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Economic News Release
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ATUS TUS Program Links

Job Flexibilities and Work Schedules News Release

For release 10:00 a.m. (EDT) Tuesday, September 24, 2019	          USDL-19-1691

Technical information:	(202) 691-6339  *  atusinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/tus
Media contact:	        (202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov


		JOB FLEXIBILITIES AND WORK SCHEDULES -- 2017-2018
		     DATA FROM THE AMERICAN TIME USE SURVEY


In 2017-18, about 36 million wage and salary workers (25 percent) worked 
at home at least occasionally, and 15 percent of wage and salary workers 
had days they only worked at home, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics 
reported today. Fifty-seven percent of workers had a flexible schedule in 
which they could vary the times they began and stopped working. 

Data in this news release are averages of data collected throughout 2017 and 
2018 from a supplement to the American Time Use Survey (ATUS), the 2017-18 
Leave and Job Flexibilities Module, and sponsored by the Department of 
Labor's Women's Bureau. Data on job flexibilities and work schedules were 
collected directly from wage and salary workers, excluding the self-employed. 
Estimates in this news release apply only to a person's sole or main job. For 
individuals with more than one job, the main job is the job in which 
they usually work the most hours. For more information about the ATUS Leave 
and Job Flexibilities Module, see the Technical Note. 

Work at home in 2017-18

   --Forty-two million wage and salary workers (29 percent) could work at 
     home, and 36 million workers (25 percent) sometimes worked at home. 
     Among those who worked at home, 24 percent did so because of a personal 
     preference, 23 percent worked at home to catch up on work, 22 percent 
     did so to coordinate their work schedule with personal or family needs, 
     and 16 percent did so because the job required it. (See tables 1 and 2.) 

   --Of the 25 percent of wage and salary workers who worked at home at least 
     occasionally, 67 percent were paid for this work, 21 percent were not 
     paid for this work, and 12 percent performed both paid and unpaid work 
     at home. (See table 1.) 

   --Twenty-one million workers--15 percent of all wage and salary 
     workers--had days they only worked at home. Just over one-half of these 
     workers worked one day or more per week at home, and about one-seventh
     worked at home five or more days per week. (See table 3.)

   --Among wage and salary workers, men and women were equally likely to 
     work at home (25 percent), and about equally likely to receive pay for 
     this work (67 percent and 66 percent, respectively). (See table 1.)

   --Among those who worked at home, women were more likely than men to work 
     at home to finish or catch up on work (26 percent, compared with 
     21 percent) and to coordinate their work schedule with personal or 
     family needs (25 percent, compared with 20 percent). Men were more 
     likely than women to work at home because of a personal preference 
     (27 percent, compared with 21 percent). (See table 2.)

   --Wage and salary workers who were Hispanic or Latino were less likely 
     to work at home than workers who were not Hispanic or Latino 
     (13 percent, compared with 27 percent). Blacks were less likely to 
     work at home than Whites or Asians (18 percent, compared with 26 percent 
     and 32 percent, respectively). (See table 1.)

   --About 1 in 20 workers ages 15 to 24 worked at home at least 
     occasionally. Workers 25 years and older were far more likely to work 
     at home. (See table 1.) 

   --Among wage and salary workers, parents living with children under age 
     18 were more likely to work at home than workers who were not parents 
     with children at home (30 percent, compared with 22 percent). Of these 
     parents who worked at home, 29 percent did so to coordinate their work 
     schedule with their personal or family needs. (See tables 1 and 2.) 

   --Workers with advanced education were more likely to perform work at 
     home. Among wage and salary workers age 25 and over, 47 percent of those 
     with a bachelor's degree or higher worked at home at least occasionally, 
     compared with 9 percent of workers with only a high school diploma and 
     3 percent of workers with less than a high school diploma. (See table 1.)

   --In 2017-18, about one-half of workers in management, business, and 
     financial operations occupations sometimes worked at home. These 
     workers were more likely to work at home than workers employed in other 
     occupations. (See table 1.)

Flexible schedules in 2017-18

   --Fifty-seven percent of wage and salary workers had a flexible schedule 
     in which they were able to vary the times they began and stopped 
     working. Of these workers, 35 percent were able to frequently change 
     their schedule, 46 percent could do so occasionally, and 19 percent 
     could vary their hours only rarely. (See table 4.)

   --Of those workers who had a flexible schedule, 29 percent had a formal 
     arrangement with their employer that permitted this flexibility. Public 
     sector workers were more likely to have a formal policy governing this 
     arrangement than were private sector workers (44 percent, compared with 
     27 percent). (See table 4.) 

   --Women and men were about equally likely to have a flexible work schedule 
     (56 percent and 57 percent, respectively). Among workers with a flexible 
     schedule, women were more likely than men to have formal arrangements 
     allowing this flexibility (32 percent, compared with 27 percent). 
     (See table 4.)

   --Wage and salary workers who were Hispanic or Latino were less likely to 
     have a flexible work schedule than were workers who were not Hispanic or 
     Latino--50 percent, compared with 58 percent. Whites (57 percent), 
     Blacks (55 percent), and Asians (55 percent) were about equally likely 
     to have a flexible work schedule. (See table 4.)

Advanced notice of work schedules in 2017-18

   --Among all wage and salary workers, 55 percent knew their work 
     schedule four weeks or more in advance, and 19 percent learned their 
     work schedule less than one week in advance. 
     (See table 5.)

   --Men were more likely than women to learn their work schedule less than 
     one week in advance--24 percent, compared with 14 percent. (See table 5.)

   --Among wage and salary workers age 25 and over, 31 percent of workers 
     with less than a high school diploma learned their work schedule less 
     than one week in advance, compared with 14 percent of workers with a 
     bachelor's degree or higher. (See table 5.)

   --Thirty-six percent of wage and salary workers did not have a flexible 
     work schedule and had employers who decided their schedule without their 
     input. Of these workers, a majority (67 percent) knew their schedule 
     four weeks or more in advance, while 15 percent learned their work 
     schedule less than one week in advance. (See table 6.)

   --Fifty-seven percent of wage and salary workers in construction and 
     extraction occupations did not have a flexible work schedule and had
     employers who decided their schedule. Of these workers, 43 percent 
     learned their work schedule less than one week in advance. (See table 6.) 

Shift work in 2017-18

   --Eighty-four percent of wage and salary workers worked a regular 
     daytime schedule in 2017-18. Sixteen percent of workers usually worked 
     a non-daytime schedule, including 6 percent of workers who worked 
     evenings, and 4 percent who worked nights. The remaining workers had 
     a rotating shift, a split shift, an irregular schedule, or some other 
     schedule. (See table 7.)

   --Among wage and salary workers who worked non-daytime hours, 39 percent 
     did so because it was the nature of the job, 19 percent because of a 
     personal preference, and 12 percent worked these hours to allow time for 
     school or another job. (See table 8.)

   --Female workers were less likely than male workers to work non-daytime 
     hours--15 percent, compared with 18 percent. Among those who worked 
     non-daytime schedules, women were twice as likely as men to work these 
     hours because they allowed for better arrangements for their families 
     (14 percent, compared with 7 percent). (See tables 7 and 8.)

   --Among single jobholders, part-time wage and salary workers were twice 
     as likely to work a non-daytime schedule as were full-time workers 
     (27 percent, compared with 14 percent). Among part-time workers, 14 
     percent worked an evening shift, 5 percent worked an irregular 
     schedule, and 4 percent worked a night shift. (See table 7.)

   --Workers employed in the leisure and hospitality industry (37 percent), 
     transportation and utilities industry (26 percent), and wholesale and 
     retail trade industry (25 percent) were more likely to work a 
     non-daytime schedule than workers in other industries. (See table 7.)

   --Sixty-eight percent of wage and salary workers usually worked Monday 
     through Friday, and 9 percent of workers usually worked on Saturday 
     and Sunday. (See table 9.)

Additional Data

All ATUS 2017-18 data files, including the Leave and Job Flexibilities 
Module files, are available for users to do their own tabulations and 
analyses. In accordance with BLS and Census Bureau policies that protect 
the privacy of survey respondents, identifying information does not 
appear on the data files. The 2017-18 data files are available on the 
BLS website at www.bls.gov/tus/data.htm.




Technical Note

   The data in this release were collected with a supplementary set of questions, 
the 2017-18 Leave and Job Flexibilities Module, asked as part of the American Time 
Use Survey (ATUS) in 2017 and 2018. The ATUS—a continuous survey conducted by the 
U.S. Census Bureau for the Bureau of Labor Statistics—focuses on obtaining information 
about how individuals age 15 and over spend their time. For more information about 
the survey, see the ATUS User’s Guide at www.bls.gov/tus/atususersguide.pdf.

   The 2017-18 Leave and Job Flexibilities Module was sponsored by the Department 
of Labor's Women's Bureau. The purpose of this module was to obtain information 
about workers' access to and use of leave, job flexibilities, and work schedules.
The data in this release pertain to wage and salary workers and their main job. 
The data exclude all self-employed workers. Respondents to the 2017-18 Leave and 
Job Flexibilities Module answered questions about access to paid and unpaid leave, 
reasons for taking leave, use of leave, times when leave was needed but not taken, 
ability to adjust work schedules, shift work, advance notice of schedules, control 
over their schedules, work-at-home arrangements, and other related topics. There 
were about 10,000 respondents to the Leave and Job Flexibilities Module in 
2017-18.

   Data in this release are about job flexibilities and work schedules. These data 
were collected directly from wage and salary workers, and they thus represent 
workers' knowledge on these topics. Leave and Job Flexibilities Module data were  
collected from January 2017 through December 2018. 

   Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired individuals 
upon request. Voice phone:  (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay Service: (800) 877-8339.

Questions and concepts

   The 2017-18 Leave and Job Flexibilities Module was introduced with the statement,
"The next few questions are about paid and unpaid leave from a job." Following the 
introduction, respondents were asked whether they receive paid leave at their main 
job and, if so, the reasons for which they can take paid leave. Respondents were 
then asked about their ability to take leave without pay and reasons for which they 
can take unpaid leave from their main job.
   
   Respondents with access to paid or unpaid leave were asked whether they had taken 
any leave during the past 7 days. If they took leave, they were asked about the length 
and main reason for taking leave.

   In the next set of questions, respondents were asked about how much flexibility 
they have in arranging their work schedules. Respondents were asked if they can 
vary or change the times they begin and end work. If able to do so, respondents 
were asked how often they can change these times, and whether their ability to do 
so was governed by a formal or informal arrangement with their employer. Workers 
unable to vary the times they begin and end work were asked whether they have input 
into their work schedules. Respondents were then asked how far in advance they know
their work schedules.  

   Next, respondents were asked about the time of day and days of the week they 
usually work. Those working a non-daytime schedule were asked about the shift they 
usually work, and the main reason why they work this shift. Respondents were then 
asked on which days they usually work during the week. 

   Next, respondents were asked if they can work at home. Respondents who indicated 
they can work at home were asked if they ever do work at home, if they are paid for 
the hours they work at home, and the main reason they work at home. Those who do 
work at home were asked if there are days they work only at home and, if so, how often.

   In the last section, respondents were asked if there were times during the past 
month in which they needed to take off from work but did not. If so, respondents 
were asked their reasons for needing to take leave. Respondents with access to paid 
or unpaid leave were asked about their reasons for not using leave. 

   The Leave and Job Flexibilities Module questionnaire is available at 
www.bls.gov/tus/lvmquestionnaire1718.pdf.

Definitions

Employment and earnings

   --Employed. All persons who:

     1) At any time during the 7 days prior to the interview did any work at all as 
        paid employees, or worked in their own business or profession or on their 
        own farm; or 

     2) Were not working during the 7 days prior to the interview but had jobs or 
        businesses from which they were temporarily absent because of illness, bad 
        weather, vacation, childcare problems, labor-management disputes, maternity 
        or paternity leave, job training, or other family or personal reasons, whether 
        or not they were paid for the time off or were seeking other jobs; or

     3) Usually worked 15 hours or more as unpaid workers in a family-operated enterprise.

   --Employed full time. For the purpose of producing estimates related to job flexibility 
     and work schedules, full-time workers are single jobholders who usually worked 35 or 
     more hours per week.

   --Employed part time. For the purpose of producing estimates related to job flexibility 
     and work schedules, part-time workers are single jobholders who usually worked fewer 
     than 35 hours per week.

   --Main job. For persons holding more than one job, the questions in the Leave and 
     Job Flexibilities Module referred to the characteristics of their main job—the job in 
     which they usually worked the most hours. 

   --Wage and salary workers. These are workers who receive wages, salaries, commissions, 
     tips, payment in kind, or piece rates. The group includes employees in both the private 
     and public sectors. For the purpose of producing estimates related to job flexibility 
     and work schedules, wage and salary workers do not include any self-employed workers; 
     this differs from the annual ATUS news release, in which workers who are self-employed 
     and whose businesses are incorporated are classified as wage and salary workers.

   --Usual weekly earnings. Estimates represent the earnings of full-time wage and salary 
     workers with one job only, before taxes and other deductions.  

   --Weekly earnings quartiles. The ranges used for the quartiles represent approximately 
     25 percent of full-time wage and salary workers who held only one job. For example, 
     25 percent of full-time wage and salary workers with one job only had weekly earnings 
     of $590 or less in 2017 and $630 or less in 2018. Weekly earnings in the 25th to the 
     50th percentile range amounted to $591 to $920 in 2017 and $631 to $960 in 2018. 
     Weekly earnings in the 50th to the 75th percentile range were $921 to $1,440 in 2017 
     and $961 to $1,530 in 2018. Those earning greater than the 75th percentile had earnings 
     of $1,441 and higher in 2017 and $1,531 and higher in 2018. Earnings ranges were 
     estimated using the 2017 and 2018 ATUS data.

Job flexibilities and work schedules

   --Work schedule flexibility. Respondents were asked "Do you have flexible work 
     hours that allow you to vary or make changes in the times you begin and end work?" 
     Respondents were identified as having work schedule flexibility if they 
     answered "yes" to this question.

   --Workplace flexibility. Respondents were asked "As part of your job, can you 
     work at home?" or, for those with multiple jobs, "As part of your main job, 
     can you work at home?" Respondents were identified as having workplace 
     flexibility if they answered "yes" to one of these questions. 

   --Workers who did work at home. If respondents were identified as having 
     workplace flexibility, they were asked "Do you ever work at home?" Those who 
     answered "yes" to this question are classified as workers who did work at home.

   --Daytime schedule. The majority of time respondents worked was between 
     6 a.m. and 6 p.m.

   --Evening shift. The majority of time respondents worked was between 2 p.m. 
     and midnight.

   --Night shift. The majority of time respondents worked was between 9 p.m. 
     and 8 a.m.

   --Rotating shift. Hours change periodically from days to evenings or nights.

   --Split shift. Hours consist of two distinct periods each day.

   --Number of days per week worked. Respondents were asked, "How many days of 
     the week do you usually work?" or, for those with multiple jobs, "How many days 
     of the week do you usually work at your main job?"

   --Usual days worked. Respondents were asked, "Which days of the week do you 
     usually work?" or, for those with multiple jobs, "Which days of the week 
     do you usually work at your main job?" Some respondents identified the days 
     they usually worked and also said their schedule varies.
         
Comparability of the estimates

ATUS time-use data
       
   Estimates about work at home presented in this news release differ from 
estimates generated from other surveys, including estimates on work at home
presented in the annual ATUS news release.   
      
   Data collected in the 2017-18 ATUS Leave and Job Flexibilities Module 
measure whether workers can and do work at home at their main jobs, whether 
they are paid for this work, their reasons for working at home, and their 
frequency of working at home. 
         
   By contrast, annual data from the ATUS provide measures about the population 
of workers who work at home on a given day. These estimates are derived from 
data collected in the time diary. Workers who sometimes work at home, but did not 
report working at home in their one-day diary, are not counted in the estimates 
about work at home. Additionally, ATUS estimates about work at home include a mix
of both scheduled and unscheduled work. Reported work times may have been as 
short as one minute spent checking a work email account to more than a 12-hour 
work shift.

2011 ATUS Leave Module
   
   The 2017-18 Leave and Job Flexibilities Module questionnaire is a re-designed 
and improved version of the 2011 Leave Module questionnaire. Questions were added, 
dropped, and modified. The 2011 Leave Module included some questions about 
workers' ability to adjust their work schedule or location instead of taking time 
off from work. In 2017-18, these questions were replaced with questions about workers' 
usual schedules and their access to schedule and workplace flexibility. Estimates 
about workers who can adjust their schedule or location in the news release "Access 
to and use of leave—2011 data from the American Time Use Survey" are not comparable 
with the 2017-18 Leave and Job Flexibilities Module estimates appearing in this 
news release. 

2004 May CPS Supplement

   There are some key differences between the 2017-18 Leave and Job Flexibilities 
Module and the May 2004 Current Population Survey (CPS) supplement about work 
schedules, job-related work at home, and other related topics. These differences 
affect the comparability of estimates from the ATUS module and the CPS supplement.  
         
   The 2017-18 ATUS Leave and Job Flexibilities Module collected information from 
wage and salary workers only, while the 2004 CPS supplement collected information 
about all employed workers. While many questions in the two collections were 
similar, the ordering of the questions and context in which they were asked 
differed between the ATUS module and the CPS supplement. In addition, collection 
periods differed. The ATUS module was conducted continuously from January 2017 
through December 2018, while the CPS supplement was conducted during May 2004 only. 
Also, the ATUS module asked respondents about themselves, while CPS respondents 
answered questions about themselves and others in the household. 
         
   These methodological and other differences prevent the direct comparison of 
published estimates from the May 2004 CPS supplement and the ATUS module. 
         
   Estimates published in the news release "Work at Home in 2004" are not 
comparable with the estimates presented in this news release. The 2004 news release
presented estimates for all workers (including self-employed workers) who usually 
worked at home at least once per week as part of their primary job in nonagricultural 
industries. This news release includes work-at-home estimates for wage and salary 
workers in all industries, regardless of how frequently the workers worked at home.  
         
   Similarly, estimates in the news release "Workers on Flexible and Shift Schedules 
in May 2004" are not comparable with estimates provided in this news release. 
The 2004 estimates refer to job flexibility and work schedules for full-time wage 
and salary workers on their main job. This news release includes estimates for both 
full- and part-time wage and salary workers on their main job.

Employer-based surveys 

   Estimates of access to job flexibility that are derived from responses to 
household (or employee-based) surveys may differ from estimates produced using 
establishment (or employer-based) surveys. 

   Establishment surveys often provide more detailed and specific data on employer 
policies, while household surveys provide information about the experiences and 
characteristics of people and their households. Household data from the 2017-18 
Leave and Job Flexibilities Module allow researchers to examine job flexibilities in 
the context of workers' demographics, such as their sex, age, ethnicity, education, 
and race. These data also provide insight into the reasons why people work at home 
and why they work non-daytime schedules when they do. In addition, employer-based 
surveys often measure the incidence of more formal arrangements between employers 
and their employees. The 2017-18 Leave and Job Flexibilities Module captures both 
formal and informal arrangements governing access to job flexibility.
        
Reliability of the estimates

   Statistics based on the ATUS Leave and Job Flexibilities Module are subject to 
both sampling and nonsampling error. When a sample, rather than the entire 
population, is surveyed, estimates differ from the true population values they 
represent. The component of this difference that occurs because samples differ by 
chance is known as sampling error, and its variability is measured by the standard 
error of the estimate.  
   
   Sample estimates from a given survey design are unbiased when an average of 
the estimates from all possible samples would yield, hypothetically, the true 
population value. In this case, the sample estimate and its standard error can be 
used to construct approximate confidence intervals, or ranges of values that 
include the true population value with known probabilities. If the process of 
selecting a sample from the population were repeated many times, an estimate made
from each sample, and a suitable estimate of its standard error calculated for 
each sample, then approximately 90 percent of the intervals from 1.645 standard 
errors below the estimate to 1.645 standard errors above the estimate would include 
the true population value. BLS analyses are generally conducted at the 90-percent 
level of confidence. 
         
   The ATUS Leave and Job Flexibilities Module data also are affected by 
nonsampling error, which is the average difference between population and sample 
values for samples generated by a given process. Nonsampling error can occur for 
many reasons, including the failure to sample a segment of the population, inability 
to obtain information for all respondents in the sample, inability or unwillingness 
of respondents to provide correct information, and errors made in the collection or 
processing of the data.  




Table 1. Workers who could work at home, did work at home, and were paid for work at home, by selected characteristics, averages for the period 2017-2018
Characteristic Total workers
(in thousands)
Workers who could work at home
Total (in
thou-
sands)
Percent of
total
workers
Workers who did work at home
Total (in
thou-
sands)
Percent of
total
workers
Percent distribution by whether
at-home work was for pay
Total Paid Unpaid Both

Age

Total, 15 years and over

144,295 41,571 28.8 35,724 24.8 100.0 66.8 21.4 11.8

15 to 24 years

21,296 1,429 6.7 1,122 5.3 s s s s

25 to 34 years

33,682 10,566 31.4 8,595 25.5 100.0 68.9 19.0 12.1

35 to 44 years

30,159 10,923 36.2 9,766 32.4 100.0 67.5 19.9 12.6

45 to 54 years

29,484 9,576 32.5 8,417 28.5 100.0 65.0 22.8 12.2

55 to 64 years

22,514 7,253 32.2 6,237 27.7 100.0 67.6 22.6 9.8

65 years and over

7,160 1,823 25.5 1,587 22.2 100.0 54.9 35.0 10.1

Sex

Men

74,830 21,849 29.2 18,726 25.0 100.0 67.3 20.7 12.0

Women

69,465 19,722 28.4 16,998 24.5 100.0 66.2 22.2 11.6

Race(1)

White

115,129 34,390 29.9 29,460 25.6 100.0 66.7 20.9 12.4

Black or African American

17,924 3,522 19.7 3,158 17.6 100.0 66.8 25.3 7.9

Asian

7,849 2,902 37.0 2,486 31.7 100.0 71.9 18.6 9.4

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity(2)

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

24,375 3,961 16.2 3,197 13.1 100.0 63.7 27.5 8.8

Non-Hispanic or Latino

119,920 37,610 31.4 32,526 27.1 100.0 67.1 20.8 12.1

Educational attainment (25 years and over)

Less than a high school diploma

6,743 280 4.2 215 3.2 s s s s

High school graduates, no college

31,425 3,956 12.6 2,900 9.2 100.0 77.7 18.9 3.4

Some college or associate degree

29,407 7,118 24.2 5,729 19.5 100.0 70.3 18.9 10.8

Bachelor's degree and higher

55,424 28,788 51.9 25,758 46.5 100.0 64.8 22.4 12.8

Parent of a household child

Parent of a household child under 18 years

47,693 16,477 34.5 14,506 30.4 100.0 67.6 20.7 11.7

Parent of a child 13 to 17 years (none younger)

10,003 3,315 33.1 3,031 30.3 100.0 67.3 22.6 10.2

Parent of a child under 13 years

37,690 13,163 34.9 11,475 30.4 100.0 67.6 20.3 12.1

Not a parent of a household child under 18 years

96,602 25,094 26.0 21,218 22.0 100.0 66.2 21.9 11.9

Occupation

Management, business, and financial operations

22,754 13,679 60.1 11,664 51.3 100.0 67.4 20.3 12.3

Professional and related

40,284 17,108 42.5 15,294 38.0 100.0 64.3 23.5 12.2

Services

23,548 1,468 6.2 1,201 5.1 100.0 70.4 25.1 4.6

Sales and related

11,290 3,205 28.4 2,813 24.9 100.0 62.9 21.1 16.0

Office and administrative support

18,967 4,602 24.3 3,525 18.6 100.0 77.5 14.6 7.9

Farming, fishing, and forestry

s s s s s s s s s

Construction and extraction

5,853 469 8.0 381 6.5 s s s s

Installation, maintenance, and repair

4,053 390 9.6 300 7.4 s s s s

Production

8,560 374 4.4 320 3.7 s s s s

Transportation and material moving

7,859 234 3.0 202 2.6 s s s s

Industry

Agriculture, forestry, fishing, and hunting

1,634 182 11.1 170 10.4 s s s s

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

s s s s s s s s s

Construction

6,860 1,177 17.2 989 14.4 100.0 58.7 27.2 14.1

Manufacturing

16,185 4,905 30.3 4,166 25.7 100.0 72.8 16.4 10.9

Wholesale and retail trade

18,030 2,975 16.5 2,511 13.9 100.0 71.3 16.7 12.0

Transportation and utilities

7,357 1,033 14.0 922 12.5 100.0 62.9 25.0 12.0

Information

2,685 1,432 53.3 1,212 45.1 100.0 75.0 12.7 12.3

Financial activities

10,370 5,949 57.4 4,838 46.7 100.0 70.0 15.5 14.5

Professional and business services

16,778 8,955 53.4 7,957 47.4 100.0 81.1 8.6 10.2

Education and health services

37,294 9,652 25.9 8,823 23.7 100.0 49.6 37.6 12.7

Leisure and hospitality

13,450 1,179 8.8 913 6.8 s s s s

Other services

5,475 1,518 27.7 1,236 22.6 100.0 66.2 24.3 9.5

Public administration

7,552 2,253 29.8 1,650 21.8 100.0 67.2 17.0 15.8

Class of worker

Private sector

118,872 34,884 29.3 29,983 25.2 100.0 70.9 18.3 10.8

Private, for profit

107,072 30,638 28.6 26,229 24.5 100.0 71.7 17.2 11.1

Private, not for profit

11,800 4,247 36.0 3,754 31.8 100.0 65.4 26.3 8.3

Public sector

25,423 6,687 26.3 5,741 22.6 100.0 45.2 37.7 17.2

Federal government

4,595 1,444 31.4 1,128 24.5 100.0 78.1 14.1 7.9

State government

8,807 3,155 35.8 2,792 31.7 100.0 42.1 38.6 19.3

Local government

12,022 2,087 17.4 1,822 15.2 100.0 29.6 50.8 19.6

Full- and part-time status (single jobholders only)(3)

Full-time workers

106,369 34,678 32.6 29,627 27.9 100.0 65.3 21.9 12.9

Part-time workers

25,882 3,540 13.7 3,082 11.9 100.0 72.9 22.0 5.2

Usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers
(single jobholders only)

Earnings less than or equal to the 25th percentile

25,200 2,314 9.2 1,656 6.6 100.0 60.9 33.0 6.1

Earnings from 25th to 50th percentiles

26,521 5,337 20.1 4,119 15.5 100.0 63.7 27.6 8.7

Earnings from 50th to 75th percentiles

27,193 10,148 37.3 8,609 31.7 100.0 66.9 20.2 12.9

Earnings greater than the 75th percentile

27,454 16,879 61.5 15,242 55.5 100.0 65.2 20.0 14.7

Work schedule flexibility(4)

Had flexible schedule

81,533 34,243 42.0 29,753 36.5 100.0 71.1 16.0 12.9

Did not have flexible schedule

62,762 7,328 11.7 5,971 9.5 100.0 45.2 48.5 6.3

(1) Estimates for race groups (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to the totals because data are not presented for all races.
(2) Persons of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity may be of any race.
(3) Full-time workers usually work 35 hours or more per week. Part-time workers usually work less than 35 hours per week.
(4) Workers with flexible schedules were able to vary or change the times they began and stopped working.
s - Estimate is suppressed because it does not meet the American Time Use Survey publication standards.

Note: Data refer to wage and salary workers at their main jobs. All self-employed workers (including workers with incorporated businesses and those with unincorporated businesses) are excluded. Unless otherwise specified, data refer to workers 15 years and over.


Table 2. Main reason workers worked at home by selected characteristics, averages for the period 2017-2018
Characteristic Total,
workers who
did work at
home (in
thousands)
Percent distribution by main reason for working at home
Total Finish or
catch up
on work
Job
requires
working at
home
Coordinate
work schedule
with personal
or family
needs
Reduce
commuting
time or
expense
Personal
preference
Weather Other

Age

Total, 15 years and over

35,724 100.0 23.0 16.0 22.4 9.3 23.9 3.7 1.8

15 to 24 years

1,122 s s s s s s s s

25 to 34 years

8,595 100.0 24.3 12.2 22.1 9.2 27.0 4.1 1.2

35 to 44 years

9,766 100.0 23.8 15.8 27.6 9.4 20.3 1.9 1.2

45 to 54 years

8,417 100.0 22.7 15.6 21.6 10.9 23.1 4.2 2.0

55 to 64 years

6,237 100.0 23.1 18.0 18.5 8.6 23.3 5.4 3.1

65 years and over

1,587 100.0 21.6 24.5 9.9 5.9 28.9 5.3 4.0

Sex

Men

18,726 100.0 20.7 16.3 20.3 9.9 26.6 4.0 2.1

Women

16,998 100.0 25.5 15.5 24.8 8.5 20.9 3.4 1.4

Race(1)

White

29,460 100.0 23.6 15.8 21.6 9.2 24.8 3.7 1.4

Black or African American

3,158 100.0 22.5 24.0 16.1 10.0 17.2 4.5 5.6

Asian

2,486 100.0 13.4 9.8 39.1 10.5 22.0 3.1 2.1

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity(2)

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

3,197 100.0 30.3 16.2 20.0 7.6 22.4 2.1 1.4

Non-Hispanic or Latino

32,526 100.0 22.3 15.9 22.7 9.4 24.0 3.9 1.8

Educational attainment (25 years and over)

Less than a high school diploma

215 s s s s s s s s

High school graduates, no college

2,900 100.0 21.4 24.4 22.6 7.1 14.6 2.7 7.1

Some college or associate degree

5,729 100.0 18.9 18.2 25.0 8.0 20.8 6.5 2.7

Bachelor's degree and higher

25,758 100.0 24.6 14.0 21.8 10.1 25.1 3.3 1.1

Parent of a household child

Parent of a household child under 18 years

14,506 100.0 24.0 15.5 29.4 8.8 18.8 2.1 1.5

Parent of a child 13 to 17 years (none younger)

3,031 100.0 25.7 18.9 19.0 8.3 22.5 4.1 1.5

Parent of a child under 13 years

11,475 100.0 23.6 14.6 32.2 8.9 17.8 1.6 1.5

Not a parent of a household child under 18 years

21,218 100.0 22.3 16.3 17.7 9.6 27.4 4.8 2.0

Occupation

Management, business, and financial operations

11,664 100.0 22.4 15.0 25.7 9.5 23.1 3.7 0.5

Professional and related

15,294 100.0 25.9 12.3 21.5 10.4 25.2 2.5 2.2

Services

1,201 100.0 21.2 32.3 9.4 10.5 15.0 1.0 10.7

Sales and related

2,813 100.0 19.7 27.6 13.2 9.0 24.0 5.1 1.4

Office and administrative support

3,525 100.0 17.0 18.7 30.7 4.8 21.1 7.1 0.6

Farming, fishing, and forestry

s s s s s s s s s

Construction and extraction

381 s s s s s s s s

Installation, maintenance, and repair

300 s s s s s s s s

Production

320 s s s s s s s s

Transportation and material moving

202 s s s s s s s s

Industry

Agriculture, forestry, fishing, and hunting

170 s s s s s s s s

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

s s s s s s s s s

Construction

989 100.0 20.7 8.7 26.1 9.5 20.7 9.1 5.2

Manufacturing

4,166 100.0 16.4 18.2 28.7 6.1 23.0 6.2 1.4

Wholesale and retail trade

2,511 100.0 27.5 17.1 25.6 7.7 19.6 1.8 0.7

Transportation and utilities

922 100.0 25.3 19.5 19.1 9.7 18.3 8.0 z

Information

1,212 100.0 18.2 13.8 27.9 17.2 19.3 1.0 2.6

Financial activities

4,838 100.0 12.4 16.7 25.8 10.6 26.6 7.0 0.9

Professional and business services

7,957 100.0 16.6 15.9 25.3 11.2 27.6 2.4 1.0

Education and health services

8,823 100.0 38.5 13.4 15.7 4.4 23.3 2.6 2.2

Leisure and hospitality

913 s s s s s s s s

Other services

1,236 100.0 21.9 20.2 18.7 10.2 23.0 1.9 4.1

Public administration

1,650 100.0 15.1 19.5 15.2 25.2 19.0 3.2 2.8

Class of worker

Private sector

29,983 100.0 20.4 16.8 24.0 8.9 24.2 3.8 1.9

Private, for profit

26,229 100.0 19.1 17.3 25.0 9.6 23.7 3.8 1.5

Private, not for profit

3,754 100.0 29.3 13.4 17.4 3.8 27.6 3.9 4.6

Public sector

5,741 100.0 36.8 11.4 14.2 11.4 22.2 3.0 1.0

Federal government

1,128 100.0 14.5 18.0 12.4 27.8 19.4 7.5 0.4

State government

2,792 100.0 37.0 8.6 14.0 7.4 31.3 1.2 0.5

Local government

1,822 100.0 50.2 11.7 15.6 7.4 9.9 2.8 2.3

Full- and part-time status (single jobholders only)(3)

Full-time workers

29,627 100.0 23.8 14.9 22.5 9.5 23.4 3.9 1.9

Part-time workers

3,082 100.0 13.9 28.3 25.4 5.8 23.9 1.6 1.2

Usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary
workers (single jobholders only)

Earnings less than or equal to the 25th percentile

1,656 100.0 23.9 27.8 12.3 4.1 23.7 6.0 2.2

Earnings from 25th to 50th percentiles

4,119 100.0 31.6 17.0 20.2 4.8 20.6 3.4 2.3

Earnings from 50th to 75th percentiles

8,609 100.0 25.5 14.7 23.1 8.5 19.6 5.9 2.7

Earnings greater than the 75th percentile

15,242 100.0 20.7 13.1 23.8 11.9 26.3 2.7 1.3

Work schedule flexibility(4)

Had flexible schedule

29,753 100.0 19.2 16.2 24.1 9.9 25.7 3.4 1.5

Did not have flexible schedule

5,971 100.0 41.7 14.9 14.2 6.2 14.8 5.3 2.9

(1) Estimates for race groups (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to the total because data are not presented for all races.
(2) Persons of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity may be of any race.
(3) Full-time workers usually work 35 hours or more per week. Part-time workers usually work less than 35 hours per week.
(4) Workers with flexible schedules were able to vary or change the times they began and stopped working.
s - Estimate is suppressed because it does not meet the American Time Use Survey publication standards.
z - Estimate is approximately zero.

Note: Data refer to wage and salary workers at their main jobs. All self-employed workers (including workers with incorporated businesses and those with unincorporated businesses) are excluded. Unless otherwise specified, data refer to workers 15 years and over.


Table 3. Workers who worked at home and how often they worked exclusively at home by selected characteristics, averages for the period 2017-2018
Characteristic Total
workers
(in thou-
sands)
Workers who did work at home
Total (in
thou-
sands)
Percent of
total
workers
Workers with days they worked exclusively at home(1)
Total (in
thou-
sands)
Percent
of total
workers
Percent distribution by how often they worked exclusively at home(1)
Total Less
than
once per
month
Once a
month
Every 2
weeks
At least 1
day per
week
1 to 2
days per
week
3 to 4
days per
week
5 or more
days per
week

Age

Total, 15 years and over

144,295 35,724 24.8 21,273 14.7 100.0 18.4 13.5 13.1 10.2 17.4 12.8 14.5

15 to 24 years

21,296 1,122 5.3 672 3.2 s s s s s s s s

25 to 34 years

33,682 8,595 25.5 5,363 15.9 100.0 22.1 13.7 13.0 12.5 18.0 10.2 10.6

35 to 44 years

30,159 9,766 32.4 5,988 19.9 100.0 20.6 16.0 13.7 9.8 14.6 10.7 14.6

45 to 54 years

29,484 8,417 28.5 5,045 17.1 100.0 17.0 13.9 12.2 9.5 16.9 12.7 17.9

55 to 64 years

22,514 6,237 27.7 3,278 14.6 100.0 12.9 7.7 17.2 10.9 19.6 15.2 16.5

65 years and over

7,160 1,587 22.2 927 12.9 100.0 14.8 8.5 7.8 6.9 31.3 16.8 13.9

Sex

Men

74,830 18,726 25.0 11,305 15.1 100.0 19.6 15.4 14.0 10.4 15.7 12.4 12.6

Women

69,465 16,998 24.5 9,967 14.3 100.0 16.9 11.3 12.2 10.1 19.5 13.3 16.7

Race(2)

White

115,129 29,460 25.6 17,436 15.1 100.0 19.1 13.4 12.6 10.1 17.3 13.5 13.9

Black or African American

17,924 3,158 17.6 2,001 11.2 100.0 11.3 10.5 14.0 6.9 23.8 8.4 25.1

Asian

7,849 2,486 31.7 1,521 19.4 100.0 17.6 21.0 16.7 15.8 12.4 5.8 10.8

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity(3)

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

24,375 3,197 13.1 1,401 5.7 100.0 9.2 10.2 9.0 12.3 22.5 22.0 14.9

Non-Hispanic or Latino

119,920 32,526 27.1 19,871 16.6 100.0 19.0 13.7 13.4 10.1 17.1 12.1 14.5

Educational attainment (25 years and over)

Less than a high school diploma

6,743 215 3.2 89 1.3 s s s s s s s s

High school graduates, no college

31,425 2,900 9.2 1,479 4.7 100.0 17.2 7.7 15.7 11.1 12.4 9.9 26.0

Some college or associate degree

29,407 5,729 19.5 3,072 10.4 100.0 19.1 12.7 10.9 7.5 17.0 12.9 19.8

Bachelor's degree and higher

55,424 25,758 46.5 15,960 28.8 100.0 18.7 13.9 13.8 11.0 18.2 12.1 12.3

Parent of a household child

Parent of a household child under 18 years

47,693 14,506 30.4 8,717 18.3 100.0 20.1 15.4 12.3 11.5 16.6 9.3 14.8

Parent of a child 13 to 17 years (none younger)

10,003 3,031 30.3 1,946 19.5 100.0 20.0 12.1 9.4 9.5 20.8 12.8 15.5

Parent of a child under 13 years

37,690 11,475 30.4 6,771 18.0 100.0 20.2 16.4 13.1 12.0 15.4 8.3 14.6

Not a parent of a household child under 18 years

96,602 21,218 22.0 12,556 13.0 100.0 17.1 12.2 13.7 9.4 18.0 15.2 14.3

Occupation

Management, business, and financial operations

22,754 11,664 51.3 7,021 30.9 100.0 18.8 16.0 14.7 9.6 19.2 8.8 12.8

Professional and related

40,284 15,294 38.0 9,523 23.6 100.0 19.0 15.2 12.2 11.0 16.1 12.2 14.3

Services

23,548 1,201 5.1 576 2.4 s s s s s s s s

Sales and related

11,290 2,813 24.9 1,791 15.9 100.0 10.6 5.7 15.8 9.0 17.3 25.5 16.0

Office and administrative support

18,967 3,525 18.6 1,847 9.7 100.0 18.1 8.4 11.4 9.4 14.7 22.3 15.6

Farming, fishing, and forestry

s s s s s s s s s s s s s

Construction and extraction

5,853 381 6.5 208 3.6 s s s s s s s s

Installation, maintenance, and repair

4,053 300 7.4 61 1.5 s s s s s s s s

Production

8,560 320 3.7 151 1.8 s s s s s s s s

Transportation and material moving

7,859 202 2.6 83 1.1 s s s s s s s s

Industry

Agriculture, forestry, fishing, and hunting

1,634 170 10.4 72 4.4 s s s s s s s s

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

s s s s s s s s s s s s s

Construction

6,860 989 14.4 400 5.8 s s s s s s s s

Manufacturing

16,185 4,166 25.7 2,539 15.7 100.0 26.1 19.0 8.2 14.6 13.5 8.7 9.8

Wholesale and retail trade

18,030 2,511 13.9 1,355 7.5 100.0 21.6 8.9 15.9 7.5 20.5 14.1 11.5

Transportation and utilities

7,357 922 12.5 561 7.6 s s s s s s s s

Information

2,685 1,212 45.1 818 30.5 s s s s s s s s

Financial activities

10,370 4,838 46.7 3,131 30.2 100.0 14.1 7.6 12.4 8.9 25.9 13.7 17.5

Professional and business services

16,778 7,957 47.4 5,517 32.9 100.0 19.1 13.4 15.1 8.1 15.1 12.7 16.5

Education and health services

37,294 8,823 23.7 4,441 11.9 100.0 16.2 15.8 10.6 10.4 17.3 12.9 16.7

Leisure and hospitality

13,450 913 6.8 496 3.7 s s s s s s s s

Other services

5,475 1,236 22.6 678 12.4 s s s s s s s s

Public administration

7,552 1,650 21.8 1,063 14.1 100.0 19.2 12.6 13.5 14.6 23.1 8.9 8.2

Class of worker

Private sector

118,872 29,983 25.2 18,248 15.4 100.0 18.5 13.1 13.4 9.8 16.9 12.6 15.6

Private, for profit

107,072 26,229 24.5 16,119 15.1 100.0 19.1 12.9 13.6 10.2 16.9 12.4 14.9

Private, not for profit

11,800 3,754 31.8 2,129 18.0 100.0 14.2 14.8 11.8 6.3 16.9 14.4 21.5

Public sector

25,423 5,741 22.6 3,024 11.9 100.0 17.6 15.7 11.4 13.2 20.7 13.7 7.7

Federal government

4,595 1,128 24.5 760 16.5 s s s s s s s s

State government

8,807 2,792 31.7 1,648 18.7 100.0 20.5 18.3 9.0 16.0 17.1 14.0 5.1

Local government

12,022 1,822 15.2 616 5.1 s s s s s s s s

Full- and part-time status (single jobholders only)(4)

Full-time workers

106,369 29,627 27.9 17,596 16.5 100.0 19.7 15.0 14.6 10.3 17.1 10.6 12.9

Part-time workers

25,882 3,082 11.9 1,933 7.5 100.0 9.9 5.2 4.2 7.6 16.9 33.0 23.2

Usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary
workers (single jobholders only)

Earnings less than or equal to the 25th percentile

25,200 1,656 6.6 1,021 4.1 s s s s s s s s

Earnings from 25th to 50th percentiles

26,521 4,119 15.5 1,960 7.4 100.0 19.7 6.8 11.5 7.9 18.2 17.0 18.9

Earnings from 50th to 75th percentiles

27,193 8,609 31.7 4,951 18.2 100.0 26.3 15.8 14.7 8.4 15.6 6.7 12.5

Earnings greater than the 75th percentile

27,454 15,242 55.5 9,664 35.2 100.0 16.3 16.4 15.4 11.6 18.6 11.6 10.1

Work schedule flexibility(5)

Had flexible schedule

81,533 29,753 36.5 18,945 23.2 100.0 17.3 13.7 13.6 10.3 17.7 13.3 14.0

Did not have flexible schedule

62,762 5,971 9.5 2,328 3.7 100.0 26.9 11.8 9.2 9.5 15.6 8.3 18.7

(1) Includes workers who performed all of their work at home, regardless of how long they worked.
(2) Estimates for race groups (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to the totals because data are not presented for all races.
(3) Persons of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity may be of any race.
(4) Full-time workers usually work 35 hours or more per week. Part-time workers usually work less than 35 hours per week.
(5) Workers with flexible schedules were able to vary or change the times they began and stopped working.
s - Estimate is suppressed because it does not meet the American Time Use Survey publication standards.

Note: Data refer to wage and salary workers at their main jobs. All self-employed workers (including workers with incorporated businesses and those with unincorporated businesses) are excluded. Unless otherwise specified, data refer to workers 15 years and over.


Table 4. Workers with flexible schedules, how often they could vary their schedules, and presence of a formal arrangement, by selected characteristics, averages for the period 2017-2018
Characteristic Total
workers
(in thou-
sands)
Workers with flexible schedules(1)
Total (in
thou-
sands)
Percent of
total
workers
Percent distribution by how often
workers could vary their schedules
With formal flexible schedules
Total Fre-
quently
Occasion-
ally
Rarely Total (in
thou-
sands)
Percent of
total
workers
Percent of
all workers
with flexible
schedules

Age

Total, 15 years and over

144,295 81,533 56.5 100.0 34.8 46.0 19.2 23,516 16.3 28.8

15 to 24 years

21,296 13,393 62.9 100.0 28.9 50.5 20.7 4,376 20.6 32.7

25 to 34 years

33,682 18,831 55.9 100.0 33.7 46.5 19.8 5,915 17.6 31.4

35 to 44 years

30,159 17,316 57.4 100.0 37.2 45.6 17.1 4,633 15.4 26.8

45 to 54 years

29,484 15,693 53.2 100.0 36.7 44.5 18.7 4,225 14.3 26.9

55 to 64 years

22,514 12,038 53.5 100.0 34.1 45.0 20.9 3,441 15.3 28.6

65 years and over

7,160 4,263 59.5 100.0 42.2 39.5 18.3 926 12.9 21.7

Sex

Men

74,830 42,784 57.2 100.0 37.2 44.7 18.1 11,325 15.1 26.5

Women

69,465 38,749 55.8 100.0 32.1 47.4 20.5 12,191 17.6 31.5

Race(2)

White

115,129 65,273 56.7 100.0 36.3 46.1 17.6 17,608 15.3 27.0

Black or African American

17,924 9,803 54.7 100.0 26.4 45.2 28.4 4,087 22.8 41.7

Asian

7,849 4,297 54.7 100.0 33.4 45.6 21.0 1,279 16.3 29.8

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity(3)

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

24,375 12,274 50.4 100.0 24.1 49.9 26.0 4,079 16.7 33.2

Non-Hispanic or Latino

119,920 69,259 57.8 100.0 36.6 45.3 18.0 19,437 16.2 28.1

Educational attainment (25 years and over)

Less than a high school diploma

6,743 2,523 37.4 100.0 26.2 45.8 28.0 752 11.2 29.8

High school graduates, no college

31,425 14,695 46.8 100.0 24.2 44.9 30.9 4,271 13.6 29.1

Some college or associate degree

29,407 15,667 53.3 100.0 30.4 49.9 19.7 4,213 14.3 26.9

Bachelor's degree and higher

55,424 35,255 63.6 100.0 44.0 43.0 13.0 9,903 17.9 28.1

Parent of a household child

Parent of a household child under 18 years

47,693 26,506 55.6 100.0 35.6 45.3 19.0 7,179 15.1 27.1

Parent of a child 13 to 17 years (none younger)

10,003 5,397 54.0 100.0 32.9 49.0 18.1 1,541 15.4 28.6

Parent of a child under 13 years

37,690 21,109 56.0 100.0 36.3 44.4 19.3 5,638 15.0 26.7

Not a parent of a household child under 18 years

96,602 55,027 57.0 100.0 34.3 46.3 19.3 16,337 16.9 29.7

Occupation

Management, business, and financial operations

22,754 16,808 73.9 100.0 41.0 46.0 12.9 4,360 19.2 25.9

Professional and related

40,284 23,025 57.2 100.0 43.6 40.9 15.4 6,995 17.4 30.4

Services

23,548 12,895 54.8 100.0 25.7 49.8 24.5 3,632 15.4 28.2

Sales and related

11,290 7,612 67.4 100.0 38.8 45.2 16.0 2,441 21.6 32.1

Office and administrative support

18,967 10,858 57.2 100.0 22.0 53.1 24.9 3,327 17.5 30.6

Farming, fishing, and forestry

s s s s s s s s s s

Construction and extraction

5,853 1,980 33.8 100.0 31.6 36.5 31.9 323 5.5 16.3

Installation, maintenance, and repair

4,053 1,813 44.7 100.0 28.3 38.7 33.0 476 11.7 26.3

Production

8,560 2,680 31.3 100.0 25.3 46.4 28.4 666 7.8 24.9

Transportation and material moving

7,859 3,402 43.3 100.0 23.5 53.2 23.2 1,185 15.1 34.8

Industry

Agriculture, forestry, fishing, and hunting

1,634 831 50.9 s s s s s s s

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

s s s s s s s s s s

Construction

6,860 2,954 43.1 100.0 35.8 37.7 26.5 396 5.8 13.4

Manufacturing

16,185 8,346 51.6 100.0 39.9 40.9 19.2 2,169 13.4 26.0

Wholesale and retail trade

18,030 10,925 60.6 100.0 29.0 50.3 20.6 3,458 19.2 31.6

Transportation and utilities

7,357 3,516 47.8 100.0 27.4 53.8 18.8 1,462 19.9 41.6

Information

2,685 1,803 67.2 100.0 38.2 53.3 8.5 351 13.1 19.5

Financial activities

10,370 7,068 68.2 100.0 37.7 49.6 12.7 2,029 19.6 28.7

Professional and business services

16,778 12,065 71.9 100.0 45.4 42.0 12.7 3,030 18.1 25.1

Education and health services

37,294 16,931 45.4 100.0 34.5 43.8 21.7 5,033 13.5 29.7

Leisure and hospitality

13,450 8,953 66.6 100.0 25.4 50.8 23.9 2,308 17.2 25.8

Other services

5,475 3,434 62.7 100.0 31.0 51.8 17.3 781 14.3 22.8

Public administration

7,552 4,306 57.0 100.0 32.1 41.6 26.3 2,244 29.7 52.1

Class of worker

Private sector

118,872 70,707 59.5 100.0 35.1 46.3 18.6 18,792 15.8 26.6

Private, for profit

107,072 64,079 59.8 100.0 34.5 46.5 19.0 17,293 16.2 27.0

Private, not for profit

11,800 6,628 56.2 100.0 40.7 44.5 14.8 1,499 12.7 22.6

Public sector

25,423 10,826 42.6 100.0 32.5 44.2 23.3 4,724 18.6 43.6

Federal government

4,595 2,676 58.2 100.0 36.1 42.1 21.7 1,577 34.3 58.9

State government

8,807 4,165 47.3 100.0 37.7 44.9 17.4 1,652 18.8 39.7

Local government

12,022 3,984 33.1 100.0 24.7 45.0 30.4 1,494 12.4 37.5

Full- and part-time status (single jobholders only)(4)

Full-time workers

106,369 57,954 54.5 100.0 34.0 46.6 19.4 16,727 15.7 28.9

Part-time workers

25,882 16,749 64.7 100.0 34.6 46.4 19.0 4,797 18.5 28.6

Usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary
workers (single jobholders only)

Earnings less than or equal to the 25th percentile

25,200 11,227 44.6 100.0 19.3 50.2 30.6 4,159 16.5 37.0

Earnings from 25th to 50th percentiles

26,521 12,708 47.9 100.0 25.0 50.8 24.3 3,359 12.7 26.4

Earnings from 50th to 75th percentiles

27,193 14,680 54.0 100.0 34.1 48.4 17.5 4,069 15.0 27.7

Earnings greater than the 75th percentile

27,454 19,340 70.4 100.0 48.5 40.4 11.1 5,139 18.7 26.6

Workplace flexibility(5)

Could work at home

41,571 34,243 82.4 100.0 48.6 39.8 11.7 9,365 22.5 27.3

Could not work at home

102,338 47,072 46.0 100.0 24.7 50.6 24.7 14,084 13.8 29.9

(1) Workers with flexible schedules were able to vary or change the times they began and stopped working.
(2) Estimates for race groups (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to the totals because data are not presented for all races.
(3) Persons of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity may be of any race.
(4) Full-time workers usually work 35 hours or more per week. Part-time workers usually work less than 35 hours per week.
(5) The subcategories do not sum to the totals because a small number of workers did not provide this information.
s - Estimate is suppressed because it does not meet the American Time Use Survey publication standards.

Note: Data refer to wage and salary workers at their main jobs. All self-employed workers (including workers with incorporated businesses and those with unincorporated businesses) are excluded. Unless otherwise specified, data refer to workers 15 years and over.


Table 5. How far in advance workers knew their work schedules by selected characteristics, averages for the period 2017-2018
Characteristic Total workers
(in thousands)
Percent distribution by how far in advance workers knew their work schedules
Total Less than 1 week 1 to 2 weeks 2 to 4 weeks 4 weeks or more

Age

Total, 15 years and over

144,295 100.0 18.7 16.4 9.7 55.2

15 to 24 years

21,296 100.0 23.6 30.4 16.6 29.4

25 to 34 years

33,682 100.0 16.4 16.4 9.6 57.6

35 to 44 years

30,159 100.0 16.8 12.6 8.3 62.3

45 to 54 years

29,484 100.0 18.0 13.5 6.9 61.5

55 to 64 years

22,514 100.0 19.3 11.7 8.6 60.4

65 years and over

7,160 100.0 23.4 18.3 9.9 48.4

Sex

Men

74,830 100.0 23.5 17.8 8.4 50.2

Women

69,465 100.0 13.5 14.9 11.0 60.6

Race(1)

White

115,129 100.0 18.6 16.1 9.4 55.9

Black or African American

17,924 100.0 20.8 16.6 9.3 53.3

Asian

7,849 100.0 13.8 19.0 14.5 52.8

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity(2)

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

24,375 100.0 23.0 21.2 7.3 48.5

Non-Hispanic or Latino

119,920 100.0 17.8 15.4 10.2 56.6

Educational attainment (25 years and over)

Less than a high school diploma

6,743 100.0 31.1 16.2 4.2 48.5

High school graduates, no college

31,425 100.0 21.8 16.3 8.9 53.1

Some college or associate degree

29,407 100.0 17.1 13.8 9.3 59.7

Bachelor's degree and higher

55,424 100.0 14.4 12.6 8.3 64.8

Parent of a household child

Parent of a household child under 18 years

47,693 100.0 17.4 13.4 8.6 60.6

Parent of a child 13 to 17 years (none younger)

10,003 100.0 16.0 12.0 8.4 63.6

Parent of a child under 13 years

37,690 100.0 17.8 13.8 8.7 59.8

Not a parent of a household child under 18 years

96,602 100.0 19.3 17.9 10.2 52.6

Occupation

Management, business, and financial operations

22,754 100.0 18.1 14.2 8.5 59.2

Professional and related

40,284 100.0 12.1 11.6 8.7 67.6

Services

23,548 100.0 23.2 25.8 12.5 38.6

Sales and related

11,290 100.0 21.0 28.2 20.5 30.4

Office and administrative support

18,967 100.0 12.2 13.9 9.7 64.3

Farming, fishing, and forestry

s s s s s s

Construction and extraction

5,853 100.0 39.6 13.1 4.1 43.2

Installation, maintenance, and repair

4,053 100.0 23.0 9.4 8.6 59.0

Production

8,560 100.0 18.6 14.7 2.9 63.9

Transportation and material moving

7,859 100.0 33.3 17.3 7.5 41.9

Industry

Agriculture, forestry, fishing, and hunting

1,634 100.0 36.5 14.6 2.3 46.6

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

s s s s s s

Construction

6,860 100.0 39.9 13.0 4.6 42.6

Manufacturing

16,185 100.0 19.7 13.7 6.6 60.1

Wholesale and retail trade

18,030 100.0 16.3 25.5 20.2 38.0

Transportation and utilities

7,357 100.0 27.4 12.8 5.4 54.4

Information

2,685 100.0 17.7 17.0 8.5 56.8

Financial activities

10,370 100.0 15.4 14.3 7.1 63.2

Professional and business services

16,778 100.0 24.2 13.6 7.0 55.2

Education and health services

37,294 100.0 10.7 10.6 8.3 70.4

Leisure and hospitality

13,450 100.0 26.4 34.9 14.4 24.4

Other services

5,475 100.0 16.0 20.2 12.1 51.6

Public administration

7,552 100.0 10.2 9.6 8.7 71.5

Class of worker

Private sector

118,872 100.0 20.5 17.8 10.3 51.4

Private, for profit

107,072 100.0 21.7 18.4 10.5 49.3

Private, not for profit

11,800 100.0 9.1 12.5 8.4 70.1

Public sector

25,423 100.0 10.3 9.8 6.7 73.2

Federal government

4,595 100.0 11.1 13.8 9.9 65.2

State government

8,807 100.0 11.9 9.7 3.8 74.7

Local government

12,022 100.0 8.9 8.4 7.5 75.2

Full- and part-time status (single jobholders only)(3)

Full-time workers

106,369 100.0 17.6 14.0 8.2 60.2

Part-time workers

25,882 100.0 22.9 27.3 14.5 35.2

Usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers
(single jobholders only)

Earnings less than or equal to the 25th percentile

25,200 100.0 18.7 19.8 10.8 50.7

Earnings from 25th to 50th percentiles

26,521 100.0 16.0 12.4 8.3 63.3

Earnings from 50th to 75th percentiles

27,193 100.0 17.5 11.5 6.1 65.0

Earnings greater than the 75th percentile

27,454 100.0 18.2 12.8 7.9 61.1

Work schedule flexibility(4)

Had flexible schedule

81,533 100.0 21.6 20.2 10.8 47.4

Did not have flexible schedule

62,762 100.0 15.0 11.5 8.2 65.3

Worker had input into schedule

10,681 100.0 16.2 13.4 12.1 58.3

Employer decided schedule

51,255 100.0 14.5 11.1 7.5 66.9

Workplace flexibility(5)

Could work at home

41,571 100.0 19.3 13.9 7.1 59.7

Could not work at home

102,338 100.0 18.5 17.5 10.7 53.4

(1) Estimates for race groups (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to the total because data are not presented for all races.
(2) Persons of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity may be of any race.
(3) Full-time workers usually work 35 hours or more per week. Part-time workers usually work less than 35 hours per week.
(4) Workers with flexible schedules were able to vary or change the times they began and stopped working. Estimates for workers who did not have flexible schedules do not sum to the total because data are not presented for all response options.
(5) The subcategories do not sum to the total because a small number of workers did not provide this information.
s - Estimate is suppressed because it does not meet the American Time Use Survey publication standards.

Note: Data refer to wage and salary workers at their main jobs. All self-employed workers (including workers with incorporated businesses and those with unincorporated businesses) are excluded. Unless otherwise specified, data refer to workers 15 years and over.


Table 6. Workers without flexible work schedules whose employers decided their schedules, and how far in advance they knew their schedules, by selected characteristics, averages for the period 2017-2018
Characteristic Total, workers
without flexible
schedules(1) (in
thousands)
Workers
without flexible
work schedules(1)
as a percent of
total workers
Workers without flexible work schedules(1) whose employers decided their schedules
Total
(in
thousands)
Percent of
total
workers
Percent distribution by how far in advance workers knew their work
schedules
Total Less than 1
week
1 to 2 weeks 2 to 4 weeks 4 weeks or
more

Age

Total, 15 years and over

62,762 43.5 51,255 35.5 100.0 14.5 11.1 7.5 66.9

15 to 24 years

7,903 37.1 5,682 26.7 100.0 17.2 23.8 14.4 44.5

25 to 34 years

14,851 44.1 12,644 37.5 100.0 12.4 8.7 7.5 71.4

35 to 44 years

12,843 42.6 10,387 34.4 100.0 11.9 8.7 6.3 73.1

45 to 54 years

13,791 46.8 11,588 39.3 100.0 15.4 11.5 5.3 67.8

55 to 64 years

10,476 46.5 8,625 38.3 100.0 16.1 7.9 7.2 68.7

65 years and over

2,897 40.5 2,329 32.5 100.0 20.0 13.9 7.4 58.7

Sex

Men

32,047 42.8 26,458 35.4 100.0 19.7 13.5 6.1 60.6

Women

30,715 44.2 24,797 35.7 100.0 8.9 8.6 8.9 73.7

Race(2)

White

49,856 43.3 40,999 35.6 100.0 14.0 10.4 7.6 68.0

Black or African American

8,121 45.3 6,471 36.1 100.0 17.6 12.9 6.4 63.1

Asian

3,552 45.3 2,735 34.8 100.0 8.6 14.9 10.0 66.5

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity(3)

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

12,101 49.6 10,263 42.1 100.0 23.1 14.7 5.1 57.1

Non-Hispanic or Latino

50,661 42.2 40,993 34.2 100.0 12.3 10.2 8.1 69.4

Educational attainment (25 years and over)

Less than a high school diploma

4,219 62.6 3,780 56.1 100.0 32.3 11.2 2.2 54.4

High school graduates, no college

16,731 53.2 14,168 45.1 100.0 20.5 12.7 6.5 60.3

Some college or associate degree

13,740 46.7 11,314 38.5 100.0 12.3 9.7 8.7 69.3

Bachelor's degree and higher

20,169 36.4 16,310 29.4 100.0 5.6 6.3 6.3 81.8

Parent of a household child

Parent of a household child under 18 years

21,188 44.4 17,619 36.9 100.0 12.0 9.4 6.8 71.8

Parent of a child 13 to 17 years (none younger)

4,606 46.0 3,970 39.7 100.0 9.5 9.0 6.9 74.6

Parent of a child under 13 years

16,581 44.0 13,649 36.2 100.0 12.7 9.5 6.8 71.0

Not a parent of a household child under 18 years

41,574 43.0 33,636 34.8 100.0 15.8 12.0 7.8 64.4

Occupation

Management, business, and financial operations

5,946 26.1 4,364 19.2 100.0 5.2 5.8 4.9 84.1

Professional and related

17,259 42.8 14,061 34.9 100.0 5.3 5.9 7.7 81.1

Services

10,654 45.2 8,596 36.5 100.0 16.5 16.8 14.2 52.4

Sales and related

3,678 32.6 2,644 23.4 100.0 14.2 29.7 12.1 44.0

Office and administrative support

8,109 42.8 6,604 34.8 100.0 11.2 8.1 9.1 71.6

Farming, fishing, and forestry

s s s s s s s s s

Construction and extraction

3,872 66.2 3,343 57.1 100.0 42.7 8.5 1.6 47.3

Installation, maintenance, and repair

2,240 55.3 1,823 45.0 100.0 24.1 8.6 1.8 65.5

Production

5,880 68.7 5,566 65.0 100.0 15.6 14.6 2.9 66.9

Transportation and material moving

4,457 56.7 3,754 47.8 100.0 27.8 14.7 3.9 53.7

Industry

Agriculture, forestry, fishing, and hunting

803 49.1 604 37.0 s s s s s

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

s s s s s s s s s

Construction

3,906 56.9 3,230 47.1 100.0 43.7 10.2 1.4 44.6

Manufacturing

7,840 48.4 7,176 44.3 100.0 19.2 11.9 2.8 66.1

Wholesale and retail trade

7,105 39.4 5,548 30.8 100.0 15.0 23.3 11.4 50.2

Transportation and utilities

3,841 52.2 3,184 43.3 100.0 23.5 12.5 4.2 59.8

Information

882 32.8 612 22.8 s s s s s

Financial activities

3,302 31.8 2,499 24.1 100.0 3.1 6.5 3.9 86.5

Professional and business services

4,712 28.1 4,013 23.9 100.0 20.0 5.9 5.3 68.8

Education and health services

20,363 54.6 16,991 45.6 100.0 5.9 4.3 9.2 80.7

Leisure and hospitality

4,497 33.4 3,360 25.0 100.0 17.1 30.4 20.4 32.1

Other services

2,042 37.3 1,418 25.9 100.0 10.2 17.9 7.8 64.1

Public administration

3,247 43.0 2,457 32.5 100.0 6.5 9.8 4.7 79.0

Class of worker

Private sector

48,164 40.5 39,176 33.0 100.0 16.9 12.6 8.2 62.4

Private, for profit

42,993 40.2 35,283 33.0 100.0 17.8 13.0 8.4 60.7

Private, not for profit

5,172 43.8 3,893 33.0 100.0 8.2 8.5 6.1 77.2

Public sector

14,597 57.4 12,079 47.5 100.0 6.7 6.4 5.2 81.7

Federal government

1,919 41.8 1,327 28.9 100.0 12.5 16.6 6.5 64.4

State government

4,641 52.7 3,841 43.6 100.0 6.0 5.7 5.8 82.5

Local government

8,037 66.9 6,912 57.5 100.0 6.0 4.8 4.6 84.6

Full- and part-time status (single jobholders only)(4)

Full-time workers

48,416 45.5 40,022 37.6 100.0 13.9 10.2 6.1 69.9

Part-time workers

9,133 35.3 7,030 27.2 100.0 19.5 17.5 14.8 48.1

Usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary
workers (single jobholders only)

Earnings less than or equal to the 25th percentile

13,973 55.4 11,598 46.0 100.0 15.5 15.3 5.7 63.4

Earnings from 25th to 50th percentiles

13,814 52.1 11,998 45.2 100.0 11.7 8.7 8.3 71.3

Earnings from 50th to 75th percentiles

12,514 46.0 10,140 37.3 100.0 14.5 8.0 4.8 72.6

Earnings greater than the 75th percentile

8,115 29.6 6,286 22.9 100.0 13.8 6.8 4.7 74.8

Workplace flexibility(5)

Could work at home

7,328 17.6 5,338 12.8 100.0 5.0 4.5 5.2 85.3

Could not work at home

55,266 54.0 45,780 44.7 100.0 15.6 11.9 7.7 64.7

(1) Workers without flexible schedules were not able to vary or change the times they began and stopped working.
(2) Estimates for race groups (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to the total because data are not presented for all races.
(3) Persons of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity may be of any race.
(4) Full-time workers usually work 35 hours or more per week. Part-time workers usually work less than 35 hours per week.
(5) The subcategories do not sum to the total because a small number of workers did not provide this information.
s - Estimate is suppressed because it does not meet the American Time Use Survey publication standards.

Note: Data refer to wage and salary workers at their main jobs. All self-employed workers (including workers with incorporated businesses and those with unincorporated businesses) are excluded. Unless otherwise specified, data refer to workers 15 years and over.


Table 7. Workers by shift usually worked and selected characteristics, averages for the period 2017-2018
Characteristic Total
workers (in
thousands)
Percent
working
regular
daytime
schedule
Percent working a non-daytime schedule, by shift
Total Evening Night Rotating Irregular Split shift Other

Age

Total, 15 years and over

144,295 83.6 16.4 5.9 3.6 2.4 2.6 0.7 1.2

15 to 24 years

21,296 68.1 31.9 15.9 5.6 4.5 4.6 0.3 1.0

25 to 34 years

33,682 84.7 15.3 5.4 3.8 2.0 2.8 0.8 0.6

35 to 44 years

30,159 87.7 12.3 3.7 3.1 1.7 1.8 0.6 1.3

45 to 54 years

29,484 87.4 12.6 3.0 3.3 1.9 1.8 0.7 1.9

55 to 64 years

22,514 85.7 14.3 4.1 2.4 2.6 2.7 1.1 1.4

65 years and over

7,160 84.7 15.3 5.8 3.3 1.7 2.8 0.6 1.1

Sex

Men

74,830 82.4 17.6 6.6 3.3 2.6 2.7 0.9 1.5

Women

69,465 84.8 15.2 5.3 3.9 2.1 2.5 0.5 1.0

Race(1)

White

115,129 84.8 15.2 5.3 3.2 2.3 2.5 0.7 1.1

Black or African American

17,924 75.9 24.1 9.0 5.4 3.1 4.2 0.7 1.7

Asian

7,849 85.7 14.3 6.8 2.5 1.8 1.5 0.2 1.5

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity(2)

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

24,375 82.0 18.0 6.0 4.3 3.5 2.2 0.6 1.4

Non-Hispanic or Latino

119,920 83.9 16.1 5.9 3.4 2.1 2.7 0.7 1.2

Educational attainment (25 years and over)

Less than a high school diploma

6,743 80.1 19.9 6.7 3.7 3.9 1.4 1.9 2.4

High school graduates, no college

31,425 81.2 18.8 5.9 4.7 2.7 2.6 1.4 1.5

Some college or associate degree

29,407 83.6 16.4 5.5 4.4 2.2 2.3 0.8 1.3

Bachelor's degree and higher

55,424 91.3 8.7 2.2 1.7 1.3 2.2 0.3 1.0

Parent of a household child

Parent of a household child under 18 years

47,693 87.5 12.5 3.6 2.9 1.9 2.1 0.8 1.2

Parent of a child 13 to 17 years (none younger)

10,003 89.4 10.6 2.2 1.5 1.8 2.5 1.7 0.9

Parent of a child under 13 years

37,690 87.0 13.0 4.0 3.3 1.9 2.0 0.6 1.3

Not a parent of a household child under 18 years

96,602 81.6 18.4 7.1 3.9 2.6 2.9 0.6 1.3

Occupation

Management, business, and financial operations

22,754 93.8 6.2 1.2 1.6 0.8 1.5 0.4 0.8

Professional and related

40,284 89.8 10.2 2.8 2.7 1.4 1.9 0.3 1.1

Services

23,548 66.6 33.4 16.2 6.0 3.4 5.1 1.1 1.5

Sales and related

11,290 74.9 25.1 10.6 2.2 5.8 4.3 0.5 1.8

Office and administrative support

18,967 89.5 10.5 4.0 2.2 1.9 1.3 0.5 0.6

Farming, fishing, and forestry

s s s s s s s s s

Construction and extraction

5,853 95.3 4.7 0.6 1.5 1.4 0.3 z 0.9

Installation, maintenance, and repair

4,053 87.1 12.9 4.5 4.9 0.9 0.9 0.7 1.0

Production

8,560 74.6 25.4 8.8 9.1 3.9 1.1 1.8 0.6

Transportation and material moving

7,859 70.8 29.2 4.7 5.3 4.9 7.4 2.6 4.2

Industry

Agriculture, forestry, fishing, and hunting

1,634 88.8 11.2 2.9 2.9 0.5 2.6 0.8 1.4

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

s s s s s s s s s

Construction

6,860 96.8 3.2 0.1 1.3 0.8 0.6 z 0.4

Manufacturing

16,185 83.9 16.1 6.1 5.7 1.8 0.8 1.2 0.5

Wholesale and retail trade

18,030 74.6 25.4 9.7 5.1 5.2 2.3 0.7 2.3

Transportation and utilities

7,357 74.0 26.0 4.0 6.3 4.3 6.1 2.5 2.8

Information

2,685 91.2 8.8 4.1 0.3 0.1 3.5 0.2 0.6

Financial activities

10,370 94.9 5.1 0.9 1.3 1.1 1.1 0.4 0.2

Professional and business services

16,778 93.4 6.6 1.9 1.1 0.8 1.8 0.1 1.0

Education and health services

37,294 85.8 14.2 4.9 4.3 1.4 2.3 0.4 0.9

Leisure and hospitality

13,450 63.2 36.8 19.3 2.6 4.8 7.1 1.4 1.7

Other services

5,475 85.8 14.2 5.1 2.0 3.0 2.2 0.7 1.1

Public administration

7,552 83.9 16.1 3.4 4.2 2.6 3.7 0.2 1.9

Class of worker

Private sector

118,872 82.6 17.4 6.4 3.8 2.6 2.7 0.7 1.3

Private, for profit

107,072 82.5 17.5 6.5 3.7 2.7 2.7 0.7 1.3

Private, not for profit

11,800 83.1 16.9 5.5 4.5 1.7 2.9 0.8 1.6

Public sector

25,423 88.3 11.7 3.8 2.6 1.4 2.3 0.6 1.0

Federal government

4,595 89.2 10.8 1.9 3.4 1.5 1.0 2.1 0.8

State government

8,807 88.3 11.7 5.4 2.0 0.8 2.9 0.1 0.5

Local government

12,022 88.0 12.0 3.4 2.7 1.8 2.3 0.3 1.4

Full- and part-time status (single jobholders only)(3)

Full-time workers

106,369 86.4 13.6 4.0 3.6 2.2 2.0 0.6 1.2

Part-time workers

25,882 72.7 27.3 13.6 4.1 2.9 4.6 0.7 1.3

Usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers (single jobholders only)

Earnings less than or equal to the 25th percentile

25,200 78.8 21.2 8.2 4.9 3.5 2.2 0.6 1.9

Earnings from 25th to 50th percentiles

26,521 86.9 13.1 3.5 4.1 1.6 1.8 1.0 1.1

Earnings from 50th to 75th percentiles

27,193 87.5 12.5 3.3 3.6 2.0 2.1 0.4 1.0

Earnings greater than the 75th percentile

27,454 91.7 8.3 1.3 1.8 1.8 2.0 0.4 1.0

Work schedule flexibility(4)

Had flexible schedule

81,533 85.7 14.3 5.4 2.2 2.4 2.9 0.6 0.9

Did not have flexible schedule

62,762 80.9 19.1 6.7 5.4 2.4 2.3 0.7 1.6

Workplace flexibility(5)

Could work at home

41,571 94.7 5.3 1.0 0.4 0.6 2.3 0.5 0.7

Could not work at home

102,338 79.0 21.0 8.0 4.9 3.1 2.8 0.8 1.5

(1) Estimates for race groups (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to the total because data are not presented for all races.
(2) Persons of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity may be of any race.
(3) Full-time workers usually work 35 hours or more per week. Part-time workers usually work less than 35 hours per week.
(4) Workers with flexible schedules were able to vary or change the times they began and stopped working.
(5) The subcategories do not sum to the total because a small number of workers did not provide this information.
s - Estimate is suppressed because it does not meet the American Time Use Survey publication standards.
z - Estimate is approximately zero.

Note: Data refer to wage and salary workers at their main jobs. All self-employed workers (including workers with incorporated businesses and those with unincorporated businesses) are excluded. Unless otherwise specified, data refer to workers 15 years and over.


Table 8. Main reason for working non-daytime schedules by sex and shift, averages for the period 2017-2018
Characteristic and reason Workers who worked non-daytime schedules
Total Evening Night Rotating Irregular Split shift or
other

Total

Number (in thousands)

23,696 8,551 5,142 3,415 3,806 2,783

Percent distribution by main reason, total

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Better arrangements for family

9.6 9.8 15.4 5.4 5.9 8.4

Better pay

7.2 5.0 14.6 4.2 4.1 8.0

Allows time for school or other job

12.0 21.8 5.6 4.8 10.3 5.2

Could not get other shift

10.0 12.6 12.7 8.6 3.7 7.1

Nature of the job

39.3 28.5 20.1 58.4 63.4 51.7

Personal preference

19.1 20.9 27.8 15.5 9.0 15.7

Other

2.8 1.4 3.9 3.1 3.6 3.8

Men

Number (in thousands)

13,168 4,902 2,460 1,959 2,050 1,797

Percent distribution by main reason, total

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Better arrangements for family

6.5 8.8 5.8 3.5 4.6 6.4

Better pay

6.7 5.5 10.5 2.8 7.1 8.4

Allows time for school or other job

9.3 16.5 6.8 2.0 5.4 5.3

Could not get other shift

11.8 16.5 13.7 11.1 2.2 7.9

Nature of the job

44.5 30.3 27.5 65.1 70.8 53.7

Personal preference

18.2 20.5 31.9 12.6 5.2 14.1

Other

3.1 1.8 3.8 2.9 4.7 4.3

Women

Number (in thousands)

10,528 3,649 2,682 1,456 1,756 986

Percent distribution by main reason, total

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Better arrangements for family

13.5 11.2 24.1 7.9 7.4 12.1

Better pay

7.8 4.3 18.4 6.1 0.7 7.3

Allows time for school or other job

15.5 28.9 4.6 8.5 16.1 5.1

Could not get other shift

7.7 7.3 11.8 5.2 5.3 5.7

Nature of the job

32.9 26.1 13.3 49.4 54.9 48.2

Personal preference

20.2 21.4 24.0 19.5 13.3 18.6

Other

2.4 0.8 3.9 3.3 2.4 2.9

Note: Data refer to wage and salary workers, 15 years and over, at their main jobs. All self-employed workers (including workers with incorporated businesses and those with unincorporated businesses) are excluded.


Table 9. Number of days per week workers usually worked and percent working, by day of week and selected characteristics, averages for the period 2017-2018
Characteristic Average
number of
days per
week
worked
Percent of workers by days usually worked
Monday
through
Friday(1)
Saturday
and
Sunday(2)
Schedule
varies
Monday Tuesday Wednes-
day
Thursday Friday Saturday Sunday

Age

Total, 15 years and over

4.77 68.3 8.9 10.5 81.0 82.3 82.5 82.3 80.4 19.2 12.1

15 to 24 years

4.36 39.9 18.0 16.6 61.4 61.0 62.9 63.3 67.2 38.5 23.1

25 to 34 years

4.85 73.0 8.6 10.0 84.1 84.2 84.6 84.4 83.5 17.7 11.3

35 to 44 years

4.90 76.0 6.9 8.0 86.1 88.3 87.6 87.3 85.2 15.9 10.2

45 to 54 years

4.94 77.6 6.0 9.1 86.7 88.8 88.1 88.5 85.1 14.1 9.0

55 to 64 years

4.81 71.9 7.5 9.1 84.7 86.3 85.9 86.0 80.9 14.8 10.1

65 years and over

4.25 49.0 7.9 15.1 68.8 71.7 75.7 70.5 64.5 17.8 11.2

Sex

Men

4.88 72.5 10.7 8.6 83.6 84.8 85.3 85.5 83.6 21.9 13.5

Women

4.65 63.8 7.0 12.6 78.2 79.5 79.5 78.8 77.0 16.3 10.7

Race

White

4.77 68.9 8.6 10.3 81.2 82.8 82.8 82.8 80.5 19.3 11.7

Black or African American

4.78 64.4 8.7 12.7 79.5 80.8 81.2 80.9 78.5 17.9 13.3

Asian

4.76 72.8 9.8 9.1 82.9 81.6 83.4 82.4 86.3 15.9 11.8

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity(3)

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

4.84 66.5 9.8 10.8 79.8 81.6 81.6 81.2 80.6 25.7 13.3

Non-Hispanic or Latino

4.75 68.7 8.7 10.4 81.3 82.4 82.7 82.5 80.4 17.9 11.9

Educational attainment (25 years and over)

Less than a high school diploma

4.89 64.8 13.0 11.8 81.5 80.9 82.3 81.1 77.9 30.9 17.4

High school graduates, no college

4.88 66.7 10.2 11.0 81.5 83.0 81.5 82.7 80.1 21.7 13.5

Some college or associate degree

4.78 67.5 7.0 11.4 80.4 82.9 84.0 82.7 79.6 16.2 10.7

Bachelor's degree and higher

4.84 81.1 5.2 7.2 88.6 89.9 89.8 89.3 86.4 10.5 7.3

Parent of a household child

Parent of a household child under 18 years

4.88 75.4 6.9 8.7 85.9 87.5 86.8 86.3 84.6 15.2 10.5

Parent of a child 13 to 17 years (none younger)

4.86 76.5 6.5 8.7 86.2 88.1 87.6 86.5 82.5 13.2 9.6

Parent of a child under 13 years

4.88 75.1 7.1 8.7 85.8 87.3 86.6 86.3 85.1 15.7 10.7

Not a parent of a household child under 18 years

4.72 64.8 9.9 11.4 78.6 79.7 80.4 80.3 78.4 21.2 13.0

Occupation

Management, business, and financial operations

5.00 87.2 4.3 4.8 93.3 93.9 93.1 94.0 91.6 10.9 6.0

Professional and related

4.70 76.2 4.5 9.0 84.7 86.7 86.8 85.7 82.6 9.9 6.4

Services

4.52 38.7 23.0 16.7 63.2 62.5 65.3 65.4 65.8 38.6 28.4

Sales and related

4.71 47.5 15.0 19.8 64.0 68.6 66.4 67.6 71.9 31.3 20.7

Office and administrative support

4.69 66.2 5.2 10.7 82.9 83.2 82.7 82.0 80.9 15.1 8.3

Farming, fishing, and forestry

s s s s s s s s s s s

Construction and extraction

5.08 90.0 3.6 2.1 96.7 97.1 97.0 96.6 90.7 16.9 4.9

Installation, maintenance, and repair

5.03 82.6 3.6 4.0 89.2 94.0 95.2 94.4 90.6 17.1 6.1

Production

4.90 78.1 7.9 7.2 88.3 90.3 89.7 89.6 81.8 17.9 10.8

Transportation and material moving

4.87 62.3 9.3 16.4 74.7 75.1 78.0 77.6 76.8 24.2 14.9

Industry

Agriculture, forestry, fishing, and hunting

5.43 85.5 12.3 2.8 93.9 94.0 93.6 93.8 93.4 47.5 19.0

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

s s s s s s s s s s s

Construction

5.08 91.0 3.6 1.9 96.7 96.9 96.4 96.3 91.9 18.2 4.5

Manufacturing

4.98 86.4 4.6 5.1 93.5 94.8 94.2 93.9 88.2 12.4 7.6

Wholesale and retail trade

4.66 47.2 12.1 20.9 64.4 66.9 68.9 68.5 69.5 29.1 18.5

Transportation and utilities

4.92 67.2 11.7 13.8 79.4 79.8 81.5 83.1 78.0 21.5 14.9

Information

4.89 78.9 4.4 3.2 91.8 96.4 91.7 89.0 90.3 13.2 5.6

Financial activities

4.95 87.3 4.7 3.6 92.1 94.2 93.8 93.2 92.8 13.5 5.8

Professional and business services

4.90 85.0 3.4 5.2 92.0 92.3 92.3 91.9 89.7 9.2 5.5

Education and health services

4.63 68.8 5.7 11.8 81.2 82.2 82.2 81.6 78.6 11.5 8.0

Leisure and hospitality

4.48 26.8 29.0 17.0 58.7 56.7 58.6 60.7 64.2 49.6 35.7

Other services

4.56 50.8 16.0 10.3 68.8 73.5 72.1 69.9 72.6 31.8 21.4

Public administration

4.72 72.2 5.4 9.9 81.6 86.1 85.6 85.0 80.0 9.7 7.2

Class of worker

Private sector

4.76 66.5 9.7 10.9 79.8 81.1 81.1 81.3 79.8 21.2 13.3

Private, for profit

4.79 66.9 9.6 10.8 80.1 81.3 81.4 81.5 80.5 21.7 13.2

Private, not for profit

4.53 62.5 10.6 11.7 77.2 79.6 79.1 79.4 73.5 16.5 14.9

Public sector

4.80 76.9 5.1 8.5 86.9 87.7 88.8 86.8 83.5 9.8 6.6

Federal government

4.91 72.1 3.5 10.6 87.5 87.6 87.4 88.2 79.1 11.2 6.0

State government

4.82 77.1 6.9 7.5 87.5 88.9 89.9 87.0 83.5 11.1 8.7

Local government

4.75 78.7 4.3 8.5 86.3 86.8 88.5 86.2 85.2 8.4 5.3

Full- and part-time status (single jobholders only)(4)

Full-time workers

5.01 79.2 7.5 8.1 88.2 89.3 89.4 89.6 87.4 16.7 10.3

Part-time workers

3.84 26.1 14.4 21.0 51.9 53.6 54.5 52.8 53.1 29.6 19.9

Usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary
workers (single jobholders only)

Earnings less than or equal to the 25th percentile

5.00 65.9 14.0 11.8 80.5 81.7 83.8 83.1 81.0 26.1 17.6

Earnings from 25th to 50th percentiles

4.97 75.9 5.6 8.5 87.7 88.9 87.9 88.5 84.6 15.9 8.6

Earnings from 50th to 75th percentiles

4.99 83.6 4.6 7.3 89.7 90.8 91.0 92.3 90.1 13.5 7.3

Earnings greater than the 75th percentile

5.08 90.5 6.2 4.9 94.5 95.3 94.3 94.0 93.5 12.1 8.2

Work schedule flexibility(5)

Had flexible schedule

4.78 68.6 9.7 9.7 80.9 82.8 82.4 82.5 80.9 20.2 13.1

Did not have flexible schedule

4.75 68.0 7.8 11.5 81.3 81.6 82.6 82.1 79.8 17.9 10.9

Workplace flexibility

Could work at home

5.01 88.8 5.0 2.8 94.2 95.4 95.7 95.1 92.7 10.6 7.1

Could not work at home

4.67 60.1 10.5 13.5 75.8 77.1 77.3 77.2 75.6 22.7 14.2

(1) Workers who usually worked Monday through Friday also are counted in the estimates for each weekday.
(2) Workers who usually worked Saturday and Sunday also are counted in the estimates for each weekend day.
(3) Persons of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity may be of any race.
(4) Full-time workers usually work 35 hours or more per week. Part-time workers usually work less than 35 hours per week.
(5) Workers with flexible schedules were able to vary or change the times they began and stopped working.
s - Estimate is suppressed because it does not meet the American Time Use Survey publication standards.

Note: Data refer to wage and salary workers at their main jobs. All self-employed workers (including workers with incorporated businesses and those with unincorporated businesses) are excluded. Unless otherwise specified, data refer to workers 15 years and over.


Last Modified Date: September 24, 2019