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Economic News Release
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Access to and Use of Leave News Release

For release 10:00 a.m. (EDT) Thursday, August 29, 2019		                 USDL-19-1542

Technical information:  (202) 691-6339  *  atusinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/tus
Media contact:          (202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov


                      ACCESS TO AND USE OF LEAVE -- 2017-2018
                      DATA FROM THE AMERICAN TIME USE SURVEY


In 2017-18, 66 percent of wage and salary workers had access to paid leave at their
jobs, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. This was an increase from
2011, when 60 percent of workers had access to paid leave.  

These findings are from a supplementary set of questions--the 2017-18 Leave and Job
Flexibilities Module--that was asked as part of the American Time Use Survey (ATUS),
and sponsored by the Department of Labor's Women's Bureau. The data on leave were
collected directly from wage and salary workers, excluding the self-employed.
Workers sometimes do not know whether they can use leave until they have a need
to do so. The measures of leave apply only to a person's sole or main job. For
individuals with more than one job, this is the job in which they usually work the
most hours. For more information about the ATUS Leave and Job Flexibilities Module,
see the Technical Note.

Comparisons in this news release are on a broad level and do not control for many
factors that can be important in explaining differences in leave access, including
differences in the distribution of workers by their full- or part-time work status.  

Access to paid or unpaid leave in 2017-18:

   --On average, 66 percent of wage and salary workers had access to paid leave at
     their jobs. Seventy-eight percent of wage and salary workers had access to unpaid
     leave, and an additional 9 percent were unsure whether they had access to unpaid
     leave. Ninety-three percent of workers had access to either paid or unpaid leave.
     (See table 2.)

   --The percentage of wage and salary workers with access to paid leave increased
     from 60 percent in 2011 to 66 percent in 2017-18. The gains in access to paid
     leave were widespread across demographic and other characteristics. (See table 1.)

   --The percentage of women with access to paid leave increased from 58 percent in
     2011 to 65 percent in 2017-18. The percentage of men with access to paid leave
     increased from 62 percent to 67 percent over the same time period. (See table 1.)

   --The wage and salary workers most likely to have access to paid leave were in
     management, business, and financial operations occupations (82 percent);
     installation, maintenance, and repair occupations (79 percent); and professional
     and related occupations (76 percent). Workers least likely to have access to paid
     leave were in construction and extraction occupations (36 percent) and service
     occupations (43 percent). (See table 2.) 

   --Seventy-nine percent of public-sector workers had access to paid leave, compared
     with 63 percent of private-sector workers. (See table 2.)

   --Among single jobholders, full-time workers were about three times more likely than
     part-time workers to have access to paid leave--77 percent, compared with 23 percent.
     (See table 2.)

   --Among full-time wage and salary workers with only one job, higher earners had greater
     access to paid leave. Eighty-six percent of workers in the top 25 percent of earners
     had access to paid leave, compared with 57 percent of workers who were among the
     lowest 25 percent of earners.  (See table 2.)

   --Vacation (95 percent) and own illness or medical care (94 percent) were the most
     common reasons for which workers could use paid leave. The most common reasons
     for which workers could use unpaid leave were for own illness or medical care
     (93 percent) and illness or medical care of a family member (86 percent). (See
     table 3.) 

   --Wage and salary workers who could work at home as part of their job were more
     likely to have access to paid leave (81 percent) than were workers who could
     not work at home (60 percent). (See table 2.)

Use of paid or unpaid leave in 2017-18:

   --During an average week, 21 percent of wage and salary workers took leave, either
     paid or unpaid, from their job. These workers took an average of 13.7 hours of
     leave. (See table 4.)

   --In an average week, 6 percent of wage and salary workers took leave for vacation,
     5 percent took leave because they were ill or needed medical care, and 4 percent
     took leave to run errands or for personal reasons. (See table 6.)

   --Women were more likely than men to take leave from their jobs during an average
     week (23 percent, compared with 19 percent). Of those who took leave during an
     average week, women were more likely than men to take leave because a family member
     was ill or needed medical care (10 percent, compared with 6 percent). (See table 4.)

   --Of those wage and salary workers who took leave from their jobs during an average
     week, about two-thirds used paid leave. (See table 5.)

   --Among workers who took leave during an average week, parents living with children
     under age 18 were more likely to take leave because a family member was ill or needed
     medical care than were workers who were not parents living with children (13 percent,
     compared with 5 percent). Those who were not parents were more likely to take leave
     for their own illness or medical care (24 percent) than were workers who were parents
     of household children (18 percent). (See table 4.)

Non-use of leave in 2017-18:

   --Nine percent of wage and salary workers needed to take leave during an average month,
     but for various reasons did not take leave. About one-third of these workers needed
     to take leave for their own illness or medical care, and about one-third needed to
     take leave for errands or personal reasons. (See table 7.)

   --During an average month, women were more likely than men to experience times when
     they needed to take leave but did not (10 percent, compared with 7 percent). Of 
     those women who needed to take leave but did not, the most common reason for needing
     leave was for their own illness or medical care (42 percent). By comparison, men
     most often needed leave for errands or personal reasons (40 percent). (See table 7.)  

   --Of those workers who needed to take leave during an average month but did not, 23
     percent did not take leave because they had too much work, 21 percent did not take
     leave because they feared negative employment consequences or because their leave
     request was denied, and 15 percent did not take leave because they could not afford
     the loss in income. (See table 8.)




Technical Note

   The data in this release were collected with a supplementary set of questions, the 2017-18
Leave and Job Flexibilities Module, asked as part of the American Time Use Survey (ATUS) in 2017
and 2018. The ATUS--a continuous survey conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau for the Bureau of
Labor Statistics--focuses on obtaining information about how individuals age 15 and over spend
their time. For more information about the survey, see the ATUS User's Guide at
www.bls.gov/tus/atususersguide.pdf. 

   The 2017-18 Leave and Job Flexibilities Module was sponsored by the Department of Labor's
Women's Bureau. The purpose of this module was to obtain information about workers' access to
and use of leave, job flexibilities, and work schedules. The data in this release pertain to
wage and salary workers and their main job. The data exclude all self-employed workers.
Respondents to the 2017-18 Leave and Job Flexibilities Module answered questions about access
to paid and unpaid leave, reasons for taking leave, use of leave during the past 7 days, times
when leave was needed but not taken, shift work, advance notice of schedules, workers' control
over their schedules, work-at-home arrangements, and other related topics. There were about
10,000 respondents to the Leave and Job Flexibilities Module in 2017-18.
   
   These data on leave were collected directly from wage and salary workers. The data thus
represent workers' knowledge on these topics. Workers sometimes do not know whether they can
use leave or adjust their work schedules until they have a need to do so. Leave and Job
Flexibilities Module data were collected from January 2017 through December 2018.

   Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired individuals upon request.
Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay Service: (800) 877-8339.

Leave questions and concepts

   The 2017-18 Leave and Job Flexibilities Module was introduced with the statement, “The
next few questions are about paid and unpaid leave from a job.” Following the introduction,
respondents were asked whether they receive paid leave at their main job and, if so, the
reasons for which they can take paid leave. Respondents were then asked about their ability
to take leave without pay and reasons for which they can take unpaid leave from their main job.

   Respondents with access to paid or unpaid leave were asked whether they had taken any leave
during the past 7 days. If they took leave, they were asked about the length and main reason for
taking leave. 

   In the next set of questions, respondents were asked about how much flexibility they
have in arranging their work schedules. Respondents were asked if they can vary or change the
times they begin and end work. If able to do so, respondents were asked how often they can change
these times, and whether their ability to do so was governed by a formal or informal arrangement
with their employer. Workers unable to vary the times they begin and end work were asked whether
they have input into their work schedules. Respondents were then asked how far in advance they
know their work schedule.  

   Next, respondents were asked about the time of day and days of the week they usually work. Those
working a non-daytime schedule were asked about the shift they usually work, and the main reason
why they work this shift. Respondents were then asked on which days they usually work during the
week. 

   Next, respondents were asked if they can work at home. Respondents who indicated they can work
at home were asked if they ever do work at home, if they are paid for the hours they work at home,
and the main reason they work at home. Those who do work at home were asked if there are days they
work only at home and, if so, how often.

   In the last section, respondents were asked if there were times during the past month in which
they needed to take off from work but did not. If so, respondents were asked their reasons for
needing to take leave. Respondents with access to paid or unpaid leave were asked about their
reasons for not using leave. 

   The Leave and Job Flexibilities Module questionnaire is available at 
www.bls.gov/tus/lvmquestionnaire1718.pdf.

Definitions

Employment and earnings

   --Employed. All persons who:

	1) At any time during the 7 days prior to the interview did any work at all as paid
	employees, or worked in their own business or profession or on their own farm; or 

	2) Were not working during the 7 days prior to the interview but had jobs or businesses
	from which they were temporarily absent because of illness, bad weather, vacation,
	childcare problems, labor-management disputes, maternity or paternity leave, job training,
	or other family or personal reasons, whether or not they were paid for the time off or
	were seeking other jobs; or

	3) Usually worked 15 hours or more as unpaid workers in a family-operated enterprise.

   --Employed full time. For the purpose of producing estimates related to leave, full-time workers
     are single jobholders who usually worked 35 or more hours per week.

   --Employed part time. For the purpose of producing estimates related to leave, part-time workers
     are single jobholders who usually worked fewer than 35 hours per week.

   --Main job. For persons holding more than one job, the questions in the Leave and Job Flexibilities
     Module referred to the characteristics of their main job--the job in which they usually worked
     the most hours. 

   --Wage and salary workers. These are workers who receive wages, salaries, commissions, tips, payment
     in kind, or piece rates. The group includes employees in both the private and public sectors. For
     the purpose of producing estimates related to leave, wage and salary workers do not include any
     self-employed workers; this differs from the annual ATUS news release, in which workers who are
     self-employed and whose businesses are incorporated are classified as wage and salary workers.

   --Usual weekly earnings. Estimates represent the earnings of full-time wage and salary workers with
     one job only, before taxes and other deductions.  

   --Weekly earnings quartiles. The ranges used for the quartiles represent approximately 25 percent of
     full-time wage and salary workers who held only one job. For example, 25 percent of full-time wage
     and salary workers with one job only had weekly earnings of $590 or less in 2017 and $630 or less
     in 2018. Weekly earnings in the 25th to the 50th percentile range amounted to $591 to $920 in 2017
     and $631 to $960 in 2018. Weekly earnings in the 50th to the 75th percentile range were $921 to
     $1,440 in 2017 and $961 to $1,530 in 2018. Those earning greater than the 75th percentile had
     earnings of $1,441 and higher in 2017 and $1,531 and higher in 2018. Earnings ranges were estimated
     using the 2017 and 2018 ATUS data.

Leave related

   --Paid leave. Respondents were asked “Do you receive paid leave on your current job?” or, for those
     with multiple jobs, “Do you receive paid leave on your main job? By main job, we mean the one at
     which you usually work the most hours.” Respondents were identified as having paid leave at their
     main job if they answered “yes” to one of these questions.

   --Unpaid leave. Respondents were asked “Are you allowed to take time off from work without pay?” or,
     for those with multiple jobs, “In your main job, are you allowed to take time off from work without
     pay?” Respondents were identified as having unpaid leave at their main job if they answered “yes”
     to one of these questions.

   --Reasons for taking leave. If respondents answered “yes” to having paid or unpaid leave, they were
     asked about specific reasons for which they could take paid and unpaid leave. The reasons are: own
     illness or medical care; illness or medical care of another family member; childcare, other than
     for illness; eldercare; vacation; errands or personal reasons; and birth or adoption of a child.  

   --Workers who needed to take leave. Respondents were asked if there were times in the previous month
     when they needed to take leave, but did not. Those who responded “yes” were asked, “Why did you
     need to take off work?” Those with access to paid or unpaid leave were asked, “Why did you decide
     not to take leave?”

Other

   --Average week. The average week reflects an average across all wage and salary workers in the population,
     for the period of 7 days prior to the interview day. Interviews are conducted on nearly all days of the
     year. The sequence of days included in the average week differs for respondents whose interviews were
     conducted on different days of the week. For example, if the interview was conducted on a Friday, the
     average week refers to the previous Friday through Thursday (yesterday). If the interview was conducted
     on a Monday, the average week refers to the previous Monday through Sunday (yesterday).

   --Work schedule flexibility. Respondents were asked “Do you have flexible work hours that allow you to vary
     or make changes in the times you begin and end work?” Respondents were identified as having work schedule
     flexibility if they answered “yes” to this question.

   --Workplace flexibility. Respondents were asked “As part of your job, can you work at home?” or, for those
     with multiple jobs, “As part of your main job, can you work at home?” Respondents were identified as
     having workplace flexibility if they answered “yes” to one of these questions. 

Comparability of the estimates

   There are some key differences between the 2017-18 Leave and Job Flexibilities Module and the 2011 Leave
Module to the ATUS. Some of these differences affect the comparability of estimates produced from the two modules.

   Both modules asked wage and salary workers about their access to and use of leave; however, wage and salary
workers were defined differently in the two modules. The difference was in how self-employed workers of
incorporated businesses were classified. This group of self-employed workers was included in the 2011 Leave
Module definition of wage and salary workers, but excluded from the 2017-18 Leave and Job Flexibilities Module
definition. All estimates shown in this release--for 2011 and 2017-18--were generated using the narrower
2017-18 definition of wage and salary workers. However, because of this change, estimates published in the
news release “Access to and use of leave--2011 data from the American Time Use Survey” should not be compared
to the results in this news release. Additionally, this is why 2011 estimates on access to paid leave in this
news release differ from estimates appearing in the original release of 2011 data.
         
   The methods used to generate statistical weights for the 2011 Leave Module and the 2017-18 Leave Module data
were slightly different. The 2017-18 weighting methodology included a modified adjustment for weekday and
weekend diaries such that the distribution of weighted person-days corresponded to the proportion in the calendar
for each month. This is important for time-use estimates, as people spend their weekdays and weekend days
differently. BLS analysis indicates that this change in weighting methodology had only a negligible effect on
the estimates about access to leave shown in table 1.

   The 2017-18 Leave and Job Flexibilities Module questionnaire is a re-designed and improved version of the
2011 Leave Module questionnaire. Questions were added, dropped, and modified, and these changes affected the
comparability of some results. The 2011 Leave Module questionnaire included some questions about types of leave
that were not asked in 2017-18. While this change affected the ordering of some questions, any impact on the
results is thought to be minimal. Additionally, questions about respondents' use of leave were streamlined in
2017-18, so that everyone with access to leave was asked whether they had taken leave in the prior 7 days.
In 2011, information collected earlier in the ATUS about labor force participation in the previous week was
used to determine which questions about use of leave respondents were asked in the module. Questions about
an unmet need for leave were asked in both of the modules, but the period referenced by the questions differed.
In 2011, workers were asked whether, in the past 7 days, there were situations in which they needed to take off
from work but did not; in 2017-18, the question instead referenced the previous month. 

   The 2017-18 Leave and Job Flexibilities questionnaire collected more detail than the 2011 questionnaire
about the reasons people took leave, and for those who needed to take leave but did not use it, it collected
additional information about the reasons they needed to take leave and the reasons why they decided not to
take leave. Collecting this additional detail about workers' reasons for using or not using leave improved
the 2017-18 results by reducing the percentage of workers appearing in the residual “other” columns in the
tables of this news release; however, because of these changes, the 2017-18 results for these questions are
not comparable to the 2011 results. 

Reliability of the estimates

   Statistics based on the ATUS Leave and Job Flexibilities Module are subject to both sampling and nonsampling
error. When a sample, rather than the entire population, is surveyed, estimates differ from the true population
values they represent. The component of this difference that occurs because samples differ by chance is known
as sampling error, and its variability is measured by the standard error of the estimate.  

   Sample estimates from a given survey design are unbiased when an average of the estimates from all possible
samples would yield, hypothetically, the true population value. In this case, the sample estimate and its
standard error can be used to construct approximate confidence intervals, or ranges of values that include
the true population value with known probabilities. If the process of selecting a sample from the population
were repeated many times, an estimate made from each sample, and a suitable estimate of its standard error
calculated for each sample, then approximately 90 percent of the intervals from 1.645 standard errors below
the estimate to 1.645 standard errors above the estimate would include the true population value. BLS analyses
are generally conducted at the 90-percent level of confidence. 

   The ATUS Leave and Job Flexibilities Module data also are affected by nonsampling error, which is the average
difference between population and sample values for samples generated by a given process. Nonsampling error can
occur for many reasons, including the failure to sample a segment of the population, inability to obtain
information for all respondents in the sample, inability or unwillingness of respondents to provide correct
information, and errors made in the collection or processing of the data.  

   Nonsampling error and leave. Data provided in the Leave and Job Flexibilities Module may be affected by
nonsampling error for a variety of reasons. Access to paid or unpaid leave may be misreported if respondents
are unaware of their employers' leave policies. For example, newer employees may not yet know whether they
can take paid or unpaid leave from their jobs, under what circumstances or for which reasons they can take
leave, or the different types of paid leave available to them. Some employers may have formal or written leave
policies, while others may rely on employees' supervisors to convey and implement leave policies. Unless
employees have inquired about the specific leave arrangements, they may not know if the specific leave
arrangements are possible. For example, workers with paid leave who have never used unpaid leave may not know
if they can use unpaid leave, or under what circumstances they may use unpaid leave.

   Differences between employer- and employee-based surveys. Estimates of access to leave that are derived
from responses to household (or employee-based) surveys may differ from estimates produced using establishment
(or employer-based) surveys. In general, employer-based surveys often provide more detailed and accurate data
on employer leave policies, while household surveys allow researchers to examine demographic factors such as
sex, age, ethnicity, education, and race, and how they relate to leave availability and usage.  




Table 1. Workers with access to paid leave by selected characteristics, averages for the periods 2011 and 2017-2018
Characteristic Percent of workers with access to paid leave
2011(1) 2017-18(1) Change from 2011 to 2017-18
(percentage points)(2)
Yes No Do not
know
Yes No Do not
know
Yes No Do not
know

Age

Total, 15 years and over

60.2 38.4 1.2 66.0 32.9 1.1 5.8 -5.5 -0.1

15 to 24 years

25.9 71.0 3.0 35.4 62.0 2.6 9.4 -9.0 -0.4

25 to 34 years

63.9 35.0 0.9 70.3 29.1 0.6 6.4 -5.9 -0.2

35 to 44 years

67.3 31.5 0.8 71.7 27.4 0.9 4.4 -4.1 0.1

45 to 54 years

71.5 28.1 0.4 74.4 24.4 1.2 2.9 -3.6 0.7

55 to 64 years

66.7 31.7 1.1 74.2 24.9 0.9 7.5 -6.8 -0.2

65 years and over

46.6 51.3 1.8 51.7 48.2 0.1 5.0 -3.1 -1.7

Sex

Men

61.9 36.9 1.0 66.8 32.3 0.9 4.9 -4.6 -0.1

Women

58.3 40.1 1.4 65.0 33.6 1.3 6.8 -6.5 0.0

Race

White

60.2 38.5 1.2 66.3 32.6 1.1 6.1 -5.8 -0.1

Black or African American

60.9 37.9 1.0 62.6 36.3 1.2 1.7 -1.7 0.2

Asian

64.8 34.1 0.2 71.5 27.9 0.6 6.7 -6.2 0.4

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity(3)

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

43.6 54.5 1.9 49.9 48.4 1.7 6.3 -6.1 -0.2

Non-Hispanic or Latino

62.8 35.9 1.0 69.2 29.8 1.0 6.4 -6.1 -0.1

Educational attainment (25 years and over)

Less than a high school diploma

35.0 63.8 1.2 38.9 57.8 3.3 3.9 -5.9 2.1

High school graduates, no college

62.5 36.9 0.5 64.0 35.2 0.8 1.5 -1.7 0.4

Some college or associate degree

68.0 30.8 0.9 71.8 27.4 0.8 3.9 -3.5 -0.1

Bachelor's degree and higher

74.1 24.6 1.0 79.0 20.4 0.6 4.9 -4.2 -0.4

Parent of a household child

Parent of a household child under 18 years

65.0 34.2 0.7 70.2 28.9 1.0 5.2 -5.3 0.3

Parent of a child 13 to 17 years (none younger)

68.1 31.6 0.3 70.4 29.1 0.5 2.3 -2.5 0.2

Parent of a child under 13 years

64.2 34.8 0.8 70.1 28.8 1.1 5.9 -6.0 0.3

Not a parent of a household child under 18 years

57.7 40.6 1.4 63.9 34.9 1.2 6.1 -5.7 -0.2

Occupation

Management, business, and financial operations

81.5 17.1 0.9 81.5 17.8 0.7 0.0 0.7 -0.2

Professional and related

71.0 27.9 0.8 75.8 23.6 0.5 4.9 -4.2 -0.3

Services

36.0 62.0 2.0 43.2 54.3 2.5 7.2 -7.7 0.5

Sales and related

46.0 50.6 3.3 55.7 41.6 2.7 9.7 -9.0 -0.6

Office and administrative support

66.4 32.7 0.6 71.1 28.3 0.6 4.7 -4.5 0.0

Farming, fishing, and forestry

s s s s s s s s s

Construction and extraction

37.0 62.6 0.4 35.8 64.0 0.3 -1.3 1.4 -0.1

Installation, maintenance, and repair

71.1 28.7 0.1 79.2 19.6 1.2 8.1 -9.1 1.1

Production

63.6 35.7 0.7 70.2 28.9 0.9 6.5 -6.7 0.2

Transportation and material moving

58.7 40.6 0.5 55.7 43.3 0.9 -3.0 2.8 0.4

Industry

Agriculture, forestry, fishing, and hunting

s s s 44.9 53.5 1.6 s s s

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

s s s s s s s s s

Construction

41.1 58.2 0.5 43.3 56.2 0.5 2.2 -2.0 -0.1

Manufacturing

73.8 25.3 0.8 79.8 19.7 0.5 6.0 -5.6 -0.3

Wholesale and retail trade

54.4 42.7 2.9 61.3 36.7 2.0 6.9 -6.0 -0.9

Transportation and utilities

73.1 26.4 z 73.2 26.3 0.5 0.1 -0.1 0.5

Information

62.4 36.5 1.1 80.1 19.9 z 17.7 -16.6 -1.1

Financial activities

81.1 18.1 0.2 78.8 20.0 1.1 -2.3 1.9 1.0

Professional and business services

59.1 39.5 1.4 70.0 29.0 1.1 10.9 -10.6 -0.3

Education and health services

65.9 33.2 0.6 69.5 29.6 0.9 3.6 -3.6 0.3

Leisure and hospitality

24.7 71.8 3.2 33.4 64.0 2.6 8.8 -7.9 -0.6

Other services

43.4 56.3 0.2 44.8 54.6 0.7 1.3 -1.8 0.4

Public administration

89.2 10.7 0.2 88.0 11.3 0.6 -1.2 0.7 0.5

Class of worker

Private sector

56.8 41.7 1.3 63.1 35.7 1.2 6.3 -6.0 0.0

Private, for profit

56.2 42.2 1.4 62.6 36.1 1.3 6.4 -6.1 -0.1

Private, not for profit

63.0 36.7 0.3 68.2 31.4 0.4 5.2 -5.2 0.1

Public sector

76.1 23.1 0.7 79.2 20.2 0.6 3.2 -2.9 -0.1

Federal government

86.3 12.0 1.7 91.3 8.7 z 5.0 -3.3 -1.7

State government

75.3 24.2 0.5 74.6 24.5 0.9 -0.6 0.2 0.4

Local government

73.1 26.0 0.6 78.0 21.4 0.6 4.9 -4.6 0.1

Full- and part-time status (single jobholders only)(4)

Full-time workers

72.7 26.2 0.9 77.0 22.2 0.8 4.3 -4.0 0.0

Part-time workers

22.7 74.4 2.7 23.3 74.1 2.5 0.6 -0.3 -0.1

Usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers
(single jobholders only)

Earnings less than or equal to the 25th percentile

50.1 48.2 1.5 56.5 42.1 1.3 6.4 -6.1 -0.2

Earnings from 25th to 50th percentiles

77.1 21.9 0.9 80.0 19.2 0.8 2.9 -2.7 -0.1

Earnings from 50th to 75th percentiles

81.2 17.8 0.7 83.9 15.5 0.6 2.7 -2.3 -0.1

Earnings greater than the 75th percentile

82.8 16.4 0.4 86.0 13.5 0.6 3.1 -3.0 0.2

(1) The subcategories do not sum to 100 percent because a small number of workers did not provide this information.
(2) Changes were calculated using unrounded estimates for 2011 and 2017-18, and thus they sometimes differ from calculations based on the estimates shown in this table.
(3) Persons of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity may be of any race.
(4) Full-time workers usually work 35 hours or more per week. Part-time workers usually work less than 35 hours per week.
s - Estimate is suppressed because it does not meet the American Time Use Survey publication standards.
z - Estimate is approximately zero.

Note: Data refer to wage and salary workers at their main jobs. All self-employed workers (including workers with incorporated businesses and those with unincorporated businesses) are excluded. Unless otherwise specified, data refer to workers 15 years and over.


Table 2. Workers with access to paid or unpaid leave by selected characteristics, averages for the period 2017-2018
Characteristic Total workers
(in thou-
sands)
Percent of workers with access to:
Paid leave(1) Unpaid leave(1) Paid or unpaid leave(1,2)
Yes No Do not
know
Yes No Do not
know
Yes No Do not
know

Age

Total, 15 years and over

144,295 66.0 32.9 1.1 78.3 13.2 8.5 93.1 4.9 2.0

15 to 24 years

21,296 35.4 62.0 2.6 84.3 10.8 4.9 91.4 5.8 2.8

25 to 34 years

33,682 70.3 29.1 0.6 77.2 13.9 8.9 92.6 5.4 2.1

35 to 44 years

30,159 71.7 27.4 0.9 78.0 12.8 9.1 93.9 4.2 1.9

45 to 54 years

29,484 74.4 24.4 1.2 77.5 12.5 10.1 94.2 3.8 2.0

55 to 64 years

22,514 74.2 24.9 0.9 76.5 14.7 8.8 93.9 5.0 1.1

65 years and over

7,160 51.7 48.2 0.1 76.1 16.3 7.6 89.3 7.8 2.9

Sex

Men

74,830 66.8 32.3 0.9 78.0 14.0 8.0 92.9 5.3 1.7

Women

69,465 65.0 33.6 1.3 78.6 12.3 9.1 93.2 4.5 2.3

Race(3)

White

115,129 66.3 32.6 1.1 78.6 12.8 8.6 93.5 4.4 2.1

Black or African American

17,924 62.6 36.3 1.2 77.6 14.7 7.8 90.1 7.9 2.0

Asian

7,849 71.5 27.9 0.6 74.7 16.9 8.5 92.0 6.7 1.3

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity(4)

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

24,375 49.9 48.4 1.7 77.0 15.6 7.4 88.0 8.6 3.4

Non-Hispanic or Latino

119,920 69.2 29.8 1.0 78.6 12.7 8.8 94.1 4.2 1.7

Educational attainment (25 years and over)

Less than a high school diploma

6,743 38.9 57.8 3.3 73.7 19.6 6.7 81.1 13.7 5.3

High school graduates, no college

31,425 64.0 35.2 0.8 80.5 14.1 5.4 91.5 6.4 2.1

Some college or associate degree

29,407 71.8 27.4 0.8 78.6 13.4 8.1 94.9 3.8 1.3

Bachelor's degree and higher

55,424 79.0 20.4 0.6 75.2 12.7 12.1 95.1 3.3 1.6

Parent of a household child

Parent of a household child under 18 years

47,693 70.2 28.9 1.0 77.3 14.1 8.7 93.1 4.9 2.0

Parent of a child 13 to 17 years (none younger)

10,003 70.4 29.1 0.5 75.5 14.2 10.3 93.1 5.8 1.1

Parent of a child under 13 years

37,690 70.1 28.8 1.1 77.7 14.0 8.2 93.1 4.7 2.2

Not a parent of a household child under 18 years

96,602 63.9 34.9 1.2 78.8 12.8 8.5 93.0 4.9 2.0

Occupation

Management, business, and financial operations

22,754 81.5 17.8 0.7 76.8 13.1 10.1 95.9 3.0 1.1

Professional and related

40,284 75.8 23.6 0.5 74.7 13.5 11.8 93.9 4.1 2.1

Services

23,548 43.2 54.3 2.5 82.1 13.1 4.8 90.6 6.8 2.6

Sales and related

11,290 55.7 41.6 2.7 80.9 10.1 9.0 92.8 4.5 2.7

Office and administrative support

18,967 71.1 28.3 0.6 78.5 13.0 8.5 94.0 4.1 1.9

Farming, fishing, and forestry

s s s s s s s s s s

Construction and extraction

5,853 35.8 64.0 0.3 82.3 13.3 4.4 89.9 8.3 1.8

Installation, maintenance, and repair

4,053 79.2 19.6 1.2 79.8 10.6 9.6 94.1 3.4 2.4

Production

8,560 70.2 28.9 0.9 77.1 18.1 4.7 90.0 8.0 2.0

Transportation and material moving

7,859 55.7 43.3 0.9 81.6 13.8 4.7 92.2 6.5 1.2

Industry

Agriculture, forestry, fishing, and hunting

1,634 44.9 53.5 1.6 81.3 10.4 8.3 86.8 8.8 4.4

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

s s s s s s s s s s

Construction

6,860 43.3 56.2 0.5 83.1 12.2 4.7 91.6 7.4 1.0

Manufacturing

16,185 79.8 19.7 0.5 76.7 15.2 8.1 94.8 3.7 1.5

Wholesale and retail trade

18,030 61.3 36.7 2.0 84.9 9.7 5.4 94.2 4.1 1.7

Transportation and utilities

7,357 73.2 26.3 0.5 77.4 16.0 6.7 94.6 4.5 0.9

Information

2,685 80.1 19.9 z 70.8 12.8 16.4 94.8 4.9 0.4

Financial activities

10,370 78.8 20.0 1.1 75.9 12.8 11.3 93.2 4.9 1.9

Professional and business services

16,778 70.0 29.0 1.1 75.8 13.5 10.6 93.7 4.1 2.3

Education and health services

37,294 69.5 29.6 0.9 74.7 14.8 10.5 92.4 5.4 2.2

Leisure and hospitality

13,450 33.4 64.0 2.6 85.0 10.2 4.8 89.1 6.8 4.0

Other services

5,475 44.8 54.6 0.7 84.2 9.4 6.4 91.3 5.7 3.0

Public administration

7,552 88.0 11.3 0.6 75.1 15.6 9.2 96.8 2.5 0.7

Class of worker

Private sector

118,872 63.1 35.7 1.2 79.1 12.8 8.0 92.8 5.2 2.0

Private, for profit

107,072 62.6 36.1 1.3 79.5 12.6 7.9 92.8 5.2 2.0

Private, not for profit

11,800 68.2 31.4 0.4 76.1 14.7 9.2 92.8 5.2 2.0

Public sector

25,423 79.2 20.2 0.6 74.3 14.9 10.8 94.1 3.7 2.2

Federal government

4,595 91.3 8.7 z 81.0 10.8 8.2 98.7 0.4 0.9

State government

8,807 74.6 24.5 0.9 72.4 16.2 11.4 91.8 4.4 3.7

Local government

12,022 78.0 21.4 0.6 73.2 15.6 11.2 94.1 4.4 1.5

Full- and part-time status (single jobholders only)(5)

Full-time workers

106,369 77.0 22.2 0.8 76.6 13.7 9.7 94.2 4.0 1.8

Part-time workers

25,882 23.3 74.1 2.5 84.3 11.0 4.6 88.4 8.4 3.2

Usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary
workers (single jobholders only)

Earnings less than or equal to the 25th percentile

25,200 56.5 42.1 1.3 80.0 13.7 6.3 90.6 6.3 3.0

Earnings from 25th to 50th percentiles

26,521 80.0 19.2 0.8 76.5 14.9 8.5 95.1 3.7 1.2

Earnings from 50th to 75th percentiles

27,193 83.9 15.5 0.6 75.9 12.6 11.5 94.7 3.2 2.0

Earnings greater than the 75th percentile

27,454 86.0 13.5 0.6 74.2 13.6 12.2 96.0 2.9 1.2

Work schedule flexibility(6)

Had flexible schedule

81,533 65.5 33.4 1.1 80.6 11.2 8.3 94.1 4.1 1.8

Did not have flexible schedule

62,762 66.6 32.3 1.1 75.3 15.8 8.9 91.7 5.9 2.3

Workplace flexibility(7)

Could work at home

41,571 80.9 18.4 0.7 76.4 11.4 12.2 95.4 2.8 1.7

Could not work at home

102,338 60.0 38.9 1.1 79.2 13.9 6.9 92.2 5.8 2.0

(1) The subcategories do not sum to 100 percent because a small number of workers did not provide this information.
(2) Some workers have access to both paid and unpaid leave.
(3) Estimates for race groups (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to the total because data are not presented for all races.
(4) Persons of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity may be of any race.
(5) Full-time workers usually work 35 hours or more per week. Part-time workers usually work less than 35 hours per week.
(6) Workers with flexible schedules were able to vary or change the times they began and stopped working.
(7) The subcategories do not sum to the total because a small number of workers did not provide this information.
s - Estimate is suppressed because it does not meet the American Time Use Survey publication standards.
z - Estimate is approximately zero.

Note: Data refer to wage and salary workers at their main jobs. All self-employed workers (including workers with incorporated businesses and those with unincorporated businesses) are excluded. Unless otherwise specified, data refer to workers 15 years and over.


Table 3. Workers with access to paid or unpaid leave and their ability to use leave by reason, averages for the period 2017-2018
Leave types and reasons Percent of workers with access to leave
Yes, could use leave No, could not use leave It depends Did not know
Total Men Women Total Men Women Total Men Women Total Men Women

Workers with access to paid leave

Ability to use paid leave by reason:

Own illness or medical care

93.7 92.2 95.3 5.5 6.9 3.9 - - - 0.8 0.9 0.7

Illness or medical care of another family member

78.0 75.8 80.3 16.2 18.1 14.0 - - - 5.9 6.1 5.7

Childcare, other than for illness(1)

64.7 66.5 62.5 31.1 29.9 32.5 - - - 4.2 3.6 5.0

Eldercare(2)

64.0 63.8 64.2 28.0 29.9 26.3 - - - 8.0 6.3 9.5

Vacation

94.7 96.0 93.2 4.9 3.6 6.3 - - - 0.4 0.4 0.5

Errands or personal reasons

70.4 71.2 69.4 27.6 27.2 28.1 - - - 2.0 1.6 2.6

Birth or adoption of a child

75.8 74.6 77.1 14.9 16.8 12.8 - - - 9.3 8.7 10.1

Workers with access to unpaid leave

Ability to use unpaid leave by reason:

Own illness or medical care

92.8 92.1 93.5 2.9 3.5 2.3 2.1 1.9 2.3 2.3 2.6 1.9

Illness or medical care of another family member

85.9 85.3 86.5 5.7 5.9 5.4 3.3 3.6 3.0 5.1 5.2 5.1

Childcare, other than for illness(1)

73.8 74.4 73.3 14.8 14.8 14.8 4.5 4.4 4.6 6.8 6.4 7.2

Eldercare(2)

75.7 79.7 72.7 12.4 10.9 13.6 3.8 2.7 4.7 8.0 6.7 9.1

Vacation

72.5 72.9 72.1 18.8 18.1 19.6 3.5 3.7 3.4 5.1 5.3 4.9

Errands or personal reasons

68.1 71.1 65.0 22.3 20.2 24.6 4.9 5.2 4.6 4.6 3.5 5.8

Birth or adoption of a child

80.3 80.0 80.6 8.6 9.6 7.6 2.2 2.2 2.2 8.9 8.3 9.7

(1) Results are for workers who were parents of household children under age 18.
(2) Results are for workers who, in the previous 3 to 4 months, provided care to someone age 65 or older with a condition related to aging.
- Data not collected.

Note: Data refer to wage and salary workers, 15 years and over, at their main jobs. All self-employed workers (including workers with incorporated businesses and those with unincorporated businesses) are excluded.


Table 4. Workers who took leave from their jobs during an average week, hours of leave taken, and main reason for taking leave, by selected characteristics, averages for the period 2017-2018
Characteristic Total
workers
(in thou-
sands)
Workers who took paid or unpaid leave during an average week for any reason
Total
(in thou-
sands)
Percent Average
hours of
leave
taken
Percent distribution by main reason for taking leave
Total Own
illness or
medical
care
Illness or
medical
care of a
family
member
Childcare
or
eldercare
(other
than for
illness)
Vaca-
tion
Errands
or
personal
reasons
Birth or
adoption
of a child
Holiday Weather Other

Age

Total, 15 years and over

144,295 29,937 20.7 13.67 100.0 21.9 8.0 3.1 31.0 19.8 1.4 6.9 1.8 6.2

15 to 24 years

21,296 3,476 16.3 11.86 100.0 22.3 11.1 1.9 23.9 21.5 z 5.2 0.6 13.4

25 to 34 years

33,682 7,138 21.2 13.88 100.0 17.9 7.7 2.4 32.6 20.5 4.1 7.2 1.9 5.7

35 to 44 years

30,159 6,731 22.3 12.79 100.0 23.4 11.4 6.6 28.2 14.8 1.4 7.1 2.2 4.9

45 to 54 years

29,484 6,411 21.7 13.10 100.0 24.3 4.0 1.9 30.5 24.4 0.4 6.9 1.6 6.1

55 to 64 years

22,514 4,984 22.1 16.31 100.0 21.1 7.9 2.2 38.0 17.0 z 7.1 2.7 4.0

65 years and over

7,160 1,197 16.7 14.68 100.0 26.4 3.7 1.8 31.0 25.0 0.4 7.0 z 4.7

Sex

Men

74,830 14,337 19.2 13.54 100.0 22.2 5.5 2.6 32.4 21.0 0.3 7.5 1.9 6.5

Women

69,465 15,600 22.5 13.79 100.0 21.6 10.3 3.6 29.6 18.6 2.4 6.3 1.7 5.9

Race(1)

White

115,129 24,799 21.5 13.41 100.0 21.5 8.1 3.3 30.5 19.9 1.4 7.3 1.8 6.2

Black or African American

17,924 3,087 17.2 15.45 100.0 26.4 6.2 1.3 30.2 23.3 0.5 5.0 2.7 4.3

Asian

7,849 1,230 15.7 14.38 100.0 18.3 3.6 4.8 44.2 14.4 3.6 4.9 1.8 4.6

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity(2)

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

24,375 3,860 15.8 12.86 100.0 30.1 9.6 3.4 23.1 25.5 0.2 1.4 1.6 5.1

Non-Hispanic or Latino

119,920 26,077 21.7 13.79 100.0 20.7 7.8 3.1 32.1 18.9 1.5 7.7 1.8 6.3

Educational attainment (25 years and over)

Less than a high school diploma

6,743 1,115 16.5 13.40 100.0 40.4 8.6 0.4 22.9 20.7 z 1.2 5.8 z

High school graduates, no college

31,425 6,067 19.3 14.87 100.0 20.2 8.1 1.4 35.5 18.7 1.1 5.3 3.6 6.1

Some college or associate degree

29,407 6,216 21.1 13.97 100.0 29.4 6.3 3.7 24.8 20.9 1.1 8.4 1.9 3.6

Bachelor's degree and higher

55,424 13,063 23.6 13.47 100.0 17.4 7.9 4.2 34.4 19.2 2.1 7.8 0.9 6.1

Parent of a household child

Parent of a household child under 18 years

47,693 10,463 21.9 13.14 100.0 18.1 13.3 6.8 27.2 17.3 3.8 6.1 1.9 5.5

Parent of a child 13 to 17 years (none younger)

10,003 2,215 22.1 11.17 100.0 23.4 9.1 2.6 24.0 19.4 z 9.2 0.4 12.0

Parent of a child under 13 years

37,690 8,248 21.9 13.67 100.0 16.7 14.4 8.0 28.0 16.8 4.8 5.2 2.3 3.8

Not a parent of a household child under 18 years

96,602 19,474 20.2 13.96 100.0 23.9 5.2 1.1 33.0 21.1 0.1 7.3 1.8 6.5

Occupation

Management, business, and financial operations

22,754 5,404 23.7 12.66 100.0 16.5 7.8 5.3 36.5 19.4 0.8 10.5 0.4 2.7

Professional and related

40,284 8,653 21.5 14.25 100.0 24.6 6.9 2.2 30.7 17.9 2.8 7.1 1.4 6.2

Services

23,548 4,111 17.5 14.62 100.0 25.3 10.1 0.9 30.9 15.4 0.9 4.3 0.6 11.7

Sales and related

11,290 2,149 19.0 15.02 100.0 14.9 5.8 2.1 35.0 28.8 0.2 10.1 1.1 2.0

Office and administrative support

18,967 4,536 23.9 12.32 100.0 18.8 10.5 5.5 29.0 22.2 1.6 4.5 2.6 5.2

Farming, fishing, and forestry

s s s s s s s s s s s s s s

Construction and extraction

5,853 1,069 18.3 s s s s s s s s s s s

Installation, maintenance, and repair

4,053 739 18.2 s s s s s s s s s s s

Production

8,560 1,621 18.9 13.04 100.0 24.3 6.5 1.7 25.4 13.7 0.5 8.9 5.6 13.4

Transportation and material moving

7,859 1,519 19.3 15.52 100.0 31.0 9.2 3.0 26.1 23.6 z 1.6 z 5.4

Industry

Agriculture, forestry, fishing, and hunting

1,634 345 21.1 s s s s s s s s s s s

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

s s s s s s s s s s s s s s

Construction

6,860 1,281 18.7 11.06 100.0 21.9 2.9 1.2 24.6 30.1 z 11.5 7.1 0.7

Manufacturing

16,185 3,560 22.0 13.34 100.0 21.3 3.1 2.0 32.4 20.2 0.5 10.8 3.4 6.4

Wholesale and retail trade

18,030 3,315 18.4 15.64 100.0 22.0 7.0 1.4 33.8 19.9 0.2 11.0 3.0 1.7

Transportation and utilities

7,357 1,693 23.0 16.72 100.0 29.6 7.4 1.4 28.7 20.2 2.1 3.7 0.5 6.4

Information

2,685 822 30.6 s s s s s s s s s s s

Financial activities

10,370 2,397 23.1 14.16 100.0 18.5 2.6 3.9 40.6 24.9 1.8 4.9 z 2.9

Professional and business services

16,778 3,400 20.3 11.96 100.0 23.9 6.8 4.9 30.1 19.1 1.3 8.5 1.5 3.9

Education and health services

37,294 6,999 18.8 14.23 100.0 22.0 11.1 4.9 28.8 15.5 2.8 4.1 1.5 9.3

Leisure and hospitality

13,450 2,316 17.2 12.54 100.0 14.3 18.3 1.0 30.3 20.5 1.3 3.9 z 10.4

Other services

5,475 977 17.8 s s s s s s s s s s s

Public administration

7,552 2,688 35.6 13.70 100.0 23.3 7.3 1.5 28.8 21.8 1.2 6.3 1.5 8.4

Class of worker

Private sector

118,872 23,662 19.9 13.71 100.0 21.1 7.8 3.1 32.1 19.7 1.4 7.2 2.0 5.6

Private, for profit

107,072 21,132 19.7 13.87 100.0 20.5 7.8 2.6 33.0 20.4 1.4 7.4 2.1 4.7

Private, not for profit

11,800 2,530 21.4 12.37 100.0 26.2 8.1 6.7 24.5 13.7 1.9 5.2 0.6 13.2

Public sector

25,423 6,275 24.7 13.52 100.0 24.7 8.7 3.3 26.9 19.9 1.2 5.7 1.3 8.3

Federal government

4,595 1,525 33.2 10.54 100.0 32.9 9.1 5.4 19.5 18.1 0.9 6.2 z 7.8

State government

8,807 2,225 25.3 13.56 100.0 25.0 7.2 3.1 25.6 25.6 1.2 6.2 1.8 4.2

Local government

12,022 2,524 21.0 15.29 100.0 19.6 9.7 2.2 32.5 16.0 1.3 4.9 1.7 12.1

Full- and part-time status (single jobholders only)(3)

Full-time workers

106,369 22,606 21.3 14.02 100.0 21.9 7.2 2.7 33.6 18.3 1.4 7.2 2.1 5.7

Part-time workers

25,882 4,433 17.1 11.38 100.0 23.9 13.6 5.0 22.1 24.4 0.8 3.9 1.1 5.2

Usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary
workers (single jobholders only)

Earnings less than or equal to the 25th percentile

25,200 3,860 15.3 14.83 100.0 30.3 9.4 3.7 22.9 17.4 2.2 3.6 5.0 5.4

Earnings from 25th to 50th percentiles

26,521 6,221 23.5 13.21 100.0 23.7 8.4 2.7 29.8 17.9 1.1 6.4 2.3 7.7

Earnings from 50th to 75th percentiles

27,193 6,313 23.2 13.91 100.0 18.5 6.5 2.2 40.3 18.2 0.9 7.2 1.4 4.9

Earnings greater than the 75th percentile

27,454 6,213 22.6 14.45 100.0 18.4 5.3 2.5 37.1 19.4 1.6 10.2 0.7 4.7

Work schedule flexibility(4)

Had flexible schedule

81,533 17,494 21.5 13.54 100.0 20.3 9.0 3.9 31.7 19.1 1.0 7.6 1.1 6.2

Did not have flexible schedule

62,762 12,443 19.8 13.85 100.0 24.1 6.6 2.0 29.9 20.7 1.9 5.8 2.9 6.1

Workplace flexibility(5)

Could work at home

41,571 9,540 22.9 12.83 100.0 17.9 8.4 4.1 32.1 22.0 1.1 9.6 0.8 4.1

Could not work at home

102,338 20,309 19.8 14.10 100.0 23.7 7.9 2.7 30.5 18.7 1.5 5.5 2.3 7.2

(1) Estimates for race groups (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to the total because data are not presented for all races.
(2) Persons of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity may be of any race.
(3) Full-time workers usually work 35 hours or more per week. Part-time workers usually work less than 35 hours per week.
(4) Workers with flexible schedules were able to vary or change the times they began and stopped working.
(5) The subcategories do not sum to the totals because a small number of workers did not provide this information.
s - Estimate is suppressed because it does not meet the American Time Use Survey publication standards.
z - Estimate is approximately zero.

Note: Data refer to wage and salary workers at their main jobs. All self-employed workers (including workers with incorporated businesses and those with unincorporated businesses) are excluded. Unless otherwise specified, data refer to workers 15 years and over.


Table 5. Workers who took leave from their jobs during an average week by type of leave used and selected characteristics, averages for the period 2017-2018
Characteristic Total workers
(in thousands)
Workers who took paid or unpaid leave during an average week for any reason
Total (in
thousands)
Percent Percent distribution by type of leave used
Total Paid leave only Unpaid leave
only
Paid and unpaid
leave

Age

Total, 15 years and over

144,295 29,937 20.7 100.0 64.5 33.0 2.4

15 to 24 years

21,296 3,476 16.3 100.0 22.2 75.7 2.0

25 to 34 years

33,682 7,138 21.2 100.0 66.1 30.8 3.1

35 to 44 years

30,159 6,731 22.3 100.0 67.8 28.4 3.8

45 to 54 years

29,484 6,411 21.7 100.0 79.1 19.7 1.2

55 to 64 years

22,514 4,984 22.1 100.0 71.4 26.5 2.1

65 years and over

7,160 1,197 16.7 100.0 51.9 47.7 0.4

Sex

Men

74,830 14,337 19.2 100.0 67.4 30.3 2.3

Women

69,465 15,600 22.5 100.0 61.9 35.6 2.6

Race(1)

White

115,129 24,799 21.5 100.0 64.1 33.4 2.5

Black or African American

17,924 3,087 17.2 100.0 64.6 32.2 3.3

Asian

7,849 1,230 15.7 100.0 74.7 24.3 1.0

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity(2)

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

24,375 3,860 15.8 100.0 51.6 47.1 1.3

Non-Hispanic or Latino

119,920 26,077 21.7 100.0 66.4 31.0 2.6

Educational attainment (25 years and over)

Less than a high school diploma

6,743 1,115 16.5 100.0 33.5 65.1 1.4

High school graduates, no college

31,425 6,067 19.3 100.0 60.7 34.8 4.5

Some college or associate degree

29,407 6,216 21.1 100.0 66.9 30.2 2.9

Bachelor's degree and higher

55,424 13,063 23.6 100.0 79.0 19.5 1.5

Parent of a household child

Parent of a household child under 18 years

47,693 10,463 21.9 100.0 67.5 29.2 3.2

Parent of a child 13 to 17 years (none younger)

10,003 2,215 22.1 100.0 70.8 28.9 0.3

Parent of a child under 13 years

37,690 8,248 21.9 100.0 66.7 29.3 4.0

Not a parent of a household child under 18 years

96,602 19,474 20.2 100.0 62.9 35.1 2.0

Occupation

Management, business, and financial operations

22,754 5,404 23.7 100.0 81.1 18.0 0.9

Professional and related

40,284 8,653 21.5 100.0 74.5 22.5 3.0

Services

23,548 4,111 17.5 100.0 36.7 62.0 1.3

Sales and related

11,290 2,149 19.0 100.0 50.2 48.7 1.2

Office and administrative support

18,967 4,536 23.9 100.0 67.3 29.1 3.6

Farming, fishing, and forestry

s s s s s s s

Construction and extraction

5,853 1,069 18.3 s s s s

Installation, maintenance, and repair

4,053 739 18.2 s s s s

Production

8,560 1,621 18.9 100.0 70.2 24.0 5.8

Transportation and material moving

7,859 1,519 19.3 100.0 45.0 49.6 5.5

Industry

Agriculture, forestry, fishing, and hunting

1,634 345 21.1 s s s s

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

s s s s s s s

Construction

6,860 1,281 18.7 100.0 40.9 57.2 1.9

Manufacturing

16,185 3,560 22.0 100.0 72.5 23.5 4.0

Wholesale and retail trade

18,030 3,315 18.4 100.0 57.0 40.8 2.2

Transportation and utilities

7,357 1,693 23.0 100.0 63.8 33.0 3.3

Information

2,685 822 30.6 s s s s

Financial activities

10,370 2,397 23.1 100.0 83.7 14.5 1.9

Professional and business services

16,778 3,400 20.3 100.0 58.4 38.6 2.9

Education and health services

37,294 6,999 18.8 100.0 73.2 23.8 3.0

Leisure and hospitality

13,450 2,316 17.2 100.0 16.5 80.4 3.1

Other services

5,475 977 17.8 s s s s

Public administration

7,552 2,688 35.6 100.0 90.9 9.1 z

Class of worker

Private sector

118,872 23,662 19.9 100.0 59.2 38.1 2.7

Private, for profit

107,072 21,132 19.7 100.0 57.6 39.7 2.7

Private, not for profit

11,800 2,530 21.4 100.0 72.6 24.4 2.9

Public sector

25,423 6,275 24.7 100.0 84.5 14.2 1.4

Federal government

4,595 1,525 33.2 100.0 84.2 14.1 1.6

State government

8,807 2,225 25.3 100.0 88.7 10.7 0.7

Local government

12,022 2,524 21.0 100.0 80.9 17.3 1.8

Full- and part-time status (single jobholders only)(3)

Full-time workers

106,369 22,606 21.3 100.0 75.0 22.3 2.8

Part-time workers

25,882 4,433 17.1 100.0 17.3 81.8 0.9

Usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers
(single jobholders only)

Earnings less than or equal to the 25th percentile

25,200 3,860 15.3 100.0 42.4 55.1 2.5

Earnings from 25th to 50th percentiles

26,521 6,221 23.5 100.0 78.1 19.2 2.7

Earnings from 50th to 75th percentiles

27,193 6,313 23.2 100.0 80.4 15.7 3.9

Earnings greater than the 75th percentile

27,454 6,213 22.6 100.0 86.5 11.6 1.9

Work schedule flexibility(4)

Had flexible schedule

81,533 17,494 21.5 100.0 65.2 33.2 1.6

Did not have flexible schedule

62,762 12,443 19.8 100.0 63.5 32.8 3.7

Workplace flexibility(5)

Could work at home

41,571 9,540 22.9 100.0 79.6 18.5 1.9

Could not work at home

102,338 20,309 19.8 100.0 57.4 39.9 2.7

(1) Estimates for race groups (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to the totals because data are not presented for all races.
(2) Persons of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity may be of any race.
(3) Full-time workers usually work 35 hours or more per week. Part-time workers usually work less than 35 hours per week.
(4) Workers with flexible schedules were able to vary or change the times they began and stopped working.
(5) The subcategories do not sum to the totals because a small number of workers did not provide this information.
s - Estimate is suppressed because it does not meet the American Time Use Survey publication standards.
z - Estimate is approximately zero.

Note: Data refer to wage and salary workers at their main jobs. All self-employed workers (including workers with incorporated businesses and those with unincorporated businesses) are excluded. Unless otherwise specified, data refer to workers 15 years and over.


Table 6. Workers who took leave from their jobs during an average week, hours of leave taken, and type of leave used, by main reason for taking leave, averages for the period 2017-2018
Main reason for taking leave Workers who took paid or unpaid leave during an average week
Total (in
thousands)
Percent Average hours
of leave taken
Percent distribution by type of leave used
Total Paid leave
only
Unpaid leave
only
Paid and unpaid
leave

Total

29,937 20.7 13.67 100.0 64.5 33.0 2.4

Own illness or medical care

6,553 4.5 11.59 100.0 60.5 37.1 2.4

Illness or medical care of another family member

2,397 1.7 10.31 100.0 52.0 41.9 6.1

Childcare or eldercare (other than for illness)

937 0.6 9.38 100.0 56.3 40.3 3.4

Vacation

9,274 6.4 19.06 100.0 76.0 22.2 1.8

Errands or personal reasons

5,917 4.1 9.50 100.0 60.2 37.5 2.2

Birth or adoption of a child

411 0.3 s s s s s

Holiday

2,054 1.4 10.67 100.0 71.3 27.2 1.4

Weather

545 0.4 s s s s s

Other

1,850 1.3 12.61 100.0 57.4 40.6 2.0

s - Estimate is suppressed because it does not meet the American Time Use Survey publication standards.

Note: Data refer to wage and salary workers, 15 years and over, at their main jobs. All self-employed workers (including workers with incorporated businesses and those with unincorporated businesses) are excluded.


Table 7. Workers who needed to take leave from their jobs but did not take it: reasons for needing to take leave by selected characteristics, averages for the period 2017-2018
Characteristic Total
workers (in
thou-
sands)
Workers who needed to take leave during an average month but did not
Total (in
thou-
sands)
Percent Percent distribution by reasons for needing to take leave(1)
Own
illness or
medical
care
Illness or
medical
care of a
family
member
Childcare or
eldercare
(other than
for illness)
Vacation Errands
or
personal
reasons
Other

Age

Total, 15 years and over

144,295 12,485 8.7 35.8 17.4 9.5 3.7 31.8 3.7

15 to 24 years

21,296 2,164 10.2 s s s s s s

25 to 34 years

33,682 2,768 8.2 36.1 19.7 9.0 1.5 32.8 2.4

35 to 44 years

30,159 3,022 10.0 34.0 21.2 16.0 6.7 21.3 2.6

45 to 54 years

29,484 2,507 8.5 39.7 15.3 10.4 2.4 34.0 2.5

55 to 64 years

22,514 1,682 7.5 38.0 17.1 6.7 0.5 36.5 1.1

65 years and over

7,160 342 4.8 s s s s s s

Sex

Men

74,830 5,304 7.1 28.0 14.1 8.6 3.3 40.1 7.1

Women

69,465 7,181 10.3 41.6 19.8 10.1 4.0 25.7 1.2

Race(2)

White

115,129 8,954 7.8 35.0 18.5 10.2 3.4 29.9 4.3

Black or African American

17,924 2,549 14.2 36.4 18.5 7.3 5.1 34.7 1.9

Asian

7,849 419 5.3 s s s s s s

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity(3)

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

24,375 2,038 8.4 37.7 19.2 11.6 1.9 30.1 0.3

Non-Hispanic or Latino

119,920 10,447 8.7 35.4 17.1 9.0 4.1 32.2 4.4

Educational attainment (25 years and over)

Less than a high school diploma

6,743 706 10.5 s s s s s s

High school graduates, no college

31,425 2,831 9.0 38.1 22.5 8.3 1.7 26.8 3.5

Some college or associate degree

29,407 2,635 9.0 35.2 19.0 13.1 4.4 28.2 1.2

Bachelor's degree and higher

55,424 4,149 7.5 33.3 16.4 12.7 4.2 34.6 2.3

Parent of a household child

Parent of a household child under 18 years

47,693 5,112 10.7 31.3 23.8 17.3 3.1 25.3 2.6

Parent of a child 13 to 17 years (none younger)

10,003 866 8.7 32.8 18.9 10.7 6.5 25.7 5.4

Parent of a child under 13 years

37,690 4,247 11.3 31.0 24.8 18.7 2.4 25.2 2.0

Not a parent of a household child under 18 years

96,602 7,373 7.6 38.9 13.0 4.0 4.1 36.3 4.4

Class of worker

Private sector

118,872 10,251 8.6 35.1 16.8 9.5 4.2 31.9 4.4

Private, for profit

107,072 9,046 8.4 35.3 17.6 10.5 4.2 29.3 4.9

Private, not for profit

11,800 1,205 10.2 s s s s s s

Public sector

25,423 2,234 8.8 39.0 20.3 9.4 1.4 31.2 0.5

Full- and part-time status (single jobholders only)(4)

Full-time workers

106,369 9,114 8.6 35.0 18.5 9.6 3.3 31.6 3.7

Part-time workers

25,882 2,193 8.5 39.2 12.2 6.7 5.5 38.1 0.1

Usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary
workers (single jobholders only)

Earnings less than or equal to the 25th percentile

25,200 2,791 11.1 43.3 17.4 6.5 3.1 21.1 9.4

Earnings from 25th to 50th percentiles

26,521 2,121 8.0 29.9 26.8 8.7 1.7 34.0 0.3

Earnings from 50th to 75th percentiles

27,193 2,256 8.3 32.1 18.2 9.1 4.2 37.6 1.1

Earnings greater than the 75th percentile

27,454 1,946 7.1 31.7 11.5 15.3 4.5 36.9 2.0

Work schedule flexibility(5)

Had flexible schedule

81,533 5,682 7.0 36.9 17.2 10.3 3.4 32.8 1.9

Did not have flexible schedule

62,762 6,803 10.8 34.9 17.6 8.7 4.0 31.0 5.2

Work place flexibility(6)

Could work at home

41,571 2,863 6.9 32.9 18.1 13.0 5.2 31.4 1.4

Could not work at home

102,338 9,595 9.4 36.7 17.2 8.4 3.3 31.8 4.4

(1) Estimates for reasons may sum to more than 100 percent because some people had multiple reasons for needing to take leave.
(2) Estimates for race groups (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to the totals because data are not presented for all races.
(3) Persons of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity may be of any race.
(4) Full-time workers usually work 35 hours or more per week. Part-time workers usually work less than 35 hours per week.
(5) Workers with flexible schedules were able to vary or change the times they began and stopped working.
(6) The subcategories do not sum to the totals because a small number of workers did not provide this information.
s - Estimate is suppressed because it does not meet the American Time Use Survey publication standards.

Note: Data refer to wage and salary workers at their main jobs. All self-employed workers (including workers with incorporated businesses and those with unincorporated businesses) are excluded. Unless otherwise specified, data refer to workers 15 years and over.


Table 8. Workers who needed to take leave from their jobs but did not take it: reasons for not taking leave by selected characteristics, averages for the period 2017-2018
Characteristic Total
workers
(in thou-
sands)
Workers who needed to take leave during an average month but did not
Total
(in thou-
sands)
Per-
cent
Percent distribution by reasons for not taking leave(1)
Too
much
work
No one
avail-
able to
cover
shift
Made
alternate
arrange-
ments
Wanted
to save
leave
Did not
have
enough
leave
Could not
afford loss
in income
Feared
negative
employ-
ment conse-
quence or
leave denied
Did not
have
access to
paid or
unpaid
leave
Other

Age

Total, 15 years and over

144,295 12,485 8.7 22.9 6.7 6.0 4.8 6.5 15.2 20.7 8.9 9.3

15 to 24 years

21,296 2,164 10.2 s s s s s s s s s

25 to 34 years

33,682 2,768 8.2 23.2 5.9 4.7 4.1 3.8 16.5 24.4 10.3 7.7

35 to 44 years

30,159 3,022 10.0 33.3 7.9 6.5 7.3 8.9 8.6 13.8 6.8 7.8

45 to 54 years

29,484 2,507 8.5 25.3 7.6 7.5 3.0 3.5 15.8 21.1 8.4 9.6

55 to 64 years

22,514 1,682 7.5 19.6 10.1 9.0 1.7 0.3 12.7 27.9 7.0 12.6

65 years and over

7,160 342 4.8 s s s s s s s s s

Sex

Men

74,830 5,304 7.1 23.7 4.4 6.9 4.2 4.4 18.9 20.4 9.3 8.8

Women

69,465 7,181 10.3 22.4 8.3 5.3 5.2 8.0 12.5 20.9 8.5 9.7

Race(2)

White

115,129 8,954 7.8 22.8 6.4 5.9 4.1 6.8 15.7 23.7 7.0 8.4

Black or African American

17,924 2,549 14.2 20.3 6.4 7.1 7.7 2.1 15.1 12.5 17.1 13.0

Asian

7,849 419 5.3 s s s s s s s s s

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity(3)

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

24,375 2,038 8.4 12.8 4.5 8.6 5.4 16.5 14.5 27.3 9.2 2.8

Non-Hispanic or Latino

119,920 10,447 8.7 24.9 7.1 5.5 4.6 4.5 15.3 19.4 8.8 10.6

Educational attainment (25 years and over)

Less than a high school diploma

6,743 706 10.5 s s s s s s s s s

High school graduates, no college

31,425 2,831 9.0 19.7 4.7 9.0 7.0 1.7 20.4 19.3 10.2 9.2

Some college or associate degree

29,407 2,635 9.0 20.1 10.9 6.0 2.3 3.3 13.2 29.2 7.0 8.6

Bachelor's degree and higher

55,424 4,149 7.5 34.6 8.4 5.7 4.2 7.8 6.0 16.8 6.9 10.8

Parent of a household child

Parent of a household child under 18 years

47,693 5,112 10.7 25.8 7.4 6.7 7.9 6.9 14.3 14.5 7.8 9.4

Parent of a child 13 to 17 years (none younger)

10,003 866 8.7 37.2 11.2 1.7 2.0 1.8 14.0 17.2 5.3 11.7

Parent of a child under 13 years

37,690 4,247 11.3 23.5 6.6 7.7 9.1 7.9 14.3 13.9 8.4 8.9

Not a parent of a household child under 18 years

96,602 7,373 7.6 20.9 6.1 5.5 2.6 6.2 15.8 25.0 9.6 9.2

Class of worker

Private sector

118,872 10,251 8.6 23.2 6.0 5.2 4.3 6.9 16.5 20.0 9.8 9.0

Private, for profit

107,072 9,046 8.4 24.4 5.9 5.5 4.6 5.8 17.3 18.6 10.1 8.8

Private, not for profit

11,800 1,205 10.2 s s s s s s s s s

Public sector

25,423 2,234 8.8 21.7 9.5 9.8 7.0 4.5 9.1 23.9 4.6 10.7

Full- and part-time status (single jobholders only)(4)

Full-time workers

106,369 9,114 8.6 27.8 7.0 5.8 4.7 7.3 12.7 19.2 8.2 8.3

Part-time workers

25,882 2,193 8.5 6.0 3.5 6.1 5.7 3.1 23.1 29.6 10.0 12.8

Usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary
workers (single jobholders only)

Earnings less than or equal to the 25th percentile

25,200 2,791 11.1 16.5 7.7 5.7 2.3 8.6 25.1 19.9 9.2 6.1

Earnings from 25th to 50th percentiles

26,521 2,121 8.0 18.7 6.9 6.9 7.4 12.4 7.3 25.3 5.2 11.2

Earnings from 50th to 75th percentiles

27,193 2,256 8.3 34.5 9.3 6.9 1.7 5.2 10.5 18.2 7.8 7.1

Earnings greater than the 75th percentile

27,454 1,946 7.1 46.3 3.5 3.6 8.7 2.2 3.4 12.7 10.5 9.5

Work schedule flexibility(5)

Had flexible schedule

81,533 5,682 7.0 31.9 3.1 6.5 6.7 7.3 12.8 13.1 9.9 9.1

Did not have flexible schedule

62,762 6,803 10.8 15.4 9.7 5.6 3.1 5.8 17.2 27.0 8.0 9.5

Work place flexibility(6)

Could work at home

41,571 2,863 6.9 47.2 3.0 2.8 4.1 4.9 6.6 10.0 8.4 13.5

Could not work at home

102,338 9,595 9.4 15.7 7.7 7.0 5.0 6.9 17.7 23.9 8.9 8.1

(1) Estimates for reasons may sum to more than 100 percent because some people had multiple reasons for not taking leave.
(2) Estimates for race groups (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to the totals because data are not presented for all races.
(3) Persons of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity may be of any race.
(4) Full-time workers usually work 35 hours or more per week. Part-time workers usually work less than 35 hours per week.
(5) Workers with flexible schedules were able to vary or change the times they began and stopped working.
(6) The subcategories do not sum to the totals because a small number of workers did not provide this information.
s - Estimate is suppressed because it does not meet the American Time Use Survey publication standards.

Note: Data refer to wage and salary workers at their main jobs. All self-employed workers (including workers with incorporated businesses and those with unincorporated businesses) are excluded. Unless otherwise specified, data refer to workers 15 years and over.


Last Modified Date: August 29, 2019