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Economic News Release
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Metropolitan Area Employment and Unemployment (Monthly) News Release

For release 10:00 a.m. (EST) Friday, January 3, 2020					     USDL-20-0001

Technical information:
 Employment:		(202) 691-6559  *  sminfo@bls.gov   * www.bls.gov/sae
 Unemployment:		(202) 691-6392  *  lausinfo@bls.gov * www.bls.gov/lau	

Media contact:		(202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov


		        METROPOLITAN AREA EMPLOYMENT AND UNEMPLOYMENT -- NOVEMBER 2019


Unemployment rates were lower in November than a year earlier in 223 of the 389 metropolitan areas, higher
in 137 areas, and unchanged in 29 areas, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. A total of 153
areas had jobless rates of less than 3.0 percent and 2 areas had rates of at least 10.0 percent. Nonfarm
payroll employment increased over the year in 51 metropolitan areas and was essentially unchanged in the
remaining 338 areas. The national unemployment rate in November was 3.3 percent, not seasonally adjusted,
little changed from a year earlier.

This news release presents statistics from two monthly programs. The civilian labor force and unemployment
data are based on the same concepts and definitions as those used for the national household survey
estimates. These data pertain to individuals by where they reside. The employment data are from an 
establishment survey that measures nonfarm employment, hours, and earnings by industry. These data pertain
to jobs on payrolls defined by where the establishments are located. For more information about the concepts
and statistical methodologies used by these two programs, see the Technical Note.

Metropolitan Area Unemployment (Not Seasonally Adjusted)

In November, Logan, UT-ID, and Ames, IA, had the lowest unemployment rates, 1.5 percent and 1.6 percent,
respectively. El Centro, CA, and Yuma, AZ, had the highest unemployment rates, 20.6 percent and 15.4 
percent, respectively. A total of 215 areas had November jobless rates below the U.S. rate of 3.3 percent,
161 areas had rates above it, and 13 areas had rates equal to that of the nation. (See table 1.)

Kokomo, IN, had the largest over-the-year unemployment rate decrease in November (-4.6 percentage points),
followed by Rockford, IL (-4.3 points), and Panama City, FL (-4.2 points). Twenty-six other areas had rate
declines of at least 1.0 percentage point. The largest over-the-year rate increase occurred in El Centro,
CA (+2.1 percentage points).

Of the 51 metropolitan areas with a 2010 Census population of 1 million or more, Salt Lake City, UT, had the
lowest unemployment rate in November, 1.9 percent. New Orleans-Metairie, LA, had the highest jobless rate
among the large areas, 4.4 percent. Thirty-six large areas had over-the-year unemployment rate decreases, 13
had increases, and 2 had no change. The largest rate decreases occurred in Cleveland-Elyria, OH (-1.1 per-
centage points), and Denver-Aurora-Lakewood, CO, and Seattle-Takoma-Bellevue, WA (-1.0 point each). The
largest jobless rate increase was in Pittsburgh, PA (+0.8 percentage point).

Metropolitan Division Unemployment (Not Seasonally Adjusted)

Eleven of the most populous metropolitan areas are made up of 38 metropolitan divisions, which are
essentially separately identifiable employment centers. In November, Framingham, MA, and San Francisco-
Redwood City-South San Francisco, CA, had the lowest unemployment rates among the divisions, 1.9 percent 
each. Tacoma-Lakewood, WA, and Philadelphia, PA, had the highest division rates, 5.1 percent and 5.0
percent, respectively. (See table 2.)

In November, 27 metropolitan divisions had over-the-year unemployment rate decreases, 8 had increases, and 3
had no change. The largest rate decline occurred in Seattle-Bellevue-Everett, WA (-1.4 percentage points).
The largest over-the-year jobless rate increase occurred in Philadelphia, PA (+0.6 percentage point).

Metropolitan Area Nonfarm Employment (Not Seasonally Adjusted)

In November, 51 metropolitan areas had over-the-year increases in nonfarm payroll employment and 338 were
essentially unchanged. The largest over-the-year employment increases occurred in Dallas-Fort Worth-
Arlington, TX (+120,700), New York-Newark-Jersey City, NY-NJ-PA (+99,400), and Los Angeles-Long Beach-
Anaheim, CA (+96,000). The largest over-the-year percentage gains in employment occurred in Myrtle Beach-
Conway-North Myrtle Beach, SC-NC (+5.1 percent), Idaho Falls, ID (+4.5 percent), and Ogden-Clearfield, UT 
(+4.2 percent). (See table 3.)

Over the year, nonfarm employment rose in 36 of the 51 metropolitan areas with a 2010 Census population of 1
million or more, while employment was essentially unchanged in 15 areas. The largest over-the-year 
percentage increases in employment in these large metropolitan areas occurred in Raleigh, NC (+3.8 percent),
Jacksonville, FL (+3.4 percent), and Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington, TX, and San Antonio-New Braunfels, TX 
(+3.2 percent each). 

Metropolitan Division Nonfarm Employment (Not Seasonally Adjusted)

In November, nonfarm payroll employment increased in 12 of the 38 metropolitan divisions over the year and
was essentially unchanged in 26 divisions. The largest over-the-year increase in employment among the 
metropolitan divisions occurred in Dallas-Plano-Irving, TX (+97,800), followed by Los Angeles-Long Beach-
Glendale, CA (+81,900), and New York-Jersey City-White Plains, NY-NJ (+77,300). (See table 4.)

The largest over-the-year percentage increases in employment occurred in Dallas-Plano-Irving, TX (+3.7
percent), San Francisco-Redwood City-South San Francisco, CA (+3.1 percent), and Seattle-Bellevue-Everett, 
WA (+3.0 percent).

_____________
The State Employment and Unemployment news release for December 2019 is scheduled to be released on Friday,
January 24, 2020, at 10:00 a.m. (EST). The Metropolitan Area Employment and Unemployment news release for
December 2019 is scheduled to be released on Wednesday, February 5, 2020, at 10:00 a.m. (EST).




Technical Note
 
   This news release presents civilian labor force and unemployment data from the
Local Area Unemployment Statistics (LAUS) program (tables 1 and 2) for 389
metropolitan statistical areas and metropolitan New England City and Town Areas
(NECTAs), plus 7 areas in Puerto Rico. Estimates for 38 metropolitan and NECTA
divisions also are presented. Nonfarm payroll employment estimates from the
Current Employment Statistics (CES) program (tables 3 and 4) are provided for
the same areas. State estimates were previously published in the news release
State Employment and Unemployment, and are republished in this news release for
ease of reference. The LAUS and CES programs are both federal-state cooperative
endeavors.

Civilian labor force and unemployment--from the LAUS program

   Definitions. The civilian labor force and unemployment data are based on the
same concepts and definitions as those used for the official national estimates
obtained from the Current Population Survey (CPS), a sample survey of households
that is conducted for the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) by the U.S. Census
Bureau. The LAUS program measures employed persons and unemployed persons on a
place-of-residence basis.  The universe for each is the civilian noninstitutional
population 16 years of age and older. Employed persons are those who did any work
at all for pay or profit in the reference week (typically the week including the
12th of the month) or worked 15 hours or more without pay in a family business or
farm, plus those not working who had a job from which they were temporarily absent,
whether or not paid, for such reasons as labor-management dispute, illness, or
vacation. Unemployed persons are those who were not employed during the reference
week (based on the definition above), had actively looked for a job sometime in the
4-week period ending with the reference week, and were currently available for work;
persons on layoff expecting recall need not be looking for work to be counted as
unemployed. The civilian labor force is the sum of employed and unemployed persons.
The unemployment rate is the number of unemployed as a percent of the civilian labor
force.

   Method of estimation. Estimates for states, the District of Columbia, the Los
Angeles-Long Beach-Glendale metropolitan division, and New York City are produced
using time-series models with real-time benchmarking to national CPS totals. Model-
based estimates are also produced for the following areas and their respective
balances: the Chicago-Naperville-Arlington Heights, IL Metropolitan Division;
Cleveland-Elyria, OH Metropolitan Statistical Area; Detroit-Warren-Dearborn, MI
Metropolitan Statistical Area; Miami-Miami Beach-Kendall, FL Metropolitan Division;
and Seattle-Bellevue-Everett, WA Metropolitan Division. Modeling improves the
statistical basis of the estimation for these areas and provides important tools
for analysis, such as measures of errors and seasonally adjusted series. For all
other substate areas in this news release, estimates are prepared through indirect
estimation procedures using a building-block approach.  Estimates of employed
persons, which are based largely on “place of work” estimates from the CES program,
are adjusted to refer to place of residence as used in the CPS. Unemployment
estimates are aggregates of persons previously employed in industries covered by
state unemployment insurance (UI) laws and entrants to the labor force from the
CPS. The substate estimates of employment and unemployment, which geographically
exhaust the entire state, are adjusted proportionally to ensure that they add to
the independently estimated model-based area totals. A detailed description of the
estimation procedures is available from BLS upon request.

   Annual revisions. Civilian labor force and unemployment data shown for the prior
year reflect adjustments made at the beginning of each year, usually implemented with
the issuance of January estimates. The adjusted model-based estimates typically reflect
updated population data from the U.S. Census Bureau, any revisions in other input
data sources, and model re-estimation. All substate estimates then are re-estimated
using updated inputs and adjusted to add to the revised model-based totals.  In early
2015, a new generation of time-series models was implemented, resulting in the
replacement of data back to the series beginnings. At the same time, enhancements were
made to the substate estimation methodology, and more timely inputs from the American
Community Survey were incorporated.

Employment--from the CES program 

   Definitions. Employment data refer to persons on establishment payrolls who receive
pay for any part of the pay period that includes the 12th of the month. Persons are
counted at their place of work rather than at their place of residence; those appearing
on more than one payroll are counted on each payroll. Industries are classified on the
basis of their principal activity in accordance with the 2017 version of the North
American Industry Classification System.

   Method of estimation. CES State and Area employment data are produced using several
estimation procedures. Where possible these data are produced using a "weighted link
relative" estimation technique in which a ratio of current-month weighted employment
to that of the previous-month weighted employment is computed from a sample of
establishments reporting for both months. The estimates of employment for the current
month are then obtained by multiplying these ratios by the previous month's employment
estimates. The weighted link relative technique is utilized for data series where the
sample size meets certain statistical criteria.

   For some employment series, the sample of establishments is very small or highly
variable. In these cases, a model-based approach is used in estimation. These models
use the direct sample estimates (described above), combined with forecasts of historical
(benchmarked) data to decrease volatility in estimation. Two different models
(Fay-Herriot Model and Small Domain Model) are used depending on the industry level
being estimated. For more detailed information about each model, refer to the BLS
Handbook of Methods.

   Annual revisions.  Employment estimates are adjusted annually to a complete count
of jobs, called benchmarks, derived principally from tax reports that are submitted by
employers who are covered under state unemployment insurance (UI) laws. The benchmark
information is used to adjust the monthly estimates between the new benchmark and the
preceding one and also to establish the level of employment for the new benchmark month.
Thus, the benchmarking process establishes the level of employment, and the sample is used
to measure the month-to-month changes in the level for the subsequent months.

   Seasonal adjustment. Payroll employment data are seasonally adjusted for states,
metropolitan areas, and metropolitan divisions at the total nonfarm level. For states,
data are seasonally adjusted at the supersector level as well. Revisions to historical
data for the most recent 5 years are made once a year, coincident with annual benchmark
adjustments.

   Payroll employment data are seasonally adjusted concurrently, using all available
estimates including those for the current month, to develop sample-based seasonal factors.
Concurrent sample-based factors are created every month for the current month's preliminary
estimate as well as the previous month's final estimate in order to incorporate real-time
estimates. 

Reliability of the estimates

   The estimates presented in this news release are based on sample surveys, administrative data,
and modeling and, thus, are subject to sampling and other types of errors. Sampling error
is a measure of sampling variability—that is, variation that occurs by chance because a
sample rather than the entire population is surveyed. Survey data also are subject to
nonsampling errors, such as those which can be introduced into the data collection and
processing operations. Estimates not directly derived from sample surveys are subject to
additional errors resulting from the specific estimation processes used. The sums of
individual items may not always equal the totals shown in the same tables because of
rounding.

Use of error measures

   Civilian labor force and unemployment estimates. Measures of sampling error are not
available for metropolitan areas or metropolitan divisions. Model-based error measures for
states are available on the BLS website at www.bls.gov/laus/lastderr.htm. Measures of
nonsampling error are not available for the areas contained in this news release. Information
on recent data revisions for states and local areas is available online at
www.bls.gov/lau/launews1.htm.

   Employment estimates. Changes in metropolitan area nonfarm payroll employment are cited
in the analysis of this news release only if they have been determined to be statistically
significant at the 90-percent confidence level.  Measures of sampling error for the total
nonfarm employment series are available for metropolitan areas and metropolitan divisions
at www.bls.gov/web/laus/790stderr.htm. Measures of sampling error for more detailed series
at the area and division level are available upon request. Measures of sampling error for
states  at the supersector level and for the private service-providing, goods-producing,
total private and total nonfarm levels are available on the BLS website at 
www.bls.gov/web/laus/790stderr.htm. Information on recent benchmark revisions
is available online at www.bls.gov/web/laus/benchmark.pdf.

Area definitions

   The substate area data published in this news release reflect the delineations issued by the
U.S. Office of Management and Budget on April 10, 2018. Data reflect New England City and
Town Area (NECTA) definitions, rather than county-based definitions, in the six New England
States. A detailed list of the geographic definitions is available online at
www.bls.gov/lau/lausmsa.htm.

Additional information

   Estimates of unadjusted and seasonally adjusted civilian labor force and unemployment
data for states and seven substate areas are available in the news release State Employment
and Unemployment. Estimates of civilian labor force and unemployment for all states,
metropolitan areas, counties, cities with a population of 25,000 or more, and other areas
used in the administration of various federal economic assistance programs are available
on the Internet at www.bls.gov/lau/. Employment data from the CES program are available on
the BLS website at www.bls.gov/sae/.

   Information in this news release will be made available to sensory impaired individuals
upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay Service: (800) 877-8339. 




LABOR FORCE DATA
NOT SEASONALLY ADJUSTED

Table 1. Civilian labor force and unemployment by state and metropolitan area
State and area Civilian labor force Unemployed
October November Number Percent of labor force
2018 2019 2018 2019(p) October November October November
2018 2019 2018 2019(p) 2018 2019 2018 2019(p)

Alabama

2,212,503 2,269,499 2,205,363 2,259,373 81,676 54,941 73,717 55,794 3.7 2.4 3.3 2.5

Anniston-Oxford-Jacksonville

45,795 46,702 45,801 46,428 2,001 1,330 1,819 1,355 4.4 2.8 4.0 2.9

Auburn-Opelika

76,149 78,443 76,282 78,483 2,539 1,668 2,299 1,722 3.3 2.1 3.0 2.2

Birmingham-Hoover

548,653 562,703 548,078 561,598 18,447 12,306 16,618 12,490 3.4 2.2 3.0 2.2

Daphne-Fairhope-Foley

93,506 97,082 92,774 96,415 3,228 2,122 2,934 2,195 3.5 2.2 3.2 2.3

Decatur

71,190 73,390 71,190 73,253 2,359 1,607 2,147 1,637 3.3 2.2 3.0 2.2

Dothan

63,152 64,021 62,325 63,677 2,469 1,544 2,193 1,604 3.9 2.4 3.5 2.5

Florence-Muscle Shoals

66,258 67,307 65,949 66,917 2,615 1,819 2,346 1,836 3.9 2.7 3.6 2.7

Gadsden

43,394 44,402 43,063 44,201 1,669 1,239 1,523 1,186 3.8 2.8 3.5 2.7

Huntsville

224,628 232,480 224,908 231,907 7,441 4,764 6,598 4,799 3.3 2.0 2.9 2.1

Mobile

188,386 192,647 187,958 192,046 8,147 5,722 7,367 5,793 4.3 3.0 3.9 3.0

Montgomery

172,359 176,740 171,846 175,730 6,430 4,295 5,773 4,333 3.7 2.4 3.4 2.5

Tuscaloosa

117,409 121,337 117,080 120,788 3,945 2,699 3,640 2,801 3.4 2.2 3.1 2.3

Alaska

354,262 344,026 353,278 342,571 21,539 19,289 22,657 20,638 6.1 5.6 6.4 6.0

Anchorage

199,196 193,150 201,422 195,479 11,106 9,721 11,379 10,228 5.6 5.0 5.6 5.2

Fairbanks

46,270 44,631 46,182 44,398 2,433 2,180 2,573 2,356 5.3 4.9 5.6 5.3

Arizona

3,491,620 3,599,850 3,512,594 3,622,661 170,174 155,340 166,722 157,057 4.9 4.3 4.7 4.3

Flagstaff

78,808 80,225 77,887 79,453 4,152 3,783 4,115 3,779 5.3 4.7 5.3 4.8

Lake Havasu City-Kingman

86,465 89,061 86,525 89,749 4,915 4,657 4,997 4,798 5.7 5.2 5.8 5.3

Phoenix-Mesa-Scottsdale

2,440,085 2,527,808 2,459,584 2,545,071 102,079 93,956 102,136 95,656 4.2 3.7 4.2 3.8

Prescott

107,103 109,304 107,496 110,144 4,754 4,400 4,882 4,575 4.4 4.0 4.5 4.2

Sierra Vista-Douglas

50,156 51,811 50,734 51,968 2,805 2,631 2,844 2,761 5.6 5.1 5.6 5.3

Tucson

491,259 504,239 495,039 508,946 21,941 20,638 22,132 20,950 4.5 4.1 4.5 4.1

Yuma

104,775 102,415 103,119 102,582 19,431 16,458 16,107 15,762 18.5 16.1 15.6 15.4

Arkansas

1,355,060 1,371,482 1,351,062 1,368,523 44,065 43,551 43,405 43,732 3.3 3.2 3.2 3.2

Fayetteville-Springdale-Rogers

276,369 286,907 275,869 286,326 6,889 6,492 6,644 6,400 2.5 2.3 2.4 2.2

Fort Smith

118,933 118,795 118,675 118,861 4,093 4,122 3,890 4,056 3.4 3.5 3.3 3.4

Hot Springs

40,404 40,985 40,099 40,662 1,514 1,420 1,463 1,386 3.7 3.5 3.6 3.4

Jonesboro

64,667 66,146 64,643 66,130 1,794 1,694 1,749 1,669 2.8 2.6 2.7 2.5

Little Rock-North Little Rock-Conway

355,560 360,122 353,968 359,984 10,672 10,735 10,347 10,702 3.0 3.0 2.9 3.0

Pine Bluff

35,546 35,246 35,338 34,907 1,602 1,645 1,603 1,696 4.5 4.7 4.5 4.9

California

19,542,699 19,588,210 19,562,413 19,616,666 772,789 719,195 760,287 719,250 4.0 3.7 3.9 3.7

Bakersfield

392,498 393,210 388,958 389,849 25,417 23,993 25,161 24,843 6.5 6.1 6.5 6.4

Chico

104,924 104,426 103,625 103,395 4,418 3,992 4,503 4,100 4.2 3.8 4.3 4.0

El Centro

72,081 74,108 72,596 74,280 14,209 15,642 13,455 15,309 19.7 21.1 18.5 20.6

Fresno

447,143 450,299 449,306 451,121 28,434 26,273 30,606 29,498 6.4 5.8 6.8 6.5

Hanford-Corcoran

57,747 57,914 57,493 57,885 3,604 3,632 3,951 4,085 6.2 6.3 6.9 7.1

Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim

6,806,284 6,797,275 6,817,785 6,833,846 286,727 275,353 278,806 261,949 4.2 4.1 4.1 3.8

Madera

61,415 61,537 60,846 61,012 3,571 3,318 3,726 3,703 5.8 5.4 6.1 6.1

Merced

116,860 118,254 114,185 116,352 7,272 6,805 7,808 7,581 6.2 5.8 6.8 6.5

Modesto

243,913 243,933 242,704 242,768 13,201 11,844 13,668 12,677 5.4 4.9 5.6 5.2

Napa

75,762 75,414 73,517 73,636 1,927 1,748 1,934 1,893 2.5 2.3 2.6 2.6

Oxnard-Thousand Oaks-Ventura

427,355 423,843 428,472 424,712 15,761 13,914 15,726 14,476 3.7 3.3 3.7 3.4

Redding

75,087 74,764 74,406 74,080 3,247 2,827 3,235 2,925 4.3 3.8 4.3 3.9

Riverside-San Bernardino-Ontario

2,071,476 2,078,795 2,086,173 2,092,615 85,350 77,097 80,930 75,864 4.1 3.7 3.9 3.6

Sacramento--Roseville--Arden-Arcade

1,104,825 1,103,783 1,108,474 1,106,907 38,370 34,585 37,570 35,235 3.5 3.1 3.4 3.2

Salinas

226,619 228,088 221,037 222,561 9,263 8,380 10,618 10,070 4.1 3.7 4.8 4.5

San Diego-Carlsbad

1,604,579 1,611,237 1,607,105 1,613,206 51,942 45,952 50,138 46,119 3.2 2.9 3.1 2.9

San Francisco-Oakland-Hayward

2,608,606 2,633,310 2,617,117 2,630,977 68,309 61,088 65,402 60,963 2.6 2.3 2.5 2.3

San Jose-Sunnyvale-Santa Clara

1,086,645 1,101,952 1,090,373 1,103,362 27,599 25,273 26,422 25,485 2.5 2.3 2.4 2.3

San Luis Obispo-Paso Robles-Arroyo Grande

142,915 142,963 142,702 142,509 3,937 3,480 3,817 3,571 2.8 2.4 2.7 2.5

Santa Cruz-Watsonville

144,629 144,394 142,585 142,339 5,164 4,809 5,837 5,618 3.6 3.3 4.1 3.9

Santa Maria-Santa Barbara

218,635 219,350 218,589 218,707 7,312 6,585 7,329 6,878 3.3 3.0 3.4 3.1

Santa Rosa

265,201 264,425 261,752 261,799 6,687 6,035 6,502 6,209 2.5 2.3 2.5 2.4

Stockton-Lodi

329,029 326,961 326,746 324,747 17,168 16,229 17,860 17,246 5.2 5.0 5.5 5.3

Vallejo-Fairfield

210,499 208,941 210,504 208,465 7,601 6,800 7,475 6,926 3.6 3.3 3.6 3.3

Visalia-Porterville

201,854 202,693 203,862 203,535 16,931 16,226 17,396 17,303 8.4 8.0 8.5 8.5

Yuba City

74,629 74,678 74,294 75,352 4,233 3,852 4,627 4,288 5.7 5.2 6.2 5.7

Colorado

3,135,286 3,178,231 3,133,401 3,181,397 106,223 75,810 111,166 79,586 3.4 2.4 3.5 2.5

Boulder

197,284 199,825 196,896 199,892 5,897 4,155 5,905 4,197 3.0 2.1 3.0 2.1

Colorado Springs

356,469 361,924 356,109 363,747 14,362 10,112 15,008 10,630 4.0 2.8 4.2 2.9

Denver-Aurora-Lakewood

1,666,651 1,687,201 1,659,436 1,688,087 54,623 39,396 56,732 40,641 3.3 2.3 3.4 2.4

Fort Collins

206,009 211,608 206,475 211,506 6,069 4,237 6,222 4,389 2.9 2.0 3.0 2.1

Grand Junction

77,589 78,346 77,634 77,993 3,022 2,173 3,253 2,300 3.9 2.8 4.2 2.9

Greeley

169,734 173,988 168,221 172,731 5,233 3,818 5,352 3,992 3.1 2.2 3.2 2.3

Pueblo

76,607 76,350 76,703 76,897 3,846 2,695 4,045 2,890 5.0 3.5 5.3 3.8

Connecticut

1,915,336 1,929,565 1,920,441 1,934,041 66,683 67,229 60,478 63,780 3.5 3.5 3.1 3.3

Bridgeport-Stamford-Norwalk

466,514 471,753 470,566 473,847 16,515 16,644 14,932 15,824 3.5 3.5 3.2 3.3

Danbury

106,623 107,736 107,558 108,310 3,056 3,077 2,775 2,971 2.9 2.9 2.6 2.7

Hartford-West Hartford-East Hartford

630,843 632,683 631,538 634,231 21,802 22,334 19,784 21,055 3.5 3.5 3.1 3.3

New Haven

330,043 332,945 329,597 332,942 11,324 11,378 10,176 10,683 3.4 3.4 3.1 3.2

Norwich-New London-Westerly

142,468 143,035 142,507 143,530 4,754 4,761 4,508 4,656 3.3 3.3 3.2 3.2

Waterbury

112,797 113,439 113,033 113,807 4,924 4,849 4,563 4,623 4.4 4.3 4.0 4.1

Delaware

481,871 490,529 482,804 493,066 16,101 18,760 14,349 18,110 3.3 3.8 3.0 3.7

Dover

78,126 80,094 78,215 80,169 2,796 3,402 2,451 3,182 3.6 4.2 3.1 4.0

Salisbury(1)

189,219 190,816 187,353 189,123 7,764 7,655 8,390 8,946 4.1 4.0 4.5 4.7

District of Columbia

402,446 408,339 402,811 415,088 21,315 21,835 20,563 20,558 5.3 5.3 5.1 5.0

Washington-Arlington-Alexandria

3,393,284 3,487,666 3,385,124 3,492,075 104,742 98,416 98,787 96,779 3.1 2.8 2.9 2.8

Florida

10,305,265 10,566,507 10,293,133 10,479,146 340,078 307,598 335,916 287,779 3.3 2.9 3.3 2.7

Cape Coral-Fort Myers

343,976 356,370 346,877 356,213 10,996 9,996 10,902 9,432 3.2 2.8 3.1 2.6

Crestview-Fort Walton Beach-Destin

126,655 130,198 125,952 128,376 3,433 3,021 3,539 2,998 2.7 2.3 2.8 2.3

Deltona-Daytona Beach-Ormond Beach

302,842 306,739 301,176 305,407 10,685 9,734 10,604 9,317 3.5 3.2 3.5 3.1

Gainesville

147,079 147,623 145,611 146,363 4,466 4,077 4,352 3,725 3.0 2.8 3.0 2.5

Homosassa Springs

48,201 48,568 47,863 48,116 2,307 2,006 2,317 1,966 4.8 4.1 4.8 4.1

Jacksonville

775,655 800,072 769,881 792,056 24,420 22,443 23,986 20,946 3.1 2.8 3.1 2.6

Lakeland-Winter Haven

304,059 306,181 302,265 305,445 11,390 10,414 11,074 9,662 3.7 3.4 3.7 3.2

Miami-Fort Lauderdale-West Palm Beach

3,163,808 3,270,402 3,168,158 3,221,968 107,396 94,652 101,211 87,410 3.4 2.9 3.2 2.7

Naples-Immokalee-Marco Island

176,782 181,170 179,149 183,849 5,881 5,326 5,661 4,925 3.3 2.9 3.2 2.7

North Port-Sarasota-Bradenton

365,580 370,882 365,866 372,749 11,592 10,407 11,603 9,975 3.2 2.8 3.2 2.7

Ocala

136,819 139,549 136,236 138,467 5,368 4,745 5,365 4,562 3.9 3.4 3.9 3.3

Orlando-Kissimmee-Sanford

1,355,177 1,395,626 1,353,797 1,385,303 40,714 37,790 40,219 35,144 3.0 2.7 3.0 2.5

Palm Bay-Melbourne-Titusville

279,292 287,068 277,669 285,519 9,001 8,387 8,991 7,937 3.2 2.9 3.2 2.8

Panama City

94,288 93,348 95,413 91,719 2,839 2,760 6,687 2,606 3.0 3.0 7.0 2.8

Pensacola-Ferry Pass-Brent

228,630 229,930 227,183 228,240 7,115 6,542 7,121 6,214 3.1 2.8 3.1 2.7

Port St. Lucie

219,745 223,359 219,678 222,195 8,150 7,407 7,992 6,945 3.7 3.3 3.6 3.1

Punta Gorda

71,114 72,667 71,476 73,100 2,685 2,378 2,710 2,326 3.8 3.3 3.8 3.2

Sebastian-Vero Beach

65,536 67,312 66,266 67,818 2,586 2,296 2,529 2,152 3.9 3.4 3.8 3.2

Sebring

35,682 35,920 36,158 36,277 1,631 1,468 1,636 1,406 4.6 4.1 4.5 3.9

Tallahassee

196,582 202,052 196,231 200,427 6,228 5,771 6,216 5,266 3.2 2.9 3.2 2.6

Tampa-St. Petersburg-Clearwater

1,543,442 1,572,438 1,536,852 1,562,597 49,462 45,318 49,015 42,767 3.2 2.9 3.2 2.7

The Villages

31,324 32,127 31,335 32,097 1,443 1,271 1,508 1,324 4.6 4.0 4.8 4.1

Georgia

5,112,773 5,132,608 5,111,058 5,124,821 191,762 156,277 176,023 139,294 3.8 3.0 3.4 2.7

Albany

67,416 66,773 68,204 66,712 3,062 2,447 3,019 2,262 4.5 3.7 4.4 3.4

Athens-Clarke County

103,341 102,735 103,622 102,378 3,704 2,888 3,259 2,490 3.6 2.8 3.1 2.4

Atlanta-Sandy Springs-Roswell

3,073,624 3,098,361 3,066,497 3,093,261 109,747 89,284 100,086 79,695 3.6 2.9 3.3 2.6

Augusta-Richmond County

266,838 268,468 266,171 268,091 10,426 8,147 9,545 7,527 3.9 3.0 3.6 2.8

Brunswick

53,382 53,603 53,430 53,524 1,980 1,638 1,784 1,416 3.7 3.1 3.3 2.6

Columbus

124,934 123,569 124,888 123,115 5,439 4,317 4,942 3,934 4.4 3.5 4.0 3.2

Dalton

61,094 61,253 60,942 60,534 2,809 2,705 2,619 2,194 4.6 4.4 4.3 3.6

Gainesville

103,346 104,994 103,495 105,044 3,166 2,497 2,812 2,195 3.1 2.4 2.7 2.1

Hinesville

33,697 33,831 33,634 33,754 1,346 1,160 1,232 1,041 4.0 3.4 3.7 3.1

Macon-Bibb County

104,212 103,651 104,859 103,931 4,465 3,439 4,162 3,049 4.3 3.3 4.0 2.9

Rome

44,214 44,712 44,113 44,682 1,850 1,471 1,673 1,389 4.2 3.3 3.8 3.1

Savannah

188,232 187,966 187,340 188,546 6,639 5,491 5,963 4,845 3.5 2.9 3.2 2.6

Valdosta

64,938 64,945 65,291 65,045 2,564 2,054 2,266 1,873 3.9 3.2 3.5 2.9

Warner Robins

86,457 86,015 86,877 85,677 3,918 2,747 3,844 2,314 4.5 3.2 4.4 2.7

Hawaii

673,215 663,422 678,100 668,035 17,405 17,488 18,287 16,956 2.6 2.6 2.7 2.5

Kahului-Wailuku-Lahaina

84,790 83,939 85,147 84,260 2,274 2,280 2,297 2,121 2.7 2.7 2.7 2.5

Urban Honolulu

462,290 456,535 466,316 459,950 10,977 11,087 12,004 10,880 2.4 2.4 2.6 2.4

Idaho

862,938 888,317 861,411 887,360 19,220 20,718 22,900 25,151 2.2 2.3 2.7 2.8

Boise City

361,662 373,204 365,395 377,621 7,968 8,743 9,259 10,562 2.2 2.3 2.5 2.8

Coeur d'Alene

77,092 79,313 77,644 79,169 2,027 2,197 2,520 2,555 2.6 2.8 3.2 3.2

Idaho Falls

70,883 74,007 71,129 74,627 1,323 1,429 1,538 1,720 1.9 1.9 2.2 2.3

Lewiston

31,125 31,976 31,433 32,265 849 905 1,015 995 2.7 2.8 3.2 3.1

Pocatello

41,812 43,336 42,426 43,789 922 1,003 1,098 1,169 2.2 2.3 2.6 2.7

Twin Falls

53,047 54,351 52,998 54,311 1,125 1,191 1,306 1,501 2.1 2.2 2.5 2.8

Illinois

6,477,162 6,487,355 6,468,774 6,447,310 263,231 235,472 259,018 218,259 4.1 3.6 4.0 3.4

Bloomington

96,188 96,249 95,626 95,238 4,142 3,353 3,949 2,984 4.3 3.5 4.1 3.1

Carbondale-Marion

61,427 62,494 61,426 62,365 2,893 2,339 2,817 2,097 4.7 3.7 4.6 3.4

Champaign-Urbana

122,180 125,578 121,100 124,048 5,553 4,432 5,205 3,902 4.5 3.5 4.3 3.1

Chicago-Naperville-Elgin

4,877,420 4,873,069 4,873,710 4,852,539 182,549 168,980 172,179 158,665 3.7 3.5 3.5 3.3

Danville

33,416 33,417 33,218 33,036 1,956 1,627 1,914 1,516 5.9 4.9 5.8 4.6

Davenport-Moline-Rock Island(1)

193,286 196,472 191,934 194,044 7,701 7,586 7,129 7,577 4.0 3.9 3.7 3.9

Decatur

50,130 50,585 49,898 50,176 2,764 2,453 2,762 2,261 5.5 4.8 5.5 4.5

Kankakee

56,192 56,785 56,305 56,435 2,874 2,458 2,914 2,620 5.1 4.3 5.2 4.6

Peoria

181,323 180,216 181,127 177,301 8,920 7,574 8,694 7,071 4.9 4.2 4.8 4.0

Rockford

167,798 168,985 171,319 168,016 9,039 8,527 16,052 8,529 5.4 5.0 9.4 5.1

Springfield

111,527 112,484 111,458 111,781 4,715 3,926 4,646 3,597 4.2 3.5 4.2 3.2

Indiana

3,393,074 3,377,838 3,387,893 3,365,352 112,491 101,447 111,876 106,202 3.3 3.0 3.3 3.2

Bloomington

80,893 80,214 80,789 80,031 2,973 2,492 2,747 2,568 3.7 3.1 3.4 3.2

Columbus

45,399 45,602 45,671 45,730 1,106 986 1,115 1,052 2.4 2.2 2.4 2.3

Elkhart-Goshen

116,099 115,956 115,736 115,691 3,172 3,214 3,181 3,294 2.7 2.8 2.7 2.8

Evansville

165,713 164,507 165,658 164,475 5,143 4,673 4,912 4,926 3.1 2.8 3.0 3.0

Fort Wayne

219,048 221,972 217,697 218,994 6,646 7,209 6,327 6,881 3.0 3.2 2.9 3.1

Indianapolis-Carmel-Anderson

1,066,591 1,061,054 1,063,148 1,059,419 33,614 29,085 32,520 30,552 3.2 2.7 3.1 2.9

Kokomo

37,350 37,713 39,569 37,561 1,350 1,204 3,161 1,265 3.6 3.2 8.0 3.4

Lafayette-West Lafayette

113,795 110,440 112,984 109,718 3,574 3,076 3,353 3,198 3.1 2.8 3.0 2.9

Michigan City-La Porte

47,608 47,221 47,787 47,162 1,892 1,679 1,935 1,829 4.0 3.6 4.0 3.9

Muncie

54,782 54,526 54,518 54,745 2,127 1,939 2,074 2,033 3.9 3.6 3.8 3.7

South Bend-Mishawaka

162,196 161,321 161,687 161,126 5,641 5,525 5,419 5,579 3.5 3.4 3.4 3.5

Terre Haute

77,549 76,499 77,361 76,418 3,306 2,759 3,183 2,994 4.3 3.6 4.1 3.9

Iowa

1,695,446 1,774,385 1,691,018 1,768,820 31,524 38,168 31,556 41,064 1.9 2.2 1.9 2.3

Ames

59,957 63,552 59,610 63,092 634 856 717 995 1.1 1.3 1.2 1.6

Cedar Rapids

143,332 149,807 142,484 149,974 2,988 3,612 3,102 3,945 2.1 2.4 2.2 2.6

Des Moines-West Des Moines

355,900 379,149 353,450 375,574 6,693 7,945 6,602 8,485 1.9 2.1 1.9 2.3

Dubuque

55,766 58,299 55,433 58,194 891 1,130 981 1,292 1.6 1.9 1.8 2.2

Iowa City

97,784 100,820 97,193 100,275 1,426 1,616 1,476 1,813 1.5 1.6 1.5 1.8

Sioux City

93,462 96,315 93,244 96,877 1,790 2,310 1,859 2,469 1.9 2.4 2.0 2.5

Waterloo-Cedar Falls

90,152 93,647 89,642 92,709 1,693 2,347 1,696 2,470 1.9 2.5 1.9 2.7

Kansas

1,488,086 1,502,927 1,490,418 1,504,743 44,868 42,682 44,166 42,884 3.0 2.8 3.0 2.8

Lawrence

66,491 67,012 66,643 67,306 1,765 1,742 1,767 1,752 2.7 2.6 2.7 2.6

Manhattan

49,305 49,434 49,471 49,454 1,235 1,207 1,273 1,233 2.5 2.4 2.6 2.5

Topeka

120,026 122,632 119,877 122,399 3,842 3,516 3,712 3,598 3.2 2.9 3.1 2.9

Wichita

309,637 311,349 310,890 313,687 10,347 9,790 10,140 9,893 3.3 3.1 3.3 3.2

Kentucky

2,050,539 2,074,332 2,054,178 2,088,173 79,263 77,635 72,305 80,388 3.9 3.7 3.5 3.8

Bowling Green

83,503 85,337 83,633 85,354 2,947 3,044 2,630 3,001 3.5 3.6 3.1 3.5

Elizabethtown-Fort Knox

67,085 67,535 67,239 67,826 2,557 2,472 2,310 2,570 3.8 3.7 3.4 3.8

Lexington-Fayette

271,383 277,046 272,920 278,339 8,521 8,126 7,455 8,411 3.1 2.9 2.7 3.0

Louisville/Jefferson County

664,268 672,615 666,983 676,072 23,668 21,991 21,900 22,732 3.6 3.3 3.3 3.4

Owensboro

55,735 55,593 55,542 55,831 1,997 1,852 1,807 1,906 3.6 3.3 3.3 3.4

Louisiana

2,105,178 2,101,385 2,098,944 2,109,952 97,073 98,917 90,359 102,329 4.6 4.7 4.3 4.8

Alexandria

62,872 62,306 62,595 62,275 3,221 3,127 3,053 3,306 5.1 5.0 4.9 5.3

Baton Rouge

419,725 421,133 419,997 423,482 17,505 18,141 16,093 18,655 4.2 4.3 3.8 4.4

Hammond

54,306 54,937 54,174 55,245 2,757 2,866 2,615 2,976 5.1 5.2 4.8 5.4

Houma-Thibodaux

87,597 85,399 86,786 84,925 4,060 3,935 3,747 4,038 4.6 4.6 4.3 4.8

Lafayette

212,434 212,318 211,594 211,512 9,781 9,852 9,135 10,188 4.6 4.6 4.3 4.8

Lake Charles

114,405 113,891 113,932 113,302 4,061 4,332 3,781 4,583 3.5 3.8 3.3 4.0

Monroe

79,544 78,325 79,585 79,153 4,056 4,199 3,837 4,399 5.1 5.4 4.8 5.6

New Orleans-Metairie

598,756 601,544 596,750 607,415 26,182 26,310 24,191 26,808 4.4 4.4 4.1 4.4

Shreveport-Bossier City

186,718 183,900 186,258 185,583 9,269 9,467 8,654 9,815 5.0 5.1 4.6 5.3

Maine

699,745 692,566 693,756 687,881 20,500 16,386 23,036 18,444 2.9 2.4 3.3 2.7

Bangor

72,269 71,764 71,476 71,587 2,208 1,739 2,359 1,871 3.1 2.4 3.3 2.6

Lewiston-Auburn

56,399 55,858 55,925 55,682 1,653 1,370 1,814 1,452 2.9 2.5 3.2 2.6

Portland-South Portland

209,715 208,723 208,589 207,544 5,248 4,260 5,820 4,623 2.5 2.0 2.8 2.2

Maryland

3,198,764 3,297,387 3,191,352 3,292,061 115,284 106,455 109,903 105,249 3.6 3.2 3.4 3.2

Baltimore-Columbia-Towson

1,496,052 1,547,824 1,495,407 1,545,363 54,728 50,710 51,551 49,510 3.7 3.3 3.4 3.2

California-Lexington Park

55,244 56,626 54,961 56,420 1,856 1,662 1,776 1,622 3.4 2.9 3.2 2.9

Cumberland

44,515 45,768 44,339 45,370 2,068 2,285 2,034 2,257 4.6 5.0 4.6 5.0

Hagerstown-Martinsburg

131,799 136,278 132,392 137,341 5,027 4,442 4,808 4,346 3.8 3.3 3.6 3.2

Massachusetts

3,817,350 3,840,687 3,823,218 3,837,116 104,354 94,594 98,823 88,675 2.7 2.5 2.6 2.3

Barnstable Town

127,539 127,842 124,516 123,533 3,680 3,411 4,012 3,708 2.9 2.7 3.2 3.0

Boston-Cambridge-Nashua

2,821,289 2,844,515 2,827,796 2,844,941 71,261 65,300 66,984 60,618 2.5 2.3 2.4 2.1

Leominster-Gardner

82,000 82,429 82,856 82,991 2,513 2,273 2,369 2,198 3.1 2.8 2.9 2.6

New Bedford

86,114 86,299 86,990 86,898 3,452 3,185 3,277 3,029 4.0 3.7 3.8 3.5

Pittsfield

43,365 43,242 43,319 43,164 1,396 1,242 1,462 1,257 3.2 2.9 3.4 2.9

Springfield

384,172 389,514 385,892 390,230 12,769 11,879 12,003 11,059 3.3 3.0 3.1 2.8

Worcester

362,453 361,317 364,388 361,837 10,906 9,992 10,166 9,368 3.0 2.8 2.8 2.6

Michigan

4,909,341 4,938,576 4,893,580 4,934,862 181,296 174,052 166,773 157,495 3.7 3.5 3.4 3.2

Ann Arbor

195,442 195,853 196,725 199,308 5,517 4,988 4,947 4,436 2.8 2.5 2.5 2.2

Battle Creek

62,506 61,982 63,021 62,912 2,174 2,183 2,109 2,026 3.5 3.5 3.3 3.2

Bay City

49,815 49,338 50,164 49,857 1,788 2,030 1,754 1,833 3.6 4.1 3.5 3.7

Detroit-Warren-Dearborn

2,149,643 2,175,085 2,129,400 2,148,174 93,159 81,502 78,916 72,550 4.3 3.7 3.7 3.4

Flint

180,469 183,267 181,767 184,491 7,110 8,840 6,935 7,020 3.9 4.8 3.8 3.8

Grand Rapids-Wyoming

575,240 573,670 578,696 580,641 14,604 14,206 13,815 13,481 2.5 2.5 2.4 2.3

Jackson

73,850 73,356 74,347 74,749 2,372 2,411 2,310 2,238 3.2 3.3 3.1 3.0

Kalamazoo-Portage

168,725 168,748 168,969 170,354 5,069 5,195 4,929 4,808 3.0 3.1 2.9 2.8

Lansing-East Lansing

249,413 253,187 251,305 254,591 7,109 9,104 7,526 6,466 2.9 3.6 3.0 2.5

Midland

40,098 39,688 40,274 40,358 1,252 1,246 1,212 1,220 3.1 3.1 3.0 3.0

Monroe

76,181 75,156 76,390 76,354 2,971 2,209 2,794 2,190 3.9 2.9 3.7 2.9

Muskegon

77,167 77,846 77,669 79,216 2,906 2,801 2,759 2,823 3.8 3.6 3.6 3.6

Niles-Benton Harbor

72,430 73,052 72,828 73,810 2,489 2,281 2,452 2,307 3.4 3.1 3.4 3.1

Saginaw

86,163 85,777 87,094 87,437 3,255 4,119 3,224 3,388 3.8 4.8 3.7 3.9

Minnesota

3,077,928 3,138,147 3,073,359 3,129,485 68,733 79,870 69,288 89,398 2.2 2.5 2.3 2.9

Duluth

142,608 145,204 143,339 145,571 3,945 4,579 4,386 5,639 2.8 3.2 3.1 3.9

Mankato-North Mankato

62,681 64,496 61,952 64,315 1,147 1,293 1,052 1,298 1.8 2.0 1.7 2.0

Minneapolis-St. Paul-Bloomington

2,003,584 2,032,710 2,005,563 2,032,283 43,886 51,492 41,742 54,157 2.2 2.5 2.1 2.7

Rochester

123,772 127,239 122,834 126,030 2,328 2,653 2,314 2,940 1.9 2.1 1.9 2.3

St. Cloud

112,734 115,833 112,343 115,111 2,441 2,690 2,548 3,158 2.2 2.3 2.3 2.7

Mississippi

1,270,344 1,283,688 1,274,959 1,284,175 54,552 66,490 53,790 70,042 4.3 5.2 4.2 5.5

Gulfport-Biloxi-Pascagoula

162,291 166,060 162,915 166,323 7,300 8,631 7,248 9,150 4.5 5.2 4.4 5.5

Hattiesburg

69,102 70,913 69,997 71,592 2,568 3,120 2,518 3,260 3.7 4.4 3.6 4.6

Jackson

269,116 272,560 270,220 271,635 10,237 12,330 10,015 12,973 3.8 4.5 3.7 4.8

Missouri

3,045,583 3,141,604 3,039,341 3,128,004 70,459 79,156 75,593 93,595 2.3 2.5 2.5 3.0

Cape Girardeau

47,736 49,358 47,942 49,295 1,056 1,232 1,143 1,513 2.2 2.5 2.4 3.1

Columbia

98,061 100,325 97,940 100,132 1,549 1,719 1,730 2,172 1.6 1.7 1.8 2.2

Jefferson City

73,192 75,018 72,897 74,757 1,352 1,435 1,470 1,863 1.8 1.9 2.0 2.5

Joplin

83,833 86,192 83,847 86,116 1,751 2,066 1,897 2,477 2.1 2.4 2.3 2.9

Kansas City

1,134,437 1,162,766 1,131,451 1,161,907 30,859 31,028 31,057 33,093 2.7 2.7 2.7 2.8

St. Joseph

63,085 64,177 63,040 63,598 1,369 1,474 1,463 1,666 2.2 2.3 2.3 2.6

St. Louis(2)

1,455,409 1,501,286 1,452,805 1,496,955 41,198 40,959 42,518 44,233 2.8 2.7 2.9 3.0

Springfield

230,389 237,403 231,420 238,243 4,475 5,263 4,895 6,606 1.9 2.2 2.1 2.8

Montana

528,418 534,388 527,399 537,146 17,784 16,680 18,980 18,309 3.4 3.1 3.6 3.4

Billings

86,558 86,947 86,316 87,374 2,698 2,531 2,753 2,684 3.1 2.9 3.2 3.1

Great Falls

37,765 38,002 37,827 38,255 1,249 1,190 1,281 1,226 3.3 3.1 3.4 3.2

Missoula

63,595 64,892 63,291 64,951 1,898 1,812 2,011 1,989 3.0 2.8 3.2 3.1

Nebraska

1,022,354 1,045,946 1,020,931 1,046,220 25,751 30,541 23,458 28,999 2.5 2.9 2.3 2.8

Grand Island

43,288 44,580 43,231 43,914 1,116 1,863 1,067 1,249 2.6 4.2 2.5 2.8

Lincoln

183,949 186,605 182,547 187,143 4,350 5,031 3,825 4,926 2.4 2.7 2.1 2.6

Omaha-Council Bluffs

488,718 509,532 486,576 506,412 12,330 13,934 11,586 13,689 2.5 2.7 2.4 2.7

Nevada

1,516,177 1,567,125 1,518,855 1,572,315 64,664 58,495 64,041 54,471 4.3 3.7 4.2 3.5

Carson City

25,709 26,903 25,759 26,853 1,062 924 1,079 890 4.1 3.4 4.2 3.3

Las Vegas-Henderson-Paradise

1,110,177 1,139,764 1,108,053 1,145,579 50,049 45,267 49,415 41,951 4.5 4.0 4.5 3.7

Reno

256,884 271,567 260,367 272,715 8,518 7,766 8,447 7,297 3.3 2.9 3.2 2.7

New Hampshire

759,725 774,283 761,578 775,060 15,191 17,913 16,449 17,697 2.0 2.3 2.2 2.3

Dover-Durham

85,611 86,862 85,912 86,786 1,603 1,833 1,750 1,827 1.9 2.1 2.0 2.1

Manchester

120,021 122,210 120,902 123,211 2,333 2,715 2,484 2,709 1.9 2.2 2.1 2.2

Portsmouth

77,403 78,521 77,128 78,369 1,529 1,650 1,655 1,610 2.0 2.1 2.1 2.1

New Jersey

4,412,319 4,557,721 4,409,867 4,563,111 154,190 149,755 145,777 150,539 3.5 3.3 3.3 3.3

Atlantic City-Hammonton

119,829 123,706 118,704 122,463 5,558 5,631 5,504 5,778 4.6 4.6 4.6 4.7

Ocean City

43,479 46,362 41,888 45,355 2,485 2,371 3,601 3,604 5.7 5.1 8.6 7.9

Trenton

196,542 205,039 197,184 205,574 6,125 6,094 5,698 5,989 3.1 3.0 2.9 2.9

Vineland-Bridgeton

64,062 67,429 64,269 67,573 3,179 3,231 3,200 3,349 5.0 4.8 5.0 5.0

New Mexico

948,513 967,324 952,647 970,731 46,182 43,970 46,012 44,575 4.9 4.5 4.8 4.6

Albuquerque

433,428 442,134 436,153 444,243 20,466 19,351 19,947 19,148 4.7 4.4 4.6 4.3

Farmington

53,202 54,262 53,171 53,756 2,944 2,853 2,926 2,948 5.5 5.3 5.5 5.5

Las Cruces

97,751 99,635 98,138 99,907 5,163 4,956 5,291 5,242 5.3 5.0 5.4 5.2

Santa Fe

74,709 74,456 75,162 75,486 3,114 2,750 3,068 2,736 4.2 3.7 4.1 3.6

New York

9,603,222 9,583,705 9,576,358 9,511,374 347,452 373,274 339,417 345,862 3.6 3.9 3.5 3.6

Albany-Schenectady-Troy

455,703 450,192 453,576 450,885 14,368 15,466 14,178 14,409 3.2 3.4 3.1 3.2

Binghamton

108,095 106,792 107,389 105,918 4,063 4,446 4,036 4,233 3.8 4.2 3.8 4.0

Buffalo-Cheektowaga-Niagara Falls

546,329 546,830 542,340 541,404 19,978 21,931 20,485 21,349 3.7 4.0 3.8 3.9

Elmira

35,258 34,995 35,394 34,747 1,368 1,407 1,286 1,283 3.9 4.0 3.6 3.7

Glens Falls

59,607 58,890 59,462 58,492 1,972 2,124 2,272 2,337 3.3 3.6 3.8 4.0

Ithaca

51,467 52,287 51,313 51,775 1,593 1,820 1,539 1,564 3.1 3.5 3.0 3.0

Kingston

89,936 89,805 89,005 88,809 2,874 3,064 2,804 2,874 3.2 3.4 3.2 3.2

New York-Newark-Jersey City

9,937,952 10,027,732 9,916,030 9,978,678 356,047 368,011 337,329 342,886 3.6 3.7 3.4 3.4

Rochester

526,171 527,410 523,910 524,957 18,247 20,214 18,382 19,409 3.5 3.8 3.5 3.7

Syracuse

309,179 311,209 308,308 309,043 10,697 12,096 11,044 11,509 3.5 3.9 3.6 3.7

Utica-Rome

129,561 128,471 129,908 128,168 4,698 5,052 4,910 4,999 3.6 3.9 3.8 3.9

Watertown-Fort Drum

44,263 44,323 44,450 44,186 1,834 2,150 2,179 2,446 4.1 4.9 4.9 5.5

North Carolina

5,007,407 5,153,426 4,992,016 5,109,338 181,089 185,225 180,250 173,571 3.6 3.6 3.6 3.4

Asheville

236,145 247,607 235,217 244,234 6,727 7,059 6,747 6,432 2.8 2.9 2.9 2.6

Burlington

81,364 83,169 81,337 82,388 2,697 2,878 2,712 2,651 3.3 3.5 3.3 3.2

Charlotte-Concord-Gastonia

1,347,774 1,390,489 1,343,343 1,378,010 44,938 44,880 44,468 43,178 3.3 3.2 3.3 3.1

Durham-Chapel Hill

299,396 307,411 298,863 304,153 9,517 9,845 9,521 8,998 3.2 3.2 3.2 3.0

Fayetteville

148,334 150,831 148,750 150,016 7,173 7,230 7,185 6,841 4.8 4.8 4.8 4.6

Goldsboro

52,831 52,844 52,416 53,185 2,104 2,076 2,123 1,923 4.0 3.9 4.1 3.6

Greensboro-High Point

370,424 377,189 368,821 374,071 13,763 14,299 14,077 13,342 3.7 3.8 3.8 3.6

Greenville

89,516 91,853 89,483 91,362 3,469 3,630 3,446 3,398 3.9 4.0 3.9 3.7

Hickory-Lenoir-Morganton

175,686 177,416 176,130 176,695 5,733 6,187 5,863 5,731 3.3 3.5 3.3 3.2

Jacksonville

64,242 65,191 64,041 64,753 3,221 2,871 2,942 2,618 5.0 4.4 4.6 4.0

New Bern

51,437 52,061 51,323 51,761 2,242 1,925 2,146 1,807 4.4 3.7 4.2 3.5

Raleigh

714,682 742,595 711,827 735,911 22,561 23,310 22,460 21,718 3.2 3.1 3.2 3.0

Rocky Mount

65,370 65,522 65,596 65,393 3,248 3,210 3,177 2,976 5.0 4.9 4.8 4.6

Wilmington

149,297 156,333 149,949 155,563 5,842 5,080 5,511 4,755 3.9 3.2 3.7 3.1

Winston-Salem

328,455 339,506 328,237 334,497 11,258 11,618 11,196 10,857 3.4 3.4 3.4 3.2

North Dakota

402,879 404,174 398,404 402,076 7,157 6,958 8,348 8,417 1.8 1.7 2.1 2.1

Bismarck

66,733 67,218 66,201 67,380 1,272 1,235 1,539 1,527 1.9 1.8 2.3 2.3

Fargo

136,045 138,130 135,217 138,588 2,338 2,266 2,522 2,632 1.7 1.6 1.9 1.9

Grand Forks

54,312 55,032 54,111 54,816 964 1,007 1,108 1,180 1.8 1.8 2.0 2.2

Ohio

5,774,153 5,826,663 5,754,616 5,822,254 246,996 227,937 243,308 220,841 4.3 3.9 4.2 3.8

Akron

359,552 359,555 358,174 359,485 15,539 14,823 15,524 14,371 4.3 4.1 4.3 4.0

Canton-Massillon

200,307 202,151 199,757 201,861 9,099 8,785 9,122 8,860 4.5 4.3 4.6 4.4

Cincinnati

1,123,610 1,145,341 1,117,245 1,143,717 42,602 40,864 40,452 39,000 3.8 3.6 3.6 3.4

Cleveland-Elyria

1,035,215 1,033,425 1,030,378 1,037,709 46,825 33,512 45,012 34,193 4.5 3.2 4.4 3.3

Columbus

1,089,855 1,105,977 1,085,672 1,109,726 40,923 38,993 39,665 37,130 3.8 3.5 3.7 3.3

Dayton

386,105 393,175 385,780 392,168 16,357 16,373 15,893 14,826 4.2 4.2 4.1 3.8

Lima

48,034 48,269 47,843 48,330 1,999 1,935 1,922 1,851 4.2 4.0 4.0 3.8

Mansfield

52,608 52,944 52,471 53,495 2,359 2,263 2,433 2,339 4.5 4.3 4.6 4.4

Springfield

63,368 64,668 63,182 64,062 2,770 3,245 2,703 2,748 4.4 5.0 4.3 4.3

Toledo

302,636 305,030 302,741 303,197 14,240 12,838 14,287 12,223 4.7 4.2 4.7 4.0

Weirton-Steubenville(1)

50,272 50,572 49,874 50,087 2,730 2,888 2,719 2,792 5.4 5.7 5.5 5.6

Youngstown-Warren-Boardman

240,096 238,388 239,635 237,398 13,085 13,118 12,986 13,181 5.4 5.5 5.4 5.6

Oklahoma

1,844,742 1,856,199 1,845,292 1,841,383 56,342 61,944 53,190 63,239 3.1 3.3 2.9 3.4

Enid

27,276 27,026 27,183 26,805 737 795 704 862 2.7 2.9 2.6 3.2

Lawton

51,024 51,351 51,118 51,228 1,897 1,877 1,774 1,899 3.7 3.7 3.5 3.7

Oklahoma City

684,926 689,733 684,831 684,701 19,361 20,425 18,145 21,373 2.8 3.0 2.6 3.1

Tulsa

478,148 480,273 480,197 476,306 15,072 17,053 14,250 16,614 3.2 3.6 3.0 3.5

Oregon

2,117,663 2,119,417 2,117,387 2,109,609 83,429 74,476 85,731 65,040 3.9 3.5 4.0 3.1

Albany

58,855 59,176 58,968 58,830 2,640 2,391 2,779 2,100 4.5 4.0 4.7 3.6

Bend-Redmond

95,831 97,296 96,098 96,530 3,689 3,270 4,002 2,982 3.8 3.4 4.2 3.1

Corvallis

49,013 48,966 49,307 49,151 1,556 1,334 1,495 1,097 3.2 2.7 3.0 2.2

Eugene

182,153 181,773 182,036 181,396 7,904 6,987 7,932 6,059 4.3 3.8 4.4 3.3

Grants Pass

36,382 36,501 36,131 36,179 1,846 1,635 1,948 1,467 5.1 4.5 5.4 4.1

Medford

106,374 106,829 105,973 106,454 4,591 3,882 4,778 3,408 4.3 3.6 4.5 3.2

Portland-Vancouver-Hillsboro

1,323,190 1,336,179 1,329,266 1,337,907 49,507 46,922 49,963 41,809 3.7 3.5 3.8 3.1

Salem

203,005 201,962 202,927 200,139 8,332 7,545 8,566 6,519 4.1 3.7 4.2 3.3

Pennsylvania

6,444,551 6,570,222 6,437,401 6,542,425 248,016 285,827 233,777 278,771 3.8 4.4 3.6 4.3

Allentown-Bethlehem-Easton

439,216 447,869 436,483 447,560 17,811 19,275 16,519 18,455 4.1 4.3 3.8 4.1

Altoona

58,745 60,475 59,220 60,346 2,210 2,703 2,136 2,697 3.8 4.5 3.6 4.5

Bloomsburg-Berwick

42,701 43,572 42,568 43,279 1,568 1,787 1,512 1,752 3.7 4.1 3.6 4.0

Chambersburg-Waynesboro

76,976 79,518 77,501 79,510 2,540 3,014 2,390 2,913 3.3 3.8 3.1 3.7

East Stroudsburg

81,761 83,782 81,791 83,596 3,964 4,504 3,823 4,463 4.8 5.4 4.7 5.3

Erie

129,549 131,296 129,319 130,807 5,191 5,745 4,967 5,850 4.0 4.4 3.8 4.5

Gettysburg

55,105 56,027 54,921 55,512 1,677 1,805 1,481 1,727 3.0 3.2 2.7 3.1

Harrisburg-Carlisle

296,672 300,768 296,465 300,750 9,960 11,652 9,410 10,971 3.4 3.9 3.2 3.6

Johnstown

58,404 59,548 58,204 59,254 2,556 2,898 2,478 3,028 4.4 4.9 4.3 5.1

Lancaster

281,454 285,656 279,701 284,655 8,674 9,979 8,078 9,394 3.1 3.5 2.9 3.3

Lebanon

70,870 73,280 71,018 72,892 2,445 2,852 2,279 2,747 3.4 3.9 3.2 3.8

Philadelphia-Camden-Wilmington

3,096,866 3,173,357 3,093,266 3,164,985 118,481 131,058 109,302 125,591 3.8 4.1 3.5 4.0

Pittsburgh

1,208,178 1,223,415 1,208,177 1,217,254 44,687 52,321 42,483 51,801 3.7 4.3 3.5 4.3

Reading

212,363 218,185 212,784 217,231 8,138 9,517 7,618 9,202 3.8 4.4 3.6 4.2

Scranton--Wilkes-Barre--Hazleton

276,991 281,092 278,639 279,906 12,575 14,506 12,079 14,513 4.5 5.2 4.3 5.2

State College

82,361 84,535 82,865 84,411 2,367 2,784 2,138 2,638 2.9 3.3 2.6 3.1

Williamsport

56,607 57,812 56,381 57,587 2,292 2,626 2,290 2,655 4.0 4.5 4.1 4.6

York-Hanover

233,944 237,502 234,006 237,194 8,178 9,235 7,627 8,802 3.5 3.9 3.3 3.7

Rhode Island

556,208 558,149 558,933 563,424 19,182 16,205 21,567 18,006 3.4 2.9 3.9 3.2

Providence-Warwick

691,368 694,592 694,124 700,131 23,416 20,280 25,470 21,580 3.4 2.9 3.7 3.1

South Carolina

2,330,794 2,380,158 2,318,289 2,368,727 75,373 50,186 68,439 50,489 3.2 2.1 3.0 2.1

Charleston-North Charleston

385,901 390,273 384,176 389,305 10,462 6,898 9,499 6,942 2.7 1.8 2.5 1.8

Columbia

399,763 403,810 396,103 403,000 12,397 7,981 11,276 8,087 3.1 2.0 2.8 2.0

Florence

96,054 97,356 95,928 97,230 3,476 2,236 3,156 2,241 3.6 2.3 3.3 2.3

Greenville-Anderson-Mauldin

425,543 434,168 423,423 430,751 12,545 8,402 11,322 8,480 2.9 1.9 2.7 2.0

Hilton Head Island-Bluffton-Beaufort

87,369 91,486 86,788 90,476 2,648 1,735 2,378 1,695 3.0 1.9 2.7 1.9

Myrtle Beach-Conway-North Myrtle Beach

197,538 207,486 194,464 203,876 8,343 6,163 7,916 6,162 4.2 3.0 4.1 3.0

Spartanburg

160,137 165,121 158,999 164,071 4,772 3,193 4,274 3,251 3.0 1.9 2.7 2.0

Sumter

44,164 44,657 44,107 44,503 1,638 1,115 1,502 1,146 3.7 2.5 3.4 2.6

South Dakota

461,575 470,707 461,667 471,210 12,065 13,387 12,749 14,944 2.6 2.8 2.8 3.2

Rapid City

74,560 75,789 74,378 75,429 2,129 2,288 2,272 2,591 2.9 3.0 3.1 3.4

Sioux Falls

153,741 159,205 154,167 159,825 3,363 3,787 3,502 4,211 2.2 2.4 2.3 2.6

Tennessee

3,259,609 3,354,882 3,255,813 3,355,085 106,795 105,783 98,204 103,165 3.3 3.2 3.0 3.1

Chattanooga

272,203 276,883 269,455 275,964 9,317 8,333 8,140 8,091 3.4 3.0 3.0 2.9

Clarksville

115,031 118,995 115,539 118,607 4,434 4,824 4,047 4,444 3.9 4.1 3.5 3.7

Cleveland

57,630 58,870 58,783 59,824 1,982 1,880 1,841 1,890 3.4 3.2 3.1 3.2

Jackson

64,416 66,360 63,908 66,272 2,275 2,182 2,043 2,112 3.5 3.3 3.2 3.2

Johnson City

91,597 93,448 90,880 93,495 3,218 3,048 2,999 3,098 3.5 3.3 3.3 3.3

Kingsport-Bristol-Bristol

136,856 142,222 137,301 142,202 4,554 4,608 4,269 4,554 3.3 3.2 3.1 3.2

Knoxville

422,838 437,611 421,738 437,679 13,058 12,629 12,123 12,549 3.1 2.9 2.9 2.9

Memphis

636,392 646,723 639,381 649,688 24,943 24,725 22,951 25,246 3.9 3.8 3.6 3.9

Morristown

51,558 53,145 51,356 53,266 1,783 1,842 1,698 1,829 3.5 3.5 3.3 3.4

Nashville-Davidson--Murfreesboro--Franklin

1,052,647 1,088,325 1,052,145 1,086,288 27,312 27,780 25,305 26,127 2.6 2.6 2.4 2.4

Texas

13,901,088 14,190,783 13,961,940 14,265,562 489,204 467,680 485,960 477,021 3.5 3.3 3.5 3.3

Abilene

77,153 77,637 77,284 78,039 2,397 2,245 2,355 2,276 3.1 2.9 3.0 2.9

Amarillo

132,132 132,970 132,672 133,364 3,397 3,242 3,390 3,283 2.6 2.4 2.6 2.5

Austin-Round Rock

1,203,065 1,230,534 1,207,111 1,234,797 33,376 31,388 32,915 31,359 2.8 2.6 2.7 2.5

Beaumont-Port Arthur

177,316 178,164 176,834 177,867 9,074 8,827 9,150 9,214 5.1 5.0 5.2 5.2

Brownsville-Harlingen

163,865 164,651 164,708 165,593 8,705 8,458 8,793 8,938 5.3 5.1 5.3 5.4

College Station-Bryan

136,391 138,796 136,390 139,222 3,670 3,615 3,607 3,603 2.7 2.6 2.6 2.6

Corpus Christi

207,479 209,883 209,039 210,576 8,945 8,230 8,937 8,517 4.3 3.9 4.3 4.0

Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington

3,928,885 4,030,421 3,948,427 4,061,740 128,366 123,844 126,608 123,322 3.3 3.1 3.2 3.0

El Paso

362,407 365,865 362,747 368,879 14,312 13,541 14,047 13,634 3.9 3.7 3.9 3.7

Houston-The Woodlands-Sugar Land

3,403,759 3,476,436 3,420,558 3,500,133 131,468 123,023 130,454 126,404 3.9 3.5 3.8 3.6

Killeen-Temple

176,049 180,120 177,549 181,634 6,956 6,337 6,849 6,435 4.0 3.5 3.9 3.5

Laredo

116,413 118,108 117,309 118,898 4,068 4,043 4,047 4,191 3.5 3.4 3.4 3.5

Longview

98,232 97,523 98,464 97,592 3,761 3,507 3,691 3,601 3.8 3.6 3.7 3.7

Lubbock

162,976 165,275 163,408 165,689 4,587 4,371 4,493 4,332 2.8 2.6 2.7 2.6

McAllen-Edinburg-Mission

345,285 355,574 348,987 358,376 19,020 19,778 20,259 21,905 5.5 5.6 5.8 6.1

Midland

107,454 108,004 107,736 108,457 2,106 2,243 2,083 2,313 2.0 2.1 1.9 2.1

Odessa

86,853 87,734 86,910 87,863 2,057 2,369 2,043 2,522 2.4 2.7 2.4 2.9

San Angelo

55,893 56,220 56,098 56,278 1,683 1,611 1,692 1,634 3.0 2.9 3.0 2.9

San Antonio-New Braunfels

1,191,437 1,226,439 1,196,835 1,230,340 37,225 35,679 36,813 35,968 3.1 2.9 3.1 2.9

Sherman-Denison

63,863 64,870 64,302 65,221 1,942 1,877 1,923 1,921 3.0 2.9 3.0 2.9

Texarkana

65,123 64,953 65,391 65,217 3,149 2,584 3,065 2,568 4.8 4.0 4.7 3.9

Tyler

108,396 108,909 108,817 109,526 3,797 3,412 3,743 3,483 3.5 3.1 3.4 3.2

Victoria

46,701 46,310 47,058 46,679 1,597 1,527 1,610 1,639 3.4 3.3 3.4 3.5

Waco

125,360 126,507 125,969 127,299 4,108 3,944 4,095 3,944 3.3 3.1 3.3 3.1

Wichita Falls

65,741 65,935 66,105 66,229 2,029 1,928 2,060 1,942 3.1 2.9 3.1 2.9

Utah

1,581,739 1,620,475 1,584,804 1,633,726 45,535 29,957 44,023 30,819 2.9 1.8 2.8 1.9

Logan

71,851 73,373 71,918 73,570 1,715 1,117 1,692 1,126 2.4 1.5 2.4 1.5

Ogden-Clearfield

327,041 337,431 327,254 339,781 9,649 6,085 9,180 6,252 3.0 1.8 2.8 1.8

Provo-Orem

310,095 318,181 310,416 321,523 8,153 5,392 7,738 5,438 2.6 1.7 2.5 1.7

St. George

75,372 77,507 75,364 78,100 2,337 1,600 2,322 1,649 3.1 2.1 3.1 2.1

Salt Lake City

655,548 668,907 658,694 675,387 18,720 12,439 18,030 12,706 2.9 1.9 2.7 1.9

Vermont

344,338 339,228 344,435 339,907 6,419 5,434 8,218 7,328 1.9 1.6 2.4 2.2

Burlington-South Burlington

125,505 126,186 125,252 125,995 2,050 1,689 2,489 2,235 1.6 1.3 2.0 1.8

Virginia

4,332,241 4,444,585 4,319,915 4,442,397 115,281 106,915 108,524 109,049 2.7 2.4 2.5 2.5

Blacksburg-Christiansburg-Radford

90,553 89,414 90,375 92,206 2,479 2,300 2,409 2,366 2.7 2.6 2.7 2.6

Charlottesville

119,483 122,880 119,530 122,957 2,917 2,619 2,752 2,718 2.4 2.1 2.3 2.2

Harrisonburg

66,412 68,771 66,543 68,337 1,732 1,485 1,659 1,526 2.6 2.2 2.5 2.2

Lynchburg

122,491 125,865 122,469 125,143 3,632 3,449 3,433 3,542 3.0 2.7 2.8 2.8

Richmond

676,836 693,313 673,149 694,760 19,220 17,831 17,975 18,041 2.8 2.6 2.7 2.6

Roanoke

156,853 161,738 155,643 161,305 4,071 3,915 3,808 4,018 2.6 2.4 2.4 2.5

Staunton-Waynesboro

59,746 61,615 59,718 61,415 1,506 1,389 1,410 1,379 2.5 2.3 2.4 2.2

Virginia Beach-Norfolk-Newport News

845,987 863,369 840,941 860,647 25,012 23,350 23,747 23,611 3.0 2.7 2.8 2.7

Winchester

72,448 75,367 72,119 75,032 1,868 1,706 1,768 1,749 2.6 2.3 2.5 2.3

Washington

3,829,284 3,959,290 3,828,288 3,971,745 156,123 159,682 169,864 157,780 4.1 4.0 4.4 4.0

Bellingham

113,257 118,133 114,478 118,627 4,834 5,732 5,228 5,887 4.3 4.9 4.6 5.0

Bremerton-Silverdale

124,369 130,523 125,449 132,292 5,309 5,797 5,586 5,756 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.4

Kennewick-Richland

141,665 148,341 140,632 147,318 6,416 7,176 7,326 7,964 4.5 4.8 5.2 5.4

Longview

46,206 47,907 46,663 48,468 2,435 2,831 2,621 2,864 5.3 5.9 5.6 5.9

Mount Vernon-Anacortes

61,595 63,716 61,408 63,905 2,895 3,344 3,085 3,526 4.7 5.2 5.0 5.5

Olympia-Tumwater

139,676 146,659 140,936 148,329 6,002 6,978 6,477 7,034 4.3 4.8 4.6 4.7

Seattle-Tacoma-Bellevue

2,117,874 2,188,523 2,127,070 2,203,712 77,856 71,157 83,265 63,848 3.7 3.3 3.9 2.9

Spokane-Spokane Valley

271,270 283,806 274,118 285,890 12,474 13,913 13,546 14,475 4.6 4.9 4.9 5.1

Walla Walla

32,843 33,816 32,513 33,723 1,318 1,512 1,407 1,529 4.0 4.5 4.3 4.5

Wenatchee

69,274 70,064 64,855 67,083 2,662 2,920 3,166 3,457 3.8 4.2 4.9 5.2

Yakima

134,495 136,906 126,242 129,077 6,590 7,249 8,394 9,111 4.9 5.3 6.6 7.1

West Virginia

788,391 810,483 781,723 803,798 35,784 36,518 35,750 38,960 4.5 4.5 4.6 4.8

Beckley

45,610 46,930 44,627 46,080 2,227 2,188 2,310 2,397 4.9 4.7 5.2 5.2

Charleston

92,340 93,983 91,279 93,361 4,409 4,173 4,333 4,430 4.8 4.4 4.7 4.7

Huntington-Ashland

145,452 147,127 144,570 146,846 7,014 6,695 6,752 6,806 4.8 4.6 4.7 4.6

Morgantown

69,548 70,594 68,955 70,202 2,724 2,467 2,621 2,557 3.9 3.5 3.8 3.6

Parkersburg-Vienna

37,962 39,217 37,726 39,002 1,814 1,930 1,847 2,064 4.8 4.9 4.9 5.3

Wheeling

67,715 69,393 67,457 69,066 2,885 3,588 2,845 3,765 4.3 5.2 4.2 5.5

Wisconsin

3,121,149 3,112,283 3,116,247 3,102,020 74,734 85,913 77,545 90,771 2.4 2.8 2.5 2.9

Appleton

130,174 129,077 130,308 128,992 2,863 3,101 2,912 3,232 2.2 2.4 2.2 2.5

Eau Claire

92,637 92,378 92,945 91,782 2,035 2,366 2,102 2,467 2.2 2.6 2.3 2.7

Fond du Lac

57,705 56,922 57,564 56,714 1,180 1,401 1,185 1,397 2.0 2.5 2.1 2.5

Green Bay

175,833 176,186 176,011 175,631 3,879 4,505 3,910 4,718 2.2 2.6 2.2 2.7

Janesville-Beloit

84,514 85,428 85,503 85,804 2,154 2,723 2,837 2,926 2.5 3.2 3.3 3.4

La Crosse-Onalaska

77,662 78,490 77,926 78,626 1,588 1,784 1,606 1,838 2.0 2.3 2.1 2.3

Madison

386,487 387,071 387,637 387,083 7,515 8,329 7,445 8,512 1.9 2.2 1.9 2.2

Milwaukee-Waukesha-West Allis

822,019 824,356 819,065 823,180 22,348 25,671 22,596 26,353 2.7 3.1 2.8 3.2

Oshkosh-Neenah

92,273 91,911 92,209 91,918 2,068 2,382 2,040 2,440 2.2 2.6 2.2 2.7

Racine

98,681 98,417 98,565 97,942 2,876 3,507 2,909 3,628 2.9 3.6 3.0 3.7

Sheboygan

62,531 62,688 62,262 62,184 1,290 1,497 1,325 1,591 2.1 2.4 2.1 2.6

Wausau

73,579 73,555 73,764 73,394 1,560 1,777 1,539 1,813 2.1 2.4 2.1 2.5

Wyoming

289,628 293,236 289,088 294,329 10,831 9,580 11,587 10,524 3.7 3.3 4.0 3.6

Casper

39,013 39,291 39,147 39,687 1,734 1,447 1,719 1,535 4.4 3.7 4.4 3.9

Cheyenne

47,340 48,206 47,773 48,555 1,756 1,577 1,784 1,609 3.7 3.3 3.7 3.3

Puerto Rico

1,073,873 1,062,590 1,066,244 1,045,943 89,194 95,462 81,077 88,581 8.3 9.0 7.6 8.5

Aguadilla-Isabela

85,162 84,837 84,842 83,974 9,152 9,449 8,957 9,397 10.7 11.1 10.6 11.2

Arecibo

51,993 51,877 51,890 51,775 5,188 5,569 5,164 5,788 10.0 10.7 10.0 11.2

Guayama

19,683 19,492 19,563 19,196 2,449 2,613 2,323 2,514 12.4 13.4 11.9 13.1

Mayaguez

27,591 27,224 27,275 26,791 2,860 2,829 2,602 2,569 10.4 10.4 9.5 9.6

Ponce

90,008 90,075 89,586 88,494 9,685 11,141 9,045 10,277 10.8 12.4 10.1 11.6

San German

34,846 35,064 34,563 34,250 3,679 3,868 3,364 3,431 10.6 11.0 9.7 10.0

San Juan-Carolina-Caguas

724,383 712,737 718,434 700,669 51,263 54,495 45,152 49,384 7.1 7.6 6.3 7.0

Footnotes
(1) For operational reasons, these interstate areas are listed under the state that accounts for the larger share of the population, which is different from the state that contains the first principal city.
(2) The area boundary does not reflect the Office of Management and Budget delineation.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data refer to place of residence. Data for Puerto Rico are derived from a monthly household survey similar to the Current Population Survey. Area delineations are based on Office of Management and Budget Bulletin No. 18-03, dated April 10, 2018, and are available on the BLS website at https://www.bls.gov/lau/lausmsa.htm. Areas in the six New England states are Metropolitan New England City and Town Areas (NECTAs), while areas in other states are county-based. Some metropolitan areas lie in two or more states. They are listed under the state containing the first principal city, unless otherwise footnoted. Estimates for the latest month are subject to revision the following month.


LABOR FORCE DATA
NOT SEASONALLY ADJUSTED

Table 2. Civilian labor force and unemployment by state, selected metropolitan area, and metropolitan division(1)
State, area, and division Civilian labor force Unemployed
October November Number Percent of labor force
2018 2019 2018 2019(p) October November October November
2018 2019 2018 2019(p) 2018 2019 2018 2019(p)

California

19,542,699 19,588,210 19,562,413 19,616,666 772,789 719,195 760,287 719,250 4.0 3.7 3.9 3.7

Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim

6,806,284 6,797,275 6,817,785 6,833,846 286,727 275,353 278,806 261,949 4.2 4.1 4.1 3.8

Anaheim-Santa Ana-Irvine

1,640,925 1,634,233 1,642,110 1,630,091 46,639 41,319 44,401 41,329 2.8 2.5 2.7 2.5

Los Angeles-Long Beach-Glendale

5,165,359 5,163,042 5,175,675 5,203,755 240,088 234,034 234,405 220,620 4.6 4.5 4.5 4.2

San Francisco-Oakland-Hayward

2,608,606 2,633,310 2,617,117 2,630,977 68,309 61,088 65,402 60,963 2.6 2.3 2.5 2.3

Oakland-Hayward-Berkeley

1,422,748 1,431,158 1,427,522 1,428,832 42,054 38,052 40,455 37,939 3.0 2.7 2.8 2.7

San Francisco-Redwood City-South San Francisco

1,042,990 1,058,898 1,047,093 1,058,897 22,890 20,154 21,770 20,150 2.2 1.9 2.1 1.9

San Rafael

142,868 143,254 142,502 143,248 3,365 2,882 3,177 2,874 2.4 2.0 2.2 2.0

District of Columbia

402,446 408,339 402,811 415,088 21,315 21,835 20,563 20,558 5.3 5.3 5.1 5.0

Washington-Arlington-Alexandria(2)

3,393,284 3,487,666 3,385,124 3,492,075 104,742 98,416 98,787 96,779 3.1 2.8 2.9 2.8

Silver Spring-Frederick-Rockville(3)

686,453 703,794 683,897 702,944 20,991 19,261 19,785 18,662 3.1 2.7 2.9 2.7

Washington-Arlington-Alexandria(2)

2,706,831 2,783,872 2,701,227 2,789,131 83,751 79,155 79,002 78,117 3.1 2.8 2.9 2.8

Florida

10,305,265 10,566,507 10,293,133 10,479,146 340,078 307,598 335,916 287,779 3.3 2.9 3.3 2.7

Miami-Fort Lauderdale-West Palm Beach

3,163,808 3,270,402 3,168,158 3,221,968 107,396 94,652 101,211 87,410 3.4 2.9 3.2 2.7

Fort Lauderdale-Pompano Beach-Deerfield Beach

1,047,301 1,061,181 1,042,740 1,052,094 32,321 29,630 31,944 27,798 3.1 2.8 3.1 2.6

Miami-Miami Beach-Kendall

1,381,547 1,463,774 1,386,673 1,430,295 50,415 42,518 45,184 38,784 3.6 2.9 3.3 2.7

West Palm Beach-Boca Raton-Delray Beach

734,960 745,447 738,745 739,579 24,660 22,504 24,083 20,828 3.4 3.0 3.3 2.8

Illinois

6,477,162 6,487,355 6,468,774 6,447,310 263,231 235,472 259,018 218,259 4.1 3.6 4.0 3.4

Chicago-Naperville-Elgin(2)

4,877,420 4,873,069 4,873,710 4,852,539 182,549 168,980 172,179 158,665 3.7 3.5 3.5 3.3

Chicago-Naperville-Arlington Heights

3,732,976 3,720,732 3,728,038 3,708,631 134,188 126,805 123,652 116,753 3.6 3.4 3.3 3.1

Elgin

331,020 333,596 332,238 331,472 15,104 12,439 15,572 11,806 4.6 3.7 4.7 3.6

Gary(3)

343,807 344,027 343,936 342,379 14,617 13,237 14,265 14,211 4.3 3.8 4.1 4.2

Lake County-Kenosha County(2)

469,617 474,714 469,498 470,057 18,640 16,499 18,690 15,895 4.0 3.5 4.0 3.4

Massachusetts

3,817,350 3,840,687 3,823,218 3,837,116 104,354 94,594 98,823 88,675 2.7 2.5 2.6 2.3

Boston-Cambridge-Nashua(2)

2,821,289 2,844,515 2,827,796 2,844,941 71,261 65,300 66,984 60,618 2.5 2.3 2.4 2.1

Boston-Cambridge-Newton

1,686,619 1,702,151 1,689,324 1,701,821 40,597 36,388 37,737 33,467 2.4 2.1 2.2 2.0

Brockton-Bridgewater-Easton

111,814 112,400 112,319 112,892 3,446 3,064 3,179 2,835 3.1 2.7 2.8 2.5

Framingham

163,791 164,064 163,941 163,997 3,837 3,422 3,504 3,088 2.3 2.1 2.1 1.9

Haverhill-Newburyport-Amesbury Town(2)

117,900 118,993 118,090 119,156 3,037 2,961 2,999 2,857 2.6 2.5 2.5 2.4

Lawrence-Methuen Town-Salem(2)

99,233 98,628 99,127 98,359 3,652 3,389 3,432 3,165 3.7 3.4 3.5 3.2

Lowell-Billerica-Chelmsford(2)

197,969 199,077 198,295 198,871 5,316 4,895 5,023 4,613 2.7 2.5 2.5 2.3

Lynn-Saugus-Marblehead

87,157 88,031 87,547 87,892 2,468 2,230 2,254 2,024 2.8 2.5 2.6 2.3

Nashua(2)

173,942 177,318 175,641 177,932 3,934 4,416 4,186 4,416 2.3 2.5 2.4 2.5

Peabody-Salem-Beverly

95,224 96,170 95,400 95,905 2,468 2,214 2,297 2,010 2.6 2.3 2.4 2.1

Taunton-Middleborough-Norton

87,640 87,683 88,112 88,116 2,506 2,321 2,373 2,143 2.9 2.6 2.7 2.4

Michigan

4,909,341 4,938,576 4,893,580 4,934,862 181,296 174,052 166,773 157,495 3.7 3.5 3.4 3.2

Detroit-Warren-Dearborn

2,149,643 2,175,085 2,129,400 2,148,174 93,159 81,502 78,916 72,550 4.3 3.7 3.7 3.4

Detroit-Dearborn-Livonia

802,052 809,113 793,199 799,899 43,101 36,365 35,833 32,284 5.4 4.5 4.5 4.0

Warren-Troy-Farmington Hills

1,347,592 1,365,973 1,336,201 1,348,277 50,059 45,137 43,083 40,267 3.7 3.3 3.2 3.0

New York

9,603,222 9,583,705 9,576,358 9,511,374 347,452 373,274 339,417 345,862 3.6 3.9 3.5 3.6

New York-Newark-Jersey City(2)

9,937,952 10,027,732 9,916,030 9,978,678 356,047 368,011 337,329 342,886 3.6 3.7 3.4 3.4

Dutchess County-Putnam County

196,208 196,247 196,123 196,175 6,237 6,968 6,005 6,429 3.2 3.6 3.1 3.3

Nassau County-Suffolk County

1,487,221 1,489,807 1,481,455 1,484,057 46,447 51,485 45,686 48,512 3.1 3.5 3.1 3.3

Newark(3)

1,214,580 1,258,990 1,213,853 1,259,965 43,587 42,490 40,270 41,877 3.6 3.4 3.3 3.3

New York-Jersey City-White Plains(2)

7,039,943 7,082,688 7,024,599 7,038,481 259,776 267,068 245,368 246,068 3.7 3.8 3.5 3.5

Pennsylvania

6,444,551 6,570,222 6,437,401 6,542,425 248,016 285,827 233,777 278,771 3.8 4.4 3.6 4.3

Philadelphia-Camden-Wilmington(2)

3,096,866 3,173,357 3,093,266 3,164,985 118,481 131,058 109,302 125,591 3.8 4.1 3.5 4.0

Camden(3)

623,232 640,110 623,304 638,974 22,455 22,072 21,276 21,975 3.6 3.4 3.4 3.4

Montgomery County-Bucks County-Chester County

1,077,100 1,101,242 1,074,776 1,092,875 34,724 39,682 31,958 37,513 3.2 3.6 3.0 3.4

Philadelphia

1,016,468 1,042,606 1,013,168 1,040,404 48,114 54,571 44,307 52,092 4.7 5.2 4.4 5.0

Wilmington(3)

380,066 389,399 382,018 392,732 13,188 14,733 11,761 14,011 3.5 3.8 3.1 3.6

Texas

13,901,088 14,190,783 13,961,940 14,265,562 489,204 467,680 485,960 477,021 3.5 3.3 3.5 3.3

Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington

3,928,885 4,030,421 3,948,427 4,061,740 128,366 123,844 126,608 123,322 3.3 3.1 3.2 3.0

Dallas-Plano-Irving

2,650,889 2,732,133 2,665,536 2,751,122 86,951 82,489 85,627 82,931 3.3 3.0 3.2 3.0

Fort Worth-Arlington

1,277,996 1,298,288 1,282,891 1,310,618 41,415 41,355 40,981 40,391 3.2 3.2 3.2 3.1

Washington

3,829,284 3,959,290 3,828,288 3,971,745 156,123 159,682 169,864 157,780 4.1 4.0 4.4 4.0

Seattle-Tacoma-Bellevue

2,117,874 2,188,523 2,127,070 2,203,712 77,856 71,157 83,265 63,848 3.7 3.3 3.9 2.9

Seattle-Bellevue-Everett

1,688,061 1,738,839 1,693,502 1,749,705 57,768 48,394 61,951 40,729 3.4 2.8 3.7 2.3

Tacoma-Lakewood

429,813 449,684 433,568 454,007 20,088 22,763 21,314 23,119 4.7 5.1 4.9 5.1

Footnotes
(1) These 11 areas contain all of the 38 metropolitan divisions.
(2) Part of the area (or division) is in one or more adjacent states.
(3) All of the division is in one or more adjacent states.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data refer to place of residence. Area delineations are based on Office of Management and Budget Bulletin No. 18-03, dated April 10, 2018, and are available on the BLS website at https://www.bls.gov/lau/lausmsa.htm. Areas in the six New England states are Metropolitan New England City and Town Areas (NECTAs), while areas in other states are county-based. Some metropolitan areas lie in two or more states. They are listed under the state containing the first principal city. Metropolitan divisions are listed under their metropolitan areas. Some divisions lie in more than one state, and some, like Camden, NJ, are totally outside the states under which their metropolitan areas are listed. For Washington-Arlington-Alexandria, DC-VA-MD-WV, the metropolitan area and division titles are identical. Estimates for the latest month are subject to revision the following month.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
NOT SEASONALLY ADJUSTED
Table 3. Employees on nonfarm payrolls by state and metropolitan area, not seasonally adjusted
[In thousands]
State and area October November Change from
November 2018 to November 2019(p)
2018 2019 2018 2019(p) Number Percent

Alabama

2,059.9 2,105.7 2,064.4 2,114.8 50.4 2.4

Anniston-Oxford-Jacksonville

46.8 47.4 47.2 47.5 0.3 0.6

Auburn-Opelika

66.9 68.8 67.3 69.3 2.0 3.0

Birmingham-Hoover

541.9 551.3 544.1 553.6 9.5 1.7

Daphne-Fairhope-Foley

76.5 79.4 76.5 79.4 2.9 3.8

Decatur

56.5 57.5 56.8 58.0 1.2 2.1

Dothan

58.9 59.3 58.8 59.6 0.8 1.4

Florence-Muscle Shoals

57.6 58.2 57.9 58.3 0.4 0.7

Gadsden

38.4 38.9 38.2 39.1 0.9 2.4

Huntsville

240.5 247.2 242.3 248.1 5.8 2.4

Mobile

186.3 189.1 186.7 189.7 3.0 1.6

Montgomery

176.6 179.9 177.2 180.1 2.9 1.6

Tuscaloosa

112.0 114.7 111.9 114.7 2.8 2.5


Alaska

323.6 323.5 313.8 314.9 1.1 0.4

Anchorage

175.8 175.4 173.4 174.6 1.2 0.7

Fairbanks

37.9 37.6 36.7 36.8 0.1 0.3


Arizona

2,903.6 2,974.0 2,936.5 3,008.2 71.7 2.4

Flagstaff

70.0 70.4 69.0 70.0 1.0 1.4

Lake Havasu City-Kingman

52.0 53.1 52.2