 716

Participation rate

29.8 31.1 29.4 30.3 29.9 30.8 31.2 33.3 30.0

Employed

563 642 599 559 648 637 612 669 601

Employment-population ratio

23.4 26.9 25.1 23.2 27.1 26.7 25.6 28.0 25.2

Unemployed

155 101 102 172 67 98 134 125 115

Unemployment rate

21.6 13.5 14.6 23.5 9.3 13.3 17.9 15.7 16.1

ASIAN

Civilian noninstitutional population

16,542 16,540 16,485 16,542 16,428 16,514 16,555 16,540 16,485

Civilian labor force

10,365 10,683 10,756 10,382 10,387 10,654 10,610 10,635 10,742

Participation rate

62.7 64.6 65.2 62.8 63.2 64.5 64.1 64.3 65.2

Employed

9,588 10,245 10,312 9,598 9,789 10,094 10,122 10,190 10,288

Employment-population ratio

58.0 61.9 62.5 58.0 59.6 61.1 61.1 61.6 62.4

Unemployed

777 438 445 784 598 559 488 446 454

Unemployment rate

7.5 4.1 4.1 7.6 5.8 5.3 4.6 4.2 4.2

Not in labor force

6,177 5,857 5,729 6,160 6,042 5,861 5,945 5,905 5,744

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Estimates for the above race groups will not sum to totals shown in table A-1 because data are not presented for all races. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-3. Employment status of the Hispanic or Latino population by sex and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Oct.
2020
Sept.
2021
Oct.
2021
Oct.
2020
June
2021
July
2021
Aug.
2021
Sept.
2021
Oct.
2021

HISPANIC OR LATINO ETHNICITY

Civilian noninstitutional population

44,475 45,083 45,159 44,475 44,857 44,927 45,004 45,083 45,159

Civilian labor force

29,235 29,577 29,736 29,156 29,367 29,529 29,534 29,617 29,681

Participation rate

65.7 65.6 65.8 65.6 65.5 65.7 65.6 65.7 65.7

Employed

26,754 27,813 28,154 26,582 27,183 27,576 27,652 27,738 27,934

Employment-population ratio

60.2 61.7 62.3 59.8 60.6 61.4 61.4 61.5 61.9

Unemployed

2,481 1,764 1,582 2,575 2,184 1,953 1,882 1,880 1,748

Unemployment rate

8.5 6.0 5.3 8.8 7.4 6.6 6.4 6.3 5.9

Not in labor force

15,240 15,506 15,423 15,318 15,490 15,398 15,470 15,466 15,478

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

16,103 16,369 16,220 16,080 16,068 16,228 16,285 16,403 16,256

Participation rate

80.2 80.3 79.5 80.1 79.3 79.9 80.1 80.5 79.7

Employed

14,845 15,488 15,495 14,767 15,005 15,225 15,318 15,411 15,409

Employment-population ratio

73.9 76.0 75.9 73.5 74.0 75.0 75.3 75.6 75.5

Unemployed

1,258 881 724 1,313 1,063 1,003 967 992 848

Unemployment rate

7.8 5.4 4.5 8.2 6.6 6.2 5.9 6.0 5.2

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

11,816 11,938 12,127 11,746 12,071 12,020 11,977 11,915 12,029

Participation rate

58.0 57.8 58.6 57.7 58.8 58.4 58.1 57.7 58.2

Employed

10,793 11,277 11,485 10,688 11,111 11,209 11,253 11,253 11,347

Employment-population ratio

53.0 54.6 55.5 52.5 54.1 54.5 54.6 54.5 54.9

Unemployed

1,023 661 642 1,058 959 811 725 662 681

Unemployment rate

8.7 5.5 5.3 9.0 7.9 6.7 6.0 5.6 5.7

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

1,316 1,270 1,389 1,331 1,228 1,280 1,271 1,300 1,396

Participation rate

32.6 31.3 34.1 33.0 30.4 31.6 31.3 32.0 34.3

Employed

1,117 1,048 1,173 1,127 1,066 1,142 1,081 1,074 1,177

Employment-population ratio

27.7 25.8 28.8 27.9 26.4 28.2 26.7 26.4 28.9

Unemployed

199 222 216 203 162 138 190 226 219

Unemployment rate

15.1 17.5 15.5 15.3 13.2 10.8 15.0 17.4 15.7

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-4. Employment status of the civilian population 25 years and over by educational attainment
[Numbers in thousands]
Educational attainment Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Oct.
2020
Sept.
2021
Oct.
2021
Oct.
2020
June
2021
July
2021
Aug.
2021
Sept.
2021
Oct.
2021

Less than a high school diploma

Civilian labor force

9,052 9,263 8,921 9,169 9,142 9,254 9,158 9,127 9,033

Participation rate

45.4 45.9 45.9 46.0 44.1 46.7 45.8 45.3 46.5

Employed

8,243 8,644 8,365 8,258 8,210 8,377 8,448 8,406 8,367

Employment-population ratio

41.4 42.9 43.1 41.5 39.6 42.3 42.2 41.7 43.1

Unemployed

809 619 555 911 932 877 710 721 666

Unemployment rate

8.9 6.7 6.2 9.9 10.2 9.5 7.8 7.9 7.4

High school graduates, no college(1)

Civilian labor force

35,692 35,261 35,575 35,479 34,972 34,947 35,347 34,858 35,276

Participation rate

56.1 55.7 55.5 55.8 55.9 55.3 55.3 55.1 55.0

Employed

32,910 33,351 33,774 32,607 32,517 32,735 33,232 32,838 33,365

Employment-population ratio

51.7 52.7 52.7 51.3 52.0 51.8 52.0 51.9 52.0

Unemployed

2,782 1,910 1,801 2,873 2,455 2,211 2,115 2,020 1,911

Unemployment rate

7.8 5.4 5.1 8.1 7.0 6.3 6.0 5.8 5.4

Some college or associate degree

Civilian labor force

36,145 35,840 35,710 35,762 36,079 35,896 35,845 35,826 35,354

Participation rate

63.1 63.1 63.4 62.4 63.1 63.0 63.6 63.0 62.7

Employed

33,863 34,273 34,236 33,409 33,970 34,111 34,019 34,200 33,783

Employment-population ratio

59.1 60.3 60.8 58.3 59.4 59.9 60.4 60.2 60.0

Unemployed

2,282 1,567 1,474 2,354 2,109 1,785 1,826 1,626 1,571

Unemployment rate

6.3 4.4 4.1 6.6 5.8 5.0 5.1 4.5 4.4

Bachelor's degree and higher(2)

Civilian labor force

59,639 60,710 61,068 59,530 60,483 60,927 60,794 60,785 60,973

Participation rate

72.1 72.0 72.0 72.0 72.3 72.4 72.3 72.1 71.9

Employed

57,199 59,213 59,654 57,041 58,392 59,027 59,077 59,246 59,493

Employment-population ratio

69.2 70.3 70.3 69.0 69.8 70.1 70.2 70.3 70.2

Unemployed

2,440 1,497 1,414 2,488 2,091 1,900 1,717 1,539 1,480

Unemployment rate

4.1 2.5 2.3 4.2 3.5 3.1 2.8 2.5 2.4

Footnotes
(1) Includes persons with a high school diploma or equivalent.
(2) Includes persons with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees.

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals for those 25 years and over because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-5. Employment status of the civilian population 18 years and over by veteran status, period of service, and sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, veteran status, and period of service Total Men Women
Oct.
2020
Oct.
2021
Oct.
2020
Oct.
2021
Oct.
2020
Oct.
2021

VETERANS, 18 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

18,359 17,981 16,449 16,059 1,910 1,922

Civilian labor force

8,706 8,417 7,607 7,267 1,099 1,150

Participation rate

47.4 46.8 46.2 45.3 57.5 59.8

Employed

8,224 8,090 7,180 6,999 1,044 1,091

Employment-population ratio

44.8 45.0 43.6 43.6 54.7 56.8

Unemployed

483 327 428 268 55 59

Unemployment rate

5.5 3.9 5.6 3.7 5.0 5.1

Not in labor force

9,653 9,564 8,842 8,792 811 772

Gulf War-era II veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

4,503 4,607 3,727 3,834 776 773

Civilian labor force

3,497 3,637 2,963 3,081 534 557

Participation rate

77.7 79.0 79.5 80.4 68.8 72.0

Employed

3,281 3,500 2,765 2,974 516 526

Employment-population ratio

72.9 76.0 74.2 77.6 66.5 68.1

Unemployed

216 137 198 107 18 30

Unemployment rate

6.2 3.8 6.7 3.5 3.4 5.5

Not in labor force

1,006 969 764 753 242 216

Gulf War-era I veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

3,101 3,131 2,604 2,599 497 532

Civilian labor force

2,256 2,236 1,934 1,879 323 357

Participation rate

72.8 71.4 74.3 72.3 65.0 67.2

Employed

2,136 2,144 1,832 1,804 303 340

Employment-population ratio

68.9 68.5 70.4 69.4 61.1 63.9

Unemployed

121 92 101 74 19 18

Unemployment rate

5.3 4.1 5.2 4.0 6.0 4.9

Not in labor force

844 895 670 720 174 175

World War II, Korean War, and Vietnam-era veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

6,711 6,328 6,475 6,105 236 223

Civilian labor force

1,155 1,002 1,117 952 38 50

Participation rate

17.2 15.8 17.2 15.6 16.3 22.2

Employed

1,116 961 1,081 917 35 45

Employment-population ratio

16.6 15.2 16.7 15.0 14.8 20.0

Unemployed

39 40 35 35 4 5

Unemployment rate

3.4 4.0 3.2 3.7 - -

Not in labor force

5,556 5,326 5,358 5,153 198 173

Veterans of other service periods

Civilian noninstitutional population

4,044 3,915 3,643 3,521 401 394

Civilian labor force

1,797 1,542 1,593 1,355 204 186

Participation rate

44.4 39.4 43.7 38.5 50.8 47.3

Employed

1,691 1,485 1,501 1,304 190 180

Employment-population ratio

41.8 37.9 41.2 37.0 47.3 45.8

Unemployed

107 57 93 51 14 6

Unemployment rate

5.9 3.7 5.8 3.8 6.9 3.2

Not in labor force

2,247 2,373 2,050 2,166 197 208

NONVETERANS, 18 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

233,874 235,095 105,419 106,291 128,455 128,804

Civilian labor force

150,260 151,257 76,842 77,395 73,417 73,862

Participation rate

64.2 64.3 72.9 72.8 57.2 57.3

Employed

140,364 144,876 71,745 74,192 68,619 70,684

Employment-population ratio

60.0 61.6 68.1 69.8 53.4 54.9

Unemployed

9,895 6,381 5,097 3,203 4,798 3,178

Unemployment rate

6.6 4.2 6.6 4.1 6.5 4.3

Not in labor force

83,614 83,837 28,577 28,896 55,038 54,941

NOTE: Veterans served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces and were not on active duty at the time of the survey. Nonveterans never served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces. Veterans could have served anywhere in the world during these periods of service: Gulf War era II (September 2001-present), Gulf War era I (August 1990-August 2001), Vietnam era (August 1964-April 1975), Korean War (July 1950-January 1955), World War II (December 1941-December 1946), and other service periods (all other time periods). Veterans who served in more than one wartime period are classified only in the most recent one. Veterans who served during one of the selected wartime periods and another period are classified only in the wartime period. Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria (values not shown where base is less than 75,000). Updated population controls introduced with the release of January 2021 data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-6. Employment status of the civilian population by sex, age, and disability status, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Persons with a disability Persons with no disability
Oct.
2020
Oct.
2021
Oct.
2020
Oct.
2021

TOTAL, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

29,583 31,195 231,342 230,713

Civilian labor force

6,093 6,987 154,960 154,876

Participation rate

20.6 22.4 67.0 67.1

Employed

5,417 6,352 145,016 148,615

Employment-population ratio

18.3 20.4 62.7 64.4

Unemployed

676 635 9,944 6,261

Unemployment rate

11.1 9.1 6.4 4.0

Not in labor force

23,489 24,208 76,382 75,837

Men, 16 to 64 years

Civilian labor force

2,611 2,900 76,968 76,743

Participation rate

35.3 37.5 81.9 82.1

Employed

2,340 2,636 71,822 73,652

Employment-population ratio

31.6 34.1 76.4 78.8

Unemployed

270 264 5,145 3,091

Unemployment rate

10.4 9.1 6.7 4.0

Not in labor force

4,792 4,828 17,013 16,695

Women, 16 to 64 years

Civilian labor force

2,335 2,855 68,494 68,510

Participation rate

31.3 36.1 70.7 71.3

Employed

2,004 2,550 64,174 65,667

Employment-population ratio

26.9 32.3 66.2 68.3

Unemployed

331 305 4,320 2,844

Unemployment rate

14.2 10.7 6.3 4.2

Not in labor force

5,119 5,050 28,375 27,572

Both sexes, 65 years and over

Civilian labor force

1,147 1,232 9,498 9,622

Participation rate

7.8 7.9 23.5 23.4

Employed

1,073 1,166 9,020 9,296

Employment-population ratio

7.3 7.5 22.3 22.6

Unemployed

74 66 478 326

Unemployment rate

6.5 5.3 5.0 3.4

Not in labor force

13,578 14,330 30,995 31,571

NOTE: A person with a disability has at least one of the following conditions: is deaf or has serious difficulty hearing; is blind or has serious difficulty seeing even when wearing glasses; has serious difficulty concentrating, remembering, or making decisions because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition; has serious difficulty walking or climbing stairs; has difficulty dressing or bathing; or has difficulty doing errands alone such as visiting a doctor's office or shopping because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-7. Employment status of the civilian population by nativity and sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status and nativity Total Men Women
Oct.
2020
Oct.
2021
Oct.
2020
Oct.
2021
Oct.
2020
Oct.
2021

Foreign born, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

41,891 43,449 20,120 21,226 21,770 22,223

Civilian labor force

26,919 28,564 15,452 16,570 11,468 11,994

Participation rate

64.3 65.7 76.8 78.1 52.7 54.0

Employed

24,865 27,341 14,442 15,932 10,423 11,409

Employment-population ratio

59.4 62.9 71.8 75.1 47.9 51.3

Unemployed

2,055 1,224 1,010 639 1,045 585

Unemployment rate

7.6 4.3 6.5 3.9 9.1 4.9

Not in labor force

14,971 14,885 4,669 4,656 10,303 10,229

Native born, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

219,034 218,458 106,098 105,492 112,937 112,966

Civilian labor force

134,134 133,298 70,013 69,155 64,121 64,144

Participation rate

61.2 61.0 66.0 65.6 56.8 56.8

Employed

125,569 127,626 65,352 66,232 60,216 61,394

Employment-population ratio

57.3 58.4 61.6 62.8 53.3 54.3

Unemployed

8,565 5,673 4,660 2,923 3,905 2,750

Unemployment rate

6.4 4.3 6.7 4.2 6.1 4.3

Not in labor force

84,901 85,160 36,085 36,338 48,816 48,822

NOTE: The foreign born are those residing in the United States who were not U.S. citizens at birth. That is, they were born outside the United States or one of its outlying areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam, to parents neither of whom was a U.S. citizen. The native born are persons who were born in the United States or one of its outlying areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam or who were born abroad of at least one parent who was a U.S. citizen. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-8. Employed persons by class of worker and part-time status
[In thousands]
Category Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Oct.
2020
Sept.
2021
Oct.
2021
Oct.
2020
June
2021
July
2021
Aug.
2021
Sept.
2021
Oct.
2021

CLASS OF WORKER

Agriculture and related industries

2,620 2,272 2,418 2,515 2,318 2,305 2,329 2,249 2,306

Wage and salary workers(1)

1,670 1,504 1,596 1,570 1,604 1,584 1,606 1,519 1,511

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

892 743 785 881 692 708 712 724 759

Unpaid family workers

58 26 37 - - - - - -

Nonagricultural industries

147,813 151,754 152,548 147,255 149,329 150,481 151,115 151,693 151,676

Wage and salary workers(1)

138,954 142,210 142,933 138,539 139,873 140,487 141,168 141,768 142,280

Government

20,799 20,343 20,586 20,678 20,578 20,761 20,793 20,487 20,453

Private industries

118,155 121,866 122,347 117,939 119,460 119,955 120,345 121,741 121,872

Private households

636 768 766 - - - - - -

Other industries

117,520 121,099 121,581 117,304 118,948 119,334 119,608 120,981 120,954

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

8,789 9,491 9,548 8,690 9,146 9,571 9,541 9,418 9,442

Unpaid family workers

70 53 68 - - - - - -

PERSONS AT WORK PART TIME(2)

All industries

Part time for economic reasons(3)

6,338 4,130 4,094 6,668 4,627 4,483 4,469 4,468 4,423

Slack work or business conditions

5,065 2,960 2,913 5,298 3,430 2,965 3,183 3,180 3,178

Could only find part-time work

1,115 982 928 1,135 1,007 1,116 1,032 975 947

Part time for noneconomic reasons(4)

19,921 20,432 21,128 19,465 20,337 20,087 20,359 20,389 20,605

Nonagricultural industries

Part time for economic reasons(3)

6,237 4,077 3,998 6,552 4,544 4,351 4,414 4,406 4,328

Slack work or business conditions

5,002 2,924 2,838 5,227 3,381 2,908 3,126 3,130 3,059

Could only find part-time work

1,092 967 927 1,113 996 1,099 1,019 960 946

Part time for noneconomic reasons(4)

19,465 20,037 20,773 19,029 19,982 19,736 20,027 20,003 20,268

Footnotes
(1) Includes self-employed workers whose businesses are incorporated.
(2) Refers to those who worked 1 to 34 hours during the survey reference week and excludes employed persons who were absent from their jobs for the entire week.
(3) Refers to those who worked 1 to 34 hours during the reference week for an economic reason such as slack work or unfavorable business conditions, inability to find full-time work, or seasonal declines in demand.
(4) Refers to persons who usually work part time for noneconomic reasons such as childcare problems, family or personal obligations, school or training, retirement or Social Security limits on earnings, and other reasons. This excludes persons who usually work full time but worked only 1 to 34 hours during the reference week for reasons such as vacations, holidays, illness, and bad weather.

- Data not available.
NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-9. Selected employment indicators
[Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Oct.
2020
Sept.
2021
Oct.
2021
Oct.
2020
June
2021
July
2021
Aug.
2021
Sept.
2021
Oct.
2021

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

150,433 154,026 154,966 149,669 151,602 152,645 153,154 153,680 154,039

16 to 19 years

4,994 5,097 5,137 5,122 5,240 5,369 5,357 5,287 5,271

16 to 17 years

1,845 2,071 1,999 1,824 1,952 1,971 2,025 2,013 1,981

18 to 19 years

3,148 3,026 3,137 3,295 3,287 3,378 3,293 3,256 3,284

20 years and over

145,440 148,929 149,830 144,547 146,362 147,277 147,797 148,393 148,768

20 to 24 years

13,225 13,448 13,800 13,212 13,399 13,342 13,238 13,498 13,709

25 years and over

132,215 135,481 136,030 131,566 133,068 134,135 134,652 134,958 135,223

25 to 54 years

96,365 98,702 99,355 95,875 97,331 98,131 98,289 98,346 98,746

25 to 34 years

34,018 34,780 35,257 33,836 34,284 34,589 34,742 34,664 35,010

35 to 44 years

32,100 33,085 33,237 31,903 32,612 32,923 32,914 32,915 33,020

45 to 54 years

30,247 30,837 30,862 30,136 30,436 30,620 30,633 30,767 30,716

55 years and over

35,850 36,778 36,674 35,692 35,737 36,003 36,363 36,611 36,477

Men, 16 years and over

79,794 81,731 82,163 79,537 80,176 80,712 81,100 81,501 81,825

16 to 19 years

2,464 2,501 2,608 2,524 2,631 2,670 2,660 2,574 2,661

16 to 17 years

869 997 972 878 942 944 949 974 979

18 to 19 years

1,594 1,503 1,636 1,647 1,679 1,720 1,691 1,584 1,685

20 years and over

77,330 79,230 79,556 77,013 77,545 78,041 78,440 78,927 79,163

20 to 24 years

6,720 6,846 6,969 6,749 6,737 6,713 6,769 6,868 6,969

25 years and over

70,610 72,384 72,587 70,291 70,955 71,479 71,690 72,046 72,168

25 to 54 years

51,369 52,634 53,007 51,140 51,804 52,220 52,348 52,398 52,700

25 to 34 years

18,150 18,598 18,855 18,056 18,167 18,472 18,535 18,516 18,714

35 to 44 years

17,292 17,891 17,866 17,209 17,616 17,707 17,699 17,793 17,784

45 to 54 years

15,927 16,145 16,286 15,876 16,021 16,041 16,115 16,090 16,202

55 years and over

19,241 19,751 19,580 19,151 19,150 19,259 19,342 19,647 19,467

Women, 16 years and over

70,639 72,295 72,803 70,131 71,426 71,934 72,054 72,179 72,214

16 to 19 years

2,530 2,596 2,529 2,598 2,609 2,698 2,697 2,713 2,610

16 to 17 years

976 1,073 1,027 946 1,010 1,027 1,076 1,040 1,002

18 to 19 years

1,554 1,523 1,501 1,648 1,608 1,658 1,602 1,672 1,600

20 years and over

68,109 69,699 70,274 67,534 68,817 69,235 69,357 69,466 69,604

20 to 24 years

6,505 6,602 6,831 6,463 6,662 6,629 6,469 6,630 6,740

25 years and over

61,605 63,097 63,443 61,275 62,113 62,655 62,962 62,912 63,055

25 to 54 years

44,995 46,069 46,348 44,735 45,527 45,911 45,941 45,948 46,045

25 to 34 years

15,867 16,182 16,401 15,781 16,117 16,116 16,207 16,149 16,296

35 to 44 years

14,808 15,194 15,371 14,694 14,995 15,216 15,215 15,122 15,236

45 to 54 years

14,321 14,692 14,576 14,260 14,415 14,579 14,519 14,677 14,514

55 years and over

16,609 17,028 17,095 16,540 16,587 16,744 17,021 16,964 17,010

MARITAL STATUS

Married men, spouse present(1)

43,951 43,821 43,910 43,761 43,533 43,823 43,641 43,593 43,706

Married women, spouse present(1)

35,001 35,044 35,209 34,685 34,891 35,208 35,043 35,013 34,907

Women who maintain families(2)

9,275 9,618 9,696 - - - - - -

FULL- OR PART-TIME STATUS

Full-time workers(3)

124,165 128,484 128,848 123,646 126,201 127,466 127,436 128,027 128,306

Part-time workers(4)

26,269 25,542 26,119 26,139 25,610 25,360 25,783 25,747 25,906

MULTIPLE JOBHOLDERS

Total multiple jobholders

6,866 7,032 7,166 6,669 7,109 7,026 7,041 7,045 6,978

Percent of total employed

4.6 4.6 4.6 4.5 4.7 4.6 4.6 4.6 4.5

SELF-EMPLOYMENT

Self-employed workers, incorporated

6,315 6,146 6,334 - - - - - -

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

9,681 10,234 10,332 9,571 9,837 10,279 10,253 10,142 10,201

Footnotes
(1) Beginning with data for January 2020, refers to persons in both opposite-sex and same-sex married couples. Prior to January 2020, referred to persons in opposite-sex married couples only.
(2) Beginning with data for January 2020, refers to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not a spouse of either sex. Prior to January 2020, referred to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not an opposite-sex spouse.
(3) Employed full-time workers are persons who usually work 35 hours or more per week.
(4) Employed part-time workers are persons who usually work less than 35 hours per week.

- Data not available.
NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-10. Selected unemployment indicators, seasonally adjusted
Characteristic Number of
unemployed persons
(in thousands)
Unemployment rates
Oct.
2020
Sept.
2021
Oct.
2021
Oct.
2020
June
2021
July
2021
Aug.
2021
Sept.
2021
Oct.
2021

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

11,049 7,674 7,419 6.9 5.9 5.4 5.2 4.8 4.6

16 to 19 years

836 687 714 14.0 9.9 9.6 11.2 11.5 11.9

16 to 17 years

299 258 247 14.1 9.6 9.7 11.6 11.4 11.1

18 to 19 years

541 429 473 14.1 10.1 9.4 11.0 11.6 12.6

20 years and over

10,213 6,987 6,705 6.6 5.7 5.2 5.0 4.5 4.3

20 to 24 years

1,619 1,166 1,104 10.9 9.1 9.1 9.3 8.0 7.5

25 years and over

8,626 5,902 5,624 6.2 5.4 4.8 4.5 4.2 4.0

25 to 54 years

6,570 4,566 4,303 6.4 5.5 4.9 4.7 4.4 4.2

25 to 34 years

2,679 1,958 1,764 7.3 6.5 6.1 5.6 5.3 4.8

35 to 44 years

1,979 1,374 1,331 5.8 5.3 4.7 4.4 4.0 3.9

45 to 54 years

1,912 1,235 1,208 6.0 4.6 3.8 4.0 3.9 3.8

55 years and over

2,066 1,349 1,372 5.5 4.9 4.4 3.9 3.6 3.6

Men, 16 years and over

5,958 4,296 3,896 7.0 6.0 5.6 5.4 5.0 4.5

16 to 19 years

466 377 370 15.6 9.5 10.4 11.9 12.8 12.2

16 to 17 years

169 136 117 16.1 10.5 10.1 11.2 12.3 10.7

18 to 19 years

300 243 257 15.4 8.8 10.5 12.6 13.3 13.2

20 years and over

5,492 3,919 3,526 6.7 5.9 5.4 5.1 4.7 4.3

20 to 24 years

903 706 633 11.8 10.2 10.4 9.7 9.3 8.3

25 years and over

4,617 3,238 2,938 6.2 5.4 4.9 4.7 4.3 3.9

25 to 54 years

3,574 2,502 2,227 6.5 5.6 5.1 4.9 4.6 4.1

25 to 34 years

1,517 1,120 987 7.8 7.0 6.2 5.9 5.7 5.0

35 to 44 years

1,045 767 689 5.7 5.0 4.7 4.5 4.1 3.7

45 to 54 years

1,012 614 551 6.0 4.7 4.1 4.2 3.7 3.3

55 years and over

1,043 737 711 5.2 4.8 4.4 4.0 3.6 3.5

Women, 16 years and over

5,091 3,378 3,523 6.8 5.7 5.2 5.0 4.5 4.7

16 to 19 years

370 310 344 12.5 10.4 8.7 10.4 10.3 11.6

16 to 17 years

130 122 130 12.1 8.8 9.3 11.9 10.5 11.5

18 to 19 years

241 186 217 12.8 11.3 8.3 9.3 10.0 11.9

20 years and over

4,721 3,067 3,179 6.5 5.5 5.0 4.8 4.2 4.4

20 to 24 years

716 460 471 10.0 7.9 7.7 9.0 6.5 6.5

25 years and over

4,008 2,664 2,686 6.1 5.3 4.7 4.3 4.1 4.1

25 to 54 years

2,996 2,064 2,076 6.3 5.3 4.8 4.5 4.3 4.3

25 to 34 years

1,161 837 776 6.9 5.8 6.0 5.3 4.9 4.5

35 to 44 years

935 607 643 6.0 5.5 4.7 4.2 3.9 4.0

45 to 54 years

900 621 657 5.9 4.6 3.5 3.9 4.1 4.3

55 years and over

1,021 604 649 5.8 5.0 4.3 3.8 3.4 3.7

MARITAL STATUS

Married men, spouse present(1)

1,885 1,279 1,139 4.1 3.8 3.4 3.2 2.9 2.5

Married women, spouse present(1)

1,748 1,040 1,090 4.8 3.7 3.3 2.9 2.9 3.0

Women who maintain families(2)

871 698 610 8.6 8.1 8.5 7.9 6.8 5.9

FULL- OR PART-TIME STATUS

Full-time workers(3)

9,228 6,589 6,184 6.9 6.0 5.5 5.2 4.9 4.6

Part-time workers(4)

1,891 1,135 1,286 6.7 5.4 5.0 5.2 4.2 4.7

Footnotes
(1) Beginning with data for January 2020, refers to persons in both opposite-sex and same-sex married couples. Prior to January 2020, referred to persons in opposite-sex married couples only.
(2) Data are not seasonally adjusted. Beginning with data for January 2020, refers to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not a spouse of either sex. Prior to January 2020, referred to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not an opposite-sex spouse.
(3) Full-time workers are unemployed persons who have expressed a desire to work full time (35 hours or more per week) or are on layoff from full-time jobs.
(4) Part-time workers are unemployed persons who have expressed a desire to work part time (less than 35 hours per week) or are on layoff from part-time jobs.

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-11. Unemployed persons by reason for unemployment
[Numbers in thousands]
Reason Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Oct.
2020
Sept.
2021
Oct.
2021
Oct.
2020
June
2021
July
2021
Aug.
2021
Sept.
2021
Oct.
2021

NUMBER OF UNEMPLOYED

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

7,313 3,728 3,306 7,685 5,787 4,960 4,468 4,065 3,719

On temporary layoff

2,870 786 693 3,231 1,811 1,239 1,252 1,124 1,056

Not on temporary layoff

4,443 2,943 2,613 4,454 3,976 3,721 3,217 2,941 2,663

Permanent job losers

3,608 2,270 2,082 3,620 3,187 2,930 2,487 2,251 2,126

Persons who completed temporary jobs

835 672 530 834 789 791 730 689 537

Job leavers

787 852 869 763 942 930 822 788 840

Reentrants

2,009 2,301 2,186 2,017 2,298 2,287 2,487 2,289 2,210

New entrants

511 486 536 526 494 463 512 490 537

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

68.9 50.6 47.9 69.9 60.8 57.4 53.9 53.3 50.9

On temporary layoff

27.0 10.7 10.1 29.4 19.0 14.3 15.1 14.7 14.5

Not on temporary layoff

41.8 39.9 37.9 40.5 41.8 43.1 38.8 38.5 36.4

Job leavers

7.4 11.6 12.6 6.9 9.9 10.8 9.9 10.3 11.5

Reentrants

18.9 31.2 31.7 18.3 24.1 26.5 30.0 30.0 30.2

New entrants

4.8 6.6 7.8 4.8 5.2 5.4 6.2 6.4 7.4

UNEMPLOYED AS A PERCENT OF THE
CIVILIAN LABOR FORCE

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

4.5 2.3 2.0 4.8 3.6 3.1 2.8 2.5 2.3

Job leavers

0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.6 0.5 0.5 0.5

Reentrants

1.2 1.4 1.4 1.3 1.4 1.4 1.5 1.4 1.4

New entrants

0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to total unemployed in table A-1 because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-12. Unemployed persons by duration of unemployment
[Numbers in thousands]
Duration Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Oct.
2020
Sept.
2021
Oct.
2021
Oct.
2020
June
2021
July
2021
Aug.
2021
Sept.
2021
Oct.
2021

NUMBER OF UNEMPLOYED

Less than 5 weeks

2,300 2,209 1,884 2,494 1,981 2,257 2,083 2,237 2,085

5 to 14 weeks

2,198 1,565 1,762 2,341 2,166 1,861 2,066 1,872 1,966

15 weeks and over

6,122 3,593 3,251 6,185 5,314 4,599 4,343 3,674 3,320

15 to 26 weeks

2,570 889 919 2,651 1,329 1,174 1,164 990 994

27 weeks and over

3,552 2,704 2,332 3,534 3,985 3,425 3,179 2,683 2,326

Average (mean) duration, in weeks

22.7 29.2 27.7 21.4 31.6 29.5 29.6 28.4 26.7

Median duration, in weeks

19.9 13.9 13.1 19.0 19.8 15.2 14.7 13.3 12.0

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION

Less than 5 weeks

21.7 30.0 27.3 22.6 20.9 25.9 24.5 28.7 28.3

5 to 14 weeks

20.7 21.2 25.5 21.2 22.9 21.3 24.3 24.1 26.7

15 weeks and over

57.6 48.8 47.1 56.1 56.2 52.8 51.1 47.2 45.0

15 to 26 weeks

24.2 12.1 13.3 24.1 14.0 13.5 13.7 12.7 13.5

27 weeks and over

33.4 36.7 33.8 32.1 42.1 39.3 37.4 34.5 31.6

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to total unemployed in table A-1 because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-13. Employed and unemployed persons by occupation, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Occupation Employed Unemployed Unemployment
rates
Oct.
2020
Oct.
2021
Oct.
2020
Oct.
2021
Oct.
2020
Oct.
2021

Total, 16 years and over(1)

150,433 154,966 10,620 6,896 6.6 4.3

Management, professional, and related occupations

63,277 65,335 2,448 1,453 3.7 2.2

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

27,004 27,665 1,212 656 4.3 2.3

Professional and related occupations

36,274 37,669 1,237 796 3.3 2.1

Service occupations

24,137 25,458 2,796 1,709 10.4 6.3

Sales and office occupations

30,501 29,914 2,132 1,400 6.5 4.5

Sales and related occupations

14,531 14,155 1,087 672 7.0 4.5

Office and administrative support occupations

15,970 15,759 1,045 728 6.1 4.4

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

13,956 14,258 993 616 6.6 4.1

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

1,117 1,076 73 65 6.1 5.7

Construction and extraction occupations

8,240 8,356 691 446 7.7 5.1

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

4,599 4,826 229 104 4.7 2.1

Production, transportation, and material moving
occupations

18,562 20,001 1,730 1,169 8.5 5.5

Production occupations

7,753 8,268 525 388 6.3 4.5

Transportation and material moving occupations

10,809 11,733 1,205 782 10.0 6.2

Footnotes
(1) Persons with no previous work experience and persons whose last job was in the U.S. Armed Forces are included in the unemployed total.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data. Effective with January 2020 data, occupations reflect the introduction of the 2018 Census occupational classification system into the Current Population Survey, or household survey. This classification system is derived from the 2018 Standard Occupational Classification (SOC). No historical data have been revised. Data for 2020 are not strictly comparable with earlier years.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-14. Unemployed persons by industry and class of worker, not seasonally adjusted
Industry and class of worker Number of
unemployed
persons
(in thousands)
Unemployment
rates
Oct.
2020
Oct.
2021
Oct.
2020
Oct.
2021

Total, 16 years and over(1)

10,620 6,896 6.6 4.3

Nonagricultural private wage and salary workers

8,681 5,301 6.8 4.2

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

89 63 13.8 10.0

Construction

674 398 6.8 4.0

Manufacturing

787 499 5.2 3.3

Durable goods

436 279 4.6 2.9

Nondurable goods

351 220 6.3 4.0

Wholesale and retail trade

1,333 1,019 6.5 5.2

Transportation and utilities

588 381 7.9 4.7

Information

137 83 5.8 3.5

Financial activities

383 192 3.8 1.9

Professional and business services

1,066 791 6.1 4.4

Education and health services

1,007 677 4.2 2.8

Leisure and hospitality

2,102 960 16.3 7.5

Other services

514 239 8.3 3.5

Agriculture and related private wage and salary workers

110 83 6.3 5.1

Government workers

685 467 3.2 2.2

Self-employed workers, unincorporated, and unpaid family workers

632 510 6.1 4.7

Footnotes
(1) Persons with no previous work experience and persons whose last job was in the U.S. Armed Forces are included in the unemployed total.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data. Effective with January 2020 data, industries reflect the introduction of the 2017 Census industry classification system into the Current Population Survey. This industry classification system is derived from the 2017 North American Industry Classification System (NAICS). No historical data have been revised.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-15. Alternative measures of labor underutilization
[Percent]
Measure Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Oct.
2020
Sept.
2021
Oct.
2021
Oct.
2020
June
2021
July
2021
Aug.
2021
Sept.
2021
Oct.
2021

U-1 Persons unemployed 15 weeks or longer, as a percent of the civilian labor force

3.8 2.2 2.0 3.8 3.3 2.9 2.7 2.3 2.1

U-2 Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs, as a percent of the civilian labor force

4.5 2.3 2.0 4.8 3.6 3.1 2.8 2.5 2.3

U-3 Total unemployed, as a percent of the civilian labor force (official unemployment rate)

6.6 4.6 4.3 6.9 5.9 5.4 5.2 4.8 4.6

U-4 Total unemployed plus discouraged workers, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus discouraged workers

6.9 4.8 4.5 7.2 6.2 5.7 5.4 5.0 4.9

U-5 Total unemployed, plus discouraged workers, plus all other persons marginally attached to the labor force, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force

7.7 5.6 5.2 8.0 6.9 6.5 6.1 5.8 5.6

U-6 Total unemployed, plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force, plus total employed part time for economic reasons, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force

11.6 8.1 7.7 12.1 9.8 9.2 8.8 8.5 8.3

NOTE: Persons marginally attached to the labor force are those who currently are neither working nor looking for work but indicate that they want and are available for a job and have looked for work sometime in the past 12 months. Discouraged workers, a subset of the marginally attached, have given a job-market related reason for not currently looking for work. Persons employed part time for economic reasons are those who want and are available for full-time work but have had to settle for a part-time schedule. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-16. Persons not in the labor force and multiple jobholders by sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Category Total Men Women
Oct.
2020
Oct.
2021
Oct.
2020
Oct.
2021
Oct.
2020
Oct.
2021

NOT IN THE LABOR FORCE

Total not in the labor force

99,872 100,045 40,754 40,994 59,118 59,052

Persons who currently want a job

6,317 5,567 2,996 2,478 3,321 3,089

Marginally attached to the labor force(1)

1,923 1,638 1,049 842 874 796

Discouraged workers(2)

594 460 367 315 228 145

Other persons marginally attached to the labor force(3)

1,328 1,178 682 527 646 651

MULTIPLE JOBHOLDERS

Total multiple jobholders(4)

6,866 7,166 3,363 3,467 3,503 3,699

Percent of total employed

4.6 4.6 4.2 4.2 5.0 5.1

Primary job full time, secondary job part time

3,813 4,193 2,101 2,194 1,711 1,999

Primary and secondary jobs both part time

1,716 1,598 565 540 1,150 1,059

Primary and secondary jobs both full time

248 361 145 215 103 146

Hours vary on primary or secondary job

1,046 953 541 499 505 454

Footnotes
(1) Data refer to persons who want a job, have searched for work during the prior 12 months, and were available to take a job during the reference week, but had not looked for work in the past 4 weeks.
(2) Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for reasons such as thinks no work available, could not find work, lacks schooling or training, employer thinks too young or old, and other types of discrimination.
(3) Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for such reasons as school or family responsibilities, ill health, and transportation problems, as well as a number for whom reason for nonparticipation was not determined.
(4) Includes a small number of persons who work part time on their primary job and full time on their secondary job(s), not shown separately.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-1. Employees on nonfarm payrolls by industry sector and selected industry detail
[In thousands]
Industry Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Oct.
2020
Aug.
2021
Sept.
2021(p)
Oct.
2021(p)
Oct.
2020
Aug.
2021
Sept.
2021(p)
Oct.
2021(p)
Change from:
Sept.2021 - Oct.2021(p)

Total nonfarm

143,568 147,012 147,659 149,217 142,545 147,476 147,788 148,319 531

Total private

121,581 125,943 125,709 127,001 120,962 125,424 125,789 126,393 604

Goods-producing

20,261 20,782 20,746 20,861 20,078 20,505 20,570 20,678 108

Mining and logging

597 646 649 656 594 643 647 651 4

Logging

46.3 45.7 43.9 43.4 44.6 44.5 43.3 42.7 -0.6

Mining

550.9 600.2 605.3 612.3 549.4 598.8 603.7 608.6 4.9

Oil and gas extraction

138.7 140.9 142.2 144.0 137.7 139.8 140.9 142.1 1.2

Mining, except oil and gas

178.3 186.2 185.0 184.5 175.9 182.6 182.4 182.9 0.5

Coal mining

39.8 42.4 42.2 42.6 39.5 42.2 42.3 42.5 0.2

Metal ore mining

41.7 42.6 42.2 42.8 41.9 42.5 42.4 43.0 0.6

Nonmetallic mineral mining and quarrying

96.8 101.2 100.6 99.1 94.5 97.9 97.7 97.4 -0.3

Support activities for mining

233.9 273.1 278.1 283.8 235.8 276.4 280.4 283.6 3.2

Construction

7,506 7,644 7,627 7,669 7,329 7,424 7,454 7,498 44

Construction of buildings

1,671.9 1,725.0 1,721.2 1,727.7 1,645.5 1,691.9 1,699.1 1,702.5 3.4

Residential building

849.6 894.9 888.1 897.2 832.7 880.9 883.2 885.0 1.8

Nonresidential building

822.3 830.1 833.1 830.5 812.8 811.0 815.9 817.5 1.6

Heavy and civil engineering construction

1,090.9 1,097.2 1,104.1 1,111.0 1,029.8 1,033.4 1,041.5 1,053.6 12.1

Specialty trade contractors

4,743.2 4,822.1 4,801.9 4,830.4 4,653.4 4,698.7 4,713.5 4,741.9 28.4

Residential specialty trade contractors

2,153.8 2,215.6 2,203.0 2,222.0 2,114.5 2,173.9 2,175.9 2,185.0 9.1

Nonresidential specialty trade contractors

2,589.4 2,606.5 2,598.9 2,608.4 2,538.9 2,524.8 2,537.6 2,556.9 19.3

Manufacturing

12,158 12,492 12,470 12,536 12,155 12,438 12,469 12,529 60

Durable goods

7,538 7,754 7,743 7,788 7,550 7,738 7,758 7,799 41

Wood products

396.8 411.4 410.7 413.8 397.2 408.4 410.7 412.1 1.4

Nonmetallic mineral products

399.1 403.8 402.7 402.5 394.6 397.4 398.3 397.9 -0.4

Primary metals

346.1 355.5 353.8 355.4 348.7 355.8 356.6 358.6 2.0

Fabricated metal products

1,376.3 1,417.2 1,419.8 1,425.8 1,380.2 1,417.3 1,425.2 1,431.0 5.8

Machinery

1,049.0 1,081.9 1,080.6 1,080.0 1,054.2 1,080.4 1,086.9 1,087.1 0.2

Computer and electronic products

1,069.2 1,091.7 1,088.1 1,092.6 1,071.6 1,088.5 1,090.8 1,094.3 3.5

Computer and peripheral equipment

162.9 166.6 166.8 168.3 162.6 166.0 167.2 168.2 1.0

Communications equipment

84.2 85.3 85.0 84.8 84.7 85.1 85.4 85.4 0.0

Semiconductors and electronic components

368.5 374.8 373.7 374.4 369.2 373.2 374.3 375.5 1.2

Electronic instruments

419.9 430.1 428.3 430.3 421.5 429.8 429.8 430.8 1.0

Miscellaneous computer and electronic products

33.7 34.9 34.3 34.8 33.5 34.4 34.1 34.4 0.3

Electrical equipment and appliances

372.2 381.9 380.5 381.8 372.4 380.3 380.8 382.0 1.2

Transportation equipment(1)

1,577.7 1,620.4 1,617.8 1,640.4 1,580.5 1,620.9 1,618.3 1,642.0 23.7

Motor vehicles and parts(2)

888.2 919.8 918.1 943.1 889.2 917.4 911.8 939.5 27.7

Furniture and related products

350.8 359.9 361.4 362.2 352.0 361.3 362.1 361.5 -0.6

Miscellaneous durable goods manufacturing

600.3 630.3 627.3 633.7 598.8 627.6 627.8 632.2 4.4

Nondurable goods

4,620 4,738 4,727 4,748 4,605 4,700 4,711 4,730 19

Food manufacturing

1,633.1 1,660.1 1,655.5 1,663.0 1,623.0 1,643.6 1,647.0 1,650.0 3.0

Textile mills

95.3 98.9 98.5 99.2 95.8 98.4 98.4 98.9 0.5

Textile product mills

104.6 107.9 107.9 108.6 103.9 107.6 107.7 108.4 0.7

Apparel

91.7 93.2 93.5 94.3 91.3 92.8 92.9 93.5 0.6

Paper and paper products

353.0 352.7 352.9 355.2 354.6 352.8 353.9 356.1 2.2

Printing and related support activities

371.2 375.3 377.1 380.9 370.2 372.7 375.9 380.1 4.2

Petroleum and coal products

106.2 103.3 103.1 103.7 105.0 101.0 101.2 101.4 0.2

Chemicals

838.0 859.6 854.3 860.2 840.0 859.8 859.5 865.1 5.6

Plastics and rubber products

713.4 741.1 737.3 739.0 714.7 736.4 737.8 741.0 3.2

Miscellaneous nondurable goods manufacturing

313.8 345.5 346.7 343.4 306.5 334.7 337.0 335.9 -1.1

Private service-providing

101,320 105,161 104,963 106,140 100,884 104,919 105,219 105,715 496

Trade, transportation, and utilities

26,889 27,329 27,419 27,761 26,847 27,491 27,613 27,717 104

Wholesale trade

5,596.4 5,735.7 5,723.1 5,748.1 5,587.6 5,716.9 5,724.2 5,737.7 13.5

Durable goods

3,054.2 3,146.2 3,141.6 3,155.9 3,050.2 3,133.0 3,140.8 3,154.9 14.1

Nondurable goods

2,063.3 2,109.4 2,104.3 2,111.9 2,060.1 2,105.4 2,105.5 2,104.4 -1.1

Electronic markets and agents and brokers

478.9 480.1 477.2 480.3 477.3 478.5 477.9 478.4 0.5

Retail trade

15,131.1 15,309.1 15,281.5 15,500.0 15,131.8 15,377.5 15,434.8 15,470.1 35.3

Motor vehicle and parts dealers

1,936.2 1,992.0 1,987.3 1,989.1 1,935.1 1,983.9 1,986.7 1,989.1 2.4

Automobile dealers

1,227.9 1,255.7 1,254.4 1,251.4 1,225.5 1,254.8 1,255.7 1,253.0 -2.7

Other motor vehicle dealers

152.2 171.7 166.4 167.3 154.2 165.1 165.1 167.6 2.5

Auto parts, accessories, and tire stores

556.1 564.6 566.5 570.4 555.4 564.0 565.9 568.5 2.6

Furniture and home furnishings stores

432.2 440.1 440.3 447.2 432.3 446.8 446.7 446.0 -0.7

Electronics and appliance stores

448.5 414.5 418.6 444.2 444.4 427.3 429.2 435.3 6.1

Building material and garden supply stores

1,371.8 1,374.5 1,365.2 1,343.3 1,391.5 1,357.7 1,374.8 1,364.4 -10.4

Food and beverage stores

3,133.5 3,107.3 3,070.8 3,098.0 3,127.2 3,094.6 3,084.7 3,100.3 15.6

Health and personal care stores

959.0 997.3 1,006.5 1,031.4 958.9 1,009.0 1,016.2 1,024.4 8.2

Gasoline stations

935.8 971.4 958.1 956.8 935.9 955.4 953.0 954.7 1.7

Clothing and clothing accessories stores

962.8 1,046.2 1,036.0 1,055.3 977.9 1,057.3 1,071.3 1,064.3 -7.0

Sporting goods, hobby, book, and music stores

464.6 494.7 489.2 501.8 469.4 502.7 501.6 504.1 2.5

General merchandise stores

3,094.0 3,010.3 3,047.2 3,149.8 3,082.9 3,086.2 3,104.6 3,119.9 15.3

Department stores

983.1 967.4 971.7 1,012.2 975.4 1,001.1 1,006.6 1,005.0 -1.6

General merchandise stores, including warehouse clubs and supercenters

2,110.9 2,042.9 2,075.5 2,137.6 2,107.5 2,085.1 2,098.0 2,114.9 16.9

Miscellaneous store retailers

780.4 837.1 827.9 838.6 770.1 828.2 831.9 832.5 0.6

Nonstore retailers

612.3 623.7 634.4 644.5 606.2 628.4 634.1 635.1 1.0

Transportation and warehousing

5,622.5 5,746.8 5,879.9 5,977.2 5,587.7 5,860.2 5,917.6 5,972.0 54.4

Air transportation

391.1 449.9 457.6 465.2 390.6 446.1 457.4 466.6 9.2

Rail transportation

144.6 142.5 142.3 142.3 144.4 142.3 141.8 141.9 0.1

Water transportation

59.3 61.3 60.3 58.8 59.2 59.1 59.2 58.6 -0.6

Truck transportation

1,474.4 1,520.5 1,520.6 1,531.6 1,460.4 1,503.1 1,507.6 1,515.5 7.9

Transit and ground passenger transportation

390.2 334.4 413.7 433.4 372.4 401.0 401.8 417.6 15.8

Pipeline transportation

50.1 49.6 49.5 49.7 50.2 49.4 49.5 49.5 0.0

Scenic and sightseeing transportation

23.7 41.4 38.3 35.7 23.1 31.8 32.7 34.8 2.1

Support activities for transportation

689.7 725.4 727.7 735.2 688.1 725.2 728.3 732.9 4.6

Couriers and messengers

980.0 984.4 1,004.4 1,009.0 992.3 1,038.2 1,060.1 1,055.2 -4.9

Warehousing and storage

1,419.4 1,437.4 1,465.5 1,516.3 1,407.0 1,464.0 1,479.2 1,499.4 20.2

Utilities

539.1 537.6 534.5 536.1 540.1 536.7 536.5 536.7 0.2

Information

2,654 2,784 2,772 2,787 2,650 2,778 2,782 2,792 10

Publishing industries, except Internet

755.7 778.2 770.6 772.2 754.8 775.2 770.6 773.1 2.5

Motion picture and sound recording industries

261.9 332.3 332.2 347.7 258.1 326.9 338.4 349.7 11.3

Broadcasting, except Internet

246.8 238.2 239.5 238.7 246.7 239.6 238.9 237.3 -1.6

Telecommunications

682.4 672.6 668.7 666.5 681.2 674.8 669.9 668.8 -1.1

Data processing, hosting and related services

352.4 377.2 380.3 382.2 352.5 379.9 383.8 382.0 -1.8

Other information services

354.3 385.2 380.2 380.1 356.2 381.6 380.6 381.3 0.7

Financial activities

8,751 8,901 8,857 8,898 8,746 8,854 8,861 8,882 21

Finance and insurance

6,523.5 6,562.5 6,533.8 6,556.6 6,526.4 6,550.3 6,544.8 6,553.6 8.8

Monetary authorities - central bank

20.3 20.3 20.2 20.1 20.3 20.2 20.2 20.1 -0.1

Credit intermediation and related
activities

2,655.9 2,670.9 2,658.3 2,658.7 2,662.8 2,667.5 2,666.2 2,664.8 -1.4

Depository credit intermediation(1)

1,749.5 1,731.2 1,717.2 1,714.3 1,759.9 1,725.4 1,723.8 1,721.0 -2.8

Commercial banking

1,366.0 1,341.4 1,327.1 1,322.6 1,375.3 1,336.2 1,332.7 1,328.8 -3.9

Nondepository credit intermediation

594.4 615.2 618.7 620.7 591.9 616.1 619.4 621.2 1.8

Activities related to credit intermediation

312.0 324.5 322.4 323.7 311.0 326.0 323.0 322.6 -0.4

Securities, commodity contracts, investments, and funds and trusts

974.8 1,007.2 996.0 1,011.8 971.6 998.6 996.9 1,008.1 11.2

Insurance carriers and related activities

2,872.5 2,864.1 2,859.3 2,866.0 2,871.7 2,864.0 2,861.5 2,860.6 -0.9

Real estate and rental and leasing

2,227.0 2,338.0 2,323.3 2,341.0 2,219.6 2,303.7 2,316.3 2,328.7 12.4

Real estate

1,714.2 1,782.8 1,771.9 1,790.4 1,707.5 1,765.2 1,772.9 1,778.1 5.2

Rental and leasing services

490.3 532.7 529.3 528.0 489.7 516.3 521.1 528.0 6.9

Lessors of nonfinancial intangible assets

22.5 22.5 22.1 22.6 22.4 22.2 22.3 22.6 0.3

Professional and business services

20,505 21,182 21,205 21,566 20,296 21,078 21,154 21,254 100

Professional and technical services

9,449.5 9,911.0 9,885.0 10,013.4 9,454.4 9,906.3 9,961.8 10,006.9 45.1

Legal services

1,121.4 1,141.7 1,142.6 1,156.4 1,119.6 1,142.6 1,147.9 1,152.6 4.7

Accounting and bookkeeping services

948.9 1,013.9 1,005.3 1,019.3 993.5 1,066.5 1,068.4 1,072.5 4.1

Architectural and engineering services

1,524.3 1,597.4 1,593.6 1,605.2 1,516.3 1,579.4 1,592.1 1,593.9 1.8

Specialized design services

135.6 143.4 142.5 144.7 135.3 142.6 143.2 143.3 0.1

Computer systems design and related services

2,201.7 2,292.8 2,280.7 2,306.6 2,188.6 2,272.1 2,283.0 2,290.0 7.0

Management and technical consulting services

1,548.8 1,643.4 1,649.3 1,684.0 1,533.9 1,635.1 1,647.0 1,660.6 13.6

Scientific research and development services

777.1 836.0 828.0 837.5 780.0 830.8 835.8 841.5 5.7

Advertising and related services

439.9 449.7 450.9 453.1 437.8 447.6 452.7 451.6 -1.1

Other professional and technical services

751.8 792.7 792.1 806.6 749.4 789.6 791.7 800.9 9.2

Management of companies and enterprises

2,332.3 2,347.3 2,337.6 2,344.3 2,336.0 2,336.9 2,339.2 2,345.9 6.7

Administrative and waste services

8,723.4 8,923.8 8,982.7 9,207.9 8,505.6 8,835.1 8,852.5 8,901.1 48.6

Administrative and support services

8,274.7 8,467.7 8,526.0 8,744.3 8,057.8 8,383.9 8,397.9 8,441.4 43.5

Office administrative services

527.2 566.6 566.4 569.8 524.6 563.1 565.0 567.5 2.5

Facilities support services

154.5 152.8 151.1 153.0 152.1 153.0 151.8 151.9 0.1

Employment services(1)

3,260.4 3,348.4 3,436.7 3,636.6 3,131.3 3,373.9 3,383.1 3,423.9 40.8

Temporary help services

2,654.2 2,699.1 2,776.4 2,954.0 2,519.5 2,724.3 2,730.4 2,771.5 41.1

Business support services

806.4 772.8 778.5 786.3 796.1 780.3 782.5 777.4 -5.1

Travel arrangement and reservation services

151.2 163.2 166.0 165.1 151.0 161.7 167.2 166.4 -0.8

Investigation and security services

904.8 902.0 899.3 899.6 901.0 900.1 895.6 896.0 0.4

Services to buildings and dwellings

2,175.1 2,244.0 2,204.3 2,209.2 2,112.1 2,133.1 2,133.6 2,139.5 5.9

Other support services

295.1 317.9 323.7 324.7 289.7 318.7 319.1 318.8 -0.3

Waste management and remediation services

448.7 456.1 456.7 463.6 447.8 451.2 454.6 459.7 5.1

Education and health services

23,427 23,356 23,583 23,929 23,235 23,693 23,706 23,770 64

Educational services

3,540.3 3,325.8 3,562.2 3,783.5 3,393.8 3,634.2 3,613.4 3,630.4 17.0

Health care and social assistance

19,886.6 20,029.8 20,020.5 20,145.6 19,841.0 20,058.5 20,092.5 20,139.4 46.9

Health care(3)

15,934.6 16,004.1 15,971.1 16,039.6 15,905.9 15,996.4 15,995.4 16,032.6 37.2

Ambulatory health care services

7,664.4 7,844.0 7,860.3 7,920.6 7,647.5 7,843.4 7,876.7 7,909.0 32.3

Offices of physicians

2,662.4 2,707.3 2,706.8 2,724.2 2,658.3 2,711.0 2,712.0 2,720.6 8.6

Offices of dentists

976.2 1,023.8 1,022.4 1,028.9 976.0 1,019.8 1,024.5 1,026.8 2.3

Offices of other health practitioners

939.4 995.9 999.4 1,009.9 937.2 993.8 1,004.8 1,009.2 4.4

Outpatient care centers

991.2 1,008.5 1,010.7 1,014.2 992.0 1,009.2 1,011.9 1,013.3 1.4

Medical and diagnostic laboratories

284.4 297.0 297.5 299.4 285.2 297.1 298.5 299.1 0.6

Home health care services

1,505.3 1,496.5 1,505.5 1,526.8 1,496.7 1,496.9 1,507.7 1,523.5 15.8

Other ambulatory health care services

305.5 315.0 318.0 317.2 302.1 315.6 317.3 316.5 -0.8

Hospitals

5,136.3 5,153.7 5,150.0 5,153.1 5,128.0 5,153.4 5,149.3 5,150.4 1.1

Nursing and residential care facilities

3,133.9 3,006.4 2,960.8 2,965.9 3,130.4 2,999.6 2,969.4 2,973.2 3.8

Nursing care facilities

1,453.0 1,367.7 1,347.2 1,356.5 1,451.5 1,365.3 1,349.4 1,361.2 11.8

Residential mental health facilities

614.9 597.2 592.8 589.5 615.0 594.9 592.8 590.0 -2.8

Community care facilities for the elderly

910.0 891.1 870.7 870.2 908.1 889.8 876.3 872.1 -4.2

Other residential care facilities

156.0 150.4 150.1 149.7 155.9 149.6 150.9 149.9 -1.0

Social assistance

3,952.0 4,025.7 4,049.4 4,106.0 3,935.1 4,062.1 4,097.1 4,106.8 9.7

Individual and family services

2,602.6 2,673.4 2,656.7 2,689.8 2,599.7 2,674.3 2,686.2 2,692.3 6.1

Emergency and other relief services

182.1 182.8 184.0 185.3 182.7 184.7 185.4 185.9 0.5

Vocational rehabilitation services

281.6 284.7 282.2 286.4 281.8 283.1 285.1 287.5 2.4

Child day care services

885.7 884.8 926.5 944.5 871.0 920.0 940.4 941.1 0.7

Leisure and hospitality

13,607 15,826 15,405 15,433 13,622 15,280 15,368 15,532 164

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

1,754.6 2,384.8 2,214.6 2,170.1 1,779.5 2,156.8 2,196.3 2,217.2 20.9

Performing arts and spectator sports

319.9 459.5 484.3 494.7 312.3 441.7 471.4 483.0 11.6

Museums, historical sites, and similar institutions

133.1 152.9 145.5 146.4 132.6 143.3 146.5 147.1 0.6

Amusements, gambling, and recreation

1,301.6 1,772.4 1,584.8 1,529.0 1,334.6 1,571.8 1,578.4 1,587.1 8.7

Accommodation and food services

11,852.3 13,441.1 13,189.9 13,262.6 11,842.3 13,122.8 13,172.1 13,314.7 142.6

Accommodation

1,445.8 1,875.4 1,793.4 1,776.7 1,455.5 1,758.3 1,767.7 1,790.9 23.2

Food services and drinking places

10,406.5 11,565.7 11,396.5 11,485.9 10,386.8 11,364.5 11,404.4 11,523.8 119.4

Other services

5,487 5,783 5,722 5,766 5,488 5,745 5,735 5,768 33

Repair and maintenance

1,309.9 1,378.4 1,372.5 1,389.4 1,307.0 1,371.5 1,372.6 1,381.0 8.4

Personal and laundry services

1,315.0 1,429.3 1,422.8 1,445.4 1,313.5 1,427.7 1,421.5 1,449.6 28.1

Membership associations and organizations

2,862.2 2,975.2 2,926.5 2,931.0 2,867.4 2,945.3 2,940.6 2,937.6 -3.0

Government

21,987 21,069 21,950 22,216 21,583 22,052 21,999 21,926 -73

Federal

2,978 2,887 2,893 2,879 2,975 2,884 2,885 2,882 -3

Federal, except U.S. Postal Service

2,376.0 2,288.2 2,289.2 2,281.6 2,372.1 2,278.4 2,278.9 2,278.1 -0.8

U.S. Postal Service

602.0 599.2 603.3 597.6 602.8 605.3 605.9 603.5 -2.4

State government

5,118 4,793 5,092 5,177 4,945 5,077 5,056 5,031 -25

State government education

2,427.3 2,135.2 2,448.2 2,544.5 2,253.8 2,428.6 2,413.0 2,391.5 -21.5

State government, excluding education

2,690.5 2,658.0 2,643.6 2,632.7 2,691.0 2,648.0 2,643.1 2,639.5 -3.6

Local government

13,891 13,389 13,965 14,160 13,663 14,091 14,058 14,013 -45

Local government education

7,610.6 6,922.8 7,636.0 7,870.1 7,341.4 7,789.0 7,703.5 7,660.1 -43.4

Local government, excluding education

6,280.2 6,466.0 6,328.8 6,290.3 6,321.9 6,302.4 6,354.5 6,352.8 -1.7

Footnotes
(1) Includes other industries, not shown separately.
(2) Includes motor vehicles, motor vehicle bodies and trailers, and motor vehicle parts.
(3) Includes ambulatory health care services, hospitals, and nursing and residential care facilities.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2020 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-2. Average weekly hours and overtime of all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Oct.
2020
Aug.
2021
Sept.
2021(p)
Oct.
2021(p)

AVERAGE WEEKLY HOURS

Total private

34.8 34.6 34.8 34.7

Goods-producing

40.0 40.0 40.5 39.9

Mining and logging

44.7 45.0 45.3 44.8

Construction

38.9 38.8 40.1 38.7

Manufacturing

40.4 40.4 40.4 40.3

Durable goods

40.6 40.5 40.5 40.4

Nondurable goods

40.2 40.3 40.2 40.1

Private service-providing

33.8 33.6 33.6 33.7

Trade, transportation, and utilities

34.5 34.4 34.4 34.5

Wholesale trade

38.7 39.1 39.3 39.3

Retail trade

31.0 30.8 30.7 30.8

Transportation and warehousing

39.0 38.7 38.5 38.6

Utilities

42.8 42.9 42.2 42.0

Information

36.7 37.0 36.8 36.8

Financial activities

37.7 37.5 37.5 37.5

Professional and business services

36.6 36.5 36.7 36.7

Education and health services

33.5 33.3 33.4 33.4

Leisure and hospitality

26.0 26.2 26.2 26.2

Other services

32.4 32.0 32.2 32.2

AVERAGE OVERTIME HOURS

Manufacturing

3.2 3.2 3.3 3.2

Durable goods

3.1 3.1 3.2 3.0

Nondurable goods

3.3 3.4 3.5 3.4

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2020 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-3. Average hourly and weekly earnings of all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Average hourly earnings Average weekly earnings
Oct.
2020
Aug.
2021
Sept.
2021(p)
Oct.
2021(p)
Oct.
2020
Aug.
2021
Sept.
2021(p)
Oct.
2021(p)

Total private

$29.52 $30.67 $30.85 $30.96 $1,027.30 $1,061.18 $1,073.58 $1,074.31

Goods-producing

30.13 31.21 31.38 31.48 1,205.20 1,248.40 1,270.89 1,256.05

Mining and logging

34.89 35.54 35.57 35.56 1,559.58 1,599.30 1,611.32 1,593.09

Construction

31.87 33.09 33.26 33.38 1,239.74 1,283.89 1,333.73 1,291.81

Manufacturing

28.86 29.88 30.02 30.15 1,165.94 1,207.15 1,212.81 1,215.05

Durable goods

30.37 31.44 31.57 31.67 1,233.02 1,273.32 1,278.59 1,279.47

Nondurable goods

26.35 27.30 27.45 27.61 1,059.27 1,100.19 1,103.49 1,107.16

Private service-providing

29.37 30.55 30.72 30.84 992.71 1,026.48 1,032.19 1,039.31

Trade, transportation, and utilities

25.41 26.50 26.65 26.65 876.65 911.60 916.76 919.43

Wholesale trade

32.66 33.80 33.93 34.11 1,263.94 1,321.58 1,333.45 1,340.52

Retail trade

21.11 22.05 22.23 22.05 654.41 679.14 682.46 679.14

Transportation and warehousing

25.46 26.71 26.79 27.05 992.94 1,033.68 1,031.42 1,044.13

Utilities

44.33 45.16 45.25 45.20 1,897.32 1,937.36 1,909.55 1,898.40

Information

44.77 44.27 44.31 44.55 1,643.06 1,637.99 1,630.61 1,639.44

Financial activities

38.66 40.09 40.29 40.57 1,457.48 1,503.38 1,510.88 1,521.38

Professional and business services

35.38 36.99 37.14 37.40 1,294.91 1,350.14 1,363.04 1,372.58

Education and health services

28.72 30.02 30.34 30.41 962.12 999.67 1,013.36 1,015.69

Leisure and hospitality

17.12 18.79 18.86 19.04 445.12 492.30 494.13 498.85

Other services

26.51 27.44 27.50 27.58 858.92 878.08 885.50 888.08

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2020 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-4. Indexes of aggregate weekly hours and payrolls for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
[2007=100]
Industry Index of aggregate weekly hours(1) Index of aggregate weekly payrolls(2)
Oct.
2020
Aug.
2021
Sept.
2021(p)
Oct.
2021(p)
Percent change from:
Sept.
2021 - Oct.
2021(p)
Oct.
2020
Aug.
2021
Sept.
2021(p)
Oct.
2021(p)
Percent change from:
Sept.
2021 - Oct.
2021(p)

Total private

105.7 108.9 109.9 110.1 0.2 149.1 159.7 162.1 163.0 0.6

Goods-producing

91.5 93.4 94.9 94.0 -0.9 124.6 131.8 134.6 133.7 -0.7

Mining and logging

83.4 90.9 92.1 91.6 -0.5 116.9 129.7 131.5 130.8 -0.5

Construction

98.3 99.3 103.0 100.0 -2.9 136.1 142.8 148.9 145.1 -2.6

Manufacturing

88.3 90.4 90.6 90.8 0.2 118.6 125.6 126.5 127.4 0.7

Durable goods

86.3 88.2 88.5 88.7 0.2 116.4 123.2 124.0 124.8 0.6

Nondurable goods

92.4 94.5 94.5 94.7 0.2 123.5 131.0 131.7 132.6 0.7

Private service-providing

109.8 113.5 113.8 114.7 0.8 156.7 168.5 170.0 171.9 1.1

Trade, transportation, and utilities

101.1 103.2 103.6 104.3 0.7 138.5 147.5 149.0 150.0 0.7

Wholesale trade

95.4 98.6 99.2 99.5 0.3 130.3 139.4 140.8 141.9 0.8

Retail trade

95.3 96.2 96.2 96.8 0.6 132.9 140.1 141.4 141.0 -0.3

Transportation and warehousing

125.2 130.3 130.9 132.5 1.2 162.2 177.1 178.4 182.3 2.2

Utilities

100.0 99.6 98.0 97.5 -0.5 146.5 148.6 146.4 145.6 -0.5

Information

88.8 93.9 93.5 93.8 0.3 141.6 148.0 147.5 148.8 0.9

Financial activities

108.0 108.8 108.9 109.1 0.2 162.9 170.1 171.1 172.7 0.9

Professional and business services

116.5 120.6 121.7 122.3 0.5 166.9 180.7 183.1 185.2 1.1

Education and health services

127.1 128.8 129.3 129.6 0.2 175.6 186.1 188.7 189.7 0.5

Leisure and hospitality

101.1 114.2 114.9 116.1 1.0 139.6 173.2 174.8 178.4 2.1

Other services

102.5 106.0 106.5 107.1 0.6 149.0 159.4 160.5 161.9 0.9

Footnotes
(1) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding 2007 annual average aggregate hours. Aggregate hours estimates are the product of estimates of average weekly hours and employment.
(2) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding 2007 annual average aggregate weekly payrolls. Aggregate payrolls estimates are the product of estimates of average hourly earnings, average weekly hours, and employment.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2020 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-5. Employment of women on nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Women employees (in thousands) Percent of all employees
Oct.
2020
Aug.
2021
Sept.
2021(p)
Oct.
2021(p)
Oct.
2020
Aug.
2021
Sept.
2021(p)
Oct.
2021(p)

Total nonfarm

70,923 73,543 73,598 73,902 49.8 49.9 49.8 49.8

Total private

58,515 60,703 60,842 61,218 48.4 48.4 48.4 48.4

Goods-producing

4,541 4,671 4,691 4,716 22.6 22.8 22.8 22.8

Mining and logging

86 83 83 83 14.5 12.9 12.8 12.7

Construction

973 1,029 1,036 1,041 13.3 13.9 13.9 13.9

Manufacturing

3,482 3,559 3,572 3,592 28.6 28.6 28.6 28.7

Durable goods

1,845 1,887 1,896 1,908 24.4 24.4 24.4 24.5

Nondurable goods

1,637 1,672 1,676 1,684 35.5 35.6 35.6 35.6

Private service-providing

53,974 56,032 56,151 56,502 53.5 53.4 53.4 53.4

Trade, transportation, and utilities

10,526 10,798 10,882 10,955 39.2 39.3 39.4 39.5

Wholesale trade

1,674.4 1,725.4 1,724.1 1,724.0 30.0 30.2 30.1 30.0

Retail trade

7,334.8 7,439.6 7,489.4 7,529.0 48.5 48.4 48.5 48.7

Transportation and warehousing

1,383.0 1,499.1 1,533.7 1,566.7 24.8 25.6 25.9 26.2

Utilities

134.0 133.9 135.0 134.9 24.8 24.9 25.2 25.1

Information

1,060 1,100 1,094 1,098 40.0 39.6 39.3 39.3

Financial activities

4,951 4,966 4,970 4,970 56.6 56.1 56.1 56.0

Professional and business services

9,323 9,738 9,781 9,878 45.9 46.2 46.2 46.5

Education and health services

17,934 18,250 18,243 18,301 77.2 77.0 77.0 77.0

Leisure and hospitality

7,258 8,114 8,123 8,219 53.3 53.1 52.9 52.9

Other services

2,922 3,066 3,058 3,081 53.2 53.4 53.3 53.4

Government

12,408 12,840 12,756 12,684 57.5 58.2 58.0 57.8

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2020 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-6. Employment of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
[In thousands]
Industry Oct.
2020
Aug.
2021
Sept.
2021(p)
Oct.
2021(p)

Total private

98,541 102,100 102,367 103,036

Goods-producing

14,242 14,633 14,665 14,724

Mining and logging

421 480 483 486

Construction

5,415 5,504 5,522 5,522

Manufacturing

8,406 8,649 8,660 8,716

Durable goods

5,105 5,302 5,304 5,349

Nondurable goods

3,301 3,347 3,356 3,367

Private service-providing

84,299 87,467 87,702 88,312

Trade, transportation, and utilities

22,684 23,155 23,247 23,338

Wholesale trade

4,443.9 4,549.2 4,558.1 4,569.1

Retail trade

12,922.6 13,089.0 13,142.6 13,189.2

Transportation and warehousing

4,889.4 5,089.7 5,119.7 5,152.4

Utilities

428.1 426.9 426.8 427.4

Information

2,088 2,207 2,216 2,219

Financial activities

6,648 6,669 6,685 6,686

Professional and business services

16,322 16,823 16,919 17,104

Education and health services

20,333 20,719 20,666 20,756

Leisure and hospitality

11,755 13,218 13,297 13,509

Other services

4,469 4,676 4,672 4,700

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2020 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-7. Average weekly hours and overtime of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry Oct.
2020
Aug.
2021
Sept.
2021(p)
Oct.
2021(p)

AVERAGE WEEKLY HOURS

Total private

34.2 34.1 34.2 34.1

Goods-producing

40.6 40.8 41.4 40.7

Mining and logging

45.2 46.5 47.3 46.9

Construction

39.1 39.4 41.0 39.3

Manufacturing

41.3 41.4 41.4 41.3

Durable goods

41.4 41.4 41.4 41.2

Nondurable goods

41.0 41.4 41.4 41.3

Private service-providing

33.1 33.0 33.0 33.0

Trade, transportation, and utilities

34.5 34.2 34.2 34.4

Wholesale trade

38.5 38.9 39.0 39.2

Retail trade

31.0 30.7 30.7 30.9

Transportation and warehousing

39.2 38.5 38.3 38.5

Utilities

42.6 42.7 42.2 41.7

Information

36.5 37.3 36.3 36.1

Financial activities

37.3 37.3 37.4 37.4

Professional and business services

36.1 36.2 36.5 36.3

Education and health services

32.8 32.6 32.7 32.7

Leisure and hospitality

24.6 25.0 24.9 25.0

Other services

31.4 31.0 31.2 31.1

AVERAGE OVERTIME HOURS

Manufacturing

3.9 4.1 4.1 4.1

Durable goods

3.9 4.1 4.1 4.0

Nondurable goods

4.0 4.1 4.2 4.2

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2020 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-8. Average hourly and weekly earnings of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry Average hourly earnings Average weekly earnings
Oct.
2020
Aug.
2021
Sept.
2021(p)
Oct.
2021(p)
Oct.
2020
Aug.
2021
Sept.
2021(p)
Oct.
2021(p)

Total private

$24.83 $26.01 $26.16 $26.26 $849.19 $886.94 $894.67 $895.47

Goods-producing

25.58 26.73 26.90 26.93 1,038.55 1,090.58 1,113.66 1,096.05

Mining and logging

30.27 31.64 31.47 31.43 1,368.20 1,471.26 1,488.53 1,474.07

Construction

29.40 30.70 30.81 30.94 1,149.54 1,209.58 1,263.21 1,215.94

Manufacturing

22.99 24.02 24.14 24.22 949.49 994.43 999.40 1,000.29

Durable goods

24.04 25.06 25.18 25.28 995.26 1,037.48 1,042.45 1,041.54

Nondurable goods

21.34 22.38 22.50 22.53 874.94 926.53 931.50 930.49

Private service-providing

24.68 25.86 26.00 26.12 816.91 853.38 858.00 861.96

Trade, transportation, and utilities

21.57 22.61 22.72 22.82 744.17 773.26 777.02 785.01

Wholesale trade

26.98 27.89 28.07 28.22 1,038.73 1,084.92 1,094.73 1,106.22

Retail trade

17.87 18.68 18.72 18.80 553.97 573.48 574.70 580.92

Transportation and warehousing

22.79 24.25 24.51 24.65 893.37 933.63 938.73 949.03

Utilities

39.07 40.17 40.16 40.29 1,664.38 1,715.26 1,694.75 1,680.09

Information

36.50 36.58 36.46 36.87 1,332.25 1,364.43 1,323.50 1,331.01

Financial activities

29.62 30.53 30.58 30.76 1,104.83 1,138.77 1,143.69 1,150.42

Professional and business services

29.39 30.93 31.11 31.34 1,060.98 1,119.67 1,135.52 1,137.64

Education and health services

25.67 27.18 27.45 27.53 841.98 886.07 897.62 900.23

Leisure and hospitality

14.84 16.50 16.51 16.68 365.06 412.50 411.10 417.00

Other services

22.65 23.40 23.41 23.58 711.21 725.40 730.39 733.34

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2020 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-9. Indexes of aggregate weekly hours and payrolls for production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
[2002=100]
Industry Index of aggregate weekly hours(2) Index of aggregate weekly payrolls(3)
Oct.
2020
Aug.
2021
Sept.
2021(p)
Oct.
2021(p)
Percent change from:
Sept.
2021 - Oct.
2021(p)
Oct.
2020
Aug.
2021
Sept.
2021(p)
Oct.
2021(p)
Percent change from:
Sept.
2021 - Oct.
2021(p)

Total private

112.3 116.0 116.7 117.1 0.3 186.4 201.7 204.0 205.5 0.7

Goods-producing

88.4 91.2 92.8 91.6 -1.3 138.4 149.3 152.8 151.0 -1.2

Mining and logging

101.1 118.6 121.4 121.1 -0.2 178.0 218.3 222.2 221.4 -0.4

Construction

106.0 108.6 113.4 108.7 -4.1 168.3 180.0 188.6 181.5 -3.8

Manufacturing

79.7 82.2 82.3 82.6 0.4 119.8 129.1 129.9 130.9 0.8

Durable goods

79.4 82.5 82.5 82.8 0.4 119.2 129.0 129.7 130.7 0.8

Nondurable goods

79.7 81.6 81.9 81.9 0.0 120.2 129.1 130.2 130.4 0.2

Private service-providing

118.9 123.0 123.3 124.2 0.7 201.3 218.1 219.9 222.5 1.2

Trade, transportation, and utilities

109.4 110.7 111.2 112.3 1.0 168.7 178.9 180.5 183.1 1.4

Wholesale trade

101.5 105.0 105.5 106.3 0.8 161.7 172.9 174.8 177.1 1.3

Retail trade

101.4 101.7 102.1 103.1 1.0 155.2 162.8 163.8 166.1 1.4

Transportation and warehousing

145.1 148.3 148.4 150.1 1.1 210.4 228.9 231.5 235.5 1.7

Utilities

93.3 93.2 92.1 91.1 -1.1 152.1 156.3