Metropolitan Area Employment and Unemployment (Monthly) News Release

For release 10:00 a.m. (EST) Thursday, January 3, 2019			     USDL-19-0001

Technical information:
 Employment:	(202) 691-6559  *  sminfo@bls.gov   *  www.bls.gov/sae
 Unemployment:	(202) 691-6392  *  lausinfo@bls.gov *  www.bls.gov/lau

Media contact:	(202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov


         METROPOLITAN AREA EMPLOYMENT AND UNEMPLOYMENT -- NOVEMBER 2018


Unemployment rates were lower in November than a year earlier in 290 of the 388
metropolitan areas, higher in 69 areas, and unchanged in 29 areas, the U.S. Bureau
of Labor Statistics reported today. A total of 104 areas had jobless rates of less
than 3.0 percent and 2 areas had rates of at least 10.0 percent. Nonfarm payroll
employment increased over the year in 54 metropolitan areas and was essentially
unchanged in 334 areas. The national unemployment rate in November was 3.5 percent,
not seasonally adjusted, down from 3.9 percent a year earlier.

Metropolitan Area Unemployment (Not Seasonally Adjusted)

In November, Ames, IA, had the lowest unemployment rate, 1.2 percent. El Centro, CA,
and Yuma, AZ, had the highest unemployment rates, 18.1 percent and 14.9 percent,
respectively. A total of 198 areas had November unemployment rates below the U.S.
rate of 3.5 percent, 176 areas had rates above it, and 14 areas had rates equal to
that of the nation. (See table 1.)

The largest over-the-year unemployment rate decrease occurred in Ocean City, NJ (-3.4
percentage points). Fifty-five additional areas had rate decreases of at least 1.0
percentage point. Kokomo, IN, had the largest over-the-year rate increase in November
(+5.1 percentage points).

Of the 51 metropolitan areas with a 2010 Census population of 1 million or more,
Minneapolis-St. Paul-Bloomington, MN-WI, had the lowest unemployment rate in November,
2.0 percent. Cleveland-Elyria, OH, and Las Vegas-Henderson-Paradise, NV, had the highest
jobless rates among the large areas, 4.4 percent each. Thirty-nine large areas had over-
the-year unemployment rate decreases, eight had increases, and four had no change. The
largest rate decreases occurred in Buffalo-Cheektowaga-Niagara Falls, NY (-1.6 percentage
points), and Rochester, NY (-1.5 points). The largest over-the-year rate increase was
in Denver-Aurora-Lakewood, CO (+0.5 percentage point).

Metropolitan Division Unemployment (Not Seasonally Adjusted)

Eleven of the most populous metropolitan areas are made up of 38 metropolitan divisions,
which are essentially separately identifiable employment centers. In November, Framingham,
MA, and San Francisco-Redwood City-South San Francisco, CA, had the lowest rates among
the divisions, 2.1 percent each. Tacoma-Lakewood, WA, had the highest division rate,
4.9 percent. (See table 2.)

In November, 33 metropolitan divisions had over-the-year unemployment rate decreases,
4 had increases, and 1 had no change. The largest rate declines occurred in Miami-Miami
Beach-Kendall, FL, and Nassau County-Suffolk County, NY (-1.3 percentage points each).
The largest over-the-year rate increase was in Elgin, IL (+0.5 percentage point).

Metropolitan Area Nonfarm Employment (Not Seasonally Adjusted)

In November, 54 metropolitan areas had over-the-year increases in nonfarm payroll
employment and 334 were essentially unchanged. The largest over-the-year employment
increases occurred in Houston-The Woodlands-Sugar Land, TX (+114,400), 
New York-Newark-Jersey City, NY-NJ-PA (+113,000), and Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington, TX
(+94,700). The largest over-the-year percentage gains in employment occurred in Reno,
NV (+5.9 percent), Midland, TX (+5.7 percent), and Colorado Springs, CO (+5.0 percent).
(See table 3.)

Over the year, nonfarm employment rose in 37 of the 51 metropolitan areas with a 2010
Census population of 1 million or more, while employment was essentially unchanged in
14 areas. The largest over-the-year percentage increases in employment in these large
metropolitan areas occurred in Orlando-Kissimmee-Sanford, FL (+4.8 percent), Phoenix-
Mesa-Scottsdale, AZ (+4.2 percent), and Las Vegas-Henderson-Paradise, NV (+3.8 percent).

Metropolitan Division Nonfarm Employment (Not Seasonally Adjusted)

In November, nonfarm payroll employment increased in 16 of the 38 metropolitan divisions
over the year and was essentially unchanged in 22 divisions. The largest over-the-year
increase in employment among the metropolitan divisions occurred in New York-Jersey City-
White Plains, NY-NJ (+87,200), followed by Dallas-Plano-Irving, TX (+73,400), and Seattle-
Bellevue-Everett, WA (+63,000). (See table 4.)

The largest over-the-year percentage increases in employment occurred in Seattle-Bellevue-
Everett, WA (+3.7 percent), West Palm Beach-Boca Raton-Delray Beach, FL (+3.2 percent),
and Tacoma-Lakewood, WA (+2.9 percent).

_____________
The State Employment and Unemployment news release for December 2018 is scheduled
to be released on Friday, January 18, 2019, at 10:00 a.m. (EST). The Metropolitan
Area Employment and Unemployment news release for December 2018 is scheduled to be
released on Wednesday, January 30, 2019, at 10:00 a.m. (EST).




Technical Note
 
   This release presents civilian labor force and unemployment data from the
Local Area Unemployment Statistics (LAUS) program (tables 1 and 2) for 388
metropolitan statistical areas and metropolitan New England City and Town Areas
(NECTAs), plus 7 areas in Puerto Rico. Estimates for 38 metropolitan and NECTA
divisions also are presented. Nonfarm payroll employment estimates from the
Current Employment Statistics (CES) program (tables 3 and 4) are provided for
the same areas. State estimates were previously published in the news release
State Employment and Unemployment, and are republished in this release for
ease of reference. The LAUS and CES programs are both federal-state cooperative
endeavors.

Civilian labor force and unemployment--from the LAUS program

   Definitions. The civilian labor force and unemployment data are based on the
same concepts and definitions as those used for the official national estimates
obtained from the Current Population Survey (CPS), a sample survey of households
that is conducted for the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) by the U.S. Census
Bureau. The LAUS program measures employed persons and unemployed persons on a
place-of-residence basis.  The universe for each is the civilian noninstitutional
population 16 years of age and older. Employed persons are those who did any work
at all for pay or profit in the reference week (typically the week including the
12th of the month) or worked 15 hours or more without pay in a family business or
farm, plus those not working who had a job from which they were temporarily absent,
whether or not paid, for such reasons as labor-management dispute, illness, or
vacation. Unemployed persons are those who were not employed during the reference
week (based on the definition above), had actively looked for a job sometime in the
4-week period ending with the reference week, and were currently available for work;
persons on layoff expecting recall need not be looking for work to be counted as
unemployed. The civilian labor force is the sum of employed and unemployed persons.
The unemployment rate is the number of unemployed as a percent of the civilian labor
force.

   Method of estimation. Estimates for states, the District of Columbia, the Los
Angeles-Long Beach-Glendale metropolitan division, and New York City are produced
using time-series models with real-time benchmarking to national CPS totals. Model-
based estimates are also produced for the following areas and their respective
balances: the Chicago-Naperville-Arlington Heights, IL Metropolitan Division;
Cleveland-Elyria, OH Metropolitan Statistical Area; Detroit-Warren-Dearborn, MI
Metropolitan Statistical Area; Miami-Miami Beach-Kendall, FL Metropolitan Division;
and Seattle-Bellevue-Everett, WA Metropolitan Division. Modeling improves the
statistical basis of the estimation for these areas and provides important tools
for analysis, such as measures of errors and seasonally adjusted series. For all
other substate areas in this release, estimates are prepared through indirect
estimation procedures using a building-block approach.  Estimates of employed
persons, which are based largely on “place of work” estimates from the CES program,
are adjusted to refer to place of residence as used in the CPS. Unemployment
estimates are aggregates of persons previously employed in industries covered by
state unemployment insurance (UI) laws and entrants to the labor force from the
CPS. The substate estimates of employment and unemployment, which geographically
exhaust the entire state, are adjusted proportionally to ensure that they add to
the independently estimated model-based area totals. A detailed description of the
estimation procedures is available from BLS upon request.

   Annual revisions. Civilian labor force and unemployment data shown for the prior
year reflect adjustments made at the beginning of each year, usually implemented with
the issuance of January estimates. The adjusted model-based estimates typically reflect
updated population data from the U.S. Census Bureau, any revisions in other input
data sources, and model re-estimation. All substate estimates then are re-estimated
using updated inputs and adjusted to add to the revised model-based totals.  In early
2015, a new generation of time-series models was implemented, resulting in the
replacement of data back to the series beginnings. At the same time, enhancements were
made to the substate estimation methodology, and more timely inputs from the American
Community Survey were incorporated.

Employment--from the CES program 

   Definitions. Employment data refer to persons on establishment payrolls who receive
pay for any part of the pay period that includes the 12th of the month. Persons are
counted at their place of work rather than at their place of residence; those appearing
on more than one payroll are counted on each payroll. Industries are classified on the
basis of their principal activity in accordance with the 2017 version of the North
American Industry Classification System.

   Method of estimation. CES State and Area employment data are produced using several
estimation procedures. Where possible these data are produced using a "weighted link
relative" estimation technique in which a ratio of current-month weighted employment
to that of the previous-month weighted employment is computed from a sample of
establishments reporting for both months. The estimates of employment for the current
month are then obtained by multiplying these ratios by the previous month's employment
estimates. The weighted link relative technique is utilized for data series where the
sample size meets certain statistical criteria.

   For some employment series, the sample of establishments is very small or highly
variable. In these cases, a model-based approach is used in estimation. These models
use the direct sample estimates (described above), combined with forecasts of historical
(benchmarked) data to decrease volatility in estimation. Two different models
(Fay-Herriot Model and Small Domain Model) are used depending on the industry level
being estimated. For more detailed information about each model, refer to the BLS
Handbook of Methods.

   Annual revisions.  Employment estimates are adjusted annually to a complete count
of jobs, called benchmarks, derived principally from tax reports that are submitted by
employers who are covered under state unemployment insurance (UI) laws. The benchmark
information is used to adjust the monthly estimates between the new benchmark and the
preceding one and also to establish the level of employment for the new benchmark month.
Thus, the benchmarking process establishes the level of employment, and the sample is used
to measure the month-to-month changes in the level for the subsequent months.

   Seasonal adjustment. Payroll employment data are seasonally adjusted for states,
metropolitan areas, and metropolitan divisions at the total nonfarm level. For states,
data are seasonally adjusted at the supersector level as well. Revisions to historical
data for the most recent 5 years are made once a year, coincident with annual benchmark
adjustments.

   Beginning with the release of January 2018 preliminary estimates, payroll employment
data are seasonally adjusted concurrently, using all available estimates including
those for the current month, to develop sample-based seasonal factors. Concurrent
sample-based factors are created every month for the current month's preliminary
estimate as well as the previous month's final estimate in order to incorporate
real-time estimates. Previously, the sample-based seasonal factors were forecasted
once annually at the beginning of the year and applied to the sample-based estimates
for the 12 months of the year. 

Reliability of the estimates

   The estimates presented in this release are based on sample surveys, administrative data,
and modeling and, thus, are subject to sampling and other types of errors. Sampling error
is a measure of sampling variability—that is, variation that occurs by chance because a
sample rather than the entire population is surveyed. Survey data also are subject to
nonsampling errors, such as those which can be introduced into the data collection and
processing operations. Estimates not directly derived from sample surveys are subject to
additional errors resulting from the specific estimation processes used. The sums of
individual items may not always equal the totals shown in the same tables because of
rounding.

Use of error measures

   Civilian labor force and unemployment estimates. Measures of sampling error are not
available for metropolitan areas or metropolitan divisions. Model-based error measures for
states are available on the BLS website at www.bls.gov/laus/lastderr.htm. Measures of
nonsampling error are not available for the areas contained in this release. Information
on recent data revisions for states and local areas is available online at
www.bls.gov/lau/launews1.htm.

   Employment estimates. Changes in metropolitan area nonfarm payroll employment are cited
in the analysis of this release only if they have been determined to be statistically
significant at the 90-percent confidence level.  Measures of sampling error for the total
nonfarm employment series are available for metropolitan areas and metropolitan divisions
at www.bls.gov/web/laus/790stderr.htm. Measures of sampling error for more detailed series
at the area and division level are available upon request. Measures of sampling error for
states at the supersector level and for the private service-providing, goods-producing,
total private and total nonfarm levels are available on the BLS website at 
www.bls.gov/web/laus/790stderr.htm. Information on recent benchmark revisions
is available online at www.bls.gov/web/laus/benchmark.pdf.

Area definitions

   The substate area data published in this release reflect the delineations issued by the
U.S. Office of Management and Budget on July 15, 2015. Data reflect New England City and
Town Area (NECTA) definitions, rather than county-based definitions, in the six New England
States. A detailed list of the geographic definitions is available online at
www.bls.gov/lau/lausmsa.htm.

Additional information

   Estimates of unadjusted and seasonally adjusted civilian labor force and unemployment
data for states and seven substate areas are available in the news release State Employment
and Unemployment. Estimates of civilian labor force and unemployment for all states,
metropolitan areas, counties, cities with a population of 25,000 or more, and other areas
used in the administration of various federal economic assistance programs are available
on the Internet at www.bls.gov/lau/. Employment data from the CES program are available on
the BLS website at www.bls.gov/sae/.

   Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired individuals
upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay Service: (800) 877-8339. 




LABOR FORCE DATA
NOT SEASONALLY ADJUSTED

Table 1. Civilian labor force and unemployment by state and metropolitan area
State and area Civilian labor force Unemployed
October November Number Percent of labor force
2017 2018 2017 2018(p) October November October November
2017 2018 2017 2018(p) 2017 2018 2017 2018(p)

Alabama

2,168,171 2,226,023 2,161,741 2,220,114 78,653 84,699 74,457 75,461 3.6 3.8 3.4 3.4

Anniston-Oxford-Jacksonville

45,383 46,275 45,351 46,392 1,867 2,076 1,764 1,866 4.1 4.5 3.9 4.0

Auburn-Opelika

73,808 76,016 73,861 76,061 2,356 2,613 2,284 2,343 3.2 3.4 3.1 3.1

Birmingham-Hoover

533,322 547,563 531,905 547,645 17,797 19,128 16,678 17,010 3.3 3.5 3.1 3.1

Daphne-Fairhope-Foley

91,035 94,128 90,382 93,418 3,084 3,308 2,943 2,967 3.4 3.5 3.3 3.2

Decatur

68,368 70,529 68,448 70,536 2,398 2,457 2,248 2,205 3.5 3.5 3.3 3.1

Dothan

62,175 62,848 61,659 62,702 2,281 2,561 2,206 2,239 3.7 4.1 3.6 3.6

Florence-Muscle Shoals

64,782 66,614 64,508 66,407 2,566 2,711 2,398 2,399 4.0 4.1 3.7 3.6

Gadsden

42,691 43,567 42,860 43,440 1,629 1,730 1,530 1,561 3.8 4.0 3.6 3.6

Huntsville

216,501 227,940 217,735 227,893 6,970 7,658 6,591 6,703 3.2 3.4 3.0 2.9

Mobile

185,865 190,219 185,237 189,695 7,823 8,472 7,553 7,562 4.2 4.5 4.1 4.0

Montgomery

172,190 175,570 172,087 175,081 6,077 6,674 5,722 5,913 3.5 3.8 3.3 3.4

Tuscaloosa

113,676 116,257 113,436 116,043 3,849 4,088 3,773 3,723 3.4 3.5 3.3 3.2

Alaska

359,848 354,094 359,192 352,824 24,543 20,497 25,753 22,053 6.8 5.8 7.2 6.3

Anchorage

202,015 199,528 203,955 201,005 12,727 10,573 13,192 11,076 6.3 5.3 6.5 5.5

Fairbanks

46,987 45,960 47,013 45,803 2,780 2,323 2,988 2,512 5.9 5.1 6.4 5.5

Arizona

3,336,707 3,454,477 3,349,772 3,491,136 155,387 155,987 151,672 154,954 4.7 4.5 4.5 4.4

Flagstaff

76,582 78,161 75,624 77,920 3,772 3,831 3,720 3,854 4.9 4.9 4.9 4.9

Lake Havasu City-Kingman

82,514 85,491 82,878 85,877 4,488 4,518 4,518 4,651 5.4 5.3 5.5 5.4

Phoenix-Mesa-Scottsdale

2,320,449 2,411,848 2,337,124 2,442,579 93,274 93,302 92,756 94,657 4.0 3.9 4.0 3.9

Prescott

102,441 105,870 102,603 106,518 4,276 4,359 4,352 4,541 4.2 4.1 4.2 4.3

Sierra Vista-Douglas

49,404 49,222 49,090 50,045 2,673 2,604 2,659 2,680 5.4 5.3 5.4 5.4

Tucson

476,677 489,549 477,348 494,366 20,267 20,156 20,241 20,632 4.3 4.1 4.2 4.2

Yuma

98,069 101,164 95,215 100,423 17,034 17,857 14,366 14,998 17.4 17.7 15.1 14.9

Arkansas

1,359,086 1,353,831 1,352,672 1,349,735 43,597 44,668 44,046 45,040 3.2 3.3 3.3 3.3

Fayetteville-Springdale-Rogers

276,726 276,651 274,486 275,730 6,796 6,887 6,888 6,802 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5

Fort Smith

119,311 117,652 119,233 117,312 4,682 4,131 4,694 3,979 3.9 3.5 3.9 3.4

Hot Springs

39,659 39,466 39,407 39,059 1,430 1,525 1,409 1,513 3.6 3.9 3.6 3.9

Jonesboro

64,419 64,921 64,371 64,823 1,769 1,813 1,771 1,807 2.7 2.8 2.8 2.8

Little Rock-North Little Rock-Conway

356,163 357,735 354,989 355,955 10,370 10,813 10,409 10,729 2.9 3.0 2.9 3.0

Pine Bluff

35,481 34,800 35,299 34,607 1,535 1,636 1,562 1,673 4.3 4.7 4.4 4.8

California

19,374,412 19,630,287 19,383,662 19,715,573 816,310 780,216 812,588 777,497 4.2 4.0 4.2 3.9

Bakersfield

387,218 390,635 382,677 388,268 28,163 25,609 28,811 25,742 7.3 6.6 7.5 6.6

Chico

104,572 107,076 103,417 106,328 4,832 4,455 4,975 4,582 4.6 4.2 4.8 4.3

El Centro

73,265 75,204 73,729 75,958 14,215 14,323 13,550 13,765 19.4 19.0 18.4 18.1

Fresno

446,056 452,859 447,026 454,530 31,993 28,695 34,794 31,359 7.2 6.3 7.8 6.9

Hanford-Corcoran

57,099 57,247 57,062 57,507 3,979 3,638 4,395 4,037 7.0 6.4 7.7 7.0

Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim

6,772,653 6,818,794 6,778,807 6,845,129 276,364 290,368 271,223 285,458 4.1 4.3 4.0 4.2

Madera

61,071 61,166 60,081 60,679 3,808 3,592 4,136 3,786 6.2 5.9 6.9 6.2

Merced

117,584 120,255 116,224 119,094 7,911 7,300 8,822 7,975 6.7 6.1 7.6 6.7

Modesto

241,602 244,949 241,618 245,854 14,569 13,308 15,612 14,011 6.0 5.4 6.5 5.7

Napa

74,992 75,216 72,316 72,912 2,357 1,962 2,444 1,998 3.1 2.6 3.4 2.7

Oxnard-Thousand Oaks-Ventura

424,930 431,177 426,128 433,182 17,585 15,892 17,597 15,938 4.1 3.7 4.1 3.7

Redding

75,115 76,551 74,290 76,066 3,581 3,290 3,629 3,331 4.8 4.3 4.9 4.4

Riverside-San Bernardino-Ontario

2,035,427 2,073,434 2,052,623 2,094,975 94,849 85,884 91,018 82,615 4.7 4.1 4.4 3.9

Sacramento--Roseville--Arden-Arcade

1,083,818 1,096,309 1,086,082 1,104,404 42,857 38,634 42,169 38,437 4.0 3.5 3.9 3.5

Salinas

223,229 225,866 216,118 220,471 10,080 9,351 11,922 10,868 4.5 4.1 5.5 4.9

San Diego-Carlsbad

1,586,193 1,613,114 1,590,911 1,623,279 57,506 52,488 55,905 51,257 3.6 3.3 3.5 3.2

San Francisco-Oakland-Hayward

2,580,850 2,622,928 2,586,405 2,643,307 76,921 68,766 73,821 66,687 3.0 2.6 2.9 2.5

San Jose-Sunnyvale-Santa Clara

1,075,272 1,104,946 1,077,637 1,115,245 31,349 27,771 30,669 26,995 2.9 2.5 2.8 2.4

San Luis Obispo-Paso Robles-Arroyo Grande

142,747 145,145 142,972 145,730 4,494 3,997 4,414 3,943 3.1 2.8 3.1 2.7

Santa Cruz-Watsonville

144,841 147,277 143,152 145,977 5,845 5,216 6,813 5,982 4.0 3.5 4.8 4.1

Santa Maria-Santa Barbara

219,620 220,060 217,985 219,920 8,157 7,369 8,494 7,472 3.7 3.3 3.9 3.4

Santa Rosa

263,884 270,916 262,119 268,149 7,910 6,774 7,810 6,695 3.0 2.5 3.0 2.5

Stockton-Lodi

326,507 332,413 324,104 332,319 18,985 17,271 19,962 18,256 5.8 5.2 6.2 5.5

Vallejo-Fairfield

209,692 211,310 210,175 212,724 8,743 7,661 8,701 7,653 4.2 3.6 4.1 3.6

Visalia-Porterville

201,257 204,843 201,885 206,612 18,379 17,053 18,705 17,769 9.1 8.3 9.3 8.6

Yuba City

73,872 74,225 73,600 74,199 4,547 4,262 5,087 4,727 6.2 5.7 6.9 6.4

Colorado

3,034,052 3,118,588 3,032,759 3,123,331 83,759 96,332 87,030 105,604 2.8 3.1 2.9 3.4

Boulder

188,209 195,592 190,120 196,184 4,600 5,383 4,681 5,644 2.4 2.8 2.5 2.9

Colorado Springs

343,461 361,904 343,456 362,106 10,918 13,005 11,301 14,235 3.2 3.6 3.3 3.9

Denver-Aurora-Lakewood

1,610,520 1,650,347 1,612,353 1,651,676 43,429 49,478 44,586 53,827 2.7 3.0 2.8 3.3

Fort Collins

199,844 205,381 198,303 205,976 4,787 5,506 4,875 5,910 2.4 2.7 2.5 2.9

Grand Junction

75,467 76,691 75,316 76,572 2,574 2,748 2,704 3,100 3.4 3.6 3.6 4.0

Greeley

162,068 167,706 161,170 166,220 4,080 4,690 4,184 5,027 2.5 2.8 2.6 3.0

Pueblo

75,435 76,111 75,398 76,662 3,135 3,499 3,320 3,854 4.2 4.6 4.4 5.0

Connecticut

1,900,360 1,915,283 1,902,380 1,925,885 78,219 73,396 77,595 58,407 4.1 3.8 4.1 3.0

Bridgeport-Stamford-Norwalk

462,369 466,176 465,216 471,564 19,240 18,128 18,995 14,383 4.2 3.9 4.1 3.1

Danbury

106,500 107,796 107,199 109,217 3,481 3,364 3,405 2,676 3.3 3.1 3.2 2.5

Hartford-West Hartford-East Hartford

624,664 629,534 623,725 632,038 25,671 24,022 25,554 19,127 4.1 3.8 4.1 3.0

New Haven

326,224 329,167 326,159 329,574 13,480 12,475 13,284 9,839 4.1 3.8 4.1 3.0

Norwich-New London-Westerly

144,012 144,793 143,247 145,007 5,786 5,145 5,732 4,365 4.0 3.6 4.0 3.0

Waterbury

111,219 111,293 111,601 111,827 5,686 5,419 5,741 4,408 5.1 4.9 5.1 3.9

Delaware

476,851 484,576 477,363 484,648 20,735 17,188 19,340 14,416 4.3 3.5 4.1 3.0

Dover

78,118 79,444 78,499 79,173 3,632 2,986 3,307 2,460 4.6 3.8 4.2 3.1

Salisbury(1)

187,094 186,974 183,822 184,985 9,053 8,191 10,217 8,556 4.8 4.4 5.6 4.6

District of Columbia

401,245 402,040 401,397 404,168 23,895 22,356 22,642 21,205 6.0 5.6 5.6 5.2

Washington-Arlington-Alexandria

3,389,870 3,406,166 3,387,877 3,405,018 120,310 109,150 118,851 103,143 3.5 3.2 3.5 3.0

Florida

10,128,026 10,263,880 10,116,131 10,250,622 390,619 312,722 389,257 312,635 3.9 3.0 3.8 3.0

Cape Coral-Fort Myers

331,914 341,065 334,075 342,374 12,368 9,990 12,238 10,047 3.7 2.9 3.7 2.9

Crestview-Fort Walton Beach-Destin

126,447 129,351 125,772 128,142 3,856 3,138 3,939 3,279 3.0 2.4 3.1 2.6

Deltona-Daytona Beach-Ormond Beach

299,349 301,132 297,278 299,550 11,961 9,731 12,073 9,806 4.0 3.2 4.1 3.3

Gainesville

145,007 146,743 143,547 145,527 4,903 4,050 5,117 4,012 3.4 2.8 3.6 2.8

Homosassa Springs

47,710 48,501 47,588 48,140 2,492 2,107 2,517 2,149 5.2 4.3 5.3 4.5

Jacksonville

770,015 779,207 767,535 774,762 27,231 22,271 27,364 22,190 3.5 2.9 3.6 2.9

Lakeland-Winter Haven

293,779 302,796 294,797 302,279 12,649 10,284 12,793 10,148 4.3 3.4 4.3 3.4

Miami-Fort Lauderdale-West Palm Beach

3,141,344 3,136,923 3,142,697 3,142,865 129,922 100,761 126,943 95,996 4.1 3.2 4.0 3.1

Naples-Immokalee-Marco Island

166,744 171,646 170,952 175,367 6,977 5,351 6,632 5,226 4.2 3.1 3.9 3.0

North Port-Sarasota-Bradenton

361,147 368,848 363,471 369,195 12,850 10,551 12,778 10,712 3.6 2.9 3.5 2.9

Ocala

133,139 136,520 132,840 135,989 5,967 4,906 6,095 4,976 4.5 3.6 4.6 3.7

Orlando-Kissimmee-Sanford

1,312,898 1,362,401 1,309,937 1,359,306 45,065 36,848 45,675 36,930 3.4 2.7 3.5 2.7

Palm Bay-Melbourne-Titusville

268,145 274,711 266,055 272,532 10,368 8,197 10,343 8,307 3.9 3.0 3.9 3.0

Panama City

95,923 95,321 94,088 96,037 3,351 2,625 3,513 5,966 3.5 2.8 3.7 6.2

Pensacola-Ferry Pass-Brent

225,060 228,692 223,053 226,885 8,180 6,595 8,326 6,685 3.6 2.9 3.7 2.9

Port St. Lucie

211,355 214,861 209,981 215,125 9,173 7,428 9,267 7,397 4.3 3.5 4.4 3.4

Punta Gorda

70,010 70,912 70,596 71,406 2,995 2,445 2,943 2,503 4.3 3.4 4.2 3.5

Sebastian-Vero Beach

62,588 63,679 63,574 64,630 2,925 2,362 2,868 2,341 4.7 3.7 4.5 3.6

Sebring

34,975 35,314 35,410 35,534 1,919 1,492 1,899 1,518 5.5 4.2 5.4 4.3

Tallahassee

193,543 196,087 192,094 195,837 6,920 5,742 7,076 5,807 3.6 2.9 3.7 3.0

Tampa-St. Petersburg-Clearwater

1,521,475 1,541,940 1,516,947 1,532,436 54,561 45,049 55,116 45,290 3.6 2.9 3.6 3.0

The Villages

30,281 30,838 30,154 30,833 1,628 1,326 1,641 1,408 5.4 4.3 5.4 4.6

Georgia

5,082,865 5,138,743 5,088,573 5,121,879 223,205 185,251 215,282 171,400 4.4 3.6 4.2 3.3

Albany

68,680 68,658 68,753 69,006 3,487 2,993 3,404 2,977 5.1 4.4 5.0 4.3

Athens-Clarke County

102,162 105,697 102,453 105,614 4,176 3,571 4,047 3,173 4.1 3.4 4.0 3.0

Atlanta-Sandy Springs-Roswell

3,050,192 3,090,919 3,056,669 3,076,661 127,515 105,579 124,288 97,072 4.2 3.4 4.1 3.2

Augusta-Richmond County

267,719 269,728 268,315 268,398 12,660 10,216 12,016 9,498 4.7 3.8 4.5 3.5

Brunswick

52,761 53,112 52,485 52,940 2,471 1,912 2,257 1,738 4.7 3.6 4.3 3.3

Columbus

125,036 126,781 125,241 126,297 6,290 5,430 6,084 4,945 5.0 4.3 4.9 3.9

Dalton

60,575 61,514 60,761 61,125 3,085 2,727 3,256 2,549 5.1 4.4 5.4 4.2

Gainesville

101,136 104,347 101,478 104,274 3,623 3,052 3,557 2,733 3.6 2.9 3.5 2.6

Hinesville

33,519 33,789 33,582 33,597 1,597 1,320 1,574 1,215 4.8 3.9 4.7 3.6

Macon-Bibb County

105,412 105,344 105,566 105,541 5,288 4,349 4,955 4,082 5.0 4.1 4.7 3.9

Rome

44,307 44,480 44,356 44,199 2,056 1,786 1,986 1,630 4.6 4.0 4.5 3.7

Savannah

185,848 184,378 184,986 182,796 7,651 6,425 7,330 5,813 4.1 3.5 4.0 3.2

Valdosta

64,834 66,158 65,258 66,368 2,835 2,501 2,758 2,232 4.4 3.8 4.2 3.4

Warner Robins

85,331 85,807 84,913 85,833 4,411 3,791 3,700 3,748 5.2 4.4 4.4 4.4

Hawaii

678,823 680,060 683,241 682,094 13,948 17,239 14,520 17,697 2.1 2.5 2.1 2.6

Kahului-Wailuku-Lahaina

85,372 85,224 85,323 85,269 1,850 2,252 1,900 2,215 2.2 2.6 2.2 2.6

Urban Honolulu

467,092 469,621 472,077 471,740 9,175 10,864 9,667 11,590 2.0 2.3 2.0 2.5

Idaho

843,654 855,609 843,194 854,841 21,928 19,111 25,158 22,062 2.6 2.2 3.0 2.6

Boise City

347,833 354,208 352,084 358,107 9,172 7,884 10,264 8,881 2.6 2.2 2.9 2.5

Coeur d'Alene

75,301 76,843 75,957 77,437 2,377 2,015 2,812 2,425 3.2 2.6 3.7 3.1

Idaho Falls

68,641 69,157 68,756 69,312 1,562 1,314 1,766 1,479 2.3 1.9 2.6 2.1

Lewiston

31,640 32,191 31,933 32,821 891 842 1,009 1,004 2.8 2.6 3.2 3.1

Pocatello

42,021 42,633 42,656 43,237 1,055 923 1,236 1,057 2.5 2.2 2.9 2.4

Illinois

6,483,672 6,527,364 6,494,157 6,521,690 294,392 273,187 296,032 270,382 4.5 4.2 4.6 4.1

Bloomington

96,821 99,022 96,703 98,523 3,475 4,006 3,535 3,923 3.6 4.0 3.7 4.0

Carbondale-Marion

59,894 60,965 60,150 60,806 2,483 2,811 2,578 2,799 4.1 4.6 4.3 4.6

Champaign-Urbana

121,415 125,408 120,865 123,965 4,608 5,352 4,747 5,150 3.8 4.3 3.9 4.2

Chicago-Naperville-Elgin

4,909,919 4,901,826 4,915,077 4,903,048 227,138 196,676 226,042 185,759 4.6 4.0 4.6 3.8

Danville

33,906 34,675 33,815 34,376 1,894 1,899 1,917 1,905 5.6 5.5 5.7 5.5

Davenport-Moline-Rock Island(1)

188,742 195,360 190,064 193,361 7,222 7,563 7,038 7,105 3.8 3.9 3.7 3.7

Decatur

49,097 50,622 49,079 50,338 2,354 2,692 2,448 2,757 4.8 5.3 5.0 5.5

Kankakee

56,096 59,894 56,909 59,935 2,458 2,782 2,648 2,895 4.4 4.6 4.7 4.8

Peoria

175,671 179,760 175,467 179,491 7,917 8,690 8,134 8,681 4.5 4.8 4.6 4.8

Rockford

163,665 168,926 164,226 172,272 7,686 8,771 7,928 15,950 4.7 5.2 4.8 9.3

Springfield

108,328 110,524 108,819 110,143 4,101 4,566 4,202 4,615 3.8 4.1 3.9 4.2

Indiana

3,315,355 3,402,618 3,310,187 3,392,369 103,227 120,403 105,283 123,865 3.1 3.5 3.2 3.7

Bloomington

77,623 77,832 77,240 77,211 2,493 3,180 2,713 3,040 3.2 4.1 3.5 3.9

Columbus

44,357 46,230 44,377 46,180 1,061 1,187 1,080 1,238 2.4 2.6 2.4 2.7

Elkhart-Goshen

112,319 118,313 111,944 117,521 2,454 3,387 2,664 3,518 2.2 2.9 2.4 3.0

Evansville

162,144 165,163 161,997 164,768 4,666 5,533 4,737 5,364 2.9 3.4 2.9 3.3

Fort Wayne

211,635 220,340 211,340 218,932 6,005 7,108 6,156 7,004 2.8 3.2 2.9 3.2

Indianapolis-Carmel-Anderson

1,037,153 1,071,756 1,037,598 1,069,091 30,939 35,793 31,035 35,817 3.0 3.3 3.0 3.4

Kokomo

38,021 39,922 38,061 42,285 1,212 1,453 1,222 3,508 3.2 3.6 3.2 8.3

Lafayette-West Lafayette

110,550 115,952 110,690 114,979 3,087 3,800 3,350 3,695 2.8 3.3 3.0 3.2

Michigan City-La Porte

47,162 47,408 47,076 47,394 1,765 2,039 1,821 2,151 3.7 4.3 3.9 4.5

Muncie

55,356 55,914 55,294 55,581 2,062 2,290 2,155 2,308 3.7 4.1 3.9 4.2

South Bend-Mishawaka

158,776 162,133 158,245 161,003 5,278 6,022 5,553 5,963 3.3 3.7 3.5 3.7

Terre Haute

76,027 78,265 75,935 77,983 2,857 3,566 2,961 3,551 3.8 4.6 3.9 4.6

Iowa

1,675,691 1,696,686 1,671,857 1,689,790 39,065 31,909 41,027 31,752 2.3 1.9 2.5 1.9

Ames

59,237 60,645 59,090 60,350 812 639 850 724 1.4 1.1 1.4 1.2

Cedar Rapids

141,556 143,699 141,723 142,604 3,681 3,017 3,985 3,109 2.6 2.1 2.8 2.2

Des Moines-West Des Moines

345,000 358,517 346,105 354,165 7,748 6,734 8,181 6,611 2.2 1.9 2.4 1.9

Dubuque

54,232 54,723 54,312 54,386 1,104 904 1,223 989 2.0 1.7 2.3 1.8

Iowa City

97,534 99,103 97,534 98,188 1,875 1,434 1,933 1,478 1.9 1.4 2.0 1.5

Sioux City

90,198 91,472 90,195 91,495 2,283 1,825 2,468 1,886 2.5 2.0 2.7 2.1

Waterloo-Cedar Falls

88,141 88,509 87,975 88,158 2,294 1,717 2,424 1,711 2.6 1.9 2.8 1.9

Kansas

1,477,351 1,496,462 1,480,776 1,493,084 45,079 44,848 46,579 43,653 3.1 3.0 3.1 2.9

Lawrence

66,051 67,003 66,575 66,933 1,678 1,758 1,843 1,743 2.5 2.6 2.8 2.6

Manhattan

48,448 49,381 48,420 49,423 1,133 1,221 1,274 1,247 2.3 2.5 2.6 2.5

Topeka

118,190 119,477 119,135 118,485 3,543 3,846 3,731 3,669 3.0 3.2 3.1 3.1

Wichita

304,863 308,812 305,253 309,543 10,644 10,341 11,075 10,048 3.5 3.3 3.6 3.2

Kentucky

2,038,572 2,063,909 2,043,061 2,064,591 81,100 86,931 78,663 72,733 4.0 4.2 3.9 3.5

Bowling Green

82,288 84,041 82,707 84,261 3,059 3,202 2,763 2,619 3.7 3.8 3.3 3.1

Elizabethtown-Fort Knox

65,685 66,857 65,834 67,229 2,576 2,813 2,444 2,331 3.9 4.2 3.7 3.5

Lexington-Fayette

270,304 274,224 272,051 275,352 8,351 9,355 8,146 7,521 3.1 3.4 3.0 2.7

Louisville/Jefferson County

657,796 662,796 660,413 664,289 22,798 25,762 21,982 22,460 3.5 3.9 3.3 3.4

Owensboro

55,218 55,856 55,531 55,737 2,125 2,180 2,105 1,811 3.8 3.9 3.8 3.2

Louisiana

2,117,409 2,109,188 2,118,485 2,106,680 91,126 98,509 89,197 94,454 4.3 4.7 4.2 4.5

Alexandria

64,807 63,813 64,658 63,708 3,023 3,275 2,972 3,199 4.7 5.1 4.6 5.0

Baton Rouge

420,937 420,236 422,765 421,259 15,811 17,786 15,597 16,842 3.8 4.2 3.7 4.0

Hammond

55,550 55,658 55,601 55,599 2,507 2,778 2,505 2,711 4.5 5.0 4.5 4.9

Houma-Thibodaux

88,730 87,113 88,561 86,493 3,940 4,137 3,859 3,937 4.4 4.7 4.4 4.6

Lafayette

212,958 210,547 212,663 210,069 9,772 9,933 9,449 9,558 4.6 4.7 4.4 4.5

Lake Charles

115,182 116,405 115,289 116,153 3,854 4,102 3,846 3,934 3.3 3.5 3.3 3.4

Monroe

80,660 80,303 80,725 80,478 3,597 4,126 3,527 4,017 4.5 5.1 4.4 5.0

New Orleans-Metairie

599,302 601,462 599,646 600,845 24,604 26,502 23,802 25,215 4.1 4.4 4.0 4.2

Shreveport-Bossier City

188,002 185,276 187,729 185,117 8,856 9,416 8,588 9,059 4.7 5.1 4.6 4.9

Maine

702,650 704,471 695,326 697,330 19,379 22,289 20,619 22,640 2.8 3.2 3.0 3.2

Bangor

71,503 71,432 70,791 70,439 2,064 2,375 2,077 2,308 2.9 3.3 2.9 3.3

Lewiston-Auburn

56,433 56,723 56,258 56,228 1,507 1,801 1,540 1,786 2.7 3.2 2.7 3.2

Portland-South Portland

209,220 211,561 207,983 209,820 4,809 5,697 5,060 5,710 2.3 2.7 2.4 2.7

Maryland

3,224,637 3,227,379 3,217,600 3,220,921 127,143 121,143 128,111 113,352 3.9 3.8 4.0 3.5

Baltimore-Columbia-Towson

1,504,768 1,507,314 1,503,498 1,503,953 60,877 57,535 60,644 53,255 4.0 3.8 4.0 3.5

California-Lexington Park

55,318 55,262 55,036 55,149 2,102 1,960 2,132 1,835 3.8 3.5 3.9 3.3

Cumberland

44,858 44,624 44,514 44,501 2,210 2,159 2,280 2,074 4.9 4.8 5.1 4.7

Hagerstown-Martinsburg

131,298 133,665 131,885 133,909 5,126 5,163 5,198 4,880 3.9 3.9 3.9 3.6

Massachusetts

3,637,788 3,820,489 3,644,703 3,812,801 111,544 109,714 110,579 98,415 3.1 2.9 3.0 2.6

Barnstable Town

123,051 128,078 119,881 124,651 4,004 3,889 4,507 4,002 3.3 3.0 3.8 3.2

Boston-Cambridge-Nashua

2,686,390 2,821,141 2,693,215 2,819,971 76,931 74,755 75,380 66,688 2.9 2.6 2.8 2.4

Leominster-Gardner

77,558 81,089 77,980 81,332 2,691 2,638 2,686 2,355 3.5 3.3 3.4 2.9

New Bedford

83,470 87,577 84,022 87,590 3,799 3,636 3,875 3,281 4.6 4.2 4.6 3.7

Pittsfield

42,743 44,051 42,793 43,803 1,511 1,475 1,557 1,459 3.5 3.3 3.6 3.3

Springfield

367,870 382,050 369,934 382,310 13,553 13,496 13,438 11,895 3.7 3.5 3.6 3.1

Worcester

350,497 367,213 352,207 368,521 11,508 11,551 11,302 10,093 3.3 3.1 3.2 2.7

Michigan

4,884,824 4,909,236 4,886,970 4,890,244 204,681 185,677 199,719 173,935 4.2 3.8 4.1 3.6

Ann Arbor

194,956 197,175 196,827 197,442 6,635 5,776 6,446 5,216 3.4 2.9 3.3 2.6

Battle Creek

62,917 62,942 63,476 63,405 2,859 2,285 2,883 2,237 4.5 3.6 4.5 3.5

Bay City

50,477 50,293 50,922 50,499 2,297 1,881 2,354 1,870 4.6 3.7 4.6 3.7

Detroit-Warren-Dearborn

2,121,865 2,137,100 2,113,382 2,113,775 91,876 93,167 82,264 80,815 4.3 4.4 3.9 3.8

Flint

181,678 181,119 182,901 181,891 9,111 7,489 9,381 7,368 5.0 4.1 5.1 4.1

Grand Rapids-Wyoming

569,502 578,335 574,214 581,285 18,509 15,256 19,114 14,578 3.3 2.6 3.3 2.5

Jackson

74,076 73,437 74,757 73,612 3,035 2,503 3,114 2,460 4.1 3.4 4.2 3.3

Kalamazoo-Portage

167,954 167,776 168,693 168,152 6,630 5,320 6,838 5,220 3.9 3.2 4.1 3.1

Lansing-East Lansing

249,664 252,053 251,951 254,104 9,415 7,474 9,420 7,980 3.8 3.0 3.7 3.1

Midland

39,831 39,913 40,201 39,863 1,621 1,318 1,677 1,288 4.1 3.3 4.2 3.2

Monroe

76,820 76,894 76,660 77,008 3,748 3,132 3,058 2,943 4.9 4.1 4.0 3.8

Muskegon

77,419 76,675 78,018 77,089 3,799 3,047 3,867 2,928 4.9 4.0 5.0 3.8

Niles-Benton Harbor

72,881 72,747 72,964 73,050 3,061 2,622 3,321 2,606 4.2 3.6 4.6 3.6

Saginaw

86,953 87,316 87,792 88,080 4,110 3,428 4,293 3,427 4.7 3.9 4.9 3.9

Minnesota

3,059,916 3,085,916 3,065,061 3,077,123 73,290 66,651 85,587 67,695 2.4 2.2 2.8 2.2

Duluth

143,478 144,286 144,650 144,719 4,409 3,921 5,688 4,364 3.1 2.7 3.9 3.0

Mankato-North Mankato

62,673 63,869 62,053 63,003 1,169 1,109 1,245 1,034 1.9 1.7 2.0 1.6

Minneapolis-St. Paul-Bloomington

1,989,206 2,008,120 1,990,242 2,007,601 47,244 42,603 50,544 40,879 2.4 2.1 2.5 2.0

Rochester

121,444 121,108 121,257 119,653 2,475 2,255 2,766 2,262 2.0 1.9 2.3 1.9

St. Cloud

112,240 113,060 112,526 112,653 2,565 2,369 3,086 2,485 2.3 2.1 2.7 2.2

Mississippi

1,272,072 1,273,269 1,275,900 1,275,411 56,161 53,942 54,914 52,875 4.4 4.2 4.3 4.1

Gulfport-Biloxi-Pascagoula

163,048 162,264 163,820 162,715 7,584 7,156 7,378 7,057 4.7 4.4 4.5 4.3

Hattiesburg

68,694 69,168 69,409 70,127 2,593 2,561 2,524 2,493 3.8 3.7 3.6 3.6

Jackson

271,996 271,843 272,888 272,616 10,561 10,168 10,192 9,889 3.9 3.7 3.7 3.6

Missouri

3,031,234 3,069,723 3,031,261 3,045,706 82,841 71,186 94,198 76,711 2.7 2.3 3.1 2.5

Cape Girardeau

47,640 48,620 48,020 48,589 1,177 1,066 1,464 1,164 2.5 2.2 3.0 2.4

Columbia

97,929 99,305 98,465 99,098 1,617 1,561 2,220 1,746 1.7 1.6 2.3 1.8

Jefferson City

73,827 74,543 73,881 73,628 1,505 1,367 1,913 1,497 2.0 1.8 2.6 2.0

Joplin

83,774 85,039 84,349 84,581 1,939 1,765 2,392 1,924 2.3 2.1 2.8 2.3

Kansas City

1,128,230 1,147,831 1,125,441 1,138,342 38,062 30,867 35,583 30,980 3.4 2.7 3.2 2.7

St. Joseph

64,759 66,099 64,820 65,746 1,594 1,384 1,794 1,483 2.5 2.1 2.8 2.3

St. Louis(2)

1,447,509 1,473,229 1,451,968 1,461,917 41,432 40,995 47,474 42,857 2.9 2.8 3.3 2.9

Springfield

227,113 231,526 227,831 231,508 4,778 4,510 6,202 4,952 2.1 1.9 2.7 2.1

Montana

524,892 524,818 524,065 526,634 19,394 17,321 21,236 18,714 3.7 3.3 4.1 3.6

Billings

87,035 86,542 87,253 86,541 2,844 2,636 3,040 2,720 3.3 3.0 3.5 3.1

Great Falls

37,958 37,609 38,249 37,847 1,336 1,224 1,482 1,274 3.5 3.3 3.9 3.4

Missoula

62,847 62,951 62,735 63,028 2,026 1,846 2,172 1,972 3.2 2.9 3.5 3.1

Nebraska

1,005,465 1,023,830 1,005,855 1,024,489 25,672 27,086 25,431 24,653 2.6 2.6 2.5 2.4

Grand Island

43,093 43,682 42,974 43,644 1,126 1,177 1,151 1,127 2.6 2.7 2.7 2.6

Lincoln

178,441 182,734 178,743 182,324 4,238 4,539 4,048 4,005 2.4 2.5 2.3 2.2

Omaha-Council Bluffs

480,238 491,977 480,374 489,948 12,626 12,881 12,515 12,065 2.6 2.6 2.6 2.5

Nevada

1,474,068 1,527,285 1,476,492 1,533,674 68,899 63,736 68,989 63,610 4.7 4.2 4.7 4.1

Carson City

25,850 26,370 25,897 26,358 1,160 1,061 1,183 1,088 4.5 4.0 4.6 4.1

Las Vegas-Henderson-Paradise

1,081,602 1,119,482 1,083,795 1,121,872 53,223 49,244 53,358 49,011 4.9 4.4 4.9 4.4

Reno

245,215 256,085 245,031 258,875 9,118 8,427 9,058 8,417 3.7 3.3 3.7 3.3

New Hampshire

744,206 758,309 744,516 760,857 17,199 15,547 17,953 16,528 2.3 2.1 2.4 2.2

Dover-Durham

85,184 86,783 85,437 87,378 1,763 1,655 1,883 1,743 2.1 1.9 2.2 2.0

Manchester

115,887 118,504 116,643 119,276 2,690 2,389 2,728 2,498 2.3 2.0 2.3 2.1

Portsmouth

76,256 78,295 76,401 78,337 1,639 1,583 1,699 1,646 2.1 2.0 2.2 2.1

New Jersey

4,498,988 4,486,205 4,493,166 4,474,249 198,549 160,112 194,923 138,695 4.4 3.6 4.3 3.1

Atlantic City-Hammonton

120,465 122,817 120,053 120,970 7,827 5,789 8,038 5,257 6.5 4.7 6.7 4.3

Ocean City

44,823 45,810 43,631 44,460 3,370 2,592 4,852 3,434 7.5 5.7 11.1 7.7

Trenton

198,765 201,020 199,006 201,682 7,821 6,356 7,573 5,424 3.9 3.2 3.8 2.7

Vineland-Bridgeton

66,751 65,258 67,213 65,250 4,221 3,311 4,417 3,052 6.3 5.1 6.6 4.7

New Mexico

933,360 951,417 938,165 957,396 53,585 42,978 53,171 43,831 5.7 4.5 5.7 4.6

Albuquerque

428,236 440,333 431,959 443,864 23,482 19,063 23,024 19,022 5.5 4.3 5.3 4.3

Farmington

53,413 54,220 53,627 54,257 3,327 2,595 3,282 2,645 6.2 4.8 6.1 4.9

Las Cruces

93,446 93,860 93,835 94,685 5,744 4,794 5,908 5,028 6.1 5.1 6.3 5.3

Santa Fe

73,660 74,746 73,880 75,279 3,659 2,902 3,545 2,929 5.0 3.9 4.8 3.9

New York

9,683,391 9,788,200 9,636,664 9,733,109 429,759 351,374 427,162 338,979 4.4 3.6 4.4 3.5

Albany-Schenectady-Troy

451,231 459,592 448,972 456,857 18,345 14,415 18,757 13,947 4.1 3.1 4.2 3.1

Binghamton

108,106 108,729 107,478 108,110 5,297 4,098 5,671 3,988 4.9 3.8 5.3 3.7

Buffalo-Cheektowaga-Niagara Falls

549,474 557,663 545,666 553,543 26,743 20,021 28,408 20,130 4.9 3.6 5.2 3.6

Elmira

35,514 35,125 35,296 35,194 1,846 1,376 1,889 1,270 5.2 3.9 5.4 3.6

Glens Falls

60,029 60,951 59,328 60,342 2,541 1,985 3,052 2,238 4.2 3.3 5.1 3.7

Ithaca

51,183 52,984 50,934 52,866 2,121 1,605 2,201 1,520 4.1 3.0 4.3 2.9

Kingston

89,102 91,176 88,317 90,285 3,820 2,890 3,931 2,768 4.3 3.2 4.5 3.1

New York-Newark-Jersey City

10,086,557 10,132,231 10,042,609 10,074,340 435,435 363,627 418,637 333,406 4.3 3.6 4.2 3.3

Rochester

523,399 531,409 520,604 530,471 24,381 18,351 25,528 18,124 4.7 3.5 4.9 3.4

Syracuse

307,139 311,747 306,834 310,831 14,528 10,772 15,306 10,895 4.7 3.5 5.0 3.5

Utica-Rome

128,512 130,086 128,164 130,122 6,154 4,728 6,697 4,840 4.8 3.6 5.2 3.7

Watertown-Fort Drum

44,692 44,919 44,802 45,147 2,488 1,837 3,001 2,136 5.6 4.1 6.7 4.7

North Carolina

4,972,021 5,012,886 4,966,393 4,994,057 211,534 171,362 222,302 172,384 4.3 3.4 4.5 3.5

Asheville

231,603 231,429 231,697 229,613 7,864 6,397 8,318 6,487 3.4 2.8 3.6 2.8

Burlington

79,973 80,527 80,004 80,767 3,210 2,558 3,357 2,600 4.0 3.2 4.2 3.2

Charlotte-Concord-Gastonia

1,333,393 1,350,706 1,330,312 1,344,203 54,199 42,755 56,144 42,903 4.1 3.2 4.2 3.2

Durham-Chapel Hill

297,061 300,618 296,876 300,006 11,206 9,010 11,658 9,116 3.8 3.0 3.9 3.0

Fayetteville

147,278 148,083 147,843 148,630 8,043 6,741 8,478 6,819 5.5 4.6 5.7 4.6

Goldsboro

53,260 52,683 52,806 52,325 2,516 2,009 2,674 2,047 4.7 3.8 5.1 3.9

Greensboro-High Point

369,649 373,250 370,369 372,952 16,605 13,091 17,453 13,534 4.5 3.5 4.7 3.6

Greenville

89,484 89,326 89,728 89,096 4,057 3,293 4,285 3,308 4.5 3.7 4.8 3.7

Hickory-Lenoir-Morganton

173,730 176,232 173,836 176,393 7,071 5,465 7,261 5,652 4.1 3.1 4.2 3.2

Jacksonville

63,973 64,863 64,183 64,420 3,182 2,930 3,327 2,697 5.0 4.5 5.2 4.2

New Bern

51,382 51,391 51,414 51,211 2,293 2,140 2,458 2,064 4.5 4.2 4.8 4.0

Raleigh

702,996 718,849 703,860 715,269 26,356 21,188 27,624 21,306 3.7 2.9 3.9 3.0

Rocky Mount

65,584 64,040 65,918 64,414 4,100 3,100 4,275 3,068 6.3 4.8 6.5 4.8

Wilmington

145,971 145,412 146,804 146,393 5,957 5,493 6,354 5,246 4.1 3.8 4.3 3.6

Winston-Salem

326,159 329,799 325,736 329,222 13,266 10,710 13,927 10,765 4.1 3.2 4.3 3.3

North Dakota

413,442 401,123 408,808 397,379 7,532 7,920 9,368 8,787 1.8 2.0 2.3 2.2

Bismarck

68,590 67,522 68,465 67,334 1,277 1,404 1,663 1,617 1.9 2.1 2.4 2.4

Fargo

137,919 135,597 137,649 134,967 2,274 2,480 2,852 2,588 1.6 1.8 2.1 1.9

Grand Forks

55,896 55,201 56,108 55,332 990 1,021 1,315 1,134 1.8 1.8 2.3 2.0

Ohio

5,780,912 5,783,945 5,766,426 5,756,917 252,102 247,491 251,694 237,216 4.4 4.3 4.4 4.1

Akron

364,432 364,786 362,945 362,921 16,158 15,628 16,529 15,005 4.4 4.3 4.6 4.1

Canton-Massillon

201,332 200,472 201,043 199,768 9,309 9,178 9,478 8,834 4.6 4.6 4.7 4.4

Cincinnati

1,109,555 1,120,262 1,104,352 1,112,337 43,537 43,399 42,471 39,328 3.9 3.9 3.8 3.5

Cleveland-Elyria

1,022,335 1,039,192 1,020,176 1,033,553 48,185 46,421 46,137 45,866 4.7 4.5 4.5 4.4

Columbus

1,078,637 1,084,474 1,078,142 1,079,331 39,737 40,646 40,000 37,881 3.7 3.7 3.7 3.5

Dayton

391,910 390,248 393,646 388,702 16,517 16,456 16,567 15,361 4.2 4.2 4.2 4.0

Lima

48,855 47,857 48,873 47,587 2,108 2,019 2,106 1,867 4.3 4.2 4.3 3.9

Mansfield

53,071 52,966 52,865 52,687 2,567 2,388 2,691 2,368 4.8 4.5 5.1 4.5

Springfield

63,636 63,877 63,631 63,520 2,699 2,783 2,796 2,609 4.2 4.4 4.4 4.1

Toledo

305,125 302,814 304,464 302,564 14,656 14,362 14,050 13,817 4.8 4.7 4.6 4.6

Weirton-Steubenville(1)

50,899 50,435 50,446 49,950 2,975 2,762 3,131 2,685 5.8 5.5 6.2 5.4

Youngstown-Warren-Boardman

244,426 240,133 243,474 239,602 13,569 13,249 13,679 12,757 5.6 5.5 5.6 5.3

Oklahoma

1,848,467 1,862,409 1,854,292 1,848,830 73,847 56,274 71,883 52,607 4.0 3.0 3.9 2.8

Enid

27,719 27,653 27,598 27,376 1,023 744 971 703 3.7 2.7 3.5 2.6

Lawton

51,931 51,892 52,210 51,590 2,265 1,904 2,203 1,761 4.4 3.7 4.2 3.4

Oklahoma City

677,142 686,639 677,982 680,849 24,204 19,285 23,574 17,901 3.6 2.8 3.5 2.6

Tulsa

482,606 488,819 485,273 487,865 20,482 15,031 19,749 14,064 4.2 3.1 4.1 2.9

Oregon

2,130,000 2,129,357 2,127,353 2,123,381 84,155 86,564 83,663 84,725 4.0 4.1 3.9 4.0

Albany

58,834 59,127 58,679 59,079 2,690 2,731 2,615 2,728 4.6 4.6 4.5 4.6

Bend-Redmond

94,665 96,359 94,778 95,970 3,792 3,786 3,906 3,910 4.0 3.9 4.1 4.1

Corvallis

48,972 48,575 49,087 48,676 1,489 1,607 1,423 1,479 3.0 3.3 2.9 3.0

Eugene

185,148 184,602 185,377 184,339 7,872 8,202 7,847 7,841 4.3 4.4 4.2 4.3

Grants Pass

36,008 36,151 35,658 35,590 1,804 1,918 1,793 1,920 5.0 5.3 5.0 5.4

Medford

106,492 106,846 106,271 106,409 4,537 4,797 4,527 4,762 4.3 4.5 4.3 4.5

Portland-Vancouver-Hillsboro

1,325,764 1,330,915 1,328,228 1,333,477 50,291 50,764 49,594 49,612 3.8 3.8 3.7 3.7

Salem

203,944 203,559 204,232 203,043 8,247 8,635 8,258 8,455 4.0 4.2 4.0 4.2

Pennsylvania

6,383,896 6,454,652 6,392,642 6,457,667 274,047 253,329 280,809 244,871 4.3 3.9 4.4 3.8

Allentown-Bethlehem-Easton

433,564 439,795 434,157 436,791 18,879 18,181 19,077 17,112 4.4 4.1 4.4 3.9

Altoona

58,737 59,359 59,192 59,879 2,383 2,266 2,489 2,240 4.1 3.8 4.2 3.7

Bloomsburg-Berwick

42,656 42,612 42,439 42,666 1,749 1,617 1,816 1,596 4.1 3.8 4.3 3.7

Chambersburg-Waynesboro

75,439 76,630 75,658 77,247 2,828 2,594 2,887 2,500 3.7 3.4 3.8 3.2

East Stroudsburg

80,667 81,545 81,010 81,597 4,293 4,026 4,395 3,998 5.3 4.9 5.4 4.9

Erie

129,819 128,942 130,156 128,850 6,281 5,325 6,561 5,224 4.8 4.1 5.0 4.1

Gettysburg

55,184 56,253 54,846 56,342 1,682 1,714 1,748 1,553 3.0 3.0 3.2 2.8

Harrisburg-Carlisle

293,402 296,765 292,943 297,667 10,904 10,133 11,011 9,822 3.7 3.4 3.8 3.3

Johnstown

59,211 59,560 59,299 59,171 2,919 2,632 3,030 2,614 4.9 4.4 5.1 4.4

Lancaster

276,882 282,166 275,553 281,803 9,339 8,823 9,342 8,419 3.4 3.1 3.4 3.0

Lebanon

69,587 70,230 69,844 70,512 2,520 2,486 2,739 2,377 3.6 3.5 3.9 3.4

Philadelphia-Camden-Wilmington

3,087,668 3,122,394 3,091,219 3,118,787 136,774 121,849 135,247 111,803 4.4 3.9 4.4 3.6

Pittsburgh

1,199,481 1,210,081 1,206,803 1,211,196 51,107 45,797 53,044 44,646 4.3 3.8 4.4 3.7

Reading

210,186 213,221 210,398 214,208 8,604 8,291 8,785 7,961 4.1 3.9 4.2 3.7

Scranton--Wilkes-Barre--Hazleton

278,172 280,885 280,169 283,294 13,426 12,857 13,623 12,670 4.8 4.6 4.9 4.5

State College

79,565 80,525 80,253 80,843 2,475 2,403 2,571 2,229 3.1 3.0 3.2 2.8

Williamsport

56,757 56,100 57,004 55,982 2,676 2,354 2,825 2,413 4.7 4.2 5.0 4.3

York-Hanover

232,241 235,929 232,623 237,123 8,974 8,332 9,010 7,968 3.9 3.5 3.9 3.4

Rhode Island

556,526 558,445 559,063 562,705 22,789 17,268 23,787 20,804 4.1 3.1 4.3 3.7

Providence-Warwick

684,600 693,306 687,722 696,547 27,078 21,788 28,027 24,755 4.0 3.1 4.1 3.6

South Carolina

2,316,025 2,316,812 2,304,383 2,308,434 96,947 76,761 92,499 72,509 4.2 3.3 4.0 3.1

Charleston-North Charleston

378,094 380,764 376,973 379,940 13,350 10,601 12,691 10,005 3.5 2.8 3.4 2.6

Columbia

401,752 400,075 398,692 397,877 17,029 12,667 16,170 11,985 4.2 3.2 4.1 3.0

Florence

94,762 94,568 94,413 94,893 4,549 3,568 4,266 3,372 4.8 3.8 4.5 3.6

Greenville-Anderson-Mauldin

425,887 424,866 424,112 423,074 15,686 12,801 15,020 12,015 3.7 3.0 3.5 2.8

Hilton Head Island-Bluffton-Beaufort

85,466 86,693 85,049 86,109 3,384 2,663 3,191 2,487 4.0 3.1 3.8 2.9

Myrtle Beach-Conway-North Myrtle Beach

192,955 195,197 190,288 192,240 9,423 8,181 9,581 8,011 4.9 4.2 5.0 4.2

Spartanburg

158,912 158,598 158,368 157,543 6,248 4,855 5,955 4,524 3.9 3.1 3.8 2.9

Sumter

44,029 43,849 43,760 43,743 2,258 1,688 2,159 1,609 5.1 3.8 4.9 3.7

South Dakota

457,090 459,267 456,151 460,117 13,567 12,011 14,904 12,833 3.0 2.6 3.3 2.8

Rapid City

74,239 75,318 73,669 75,170 2,319 2,111 2,600 2,280 3.1 2.8 3.5 3.0

Sioux Falls

151,018 152,151 151,170 153,063 3,794 3,324 4,201 3,505 2.5 2.2 2.8 2.3

Tennessee

3,213,444 3,250,995 3,210,614 3,260,912 101,958 120,156 101,299 107,760 3.2 3.7 3.2 3.3

Chattanooga

268,966 274,740 269,091 272,318 9,344 10,075 9,015 8,667 3.5 3.7 3.4 3.2

Clarksville

111,433 113,591 111,686 114,381 4,296 4,952 4,285 4,322 3.9 4.4 3.8 3.8

Cleveland

57,924 58,587 59,526 58,795 1,840 2,230 1,842 2,018 3.2 3.8 3.1 3.4

Jackson

63,774 65,000 63,647 64,808 2,277 2,587 2,252 2,267 3.6 4.0 3.5 3.5

Johnson City

90,698 91,022 90,100 90,568 3,165 3,643 3,146 3,309 3.5 4.0 3.5 3.7

Kingsport-Bristol-Bristol

137,525 138,701 136,789 139,442 4,880 5,035 4,801 4,681 3.5 3.6 3.5 3.4

Knoxville

419,636 419,725 420,225 421,930 12,432 14,703 12,446 13,311 3.0 3.5 3.0 3.2

Memphis

631,213 641,709 636,556 644,123 23,946 27,268 23,516 24,573 3.8 4.2 3.7 3.8

Morristown

51,525 52,324 51,453 52,565 1,730 1,998 1,780 1,858 3.4 3.8 3.5 3.5

Nashville-Davidson--Murfreesboro--Franklin

1,021,435 1,036,254 1,017,938 1,041,108 25,039 30,490 25,474 27,544 2.5 2.9 2.5 2.6

Texas

13,536,215 13,866,839 13,613,780 13,936,886 501,634 478,672 515,473 482,612 3.7 3.5 3.8 3.5

Abilene

75,542 76,894 76,089 77,278 2,444 2,372 2,487 2,375 3.2 3.1 3.3 3.1

Amarillo

130,923 133,566 131,626 134,131 3,352 3,354 3,469 3,399 2.6 2.5 2.6 2.5

Austin-Round Rock

1,155,097 1,198,341 1,166,201 1,204,584 31,553 32,373 32,650 32,392 2.7 2.7 2.8 2.7

Beaumont-Port Arthur

173,882 171,859 174,000 171,892 11,508 8,927 11,414 9,146 6.6 5.2 6.6 5.3

Brownsville-Harlingen

163,623 165,131 164,128 166,351 9,410 8,549 9,726 8,774 5.8 5.2 5.9 5.3

College Station-Bryan

132,986 135,645 133,213 135,970 3,563 3,620 3,749 3,614 2.7 2.7 2.8 2.7

Corpus Christi

205,665 207,364 206,883 209,073 11,334 8,831 11,363 8,951 5.5 4.3 5.5 4.3

Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington

3,813,603 3,925,572 3,841,732 3,943,443 121,199 124,865 124,815 124,990 3.2 3.2 3.2 3.2

El Paso

354,192 362,220 356,543 362,765 14,368 14,113 14,769 14,062 4.1 3.9 4.1 3.9

Houston-The Woodlands-Sugar Land

3,317,087 3,422,076 3,340,160 3,442,623 144,787 128,727 147,296 129,610 4.4 3.8 4.4 3.8

Killeen-Temple

174,686 178,659 175,477 179,856 6,466 6,775 6,715 6,772 3.7 3.8 3.8 3.8

Laredo

113,960 114,813 114,929 115,654 3,882 3,975 4,032 4,014 3.4 3.5 3.5 3.5

Longview

96,896 97,625 97,249 98,217 4,138 3,717 4,164 3,700 4.3 3.8 4.3 3.8

Lubbock

161,446 165,402 161,751 165,852 4,315 4,520 4,496 4,499 2.7 2.7 2.8 2.7

McAllen-Edinburg-Mission

337,542 342,095 340,994 345,685 19,978 18,606 21,648 20,111 5.9 5.4 6.3 5.8

Midland

93,231 100,277 94,673 99,745 2,210 2,067 2,289 2,074 2.4 2.1 2.4 2.1

Odessa

79,357 80,816 79,553 80,545 2,505 2,039 2,552 2,061 3.2 2.5 3.2 2.6

San Angelo

54,664 55,726 54,809 56,001 1,666 1,670 1,714 1,705 3.0 3.0 3.1 3.0

San Antonio-New Braunfels

1,168,449 1,178,885 1,171,092 1,188,474 35,453 36,389 36,846 36,526 3.0 3.1 3.1 3.1

Sherman-Denison

61,739 63,838 62,171 64,279 1,855 1,893 1,945 1,902 3.0 3.0 3.1 3.0

Texarkana

64,417 65,333 64,790 65,513 2,543 3,137 2,613 3,107 3.9 4.8 4.0 4.7

Tyler

106,561 109,876 106,398 110,420 4,441 3,730 3,825 3,732 4.2 3.4 3.6 3.4

Victoria

45,801 44,853 45,885 45,267 1,960 1,585 1,961 1,621 4.3 3.5 4.3 3.6

Waco

123,820 125,289 124,133 126,064 4,264 4,042 4,357 4,093 3.4 3.2 3.5 3.2

Wichita Falls

64,512 65,308 64,723 65,675 1,989 2,008 2,123 2,068 3.1 3.1 3.3 3.1

Utah

1,574,321 1,571,660 1,579,016 1,576,122 46,298 43,216 43,482 43,508 2.9 2.7 2.8 2.8

Logan

71,098 71,246 70,824 71,282 1,691 1,639 1,606 1,674 2.4 2.3 2.3 2.3

Ogden-Clearfield

328,540 324,448 328,075 324,463 10,446 9,168 9,671 9,086 3.2 2.8 2.9 2.8

Provo-Orem

303,102 305,838 304,499 307,156 7,961 7,704 7,316 7,608 2.6 2.5 2.4 2.5

St. George

72,118 73,469 72,319 73,756 2,218 2,189 2,120 2,259 3.1 3.0 2.9 3.1

Salt Lake City

656,489 654,771 662,443 657,960 18,605 17,777 17,469 17,833 2.8 2.7 2.6 2.7

Vermont

344,217 342,373 344,178 342,058 7,783 6,228 9,085 7,845 2.3 1.8 2.6 2.3

Burlington-South Burlington

125,485 124,645 125,249 124,379 2,445 1,980 2,781 2,374 1.9 1.6 2.2 1.9

Virginia

4,302,973 4,345,249 4,290,731 4,335,900 146,155 119,682 146,405 117,205 3.4 2.8 3.4 2.7

Blacksburg-Christiansburg-Radford

90,351 92,170 89,994 91,954 3,268 2,589 3,340 2,625 3.6 2.8 3.7 2.9

Charlottesville

119,298 123,193 119,984 123,390 3,532 3,018 3,625 2,960 3.0 2.4 3.0 2.4

Harrisonburg

65,920 66,690 65,690 66,869 2,159 1,795 2,249 1,789 3.3 2.7 3.4 2.7

Lynchburg

122,029 123,818 122,076 124,188 4,750 3,782 4,795 3,716 3.9 3.1 3.9 3.0

Richmond

676,856 684,537 672,036 679,881 24,323 19,927 24,422 19,432 3.6 2.9 3.6 2.9

Roanoke

156,567 159,162 155,836 158,627 5,419 4,253 5,388 4,129 3.5 2.7 3.5 2.6

Staunton-Waynesboro

58,887 60,029 58,754 59,932 1,994 1,568 1,915 1,524 3.4 2.6 3.3 2.5

Virginia Beach-Norfolk-Newport News

845,376 852,652 839,652 848,833 32,041 26,045 32,045 25,723 3.8 3.1 3.8 3.0

Winchester

71,447 73,268 71,395 73,083 2,125 1,905 2,167 1,861 3.0 2.6 3.0 2.5

Washington

3,757,972 3,820,193 3,755,206 3,830,301 163,671 151,373 174,366 169,654 4.4 4.0 4.6 4.4

Bellingham

110,998 113,453 112,021 114,242 4,876 4,728 5,129 5,247 4.4 4.2 4.6 4.6

Bremerton-Silverdale

122,331 123,368 123,113 124,780 5,516 5,242 5,698 5,667 4.5 4.2 4.6 4.5

Kennewick-Richland

139,449 141,533 138,051 140,722 6,601 6,258 7,390 7,348 4.7 4.4 5.4 5.2

Longview

46,232 46,644 46,388 47,298 2,462 2,384 2,661 2,635 5.3 5.1 5.7 5.6

Mount Vernon-Anacortes

59,699 60,806 59,596 60,744 2,853 2,840 3,038 3,108 4.8 4.7 5.1 5.1

Olympia-Tumwater

136,595 138,624 137,948 140,546 6,207 5,877 6,354 6,509 4.5 4.2 4.6 4.6

Seattle-Tacoma-Bellevue

2,077,400 2,115,551 2,087,776 2,128,452 84,643 74,565 88,933 82,409 4.1 3.5 4.3 3.9

Spokane-Spokane Valley

266,049 266,044 268,176 269,682 12,607 12,247 13,469 13,656 4.7 4.6 5.0 5.1

Walla Walla

32,956 33,071 32,548 32,859 1,370 1,297 1,440 1,422 4.2 3.9 4.4 4.3

Wenatchee

66,730 68,975 62,990 65,202 2,621 2,625 3,120 3,197 3.9 3.8 5.0 4.9

Yakima

131,823 138,205 122,301 131,830 6,297 6,493 7,481 8,489 4.8 4.7 6.1 6.4

West Virginia

783,319 785,686 778,514 777,766 36,014 36,169 38,899 35,999 4.6 4.6 5.0 4.6

Beckley

45,501 45,111 44,883 44,158 2,287 2,268 2,604 2,337 5.0 5.0 5.8 5.3

Charleston

95,042 94,473 94,695 93,379 4,595 4,470 4,922 4,375 4.8 4.7 5.2 4.7

Huntington-Ashland

147,792 146,751 147,268 145,703 7,157 7,223 7,442 6,743 4.8 4.9 5.1 4.6

Morgantown

68,837 70,333 68,397 69,542 2,445 2,727 2,527 2,619 3.6 3.9 3.7 3.8

Parkersburg-Vienna

38,333 38,165 38,197 37,994 1,866 1,835 2,005 1,866 4.9 4.8 5.2 4.9

Wheeling

64,878 64,407 64,853 64,071 3,183 2,925 3,311 2,823 4.9 4.5 5.1 4.4

Wisconsin

3,159,058 3,149,356 3,154,455 3,131,536 86,267 81,754 87,480 81,841 2.7 2.6 2.8 2.6

Appleton

132,802 132,650 132,743 132,534 3,577 3,115 3,489 3,059 2.7 2.3 2.6 2.3

Eau Claire

93,530 93,454 93,482 93,291 2,325 2,224 2,345 2,219 2.5 2.4 2.5 2.4

Fond du Lac

57,792 58,159 58,016 57,901 1,354 1,290 1,351 1,251 2.3 2.2 2.3 2.2

Green Bay

175,779 175,708 175,639 175,244 4,478 4,238 4,552 4,113 2.5 2.4 2.6 2.3

Janesville-Beloit

85,471 83,906 85,187 84,454 2,563 2,356 2,583 2,995 3.0 2.8 3.0 3.5

La Crosse-Onalaska

79,465 79,049 79,613 78,845 1,874 1,718 1,886 1,672 2.4 2.2 2.4 2.1

Madison

393,304 392,901 393,766 392,316 8,504 8,182 8,442 7,836 2.2 2.1 2.1 2.0

Milwaukee-Waukesha-West Allis

831,125 825,315 829,634 819,541 25,623 24,465 25,395 23,880 3.1 3.0 3.1 2.9

Oshkosh-Neenah

94,310 93,755 94,057 93,184 2,424 2,262 2,414 2,146 2.6 2.4 2.6 2.3

Racine

99,449 98,554 99,163 97,924 3,358 3,150 3,393 3,076 3.4 3.2 3.4 3.1

Sheboygan

63,092 63,276 62,923 62,759 1,543 1,416 1,506 1,405 2.4 2.2 2.4 2.2

Wausau

74,257 75,177 74,746 74,770 1,817 1,714 1,863 1,631 2.4 2.3 2.5 2.2

Wyoming

292,185 287,308 291,608 288,681 10,771 10,095 11,649 11,005 3.7 3.5 4.0 3.8

Casper

39,376 38,539 39,617 39,003 1,789 1,624 1,878 1,638 4.5 4.2 4.7 4.2

Cheyenne

47,665 46,856 47,806 47,567 1,671 1,628 1,676 1,684 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5

Puerto Rico

1,055,201 1,082,287 1,106,581 1,074,567 120,289 89,486 114,449 81,206 11.4 8.3 10.3 7.6

Aguadilla-Isabela

85,721 86,086 90,108 85,977 12,928 9,238 12,601 9,025 15.1 10.7 14.0 10.5

Arecibo

50,657 51,949 53,223 52,089 6,782 5,195 6,708 5,156 13.4 10.0 12.6 9.9

Guayama

20,276 20,583 21,380 20,477 3,235 2,457 3,450 2,328 16.0 11.9 16.1 11.4

Mayaguez

26,840 26,675 27,609 26,460 3,899 2,761 3,366 2,519 14.5 10.4 12.2 9.5

Ponce

90,722 91,230 94,215 90,595 13,015 9,807 12,155 9,136 14.3 10.7 12.9 10.1

San German

35,036 33,893 35,670 33,579 6,235 3,709 5,204 3,382 17.8 10.9 14.6 10.1

San Juan-Carolina-Caguas

702,181 732,181 737,990 725,630 67,026 51,339 64,086 45,148 9.5 7.0 8.7 6.2

Footnotes
(1) For operational reasons, these interstate areas are listed under the state that accounts for the larger share of the population, which is different from the state that contains the first principal city.
(2) The area boundary does not reflect the Office of Management and Budget delineation.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data refer to place of residence. Data for Puerto Rico are derived from a monthly household survey similar to the Current Population Survey. Area delineations are based on Office of Management and Budget Bulletin No. 15-01, dated July 15, 2015, and are available on the BLS website at https://www.bls.gov/lau/lausmsa.htm. Areas in the six New England states are Metropolitan New England City and Town Areas (NECTAs), while areas in other states are county-based. Some metropolitan areas lie in two or more states. They are listed under the state containing the first principal city, unless otherwise footnoted. Estimates for the latest month are subject to revision the following month.


LABOR FORCE DATA
NOT SEASONALLY ADJUSTED

Table 2. Civilian labor force and unemployment by state, selected metropolitan area, and metropolitan division(1)
State, area, and division Civilian labor force Unemployed
October November Number Percent of labor force
2017 2018 2017 2018(p) October November October November
2017 2018 2017 2018(p) 2017 2018 2017 2018(p)

California

19,374,412 19,630,287 19,383,662 19,715,573 816,310 780,216 812,588 777,497 4.2 4.0 4.2 3.9

Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim

6,772,653 6,818,794 6,778,807 6,845,129 276,364 290,368 271,223 285,458 4.1 4.3 4.0 4.2

Anaheim-Santa Ana-Irvine

1,626,133 1,636,282 1,627,650 1,643,836 51,870 47,084 49,995 45,437 3.2 2.9 3.1 2.8

Los Angeles-Long Beach-Glendale

5,146,520 5,182,512 5,151,157 5,201,293 224,494 243,284 221,228 240,021 4.4 4.7 4.3 4.6

San Francisco-Oakland-Hayward

2,580,850 2,622,928 2,586,405 2,643,307 76,921 68,766 73,821 66,687 3.0 2.6 2.9 2.5

Oakland-Hayward-Berkeley

1,415,172 1,437,990 1,418,629 1,449,098 47,138 42,321 45,483 41,245 3.3 2.9 3.2 2.8

San Francisco-Redwood City-South San Francisco

1,023,537 1,039,571 1,025,964 1,048,569 26,152 23,046 24,889 22,195 2.6 2.2 2.4 2.1

San Rafael

142,141 145,367 141,812 145,640 3,631 3,399 3,449 3,247 2.6 2.3 2.4 2.2

District of Columbia

401,245 402,040 401,397 404,168 23,895 22,356 22,642 21,205 6.0 5.6 5.6 5.2

Washington-Arlington-Alexandria(2)

3,389,870 3,406,166 3,387,877 3,405,018 120,310 109,150 118,851 103,143 3.5 3.2 3.5 3.0

Silver Spring-Frederick-Rockville(3)

689,632 695,146 689,327 693,723 23,148 21,942 23,001 20,269 3.4 3.2 3.3 2.9

Washington-Arlington-Alexandria(2)

2,700,238 2,711,020 2,698,550 2,711,295 97,162 87,208 95,850 82,874 3.6 3.2 3.6 3.1

Florida

10,128,026 10,263,880 10,116,131 10,250,622 390,619 312,722 389,257 312,635 3.9 3.0 3.8 3.0

Miami-Fort Lauderdale-West Palm Beach

3,141,344 3,136,923 3,142,697 3,142,865 129,922 100,761 126,943 95,996 4.1 3.2 4.0 3.1

Fort Lauderdale-Pompano Beach-Deerfield Beach

1,031,719 1,045,760 1,028,382 1,041,177 36,940 29,522 37,003 29,613 3.6 2.8 3.6 2.8

Miami-Miami Beach-Kendall

1,386,660 1,357,748 1,391,504 1,364,342 65,325 48,817 62,595 44,158 4.7 3.6 4.5 3.2

West Palm Beach-Boca Raton-Delray Beach

722,965 733,415 722,811 737,346 27,657 22,422 27,345 22,225 3.8 3.1 3.8 3.0

Illinois

6,483,672 6,527,364 6,494,157 6,521,690 294,392 273,187 296,032 270,382 4.5 4.2 4.6 4.1

Chicago-Naperville-Elgin(2)

4,909,919 4,901,826 4,915,077 4,903,048 227,138 196,676 226,042 185,759 4.6 4.0 4.6 3.8

Chicago-Naperville-Arlington Heights

3,788,939 3,751,052 3,795,425 3,755,034 183,508 148,134 181,316 135,870 4.8 3.9 4.8 3.6

Elgin

322,586 333,467 324,195 333,961 12,648 14,546 13,306 15,396 3.9 4.4 4.1 4.6

Gary(3)

338,299 343,728 334,911 342,709 14,295 15,664 14,115 15,803 4.2 4.6 4.2 4.6

Lake County-Kenosha County(2)

460,095 473,579 460,546 471,344 16,687 18,332 17,305 18,690 3.6 3.9 3.8 4.0

Massachusetts

3,637,788 3,820,489 3,644,703 3,812,801 111,544 109,714 110,579 98,415 3.1 2.9 3.0 2.6

Boston-Cambridge-Nashua(2)

2,686,390 2,821,141 2,693,215 2,819,971 76,931 74,755 75,380 66,688 2.9 2.6 2.8 2.4

Boston-Cambridge-Newton

1,598,473 1,685,011 1,601,820 1,683,218 43,731 42,666 42,592 37,513 2.7 2.5 2.7 2.2

Brockton-Bridgewater-Easton

106,313 111,585 106,734 111,680 3,663 3,631 3,551 3,170 3.4 3.3 3.3 2.8

Framingham

155,560 162,834 156,353 162,440 4,100 4,038 4,018 3,488 2.6 2.5 2.6 2.1

Haverhill-Newburyport-Amesbury Town(2)

113,886 118,525 113,835 118,588 3,202 3,162 3,228 2,994 2.8 2.7 2.8 2.5

Lawrence-Methuen Town-Salem(2)

96,325 100,624 96,543 100,287 3,984 3,826 3,933 3,423 4.1 3.8 4.1 3.4

Lowell-Billerica-Chelmsford(2)

188,882 198,328 189,305 197,876 5,800 5,576 5,658 4,996 3.1 2.8 3.0 2.5

Lynn-Saugus-Marblehead

83,958 88,411 84,182 88,509 2,532 2,587 2,514 2,240 3.0 2.9 3.0 2.5

Nashua(2)

168,888 173,547 169,834 175,020 4,479 4,034 4,591 4,197 2.7 2.3 2.7 2.4

Peabody-Salem-Beverly

91,028 94,702 91,251 94,597 2,683 2,599 2,619 2,290 2.9 2.7 2.9 2.4

Taunton-Middleborough-Norton

83,077 87,574 83,358 87,756 2,757 2,636 2,676 2,377 3.3 3.0 3.2 2.7

Michigan

4,884,824 4,909,236 4,886,970 4,890,244 204,681 185,677 199,719 173,935 4.2 3.8 4.1 3.6

Detroit-Warren-Dearborn

2,121,865 2,137,100 2,113,382 2,113,775 91,876 93,167 82,264 80,815 4.3 4.4 3.9 3.8

Detroit-Dearborn-Livonia

793,709 799,628 788,748 789,343 42,170 43,170 37,119 36,612 5.3 5.4 4.7 4.6

Warren-Troy-Farmington Hills

1,328,156 1,337,471 1,324,634 1,324,433 49,706 49,997 45,146 44,203 3.7 3.7 3.4 3.3

New York

9,683,391 9,788,200 9,636,664 9,733,109 429,759 351,374 427,162 338,979 4.4 3.6 4.4 3.5

New York-Newark-Jersey City(2)

10,086,557 10,132,231 10,042,609 10,074,340 435,435 363,627 418,637 333,406 4.3 3.6 4.2 3.3

Dutchess County-Putnam County

196,256 200,484 195,499 200,466 8,204 6,265 8,218 5,918 4.2 3.1 4.2 3.0

Nassau County-Suffolk County

1,484,358 1,509,778 1,473,340 1,504,440 62,174 46,662 63,560 45,007 4.2 3.1 4.3 3.0

Newark(3)

1,237,681 1,230,545 1,231,681 1,227,205 54,958 45,185 52,849 38,393 4.4 3.7 4.3 3.1

New York-Jersey City-White Plains(2)

7,168,262 7,191,424 7,142,089 7,142,229 310,099 265,515 294,010 244,088 4.3 3.7 4.1 3.4

Pennsylvania

6,383,896 6,454,652 6,392,642 6,457,667 274,047 253,329 280,809 244,871 4.3 3.9 4.4 3.8

Philadelphia-Camden-Wilmington(2)

3,087,668 3,122,394 3,091,219 3,118,787 136,774 121,849 135,247 111,803 4.4 3.9 4.4 3.6

Camden(3)

642,350 641,336 644,526 639,720 28,797 23,371 28,204 20,271 4.5 3.6 4.4 3.2

Montgomery County-Bucks County-Chester County

1,065,425 1,078,612 1,063,393 1,077,092 37,498 35,388 37,822 33,384 3.5 3.3 3.6 3.1

Philadelphia

1,000,178 1,016,966 1,001,763 1,014,774 53,638 49,038 53,482 46,316 5.4 4.8 5.3 4.6

Wilmington(3)

379,715 385,480 381,537 387,201 16,841 14,052 15,739 11,832 4.4 3.6 4.1 3.1

Texas

13,536,215 13,866,839 13,613,780 13,936,886 501,634 478,672 515,473 482,612 3.7 3.5 3.8 3.5

Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington

3,813,603 3,925,572 3,841,732 3,943,443 121,199 124,865 124,815 124,990 3.2 3.2 3.2 3.2

Dallas-Plano-Irving

2,576,095 2,658,276 2,598,192 2,671,845 81,694 84,453 84,023 84,409 3.2 3.2 3.2 3.2

Fort Worth-Arlington

1,237,508 1,267,296 1,243,540 1,271,598 39,505 40,412 40,792 40,581 3.2 3.2 3.3 3.2

Washington

3,757,972 3,820,193 3,755,206 3,830,301 163,671 151,373 174,366 169,654 4.4 4.0 4.6 4.4

Seattle-Tacoma-Bellevue

2,077,400 2,115,551 2,087,776 2,128,452 84,643 74,565 88,933 82,409 4.1 3.5 4.3 3.9

Seattle-Bellevue-Everett

1,656,221 1,684,045 1,662,530 1,692,974 64,004 54,911 67,597 60,994 3.9 3.3 4.1 3.6

Tacoma-Lakewood

421,179 431,506 425,246 435,478 20,639 19,654 21,336 21,415 4.9 4.6 5.0 4.9

Footnotes
(1) These 11 areas contain all of the 38 metropolitan divisions.
(2) Part of the area (or division) is in one or more adjacent states.
(3) All of the division is in one or more adjacent states.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data refer to place of residence. Area delineations are based on Office of Management and Budget Bulletin No. 15-01, dated July 15, 2015, and are available on the BLS website at https://www.bls.gov/lau/lausmsa.htm. Areas in the six New England states are Metropolitan New England City and Town Areas (NECTAs), while areas in other states are county-based. Some metropolitan areas lie in two or more states. They are listed under the state containing the first principal city. Metropolitan divisions are listed under their metropolitan areas. Some divisions lie in more than one state, and some, like Camden, NJ, are totally outside the states under which their metropolitan areas are listed. For Washington-Arlington-Alexandria, DC-VA-MD-WV, the metropolitan area and division titles are identical. Estimates for the latest month are subject to revision the following month.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
NOT SEASONALLY ADJUSTED
Table 3. Employees on nonfarm payrolls by state and metropolitan area, not seasonally adjusted
[In thousands]
State and area October November Change from
November 2017 to November 2018(p)
2017 2018 2017 2018(p) Number Percent

Alabama

2,028.2 2,063.4 2,034.4 2,069.8 35.4 1.7

Anniston-Oxford-Jacksonville

47.3 47.4 47.5 47.9 0.4 0.8

Auburn-Opelika

65.5 66.7 65.7 67.1 1.4 2.1

Birmingham-Hoover

532.1 539.6 533.0 542.7 9.7 1.8

Daphne-Fairhope-Foley

74.9 77.1 74.9 77.1 2.2 2.9

Decatur

54.3 55.2 54.7 55.6 0.9 1.6

Dothan

58.4 58.4 58.3 58.9 0.6 1.0

Florence-Muscle Shoals

56.6 58.1 57.1 58.1 1.0 1.8

Gadsden

38.1 38.3 38.4 38.6 0.2 0.5

Huntsville

233.9 244.1 236.3 245.4 9.1 3.9

Mobile

185.5 187.7 185.4 188.3 2.9 1.6

Montgomery

179.0 180.0 179.5 180.2 0.7 0.4

Tuscaloosa

109.1 110.4 109.3 110.6 1.3 1.2


Alaska

322.9 321.7 314.1 312.8 -1.3 -0.4

Anchorage

175.5 176.0 172.4 173.7 1.3 0.8

Fairbanks

37.7 37.7 36.9 36.7 -0.2 -0.5


Arizona

2,813.8 2,904.9 2,834.4 2,937.6 103.2 3.6

Flagstaff

69.1 69.9 68.4 69.7 1.3 1.9

Lake Havasu City-Kingman

50.3 52.1 50.6 52.1 1.5 3.0

Phoenix-Mesa-Scottsdale

2,067.1 2,145.9 2,086.3 2,173.1 86.8 4.2

Prescott

64.8 66.4 65.0 67.1 2.1 3.2

Sierra Vista-Douglas

33.6 33.0 33.6 33.6 0.0 0.0

Tucson

381.7 390.7 382.7 394.7 12.0 3.1

Yuma

54.8 55.6 55.7 57.2 1.5 2.7


Arkansas

1,254.1 1,263.7 1,252.3 1,264.8 12.5 1.0

Fayetteville-Springdale-Rogers

259.1 262.9