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Economic News Release
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Metropolitan Area Employment and Unemployment (Monthly) News Release

For release 10:00 a.m. (ET) Wednesday, February 2, 2022 			      USDL-22-1053

Technical information: 
 Employment:     (202) 691-6559  *  sminfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/sae 
 Unemployment:   (202) 691-6392  *  lausinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/lau 

Media contact:   (202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov


           METROPOLITAN AREA EMPLOYMENT AND UNEMPLOYMENT -- DECEMBER 2021


Unemployment rates were lower in December than a year earlier in 375 of the 389 metropolitan
areas, higher in 13 areas, and unchanged in 1 area, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics 
reported today. A total of 141 areas had jobless rates of less than 3.0 percent and 1 area
had a rate of at least 10.0 percent. Nonfarm payroll employment increased over the year in
108 metropolitan areas and was essentially unchanged in 281 areas. The national unemployment
rate in December was 3.7 percent, not seasonally adjusted, down from 6.5 percent a year
earlier.

This news release presents statistics from two monthly programs. The civilian labor force
and unemployment data are based on the same concepts and definitions as those used for the
national household survey estimates. These data pertain to individuals by where they reside.
The employment data are from an establishment survey that measures nonfarm employment,
hours, and earnings by industry. These data pertain to jobs on payrolls defined by where the
establishments are located. For more information about the concepts and statistical
methodologies used by these two programs, see the Technical Note.

Metropolitan Area Unemployment (Not Seasonally Adjusted)

In December, Elkhart-Goshen, IN, had the lowest unemployment rate, 0.9 percent, closely 
followed by Bloomington, IN, and Columbus, IN, 1.0 percent each. El Centro, CA, had the
highest rate, 14.7 percent. A total of 245 areas had December jobless rates below the U.S. 
rate of 3.7 percent, 135 areas had rates above it, and 9 areas had rates equal to that of
the nation. (See table 1.)

The largest over-the-year unemployment rate decrease in December occurred in Kahului-
Wailuku-Lahaina, HI (-7.1 percentage points). Rates fell over the year by at least 4.0 
percentage points in an additional 19 areas. No area had a jobless rate increase of more
than 0.4 percentage point.

Of the 51 metropolitan areas with a 2010 Census population of 1 million or more,
Indianapolis-Carmel-Anderson, IN, had the lowest jobless rate in December, 1.2 percent,
followed by Salt Lake City, UT, 1.3 percent. Las Vegas-Henderson-Paradise, NV, had the
highest unemployment rate, 6.0 percent. Fifty large areas had over-the-year unemployment
rate decreases, the largest of which was in Detroit-Warren-Dearborn, MI (-6.0 percentage
points). The only positive rate difference relative to December 2020 was marginal (+0.1 
percentage point in Jacksonville, FL). 

Metropolitan Division Unemployment (Not Seasonally Adjusted)

Eleven of the most populous metropolitan areas are made up of 38 metropolitan divisions,
which are essentially separately identifiable employment centers. In December 2021, Miami-
Miami Beach-Kendall, FL, had the lowest division unemployment rate, 1.4 percent. New York-
Jersey City-White Plains, NY-NJ, and Los Angeles-Long Beach-Glendale, CA, had the highest
rates among the divisions, 6.3 percent and 6.2 percent, respectively. (See table 2.)

In December, all 38 metropolitan divisions had over-the-year unemployment rate decreases.
Detroit-Dearborn-Livonia, MI, had the largest rate decline (-7.3 percentage points). 

Metropolitan Area Nonfarm Employment (Not Seasonally Adjusted)

In December, 108 metropolitan areas had over-the-year increases in nonfarm payroll
employment and 281 were essentially unchanged. The largest over-the-year employment
increases occurred in New York-Newark-Jersey City, NY-NJ-PA (+427,300), Los Angeles-Long
Beach-Anaheim, CA (+387,900), and Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington, TX (+196,900). The largest
over-the-year percentage gains in employment occurred in Yuma, AZ (+10.1 percent), Atlantic
City-Hammonton, NJ (+9.1 percent), and Daphne-Fairhope-Foley, AL, and Kahului-Wailuku-
Lahaina, HI (+9.0 percent each). (See table 3.)

Over the year, nonfarm employment increased in 48 metropolitan areas with a 2010 Census
population of 1 million or more, while employment was essentially unchanged in 3 areas.
The largest over-the-year percentage increases in employment in these large metropolitan
areas occurred in Las Vegas-Henderson-Paradise, NV (+8.8 percent), Orlando-Kissimmee-
Sanford, FL (+7.7 percent), and Austin-Round Rock, TX, and Portland-Vancouver-Hillsboro,
OR-WA (+7.3 percent each). 

Metropolitan Division Nonfarm Employment (Not Seasonally Adjusted)

In December, nonfarm payroll employment increased in 27 metropolitan divisions and was
essentially unchanged in 11 divisions over the year. The largest over-the-year increase
in employment among the metropolitan divisions occurred in New York-Jersey City-White
Plains, NY-NJ (+338,300), followed by Los Angeles-Long Beach-Glendale, CA (+282,300), and
Chicago-Naperville-Arlington Heights, IL (+164,000). (See table 4.)

The largest over-the-year percentage increases in employment occurred in San Francisco-
Redwood City-South San Francisco, CA (+8.1 percent), Detroit-Dearborn-Livonia, MI (+7.6 
percent), and Camden, NJ, and San Rafael, CA (+7.2 percent each). 

_____________
The Regional and State Unemployment 2021 Annual Averages news release is scheduled
to be released on Wednesday, March 2, 2022, at 10:00 a.m. (ET). The State Employment
and Unemployment news release for January 2022 is scheduled to be released on Monday,
March 14, 2022, at 10:00 a.m. (ET). The Metropolitan Area Employment and Unemployment
news release for January 2022 is scheduled to be released on Friday, March 18, 2022,
at 10:00 a.m. (ET).


 _______________________________________________________________________________________
|											|
|                Coronavirus (COVID-19) Pandemic Impact on December 2021                |
|                        Establishment and Household Survey Data			|
|											|
| Data collection for both surveys was affected by the pandemic. In the establishment	|
| survey, more data continued to be collected by web than in months prior to the	|
| pandemic. In the household survey, for the safety of both interviewers and		|
| respondents, in-person interviews were conducted only when telephone interviews	|
| could not be done.									|
|											|
| For the December 2021 estimates of household employment and unemployment from the	|
| Local Area Unemployment Statistics (LAUS) program, BLS continued to implement		|
| level-shift outliers in the employment and/or unemployment inputs to the state	|
| models, based on statistical evaluation of movements in each area's inputs. These	|
| level shifts preserved movements in the published estimates that the models 		|
| otherwise would have discounted, without requiring changes to how the models create	|
| estimates at other points in the time series.						|
|											|
| The "Frequently asked questions" document at 						|
| www.bls.gov/covid19/employment-situation-covid19-faq-december-2021.htm extensively	|
| discusses the impact of a misclassification in the household survey on the national	|
| estimates for December 2021. Despite the considerable decline in its degree 		|
| relative to prior months, this misclassification continued to be widespread 		|
| geographically, which in turn affected the official LAUS estimates for December	|
| 2021.											|
|											|
| Household data for substate areas are controlled to the employment and unemployment	|
| totals for their respective model-based areas. Hence, the preliminary December and	|
| revised November estimates for substate areas reflect the use of level-shift outliers,|
| where implemented, in the inputs for their model-based control areas. The substate	|
| area estimates also were impacted by misclassification in the household survey, in	|
| proportion to the impacts of the misclassifications on the data for their model-based	|
| control areas.									|
|											|
| Household data for Puerto Rico are not modeled, but rather are derived from a monthly	|
| household survey similar to the Current Population Survey. The Puerto Rico Department	|
| of Labor has reported a misclassification in its household survey similar in nature   |
| to the misclassification in the Current Population Survey, which has affected the	|
| local area data proportionally.							|
|_______________________________________________________________________________________|


 _______________________________________________________________________________________
|              										|
|              Upcoming Changes to Local Area Unemployment Statistics Data              |
|											|
| Effective with the release of Regional and State Unemployment 2021 Annual Averages	|
| on March 2, 2022, the civilian labor force and unemployment data for census regions	|
| and divisions and all states, the District of Columbia, and the modeled substate 	|
| areas presented in tables 1 and 2 of this news release will be revised from 2017 to 	|
| 2021 to incorporate updated inputs, new population controls, and reestimation of 	|
| models. The new population controls will reflect a "blended base," which is 2010 	|
| Census-based and controlled to elements from the 2020 Census and other sources. 	|
| Subsequently, civilian labor force and unemployment estimates for all other 		|
| metropolitan areas and metropolitan divisions will be revised to reflect updated 	|
| inputs and adjustment to the new statewide estimates. These revised estimates will be |
| published in conjunction with the March 2022 State Employment and Unemployment news 	|
| release on April 15, 2022.								|
|											|
| Effective with the January 2022 State Employment and Unemployment news release on	|
| March 14, 2022, real-time implementation of level-shift outliers in the employment	|
| and/or unemployment inputs to the models will be discontinued. These real-time level	|
| shifts were introduced in response to the pandemic to preserve movements in the	|
| published estimates that the models otherwise would have discounted. BLS has 		|
| determined that these interventions are no longer necessary on a real-time basis.	|
| Outlier detection and level-shift implementation will revert to retrospective 	|
| activities conducted during annual processing.					|
|_______________________________________________________________________________________|


 _______________________________________________________________________________________
|              										|
|                Upcoming Changes to Current Employment Statistics Data                 |
|											|
| Effective with the release of January 2022 estimates on March 14, 2022, the Current 	|
| Employment Statistics (CES) program will implement a new generation small area model  |
| for state and metropolitan area series. The new model will replace the CES small 	|
| domain model and variants of the Fay-Herriot model in estimating private sector 	|
| series with insufficient sample for direct sample-based estimation. More information 	|
| on the new model is detailed in the paper "Bayesian Nonparametric Joint Model for 	|
| Point Estimates and Variances" by Julie Gershunskaya and Terrance Savitsky, available |
| at www.bls.gov/osmr/research-papers/2019/st190020.htm. 				|
|  											|
| Also effective with the release of January 2022 estimates, all nonfarm payroll 	|
| employment estimates for states and areas presented in tables 3 and 4 of this news 	|
| release will be adjusted to 2021 benchmark levels. Not seasonally adjusted data 	|
| beginning with April 2020 and seasonally adjusted data beginning with January 2017 	|
| are subject to revision. Some not seasonally adjusted and seasonally adjusted series  |
| may be revised as far back as 1990.							|
|_______________________________________________________________________________________|




Technical Note
  
   This news release presents civilian labor force and unemployment data from the
Local Area Unemployment Statistics (LAUS) program (tables 1 and 2) for 389
metropolitan statistical areas and metropolitan New England City and Town Areas
(NECTAs), plus 7 areas in Puerto Rico. Estimates for 38 metropolitan and NECTA
divisions also are presented. Nonfarm payroll employment estimates from the
Current Employment Statistics (CES) program (tables 3 and 4) are provided for
the same areas. State estimates were previously published in the news release
State Employment and Unemployment, and are republished in this news release for
ease of reference. The LAUS and CES programs are both federal-state cooperative
endeavors.

Civilian labor force and unemployment--from the LAUS program

   Definitions. The civilian labor force and unemployment data are based on the
same concepts and definitions as those used for the official national estimates
obtained from the Current Population Survey (CPS), a sample survey of households
that is conducted for the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) by the U.S. Census
Bureau. The LAUS program measures employed persons and unemployed persons on a
place-of-residence basis.  The universe for each is the civilian noninstitutional
population 16 years of age and older. Employed persons are those who did any work
at all for pay or profit in the reference week (typically the week including the
12th of the month) or worked 15 hours or more without pay in a family business or
farm, plus those not working who had a job from which they were temporarily absent,
whether or not paid, for such reasons as labor-management dispute, illness, or
vacation. Unemployed persons are those who were not employed during the reference
week (based on the definition above), had actively looked for a job sometime in the
4-week period ending with the reference week, and were currently available for work;
persons on layoff expecting recall need not be looking for work to be counted as
unemployed. The civilian labor force is the sum of employed and unemployed persons.
The unemployment rate is the number of unemployed as a percent of the civilian labor
force.

   Method of estimation. Estimates for states, the District of Columbia, the Los
Angeles-Long Beach-Glendale metropolitan division, and New York City are produced
using time-series models with real-time benchmarking to national CPS totals. Model-
based estimates are also produced for the following areas and their respective
balances: the Chicago-Naperville-Arlington Heights, IL Metropolitan Division;
Cleveland-Elyria, OH Metropolitan Statistical Area; Detroit-Warren-Dearborn, MI
Metropolitan Statistical Area; Miami-Miami Beach-Kendall, FL Metropolitan Division;
and Seattle-Bellevue-Everett, WA Metropolitan Division. Modeling improves the
statistical basis of the estimation for these areas and provides important tools
for analysis, such as measures of errors and seasonally adjusted series. For all
other substate areas in this news release, estimates are prepared through indirect
estimation procedures using a building-block approach.  Estimates of employed
persons, which are based largely on “place of work” estimates from the CES program,
are adjusted to refer to place of residence as used in the CPS. Unemployment
estimates are aggregates of persons previously employed in industries covered by
state unemployment insurance (UI) laws and entrants to the labor force from the
CPS. The substate estimates of employment and unemployment, which geographically
exhaust the entire state, are adjusted proportionally to ensure that they add to
the independently estimated model-based area totals. A detailed description of the
estimation procedures is available from BLS upon request.

   Annual revisions. Civilian labor force and unemployment data shown for the prior
year reflect adjustments made at the beginning of each year, usually implemented with
the issuance of January estimates. The adjusted model-based estimates typically reflect
updated population data from the U.S. Census Bureau, any revisions in other input
data sources, and model re-estimation. All substate estimates then are re-estimated
using updated inputs and adjusted to add to the revised model-based totals. In early
2021, a new generation of time-series models was implemented, resulting in the
replacement of data back to the series beginnings.

Employment--from the CES program 

   Definitions. Employment data refer to persons on establishment payrolls who receive
pay for any part of the pay period that includes the 12th of the month. Persons are
counted at their place of work rather than at their place of residence; those appearing
on more than one payroll are counted on each payroll. Industries are classified on the
basis of their principal activity in accordance with the 2017 version of the North
American Industry Classification System.

   Method of estimation. CES State and Area employment data are produced using several
estimation procedures. Where possible these data are produced using a "weighted link
relative" estimation technique in which a ratio of current-month weighted employment
to that of the previous-month weighted employment is computed from a sample of
establishments reporting for both months. The estimates of employment for the current
month are then obtained by multiplying these ratios by the previous month's employment
estimates. The weighted link relative technique is utilized for data series where the
sample size meets certain statistical criteria.

   For some employment series, the sample of establishments is very small or highly
variable. In these cases, a model-based approach is used in estimation. These models
use the direct sample estimates (described above), combined with forecasts of historical
(benchmarked) data to decrease volatility in estimation. Two different models
(Fay-Herriot Model and Small Domain Model) are used depending on the industry level
being estimated. For more detailed information about each model, refer to the BLS
Handbook of Methods.

   Annual revisions.  Employment estimates are adjusted annually to a complete count
of jobs, called benchmarks, derived principally from tax reports that are submitted by
employers who are covered under state unemployment insurance (UI) laws. The benchmark
information is used to adjust the monthly estimates between the new benchmark and the
preceding one and also to establish the level of employment for the new benchmark month.
Thus, the benchmarking process establishes the level of employment, and the sample is used
to measure the month-to-month changes in the level for the subsequent months.

   Seasonal adjustment. Payroll employment data are seasonally adjusted for states,
metropolitan areas, and metropolitan divisions at the total nonfarm level. For states,
data are seasonally adjusted at the supersector level as well. Revisions to historical
data for the most recent 5 years are made once a year, coincident with annual benchmark
adjustments.

   Payroll employment data are seasonally adjusted concurrently, using all available
estimates including those for the current month, to develop sample-based seasonal factors.
Concurrent sample-based factors are created every month for the current month's preliminary
estimate as well as the previous month's final estimate.

Reliability of the estimates

   The estimates presented in this news release are based on sample surveys, administrative data,
and modeling and, thus, are subject to sampling and other types of errors. Sampling error
is a measure of sampling variability—that is, variation that occurs by chance because a
sample rather than the entire population is surveyed. Survey data also are subject to
nonsampling errors, such as those which can be introduced into the data collection and
processing operations. Estimates not directly derived from sample surveys are subject to
additional errors resulting from the specific estimation processes used. The sums of
individual items may not always equal the totals shown in the same tables because of
rounding.

Use of error measures

   Civilian labor force and unemployment estimates. Measures of sampling error are not
available for metropolitan areas or metropolitan divisions. Model-based error measures for
states are available on the BLS website at www.bls.gov/laus/lastderr.htm. Measures of
nonsampling error are not available for the areas contained in this news release. Information
on recent data revisions for states and local areas is available online at
www.bls.gov/lau/launews1.htm.

   Employment estimates. Changes in metropolitan area nonfarm payroll employment are cited
in the analysis of this news release only if they have been determined to be statistically
significant at the 90-percent confidence level.  Measures of sampling error for the total
nonfarm employment series are available for metropolitan areas and metropolitan divisions
at www.bls.gov/web/laus/790stderr.htm. Measures of sampling error for more detailed series
at the area and division level are available upon request. Measures of sampling error for
states  at the supersector level and for the private service-providing, goods-producing,
total private and total nonfarm levels are available on the BLS website at 
www.bls.gov/web/laus/790stderr.htm. Information on recent benchmark revisions
is available online at www.bls.gov/web/laus/benchmark.pdf.

Area definitions

   The substate area data published in this news release reflect the delineations issued by the
U.S. Office of Management and Budget on April 10, 2018. Data reflect New England City and
Town Area (NECTA) definitions, rather than county-based definitions, in the six New England
States. A detailed list of the geographic definitions is available online at
www.bls.gov/lau/lausmsa.htm.

Additional information

   Estimates of unadjusted and seasonally adjusted civilian labor force and unemployment
data for states and seven substate areas are available in the news release State Employment
and Unemployment. Estimates of civilian labor force and unemployment for all states,
metropolitan areas, counties, cities with a population of 25,000 or more, and other areas
used in the administration of various federal economic assistance programs are available
on the Internet at www.bls.gov/lau/. Employment data from the CES program are available on
the BLS website at www.bls.gov/sae/.

   Information in this news release will be made available to sensory impaired individuals
upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay Service: (800) 877-8339. 




LABOR FORCE DATA
NOT SEASONALLY ADJUSTED

Table 1. Civilian labor force and unemployment by state and metropolitan area
State and area Civilian labor force Unemployed
November December Number Percent of labor force
2020 2021 2020 2021(p) November December November December
2020 2021 2020 2021(p) 2020 2021 2020 2021(p)

Alabama

2,260,941 2,251,091 2,240,352 2,238,778 86,643 66,934 78,752 62,312 3.8 3.0 3.5 2.8

Anniston-Oxford-Jacksonville

46,426 45,779 46,235 45,585 2,029 1,643 1,866 1,540 4.4 3.6 4.0 3.4

Auburn-Opelika

77,720 77,122 77,267 76,566 2,469 1,947 2,179 1,743 3.2 2.5 2.8 2.3

Birmingham-Hoover

555,381 560,988 552,492 558,371 20,195 15,382 18,180 14,254 3.6 2.7 3.3 2.6

Daphne-Fairhope-Foley

95,948 100,073 95,879 99,990 3,290 2,517 2,988 2,252 3.4 2.5 3.1 2.3

Decatur

74,421 74,024 74,248 74,217 2,126 1,719 1,938 1,566 2.9 2.3 2.6 2.1

Dothan

64,782 64,871 64,652 65,154 2,324 1,812 2,103 1,650 3.6 2.8 3.3 2.5

Florence-Muscle Shoals

66,503 66,203 65,488 65,432 2,235 1,980 2,043 1,882 3.4 3.0 3.1 2.9

Gadsden

40,603 39,626 40,335 39,347 1,815 1,396 1,628 1,289 4.5 3.5 4.0 3.3

Huntsville

236,368 236,824 235,387 235,643 6,853 5,580 6,095 4,957 2.9 2.4 2.6 2.1

Mobile

192,007 187,751 190,797 186,655 10,386 7,490 9,619 7,283 5.4 4.0 5.0 3.9

Montgomery

174,830 170,246 172,394 170,205 8,542 6,134 7,765 5,995 4.9 3.6 4.5 3.5

Tuscaloosa

116,289 115,113 114,823 114,012 4,979 3,626 4,500 3,384 4.3 3.1 3.9 3.0

Alaska

351,025 352,259 350,219 351,565 21,998 19,543 23,032 18,916 6.3 5.5 6.6 5.4

Anchorage

201,608 200,806 201,421 201,824 12,175 10,063 12,601 9,680 6.0 5.0 6.3 4.8

Fairbanks

45,607 45,222 45,314 45,348 2,231 2,120 2,298 2,019 4.9 4.7 5.1 4.5

Arizona

3,575,128 3,672,206 3,566,534 3,657,606 229,103 117,309 239,544 101,842 6.4 3.2 6.7 2.8

Flagstaff

74,894 77,160 73,895 75,796 5,552 3,026 6,081 2,791 7.4 3.9 8.2 3.7

Lake Havasu City-Kingman

87,518 90,045 86,877 89,436 6,305 3,547 6,627 3,085 7.2 3.9 7.6 3.4

Phoenix-Mesa-Scottsdale

2,530,311 2,609,406 2,529,507 2,601,855 154,950 73,033 162,067 63,336 6.1 2.8 6.4 2.4

Prescott

107,075 111,165 106,138 110,085 6,106 2,898 6,462 2,485 5.7 2.6 6.1 2.3

Sierra Vista-Douglas

52,813 53,403 52,415 52,796 2,766 1,707 2,995 1,480 5.2 3.2 5.7 2.8

Tucson

494,410 500,453 493,760 499,312 31,845 15,923 33,851 13,842 6.4 3.2 6.9 2.8

Yuma

97,409 102,253 94,245 101,228 11,450 11,254 10,575 9,605 11.8 11.0 11.2 9.5

Arkansas

1,327,638 1,353,114 1,366,653 1,352,420 63,285 29,608 64,314 32,636 4.8 2.2 4.7 2.4

Fayetteville-Springdale-Rogers

284,083 299,344 291,307 298,830 10,046 4,403 10,086 4,854 3.5 1.5 3.5 1.6

Fort Smith

118,125 119,473 119,095 118,851 5,558 2,483 5,495 2,597 4.7 2.1 4.6 2.2

Hot Springs

40,043 39,796 41,671 39,876 2,485 1,102 2,470 1,201 6.2 2.8 5.9 3.0

Jonesboro

64,421 66,595 66,493 66,622 2,608 1,135 2,625 1,271 4.0 1.7 3.9 1.9

Little Rock-North Little Rock-Conway

344,453 348,561 355,832 349,105 17,900 8,035 17,696 8,677 5.2 2.3 5.0 2.5

Pine Bluff

33,954 33,925 34,939 34,195 2,245 1,212 2,302 1,339 6.6 3.6 6.6 3.9

California

18,667,576 19,174,527 18,660,835 19,065,788 1,544,099 1,036,255 1,702,248 960,384 8.3 5.4 9.1 5.0

Bakersfield

379,585 388,221 379,429 378,206 34,350 28,644 40,890 28,999 9.0 7.4 10.8 7.7

Chico

90,313 94,168 89,710 93,333 6,207 4,594 7,289 4,505 6.9 4.9 8.1 4.8

El Centro

64,823 67,676 65,501 67,555 10,640 10,513 11,468 9,901 16.4 15.5 17.5 14.7

Fresno

439,439 445,943 445,244 447,797 37,274 31,416 44,389 31,251 8.5 7.0 10.0 7.0

Hanford-Corcoran

54,311 55,926 55,459 56,285 4,779 4,086 5,899 4,224 8.8 7.3 10.6 7.5

Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim

6,466,937 6,670,346 6,410,484 6,610,140 689,750 422,989 712,061 372,607 10.7 6.3 11.1 5.6

Madera

60,387 61,132 62,060 62,228 4,793 4,117 5,826 4,169 7.9 6.7 9.4 6.7

Merced

112,988 115,382 113,692 114,564 10,021 8,806 12,546 9,359 8.9 7.6 11.0 8.2

Modesto

237,923 242,318 239,462 239,817 19,200 14,942 22,485 14,572 8.1 6.2 9.4 6.1

Napa

66,078 68,836 66,109 66,955 4,253 2,859 4,991 2,771 6.4 4.2 7.5 4.1

Oxnard-Thousand Oaks-Ventura

403,604 412,299 404,484 411,862 25,725 18,350 29,932 17,305 6.4 4.5 7.4 4.2

Redding

72,421 75,095 72,623 74,275 4,717 3,686 5,668 3,566 6.5 4.9 7.8 4.8

Riverside-San Bernardino-Ontario

2,079,181 2,122,959 2,097,412 2,121,275 161,460 115,324 183,186 108,797 7.8 5.4 8.7 5.1

Sacramento--Roseville--Arden-Arcade

1,083,698 1,104,458 1,089,088 1,099,258 72,350 51,453 83,229 48,215 6.7 4.7 7.6 4.4

Salinas

205,841 217,697 202,020 208,446 14,332 12,047 20,740 14,941 7.0 5.5 10.3 7.2

San Diego-Carlsbad

1,523,998 1,561,369 1,535,149 1,554,504 104,336 71,137 122,650 65,751 6.8 4.6 8.0 4.2

San Francisco-Oakland-Hayward

2,428,090 2,500,708 2,438,336 2,503,559 152,287 95,576 168,662 88,108 6.3 3.8 6.9 3.5

San Jose-Sunnyvale-Santa Clara

1,040,633 1,071,223 1,041,226 1,074,395 54,855 34,429 62,214 31,857 5.3 3.2 6.0 3.0

San Luis Obispo-Paso Robles-Arroyo Grande

131,197 133,601 128,509 129,766 7,144 4,834 8,553 4,513 5.4 3.6 6.7 3.5

Santa Cruz-Watsonville

129,330 132,921 128,460 131,095 8,580 6,593 10,448 7,053 6.6 5.0 8.1 5.4

Santa Maria-Santa Barbara

215,776 220,565 213,126 216,630 12,292 8,629 15,484 8,588 5.7 3.9 7.3 4.0

Santa Rosa

238,960 247,076 236,250 246,346 13,699 9,222 15,591 8,592 5.7 3.7 6.6 3.5

Stockton-Lodi

330,682 329,866 332,738 329,603 28,660 21,740 33,377 21,259 8.7 6.6 10.0 6.4

Vallejo-Fairfield

201,219 203,300 202,785 203,139 15,182 10,987 17,501 10,491 7.5 5.4 8.6 5.2

Visalia-Porterville

192,076 200,480 191,261 197,012 18,477 16,531 21,926 16,610 9.6 8.2 11.5 8.4

Yuba City

73,117 76,272 73,343 75,624 5,959 5,021 7,250 5,096 8.1 6.6 9.9 6.7

Colorado

3,173,505 3,217,519 3,172,790 3,227,853 212,590 142,433 219,804 133,413 6.7 4.4 6.9 4.1

Boulder

194,912 200,830 194,211 199,627 10,653 6,977 11,220 6,485 5.5 3.5 5.8 3.2

Colorado Springs

365,409 373,261 362,171 372,478 23,672 17,092 26,645 15,942 6.5 4.6 7.4 4.3

Denver-Aurora-Lakewood

1,700,431 1,730,241 1,688,119 1,725,927 118,842 77,624 119,600 72,910 7.0 4.5 7.1 4.2

Fort Collins

208,848 207,409 207,120 207,229 11,550 7,885 13,153 7,300 5.5 3.8 6.4 3.5

Grand Junction

77,424 77,312 76,533 77,057 5,196 3,633 5,501 3,518 6.7 4.7 7.2 4.6

Greeley

170,062 170,874 170,163 171,716 11,984 7,739 12,018 7,283 7.0 4.5 7.1 4.2

Pueblo

80,292 78,838 79,447 78,939 7,119 5,216 7,207 5,032 8.9 6.6 9.1 6.4

Connecticut

1,846,074 1,850,252 1,831,338 1,832,459 138,843 88,174 140,974 81,426 7.5 4.8 7.7 4.4

Bridgeport-Stamford-Norwalk

444,699 446,719 440,325 443,416 34,554 21,807 34,825 19,945 7.8 4.9 7.9 4.5

Danbury

101,652 102,060 100,549 101,175 6,637 4,089 6,849 3,693 6.5 4.0 6.8 3.7

Hartford-West Hartford-East Hartford

611,230 607,347 607,258 601,694 45,188 28,873 46,191 26,824 7.4 4.8 7.6 4.5

New Haven

327,158 331,027 324,654 327,329 23,290 14,722 23,346 13,454 7.1 4.4 7.2 4.1

Norwich-New London-Westerly

133,562 133,539 132,446 131,355 11,582 7,007 11,531 6,496 8.7 5.2 8.7 4.9

Waterbury

109,056 109,043 108,923 107,964 9,535 6,337 9,910 6,030 8.7 5.8 9.1 5.6

Delaware

481,657 490,315 482,293 491,967 24,756 19,500 27,797 20,705 5.1 4.0 5.8 4.2

Dover

78,349 79,442 78,864 79,811 4,399 3,597 5,007 3,811 5.6 4.5 6.3 4.8

Salisbury(1)

185,224 187,810 185,198 188,958 10,893 8,717 12,513 9,050 5.9 4.6 6.8 4.8

District of Columbia

409,289 414,940 413,158 411,358 34,273 21,463 36,459 21,072 8.4 5.2 8.8 5.1

Washington-Arlington-Alexandria

3,347,853 3,369,922 3,329,956 3,351,273 215,567 123,278 215,496 111,524 6.4 3.7 6.5 3.3

Florida

9,999,225 10,644,641 9,968,835 10,622,172 499,570 384,837 419,587 339,436 5.0 3.6 4.2 3.2

Cape Coral-Fort Myers

342,425 366,427 339,999 364,988 14,344 12,760 11,512 12,102 4.2 3.5 3.4 3.3

Crestview-Fort Walton Beach-Destin

127,899 133,471 127,310 133,459 4,137 3,940 3,556 3,820 3.2 3.0 2.8 2.9

Deltona-Daytona Beach-Ormond Beach

292,953 310,065 291,317 309,838 13,213 12,189 10,870 11,670 4.5 3.9 3.7 3.8

Gainesville

142,444 150,799 141,599 149,980 5,009 4,674 4,143 4,581 3.5 3.1 2.9 3.1

Homosassa Springs

45,980 48,527 45,982 48,696 2,420 2,369 2,067 2,313 5.3 4.9 4.5 4.7

Jacksonville

781,907 832,407 780,452 831,643 29,829 27,680 24,495 26,489 3.8 3.3 3.1 3.2

Lakeland-Winter Haven

313,280 330,839 312,201 331,896 16,936 14,487 13,478 13,729 5.4 4.4 4.3 4.1

Miami-Fort Lauderdale-West Palm Beach

3,001,207 3,161,232 3,001,230 3,132,794 189,268 114,202 169,310 81,202 6.3 3.6 5.6 2.6

Naples-Immokalee-Marco Island

177,151 193,128 179,568 194,009 6,549 5,623 5,236 5,300 3.7 2.9 2.9 2.7

North Port-Sarasota-Bradenton

359,340 387,455 360,012 388,705 13,940 12,644 11,459 12,057 3.9 3.3 3.2 3.1

Ocala

139,449 145,656 138,721 146,284 6,402 6,125 5,291 5,831 4.6 4.2 3.8 4.0

Orlando-Kissimmee-Sanford

1,252,412 1,353,805 1,235,272 1,349,896 71,874 53,481 55,314 50,854 5.7 4.0 4.5 3.8

Palm Bay-Melbourne-Titusville

279,277 299,221 278,089 299,527 11,191 10,079 9,038 9,613 4.0 3.4 3.3 3.2

Panama City

86,724 92,218 86,537 92,543 3,258 3,096 2,864 3,134 3.8 3.4 3.3 3.4

Pensacola-Ferry Pass-Brent

226,736 241,686 226,207 241,473 8,866 8,414 7,365 8,131 3.9 3.5 3.3 3.4

Port St. Lucie

214,314 231,906 214,941 233,433 9,173 8,626 7,491 8,223 4.3 3.7 3.5 3.5

Punta Gorda

70,796 76,134 70,940 76,701 2,978 2,878 2,475 2,750 4.2 3.8 3.5 3.6

Sebastian-Vero Beach

63,511 67,981 63,485 68,473 2,809 2,702 2,293 2,567 4.4 4.0 3.6 3.7

Sebring

34,561 36,517 34,402 36,341 1,769 1,797 1,516 1,703 5.1 4.9 4.4 4.7

Tallahassee

189,770 199,435 186,679 197,818 7,646 7,182 6,320 6,933 4.0 3.6 3.4 3.5

Tampa-St. Petersburg-Clearwater

1,539,507 1,649,003 1,535,085 1,654,474 64,468 56,895 52,339 54,047 4.2 3.5 3.4 3.3

The Villages

31,575 33,291 31,719 33,313 1,642 1,666 1,379 1,577 5.2 5.0 4.3 4.7

Georgia

5,138,700 5,191,214 5,139,816 5,207,912 273,400 112,610 289,866 123,858 5.3 2.2 5.6 2.4

Albany

66,678 64,694 66,804 65,491 4,394 1,860 4,846 2,008 6.6 2.9 7.3 3.1

Athens-Clarke County

98,952 98,570 98,163 99,130 4,282 1,886 4,690 2,199 4.3 1.9 4.8 2.2

Atlanta-Sandy Springs-Roswell

3,085,772 3,145,338 3,092,660 3,157,316 173,769 67,926 178,369 74,074 5.6 2.2 5.8 2.3

Augusta-Richmond County

267,936 265,673 270,135 267,115 13,118 6,675 14,344 7,345 4.9 2.5 5.3 2.7

Brunswick

51,672 52,437 51,779 52,683 2,562 1,111 2,825 1,240 5.0 2.1 5.5 2.4

Columbus

122,382 121,899 122,815 122,729 6,654 3,327 7,238 3,470 5.4 2.7 5.9 2.8

Dalton

58,920 58,417 58,795 58,761 2,970 1,265 3,263 1,445 5.0 2.2 5.5 2.5

Gainesville

104,150 106,380 103,556 106,800 3,517 1,627 3,946 1,885 3.4 1.5 3.8 1.8

Hinesville

34,453 34,697 34,705 34,832 1,677 747 1,888 835 4.9 2.2 5.4 2.4

Macon-Bibb County

103,632 103,858 103,678 104,391 6,074 2,501 6,586 2,718 5.9 2.4 6.4 2.6

Rome

43,657 43,652 43,988 43,889 1,980 874 2,287 992 4.5 2.0 5.2 2.3

Savannah

194,877 201,141 195,727 201,932 10,626 4,295 11,362 4,694 5.5 2.1 5.8 2.3

Valdosta

66,395 65,938 65,840 65,905 3,241 1,377 3,637 1,536 4.9 2.1 5.5 2.3

Warner Robins

87,994 89,993 87,903 89,587 3,858 1,808 4,391 1,983 4.4 2.0 5.0 2.2

Hawaii

658,233 649,967 648,758 649,265 68,363 34,915 60,478 32,060 10.4 5.4 9.3 4.9

Kahului-Wailuku-Lahaina

81,498 79,929 80,420 79,531 13,399 5,543 10,784 5,048 16.4 6.9 13.4 6.3

Urban Honolulu

451,660 447,940 446,117 449,039 40,892 22,293 37,174 20,532 9.1 5.0 8.3 4.6

Idaho

902,015 909,318 899,652 907,663 37,371 17,659 36,070 16,874 4.1 1.9 4.0 1.9

Boise City

383,464 384,174 385,310 386,259 16,398 7,466 15,331 6,914 4.3 1.9 4.0 1.8

Coeur d'Alene

82,030 83,092 81,059 82,854 4,303 1,948 4,170 1,927 5.2 2.3 5.1 2.3

Idaho Falls

75,652 77,001 75,615 76,866 2,355 1,140 2,341 1,133 3.1 1.5 3.1 1.5

Lewiston

31,074 32,081 31,198 31,990 1,159 619 1,202 664 3.7 1.9 3.9 2.1

Pocatello

43,847 45,682 43,437 45,565 1,662 810 1,650 767 3.8 1.8 3.8 1.7

Twin Falls

53,937 53,818 53,674 53,581 2,082 1,047 2,061 999 3.9 1.9 3.8 1.9

Illinois

6,169,598 6,333,414 6,105,476 6,320,577 465,928 286,687 479,837 274,077 7.6 4.5 7.9 4.3

Bloomington

91,599 91,977 90,601 87,839 4,416 3,109 5,329 2,933 4.8 3.4 5.9 3.3

Carbondale-Marion

58,891 61,260 57,871 59,574 3,194 2,430 3,515 2,235 5.4 4.0 6.1 3.8

Champaign-Urbana

125,636 129,289 123,888 125,065 5,888 4,304 6,970 3,977 4.7 3.3 5.6 3.2

Chicago-Naperville-Elgin

4,667,374 4,803,276 4,615,934 4,832,390 384,515 217,764 380,132 206,676 8.2 4.5 8.2 4.3

Danville

32,061 32,559 31,887 31,662 2,067 1,613 2,339 1,441 6.4 5.0 7.3 4.6

Davenport-Moline-Rock Island(1)

181,909 186,952 181,138 184,365 9,640 6,884 11,017 6,759 5.3 3.7 6.1 3.7

Decatur

46,115 46,902 45,917 45,712 3,729 2,845 4,231 2,612 8.1 6.1 9.2 5.7

Kankakee

52,305 54,009 51,686 52,965 3,457 2,678 3,879 2,585 6.6 5.0 7.5 4.9

Peoria

167,859 169,295 165,157 165,239 10,494 7,696 12,204 7,230 6.3 4.5 7.4 4.4

Rockford

155,324 160,604 154,637 158,212 11,433 10,448 12,753 10,004 7.4 6.5 8.2 6.3

Springfield

102,174 102,369 100,651 99,900 6,257 4,253 7,343 3,911 6.1 4.2 7.3 3.9

Indiana

3,342,762 3,313,444 3,321,235 3,277,064 161,074 70,290 146,233 43,014 4.8 2.1 4.4 1.3

Bloomington

78,160 78,821 75,766 76,829 3,013 1,395 2,879 806 3.9 1.8 3.8 1.0

Columbus

44,095 44,571 44,111 44,123 1,717 718 1,595 436 3.9 1.6 3.6 1.0

Elkhart-Goshen

112,975 116,402 112,653 115,766 4,729 1,698 3,947 1,005 4.2 1.5 3.5 0.9

Evansville

156,702 151,984 155,566 150,284 6,998 3,261 6,436 2,264 4.5 2.1 4.1 1.5

Fort Wayne

218,070 214,064 215,671 211,787 10,287 4,254 9,213 2,562 4.7 2.0 4.3 1.2

Indianapolis-Carmel-Anderson

1,081,992 1,074,366 1,077,936 1,064,327 53,198 21,991 47,527 13,293 4.9 2.0 4.4 1.2

Kokomo

35,161 35,687 35,361 34,650 2,047 1,681 2,017 824 5.8 4.7 5.7 2.4

Lafayette-West Lafayette

110,903 112,423 110,542 111,488 4,888 2,085 4,269 1,234 4.4 1.9 3.9 1.1

Michigan City-La Porte

47,435 46,531 47,311 45,660 3,243 1,336 3,080 860 6.8 2.9 6.5 1.9

Muncie

53,341 52,395 52,683 51,493 2,574 1,243 2,407 755 4.8 2.4 4.6 1.5

South Bend-Mishawaka

157,233 156,962 155,464 156,168 9,291 3,992 8,469 2,828 5.9 2.5 5.4 1.8

Terre Haute

71,898 70,085 71,325 69,185 3,771 1,762 3,514 1,112 5.2 2.5 4.9 1.6

Iowa

1,633,755 1,666,277 1,622,138 1,660,698 59,741 44,028 66,280 48,988 3.7 2.6 4.1 2.9

Ames

56,002 58,342 54,477 57,751 1,368 1,065 1,441 1,159 2.4 1.8 2.6 2.0

Cedar Rapids

137,893 139,344 136,883 138,983 6,249 4,347 6,462 4,601 4.5 3.1 4.7 3.3

Des Moines-West Des Moines

347,825 361,877 344,970 360,388 13,011 9,408 14,221 9,957 3.7 2.6 4.1 2.8

Dubuque

53,274 54,682 52,931 54,948 2,113 1,461 2,290 1,701 4.0 2.7 4.3 3.1

Iowa City

93,000 93,938 91,060 92,677 3,133 2,182 3,326 2,327 3.4 2.3 3.7 2.5

Sioux City

88,979 89,533 88,943 89,763 3,090 2,130 3,406 2,459 3.5 2.4 3.8 2.7

Waterloo-Cedar Falls

85,315 86,499 83,810 85,990 3,378 2,418 3,602 2,689 4.0 2.8 4.3 3.1

Kansas

1,515,460 1,496,148 1,508,734 1,487,429 63,285 38,400 62,911 33,233 4.2 2.6 4.2 2.2

Lawrence

65,275 65,748 64,168 64,619 2,711 1,539 2,949 1,344 4.2 2.3 4.6 2.1

Manhattan

47,165 45,482 45,637 43,518 1,608 968 1,749 862 3.4 2.1 3.8 2.0

Topeka

121,649 117,231 121,618 116,276 4,881 2,928 5,495 2,642 4.0 2.5 4.5 2.3

Wichita

319,682 314,175 316,350 311,160 18,967 11,097 16,392 9,557 5.9 3.5 5.2 3.1

Kentucky

1,993,966 2,014,555 1,983,657 2,014,005 100,828 61,406 107,709 67,723 5.1 3.0 5.4 3.4

Bowling Green

81,672 82,417 80,345 82,032 3,578 2,124 3,901 2,365 4.4 2.6 4.9 2.9

Elizabethtown-Fort Knox

63,410 64,253 63,039 64,634 3,218 2,098 3,472 2,275 5.1 3.3 5.5 3.5

Lexington-Fayette

269,027 268,836 265,734 269,114 11,918 6,360 12,572 7,099 4.4 2.4 4.7 2.6

Louisville/Jefferson County

652,586 664,498 648,505 663,130 32,313 19,794 32,131 19,031 5.0 3.0 5.0 2.9

Owensboro

52,395 52,419 51,665 53,027 2,479 1,421 2,746 1,613 4.7 2.7 5.3 3.0

Louisiana

2,098,192 2,068,808 2,083,161 2,057,188 153,575 83,797 151,178 77,111 7.3 4.1 7.3 3.7

Alexandria

64,964 63,207 64,426 62,961 3,349 1,906 3,319 1,737 5.2 3.0 5.2 2.8

Baton Rouge

425,773 421,977 422,223 420,154 27,018 14,888 26,825 13,624 6.3 3.5 6.4 3.2

Hammond

57,519 56,940 57,143 56,886 4,704 2,726 4,689 2,534 8.2 4.8 8.2 4.5

Houma-Thibodaux

89,683 87,785 88,531 87,163 5,531 3,527 5,580 3,158 6.2 4.0 6.3 3.6

Lafayette

211,746 210,071 210,736 208,862 13,920 7,599 13,927 6,982 6.6 3.6 6.6 3.3

Lake Charles

98,324 98,892 96,871 97,819 8,742 3,996 8,158 3,746 8.9 4.0 8.4 3.8

Monroe

80,253 78,684 79,836 78,450 5,040 2,813 5,009 2,608 6.3 3.6 6.3 3.3

New Orleans-Metairie

598,148 583,476 593,773 580,966 53,054 27,862 51,592 25,486 8.9 4.8 8.7 4.4

Shreveport-Bossier City

186,197 183,866 185,753 181,385 13,347 7,283 13,130 6,730 7.2 4.0 7.1 3.7

Maine

663,691 672,067 662,097 665,686 30,957 29,235 34,564 26,775 4.7 4.4 5.2 4.0

Bangor

68,241 70,045 67,849 68,794 2,834 2,848 3,243 2,639 4.2 4.1 4.8 3.8

Lewiston-Auburn

54,265 55,213 54,470 54,337 2,567 2,471 2,782 2,190 4.7 4.5 5.1 4.0

Portland-South Portland

201,263 205,983 199,285 200,248 8,842 7,693 9,473 6,833 4.4 3.7 4.8 3.4

Maryland

3,120,857 3,129,583 3,105,593 3,120,513 206,589 143,867 206,860 124,871 6.6 4.6 6.7 4.0

Baltimore-Columbia-Towson

1,461,939 1,467,241 1,459,168 1,463,271 89,313 63,766 91,212 56,188 6.1 4.3 6.3 3.8

California-Lexington Park

56,230 57,116 56,290 57,255 2,432 2,068 2,583 1,862 4.3 3.6 4.6 3.3

Cumberland

42,399 43,210 42,465 43,317 2,640 1,810 3,151 1,789 6.2 4.2 7.4 4.1

Hagerstown-Martinsburg

130,429 131,924 130,791 132,480 6,885 4,029 7,314 3,807 5.3 3.1 5.6 2.9

Massachusetts

3,699,806 3,745,089 3,694,508 3,692,403 283,487 172,324 271,380 129,004 7.7 4.6 7.3 3.5

Barnstable Town

118,376 120,062 118,827 118,303 9,420 6,472 9,775 5,158 8.0 5.4 8.2 4.4

Boston-Cambridge-Nashua

2,750,524 2,782,009 2,745,196 2,748,993 199,036 115,052 185,961 85,792 7.2 4.1 6.8 3.1

Leominster-Gardner

78,697 79,402 78,546 78,504 6,619 4,205 6,576 3,306 8.4 5.3 8.4 4.2

New Bedford

84,027 85,185 84,029 83,124 7,241 5,357 7,341 4,225 8.6 6.3 8.7 5.1

Pittsfield

40,303 39,789 40,539 39,334 3,454 2,346 3,520 1,853 8.6 5.9 8.7 4.7

Springfield

366,902 370,199 365,023 363,592 30,085 19,676 30,259 15,425 8.2 5.3 8.3 4.2

Worcester

352,769 355,728 353,327 351,457 26,622 16,586 25,792 12,786 7.5 4.7 7.3 3.6

Michigan

4,862,903 4,767,091 4,855,603 4,772,856 359,727 198,407 400,934 210,118 7.4 4.2 8.3 4.4

Ann Arbor

194,032 190,635 192,619 190,379 9,104 6,408 9,668 6,110 4.7 3.4 5.0 3.2

Battle Creek

61,845 58,926 61,668 58,790 4,317 3,214 4,738 3,122 7.0 5.5 7.7 5.3

Bay City

49,222 47,206 48,989 47,195 3,106 2,381 3,628 2,500 6.3 5.0 7.4 5.3

Detroit-Warren-Dearborn

2,129,060 2,096,446 2,135,505 2,107,229 201,243 79,273 219,701 90,701 9.5 3.8 10.3 4.3

Flint

179,312 173,252 179,125 173,865 13,494 11,079 14,898 10,584 7.5 6.4 8.3 6.1

Grand Rapids-Wyoming

575,669 562,927 573,470 562,570 29,089 20,141 32,567 19,647 5.1 3.6 5.7 3.5

Jackson

73,241 72,012 72,992 72,046 4,554 3,354 5,092 3,314 6.2 4.7 7.0 4.6

Kalamazoo-Portage

166,295 163,840 164,782 163,816 9,273 6,728 10,452 6,661 5.6 4.1 6.3 4.1

Lansing-East Lansing

241,626 239,545 240,221 237,990 12,715 9,394 14,055 9,136 5.3 3.9 5.9 3.8

Midland

39,856 38,715 39,776 38,760 2,033 1,491 2,354 1,516 5.1 3.9 5.9 3.9

Monroe

73,277 72,021 72,980 72,025 4,068 3,348 4,511 3,090 5.6 4.6 6.2 4.3

Muskegon

76,792 73,414 76,888 73,669 6,485 4,743 6,844 4,470 8.4 6.5 8.9 6.1

Niles-Benton Harbor

72,254 70,212 72,036 70,514 4,570 3,268 5,196 3,256 6.3 4.7 7.2 4.6

Saginaw

85,491 81,958 85,294 82,185 6,085 4,819 6,772 4,686 7.1 5.9 7.9 5.7

Minnesota

3,053,209 3,027,052 3,036,842 3,030,129 131,727 66,467 148,543 82,906 4.3 2.2 4.9 2.7

Duluth

140,756 139,155 139,046 139,475 6,942 3,667 7,904 4,533 4.9 2.6 5.7 3.3

Mankato-North Mankato

61,325 60,213 60,415 60,050 2,132 1,062 2,474 1,334 3.5 1.8 4.1 2.2

Minneapolis-St. Paul-Bloomington

1,979,664 1,975,647 1,962,193 1,970,209 86,341 42,588 94,600 49,823 4.4 2.2 4.8 2.5

Rochester

126,438 125,125 125,119 125,644 4,521 2,278 5,118 2,839 3.6 1.8 4.1 2.3

St. Cloud

112,888 110,082 111,701 111,117 5,058 2,541 5,746 3,402 4.5 2.3 5.1 3.1

Mississippi

1,272,847 1,251,090 1,278,959 1,255,553 79,747 37,085 83,701 38,775 6.3 3.0 6.5 3.1

Gulfport-Biloxi-Pascagoula

166,577 166,306 166,913 167,364 11,085 5,116 11,446 5,340 6.7 3.1 6.9 3.2

Hattiesburg

70,687 68,514 70,331 68,699 3,988 1,800 4,127 1,867 5.6 2.6 5.9 2.7

Jackson

265,724 261,853 266,341 260,753 15,313 7,026 16,039 7,318 5.8 2.7 6.0 2.8

Missouri

3,055,824 3,036,287 3,055,793 3,053,267 127,766 77,811 141,939 83,243 4.2 2.6 4.6 2.7

Cape Girardeau

47,967 47,698 48,092 47,892 1,743 1,117 2,000 1,156 3.6 2.3 4.2 2.4

Columbia

98,243 97,765 97,720 98,231 2,909 1,859 3,281 1,868 3.0 1.9 3.4 1.9

Jefferson City

75,250 74,826 75,217 75,101 2,201 1,446 2,569 1,522 2.9 1.9 3.4 2.0

Joplin

83,356 83,160 84,129 83,596 3,262 1,882 3,601 1,967 3.9 2.3 4.3 2.4

Kansas City

1,143,953 1,152,037 1,150,324 1,153,717 48,657 30,936 51,531 29,030 4.3 2.7 4.5 2.5

St. Joseph

62,813 62,057 63,029 62,370 2,176 1,343 2,466 1,395 3.5 2.2 3.9 2.2

St. Louis(2)

1,447,088 1,437,031 1,443,527 1,438,375 66,843 41,489 74,103 43,862 4.6 2.9 5.1 3.0

Springfield

236,921 236,663 237,785 238,566 8,130 4,853 9,185 5,090 3.4 2.1 3.9 2.1

Montana

532,562 542,991 524,275 541,665 22,824 10,294 23,912 10,477 4.3 1.9 4.6 1.9

Billings

87,813 89,731 85,940 89,446 3,480 1,513 3,502 1,556 4.0 1.7 4.1 1.7

Great Falls

37,353 36,814 36,663 36,613 1,670 674 1,623 679 4.5 1.8 4.4 1.9

Missoula

62,854 63,683 61,531 63,740 2,673 1,214 2,901 1,278 4.3 1.9 4.7 2.0

Nebraska

1,023,234 1,026,620 1,015,391 1,025,634 29,853 12,038 30,738 13,055 2.9 1.2 3.0 1.3

Grand Island

43,640 42,852 43,581 42,924 1,825 528 2,068 606 4.2 1.2 4.7 1.4

Lincoln

183,773 186,534 181,684 184,809 5,569 2,037 5,792 2,123 3.0 1.1 3.2 1.1

Omaha-Council Bluffs

486,814 493,030 485,780 492,402 15,646 7,273 16,269 7,991 3.2 1.5 3.3 1.6

Nevada

1,513,547 1,542,205 1,513,944 1,536,416 126,448 83,495 123,484 79,986 8.4 5.4 8.2 5.2

Carson City

26,212 26,648 26,453 26,537 1,265 887 1,317 861 4.8 3.3 5.0 3.2

Las Vegas-Henderson-Paradise

1,098,710 1,125,045 1,097,286 1,120,967 108,054 70,725 104,844 67,588 9.8 6.3 9.6 6.0

Reno

262,514 265,651 264,095 264,813 11,681 7,796 11,735 7,521 4.4 2.9 4.4 2.8

New Hampshire

759,782 741,833 757,970 743,280 30,055 15,601 27,997 16,248 4.0 2.1 3.7 2.2

Dover-Durham

84,606 83,803 83,483 83,714 3,284 1,687 2,997 1,715 3.9 2.0 3.6 2.0

Manchester

120,788 116,586 120,409 117,035 4,820 2,349 4,413 2,453 4.0 2.0 3.7 2.1

Portsmouth

75,827 76,058 75,599 76,137 3,019 1,637 2,699 1,622 4.0 2.2 3.6 2.1

New Jersey

4,492,693 4,428,115 4,372,811 4,451,722 433,421 231,957 316,353 218,613 9.6 5.2 7.2 4.9

Atlantic City-Hammonton

120,334 118,091 114,806 118,767 17,098 8,934 12,935 8,748 14.2 7.6 11.3 7.4

Ocean City

45,537 43,041 44,588 42,733 5,481 3,574 4,581 3,753 12.0 8.3 10.3 8.8

Trenton

207,677 206,098 202,995 206,237 16,087 8,592 11,750 7,872 7.7 4.2 5.8 3.8

Vineland-Bridgeton

66,868 64,516 64,717 64,852 6,851 4,235 5,462 4,261 10.2 6.6 8.4 6.6

New Mexico

963,799 958,170 963,668 959,857 77,740 50,399 80,079 46,449 8.1 5.3 8.3 4.8

Albuquerque

438,332 440,319 440,283 438,957 33,866 21,840 35,383 19,982 7.7 5.0 8.0 4.6

Farmington

51,030 49,176 50,877 49,073 4,836 3,108 4,951 2,888 9.5 6.3 9.7 5.9

Las Cruces

98,690 97,277 99,084 97,888 7,568 5,222 7,725 4,834 7.7 5.4 7.8 4.9

Santa Fe

71,799 69,564 71,470 69,486 5,369 3,417 5,636 3,182 7.5 4.9 7.9 4.6

New York

9,231,677 9,188,192 9,228,985 9,140,537 763,468 509,064 782,807 457,306 8.3 5.5 8.5 5.0

Albany-Schenectady-Troy

449,830 438,366 449,162 435,646 23,084 14,335 24,415 10,951 5.1 3.3 5.4 2.5

Binghamton

102,838 100,218 103,880 99,705 6,118 3,949 6,833 3,124 5.9 3.9 6.6 3.1

Buffalo-Cheektowaga-Niagara Falls

534,295 526,018 539,853 522,318 34,574 22,506 42,636 17,317 6.5 4.3 7.9 3.3

Elmira

35,194 34,302 35,437 34,303 2,315 1,389 2,484 1,063 6.6 4.0 7.0 3.1

Glens Falls

58,029 56,791 58,481 56,541 3,084 2,146 3,496 1,733 5.3 3.8 6.0 3.1

Ithaca

47,555 46,389 47,720 46,314 2,165 1,358 2,263 1,007 4.6 2.9 4.7 2.2

Kingston

85,906 83,601 85,823 83,393 4,713 2,985 4,992 2,267 5.5 3.6 5.8 2.7

New York-Newark-Jersey City

9,679,408 9,643,699 9,572,462 9,625,983 920,394 572,645 827,369 533,858 9.5 5.9 8.6 5.5

Rochester

515,263 514,265 515,660 512,248 30,915 19,216 34,450 14,788 6.0 3.7 6.7 2.9

Syracuse

303,850 292,347 304,035 292,189 17,735 11,313 19,862 8,837 5.8 3.9 6.5 3.0

Utica-Rome

127,775 124,008 128,339 123,024 7,646 5,038 8,526 3,952 6.0 4.1 6.6 3.2

Watertown-Fort Drum

43,166 43,409 43,582 43,009 2,392 1,742 2,738 1,449 5.5 4.0 6.3 3.4

North Carolina

5,038,460 5,066,946 5,017,316 5,070,354 315,198 170,585 307,133 160,692 6.3 3.4 6.1 3.2

Asheville

230,354 229,888 228,980 230,891 13,337 6,466 12,822 5,994 5.8 2.8 5.6 2.6

Burlington

82,051 83,171 81,749 83,141 5,069 2,741 4,986 2,576 6.2 3.3 6.1 3.1

Charlotte-Concord-Gastonia

1,371,490 1,379,710 1,366,797 1,387,855 85,239 45,521 82,294 44,175 6.2 3.3 6.0 3.2

Durham-Chapel Hill

306,492 315,057 305,680 314,304 16,358 8,527 16,086 7,896 5.3 2.7 5.3 2.5

Fayetteville

148,010 146,626 147,939 148,184 12,570 7,442 12,268 7,089 8.5 5.1 8.3 4.8

Goldsboro

51,720 51,460 51,521 51,303 3,148 1,841 3,188 1,734 6.1 3.6 6.2 3.4

Greensboro-High Point

362,545 361,185 361,060 362,312 25,977 14,034 24,853 13,293 7.2 3.9 6.9 3.7

Greenville

90,043 92,960 90,471 92,998 5,591 3,151 5,577 3,008 6.2 3.4 6.2 3.2

Hickory-Lenoir-Morganton

173,644 176,446 173,307 176,666 10,615 5,462 10,343 5,047 6.1 3.1 6.0 2.9

Jacksonville

66,189 65,504 65,603 65,446 4,145 2,306 4,204 2,147 6.3 3.5 6.4 3.3

New Bern

51,228 50,873 51,078 50,708 2,972 1,663 3,036 1,515 5.8 3.3 5.9 3.0

Raleigh

729,005 744,808 727,584 744,531 39,462 20,718 38,448 19,376 5.4 2.8 5.3 2.6

Rocky Mount

64,258 63,772 64,274 63,855 5,456 3,334 5,190 3,206 8.5 5.2 8.1 5.0

Wilmington

151,623 156,462 150,192 156,857 8,518 4,522 8,380 4,198 5.6 2.9 5.6 2.7

Winston-Salem

325,559 329,510 325,141 328,533 20,277 10,703 19,733 9,990 6.2 3.2 6.1 3.0

North Dakota

400,126 399,379 397,541 396,900 17,049 9,994 18,974 10,987 4.3 2.5 4.8 2.8

Bismarck

69,139 68,956 68,864 68,324 2,427 1,577 2,860 1,858 3.5 2.3 4.2 2.7

Fargo

140,688 143,228 140,806 142,676 4,508 2,594 5,118 2,946 3.2 1.8 3.6 2.1

Grand Forks

53,568 52,290 52,413 52,123 1,967 1,155 2,233 1,352 3.7 2.2 4.3 2.6

Ohio

5,719,557 5,682,965 5,684,962 5,679,536 278,828 195,679 300,053 190,546 4.9 3.4 5.3 3.4

Akron

352,228 352,723 350,994 352,565 16,232 12,355 17,676 12,130 4.6 3.5 5.0 3.4

Canton-Massillon

194,466 192,936 194,907 194,084 8,755 6,843 9,698 6,778 4.5 3.5 5.0 3.5

Cincinnati

1,105,361 1,122,911 1,103,118 1,122,132 48,179 33,353 50,695 31,822 4.4 3.0 4.6 2.8

Cleveland-Elyria

1,006,832 1,001,346 997,566 992,781 71,044 36,714 76,279 38,216 7.1 3.7 7.6 3.8

Columbus

1,112,798 1,107,412 1,105,510 1,104,231 46,280 33,505 48,235 31,287 4.2 3.0 4.4 2.8

Dayton

386,974 383,327 383,689 384,369 17,654 13,185 18,528 12,372 4.6 3.4 4.8 3.2

Lima

48,521 47,618 48,626 48,015 2,157 1,690 2,314 1,647 4.4 3.5 4.8 3.4

Mansfield

51,851 50,400 51,611 50,865 2,507 2,008 2,799 2,021 4.8 4.0 5.4 4.0

Springfield

62,268 62,075 62,139 62,232 2,794 2,149 2,998 2,057 4.5 3.5 4.8 3.3

Toledo

296,843 291,247 293,352 294,363 14,537 11,304 15,426 10,568 4.9 3.9 5.3 3.6

Weirton-Steubenville(1)

49,999 49,147 49,747 49,200 3,340 1,948 3,685 1,999 6.7 4.0 7.4 4.1

Youngstown-Warren-Boardman

231,080 224,936 228,429 224,734 13,934 10,005 15,111 9,699 6.0 4.4 6.6 4.3

Oklahoma

1,872,237 1,871,217 1,853,534 1,862,935 88,211 35,558 85,689 33,412 4.7 1.9 4.6 1.8

Enid

27,261 27,237 26,742 27,037 1,197 465 1,175 429 4.4 1.7 4.4 1.6

Lawton

51,359 51,027 50,947 50,824 2,382 1,066 2,297 1,011 4.6 2.1 4.5 2.0

Oklahoma City

696,308 702,759 694,008 701,756 31,315 12,366 30,061 11,479 4.5 1.8 4.3 1.6

Tulsa

484,881 482,471 480,973 481,610 24,490 9,674 23,862 9,151 5.1 2.0 5.0 1.9

Oregon

2,133,389 2,170,491 2,127,775 2,166,263 129,959 74,448 131,658 78,329 6.1 3.4 6.2 3.6

Albany

59,500 60,611 59,568 60,605 3,693 2,324 3,796 2,430 6.2 3.8 6.4 4.0

Bend-Redmond

100,371 100,748 100,536 101,526 5,906 3,550 6,914 3,817 5.9 3.5 6.9 3.8

Corvallis

46,802 48,000 47,061 47,825 2,043 1,182 2,027 1,233 4.4 2.5 4.3 2.6

Eugene

179,310 182,926 179,485 181,252 10,968 6,700 11,221 6,981 6.1 3.7 6.3 3.9

Grants Pass

36,798 36,801 37,040 36,750 2,279 1,604 2,512 1,731 6.2 4.4 6.8 4.7

Medford

107,474 108,085 107,621 107,435 6,391 3,853 6,606 4,018 5.9 3.6 6.1 3.7

Portland-Vancouver-Hillsboro

1,333,319 1,371,994 1,323,921 1,372,904 84,875 45,086 82,244 46,950 6.4 3.3 6.2 3.4

Salem

206,869 208,949 205,749 208,368 11,501 6,982 11,975 7,387 5.6 3.3 5.8 3.5

Pennsylvania

6,303,477 6,222,776 6,255,815 6,141,644 408,218 270,172 430,100 244,515 6.5 4.3 6.9 4.0

Allentown-Bethlehem-Easton

437,200 435,094 434,896 430,272 28,916 19,521 28,620 17,237 6.6 4.5 6.6 4.0

Altoona

58,718 56,458 58,249 55,792 3,446 2,288 3,922 2,178 5.9 4.1 6.7 3.9

Bloomsburg-Berwick

42,334 42,756 41,730 41,810 2,126 1,538 2,512 1,481 5.0 3.6 6.0 3.5

Chambersburg-Waynesboro

76,087 75,231 76,570 75,074 3,803 2,457 4,108 2,264 5.0 3.3 5.4 3.0

East Stroudsburg

79,621 79,466 78,942 78,536 6,255 4,454 6,489 4,063 7.9 5.6 8.2 5.2

Erie

125,069 122,329 124,523 120,458 9,053 6,137 10,244 5,807 7.2 5.0 8.2 4.8

Gettysburg

53,894 54,995 53,784 54,189 2,226 1,500 2,474 1,398 4.1 2.7 4.6 2.6

Harrisburg-Carlisle

298,280 295,813 294,841 291,048 16,307 10,592 17,051 9,445 5.5 3.6 5.8 3.2

Johnstown

55,252 52,549 54,823 51,666 3,573 2,597 4,204 2,493 6.5 4.9 7.7 4.8

Lancaster

278,771 275,926 277,207 272,699 13,607 9,096 14,336 8,162 4.9 3.3 5.2 3.0

Lebanon

71,340 70,051 70,586 69,239 3,970 2,534 4,171 2,258 5.6 3.6 5.9 3.3

Philadelphia-Camden-Wilmington

3,068,315 3,055,130 3,030,074 3,036,469 223,579 140,075 209,067 127,743 7.3 4.6 6.9 4.2

Pittsburgh

1,166,634 1,150,238 1,155,318 1,132,268 75,824 49,221 82,257 44,968 6.5 4.3 7.1 4.0

Reading

208,230 201,775 206,841 199,842 13,783 9,288 14,205 8,255 6.6 4.6 6.9 4.1

Scranton--Wilkes-Barre--Hazleton

272,521 267,163 270,497 263,654 20,069 14,117 21,579 12,691 7.4 5.3 8.0 4.8

State College

74,962 75,574 74,160 74,480 2,979 2,215 3,520 2,169 4.0 2.9 4.7 2.9

Williamsport

55,605 54,539 55,021 53,805 3,466 2,471 3,979 2,338 6.2 4.5 7.2 4.3

York-Hanover

231,445 229,874 231,907 226,787 12,423 8,179 13,071 7,253 5.4 3.6 5.6 3.2

Rhode Island

541,086 556,597 539,265 551,653 41,554 23,032 41,962 20,611 7.7 4.1 7.8 3.7

Providence-Warwick

674,410 690,475 671,467 683,283 51,606 29,991 51,986 26,005 7.7 4.3 7.7 3.8

South Carolina

2,339,424 2,385,004 2,348,040 2,391,893 126,142 72,000 138,256 79,575 5.4 3.0 5.9 3.3

Charleston-North Charleston

385,974 399,523 389,778 399,797 20,013 10,605 21,589 11,650 5.2 2.7 5.5 2.9

Columbia

399,088 404,698 398,888 405,975 20,196 11,260 22,005 12,413 5.1 2.8 5.5 3.1

Florence

96,826 96,882 97,014 97,006 5,426 3,051 5,946 3,346 5.6 3.1 6.1 3.4

Greenville-Anderson-Mauldin

427,524 438,771 427,938 439,613 20,493 11,642 22,504 12,707 4.8 2.7 5.3 2.9

Hilton Head Island-Bluffton-Beaufort

88,919 91,512 89,014 91,524 3,933 2,373 4,407 2,627 4.4 2.6 5.0 2.9

Myrtle Beach-Conway-North Myrtle Beach

194,229 200,197 193,798 199,416 13,318 7,992 14,826 8,713 6.9 4.0 7.7 4.4

Spartanburg

167,194 171,780 168,647 173,435 9,098 5,167 9,925 5,669 5.4 3.0 5.9 3.3

Sumter

43,250 42,843 43,850 42,750 2,716 1,493 2,947 1,633 6.3 3.5 6.7 3.8

South Dakota

454,960 470,079 467,353 467,186 15,193 10,015 16,585 11,073 3.3 2.1 3.5 2.4

Rapid City

72,661 74,675 74,540 74,179 2,672 1,727 2,824 1,799 3.7 2.3 3.8 2.4

Sioux Falls

153,291 159,251 157,606 158,401 4,528 2,916 4,891 3,232 3.0 1.8 3.1 2.0

Tennessee

3,330,759 3,325,345 3,324,493 3,348,942 171,327 102,585 185,878 109,741 5.1 3.1 5.6 3.3

Chattanooga

275,567 276,691 274,117 276,577 12,304 7,399 13,945 8,013 4.5 2.7 5.1 2.9

Clarksville

118,547 119,325 117,910 120,451 6,484 3,939 7,127 4,455 5.5 3.3 6.0 3.7

Cleveland

61,187 61,760 60,958 62,148 2,971 1,783 3,365 1,908 4.9 2.9 5.5 3.1

Jackson

65,697 64,867 65,455 65,292 3,517 1,931 3,715 2,107 5.4 3.0 5.7 3.2

Johnson City

92,213 90,459 92,071 91,033 4,607 2,751 5,199 3,046 5.0 3.0 5.6 3.3

Kingsport-Bristol-Bristol

135,121 133,447 135,021 133,815 7,017 3,983 7,783 4,143 5.2 3.0 5.8 3.1

Knoxville

432,879 434,897 433,205 437,351 19,156 11,369 21,640 12,471 4.4 2.6 5.0 2.9

Memphis

649,322 645,184 651,858 651,646 45,200 25,119 45,264 26,459 7.0 3.9 6.9 4.1

Morristown

53,277 53,140 53,333 53,821 2,493 1,652 2,787 1,816 4.7 3.1 5.2 3.4

Nashville-Davidson--Murfreesboro--Franklin

1,079,907 1,095,814 1,080,130 1,107,763 46,596 28,267 50,688 29,434 4.3 2.6 4.7 2.7

Texas

14,050,100 14,429,974 14,139,874 14,398,693 973,462 654,763 948,550 612,738 6.9 4.5 6.7 4.3

Abilene

78,380 82,095 78,754 81,479 4,070 2,994 3,976 2,703 5.2 3.6 5.0 3.3

Amarillo

132,812 136,620 133,582 136,015 5,885 4,288 5,854 3,894 4.4 3.1 4.4 2.9

Austin-Round Rock

1,254,007 1,332,295 1,264,319 1,328,683 64,579 42,451 61,703 38,652 5.1 3.2 4.9 2.9

Beaumont-Port Arthur

171,515 175,137 172,493 175,142 17,637 13,017 17,871 12,676 10.3 7.4 10.4 7.2

Brownsville-Harlingen

168,881 170,542 169,862 170,564 16,088 11,679 16,112 11,566 9.5 6.8 9.5 6.8

College Station-Bryan

135,096 136,742 133,664 134,733 6,642 4,733 6,550 4,356 4.9 3.5 4.9 3.2

Corpus Christi

200,829 205,227 201,207 204,703 17,310 12,251 16,980 11,808 8.6 6.0 8.4 5.8

Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington

4,033,726 4,190,324 4,067,969 4,182,204 250,161 165,436 242,265 152,125 6.2 3.9 6.0 3.6

El Paso

371,982 372,981 371,554 369,595 29,753 18,570 27,676 17,487 8.0 5.0 7.4 4.7

Houston-The Woodlands-Sugar Land

3,389,148 3,478,773 3,409,040 3,482,713 266,857 178,070 260,520 168,216 7.9 5.1 7.6 4.8

Killeen-Temple

179,460 183,925 179,855 182,932 11,354 8,750 11,224 8,035 6.3 4.8 6.2 4.4

Laredo

115,757 117,390 116,211 117,405 9,178 5,905 8,897 5,596 7.9 5.0 7.7 4.8

Longview

95,835 97,452 96,264 97,001 7,458 4,963 7,266 4,572 7.8 5.1 7.5 4.7

Lubbock

163,894 167,332 164,409 166,327 8,675 5,955 8,459 5,489 5.3 3.6 5.1 3.3

McAllen-Edinburg-Mission

359,852 371,240 363,869 372,724 38,652 28,414 39,593 28,994 10.7 7.7 10.9 7.8

Midland

97,914 101,125 98,752 101,007 8,463 4,497 7,947 4,188 8.6 4.4 8.0 4.1

Odessa

80,578 80,324 80,798 80,246 9,826 5,059 9,351 4,738 12.2 6.3 11.6 5.9

San Angelo

54,685 55,124 54,808 55,055 3,300 2,188 3,214 1,997 6.0 4.0 5.9 3.6

San Antonio-New Braunfels

1,209,499 1,247,684 1,218,490 1,240,624 76,856 50,778 73,359 46,305 6.4 4.1 6.0 3.7

Sherman-Denison

65,063 67,137 65,603 67,014 3,440 2,537 3,359 2,308 5.3 3.8 5.1 3.4

Texarkana

63,045 63,854 64,045 64,154 3,824 2,673 3,760 2,618 6.1 4.2 5.9 4.1

Tyler

109,384 116,586 110,435 116,691 6,655 4,580 6,547 4,200 6.1 3.9 5.9 3.6

Victoria

44,268 44,347 44,732 44,167 3,457 2,361 3,365 2,201 7.8 5.3 7.5 5.0

Waco

129,010 132,323 129,436 131,739 7,274 5,130 7,192 4,663 5.6 3.9 5.6 3.5

Wichita Falls

64,087 64,871 64,825 64,944 4,080 2,700 4,145 2,468 6.4 4.2 6.4 3.8

Utah

1,643,253 1,698,570 1,629,656 1,686,575 51,990 22,972 49,109 22,578 3.2 1.4 3.0 1.3

Logan

73,829 77,479 73,366 76,870 1,570 829 1,561 824 2.1 1.1 2.1 1.1

Ogden-Clearfield

340,023 346,876 338,056 344,797 9,911 4,533 9,518 4,440 2.9 1.3 2.8 1.3

Provo-Orem

328,013 341,317 322,546 337,804 8,587 4,015 8,152 3,921 2.6 1.2 2.5 1.2

St. George

81,297 85,166 79,799 84,049 2,767 1,228 2,706 1,225 3.4 1.4 3.4 1.5

Salt Lake City

677,620 700,579 674,466 696,167 22,915 9,686 21,117 9,362 3.4 1.4 3.1 1.3

Vermont

316,915 317,782 313,167 315,107 10,268 6,119 10,278 7,000 3.2 1.9 3.3 2.2

Burlington-South Burlington

117,910 118,713 115,483 116,243 3,313 1,900 3,333 2,082 2.8 1.6 2.9 1.8

Virginia

4,258,549 4,262,219 4,239,603 4,252,784 233,440 115,438 243,507 113,211 5.5 2.7 5.7 2.7

Blacksburg-Christiansburg-Radford

88,113 91,879 86,720 90,896 3,744 2,033 4,177 1,897 4.2 2.2 4.8 2.1

Charlottesville

115,782 114,987 115,127 114,958 5,527 2,761 5,896 2,595 4.8 2.4 5.1 2.3

Harrisonburg

65,080 66,417 64,877 66,089 2,617 1,464 2,947 1,484 4.0 2.2 4.5 2.2

Lynchburg

118,437 118,495 117,912 118,230 6,262 3,347 6,838 3,213 5.3 2.8 5.8 2.7

Richmond

661,886 644,816 658,975 647,057 39,506 19,795 40,840 20,490 6.0 3.1 6.2 3.2

Roanoke

153,074 151,454 152,586 151,800 7,776 3,975 8,239 3,777 5.1 2.6 5.4 2.5

Staunton-Waynesboro

59,375 60,205 59,421 59,967 2,620 1,331 2,809 1,394 4.4 2.2 4.7 2.3

Virginia Beach-Norfolk-Newport News

830,051 815,714 829,771 815,888 51,703 26,642 53,951 25,488 6.2 3.3 6.5 3.1

Winchester

73,620 75,657 73,594 75,543 2,896 1,508 3,190 1,819 3.9 2.0 4.3 2.4

Washington

3,857,075 3,941,030 3,830,175 3,975,042 249,679 139,929 251,637 150,810 6.5 3.6 6.6 3.8

Bellingham

111,275 117,483 110,457 117,270 7,839 4,430 7,846 4,671 7.0 3.8 7.1 4.0

Bremerton-Silverdale

125,744 129,419 124,890 130,182 7,508 4,149 7,649 4,339 6.0 3.2 6.1 3.3

Kennewick-Richland

140,499 147,580 140,310 146,420 9,273 5,966 9,794 6,661 6.6 4.0 7.0 4.5

Longview

46,972 48,906 47,003 48,960 3,411 2,111 3,482 2,197 7.3 4.3 7.4 4.5

Mount Vernon-Anacortes

60,255 63,051 59,838 63,042 4,431 2,686 4,551 2,744 7.4 4.3 7.6 4.4

Olympia-Tumwater

141,391 148,228 140,386 148,741 8,631 4,977 8,692 5,200 6.1 3.4 6.2 3.5

Seattle-Tacoma-Bellevue

2,172,706 2,177,687 2,153,175 2,214,698 136,941 72,222 134,540 77,258 6.3 3.3 6.2 3.5

Spokane-Spokane Valley

272,343 289,739 269,460 289,664 17,500 9,949 18,666 11,291 6.4 3.4 6.9 3.9

Walla Walla

31,057 33,822 31,098 32,590 1,710 999 1,930 1,171 5.5 3.0 6.2 3.6

Wenatchee

61,577 62,957 61,907 61,865 3,946 2,457 4,367 2,617 6.4 3.9 7.1 4.2

Yakima

122,353 127,903 124,169 125,894 9,585 6,664 10,356 7,451 7.8 5.2 8.3 5.9

West Virginia

792,065 784,706 792,568 782,740 51,605 20,498 56,722 22,893 6.5 2.6 7.2 2.9

Beckley

46,657 45,816 46,558 45,866 3,423 1,326 3,692 1,452 7.3 2.9 7.9 3.2

Charleston

92,789 90,436 92,444 90,725 6,791 2,467 7,040 2,694 7.3 2.7 7.6 3.0

Huntington-Ashland

145,107 143,843 146,741 144,385 8,566 4,290 9,607 4,736 5.9 3.0 6.5 3.3

Morgantown

71,065 72,366 70,796 71,663 3,451 1,618 3,918 1,794 4.9 2.2 5.5 2.5

Parkersburg-Vienna

38,697 37,545 38,625 37,499 2,700 1,082 3,001 1,239 7.0 2.9 7.8 3.3

Wheeling

62,516 62,102 62,164 62,448 3,895 2,074 4,325 2,273 6.2 3.3 7.0 3.6

Wisconsin

3,059,093 3,102,248 3,038,277 3,093,829 125,598 57,455 122,911 61,154 4.1 1.9 4.0 2.0

Appleton

129,729 132,317 129,523 132,462 4,145 1,960 4,116 2,078 3.2 1.5 3.2 1.6

Eau Claire

92,685 94,497 92,775 94,284 3,380 1,501 3,604 1,745 3.6 1.6 3.9 1.9

Fond du Lac

56,690 58,355 56,617 58,260 1,970 869 1,901 892 3.5 1.5 3.4 1.5

Green Bay

171,109 174,944 170,349 173,117 6,361 2,890 6,069 3,071 3.7 1.7 3.6 1.8

Janesville-Beloit

84,235 86,590 83,725 86,419 3,652 1,901 3,441 2,030 4.3 2.2 4.1 2.3

La Crosse-Onalaska

76,083 77,262 76,050 77,148 2,429 1,171 2,523 1,269 3.2 1.5 3.3 1.6

Madison

386,888 395,337 384,189 394,822 12,577 5,658 12,008 5,591 3.3 1.4 3.1 1.4

Milwaukee-Waukesha-West Allis

803,240 811,066 791,895 807,693 40,309 18,028 36,669 18,123 5.0 2.2 4.6 2.2

Oshkosh-Neenah

91,341 94,061 91,152 93,770 3,066 1,472 3,010 1,496 3.4 1.6 3.3 1.6

Racine

96,863 97,324 96,354 97,309 4,816 2,280 4,674 2,383 5.0 2.3 4.9 2.4

Sheboygan

61,498 63,171 61,114 62,931 2,096 952 1,946 951 3.4 1.5 3.2 1.5

Wausau

72,179 73,892 72,186 73,644 2,295 1,085 2,273 1,135 3.2 1.5 3.1 1.5

Wyoming

294,827 291,339 292,809 290,223 14,238 6,976 15,512 6,852 4.8 2.4 5.3 2.4

Casper

41,188 39,381 40,551 38,855 2,753 1,210 2,948 1,210 6.7 3.1 7.3 3.1

Cheyenne

51,064 49,911 50,684 49,530 2,023 1,047 2,287 1,056 4.0 2.1 4.5 2.1

Puerto Rico

1,042,731 1,110,243 1,040,875 1,129,490 98,189 80,302 109,601 74,804 9.4 7.2 10.5 6.6

Aguadilla-Isabela

82,167 87,989 81,951 88,751 8,323 7,713 9,434 7,315 10.1 8.8 11.5 8.2

Arecibo

50,577 54,714 50,637 55,405 4,695 4,090 5,358 3,805 9.3 7.5 10.6 6.9

Guayama

18,962 20,206 19,010 20,610 1,771 1,568 2,087 1,494 9.3 7.8 11.0 7.2

Mayaguez

25,794 27,754 25,837 28,031 2,405 2,351 2,784 2,191 9.3 8.5 10.8 7.8

Ponce

87,335 93,395 87,505 94,852 8,802 8,617 10,091 8,125 10.1 9.2 11.5 8.6

San German

33,153 36,561 33,599 36,995 3,215 3,263 3,717 3,031 9.7 8.9 11.1 8.2

San Juan-Carolina-Caguas

704,488 745,594 701,947 760,559 64,826 48,432 71,236 44,810 9.2 6.5 10.1 5.9

Footnotes
(1) For operational reasons, these interstate areas are listed under the state that accounts for the larger share of the population, which is different from the state that contains the first principal city.
(2) The area boundary does not reflect the Office of Management and Budget delineation.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data refer to place of residence. Data for Puerto Rico are derived from a monthly household survey similar to the Current Population Survey. Area delineations are based on Office of Management and Budget Bulletin No. 18-03, dated April 10, 2018, and are available on the BLS website at https://www.bls.gov/lau/lausmsa.htm. Areas in the six New England states are Metropolitan New England City and Town Areas (NECTAs), while areas in other states are county-based. Some metropolitan areas lie in two or more states. They are listed under the state containing the first principal city, unless otherwise footnoted. Estimates for the latest month are subject to revision the following month.


LABOR FORCE DATA
NOT SEASONALLY ADJUSTED

Table 2. Civilian labor force and unemployment by state, selected metropolitan area, and metropolitan division(1)
State, area, and division Civilian labor force Unemployed
November December Number Percent of labor force
2020 2021 2020 2021(p) November December November December
2020 2021 2020 2021(p) 2020 2021 2020 2021(p)

California

18,667,576 19,174,527 18,660,835 19,065,788 1,544,099 1,036,255 1,702,248 960,384 8.3 5.4 9.1 5.0

Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim

6,466,937 6,670,346 6,410,484 6,610,140 689,750 422,989 712,061 372,607 10.7 6.3 11.1 5.6

Anaheim-Santa Ana-Irvine

1,535,572 1,591,037 1,542,493 1,591,638 100,770 64,511 114,705 59,516 6.6 4.1 7.4 3.7

Los Angeles-Long Beach-Glendale

4,931,365 5,079,309 4,867,991 5,018,502 588,980 358,478 597,356 313,091 11.9 7.1 12.3 6.2

San Francisco-Oakland-Hayward

2,428,090 2,500,708 2,438,336 2,503,559 152,287 95,576 168,662 88,108 6.3 3.8 6.9 3.5

Oakland-Hayward-Berkeley

1,334,205 1,355,398 1,344,060 1,357,705 91,516 59,291 101,865 54,830 6.9 4.4 7.6 4.0

San Francisco-Redwood City-South San Francisco

965,068 1,010,390 966,070 1,012,179 54,451 32,334 59,665 29,671 5.6 3.2 6.2 2.9

San Rafael

128,817 134,920 128,206 133,675 6,320 3,951 7,132 3,607 4.9 2.9 5.6 2.7

District of Columbia

409,289 414,940 413,158 411,358 34,273 21,463 36,459 21,072 8.4 5.2 8.8 5.1

Washington-Arlington-Alexandria(2)

3,347,853 3,369,922 3,329,956 3,351,273 215,567 123,278 215,496 111,524 6.4 3.7 6.5 3.3

Silver Spring-Frederick-Rockville(3)

667,429 671,891 660,695 668,434 42,620 28,089 40,985 23,778 6.4 4.2 6.2 3.6

Washington-Arlington-Alexandria(2)

2,680,424 2,698,031 2,669,261 2,682,839 172,947 95,189 174,511 87,746 6.5 3.5 6.5 3.3

Florida

9,999,225 10,644,641 9,968,835 10,622,172 499,570 384,837 419,587 339,436 5.0 3.6 4.2 3.2

Miami-Fort Lauderdale-West Palm Beach

3,001,207 3,161,232 3,001,230 3,132,794 189,268 114,202 169,310 81,202 6.3 3.6 5.6 2.6

Fort Lauderdale-Pompano Beach-Deerfield Beach

995,849 1,056,540 989,486 1,055,251 51,503 40,258 41,249 38,152 5.2 3.8 4.2 3.6

Miami-Miami Beach-Kendall

1,298,144 1,349,949 1,301,119 1,317,306 106,956 47,276 103,260 17,827 8.2 3.5 7.9 1.4

West Palm Beach-Boca Raton-Delray Beach

707,214 754,743 710,625 760,237 30,809 26,668 24,801 25,223 4.4 3.5 3.5 3.3

Illinois

6,169,598 6,333,414 6,105,476 6,320,577 465,928 286,687 479,837 274,077 7.6 4.5 7.9 4.3

Chicago-Naperville-Elgin(2)

4,667,374 4,803,276 4,615,934 4,832,390 384,515 217,764 380,132 206,676 8.2 4.5 8.2 4.3

Chicago-Naperville-Arlington Heights

3,583,239 3,710,961 3,541,085 3,760,353 317,887 177,824 308,282 169,972 8.9 4.8 8.7 4.5

Elgin

307,223 314,008 305,217 307,974 19,386 13,473 22,328 13,423 6.3 4.3 7.3 4.4

Gary(3)

328,987 322,812 325,927 316,432 21,949 10,350 20,509 6,802 6.7 3.2 6.3 2.1

Lake County-Kenosha County(2)

447,925 455,495 443,705 447,631 25,293 16,117 29,013 16,479 5.6 3.5 6.5 3.7

Massachusetts

3,699,806 3,745,089 3,694,508 3,692,403 283,487 172,324 271,380 129,004 7.7 4.6 7.3 3.5

Boston-Cambridge-Nashua(2)

2,750,524 2,782,009 2,745,196 2,748,993 199,036 115,052 185,961 85,792 7.2 4.1 6.8 3.1

Boston-Cambridge-Newton

1,635,860 1,665,366 1,631,293 1,644,008 119,217 67,725 109,844 48,773 7.3 4.1 6.7 3.0

Brockton-Bridgewater-Easton

109,816 110,673 108,713 108,682 9,733 6,033 9,302 4,610 8.9 5.5 8.6 4.2

Framingham

157,600 160,581 158,190 159,041 10,370 5,653 9,646 4,108 6.6 3.5 6.1 2.6

Haverhill-Newburyport-Amesbury Town(2)

115,937 115,654 115,785 114,654 7,360 4,225 6,938 3,440 6.3 3.7 6.0 3.0

Lawrence-Methuen Town-Salem(2)

99,556 98,487 99,580 96,857 10,094 6,315 9,805 4,928 10.1 6.4 9.8 5.1

Lowell-Billerica-Chelmsford(2)

194,055 195,545 194,221 193,510 13,621 8,211 13,112 6,216 7.0 4.2 6.8 3.2

Lynn-Saugus-Marblehead

85,814 86,162 85,602 84,699 7,883 4,792 7,606 3,561 9.2 5.6 8.9 4.2

Nashua(2)

175,638 171,715 175,597 172,541 7,410 3,859 6,805 3,972 4.2 2.2 3.9 2.3

Peabody-Salem-Beverly

90,654 91,202 90,876 89,901 6,861 4,073 6,569 2,969 7.6 4.5 7.2 3.3

Taunton-Middleborough-Norton

85,594 86,624 85,339 85,100 6,487 4,166 6,334 3,215 7.6 4.8 7.4 3.8

Michigan

4,862,903 4,767,091 4,855,603 4,772,856 359,727 198,407 400,934 210,118 7.4 4.2 8.3 4.4

Detroit-Warren-Dearborn

2,129,060 2,096,446 2,135,505 2,107,229 201,243 79,273 219,701 90,701 9.5 3.8 10.3 4.3

Detroit-Dearborn-Livonia

812,266 789,654 813,306 797,267 97,759 38,335 102,957 42,906 12.0 4.9 12.7 5.4

Warren-Troy-Farmington Hills

1,316,795 1,306,792 1,322,197 1,309,963 103,484 40,938 116,743 47,796 7.9 3.1 8.8 3.6

New York

9,231,677 9,188,192 9,228,985 9,140,537 763,468 509,064 782,807 457,306 8.3 5.5 8.5 5.0

New York-Newark-Jersey City(2)

9,679,408 9,643,699 9,572,462 9,625,983 920,394 572,645 827,369 533,858 9.5 5.9 8.6 5.5

Dutchess County-Putnam County

191,685 184,569 190,823 184,126 10,192 6,370 10,430 4,749 5.3 3.5 5.5 2.6

Nassau County-Suffolk County

1,458,193 1,422,944 1,454,903 1,419,153 84,869 50,153 84,189 37,551 5.8 3.5 5.8 2.6

Newark(3)

1,222,219 1,203,305 1,189,950 1,210,979 119,363 63,736 87,288 59,629 9.8 5.3 7.3 4.9

New York-Jersey City-White Plains(2)

6,807,311 6,832,881 6,736,786 6,811,725 705,970 452,386 645,462 431,929 10.4 6.6 9.6 6.3

Pennsylvania

6,303,477 6,222,776 6,255,815 6,141,644 408,218 270,172 430,100 244,515 6.5 4.3 6.9 4.0

Philadelphia-Camden-Wilmington(2)

3,068,315 3,055,130 3,030,074 3,036,469 223,579 140,075 209,067 127,743 7.3 4.6 6.9 4.2

Camden(3)

639,447 642,680 624,459 647,480 57,296 31,900 42,247 30,101 9.0 5.0 6.8 4.6

Montgomery County-Bucks County-Chester County

1,052,321 1,050,952 1,042,703 1,040,912 53,699 34,582 54,531 30,817 5.1 3.3 5.2 3.0

Philadelphia

997,203 975,806 984,461 961,709 91,424 57,805 90,079 50,748 9.2 5.9 9.2 5.3

Wilmington(3)

379,344 385,692 378,451 386,368 21,160 15,788 22,210 16,077 5.6 4.1 5.9 4.2

Texas

14,050,100 14,429,974 14,139,874 14,398,693 973,462 654,763 948,550 612,738 6.9 4.5 6.7 4.3

Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington

4,033,726 4,190,324 4,067,969 4,182,204 250,161 165,436 242,265 152,125 6.2 3.9 6.0 3.6

Dallas-Plano-Irving

2,717,286 2,833,053 2,742,934 2,825,340 166,885 110,724 161,553 101,763 6.1 3.9 5.9 3.6

Fort Worth-Arlington

1,316,440 1,357,271 1,325,035 1,356,864 83,276 54,712 80,712 50,362 6.3 4.0 6.1 3.7

Washington

3,857,075 3,941,030 3,830,175 3,975,042 249,679 139,929 251,637 150,810 6.5 3.6 6.6 3.8

Seattle-Tacoma-Bellevue

2,172,706 2,177,687 2,153,175 2,214,698 136,941 72,222 134,540 77,258 6.3 3.3 6.2 3.5

Seattle-Bellevue-Everett

1,735,724 1,728,370 1,722,800 1,762,959 105,081 54,023 103,497 58,518 6.1 3.1 6.0 3.3

Tacoma-Lakewood

436,982 449,317 430,375 451,739 31,860 18,199 31,043 18,740 7.3 4.1 7.2 4.1

Footnotes
(1) These 11 areas contain all of the 38 metropolitan divisions.
(2) Part of the area (or division) is in one or more adjacent states.
(3) All of the division is in one or more adjacent states.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data refer to place of residence. Area delineations are based on Office of Management and Budget Bulletin No. 18-03, dated April 10, 2018, and are available on the BLS website at https://www.bls.gov/lau/lausmsa.htm. Areas in the six New England states are Metropolitan New England City and Town Areas (NECTAs), while areas in other states are county-based. Some metropolitan areas lie in two or more states. They are listed under the state containing the first principal city. Metropolitan divisions are listed under their metropolitan areas. Some divisions lie in more than one state, and some, like Camden, NJ, are totally outside the states under which their metropolitan areas are listed. For Washington-Arlington-Alexandria, DC-VA-MD-WV, the metropolitan area and division titles are identical. Estimates for the latest month are subject to revision the following month.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
NOT SEASONALLY ADJUSTED
Table 3. Employees on nonfarm payrolls by state and metropolitan area, not seasonally adjusted
[In thousands]
State and area November December Change from
December 2020 to December 2021(p)
2020 2021 2020 2021(p) Number Percent

Alabama

2,022.8 2,074.3 2,021.8 2,070.2 48.4 2.4

Anniston-Oxford-Jacksonville

46.1 46.7 46.1 46.8 0.7 1.5

Auburn-Opelika

66.9 68.0 67.0 67.6 0.6 0.9

Birmingham-Hoover

529.3 551.1 530.6 550.2 19.6 3.7

Daphne-Fairhope-Foley

75.9 83.0 76.6 83.5 6.9 9.0

Decatur

57.3 58.4 57.7 58.8 1.1 1.9

Dothan

58.5 60.5 58.9 61.1 2.2 3.7

Florence-Muscle Shoals

56.0 57.3 55.8 56.8 1.0 1.8

Gadsden

34.3 34.4 34.5 34.3 -0.2 -0.6

Huntsville

246.0 252.8 246.7 252.4 5.7 2.3

Mobile

181.3 183.7 181.7 182.9 1.2 0.7

Montgomery

171.2