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Economic News Release
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Metropolitan Area Employment and Unemployment (Monthly) News Release

For release 10:00 a.m. (ET) Tuesday, January 5, 2021				  USDL-21-0001

Technical information:
 Employment:		  sminfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/sae
 Unemployment:		  lausinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/lau
	
Media contact:		  (202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov


		METROPOLITAN AREA EMPLOYMENT AND UNEMPLOYMENT -- NOVEMBER 2020


Unemployment rates were higher in November than a year earlier in 386 of the 389 metropolitan
areas and lower in 3 areas, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. A total of 63
areas had jobless rates of less than 4.0 percent, and 12 areas had rates of at least 10.0 
percent. Nonfarm payroll employment decreased over the year in 242 metropolitan areas and was
essentially unchanged in 147 areas. The national unemployment rate in November was 6.4 
percent, not seasonally adjusted, up from 3.3 percent a year earlier.

This news release presents statistics from two monthly programs. The civilian labor force 
and unemployment data are based on the same concepts and definitions as those used for the 
national household survey estimates. These data pertain to individuals by where they reside.
The employment data are from an establishment survey that measures nonfarm employment, hours,
and earnings by industry. These data pertain to jobs on payrolls defined by where the 
establishments are located. For more information about the concepts and statistical 
methodologies used by these two programs, see the Technical Note.

Metropolitan Area Unemployment (Not Seasonally Adjusted)

In November, El Centro, CA, and Kahului-Wailuku-Lahaina, HI, had the highest unemployment
rates, 16.4 percent and 16.0 percent, respectively. Ames, IA, had the lowest unemployment 
rate, 2.0 percent. A total of 272 areas had November jobless rates below the U.S. rate of
6.4 percent, 110 areas had rates above it, and 7 areas had rates equal to that of the
nation. (See table 1.)

The largest over-the-year unemployment rate increase in November occurred in Kahului-
Wailuku-Lahaina, HI (+13.5 percentage points), followed by Atlantic City-Hammonton, NJ,
and Odessa, TX (+10.2 points each). Rates rose over the year by at least 5.0 percentage
points in an additional 23 areas. The largest over-the-year rate decrease occurred in El
Centro, CA (-2.3 percentage points).

Of the 51 metropolitan areas with a 2010 Census population of 1 million or more, Las 
Vegas-Henderson-Paradise, NV, had the highest unemployment rate in November, 11.5 percent.
Birmingham-Hoover, AL, and Minneapolis-St. Paul-Bloomington, MN-WI, had the lowest jobless
rates among the large areas, 3.8 percent and 3.9 percent, respectively. All 51 large areas
had over-the-year unemployment rate increases, the largest of which was in Las Vegas-
Henderson-Paradise, NV (+7.9 percentage points). The smallest rate increase from a year 
earlier occurred in St. Louis, MO-IL (+1.2 percentage points).

Metropolitan Division Unemployment (Not Seasonally Adjusted)

Eleven of the most populous metropolitan areas are made up of 38 metropolitan divisions,
which are essentially separately identifiable employment centers. In November, Detroit-
Dearborn-Livonia, MI, had the highest unemployment rate among the divisions, 11.3 percent.
Nashua, NH-MA, had the lowest division rate, 3.7 percent. (See table 2.)

In November, all 38 metropolitan divisions had over-the-year unemployment rate increases,
the largest of which were in Detroit-Dearborn-Livonia, MI, and New York-Jersey City-White
Plains, NY-NJ (+7.1 percentage points each). The smallest rate increase occurred in 
Nashua, NH-MA (+1.2 percentage points), followed by Dutchess County-Putnam County, NY, 
and Montgomery County-Bucks County-Chester County, PA (+1.4 points each).

Metropolitan Area Nonfarm Employment (Not Seasonally Adjusted)

In November, 242 metropolitan areas had over-the-year decreases in nonfarm payroll 
employment and 147 were essentially unchanged. The largest over-the-year employment 
decreases occurred in New York-Newark-Jersey City, NY-NJ-PA (-999,600), Los Angeles-Long
Beach-Anaheim, CA (-514,900), and Chicago-Naperville-Elgin, IL-IN-WI (-341,000). The 
largest over-the-year percentage losses in employment occurred in Kahului-Wailuku-Lahaina,
HI (-24.8 percent), Flagstaff, AZ (-16.9 percent), and Monroe, MI (-15.5 percent). 
(See table 3.)

Over the year, nonfarm employment declined in 50 of the metropolitan areas with a 2010 
Census population of 1 million or more, while employment was essentially unchanged in 1 area.
The largest over-the-year percentage decreases in employment in these large metropolitan areas
occurred in Las Vegas-Henderson-Paradise, NV (-10.1 percent), New York-Newark-Jersey City, 
NY-NJ-PA (-9.9 percent), and Detroit-Warren-Dearborn, MI; Orlando-Kissimmee-Sanford, FL; 
Rochester, NY; and San Francisco-Oakland-Hayward, CA (-9.3 percent each).

Metropolitan Division Nonfarm Employment (Not Seasonally Adjusted)

In November, nonfarm payroll employment decreased in all of the 38 metropolitan divisions
over the year. The largest over-the-year decrease in employment among the metropolitan 
divisions occurred in New York-Jersey City-White Plains, NY-NJ (-756,100), followed by Los
Angeles-Long Beach-Glendale, CA (-386,100), and Chicago-Naperville-Arlington Heights, IL 
(-274,100). (See table 4.)

The largest over-the-year percentage decreases in employment occurred in Haverhill-
Newburyport-Amesbury Town, MA-NH (-10.6 percent), and Detroit-Dearborn-Livonia, MI, and New 
York-Jersey City-White Plains, NY-NJ (-10.3 percent each).

_____________
The State Employment and Unemployment news release for December 2020 is scheduled to be 
released on Tuesday, January 26, 2021, at 10:00 a.m. (ET). The Metropolitan Area Employment
and Unemployment news release for December 2020 is scheduled to be released on Wednesday, 
February 3, 2021, at 10:00 a.m. (ET).


 _______________________________________________________________________________________
|											|
|		Coronavirus (COVID-19) Pandemic Impact on November 2020			|
|			Establishment and Household Survey Data				|
|											|
| BLS has continued to review all estimation and methodological procedures for the 	|
| establishment survey, which included the review of data, estimation processes, the 	|
| application of the birth-death model, and seasonal adjustment. Business births and 	|
| deaths cannot be adequately captured by the establishment survey as they occur. 	|
| Therefore, the Current Employment Statistics (CES) program uses a model to account 	|
| for the relatively stable net employment change generated by business births and 	|
| deaths. Due to the impact of COVID-19, the relationship between business births and 	|
| deaths is no longer stable. Typically, reports with zero employment are not included 	|
| in estimation. For the October final and November preliminary estimates, CES included |
| a portion of these reports in the estimates and made modifications to the birth-death |
| model. In addition for both months, the establishment survey included a portion of 	|
| the reports that returned to reporting positive employment from reporting zero 	|
| employment. For more information, see www.bls.gov/web/empsit/cesbd.htm.		|
|											|
| In the establishment survey, workers who are paid by their employer for all or any 	|
| part of the pay period including the 12th of the month are counted as employed, even  |
| if they were not actually at their jobs. Workers who are temporarily or permanently   |
| absent from their jobs and are not being paid are not counted as employed, even if 	|
| they are continuing to receive benefits. The length of the reference period does vary |
| across the respondents in the establishment survey; one-third of businesses have a 	|
| weekly pay period, slightly over 40 percent a bi-weekly, about 20 percent 		|
| semi-monthly, and a small amount monthly.						|
|											|
| For the November 2020 estimates of household employment and unemployment from the 	|
| Local Area Unemployment Statistics (LAUS) program, BLS continued to implement 	|
| level-shift outliers in the employment and/or unemployment inputs to the state 	|
| models, based on statistical evaluation of movements in each area's inputs. Both the 	|
| Current Population Survey inputs, which serve as the primary inputs to the LAUS 	|
| models, and the nonfarm payroll employment and unemployment insurance claims 		|
| covariates were examined for outliers. The resulting implementation of level shifts 	|
| preserved movements in the published estimates that the models otherwise would have 	|
| discounted, without requiring changes to how the models create estimates at other 	|
| points in the time series.								|
|											|
| The "Frequently asked questions" document at 						|
| www.bls.gov/covid19/employment-situation-covid19-faq-november-2020.htm extensively 	|
| discusses the impact of a misclassification in the household survey on the national 	|
| estimates for November 2020. Despite the considerable decline in its degree relative  |
| to prior months, this misclassification continued to be widespread geographically, 	|
| with BLS analysis indicating that most states again were affected to at least some 	|
| extent. However, according to usual practice, the data from the household survey are 	|
| accepted as recorded. To maintain data integrity, no ad hoc actions are taken to 	|
| reclassify survey responses. Hence, the household survey estimates of employed and 	|
| unemployed people that serve as the primary inputs to the state models were affected 	|
| to varying degrees by the misclassification, which in turn affected the official LAUS |
| estimates for November 2020. Similar misclassifications had occurred in the household |
| survey from March through October (see www.bls.gov/covid19/effects-of-covid-19-	|
| pandemic-and-response-on-the-employment-situation-news-release.htm#summaries).	|
|											|
| Household data for substate areas are controlled to the employment and unemployment 	|
| totals for their respective model-based areas. Hence, the preliminary November and 	|
| revised October estimates for substate areas reflect the use of level-shift outliers, |
| where implemented, in the inputs for their model-based control areas. The substate 	|
| area estimates for both months also were impacted by misclassification in the 	|
| household survey, in proportion to the impacts of the misclassifications on the data 	|
| for their model-based control areas.							|
|											|
| Household data for Puerto Rico are not modeled, but rather are derived from a monthly |
| household survey similar to the Current Population Survey. The Puerto Rico Department |
| of Labor has reported a misclassification in its household survey since May 2020 	|
| similar in nature to the misclassification in the Current Population Survey, which 	|
| has affected the local area data proportionally.					|
|_______________________________________________________________________________________|


 _______________________________________________________________________________________
|											|
|		Upcoming Changes to Local Area Unemployment Statistics Data		|
|											|
| Effective with the issuance of Regional and State Unemployment 2020 Annual Averages 	|
| on March 3, 2021, the civilian labor force and unemployment data for census regions 	|
| and divisions and all states, the District of Columbia, and the seven modeled 	|
| substate areas presented in tables 1 and 2 of this news release will be replaced with |
| data produced using a new generation of time-series models. At that time, revised 	|
| model-based estimates will be loaded into the BLS time-series database back to the 	|
| series beginnings in 1976, 1990, or 1994. Both seasonally adjusted and not seasonally |
| adjusted data will be affected. The revisions to model-based data at the state level  |
| and below for 2019 and 2020 also will incorporate updated estimation inputs, while 	|
| the revisions for all model-based data from April 2010 forward also will reflect new 	|
| population controls from the U.S. Census Bureau.					|
|											|
| Data for non-modeled substate areas, including the non-modeled metropolitan areas and |
| metropolitan divisions presented in tables 1 and 2 of this news release, subsequently |
| will be updated in the BLS time-series database in two phases. First, on March 19, 	|
| 2021, historical data through December 2009 will be adjusted to the new totals for 	|
| model-based areas. Second, on April 16, 2021, data from January 2010 through December |
| 2020 will be revised to reflect updated estimation inputs and adjustment to the new 	|
| totals for model-based areas.								|
|_______________________________________________________________________________________|




Technical Note
 
   Special technical note: This technical note describes the procedures regularly
used on a monthly basis to develop estimates from the CES survey and the LAUS
program. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, some of the procedures described in this
technical note have been modified. The modifications are briefly described in the
box note of this news release. More information on the changes to the CES business
birth-death model is available at www.bls.gov/web/empsit/cesbd.htm.
   
   This news release presents civilian labor force and unemployment data from the
Local Area Unemployment Statistics (LAUS) program (tables 1 and 2) for 389
metropolitan statistical areas and metropolitan New England City and Town Areas
(NECTAs), plus 7 areas in Puerto Rico. Estimates for 38 metropolitan and NECTA
divisions also are presented. Nonfarm payroll employment estimates from the
Current Employment Statistics (CES) program (tables 3 and 4) are provided for
the same areas. State estimates were previously published in the news release
State Employment and Unemployment, and are republished in this news release for
ease of reference. The LAUS and CES programs are both federal-state cooperative
endeavors.

Civilian labor force and unemployment--from the LAUS program

   Definitions. The civilian labor force and unemployment data are based on the
same concepts and definitions as those used for the official national estimates
obtained from the Current Population Survey (CPS), a sample survey of households
that is conducted for the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) by the U.S. Census
Bureau. The LAUS program measures employed persons and unemployed persons on a
place-of-residence basis.  The universe for each is the civilian noninstitutional
population 16 years of age and older. Employed persons are those who did any work
at all for pay or profit in the reference week (typically the week including the
12th of the month) or worked 15 hours or more without pay in a family business or
farm, plus those not working who had a job from which they were temporarily absent,
whether or not paid, for such reasons as labor-management dispute, illness, or
vacation. Unemployed persons are those who were not employed during the reference
week (based on the definition above), had actively looked for a job sometime in the
4-week period ending with the reference week, and were currently available for work;
persons on layoff expecting recall need not be looking for work to be counted as
unemployed. The civilian labor force is the sum of employed and unemployed persons.
The unemployment rate is the number of unemployed as a percent of the civilian labor
force.

   Method of estimation. Estimates for states, the District of Columbia, the Los
Angeles-Long Beach-Glendale metropolitan division, and New York City are produced
using time-series models with real-time benchmarking to national CPS totals. Model-
based estimates are also produced for the following areas and their respective
balances: the Chicago-Naperville-Arlington Heights, IL Metropolitan Division;
Cleveland-Elyria, OH Metropolitan Statistical Area; Detroit-Warren-Dearborn, MI
Metropolitan Statistical Area; Miami-Miami Beach-Kendall, FL Metropolitan Division;
and Seattle-Bellevue-Everett, WA Metropolitan Division. Modeling improves the
statistical basis of the estimation for these areas and provides important tools
for analysis, such as measures of errors and seasonally adjusted series. For all
other substate areas in this news release, estimates are prepared through indirect
estimation procedures using a building-block approach.  Estimates of employed
persons, which are based largely on “place of work” estimates from the CES program,
are adjusted to refer to place of residence as used in the CPS. Unemployment
estimates are aggregates of persons previously employed in industries covered by
state unemployment insurance (UI) laws and entrants to the labor force from the
CPS. The substate estimates of employment and unemployment, which geographically
exhaust the entire state, are adjusted proportionally to ensure that they add to
the independently estimated model-based area totals. A detailed description of the
estimation procedures is available from BLS upon request.

   Annual revisions. Civilian labor force and unemployment data shown for the prior
year reflect adjustments made at the beginning of each year, usually implemented with
the issuance of January estimates. The adjusted model-based estimates typically reflect
updated population data from the U.S. Census Bureau, any revisions in other input
data sources, and model re-estimation. All substate estimates then are re-estimated
using updated inputs and adjusted to add to the revised model-based totals.  In early
2015, a new generation of time-series models was implemented, resulting in the
replacement of data back to the series beginnings. At the same time, enhancements were
made to the substate estimation methodology, and more timely inputs from the American
Community Survey were incorporated.

Employment--from the CES program 

   Definitions. Employment data refer to persons on establishment payrolls who receive
pay for any part of the pay period that includes the 12th of the month. Persons are
counted at their place of work rather than at their place of residence; those appearing
on more than one payroll are counted on each payroll. Industries are classified on the
basis of their principal activity in accordance with the 2017 version of the North
American Industry Classification System.

   Method of estimation. CES State and Area employment data are produced using several
estimation procedures. Where possible these data are produced using a "weighted link
relative" estimation technique in which a ratio of current-month weighted employment
to that of the previous-month weighted employment is computed from a sample of
establishments reporting for both months. The estimates of employment for the current
month are then obtained by multiplying these ratios by the previous month's employment
estimates. The weighted link relative technique is utilized for data series where the
sample size meets certain statistical criteria.

   For some employment series, the sample of establishments is very small or highly
variable. In these cases, a model-based approach is used in estimation. These models
use the direct sample estimates (described above), combined with forecasts of historical
(benchmarked) data to decrease volatility in estimation. Two different models
(Fay-Herriot Model and Small Domain Model) are used depending on the industry level
being estimated. For more detailed information about each model, refer to the BLS
Handbook of Methods.

   Annual revisions.  Employment estimates are adjusted annually to a complete count
of jobs, called benchmarks, derived principally from tax reports that are submitted by
employers who are covered under state unemployment insurance (UI) laws. The benchmark
information is used to adjust the monthly estimates between the new benchmark and the
preceding one and also to establish the level of employment for the new benchmark month.
Thus, the benchmarking process establishes the level of employment, and the sample is used
to measure the month-to-month changes in the level for the subsequent months.

   Seasonal adjustment. Payroll employment data are seasonally adjusted for states,
metropolitan areas, and metropolitan divisions at the total nonfarm level. For states,
data are seasonally adjusted at the supersector level as well. Revisions to historical
data for the most recent 5 years are made once a year, coincident with annual benchmark
adjustments.

   Payroll employment data are seasonally adjusted concurrently, using all available
estimates including those for the current month, to develop sample-based seasonal factors.
Concurrent sample-based factors are created every month for the current month's preliminary
estimate as well as the previous month's final estimate in order to incorporate real-time
estimates. 

Reliability of the estimates

   The estimates presented in this news release are based on sample surveys, administrative data,
and modeling and, thus, are subject to sampling and other types of errors. Sampling error
is a measure of sampling variability—that is, variation that occurs by chance because a
sample rather than the entire population is surveyed. Survey data also are subject to
nonsampling errors, such as those which can be introduced into the data collection and
processing operations. Estimates not directly derived from sample surveys are subject to
additional errors resulting from the specific estimation processes used. The sums of
individual items may not always equal the totals shown in the same tables because of
rounding.

Use of error measures

   Civilian labor force and unemployment estimates. Measures of sampling error are not
available for metropolitan areas or metropolitan divisions. Model-based error measures for
states are available on the BLS website at www.bls.gov/laus/lastderr.htm. Measures of
nonsampling error are not available for the areas contained in this news release. Information
on recent data revisions for states and local areas is available online at
www.bls.gov/lau/launews1.htm.

   Employment estimates. Changes in metropolitan area nonfarm payroll employment are cited
in the analysis of this news release only if they have been determined to be statistically
significant at the 90-percent confidence level.  Measures of sampling error for the total
nonfarm employment series are available for metropolitan areas and metropolitan divisions
at www.bls.gov/web/laus/790stderr.htm. Measures of sampling error for more detailed series
at the area and division level are available upon request. Measures of sampling error for
states  at the supersector level and for the private service-providing, goods-producing,
total private and total nonfarm levels are available on the BLS website at 
www.bls.gov/web/laus/790stderr.htm. Information on recent benchmark revisions
is available online at www.bls.gov/web/laus/benchmark.pdf.

Area definitions

   The substate area data published in this news release reflect the delineations issued by the
U.S. Office of Management and Budget on April 10, 2018. Data reflect New England City and
Town Area (NECTA) definitions, rather than county-based definitions, in the six New England
States. A detailed list of the geographic definitions is available online at
www.bls.gov/lau/lausmsa.htm.

Additional information

   Estimates of unadjusted and seasonally adjusted civilian labor force and unemployment
data for states and seven substate areas are available in the news release State Employment
and Unemployment. Estimates of civilian labor force and unemployment for all states,
metropolitan areas, counties, cities with a population of 25,000 or more, and other areas
used in the administration of various federal economic assistance programs are available
on the Internet at www.bls.gov/lau/. Employment data from the CES program are available on
the BLS website at www.bls.gov/sae/.

   Information in this news release will be made available to sensory impaired individuals
upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay Service: (800) 877-8339. 




LABOR FORCE DATA
NOT SEASONALLY ADJUSTED

Table 1. Civilian labor force and unemployment by state and metropolitan area
State and area Civilian labor force Unemployed
October November Number Percent of labor force
2019 2020 2019 2020(p) October November October November
2019 2020 2019 2020(p) 2019 2020 2019 2020(p)

Alabama

2,252,789 2,256,233 2,249,775 2,272,019 57,113 122,127 54,861 90,944 2.5 5.4 2.4 4.0

Anniston-Oxford-Jacksonville

46,508 44,797 46,408 44,769 1,381 2,908 1,332 2,134 3.0 6.5 2.9 4.8

Auburn-Opelika

77,850 76,044 78,204 76,343 1,747 3,453 1,706 2,587 2.2 4.5 2.2 3.4

Birmingham-Hoover

557,216 548,095 557,869 550,653 12,785 28,629 12,270 21,195 2.3 5.2 2.2 3.8

Daphne-Fairhope-Foley

97,213 95,828 96,603 96,167 2,246 4,683 2,198 3,442 2.3 4.9 2.3 3.6

Decatur

72,973 71,425 73,115 71,986 1,670 2,880 1,611 2,233 2.3 4.0 2.2 3.1

Dothan

64,373 63,835 64,230 64,065 1,612 3,183 1,582 2,448 2.5 5.0 2.5 3.8

Florence-Muscle Shoals

66,575 65,480 66,387 65,564 1,886 3,087 1,802 2,339 2.8 4.7 2.7 3.6

Gadsden

42,766 41,107 42,785 41,254 1,285 2,661 1,163 1,908 3.0 6.5 2.7 4.6

Huntsville

231,034 227,720 231,135 229,252 4,989 9,569 4,756 7,150 2.2 4.2 2.1 3.1

Mobile

190,090 189,142 189,712 188,454 5,943 14,917 5,690 10,919 3.1 7.9 3.0 5.8

Montgomery

172,879 171,126 172,696 170,961 4,459 12,261 4,256 8,967 2.6 7.2 2.5 5.2

Tuscaloosa

121,013 119,106 121,064 119,357 2,800 7,141 2,748 5,231 2.3 6.0 2.3 4.4

Alaska

344,605 351,295 343,483 353,452 19,701 19,029 20,910 28,661 5.7 5.4 6.1 8.1

Anchorage

192,732 200,537 195,228 202,679 9,924 10,708 10,368 15,840 5.1 5.3 5.3 7.8

Fairbanks

44,717 45,896 44,677 45,771 2,225 1,974 2,376 2,926 5.0 4.3 5.3 6.4

Arizona

3,601,094 3,591,571 3,615,186 3,596,047 161,137 281,359 154,572 273,365 4.5 7.8 4.3 7.6

Flagstaff

79,349 69,805 78,173 69,076 3,921 6,728 3,710 6,636 4.9 9.6 4.7 9.6

Lake Havasu City-Kingman

88,263 87,146 88,701 86,633 4,788 7,835 4,689 7,505 5.4 9.0 5.3 8.7

Phoenix-Mesa-Scottsdale

2,535,869 2,545,839 2,548,538 2,550,954 97,704 189,550 94,318 184,712 3.9 7.4 3.7 7.2

Prescott

107,722 110,001 108,301 109,192 4,538 7,472 4,478 7,298 4.2 6.8 4.1 6.7

Sierra Vista-Douglas

51,646 52,130 51,708 51,985 2,732 3,385 2,710 3,335 5.3 6.5 5.2 6.4

Tucson

501,592 498,262 504,426 499,320 21,280 38,967 20,493 38,083 4.2 7.8 4.1 7.6

Yuma

102,978 96,981 102,376 97,533 17,092 15,075 15,592 13,672 16.6 15.5 15.2 14.0

Arkansas

1,367,199 1,330,991 1,361,974 1,323,556 42,231 75,789 41,816 75,624 3.1 5.7 3.1 5.7

Fayetteville-Springdale-Rogers

284,397 278,859 283,345 278,544 6,417 11,872 6,220 11,826 2.3 4.3 2.2 4.2

Fort Smith

118,838 116,214 119,034 116,095 4,058 6,828 3,947 6,734 3.4 5.9 3.3 5.8

Hot Springs

40,921 40,997 40,659 40,565 1,375 3,080 1,324 2,974 3.4 7.5 3.3 7.3

Jonesboro

66,775 66,986 66,690 66,715 1,646 3,186 1,596 3,110 2.5 4.8 2.4 4.7

Little Rock-North Little Rock-Conway

358,233 343,658 357,079 340,488 10,411 21,999 10,244 21,384 2.9 6.4 2.9 6.3

Pine Bluff

34,975 33,665 34,794 33,469 1,587 2,697 1,611 2,695 4.5 8.0 4.6 8.1

California

19,538,254 19,289,337 19,534,610 18,928,834 725,895 1,682,556 718,032 1,491,595 3.7 8.7 3.7 7.9

Bakersfield

399,408 378,798 395,137 370,897 25,064 38,520 25,238 35,031 6.3 10.2 6.4 9.4

Chico

100,659 96,203 99,254 92,998 4,180 6,869 4,172 6,345 4.2 7.1 4.2 6.8

El Centro

72,614 68,078 72,396 65,425 14,190 12,395 13,506 10,723 19.5 18.2 18.7 16.4

Fresno

448,769 449,041 448,416 440,003 27,444 40,134 29,945 37,764 6.1 8.9 6.7 8.6

Hanford-Corcoran

57,617 56,079 57,402 54,651 3,790 5,035 4,157 4,841 6.6 9.0 7.2 8.9

Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim

6,789,821 6,698,362 6,807,214 6,578,840 264,634 718,302 255,515 629,073 3.9 10.7 3.8 9.6

Madera

61,525 61,648 60,686 59,964 3,458 5,043 3,757 4,843 5.6 8.2 6.2 8.1

Merced

118,481 116,060 115,475 112,012 7,121 10,422 7,734 10,118 6.0 9.0 6.7 9.0

Modesto

244,850 239,738 243,932 233,703 12,367 21,047 12,853 19,433 5.1 8.8 5.3 8.3

Napa

75,561 73,597 73,640 70,955 1,814 4,728 1,920 4,269 2.4 6.4 2.6 6.0

Oxnard-Thousand Oaks-Ventura

425,299 419,394 425,979 412,590 14,466 28,941 14,679 25,889 3.4 6.9 3.4 6.3

Redding

75,417 74,796 74,708 73,130 2,957 5,036 2,973 4,782 3.9 6.7 4.0 6.5

Riverside-San Bernardino-Ontario

2,084,065 2,103,030 2,095,092 2,071,914 80,663 183,229 77,264 163,309 3.9 8.7 3.7 7.9

Sacramento--Roseville--Arden-Arcade

1,104,810 1,110,741 1,105,018 1,089,342 36,192 81,359 35,800 73,068 3.3 7.3 3.2 6.7

Salinas

224,987 195,440 219,427 188,295 8,764 14,779 10,271 14,455 3.9 7.6 4.7 7.7

San Diego-Carlsbad

1,598,643 1,608,934 1,600,077 1,582,455 47,861 120,033 46,727 105,187 3.0 7.5 2.9 6.6

San Francisco-Oakland-Hayward

2,608,916 2,551,436 2,606,601 2,503,008 63,687 177,751 61,892 153,424 2.4 7.0 2.4 6.1

San Jose-Sunnyvale-Santa Clara

1,090,633 1,089,736 1,090,607 1,073,458 26,355 63,076 25,860 55,276 2.4 5.8 2.4 5.1

San Luis Obispo-Paso Robles-Arroyo Grande

142,355 134,203 142,044 131,759 3,649 7,876 3,634 7,110 2.6 5.9 2.6 5.4

Santa Cruz-Watsonville

143,704 131,294 141,792 128,086 4,999 9,114 5,643 8,586 3.5 6.9 4.0 6.7

Santa Maria-Santa Barbara

220,335 218,297 218,458 213,583 6,870 13,413 6,989 12,313 3.1 6.1 3.2 5.8

Santa Rosa

263,296 257,909 260,583 250,179 6,282 15,549 6,305 13,757 2.4 6.0 2.4 5.5

Stockton-Lodi

327,968 328,635 325,674 321,465 16,984 31,682 17,551 28,984 5.2 9.6 5.4 9.0

Vallejo-Fairfield

210,932 207,576 210,399 203,615 7,092 17,074 7,026 15,341 3.4 8.2 3.3 7.5

Visalia-Porterville

202,214 193,275 203,387 191,474 16,960 20,357 17,605 18,752 8.4 10.5 8.7 9.8

Yuba City

76,877 71,300 76,823 69,235 4,026 6,264 4,357 5,985 5.2 8.8 5.7 8.6

Colorado

3,183,835 3,148,728 3,178,357 3,135,429 75,314 192,251 74,970 193,219 2.4 6.1 2.4 6.2

Boulder

198,261 192,301 198,526 192,190 4,128 9,952 3,955 9,723 2.1 5.2 2.0 5.1

Colorado Springs

358,748 357,895 359,210 359,580 10,079 21,306 10,038 21,525 2.8 6.0 2.8 6.0

Denver-Aurora-Lakewood

1,695,627 1,692,196 1,690,044 1,697,382 39,124 109,153 38,272 107,992 2.3 6.5 2.3 6.4

Fort Collins

211,959 205,059 211,387 202,898 4,219 10,416 4,145 10,478 2.0 5.1 2.0 5.2

Grand Junction

77,377 78,970 76,804 78,770 2,151 4,477 2,161 4,725 2.8 5.7 2.8 6.0

Greeley

175,276 171,525 173,704 170,016 3,834 10,587 3,801 10,852 2.2 6.2 2.2 6.4

Pueblo

77,084 77,470 77,322 77,967 2,654 6,023 2,701 6,471 3.4 7.8 3.5 8.3

Connecticut

1,925,483 1,851,420 1,927,932 1,888,211 66,634 107,228 62,775 145,249 3.5 5.8 3.3 7.7

Bridgeport-Stamford-Norwalk

467,659 442,180 469,897 452,023 16,492 27,098 15,571 36,085 3.5 6.1 3.3 8.0

Danbury

107,380 102,413 107,876 104,708 3,047 5,224 2,917 6,920 2.8 5.1 2.7 6.6

Hartford-West Hartford-East Hartford

634,415 619,053 634,432 632,201 22,142 34,620 20,730 47,271 3.5 5.6 3.3 7.5

New Haven

333,480 324,881 333,337 329,562 11,282 17,746 10,507 24,395 3.4 5.5 3.2 7.4

Norwich-New London-Westerly

142,565 135,723 142,720 137,488 4,719 9,156 4,600 11,956 3.3 6.7 3.2 8.7

Waterbury

112,374 106,930 112,691 109,660 4,806 7,368 4,549 10,035 4.3 6.9 4.0 9.2

Delaware

487,774 479,126 488,408 475,623 18,749 26,451 17,290 22,277 3.8 5.5 3.5 4.7

Dover

80,257 80,344 80,546 79,299 3,396 4,759 3,030 3,964 4.2 5.9 3.8 5.0

Salisbury(1)

192,626 187,087 190,382 183,191 7,742 11,359 8,735 10,460 4.0 6.1 4.6 5.7

District of Columbia

409,726 396,355 412,346 397,448 21,517 32,658 20,781 29,023 5.3 8.2 5.0 7.3

Washington-Arlington-Alexandria

3,495,773 3,372,052 3,494,549 3,362,312 100,524 221,032 96,701 196,277 2.9 6.6 2.8 5.8

Florida

10,458,221 10,137,710 10,411,499 10,135,780 295,902 637,230 283,039 640,028 2.8 6.3 2.7 6.3

Cape Coral-Fort Myers

351,228 346,291 352,406 345,887 10,132 18,597 9,848 19,597 2.9 5.4 2.8 5.7

Crestview-Fort Walton Beach-Destin

129,537 125,136 127,755 124,296 3,086 4,760 3,150 5,391 2.4 3.8 2.5 4.3

Deltona-Daytona Beach-Ormond Beach

302,993 297,542 302,269 298,707 9,804 16,957 9,666 18,201 3.2 5.7 3.2 6.1

Gainesville

149,740 145,016 148,873 144,685 4,087 6,158 3,849 6,814 2.7 4.2 2.6 4.7

Homosassa Springs

47,560 45,466 47,355 45,748 2,030 2,884 2,044 3,178 4.3 6.3 4.3 6.9

Jacksonville

800,967 778,243 796,323 782,451 22,647 37,718 21,787 40,867 2.8 4.8 2.7 5.2

Lakeland-Winter Haven

309,933 307,848 309,867 309,538 10,618 21,903 10,145 22,797 3.4 7.1 3.3 7.4

Miami-Fort Lauderdale-West Palm Beach

3,190,930 3,063,603 3,165,667 3,037,858 80,710 232,203 74,470 214,159 2.5 7.6 2.4 7.0

Naples-Immokalee-Marco Island

180,325 175,894 183,572 179,699 5,401 8,766 5,133 8,871 3.0 5.0 2.8 4.9

North Port-Sarasota-Bradenton

370,079 360,063 371,219 361,795 10,540 17,561 10,405 18,726 2.8 4.9 2.8 5.2

Ocala

139,117 141,736 138,518 143,034 4,797 7,695 4,752 8,579 3.4 5.4 3.4 6.0

Orlando-Kissimmee-Sanford

1,380,096 1,315,501 1,373,242 1,312,239 38,327 102,973 36,726 101,310 2.8 7.8 2.7 7.7

Palm Bay-Melbourne-Titusville

288,618 284,489 287,508 285,158 8,434 14,135 8,218 15,077 2.9 5.0 2.9 5.3

Panama City

89,638 87,308 88,130 86,777 2,774 3,895 2,698 4,449 3.1 4.5 3.1 5.1

Pensacola-Ferry Pass-Brent

231,193 224,801 230,265 225,308 6,570 10,715 6,436 11,840 2.8 4.8 2.8 5.3

Port St. Lucie

220,854 218,341 220,487 218,659 7,470 11,688 7,224 12,493 3.4 5.4 3.3 5.7

Punta Gorda

71,956 72,516 72,707 73,002 2,390 3,678 2,412 3,943 3.3 5.1 3.3 5.4

Sebastian-Vero Beach

65,470 64,320 66,003 65,351 2,323 3,547 2,241 3,786 3.5 5.5 3.4 5.8

Sebring

36,060 36,627 36,302 37,025 1,488 2,149 1,473 2,444 4.1 5.9 4.1 6.6

Tallahassee

199,012 187,801 197,548 187,482 5,831 9,415 5,465 10,567 2.9 5.0 2.8 5.6

Tampa-St. Petersburg-Clearwater

1,577,390 1,536,930 1,570,918 1,546,512 45,757 83,508 44,485 88,812 2.9 5.4 2.8 5.7

The Villages

32,901 32,522 32,923 32,592 1,295 1,835 1,387 2,064 3.9 5.6 4.2 6.3

Georgia

5,140,986 5,087,994 5,135,208 5,162,384 159,171 224,757 141,518 276,684 3.1 4.4 2.8 5.4

Albany

66,804 65,279 66,811 66,394 2,564 3,641 2,361 4,447 3.8 5.6 3.5 6.7

Athens-Clarke County

99,897 97,837 99,617 98,955 2,936 3,580 2,523 4,329 2.9 3.7 2.5 4.4

Atlanta-Sandy Springs-Roswell

3,116,953 3,086,646 3,113,823 3,130,221 91,054 143,385 81,063 176,049 2.9 4.6 2.6 5.6

Augusta-Richmond County

267,736 260,743 266,860 258,751 8,495 10,331 7,731 12,315 3.2 4.0 2.9 4.8

Brunswick

52,637 47,455 52,488 48,053 1,663 2,067 1,435 2,600 3.2 4.4 2.7 5.4

Columbus

123,200 119,506 123,143 120,090 4,389 5,970 3,963 6,748 3.6 5.0 3.2 5.6

Dalton

59,069 56,827 58,378 57,582 2,738 2,384 2,214 3,007 4.6 4.2 3.8 5.2

Gainesville

102,981 100,965 102,867 102,033 2,558 2,901 2,247 3,583 2.5 2.9 2.2 3.5

Hinesville

34,380 34,592 34,422 35,376 1,174 1,355 1,051 1,711 3.4 3.9 3.1 4.8

Macon-Bibb County

102,708 102,061 102,965 103,987 3,485 4,998 3,087 6,092 3.4 4.9 3.0 5.9

Rome

44,467 44,641 44,454 45,135 1,488 1,611 1,404 1,993 3.3 3.6 3.2 4.4

Savannah

188,554 186,997 188,458 190,474 5,576 8,754 4,909 10,731 3.0 4.7 2.6 5.6

Valdosta

64,060 65,836 64,215 67,584 2,086 2,633 1,899 3,281 3.3 4.0 3.0 4.9

Warner Robins

86,157 83,240 86,159 84,682 2,806 3,304 2,357 3,896 3.3 4.0 2.7 4.6

Hawaii

663,747 639,224 667,857 659,148 17,540 90,464 17,344 66,466 2.6 14.2 2.6 10.1

Kahului-Wailuku-Lahaina

86,124 82,093 86,322 82,384 2,288 18,198 2,167 13,192 2.7 22.2 2.5 16.0

Urban Honolulu

450,270 434,382 452,986 450,466 11,110 53,667 11,123 39,631 2.5 12.4 2.5 8.8

Idaho

888,851 914,261 887,607 903,702 20,787 45,940 24,433 43,135 2.3 5.0 2.8 4.8

Boise City

375,535 385,603 379,480 383,511 8,805 20,691 10,084 18,889 2.3 5.4 2.7 4.9

Coeur d'Alene

79,673 79,264 80,122 78,854 2,204 5,118 2,683 4,965 2.8 6.5 3.3 6.3

Idaho Falls

73,189 77,095 73,553 76,482 1,432 2,934 1,639 2,717 2.0 3.8 2.2 3.6

Lewiston

31,744 30,846 32,050 29,892 845 1,334 958 1,321 2.7 4.3 3.0 4.4

Pocatello

43,005 41,775 43,372 41,319 1,011 2,103 1,122 1,932 2.4 5.0 2.6 4.7

Twin Falls

54,103 56,029 54,103 55,434 1,185 2,554 1,429 2,410 2.2 4.6 2.6 4.3

Illinois

6,443,336 6,303,579 6,416,333 6,136,270 224,741 452,588 215,173 398,829 3.5 7.2 3.4 6.5

Bloomington

97,093 97,063 96,687 92,253 3,279 4,395 3,112 4,248 3.4 4.5 3.2 4.6

Carbondale-Marion

60,810 62,458 61,081 60,114 2,261 3,196 2,166 3,063 3.7 5.1 3.5 5.1

Champaign-Urbana

128,412 132,985 128,542 125,202 4,337 5,975 4,072 5,649 3.4 4.5 3.2 4.5

Chicago-Naperville-Elgin

4,845,658 4,684,202 4,830,451 4,626,078 160,831 373,644 152,664 322,567 3.3 8.0 3.2 7.0

Danville

33,480 34,588 33,357 32,521 1,571 2,129 1,565 1,979 4.7 6.2 4.7 6.1

Davenport-Moline-Rock Island(1)

197,733 190,807 195,763 182,855 7,610 9,507 7,848 8,701 3.8 5.0 4.0 4.8

Decatur

48,737 49,143 48,435 46,482 2,369 3,620 2,336 3,576 4.9 7.4 4.8 7.7

Kankakee

56,899 57,741 56,735 54,747 2,413 3,305 2,739 3,300 4.2 5.7 4.8 6.0

Peoria

176,229 171,981 174,407 161,995 7,338 10,521 7,308 10,071 4.2 6.1 4.2 6.2

Rockford

165,994 164,205 165,336 155,573 8,290 11,523 8,832 10,989 5.0 7.0 5.3 7.1

Springfield

107,942 109,650 107,432 104,337 3,808 6,064 3,724 6,002 3.5 5.5 3.5 5.8

Indiana

3,392,188 3,370,613 3,385,064 3,325,870 102,208 178,035 104,202 162,527 3.0 5.3 3.1 4.9

Bloomington

81,761 80,463 81,883 79,406 2,500 3,574 2,511 3,025 3.1 4.4 3.1 3.8

Columbus

44,861 44,904 44,983 44,590 999 1,872 1,037 1,728 2.2 4.2 2.3 3.9

Elkhart-Goshen

111,645 108,742 111,351 107,810 3,235 5,078 3,233 4,793 2.9 4.7 2.9 4.4

Evansville

163,517 166,511 163,969 165,808 4,695 7,947 4,803 7,191 2.9 4.8 2.9 4.3

Fort Wayne

222,745 220,507 219,621 217,617 7,289 11,336 6,775 10,342 3.3 5.1 3.1 4.8

Indianapolis-Carmel-Anderson

1,073,393 1,099,491 1,072,507 1,083,734 29,436 59,195 30,094 53,159 2.7 5.4 2.8 4.9

Kokomo

37,042 37,464 36,993 36,438 1,215 2,266 1,239 2,039 3.3 6.0 3.3 5.6

Lafayette-West Lafayette

115,869 113,328 116,509 112,310 3,151 5,347 3,179 4,922 2.7 4.7 2.7 4.4

Michigan City-La Porte

47,828 48,273 47,785 47,874 1,679 3,371 1,789 3,288 3.5 7.0 3.7 6.9

Muncie

54,541 53,492 54,732 52,682 1,960 3,000 1,998 2,627 3.6 5.6 3.7 5.0

South Bend-Mishawaka

160,327 155,441 160,524 153,641 5,484 10,021 5,463 8,919 3.4 6.4 3.4 5.8

Terre Haute

75,830 74,265 76,256 73,334 2,778 4,098 2,937 3,837 3.7 5.5 3.9 5.2

Iowa

1,759,289 1,640,453 1,752,989 1,618,578 40,745 50,728 42,650 49,991 2.3 3.1 2.4 3.1

Ames

61,675 59,972 61,308 58,019 914 1,185 1,037 1,182 1.5 2.0 1.7 2.0

Cedar Rapids

150,289 139,664 150,091 136,593 3,857 5,321 4,112 5,179 2.6 3.8 2.7 3.8

Des Moines-West Des Moines

372,407 344,453 368,670 337,609 8,510 11,539 8,845 10,879 2.3 3.3 2.4 3.2

Dubuque

57,465 53,326 57,378 52,533 1,202 1,800 1,338 1,750 2.1 3.4 2.3 3.3

Iowa City

101,354 95,776 100,884 93,558 1,731 2,754 1,889 2,583 1.7 2.9 1.9 2.8

Sioux City

94,657 91,274 94,776 91,408 2,413 2,647 2,521 2,681 2.5 2.9 2.7 2.9

Waterloo-Cedar Falls

92,096 86,250 91,241 84,909 2,494 2,779 2,556 2,803 2.7 3.2 2.8 3.3

Kansas

1,493,923 1,516,391 1,497,273 1,533,375 42,395 71,481 43,110 82,019 2.8 4.7 2.9 5.3

Lawrence

66,705 65,834 67,073 66,356 1,747 3,190 1,779 3,549 2.6 4.8 2.7 5.3

Manhattan

48,965 46,876 49,129 47,703 1,192 1,799 1,229 2,253 2.4 3.8 2.5 4.7

Topeka

118,752 120,036 118,671 121,540 3,491 5,512 3,615 6,530 2.9 4.6 3.0 5.4

Wichita

314,612 322,597 316,287 324,695 9,712 21,391 9,935 23,429 3.1 6.6 3.1 7.2

Kentucky

2,075,032 1,953,500 2,078,031 1,995,581 79,834 133,602 78,739 102,101 3.8 6.8 3.8 5.1

Bowling Green

85,283 77,201 85,288 80,038 3,152 5,160 2,956 3,593 3.7 6.7 3.5 4.5

Elizabethtown-Fort Knox

67,067 62,886 67,158 64,025 2,557 4,245 2,524 3,233 3.8 6.8 3.8 5.0

Lexington-Fayette

275,928 264,269 275,843 270,683 8,388 16,077 8,270 12,037 3.0 6.1 3.0 4.4

Louisville/Jefferson County

675,402 649,148 674,579 657,184 22,540 41,982 22,302 32,815 3.3 6.5 3.3 5.0

Owensboro

55,884 52,696 55,664 53,748 1,913 3,211 1,879 2,557 3.4 6.1 3.4 4.8

Louisiana

2,108,448 2,116,818 2,109,627 2,094,476 105,844 195,730 104,716 169,348 5.0 9.2 5.0 8.1

Alexandria

63,580 63,905 63,388 62,879 3,338 4,313 3,374 3,697 5.3 6.7 5.3 5.9

Baton Rouge

419,704 426,441 421,252 420,133 19,430 33,956 19,099 29,771 4.6 8.0 4.5 7.1

Hammond

55,250 56,380 55,370 55,441 3,096 5,908 3,073 5,182 5.6 10.5 5.5 9.3

Houma-Thibodaux

89,386 90,202 88,875 90,409 4,210 7,045 4,129 6,100 4.7 7.8 4.6 6.7

Lafayette

213,448 215,783 212,311 212,320 10,553 17,675 10,427 15,354 4.9 8.2 4.9 7.2

Lake Charles

109,938 101,270 109,308 102,522 4,658 11,880 4,714 9,633 4.2 11.7 4.3 9.4

Monroe

79,295 83,856 79,709 82,684 4,469 6,416 4,483 5,570 5.6 7.7 5.6 6.7

New Orleans-Metairie

600,032 600,842 602,500 595,502 28,174 67,584 27,451 58,486 4.7 11.2 4.6 9.8

Shreveport-Bossier City

187,051 189,590 187,596 188,200 10,120 16,951 10,048 14,726 5.4 8.9 5.4 7.8

Maine

695,929 679,522 689,655 671,966 16,749 32,361 19,516 31,477 2.4 4.8 2.8 4.7

Bangor

72,575 70,727 72,158 69,543 1,743 3,044 1,964 2,872 2.4 4.3 2.7 4.1

Lewiston-Auburn

56,434 55,150 56,165 54,757 1,404 2,760 1,541 2,598 2.5 5.0 2.7 4.7

Portland-South Portland

211,155 203,443 209,148 203,066 4,374 9,578 4,909 8,970 2.1 4.7 2.3 4.4

Maryland

3,278,073 3,154,803 3,270,600 3,141,812 108,418 238,641 104,359 206,834 3.3 7.6 3.2 6.6

Baltimore-Columbia-Towson

1,528,235 1,464,763 1,525,470 1,464,152 51,640 104,166 48,978 89,343 3.4 7.1 3.2 6.1

California-Lexington Park

57,687 53,294 57,429 53,021 1,696 2,731 1,613 2,445 2.9 5.1 2.8 4.6

Cumberland

45,581 42,029 45,131 41,757 2,319 2,776 2,231 2,583 5.1 6.6 4.9 6.2

Hagerstown-Martinsburg

135,769 127,211 136,804 127,076 4,542 7,207 4,313 6,485 3.3 5.7 3.2 5.1

Massachusetts

3,819,962 3,612,815 3,825,517 3,569,886 90,037 248,787 87,801 222,745 2.4 6.9 2.3 6.2

Barnstable Town

126,240 116,090 122,235 111,976 3,243 7,969 3,654 7,402 2.6 6.9 3.0 6.6

Boston-Cambridge-Nashua

2,836,192 2,680,350 2,841,892 2,656,665 62,187 177,541 60,115 157,139 2.2 6.6 2.1 5.9

Leominster-Gardner

80,413 76,185 81,118 75,564 2,162 5,733 2,177 5,196 2.7 7.5 2.7 6.9

New Bedford

85,705 82,069 86,401 81,371 3,028 6,204 3,006 5,692 3.5 7.6 3.5 7.0

Pittsfield

42,316 39,951 42,396 39,436 1,180 2,946 1,237 2,721 2.8 7.4 2.9 6.9

Springfield

380,896 353,325 382,344 352,140 11,348 25,346 10,884 24,484 3.0 7.2 2.8 7.0

Worcester

363,777 349,007 365,861 349,706 9,572 22,734 9,262 21,646 2.6 6.5 2.5 6.2

Michigan

4,943,286 4,903,046 4,931,109 4,912,353 173,524 280,991 159,361 309,645 3.5 5.7 3.2 6.3

Ann Arbor

199,449 201,857 202,006 200,785 4,698 8,009 4,384 6,764 2.4 4.0 2.2 3.4

Battle Creek

61,970 60,695 62,723 60,820 2,045 3,586 1,991 3,193 3.3 5.9 3.2 5.2

Bay City

49,540 47,708 49,855 47,214 1,895 2,458 1,797 2,298 3.8 5.2 3.6 4.9

Detroit-Warren-Dearborn

2,180,195 2,142,620 2,156,528 2,173,817 87,008 150,837 75,903 192,413 4.0 7.0 3.5 8.9

Flint

183,174 180,451 183,897 178,815 8,268 11,476 6,894 9,981 4.5 6.4 3.7 5.6

Grand Rapids-Wyoming

575,962 577,580 579,732 574,837 13,348 23,993 13,310 21,499 2.3 4.2 2.3 3.7

Jackson

73,197 73,211 74,151 72,964 2,250 3,813 2,195 3,373 3.1 5.2 3.0 4.6

Kalamazoo-Portage

168,752 170,149 169,991 167,752 4,872 7,713 4,731 6,857 2.9 4.5 2.8 4.1

Lansing-East Lansing

252,500 242,536 253,153 241,039 8,519 10,806 6,366 9,407 3.4 4.5 2.5 3.9

Midland

39,639 39,483 40,076 39,200 1,163 1,645 1,198 1,505 2.9 4.2 3.0 3.8

Monroe

74,841 72,563 75,770 71,483 2,068 3,810 2,155 3,006 2.8 5.3 2.8 4.2

Muskegon

76,240 75,692 77,174 75,442 2,612 5,376 2,768 4,797 3.4 7.1 3.6 6.4

Niles-Benton Harbor

72,591 72,903 72,846 72,165 2,131 3,775 2,265 3,382 2.9 5.2 3.1 4.7

Saginaw

85,380 83,936 86,708 83,882 3,833 4,920 3,311 4,505 4.5 5.9 3.8 5.4

Minnesota

3,125,946 3,019,072 3,123,662 3,034,412 81,756 118,189 88,135 117,017 2.6 3.9 2.8 3.9

Duluth

143,597 135,853 144,196 136,029 4,674 6,345 5,581 6,426 3.3 4.7 3.9 4.7

Mankato-North Mankato

63,954 61,748 63,516 62,452 1,316 1,824 1,279 1,896 2.1 3.0 2.0 3.0

Minneapolis-St. Paul-Bloomington

2,036,557 1,957,120 2,041,061 1,968,687 52,771 82,970 53,457 77,165 2.6 4.2 2.6 3.9

Rochester

126,368 121,641 125,266 122,170 2,718 4,310 2,921 4,021 2.2 3.5 2.3 3.3

St. Cloud

114,567 112,381 114,227 113,136 2,769 4,052 3,125 4,509 2.4 3.6 2.7 4.0

Mississippi

1,276,407 1,289,502 1,279,839 1,280,512 65,083 90,003 65,909 76,512 5.1 7.0 5.1 6.0

Gulfport-Biloxi-Pascagoula

164,063 169,104 164,715 167,408 8,503 12,381 8,692 10,566 5.2 7.3 5.3 6.3

Hattiesburg

68,979 71,755 69,787 72,290 3,032 4,464 3,065 3,783 4.4 6.2 4.4 5.2

Jackson

269,741 272,621 269,642 270,322 12,087 17,312 12,188 14,702 4.5 6.4 4.5 5.4

Missouri

3,103,578 2,977,451 3,099,987 2,995,373 86,305 112,888 96,022 115,569 2.8 3.8 3.1 3.9

Cape Girardeau

48,788 44,538 48,890 44,651 1,332 1,532 1,556 1,591 2.7 3.4 3.2 3.6

Columbia

99,703 95,574 99,976 96,177 1,884 2,467 2,242 2,631 1.9 2.6 2.2 2.7

Jefferson City

74,904 72,454 74,810 72,441 1,564 1,826 1,912 1,993 2.1 2.5 2.6 2.8

Joplin

85,225 83,255 85,480 83,340 2,253 2,835 2,549 2,951 2.6 3.4 3.0 3.5

Kansas City

1,143,396 1,115,869 1,146,503 1,127,734 32,617 48,653 33,772 51,448 2.9 4.4 2.9 4.6

St. Joseph

63,738 61,676 63,502 61,939 1,592 1,879 1,698 2,012 2.5 3.0 2.7 3.2

St. Louis(2)

1,484,448 1,431,232 1,484,554 1,421,814 43,061 62,857 45,468 61,532 2.9 4.4 3.1 4.3

Springfield

236,833 228,513 237,954 230,988 5,765 6,852 6,820 7,335 2.4 3.0 2.9 3.2

Montana

535,076 534,105 534,315 533,418 16,905 22,350 18,209 22,776 3.2 4.2 3.4 4.3

Billings

87,561 87,504 87,577 87,307 2,558 3,557 2,661 3,469 2.9 4.1 3.0 4.0

Great Falls

37,962 37,389 38,082 37,582 1,197 1,648 1,215 1,686 3.2 4.4 3.2 4.5

Missoula

64,444 64,940 64,012 65,013 1,841 2,710 1,984 2,661 2.9 4.2 3.1 4.1

Nebraska

1,038,851 1,029,456 1,037,741 1,031,599 29,226 27,870 27,173 27,864 2.8 2.7 2.6 2.7

Grand Island

44,175 43,256 43,662 43,509 1,839 1,479 1,202 1,741 4.2 3.4 2.8 4.0

Lincoln

187,420 190,798 187,817 189,941 4,775 5,060 4,636 5,189 2.5 2.7 2.5 2.7

Omaha-Council Bluffs

501,611 493,655 497,824 491,651 13,504 14,814 13,026 14,342 2.7 3.0 2.6 2.9

Nevada

1,555,164 1,547,904 1,554,598 1,514,131 55,450 181,521 52,974 149,589 3.6 11.7 3.4 9.9

Carson City

26,409 26,316 26,314 25,636 874 1,741 871 1,499 3.3 6.6 3.3 5.8

Las Vegas-Henderson-Paradise

1,138,969 1,138,873 1,139,511 1,111,714 42,928 156,207 40,777 127,969 3.8 13.7 3.6 11.5

Reno

261,178 255,419 262,162 253,539 7,357 16,118 7,108 13,737 2.8 6.3 2.7 5.4

New Hampshire

773,369 724,427 773,447 746,958 16,995 27,258 17,891 25,984 2.2 3.8 2.3 3.5

Dover-Durham

87,013 77,995 86,660 79,756 1,762 2,983 1,865 2,924 2.0 3.8 2.2 3.7

Manchester

123,065 116,006 123,988 120,335 2,583 4,460 2,741 4,208 2.1 3.8 2.2 3.5

Portsmouth

77,788 71,260 77,309 72,181 1,589 2,775 1,642 2,719 2.0 3.9 2.1 3.8

New Jersey

4,533,349 4,394,721 4,534,778 4,518,710 154,959 336,043 157,091 447,511 3.4 7.6 3.5 9.9

Atlantic City-Hammonton

121,075 115,350 120,041 120,174 5,818 13,812 6,004 18,212 4.8 12.0 5.0 15.2

Ocean City

43,924 42,304 43,106 42,572 2,457 3,722 3,763 5,814 5.6 8.8 8.7 13.7

Trenton

205,097 201,551 206,167 207,112 6,301 12,630 6,202 17,011 3.1 6.3 3.0 8.2

Vineland-Bridgeton

66,107 65,290 65,723 65,807 3,329 5,300 3,479 7,385 5.0 8.1 5.3 11.2

New Mexico

963,427 929,379 967,203 932,032 44,673 73,711 44,691 67,575 4.6 7.9 4.6 7.3

Albuquerque

441,248 432,240 443,346 433,270 19,692 32,496 19,219 29,439 4.5 7.5 4.3 6.8

Farmington

52,844 49,988 52,437 49,924 2,879 4,634 2,941 4,191 5.4 9.3 5.6 8.4

Las Cruces

98,847 91,917 99,237 92,309 5,051 6,817 5,267 6,564 5.1 7.4 5.3 7.1

Santa Fe

75,279 69,556 76,493 70,386 2,801 5,326 2,746 4,695 3.7 7.7 3.6 6.7

New York

9,543,205 9,055,222 9,487,235 9,093,641 354,358 814,901 341,376 737,748 3.7 9.0 3.6 8.1

Albany-Schenectady-Troy

451,813 431,570 451,668 432,476 15,559 23,934 15,278 20,982 3.4 5.5 3.4 4.9

Binghamton

106,473 103,632 105,698 103,504 4,463 6,210 4,475 5,570 4.2 6.0 4.2 5.4

Buffalo-Cheektowaga-Niagara Falls

543,054 530,377 539,888 529,122 22,017 35,636 22,591 31,373 4.1 6.7 4.2 5.9

Elmira

35,222 35,039 34,987 34,344 1,402 2,229 1,347 2,107 4.0 6.4 3.9 6.1

Glens Falls

58,882 55,947 58,333 55,598 2,135 3,008 2,475 2,802 3.6 5.4 4.2 5.0

Ithaca

50,174 49,486 49,795 49,554 1,811 2,212 1,641 1,967 3.6 4.5 3.3 4.0

Kingston

88,786 86,760 87,788 86,566 3,084 4,922 3,047 4,288 3.5 5.7 3.5 5.0

New York-Newark-Jersey City

9,985,876 9,504,816 9,949,170 9,633,947 352,358 896,086 336,610 916,650 3.5 9.4 3.4 9.5

Rochester

524,666 497,276 520,672 498,071 20,288 31,103 20,539 28,041 3.9 6.3 3.9 5.6

Syracuse

308,525 289,346 306,415 290,180 12,148 17,973 12,183 16,112 3.9 6.2 4.0 5.6

Utica-Rome

128,614 124,518 128,183 124,726 5,080 7,529 5,294 6,948 3.9 6.0 4.1 5.6

Watertown-Fort Drum

43,558 41,013 43,582 41,094 2,134 2,347 2,565 2,182 4.9 5.7 5.9 5.3

North Carolina

5,123,098 4,953,747 5,100,768 4,967,029 180,081 297,061 177,831 301,765 3.5 6.0 3.5 6.1

Asheville

241,355 224,872 239,917 225,219 6,826 12,975 6,562 12,773 2.8 5.8 2.7 5.7

Burlington

83,405 81,141 82,915 81,357 2,850 4,764 2,766 4,831 3.4 5.9 3.3 5.9

Charlotte-Concord-Gastonia

1,386,509 1,343,528 1,378,324 1,342,107 44,535 79,352 44,615 79,463 3.2 5.9 3.2 5.9

Durham-Chapel Hill

308,753 297,267 307,990 298,592 9,598 15,354 9,253 15,592 3.1 5.2 3.0 5.2

Fayetteville

149,199 143,054 149,085 144,021 6,983 11,686 6,970 12,038 4.7 8.2 4.7 8.4

Goldsboro

51,591 49,564 52,152 49,671 1,985 2,867 1,938 3,044 3.8 5.8 3.7 6.1

Greensboro-High Point

375,966 359,207 375,109 358,818 13,906 24,608 13,662 24,869 3.7 6.9 3.6 6.9

Greenville

91,338 86,493 91,146 86,697 3,510 5,111 3,466 5,341 3.8 5.9 3.8 6.2

Hickory-Lenoir-Morganton

176,864 166,645 176,490 166,811 5,995 9,965 5,850 10,208 3.4 6.0 3.3 6.1

Jacksonville

65,817 65,448 65,882 65,766 2,810 3,815 2,702 3,997 4.3 5.8 4.1 6.1

New Bern

51,878 50,156 51,903 49,729 1,860 2,784 1,840 2,862 3.6 5.6 3.5 5.8

Raleigh

741,613 709,754 736,107 713,783 22,830 37,203 22,409 37,622 3.1 5.2 3.0 5.3

Rocky Mount

65,290 63,501 65,444 63,260 3,095 5,172 3,025 5,242 4.7 8.1 4.6 8.3

Wilmington

155,622 147,382 155,884 148,229 5,013 8,025 4,934 8,152 3.2 5.4 3.2 5.5

Winston-Salem

335,529 322,042 331,760 321,394 11,231 19,087 11,065 19,432 3.3 5.9 3.3 6.0

North Dakota

403,653 399,912 399,846 397,281 6,535 15,905 7,968 16,424 1.6 4.0 2.0 4.1

Bismarck

67,059 68,175 66,983 68,677 1,164 2,163 1,449 2,325 1.7 3.2 2.2 3.4

Fargo

139,371 141,995 139,290 142,370 2,194 4,098 2,545 4,263 1.6 2.9 1.8 3.0

Grand Forks

54,148 54,789 53,997 54,934 974 1,652 1,126 1,868 1.8 3.0 2.1 3.4

Ohio

5,828,726 5,851,499 5,808,659 5,668,884 220,052 336,924 214,762 297,258 3.8 5.8 3.7 5.2

Akron

361,987 356,319 361,052 346,640 14,090 21,220 13,843 18,715 3.9 6.0 3.8 5.4

Canton-Massillon

199,960 199,341 199,093 192,506 8,326 11,394 8,519 10,108 4.2 5.7 4.3 5.3

Cincinnati

1,132,089 1,143,481 1,129,263 1,117,875 39,612 63,724 37,845 53,795 3.5 5.6 3.4 4.8

Cleveland-Elyria

1,039,084 1,019,544 1,038,615 1,006,326 34,760 66,434 34,448 58,214 3.3 6.5 3.3 5.8

Columbus

1,108,550 1,117,941 1,110,232 1,087,759 37,429 61,074 36,112 53,190 3.4 5.5 3.3 4.9

Dayton

394,304 401,082 391,422 388,571 15,638 23,327 14,344 20,338 4.0 5.8 3.7 5.2

Lima

47,673 48,111 47,691 46,715 1,831 2,907 1,775 2,486 3.8 6.0 3.7 5.3

Mansfield

51,779 53,567 52,036 52,232 2,159 3,119 2,260 2,888 4.2 5.8 4.3 5.5

Springfield

64,014 65,373 63,271 63,445 3,099 3,654 2,657 3,228 4.8 5.6 4.2 5.1

Toledo

307,515 308,630 304,821 297,642 12,171 19,206 11,753 16,640 4.0 6.2 3.9 5.6

Weirton-Steubenville(1)

51,340 50,466 50,846 49,735 2,823 3,579 2,722 3,308 5.5 7.1 5.4 6.7

Youngstown-Warren-Boardman

238,741 229,858 237,505 223,496 12,586 17,175 12,820 15,316 5.3 7.5 5.4 6.9

Oklahoma

1,854,653 1,879,243 1,852,252 1,872,610 62,648 114,673 59,724 108,454 3.4 6.1 3.2 5.8

Enid

26,944 26,139 26,875 26,418 798 1,551 808 1,482 3.0 5.9 3.0 5.6

Lawton

50,868 51,181 51,183 51,305 1,885 3,171 1,785 2,921 3.7 6.2 3.5 5.7

Oklahoma City

692,149 703,268 691,956 701,650 20,734 41,299 20,172 38,368 3.0 5.9 2.9 5.5

Tulsa

485,661 485,059 484,695 482,235 17,223 31,853 15,600 30,074 3.5 6.6 3.2 6.2

Oregon

2,109,185 2,144,159 2,103,774 2,111,864 63,668 135,573 61,282 115,365 3.0 6.3 2.9 5.5

Albany

58,943 60,396 58,829 59,416 2,056 3,803 1,993 3,243 3.5 6.3 3.4 5.5

Bend-Redmond

96,369 97,197 95,449 95,857 2,818 5,885 2,831 5,178 2.9 6.1 3.0 5.4

Corvallis

48,875 48,170 49,105 47,639 1,142 2,244 1,026 1,814 2.3 4.7 2.1 3.8

Eugene

181,792 188,913 181,668 186,563 5,982 11,752 5,730 9,729 3.3 6.2 3.2 5.2

Grants Pass

35,818 35,770 35,590 34,836 1,396 2,333 1,383 1,983 3.9 6.5 3.9 5.7

Medford

104,139 106,789 103,552 105,228 3,311 6,670 3,208 5,650 3.2 6.2 3.1 5.4

Portland-Vancouver-Hillsboro

1,331,691 1,357,442 1,334,229 1,325,854 40,298 88,955 38,933 77,952 3.0 6.6 2.9 5.9

Salem

202,380 201,794 201,777 197,900 6,471 11,895 6,149 10,210 3.2 5.9 3.0 5.2

Pennsylvania

6,545,629 6,362,288 6,536,425 6,312,563 289,032 443,538 284,629 382,770 4.4 7.0 4.4 6.1

Allentown-Bethlehem-Easton

448,697 434,481 449,086 437,360 19,561 29,963 18,902 27,545 4.4 6.9 4.2 6.3

Altoona

59,553 57,662 59,482 57,207 2,721 3,462 2,720 3,152 4.6 6.0 4.6 5.5

Bloomsburg-Berwick

43,285 42,830 43,148 42,531 1,797 2,269 1,786 2,006 4.2 5.3 4.1 4.7

Chambersburg-Waynesboro

78,205 76,987 78,498 76,301 3,046 4,469 2,965 3,603 3.9 5.8 3.8 4.7

East Stroudsburg

83,516 78,140 83,705 77,245 4,572 6,820 4,586 5,888 5.5 8.7 5.5 7.6

Erie

129,331 122,861 129,217 121,907 5,779 9,410 5,948 8,450 4.5 7.7 4.6 6.9

Gettysburg

55,545 55,675 55,091 55,078 1,828 2,491 1,756 2,121 3.3 4.5 3.2 3.9

Harrisburg-Carlisle

304,253 301,880 304,620 300,425 11,788 17,564 11,190 15,127 3.9 5.8 3.7 5.0

Johnstown

58,402 55,785 58,468 55,601 2,911 3,649 3,077 3,346 5.0 6.5 5.3 6.0

Lancaster

286,906 289,513 286,594 286,018 10,094 14,979 9,624 12,614 3.5 5.2 3.4 4.4

Lebanon

73,001 72,129 72,858 71,489 2,898 4,228 2,819 3,671 4.0 5.9 3.9 5.1

Philadelphia-Camden-Wilmington

3,157,453 3,072,488 3,152,069 3,067,586 133,014 228,675 127,987 217,114 4.2 7.4 4.1 7.1

Pittsburgh

1,222,465 1,176,925 1,220,951 1,166,695 52,756 81,747 52,783 71,263 4.3 6.9 4.3 6.1

Reading

217,403 222,527 217,344 220,360 9,638 15,148 9,413 12,954 4.4 6.8 4.3 5.9

Scranton--Wilkes-Barre--Hazleton

279,529 264,043 279,327 263,232 14,641 21,327 14,775 18,824 5.2 8.1 5.3 7.2

State College

82,034 76,643 82,187 76,055 2,815 3,189 2,685 2,801 3.4 4.2 3.3 3.7

Williamsport

57,148 52,391 57,158 52,524 2,653 3,683 2,714 3,273 4.6 7.0 4.7 6.2

York-Hanover

238,249 233,437 238,331 232,939 9,351 13,515 8,998 11,509 3.9 5.8 3.8 4.9

Rhode Island

557,600 542,488 560,489 543,568 16,402 35,139 18,234 37,810 2.9 6.5 3.3 7.0

Providence-Warwick

693,593 673,225 697,292 672,991 20,250 43,817 21,889 45,560 2.9 6.5 3.1 6.8

South Carolina

2,384,080 2,385,928 2,372,583 2,310,692 56,883 97,269 53,912 95,625 2.4 4.1 2.3 4.1

Charleston-North Charleston

394,987 391,493 394,746 380,444 7,837 15,767 7,436 15,118 2.0 4.0 1.9 4.0

Columbia

406,498 408,889 405,600 395,282 9,020 15,327 8,612 15,362 2.2 3.7 2.1 3.9

Florence

97,570 98,639 97,430 96,389 2,509 4,207 2,368 4,119 2.6 4.3 2.4 4.3

Greenville-Anderson-Mauldin

438,404 445,374 435,541 433,760 9,516 15,717 9,044 15,541 2.2 3.5 2.1 3.6

Hilton Head Island-Bluffton-Beaufort

91,025 92,516 90,169 89,789 1,971 3,014 1,815 2,974 2.2 3.3 2.0 3.3

Myrtle Beach-Conway-North Myrtle Beach

202,110 192,291 198,976 187,238 6,701 10,744 6,593 10,739 3.3 5.6 3.3 5.7

Spartanburg

166,512 165,030 165,181 159,020 3,638 7,198 3,491 6,887 2.2 4.4 2.1 4.3

Sumter

43,854 43,640 43,661 41,287 1,249 2,066 1,210 2,059 2.8 4.7 2.8 5.0

South Dakota

466,961 463,806 466,655 462,354 14,240 15,376 15,316 15,324 3.0 3.3 3.3 3.3

Rapid City

75,155 72,838 74,624 72,334 2,438 2,674 2,657 2,669 3.2 3.7 3.6 3.7

Sioux Falls

156,720 154,033 157,101 154,794 4,067 4,623 4,354 4,553 2.6 3.0 2.8 2.9

Tennessee

3,369,212 3,329,990 3,366,225 3,450,249 108,485 238,253 104,839 172,514 3.2 7.2 3.1 5.0

Chattanooga

278,238 280,084 277,686 287,682 8,517 15,796 8,207 12,365 3.1 5.6 3.0 4.3

Clarksville

118,366 117,490 118,072 121,741 5,012 8,797 4,536 6,543 4.2 7.5 3.8 5.4

Cleveland

61,336 61,224 62,326 63,856 1,935 4,089 1,923 3,003 3.2 6.7 3.1 4.7

Jackson

65,341 64,282 65,297 66,766 2,227 4,686 2,138 3,530 3.4 7.3 3.3 5.3

Johnson City

92,670 90,225 92,754 93,600 3,116 6,057 3,143 4,725 3.4 6.7 3.4 5.0

Kingsport-Bristol-Bristol

138,279 133,494 137,807 136,551 4,728 8,669 4,577 6,867 3.4 6.5 3.3 5.0

Knoxville

436,014 434,189 434,995 451,628 12,940 25,861 12,734 19,548 3.0 6.0 2.9 4.3

Memphis

645,219 658,162 648,047 665,684 25,024 63,387 25,064 44,486 3.9 9.6 3.9 6.7

Morristown

53,467 53,077 53,592 55,227 1,882 3,462 1,849 2,599 3.5 6.5 3.5 4.7

Nashville-Davidson--Murfreesboro--Franklin

1,105,919 1,072,705 1,102,956 1,116,010 28,627 65,182 26,697 46,670 2.6 6.1 2.4 4.2

Texas

14,161,315 14,082,369 14,209,425 14,204,927 474,329 938,545 480,312 1,129,593 3.3 6.7 3.4 8.0

Abilene

80,021 78,621 80,211 79,351 2,261 3,830 2,271 4,762 2.8 4.9 2.8 6.0

Amarillo

132,989 128,368 133,302 128,261 3,255 5,616 3,269 6,906 2.4 4.4 2.5 5.4

Austin-Round Rock

1,251,714 1,260,137 1,254,411 1,267,080 32,040 63,023 31,794 74,345 2.6 5.0 2.5 5.9

Beaumont-Port Arthur

174,624 170,749 174,868 173,825 8,866 16,930 9,192 20,592 5.1 9.9 5.3 11.8

Brownsville-Harlingen

166,663 164,646 167,329 166,918 8,543 15,346 8,968 18,707 5.1 9.3 5.4 11.2

College Station-Bryan

139,186 138,882 139,654 139,283 3,663 6,283 3,621 7,740 2.6 4.5 2.6 5.6

Corpus Christi

207,222 200,540 207,904 202,507 8,281 16,553 8,506 20,200 4.0 8.3 4.1 10.0

Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington

4,012,036 4,023,581 4,035,848 4,058,826 126,006 241,480 124,584 289,682 3.1 6.0 3.1 7.1

El Paso

368,494 363,186 368,898 371,715 13,625 25,961 13,630 34,695 3.7 7.1 3.7 9.3

Houston-The Woodlands-Sugar Land

3,449,631 3,426,109 3,467,354 3,461,040 124,867 262,368 127,368 309,221 3.6 7.7 3.7 8.9

Killeen-Temple

178,647 176,680 179,709 178,372 6,443 10,687 6,497 13,120 3.6 6.0 3.6 7.4

Laredo

118,980 116,013 119,514 117,793 4,081 8,946 4,206 10,705 3.4 7.7 3.5 9.1

Longview

100,021 96,949 99,837 97,407 3,557 7,243 3,624 8,696 3.6 7.5 3.6 8.9

Lubbock

164,291 162,447 164,576 162,863 4,398 8,167 4,327 10,088 2.7 5.0 2.6 6.2

McAllen-Edinburg-Mission

354,494 352,867 356,747 359,711 20,055 36,437 22,062 44,984 5.7 10.3 6.2 12.5

Midland

111,009 104,558 111,123 105,407 2,309 8,344 2,364 9,789 2.1 8.0 2.1 9.3

Odessa

88,389 86,195 88,379 86,981 2,426 9,682 2,563 11,432 2.7 11.2 2.9 13.1

San Angelo

55,455 53,386 55,526 53,590 1,613 3,098 1,625 3,850 2.9 5.8 2.9 7.2

San Antonio-New Braunfels

1,219,723 1,209,099 1,220,539 1,214,391 36,236 74,741 36,267 89,224 3.0 6.2 3.0 7.3

Sherman-Denison

64,281 64,411 64,467 65,223 1,914 3,244 1,941 3,988 3.0 5.0 3.0 6.1

Texarkana

65,251 65,464 65,489 65,848 2,561 3,919 2,524 4,513 3.9 6.0 3.9 6.9

Tyler

107,593 107,985 108,146 109,010 3,444 6,404 3,493 7,732 3.2 5.9 3.2 7.1

Victoria

46,141 45,234 46,349 45,731 1,537 3,307 1,640 4,048 3.3 7.3 3.5 8.9

Waco

126,403 128,745 127,219 129,522 3,983 6,843 3,952 8,499 3.2 5.3 3.1 6.6

Wichita Falls

65,676 64,663 65,821 64,965 1,933 3,864 1,933 4,738 2.9 6.0 2.9 7.3

Utah

1,623,876 1,645,301 1,629,725 1,655,977 34,061 61,284 33,756 64,664 2.1 3.7 2.1 3.9

Logan

72,537 73,668 72,365 74,179 1,253 1,781 1,225 1,952 1.7 2.4 1.7 2.6

Ogden-Clearfield

335,063 343,417 335,639 345,943 6,900 11,558 6,829 12,356 2.1 3.4 2.0 3.6

Provo-Orem

318,960 322,553 320,261 325,971 6,174 9,893 5,997 10,647 1.9 3.1 1.9 3.3

St. George

77,355 79,263 77,464 79,611 1,839 3,280 1,831 3,404 2.4 4.1 2.4 4.3

Salt Lake City

674,617 682,408 679,128 686,541 14,097 27,713 13,869 28,617 2.1 4.1 2.0 4.2

Vermont

339,366 319,337 339,375 322,112 5,798 7,610 7,647 9,162 1.7 2.4 2.3 2.8

Burlington-South Burlington

125,594 116,416 125,115 117,854 1,809 2,513 2,347 3,004 1.4 2.2 1.9 2.5

Virginia

4,440,231 4,267,127 4,431,196 4,267,895 111,836 213,299 108,653 195,153 2.5 5.0 2.5 4.6

Blacksburg-Christiansburg-Radford

89,507 87,447 92,132 87,964 2,419 3,282 2,367 3,151 2.7 3.8 2.6 3.6

Charlottesville

123,914 120,594 124,038 121,177 2,742 5,026 2,708 4,615 2.2 4.2 2.2 3.8

Harrisonburg

68,805 64,895 68,278 64,535 1,555 2,307 1,521 2,181 2.3 3.6 2.2 3.4

Lynchburg

125,006 116,441 123,964 116,170 3,609 5,538 3,533 5,241 2.9 4.8 2.9 4.5

Richmond

693,242 664,484 693,533 666,465 18,686 36,766 17,983 33,055 2.7 5.5 2.6 5.0

Roanoke

159,012 152,011 158,511 152,856 4,079 7,011 3,996 6,514 2.6 4.6 2.5 4.3

Staunton-Waynesboro

61,548 61,228 61,190 61,356 1,449 2,309 1,375 2,192 2.4 3.8 2.2 3.6

Virginia Beach-Norfolk-Newport News

861,868 837,550 856,143 834,079 24,317 48,422 23,484 43,479 2.8 5.8 2.7 5.2

Winchester

75,274 69,921 74,757 69,855 1,781 2,590 1,747 2,423 2.4 3.7 2.3 3.5

Washington

3,950,939 4,001,573 3,947,984 3,834,552 143,866 221,082 152,256 225,136 3.6 5.5 3.9 5.9

Bellingham

116,357 124,808 116,639 115,516 5,029 7,814 5,365 8,133 4.3 6.3 4.6 7.0

Bremerton-Silverdale

130,423 139,733 131,624 129,735 5,062 7,447 5,233 7,804 3.9 5.3 4.0 6.0

Kennewick-Richland

148,024 159,878 146,289 149,247 6,334 8,406 7,285 9,644 4.3 5.3 5.0 6.5

Longview

48,321 51,299 48,596 47,458 2,489 3,423 2,618 3,534 5.2 6.7 5.4 7.4

Mount Vernon-Anacortes

63,801 65,760 63,525 61,267 2,939 4,248 3,219 4,632 4.6 6.5 5.1 7.6

Olympia-Tumwater

145,859 152,978 146,356 142,323 6,130 8,464 6,423 8,982 4.2 5.5 4.4 6.3

Seattle-Tacoma-Bellevue

2,178,160 2,167,744 2,190,123 2,131,071 66,178 113,336 66,544 107,862 3.0 5.2 3.0 5.1

Spokane-Spokane Valley

283,290 288,224 283,967 267,429 12,215 16,826 13,201 18,186 4.3 5.8 4.6 6.8

Walla Walla

33,748 33,728 33,364 31,424 1,322 1,560 1,393 1,800 3.9 4.6 4.2 5.7

Wenatchee

68,206 67,775 65,148 62,709 2,565 3,579 3,164 4,127 3.8 5.3 4.9 6.6

Yakima

137,142 138,086 129,158 129,459 6,350 8,428 8,299 10,033 4.6 6.1 6.4 7.7

West Virginia

807,512 768,754 801,681 767,530 36,871 44,290 38,187 44,072 4.6 5.8 4.8 5.7

Beckley

47,430 46,866 46,610 45,826 2,200 2,945 2,339 2,930 4.6 6.3 5.0 6.4

Charleston

93,593 90,596 92,825 90,749 4,190 5,994 4,312 5,823 4.5 6.6 4.6 6.4

Huntington-Ashland

147,696 145,563 147,169 144,443 6,675 8,663 6,608 7,944 4.5 6.0 4.5 5.5

Morgantown

72,148 70,632 71,673 70,713 2,509 2,952 2,521 2,950 3.5 4.2 3.5 4.2

Parkersburg-Vienna

39,691 39,090 39,466 38,988 1,940 2,305 2,004 2,311 4.9 5.9 5.1 5.9

Wheeling

66,698 60,529 66,634 60,264 3,521 3,869 3,670 3,775 5.3 6.4 5.5 6.3

Wisconsin

3,104,233 3,132,672 3,099,895 3,111,323 86,937 163,416 93,112 138,654 2.8 5.2 3.0 4.5

Appleton

129,840 130,115 129,827 129,472 3,149 5,480 3,317 4,582 2.4 4.2 2.6 3.5

Eau Claire

92,288 92,919 92,113 93,221 2,397 3,985 2,535 3,715 2.6 4.3 2.8 4.0

Fond du Lac

57,161 58,916 57,087 59,441 1,419 2,326 1,435 2,136 2.5 3.9 2.5 3.6

Green Bay

173,327 176,508 173,484 175,339 4,568 8,385 4,862 6,996 2.6 4.8 2.8 4.0

Janesville-Beloit

84,938 85,824 85,334 84,782 2,760 4,838 3,009 4,041 3.2 5.6 3.5 4.8

La Crosse-Onalaska

77,108 76,968 77,359 77,019 1,807 2,980 1,865 2,613 2.3 3.9 2.4 3.4

Madison

391,475 397,327 392,185 393,256 8,482 16,684 8,767 13,993 2.2 4.2 2.2 3.6

Milwaukee-Waukesha-West Allis

818,355 837,044 818,281 824,966 25,904 55,484 26,957 44,496 3.2 6.6 3.3 5.4

Oshkosh-Neenah

91,238 93,119 91,241 92,857 2,411 3,954 2,498 3,375 2.6 4.2 2.7 3.6

Racine

97,840 102,537 97,594 101,613 3,547 6,544 3,721 5,305 3.6 6.4 3.8 5.2

Sheboygan

61,425 62,518 61,032 62,631 1,513 2,631 1,635 2,299 2.5 4.2 2.7 3.7

Wausau

73,343 73,673 73,448 73,695 1,788 2,852 1,854 2,514 2.4 3.9 2.5 3.4

Wyoming

293,310 295,966 292,723 293,696 9,855 14,953 10,771 14,532 3.4 5.1 3.7 4.9

Casper

39,482 39,629 39,651 39,950 1,488 3,043 1,570 2,805 3.8 7.7 4.0 7.0

Cheyenne

48,535 48,929 48,745 48,870 1,632 2,189 1,659 2,059 3.4 4.5 3.4 4.2

Puerto Rico

1,067,044 1,030,440 1,049,995 1,021,909 95,954 86,924 89,120 95,945 9.0 8.4 8.5 9.4

Aguadilla-Isabela

84,873 80,342 84,207 79,940 9,478 7,149 9,443 8,076 11.2 8.9 11.2 10.1

Arecibo

52,340 51,501 52,134 51,197 5,591 4,080 5,819 4,583 10.7 7.9 11.2 9.0

Guayama

19,398 17,961 19,116 17,909 2,631 1,505 2,529 1,729 13.6 8.4 13.2 9.7

Mayaguez

26,472 25,062 25,965 24,878 2,852 2,057 2,591 2,308 10.8 8.2 10.0 9.3

Ponce

90,807 87,032 89,470 86,713 11,156 7,617 10,306 8,676 12.3 8.8 11.5 10.0

San German

34,321 32,516 33,445 32,217 3,885 2,802 3,454 3,122 11.3 8.6 10.3 9.7

San Juan-Carolina-Caguas

717,263 696,948 704,592 690,289 54,833 58,100 49,735 63,353 7.6 8.3 7.1 9.2

Footnotes
(1) For operational reasons, these interstate areas are listed under the state that accounts for the larger share of the population, which is different from the state that contains the first principal city.
(2) The area boundary does not reflect the Office of Management and Budget delineation.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data refer to place of residence. Data for Puerto Rico are derived from a monthly household survey similar to the Current Population Survey. Area delineations are based on Office of Management and Budget Bulletin No. 18-03, dated April 10, 2018, and are available on the BLS website at https://www.bls.gov/lau/lausmsa.htm. Areas in the six New England states are Metropolitan New England City and Town Areas (NECTAs), while areas in other states are county-based. Some metropolitan areas lie in two or more states. They are listed under the state containing the first principal city, unless otherwise footnoted. Estimates for the latest month are subject to revision the following month.


LABOR FORCE DATA
NOT SEASONALLY ADJUSTED

Table 2. Civilian labor force and unemployment by state, selected metropolitan area, and metropolitan division(1)
State, area, and division Civilian labor force Unemployed
October November Number Percent of labor force
2019 2020 2019 2020(p) October November October November
2019 2020 2019 2020(p) 2019 2020 2019 2020(p)

California

19,538,254 19,289,337 19,534,610 18,928,834 725,895 1,682,556 718,032 1,491,595 3.7 8.7 3.7 7.9

Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim

6,789,821 6,698,362 6,807,214 6,578,840 264,634 718,302 255,515 629,073 3.9 10.7 3.8 9.6

Anaheim-Santa Ana-Irvine

1,631,968 1,621,272 1,630,097 1,592,370 42,970 118,310 41,786 101,665 2.6 7.3 2.6 6.4

Los Angeles-Long Beach-Glendale

5,157,853 5,077,090 5,177,117 4,986,470 221,664 599,992 213,729 527,408 4.3 11.8 4.1 10.6

San Francisco-Oakland-Hayward

2,608,916 2,551,436 2,606,601 2,503,008 63,687 177,751 61,892 153,424 2.4 7.0 2.4 6.1

Oakland-Hayward-Berkeley

1,412,680 1,381,155 1,410,385 1,357,350 39,691 105,692 38,535 92,050 2.8 7.7 2.7 6.8

San Francisco-Redwood City-South San Francisco

1,055,089 1,032,792 1,055,221 1,011,232 20,982 64,842 20,426 55,068 2.0 6.3 1.9 5.4

San Rafael

141,147 137,489 140,995 134,426 3,014 7,217 2,931 6,306 2.1 5.2 2.1 4.7

District of Columbia

409,726 396,355 412,346 397,448 21,517 32,658 20,781 29,023 5.3 8.2 5.0 7.3

Washington-Arlington-Alexandria(2)

3,495,773 3,372,052 3,494,549 3,362,312 100,524 221,032 96,701 196,277 2.9 6.6 2.8 5.8

Silver Spring-Frederick-Rockville(3)

707,224 687,105 705,359 684,531 19,598 49,410 18,548 42,863 2.8 7.2 2.6 6.3

Washington-Arlington-Alexandria(2)

2,788,549 2,684,947 2,789,190 2,677,781 80,926 171,622 78,153 153,414 2.9 6.4 2.8 5.7

Florida

10,458,221 10,137,710 10,411,499 10,135,780 295,902 637,230 283,039 640,028 2.8 6.3 2.7 6.3

Miami-Fort Lauderdale-West Palm Beach

3,190,930 3,063,603 3,165,667 3,037,858 80,710 232,203 74,470 214,159 2.5 7.6 2.4 7.0

Fort Lauderdale-Pompano Beach-Deerfield Beach

1,053,729 1,017,190 1,045,634 1,015,050 29,721 72,844 28,720 73,879 2.8 7.2 2.7 7.3

Miami-Miami Beach-Kendall

1,399,889 1,341,392 1,384,486 1,316,530 28,349 117,105 24,179 97,095 2.0 8.7 1.7 7.4

West Palm Beach-Boca Raton-Delray Beach

737,312 705,021 735,547 706,278 22,640 42,254 21,571 43,185 3.1 6.0 2.9 6.1

Illinois

6,443,336 6,303,579 6,416,333 6,136,270 224,741 452,588 215,173 398,829 3.5 7.2 3.4 6.5

Chicago-Naperville-Elgin(2)

4,845,658 4,684,202 4,830,451 4,626,078 160,831 373,644 152,664 322,567 3.3 8.0 3.2 7.0

Chicago-Naperville-Arlington Heights

3,705,055 3,549,565 3,693,414 3,530,090 119,267 304,487 110,045 256,807 3.2 8.6 3.0 7.3

Elgin

330,392 326,942 329,461 310,311 12,118 19,230 12,262 18,639 3.7 5.9 3.7 6.0

Gary(3)

343,512 341,281 342,629 336,539 13,289 23,657 13,902 22,203 3.9 6.9 4.1 6.6

Lake County-Kenosha County(2)

466,699 466,414 464,947 449,138 16,157 26,270 16,455 24,918 3.5 5.6 3.5 5.5

Massachusetts

3,819,962 3,612,815 3,825,517 3,569,886 90,037 248,787 87,801 222,745 2.4 6.9 2.3 6.2

Boston-Cambridge-Nashua(2)

2,836,192 2,680,350 2,841,892 2,656,665 62,187 177,541 60,115 157,139 2.2 6.6 2.1 5.9

Boston-Cambridge-Newton

1,697,454 1,600,001 1,700,863 1,578,624 34,681 106,693 33,108 93,675 2.0 6.7 1.9 5.9

Brockton-Bridgewater-Easton

112,357 106,701 112,996 105,853 2,908 8,538 2,793 7,640 2.6 8.0 2.5 7.2

Framingham

163,218 155,430 163,529 154,221 3,257 9,084 3,053 8,144 2.0 5.8 1.9 5.3

Haverhill-Newburyport-Amesbury Town(2)

118,534 110,474 118,674 110,238 2,815 6,520 2,853 5,915 2.4 5.9 2.4 5.4

Lawrence-Methuen Town-Salem(2)

99,386 95,088 99,425 94,432 3,230 8,878 3,145 7,994 3.2 9.3 3.2 8.5

Lowell-Billerica-Chelmsford(2)

198,335 185,932 198,457 184,234 4,656 11,807 4,580 10,740 2.3 6.4 2.3 5.8

Lynn-Saugus-Marblehead

87,470 84,720 87,477 83,591 2,129 7,273 2,003 6,191 2.4 8.6 2.3 7.4

Nashua(2)

177,163 168,062 177,738 173,411 4,194 6,831 4,470 6,340 2.4 4.1 2.5 3.7

Peabody-Salem-Beverly

95,125 91,303 94,994 90,128 2,109 6,186 1,984 5,402 2.2 6.8 2.1 6.0

Taunton-Middleborough-Norton

87,150 82,639 87,739 81,933 2,208 5,731 2,126 5,098 2.5 6.9 2.4 6.2

Michigan

4,943,286 4,903,046 4,931,109 4,912,353 173,524 280,991 159,361 309,645 3.5 5.7 3.2 6.3

Detroit-Warren-Dearborn

2,180,195 2,142,620 2,156,528 2,173,817 87,008 150,837 75,903 192,413 4.0 7.0 3.5 8.9

Detroit-Dearborn-Livonia

815,755 806,884 806,697 824,524 38,737 74,317 33,702 93,474 4.7 9.2 4.2 11.3

Warren-Troy-Farmington Hills

1,364,441 1,335,736 1,349,830 1,349,294 48,271 76,520 42,200 98,939 3.5 5.7 3.1 7.3

New York

9,543,205 9,055,222 9,487,235 9,093,641 354,358 814,901 341,376 737,748 3.7 9.0 3.6 8.1

New York-Newark-Jersey City(2)

9,985,876 9,504,816 9,949,170 9,633,947 352,358 896,086 336,610 916,650 3.5 9.4 3.4 9.5

Dutchess County-Putnam County

196,572 187,260 195,885 187,819 6,999 10,706 6,811 9,264 3.6 5.7 3.5 4.9

Nassau County-Suffolk County

1,494,941 1,430,174 1,487,564 1,433,319 51,575 90,577 51,235 77,283 3.4 6.3 3.4 5.4

Newark(3)

1,247,161 1,198,346 1,246,854 1,227,726 43,936 93,726 43,656 123,567 3.5 7.8 3.5 10.1

New York-Jersey City-White Plains(2)

7,047,202 6,689,036 7,018,867 6,785,083 249,848 701,077 234,908 706,536 3.5 10.5 3.3 10.4

Pennsylvania

6,545,629 6,362,288 6,536,425 6,312,563 289,032 443,538 284,629 382,770 4.4 7.0 4.4 6.1

Philadelphia-Camden-Wilmington(2)

3,157,453 3,072,488 3,152,069 3,067,586 133,014 228,675 127,987 217,114 4.2 7.4 4.1 7.1

Camden(3)

640,430 626,977 638,947 644,738 22,893 45,527 23,001 61,277 3.6 7.3 3.6 9.5

Montgomery County-Bucks County-Chester County

1,096,600 1,050,030 1,091,258 1,041,239 40,158 60,793 38,329 50,807 3.7 5.8 3.5 4.9

Philadelphia

1,037,136 1,023,734 1,037,254 1,010,286 55,151 100,285 53,073 85,219 5.3 9.8 5.1 8.4

Wilmington(3)

383,287 371,747 384,610 371,323 14,812 22,070 13,584 19,811 3.9 5.9 3.5 5.3

Texas

14,161,315 14,082,369 14,209,425 14,204,927 474,329 938,545 480,312 1,129,593 3.3 6.7 3.4 8.0

Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington

4,012,036 4,023,581 4,035,848 4,058,826 126,006 241,480 124,584 289,682 3.1 6.0 3.1 7.1

Dallas-Plano-Irving

2,704,295 2,718,690 2,718,272 2,737,964 83,987 161,356 83,828 193,104 3.1 5.9 3.1 7.1

Fort Worth-Arlington

1,307,741 1,304,891 1,317,576 1,320,862 42,019 80,124 40,756 96,578 3.2 6.1 3.1 7.3

Washington

3,950,939 4,001,573 3,947,984 3,834,552 143,866 221,082 152,256 225,136 3.6 5.5 3.9 5.9

Seattle-Tacoma-Bellevue

2,178,160 2,167,744 2,190,123 2,131,071 66,178 113,336 66,544 107,862 3.0 5.2 3.0 5.1

Seattle-Bellevue-Everett

1,729,765 1,694,119 1,740,335 1,691,380 46,219 81,754 45,462 74,688 2.7 4.8 2.6 4.4

Tacoma-Lakewood

448,395 473,625 449,788 439,691 19,959 31,582 21,082 33,174 4.5 6.7 4.7 7.5

Footnotes
(1) These 11 areas contain all of the 38 metropolitan divisions.
(2) Part of the area (or division) is in one or more adjacent states.
(3) All of the division is in one or more adjacent states.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data refer to place of residence. Area delineations are based on Office of Management and Budget Bulletin No. 18-03, dated April 10, 2018, and are available on the BLS website at https://www.bls.gov/lau/lausmsa.htm. Areas in the six New England states are Metropolitan New England City and Town Areas (NECTAs), while areas in other states are county-based. Some metropolitan areas lie in two or more states. They are listed under the state containing the first principal city. Metropolitan divisions are listed under their metropolitan areas. Some divisions lie in more than one state, and some, like Camden, NJ, are totally outside the states under which their metropolitan areas are listed. For Washington-Arlington-Alexandria, DC-VA-MD-WV, the metropolitan area and division titles are identical. Estimates for the latest month are subject to revision the following month.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
NOT SEASONALLY ADJUSTED
Table 3. Employees on nonfarm payrolls by state and metropolitan area, not seasonally adjusted
[In thousands]
State and area October November Change from
November 2019 to November 2020(p)
2019 2020 2019 2020(p) Number Percent

Alabama

2,085.7 2,035.1 2,093.1 2,052.3 -40.8 -1.9

Anniston-Oxford-Jacksonville

47.6 44.6 47.7 44.9 -2.8 -5.9

Auburn-Opelika

68.6 66.3 69.2 66.6 -2.6 -3.8

Birmingham-Hoover

548.4 529.2 551.0 532.9 -18.1 -3.3

Daphne-Fairhope-Foley

79.9 77.6 79.8 78.1 -1.7 -2.1

Decatur

57.5 55.9 57.9 56.0 -1.9 -3.3

Dothan

60.2 58.6 60.5 58.8 -1.7 -2.8

Florence-Muscle Shoals

57.9 56.3 58.2 56.4 -1.8 -3.1

Gadsden

37.4 34.7 37.8