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Economic News Release
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Metropolitan Area Employment and Unemployment (Monthly) News Release

For release 10:00 a.m. (ET) Wednesday, February 3, 2021			      USDL-21-0156

Technical information:
 Employment:		sminfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/sae
 Unemployment:		lausinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/lau
	
Media contact:		(202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov


	METROPOLITAN AREA EMPLOYMENT AND UNEMPLOYMENT -- DECEMBER 2020


Unemployment rates were higher in December than a year earlier in 379 of the 389 
metropolitan areas, lower in 7 areas, and unchanged in 3 areas, the U.S. Bureau of 
Labor Statistics reported today. A total of 51 areas had jobless rates of less than 
4.0 percent, and 20 areas had rates of at least 10.0 percent. Nonfarm payroll 
employment decreased over the year in 232 metropolitan areas, increased in 2 areas,
and was essentially unchanged in 155 areas. The national unemployment rate in 
December was 6.5 percent, not seasonally adjusted, up from 3.4 percent a year 
earlier.

This news release presents statistics from two monthly programs. The civilian labor
force and unemployment data are based on the same concepts and definitions as those 
used for the national household survey estimates. These data pertain to individuals
by where they reside. The employment data are from an establishment survey that 
measures nonfarm employment, hours, and earnings by industry. These data pertain to
jobs on payrolls defined by where the establishments are located. For more 
information about the concepts and statistical methodologies used by these two
programs, see the Technical Note.

Metropolitan Area Unemployment (Not Seasonally Adjusted)

In December, El Centro, CA, had the highest unemployment rate, 17.7 percent. Ames, 
IA, had the lowest unemployment rate, 2.1 percent. A total of 265 areas had December
jobless rates below the U.S. rate of 6.5 percent, 114 areas had rates above it, and 
10 areas had rates equal to that of the nation. (See table 1.)

The largest over-the-year unemployment rate increase in December occurred in Kahului-
Wailuku-Lahaina, HI (+10.8 percentage points). Rates rose over the year by at least 
5.0 percentage points in an additional 24 areas. The largest over-the-year rate 
decrease occurred in Yuma, AZ (-1.9 percentage points).

Of the 51 metropolitan areas with a 2010 Census population of 1 million or more, Las 
Vegas-Henderson-Paradise, NV, and Detroit-Warren-Dearborn, MI, had the highest 
unemployment rates in December, 10.4 percent and 10.1 percent, respectively. 
Birmingham-Hoover, AL, and Salt Lake City, UT, had the lowest jobless rates among the
large areas, 3.5 percent each. All 51 large areas had over-the-year unemployment rate
increases, the largest of which was in Las Vegas-Henderson-Paradise, NV (+6.9 
percentage points). The smallest rate increase from a year earlier occurred in 
Birmingham-Hoover, AL (+1.3 percentage points).

Metropolitan Division Unemployment (Not Seasonally Adjusted)

Eleven of the most populous metropolitan areas are made up of 38 metropolitan 
divisions, which are essentially separately identifiable employment centers. In 
December, Detroit-Dearborn-Livonia, MI, had the highest unemployment rate among the 
divisions, 12.4 percent. Nashua, NH-MA, had the lowest division rate, 3.9 percent.
(See table 2.)

In December, all 38 metropolitan divisions had over-the-year unemployment rate 
increases, the largest of which was in Detroit-Dearborn-Livonia, MI (+7.9 
percentage points). The smallest rate increase occurred in Gary, IN (+1.3 percentage
points).

Metropolitan Area Nonfarm Employment (Not Seasonally Adjusted)

In December, 232 metropolitan areas had over-the-year decreases in nonfarm payroll 
employment, 2 had increases, and 155 were essentially unchanged. The largest over-the-
year employment decreases occurred in New York-Newark-Jersey City, NY-NJ-PA 
(-1,015,900), Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim, CA (-561,800), and Chicago-Naperville-
Elgin, IL-IN-WI (-350,600). The largest over-the-year percentage losses in employment
occurred in Kahului-Wailuku-Lahaina, HI (-22.4 percent), Monroe, MI (-16.4 percent), 
and Flagstaff, AZ (-15.1 percent). Over-the-year increases in employment occurred in 
Ogden-Clearfield, UT (+8,100, or +3.0 percent), and Idaho Falls, ID (+3,100, or +4.9 
percent). (See table 3.)

Over the year, nonfarm employment declined in 48 metropolitan areas with a 2010 Census
population of 1 million or more, while employment was essentially unchanged in 3 areas.
The largest over-the-year percentage decreases in employment in these large metropolitan
areas occurred in Detroit-Warren-Dearborn, MI (-10.9 percent), and New York-Newark-
Jersey City, NY-NJ-PA, and Rochester, NY (-10.0 percent each).

Metropolitan Division Nonfarm Employment (Not Seasonally Adjusted)

In December, nonfarm payroll employment decreased in all of the 38 metropolitan 
divisions over the year. The largest over-the-year decrease in employment among the
metropolitan divisions occurred in New York-Jersey City-White Plains, NY-NJ 
(-772,600), followed by Los Angeles-Long Beach-Glendale, CA (-419,100), and Chicago-
Naperville-Arlington Heights, IL (-284,800). (See table 4.)

The largest over-the-year percentage decreases in employment occurred in Detroit-
Dearborn-Livonia, MI (-11.9 percent), Brockton-Bridgewater-Easton, MA (-11.7 
percent), and New York-Jersey City-White Plains, NY-NJ (-10.5 percent).

_____________
The Regional and State Unemployment 2020 Annual Averages news release is scheduled
to be released on Wednesday, March 3, 2021, at 10:00 a.m. (ET). The State 
Employment and Unemployment news release for January 2021 is scheduled to be 
released on Monday, March 15, 2021, at 10:00 a.m. (ET). The Metropolitan Area 
Employment and Unemployment news release for January 2021 is scheduled to be 
released on Friday, March 19, 2021, at 10:00 a.m. (ET).


 _______________________________________________________________________________________
|											|
|		Coronavirus (COVID-19) Pandemic Impact on December 2020			|
|			Establishment and Household Survey Data				|
|											|
| BLS has continued to review all estimation and methodological procedures for the 	|
| establishment survey, which included the review of data, estimation processes, the 	|
| application of the birth-death model, and seasonal adjustment. Business births and 	|
| deaths cannot be adequately captured by the establishment survey as they occur. 	|
| Therefore, the Current Employment Statistics (CES) program uses a model to account 	|
| for the relatively stable net employment change generated by business births and 	|
| deaths. Due to the impact of COVID-19, the relationship between business births and 	|
| deaths is no longer stable. Typically, reports with zero employment are not included 	|
| in estimation. For the November final and December preliminary estimates, CES 	|
| included a portion of these reports in the estimates and made modifications to the 	|
| birth-death model. In addition for both months, the establishment survey included a 	|
| portion of the reports that returned to reporting positive employment from reporting 	|
| zero employment. For more information, see www.bls.gov/web/empsit/cesbd.htm.		|
|											|
| In the establishment survey, workers who are paid by their employer for all or any 	|
| part of the pay period including the 12th of the month are counted as employed, even  |
| if they were not actually at their jobs. Workers who are temporarily or permanently 	|
| absent from their jobs and are not being paid are not counted as employed, even if 	|
| they are continuing to receive benefits. The length of the reference period does vary |
| across the respondents in the establishment survey; one-third of businesses have a 	|
| weekly pay period, slightly over 40 percent a bi-weekly, about 20 percent semi-	|
| monthly, and a small amount monthly.							|
|											|
| For the December 2020 estimates of household employment and unemployment from the 	|
| Local Area Unemployment Statistics (LAUS) program, BLS continued to implement level-	|
| shift outliers in the employment and/or unemployment inputs to the state models, 	|
| based on statistical evaluation of movements in each area's inputs. Both the Current  |
| Population Survey inputs, which serve as the primary inputs to the LAUS models, and 	|
| the nonfarm payroll employment and unemployment insurance claims covariates were 	|
| examined for outliers. The resulting implementation of level shifts preserved 	|
| movements in the published estimates that the models otherwise would have discounted, |
| without requiring changes to how the models create estimates at other points in the 	|
| time series.										|
|											|
| The "Frequently asked questions" document at 						|
| www.bls.gov/covid19/employment-situation-covid19-faq-december-2020.htm extensively 	|
| discusses the impact of a misclassification in the household survey on the national 	|
| estimates for December 2020. Despite the considerable decline in its degree relative 	|
| to prior months, this misclassification continued to be widespread geographically, 	|
| with BLS analysis indicating that most states again were affected to at least some 	|
| extent. However, according to usual practice, the data from the household survey are 	|
| accepted as recorded. To maintain data integrity, no ad hoc actions are taken to 	|
| reclassify survey responses. Hence, the household survey estimates of employed and 	|
| unemployed people that serve as the primary inputs to the state models were affected 	|
| to varying degrees by the misclassification, which in turn affected the official LAUS |
| estimates for December 2020. Similar misclassifications had occurred in the household |
| survey from March through November (see www.bls.gov/covid19/effects-of-covid-19-	|
| pandemic-and-response-on-the-employment-situation-news-release.htm#summaries).	|
|											|
| Household data for substate areas are controlled to the employment and unemployment 	|
| totals for their respective model-based areas. Hence, the preliminary December and 	|
| revised November estimates for substate areas reflect the use of level-shift 		|
| outliers, where implemented, in the inputs for their model-based control areas. The 	|
| substate area estimates for both months also were impacted by misclassification in 	|
| the household survey, in proportion to the impacts of the misclassifications on the	|
| data for their model-based control areas.						|
|											|
| Household data for Puerto Rico are not modeled, but rather are derived from a monthly |
| household survey similar to the Current Population Survey. The Puerto Rico Department |
| of Labor has reported a misclassification in its household survey since May 2020 	|
| similar in nature to the misclassification in the Current Population Survey, which 	|
| has affected the local area data proportionally.					|
|_______________________________________________________________________________________|


 _______________________________________________________________________________________
|											|
|              Upcoming Changes to Local Area Unemployment Statistics Data              |
|											|
| Effective with the issuance of Regional and State Unemployment 2020 Annual Averages 	|
| on March 3, 2021, the civilian labor force and unemployment data for census regions 	|
| and divisions and all states, the District of Columbia, and the modeled substate 	|
| areas presented in tables 1 and 2 of this news release will be replaced with data 	|
| produced using a new generation of time-series models. At that time, revised model-	|
| based estimates will be loaded into the BLS time-series database back to the series 	|
| beginnings in 1976, 1990, or 1994. Both seasonally adjusted and not seasonally 	|
| adjusted data will be affected. More information is available in the "Questions and 	|
| Answers on Upcoming Changes to Model-Based Estimation" on the BLS website at 		|
| www.bls.gov/lau/gen-5-changes-in-2021.htm. The revisions to model-based data at the 	|
| state level and below for 2019 and 2020 also will incorporate updated estimation 	|
| inputs, while the revisions for all model-based data from April 2010 forward also 	|
| will reflect new population controls from the U.S. Census Bureau.			|
|											|
| Data for non-modeled substate areas, including the non-modeled metropolitan areas and |
| metropolitan divisions presented in tables 1 and 2 of this news release, subsequently |
| will be updated in the BLS time-series database in two phases. First, on March 19, 	|
| 2021, historical data through December 2009 will be adjusted to the new totals for 	|
| model-based areas. Second, on April 16, 2021, data from January 2010 through December |
| 2020 will be revised to reflect updated estimation inputs and adjustment to the new 	|
| totals for model-based areas.								|
|_______________________________________________________________________________________|


 _______________________________________________________________________________________
|											|
|                 Upcoming Changes to Current Employment Statistics Data                |
|											|
| Effective with the release of January 2021 estimates on March 15, 2021, all nonfarm 	|
| payroll employment estimates for states and areas presented in tables 3 and 4 of this |
| news release will be adjusted to 2020 benchmark levels. Not seasonally adjusted data  |
| beginning with April 2019 and seasonally adjusted data beginning with January 2016 	|
| are subject to revision. Some not seasonally adjusted and seasonally adjusted series  |
| may be revised as far back as 1990.							|
|_______________________________________________________________________________________|




Technical Note
 
   Special technical note: This technical note describes the procedures regularly
used on a monthly basis to develop estimates from the CES survey and the LAUS
program. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, some of the procedures described in this
technical note have been modified. The modifications are briefly described in the
box note of this news release. More information on the changes to the CES business
birth-death model is available at www.bls.gov/web/empsit/cesbd.htm.
   
   This news release presents civilian labor force and unemployment data from the
Local Area Unemployment Statistics (LAUS) program (tables 1 and 2) for 389
metropolitan statistical areas and metropolitan New England City and Town Areas
(NECTAs), plus 7 areas in Puerto Rico. Estimates for 38 metropolitan and NECTA
divisions also are presented. Nonfarm payroll employment estimates from the
Current Employment Statistics (CES) program (tables 3 and 4) are provided for
the same areas. State estimates were previously published in the news release
State Employment and Unemployment, and are republished in this news release for
ease of reference. The LAUS and CES programs are both federal-state cooperative
endeavors.

Civilian labor force and unemployment--from the LAUS program

   Definitions. The civilian labor force and unemployment data are based on the
same concepts and definitions as those used for the official national estimates
obtained from the Current Population Survey (CPS), a sample survey of households
that is conducted for the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) by the U.S. Census
Bureau. The LAUS program measures employed persons and unemployed persons on a
place-of-residence basis.  The universe for each is the civilian noninstitutional
population 16 years of age and older. Employed persons are those who did any work
at all for pay or profit in the reference week (typically the week including the
12th of the month) or worked 15 hours or more without pay in a family business or
farm, plus those not working who had a job from which they were temporarily absent,
whether or not paid, for such reasons as labor-management dispute, illness, or
vacation. Unemployed persons are those who were not employed during the reference
week (based on the definition above), had actively looked for a job sometime in the
4-week period ending with the reference week, and were currently available for work;
persons on layoff expecting recall need not be looking for work to be counted as
unemployed. The civilian labor force is the sum of employed and unemployed persons.
The unemployment rate is the number of unemployed as a percent of the civilian labor
force.

   Method of estimation. Estimates for states, the District of Columbia, the Los
Angeles-Long Beach-Glendale metropolitan division, and New York City are produced
using time-series models with real-time benchmarking to national CPS totals. Model-
based estimates are also produced for the following areas and their respective
balances: the Chicago-Naperville-Arlington Heights, IL Metropolitan Division;
Cleveland-Elyria, OH Metropolitan Statistical Area; Detroit-Warren-Dearborn, MI
Metropolitan Statistical Area; Miami-Miami Beach-Kendall, FL Metropolitan Division;
and Seattle-Bellevue-Everett, WA Metropolitan Division. Modeling improves the
statistical basis of the estimation for these areas and provides important tools
for analysis, such as measures of errors and seasonally adjusted series. For all
other substate areas in this news release, estimates are prepared through indirect
estimation procedures using a building-block approach.  Estimates of employed
persons, which are based largely on “place of work” estimates from the CES program,
are adjusted to refer to place of residence as used in the CPS. Unemployment
estimates are aggregates of persons previously employed in industries covered by
state unemployment insurance (UI) laws and entrants to the labor force from the
CPS. The substate estimates of employment and unemployment, which geographically
exhaust the entire state, are adjusted proportionally to ensure that they add to
the independently estimated model-based area totals. A detailed description of the
estimation procedures is available from BLS upon request.

   Annual revisions. Civilian labor force and unemployment data shown for the prior
year reflect adjustments made at the beginning of each year, usually implemented with
the issuance of January estimates. The adjusted model-based estimates typically reflect
updated population data from the U.S. Census Bureau, any revisions in other input
data sources, and model re-estimation. All substate estimates then are re-estimated
using updated inputs and adjusted to add to the revised model-based totals.  In early
2015, a new generation of time-series models was implemented, resulting in the
replacement of data back to the series beginnings. At the same time, enhancements were
made to the substate estimation methodology, and more timely inputs from the American
Community Survey were incorporated.

Employment--from the CES program 

   Definitions. Employment data refer to persons on establishment payrolls who receive
pay for any part of the pay period that includes the 12th of the month. Persons are
counted at their place of work rather than at their place of residence; those appearing
on more than one payroll are counted on each payroll. Industries are classified on the
basis of their principal activity in accordance with the 2017 version of the North
American Industry Classification System.

   Method of estimation. CES State and Area employment data are produced using several
estimation procedures. Where possible these data are produced using a "weighted link
relative" estimation technique in which a ratio of current-month weighted employment
to that of the previous-month weighted employment is computed from a sample of
establishments reporting for both months. The estimates of employment for the current
month are then obtained by multiplying these ratios by the previous month's employment
estimates. The weighted link relative technique is utilized for data series where the
sample size meets certain statistical criteria.

   For some employment series, the sample of establishments is very small or highly
variable. In these cases, a model-based approach is used in estimation. These models
use the direct sample estimates (described above), combined with forecasts of historical
(benchmarked) data to decrease volatility in estimation. Two different models
(Fay-Herriot Model and Small Domain Model) are used depending on the industry level
being estimated. For more detailed information about each model, refer to the BLS
Handbook of Methods.

   Annual revisions.  Employment estimates are adjusted annually to a complete count
of jobs, called benchmarks, derived principally from tax reports that are submitted by
employers who are covered under state unemployment insurance (UI) laws. The benchmark
information is used to adjust the monthly estimates between the new benchmark and the
preceding one and also to establish the level of employment for the new benchmark month.
Thus, the benchmarking process establishes the level of employment, and the sample is used
to measure the month-to-month changes in the level for the subsequent months.

   Seasonal adjustment. Payroll employment data are seasonally adjusted for states,
metropolitan areas, and metropolitan divisions at the total nonfarm level. For states,
data are seasonally adjusted at the supersector level as well. Revisions to historical
data for the most recent 5 years are made once a year, coincident with annual benchmark
adjustments.

   Payroll employment data are seasonally adjusted concurrently, using all available
estimates including those for the current month, to develop sample-based seasonal factors.
Concurrent sample-based factors are created every month for the current month's preliminary
estimate as well as the previous month's final estimate in order to incorporate real-time
estimates. 

Reliability of the estimates

   The estimates presented in this news release are based on sample surveys, administrative data,
and modeling and, thus, are subject to sampling and other types of errors. Sampling error
is a measure of sampling variability—that is, variation that occurs by chance because a
sample rather than the entire population is surveyed. Survey data also are subject to
nonsampling errors, such as those which can be introduced into the data collection and
processing operations. Estimates not directly derived from sample surveys are subject to
additional errors resulting from the specific estimation processes used. The sums of
individual items may not always equal the totals shown in the same tables because of
rounding.

Use of error measures

   Civilian labor force and unemployment estimates. Measures of sampling error are not
available for metropolitan areas or metropolitan divisions. Model-based error measures for
states are available on the BLS website at www.bls.gov/laus/lastderr.htm. Measures of
nonsampling error are not available for the areas contained in this news release. Information
on recent data revisions for states and local areas is available online at
www.bls.gov/lau/launews1.htm.

   Employment estimates. Changes in metropolitan area nonfarm payroll employment are cited
in the analysis of this news release only if they have been determined to be statistically
significant at the 90-percent confidence level.  Measures of sampling error for the total
nonfarm employment series are available for metropolitan areas and metropolitan divisions
at www.bls.gov/web/laus/790stderr.htm. Measures of sampling error for more detailed series
at the area and division level are available upon request. Measures of sampling error for
states  at the supersector level and for the private service-providing, goods-producing,
total private and total nonfarm levels are available on the BLS website at 
www.bls.gov/web/laus/790stderr.htm. Information on recent benchmark revisions
is available online at www.bls.gov/web/laus/benchmark.pdf.

Area definitions

   The substate area data published in this news release reflect the delineations issued by the
U.S. Office of Management and Budget on April 10, 2018. Data reflect New England City and
Town Area (NECTA) definitions, rather than county-based definitions, in the six New England
States. A detailed list of the geographic definitions is available online at
www.bls.gov/lau/lausmsa.htm.

Additional information

   Estimates of unadjusted and seasonally adjusted civilian labor force and unemployment
data for states and seven substate areas are available in the news release State Employment
and Unemployment. Estimates of civilian labor force and unemployment for all states,
metropolitan areas, counties, cities with a population of 25,000 or more, and other areas
used in the administration of various federal economic assistance programs are available
on the Internet at www.bls.gov/lau/. Employment data from the CES program are available on
the BLS website at www.bls.gov/sae/.

   Information in this news release will be made available to sensory impaired individuals
upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay Service: (800) 877-8339. 




LABOR FORCE DATA
NOT SEASONALLY ADJUSTED

Table 1. Civilian labor force and unemployment by state and metropolitan area
State and area Civilian labor force Unemployed
November December Number Percent of labor force
2019 2020 2019 2020(p) November December November December
2019 2020 2019 2020(p) 2019 2020 2019 2020(p)

Alabama

2,249,775 2,260,561 2,247,379 2,233,124 54,861 90,187 56,967 82,601 2.4 4.0 2.5 3.7

Anniston-Oxford-Jacksonville

46,408 44,578 46,320 44,289 1,332 2,116 1,390 1,964 2.9 4.7 3.0 4.4

Auburn-Opelika

78,204 76,026 77,615 75,408 1,706 2,568 1,717 2,298 2.2 3.4 2.2 3.0

Birmingham-Hoover

557,869 548,665 559,808 543,586 12,270 21,015 12,552 19,074 2.2 3.8 2.2 3.5

Daphne-Fairhope-Foley

96,603 92,160 95,993 91,638 2,198 3,415 2,304 3,112 2.3 3.7 2.4 3.4

Decatur

73,115 71,521 72,844 70,864 1,611 2,214 1,654 2,040 2.2 3.1 2.3 2.9

Dothan

64,230 63,562 64,227 63,249 1,582 2,428 1,627 2,213 2.5 3.8 2.5 3.5

Florence-Muscle Shoals

66,387 65,319 65,831 63,874 1,802 2,321 1,991 2,129 2.7 3.6 3.0 3.3

Gadsden

42,785 41,023 42,804 40,673 1,163 1,891 1,213 1,708 2.7 4.6 2.8 4.2

Huntsville

231,135 227,873 229,898 224,806 4,756 7,090 4,870 6,365 2.1 3.1 2.1 2.8

Mobile

189,712 186,964 189,207 184,298 5,690 10,828 6,076 10,085 3.0 5.8 3.2 5.5

Montgomery

172,696 170,201 172,909 167,929 4,256 8,891 4,422 8,135 2.5 5.2 2.6 4.8

Tuscaloosa

121,064 118,832 120,183 116,579 2,748 5,187 2,763 4,731 2.3 4.4 2.3 4.1

Alaska

343,483 346,092 341,670 343,753 20,910 22,042 20,866 20,481 6.1 6.4 6.1 6.0

Anchorage

195,228 198,896 195,036 197,957 10,368 12,189 10,240 11,199 5.3 6.1 5.3 5.7

Fairbanks

44,677 45,133 44,329 44,984 2,376 2,246 2,344 2,054 5.3 5.0 5.3 4.6

Arizona

3,615,186 3,578,897 3,611,711 3,567,761 154,572 276,261 152,154 259,221 4.3 7.7 4.2 7.3

Flagstaff

78,173 69,137 77,257 68,305 3,710 6,702 4,225 6,584 4.7 9.7 5.5 9.6

Lake Havasu City-Kingman

88,701 86,303 88,387 85,783 4,689 7,596 4,707 7,166 5.3 8.8 5.3 8.4

Phoenix-Mesa-Scottsdale

2,548,538 2,537,263 2,548,680 2,536,430 94,318 186,676 92,555 175,193 3.7 7.4 3.6 6.9

Prescott

108,301 108,841 107,107 107,694 4,478 7,371 4,293 7,002 4.1 6.8 4.0 6.5

Sierra Vista-Douglas

51,708 51,669 51,388 51,269 2,710 3,367 2,690 3,277 5.2 6.5 5.2 6.4

Tucson

504,426 498,372 504,172 497,081 20,493 38,474 20,263 36,716 4.1 7.7 4.0 7.4

Yuma

102,376 96,947 101,964 92,162 15,592 13,824 14,581 11,461 15.2 14.3 14.3 12.4

Arkansas

1,361,974 1,318,179 1,355,941 1,349,863 41,816 76,825 45,725 54,497 3.1 5.8 3.4 4.0

Fayetteville-Springdale-Rogers

283,345 276,826 281,513 284,148 6,220 12,000 6,594 8,677 2.2 4.3 2.3 3.1

Fort Smith

119,034 115,675 118,116 116,217 3,947 6,845 4,160 5,165 3.3 5.9 3.5 4.4

Hot Springs

40,659 40,519 40,408 41,296 1,324 3,018 1,400 2,097 3.3 7.4 3.5 5.1

Jonesboro

66,690 66,391 66,308 67,980 1,596 3,154 1,752 2,211 2.4 4.8 2.6 3.3

Little Rock-North Little Rock-Conway

357,079 339,382 354,854 348,009 10,244 21,757 11,060 14,985 2.9 6.4 3.1 4.3

Pine Bluff

34,794 33,238 34,617 33,664 1,611 2,739 1,738 1,962 4.6 8.2 5.0 5.8

California

19,534,610 18,938,160 19,470,116 18,916,444 718,032 1,495,691 711,206 1,669,625 3.7 7.9 3.7 8.8

Bakersfield

395,137 370,187 389,804 377,530 25,238 34,709 27,651 42,626 6.4 9.4 7.1 11.3

Chico

99,254 93,288 98,635 93,837 4,172 6,330 4,293 7,695 4.2 6.8 4.4 8.2

El Centro

72,396 65,826 71,883 67,125 13,506 10,673 12,261 11,868 18.7 16.2 17.1 17.7

Fresno

448,416 440,520 449,548 445,484 29,945 37,619 31,159 46,231 6.7 8.5 6.9 10.4

Hanford-Corcoran

57,402 54,769 57,722 56,006 4,157 4,824 4,440 6,151 7.2 8.8 7.7 11.0

Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim

6,807,214 6,592,637 6,789,326 6,494,897 255,515 635,157 246,208 640,692 3.8 9.6 3.6 9.9

Madera

60,686 59,928 61,963 61,480 3,757 4,837 4,160 6,075 6.2 8.1 6.7 9.9

Merced

115,475 111,958 114,943 113,559 7,734 10,108 9,069 13,055 6.7 9.0 7.9 11.5

Modesto

243,932 234,915 242,518 235,114 12,853 19,356 13,505 23,392 5.3 8.2 5.6 9.9

Napa

73,640 71,141 71,939 71,100 1,920 4,278 2,056 5,181 2.6 6.0 2.9 7.3

Oxnard-Thousand Oaks-Ventura

425,979 412,507 424,525 413,838 14,679 25,946 14,233 31,120 3.4 6.3 3.4 7.5

Redding

74,708 72,945 74,102 73,407 2,973 4,762 3,074 5,893 4.0 6.5 4.1 8.0

Riverside-San Bernardino-Ontario

2,095,092 2,068,819 2,087,383 2,086,402 77,264 162,594 72,781 190,393 3.7 7.9 3.5 9.1

Sacramento--Roseville--Arden-Arcade

1,105,018 1,088,691 1,104,616 1,096,884 35,800 72,790 34,996 86,419 3.2 6.7 3.2 7.9

Salinas

219,427 188,744 210,947 188,730 10,271 14,467 15,284 21,512 4.7 7.7 7.2 11.4

San Diego-Carlsbad

1,600,077 1,581,723 1,597,099 1,593,875 46,727 105,010 44,242 127,414 2.9 6.6 2.8 8.0

San Francisco-Oakland-Hayward

2,606,601 2,501,158 2,601,889 2,510,304 61,892 153,215 58,324 175,014 2.4 6.1 2.2 7.0

San Jose-Sunnyvale-Santa Clara

1,090,607 1,072,653 1,090,183 1,071,686 25,860 55,251 24,556 64,617 2.4 5.2 2.3 6.0

San Luis Obispo-Paso Robles-Arroyo Grande

142,044 131,451 139,351 131,722 3,634 7,196 3,534 8,880 2.6 5.5 2.5 6.7

Santa Cruz-Watsonville

141,792 127,632 139,049 127,572 5,643 8,626 6,606 10,834 4.0 6.8 4.8 8.5

Santa Maria-Santa Barbara

218,458 213,227 214,976 211,515 6,989 12,372 7,682 16,055 3.2 5.8 3.6 7.6

Santa Rosa

260,583 250,429 259,689 250,632 6,305 13,787 6,114 16,192 2.4 5.5 2.4 6.5

Stockton-Lodi

325,674 321,880 325,993 325,459 17,551 28,861 18,348 34,654 5.4 9.0 5.6 10.6

Vallejo-Fairfield

210,399 203,564 209,564 206,099 7,026 15,287 6,957 18,201 3.3 7.5 3.3 8.8

Visalia-Porterville

203,387 192,218 202,541 194,072 17,605 18,693 18,889 22,862 8.7 9.7 9.3 11.8

Yuba City

76,823 69,520 77,036 70,494 4,357 6,013 5,015 7,533 5.7 8.6 6.5 10.7

Colorado

3,178,357 3,171,032 3,176,471 3,204,625 74,970 196,649 74,703 264,285 2.4 6.2 2.4 8.2

Boulder

198,526 194,958 197,746 194,238 3,955 9,892 3,907 13,360 2.0 5.1 2.0 6.9

Colorado Springs

359,210 363,813 356,603 365,426 10,038 21,906 9,922 31,485 2.8 6.0 2.8 8.6

Denver-Aurora-Lakewood

1,690,044 1,715,177 1,688,220 1,720,681 38,272 109,876 38,167 145,398 2.3 6.4 2.3 8.5

Fort Collins

211,387 205,877 209,156 205,612 4,145 10,667 4,153 15,318 2.0 5.2 2.0 7.4

Grand Junction

76,804 79,580 76,241 79,880 2,161 4,817 2,374 6,536 2.8 6.1 3.1 8.2

Greeley

173,704 171,808 172,545 174,099 3,801 11,042 3,890 14,501 2.2 6.4 2.3 8.3

Pueblo

77,322 79,093 76,594 79,911 2,701 6,595 2,734 9,025 3.5 8.3 3.6 11.3

Connecticut

1,927,932 1,886,051 1,920,196 1,868,773 62,775 145,522 61,837 139,902 3.3 7.7 3.2 7.5

Bridgeport-Stamford-Norwalk

469,897 452,116 468,000 446,116 15,571 36,193 15,014 34,024 3.3 8.0 3.2 7.6

Danbury

107,876 104,582 107,427 103,051 2,917 6,944 2,940 6,563 2.7 6.6 2.7 6.4

Hartford-West Hartford-East Hartford

634,432 630,688 632,603 626,511 20,730 47,366 20,720 46,200 3.3 7.5 3.3 7.4

New Haven

333,337 329,391 331,537 326,637 10,507 24,423 10,080 23,346 3.2 7.4 3.0 7.1

Norwich-New London-Westerly

142,720 137,481 141,816 136,708 4,600 12,002 4,536 11,565 3.2 8.7 3.2 8.5

Waterbury

112,691 109,443 112,515 109,048 4,549 9,997 4,608 9,899 4.0 9.1 4.1 9.1

Delaware

488,408 480,897 488,289 477,702 17,290 22,373 17,300 23,075 3.5 4.7 3.5 4.8

Dover

80,546 80,369 80,327 80,706 3,030 3,973 2,986 4,164 3.8 4.9 3.7 5.2

Salisbury(1)

190,382 183,555 191,544 182,717 8,735 10,444 9,436 10,887 4.6 5.7 4.9 6.0

District of Columbia

412,346 397,117 411,233 413,304 20,781 28,919 20,426 31,477 5.0 7.3 5.0 7.6

Washington-Arlington-Alexandria

3,494,549 3,364,918 3,478,905 3,362,850 96,701 195,545 91,336 187,136 2.8 5.8 2.6 5.6

Florida

10,411,499 10,092,127 10,397,884 10,093,945 283,039 621,086 264,725 586,855 2.7 6.2 2.5 5.8

Cape Coral-Fort Myers

352,406 344,692 353,248 344,421 9,848 18,546 9,174 17,420 2.8 5.4 2.6 5.1

Crestview-Fort Walton Beach-Destin

127,755 123,782 125,552 123,895 3,150 5,107 2,996 5,183 2.5 4.1 2.4 4.2

Deltona-Daytona Beach-Ormond Beach

302,269 296,052 301,361 296,747 9,666 17,255 9,122 16,702 3.2 5.8 3.0 5.6

Gainesville

148,873 143,612 147,571 143,219 3,849 6,404 3,631 6,255 2.6 4.5 2.5 4.4

Homosassa Springs

47,355 45,478 46,961 45,868 2,044 2,997 1,944 3,027 4.3 6.6 4.1 6.6

Jacksonville

796,323 778,074 794,684 779,448 21,787 38,797 20,512 37,229 2.7 5.0 2.6 4.8

Lakeland-Winter Haven

309,867 306,823 308,057 308,560 10,145 21,606 9,460 20,743 3.3 7.0 3.1 6.7

Miami-Fort Lauderdale-West Palm Beach

3,165,667 3,041,436 3,170,610 3,027,975 74,470 217,242 68,845 201,466 2.4 7.1 2.2 6.7

Naples-Immokalee-Marco Island

183,572 178,404 184,631 181,441 5,133 8,385 4,704 7,718 2.8 4.7 2.5 4.3

North Port-Sarasota-Bradenton

371,219 360,041 371,338 362,995 10,405 17,698 9,758 17,054 2.8 4.9 2.6 4.7

Ocala

138,518 141,752 137,663 142,294 4,752 8,104 4,470 7,985 3.4 5.7 3.2 5.6

Orlando-Kissimmee-Sanford

1,373,242 1,301,139 1,372,173 1,294,626 36,726 96,244 34,525 89,627 2.7 7.4 2.5 6.9

Palm Bay-Melbourne-Titusville

287,508 284,319 285,212 285,234 8,218 14,275 7,746 13,661 2.9 5.0 2.7 4.8

Panama City

88,130 85,930 87,032 86,409 2,698 4,226 2,600 4,295 3.1 4.9 3.0 5.0

Pensacola-Ferry Pass-Brent

230,265 224,596 228,891 225,575 6,436 11,291 6,133 11,043 2.8 5.0 2.7 4.9

Port St. Lucie

220,487 216,859 219,842 219,113 7,224 11,833 6,770 11,357 3.3 5.5 3.1 5.2

Punta Gorda

72,707 72,225 72,814 72,881 2,412 3,708 2,216 3,656 3.3 5.1 3.0 5.0

Sebastian-Vero Beach

66,003 64,824 66,150 65,492 2,241 3,560 2,106 3,383 3.4 5.5 3.2 5.2

Sebring

36,302 36,703 36,638 37,423 1,473 2,301 1,415 2,348 4.1 6.3 3.9 6.3

Tallahassee

197,548 186,130 195,372 185,262 5,465 10,027 5,160 9,806 2.8 5.4 2.6 5.3

Tampa-St. Petersburg-Clearwater

1,570,918 1,537,075 1,566,692 1,540,183 44,485 84,370 41,559 80,344 2.8 5.5 2.7 5.2

The Villages

32,923 32,350 32,789 32,688 1,387 1,929 1,289 1,925 4.2 6.0 3.9 5.9

Georgia

5,135,208 5,155,192 5,148,163 5,116,980 141,518 275,670 148,846 273,874 2.8 5.3 2.9 5.4

Albany

66,811 66,276 66,999 65,911 2,361 4,470 2,418 4,598 3.5 6.7 3.6 7.0

Athens-Clarke County

99,617 98,800 99,032 97,723 2,523 4,317 2,549 4,436 2.5 4.4 2.6 4.5

Atlanta-Sandy Springs-Roswell

3,113,823 3,123,399 3,128,881 3,107,968 81,063 175,131 83,468 168,455 2.6 5.6 2.7 5.4

Augusta-Richmond County

266,860 259,786 267,075 259,351 7,731 12,271 7,893 12,856 2.9 4.7 3.0 5.0

Brunswick

52,488 48,002 52,317 47,501 1,435 2,591 1,515 2,674 2.7 5.4 2.9 5.6

Columbus

123,143 119,942 122,781 119,608 3,963 6,745 4,091 6,922 3.2 5.6 3.3 5.8

Dalton

58,378 57,488 59,148 56,847 2,214 2,991 2,882 3,088 3.8 5.2 4.9 5.4

Gainesville

102,867 101,997 102,925 100,505 2,247 3,553 2,314 3,738 2.2 3.5 2.2 3.7

Hinesville

34,422 35,331 34,464 34,866 1,051 1,705 1,076 1,798 3.1 4.8 3.1 5.2

Macon-Bibb County

102,965 104,745 103,210 103,748 3,087 6,105 3,142 6,200 3.0 5.8 3.0 6.0

Rome

44,454 45,118 44,694 45,111 1,404 1,990 1,673 2,151 3.2 4.4 3.7 4.8

Savannah

188,458 190,508 187,692 190,082 4,909 10,699 5,083 10,717 2.6 5.6 2.7 5.6

Valdosta

64,215 67,499 63,797 66,510 1,899 3,290 1,905 3,451 3.0 4.9 3.0 5.2

Warner Robins

86,159 84,704 86,201 84,197 2,357 3,889 2,408 4,145 2.7 4.6 2.8 4.9

Hawaii

667,857 663,132 667,325 651,714 17,344 68,832 14,982 58,595 2.6 10.4 2.2 9.0

Kahului-Wailuku-Lahaina

86,322 82,913 86,389 80,577 2,167 13,501 1,870 10,492 2.5 16.3 2.2 13.0

Urban Honolulu

452,986 453,688 452,859 447,861 11,123 41,175 9,668 35,997 2.5 9.1 2.1 8.0

Idaho

887,607 901,607 888,452 903,201 24,433 43,164 25,372 40,416 2.8 4.8 2.9 4.5

Boise City

379,480 383,199 381,230 377,479 10,084 18,894 9,999 17,128 2.7 4.9 2.6 4.5

Coeur d'Alene

80,122 78,403 80,167 76,616 2,683 4,963 3,031 4,684 3.3 6.3 3.8 6.1

Idaho Falls

73,553 76,494 73,737 75,583 1,639 2,715 1,707 2,632 2.2 3.5 2.3 3.5

Lewiston

32,050 29,863 32,025 29,504 958 1,264 1,026 1,336 3.0 4.2 3.2 4.5

Pocatello

43,372 41,401 43,565 40,604 1,122 1,931 1,192 1,861 2.6 4.7 2.7 4.6

Twin Falls

54,103 55,019 53,864 54,049 1,429 2,412 1,511 2,327 2.6 4.4 2.8 4.3

Illinois

6,416,333 6,170,882 6,377,232 6,152,160 215,173 399,750 220,397 462,321 3.4 6.5 3.5 7.5

Bloomington

96,687 92,169 94,887 90,343 3,112 4,323 3,170 4,710 3.2 4.7 3.3 5.2

Carbondale-Marion

61,081 60,069 60,100 57,993 2,166 3,128 2,230 3,113 3.5 5.2 3.7 5.4

Champaign-Urbana

128,542 125,567 127,144 123,047 4,072 5,762 4,078 6,158 3.2 4.6 3.2 5.0

Chicago-Naperville-Elgin

4,830,451 4,654,723 4,806,250 4,676,900 152,664 321,601 152,642 376,995 3.2 6.9 3.2 8.1

Danville

33,357 32,569 33,140 31,966 1,565 2,012 1,714 2,060 4.7 6.2 5.2 6.4

Davenport-Moline-Rock Island(1)

195,763 182,565 194,473 181,630 7,848 9,081 8,564 9,310 4.0 5.0 4.4 5.1

Decatur

48,435 46,652 48,099 45,798 2,336 3,649 2,510 3,738 4.8 7.8 5.2 8.2

Kankakee

56,735 54,821 56,636 53,499 2,739 3,366 3,040 3,414 4.8 6.1 5.4 6.4

Peoria

174,407 162,541 173,154 158,961 7,308 10,273 8,058 10,801 4.2 6.3 4.7 6.8

Rockford

165,336 155,888 164,032 153,809 8,832 11,203 9,571 11,273 5.3 7.2 5.8 7.3

Springfield

107,432 104,487 106,114 102,509 3,724 6,123 3,985 6,490 3.5 5.9 3.8 6.3

Indiana

3,385,064 3,309,509 3,359,406 3,370,340 104,202 163,034 99,811 136,335 3.1 4.9 3.0 4.0

Bloomington

81,883 79,059 80,537 78,516 2,511 3,046 2,172 2,689 3.1 3.9 2.7 3.4

Columbus

44,983 44,387 44,704 45,555 1,037 1,728 957 1,484 2.3 3.9 2.1 3.3

Elkhart-Goshen

111,351 106,943 110,818 109,559 3,233 4,787 3,039 3,677 2.9 4.5 2.7 3.4

Evansville

163,969 164,657 162,247 167,594 4,803 7,088 4,577 6,155 2.9 4.3 2.8 3.7

Fort Wayne

219,621 216,297 216,998 220,641 6,775 10,409 6,056 8,586 3.1 4.8 2.8 3.9

Indianapolis-Carmel-Anderson

1,072,507 1,079,436 1,060,176 1,101,669 30,094 53,496 27,731 43,918 2.8 5.0 2.6 4.0

Kokomo

36,993 36,196 36,962 37,394 1,239 2,051 1,282 1,864 3.3 5.7 3.5 5.0

Lafayette-West Lafayette

116,509 111,572 116,335 113,474 3,179 4,933 2,825 3,970 2.7 4.4 2.4 3.5

Michigan City-La Porte

47,785 47,635 47,670 48,440 1,789 3,297 1,954 2,873 3.7 6.9 4.1 5.9

Muncie

54,732 52,430 54,147 53,057 1,998 2,629 1,845 2,257 3.7 5.0 3.4 4.3

South Bend-Mishawaka

160,524 153,225 159,616 153,654 5,463 8,986 5,445 7,534 3.4 5.9 3.4 4.9

Terre Haute

76,256 72,931 75,591 74,173 2,937 3,833 2,958 3,287 3.9 5.3 3.9 4.4

Iowa

1,752,989 1,608,561 1,745,731 1,613,697 42,650 53,506 51,293 52,950 2.4 3.3 2.9 3.3

Ames

61,308 57,867 60,047 56,853 1,037 1,242 1,260 1,175 1.7 2.1 2.1 2.1

Cedar Rapids

150,091 135,891 148,694 136,358 4,112 5,558 4,719 5,115 2.7 4.1 3.2 3.8

Des Moines-West Des Moines

368,670 335,805 366,728 336,296 8,845 11,601 10,098 11,299 2.4 3.5 2.8 3.4

Dubuque

57,378 52,470 57,289 52,367 1,338 1,879 1,779 1,819 2.3 3.6 3.1 3.5

Iowa City

100,884 93,099 98,872 92,938 1,889 2,779 2,262 2,619 1.9 3.0 2.3 2.8

Sioux City

94,776 89,278 94,031 89,784 2,521 2,831 2,920 2,821 2.7 3.2 3.1 3.1

Waterloo-Cedar Falls

91,241 84,421 90,734 84,054 2,556 3,027 3,081 2,882 2.8 3.6 3.4 3.4

Kansas

1,497,273 1,528,366 1,492,699 1,502,220 43,110 73,228 42,840 52,888 2.9 4.8 2.9 3.5

Lawrence

67,073 66,141 66,297 64,231 1,779 3,168 1,696 2,488 2.7 4.8 2.6 3.9

Manhattan

49,129 47,233 48,113 45,064 1,229 2,012 1,167 1,473 2.5 4.3 2.4 3.3

Topeka

118,671 121,184 118,319 119,437 3,615 5,840 3,733 4,682 3.0 4.8 3.2 3.9

Wichita

316,287 322,708 315,547 315,051 9,935 20,916 9,957 13,485 3.1 6.5 3.2 4.3

Kentucky

2,078,031 2,015,202 2,073,838 2,007,867 78,739 102,427 81,086 114,556 3.8 5.1 3.9 5.7

Bowling Green

85,288 78,976 85,255 78,496 2,956 3,627 3,354 4,143 3.5 4.6 3.9 5.3

Elizabethtown-Fort Knox

67,158 64,147 67,186 63,637 2,524 3,246 2,576 3,674 3.8 5.1 3.8 5.8

Lexington-Fayette

275,843 273,270 273,326 269,822 8,270 12,133 8,282 13,404 3.0 4.4 3.0 5.0

Louisville/Jefferson County

674,579 664,221 674,729 662,325 22,302 32,774 21,977 33,409 3.3 4.9 3.3 5.0

Owensboro

55,664 54,293 55,692 53,143 1,879 2,494 2,012 2,882 3.4 4.6 3.6 5.4

Louisiana

2,109,627 2,091,407 2,091,000 2,079,591 104,716 172,445 102,981 142,519 5.0 8.2 4.9 6.9

Alexandria

63,388 62,575 63,104 62,465 3,374 3,769 3,403 3,131 5.3 6.0 5.4 5.0

Baton Rouge

421,252 419,806 417,880 416,461 19,099 30,317 18,689 25,275 4.5 7.2 4.5 6.1

Hammond

55,370 55,021 54,896 54,729 3,073 5,279 3,081 4,420 5.5 9.6 5.6 8.1

Houma-Thibodaux

88,875 89,851 87,882 88,777 4,129 6,218 3,954 5,260 4.6 6.9 4.5 5.9

Lafayette

212,311 213,168 210,923 212,283 10,427 15,631 10,256 13,133 4.9 7.3 4.9 6.2

Lake Charles

109,308 100,720 107,435 99,234 4,714 9,806 4,786 7,686 4.3 9.7 4.5 7.7

Monroe

79,709 82,739 79,231 82,769 4,483 5,670 4,409 4,732 5.6 6.9 5.6 5.7

New Orleans-Metairie

602,500 595,541 596,687 591,186 27,451 59,547 26,645 48,621 4.6 10.0 4.5 8.2

Shreveport-Bossier City

187,596 188,038 185,865 188,156 10,048 14,999 9,731 12,386 5.4 8.0 5.2 6.6

Maine

689,655 670,818 688,899 667,918 19,516 31,285 19,920 31,658 2.8 4.7 2.9 4.7

Bangor

72,158 69,775 72,007 69,189 1,964 2,853 1,972 2,964 2.7 4.1 2.7 4.3

Lewiston-Auburn

56,165 54,507 55,953 54,745 1,541 2,589 1,500 2,548 2.7 4.7 2.7 4.7

Portland-South Portland

209,148 201,700 207,597 199,579 4,909 8,926 4,774 8,681 2.3 4.4 2.3 4.3

Maryland

3,270,600 3,134,905 3,261,324 3,123,417 104,359 207,281 98,116 188,095 3.2 6.6 3.0 6.0

Baltimore-Columbia-Towson

1,525,470 1,461,335 1,524,495 1,460,783 48,978 89,666 45,455 82,294 3.2 6.1 3.0 5.6

California-Lexington Park

57,429 53,045 57,301 52,949 1,613 2,432 1,505 2,333 2.8 4.6 2.6 4.4

Cumberland

45,131 41,656 44,648 41,773 2,231 2,552 2,179 2,770 4.9 6.1 4.9 6.6

Hagerstown-Martinsburg

136,804 127,491 136,432 127,290 4,313 6,491 4,246 6,305 3.2 5.1 3.1 5.0

Massachusetts

3,825,517 3,582,691 3,822,997 3,648,590 87,801 223,481 90,442 258,000 2.3 6.2 2.4 7.1

Barnstable Town

122,235 112,458 122,452 114,960 3,654 7,425 4,203 9,299 3.0 6.6 3.4 8.1

Boston-Cambridge-Nashua

2,841,892 2,667,188 2,835,333 2,708,100 60,115 158,230 59,887 177,206 2.1 5.9 2.1 6.5

Leominster-Gardner

81,118 75,915 81,614 77,789 2,177 5,215 2,397 6,255 2.7 6.9 2.9 8.0

New Bedford

86,401 81,800 87,175 83,347 3,006 5,711 3,273 6,980 3.5 7.0 3.8 8.4

Pittsfield

42,396 39,272 42,931 40,337 1,237 2,726 1,398 3,337 2.9 6.9 3.3 8.3

Springfield

382,344 352,993 381,201 358,491 10,884 24,574 11,298 28,928 2.8 7.0 3.0 8.1

Worcester

365,861 350,437 366,599 356,562 9,262 21,713 9,640 24,672 2.5 6.2 2.6 6.9

Michigan

4,931,109 4,932,851 4,922,109 4,783,402 159,361 311,286 174,864 346,968 3.2 6.3 3.6 7.3

Ann Arbor

202,006 199,710 200,349 192,221 4,384 6,740 4,267 6,950 2.2 3.4 2.1 3.6

Battle Creek

62,723 60,477 62,350 58,596 1,991 3,181 2,150 3,391 3.2 5.3 3.4 5.8

Bay City

49,855 47,238 49,453 45,593 1,797 2,291 2,080 2,602 3.6 4.8 4.2 5.7

Detroit-Warren-Dearborn

2,156,528 2,207,369 2,163,057 2,157,561 75,903 194,449 81,206 217,183 3.5 8.8 3.8 10.1

Flint

183,897 177,968 183,587 171,106 6,894 9,952 7,285 10,675 3.7 5.6 4.0 6.2

Grand Rapids-Wyoming

579,732 572,968 575,885 557,316 13,310 21,414 13,946 23,284 2.3 3.7 2.4 4.2

Jackson

74,151 72,478 73,961 69,889 2,195 3,361 2,379 3,650 3.0 4.6 3.2 5.2

Kalamazoo-Portage

169,991 166,974 168,903 160,526 4,731 6,832 5,085 7,482 2.8 4.1 3.0 4.7

Lansing-East Lansing

253,153 239,570 249,704 230,662 6,366 9,374 6,709 10,065 2.5 3.9 2.7 4.4

Midland

40,076 38,969 39,763 37,805 1,198 1,499 1,313 1,686 3.0 3.8 3.3 4.5

Monroe

75,770 71,272 75,201 69,051 2,155 2,996 2,286 3,224 2.8 4.2 3.0 4.7

Muskegon

77,174 74,465 76,923 72,617 2,768 4,780 2,919 4,900 3.6 6.4 3.8 6.7

Niles-Benton Harbor

72,846 71,844 72,410 69,374 2,265 3,373 2,590 3,721 3.1 4.7 3.6 5.4

Saginaw

86,708 83,435 86,682 80,519 3,311 4,491 3,538 4,856 3.8 5.4 4.1 6.0

Minnesota

3,123,662 3,033,280 3,123,709 3,018,335 88,135 120,396 108,186 137,721 2.8 4.0 3.5 4.6

Duluth

144,196 137,461 143,359 136,890 5,581 6,592 6,436 7,784 3.9 4.8 4.5 5.7

Mankato-North Mankato

63,516 61,700 62,866 61,071 1,279 1,949 1,615 2,302 2.0 3.2 2.6 3.8

Minneapolis-St. Paul-Bloomington

2,041,061 1,966,902 2,037,880 1,953,111 53,457 79,297 60,916 88,802 2.6 4.0 3.0 4.5

Rochester

125,266 121,995 125,263 121,785 2,921 4,141 3,696 4,728 2.3 3.4 3.0 3.9

St. Cloud

114,227 113,085 113,931 112,962 3,125 4,635 4,268 5,324 2.7 4.1 3.7 4.7

Mississippi

1,279,839 1,276,813 1,279,977 1,268,657 65,909 75,711 66,922 75,466 5.1 5.9 5.2 5.9

Gulfport-Biloxi-Pascagoula

164,715 167,659 164,985 166,605 8,692 10,454 8,859 10,235 5.3 6.2 5.4 6.1

Hattiesburg

69,787 71,471 68,984 70,734 3,065 3,760 3,044 3,681 4.4 5.3 4.4 5.2

Jackson

269,642 269,487 268,250 266,910 12,188 14,533 12,017 14,438 4.5 5.4 4.5 5.4

Missouri

3,099,987 2,997,284 3,096,892 3,069,786 96,022 119,944 105,397 177,965 3.1 4.0 3.4 5.8

Cape Girardeau

48,890 44,851 48,973 46,268 1,556 1,646 1,558 2,459 3.2 3.7 3.2 5.3

Columbia

99,976 96,278 99,481 97,891 2,242 2,734 2,412 4,123 2.2 2.8 2.4 4.2

Jefferson City

74,810 72,388 74,262 73,225 1,912 2,067 2,076 3,228 2.6 2.9 2.8 4.4

Joplin

85,480 83,384 85,664 85,962 2,549 3,060 2,727 4,509 3.0 3.7 3.2 5.2

Kansas City

1,146,503 1,126,771 1,145,405 1,145,812 33,772 49,881 35,485 56,502 2.9 4.4 3.1 4.9

St. Joseph

63,502 61,764 63,571 63,124 1,698 2,067 1,893 3,068 2.7 3.3 3.0 4.9

St. Louis(2)

1,484,554 1,424,144 1,478,971 1,442,551 45,468 63,508 48,729 85,580 3.1 4.5 3.3 5.9

Springfield

237,954 230,749 238,007 236,237 6,820 7,608 7,490 11,476 2.9 3.3 3.1 4.9

Montana

534,315 535,514 531,156 530,555 18,209 23,538 19,339 23,681 3.4 4.4 3.6 4.5

Billings

87,577 87,981 86,945 87,125 2,661 3,589 2,734 3,470 3.0 4.1 3.1 4.0

Great Falls

38,082 37,662 37,894 37,187 1,215 1,732 1,278 1,620 3.2 4.6 3.4 4.4

Missoula

64,012 65,132 63,663 64,123 1,984 2,750 2,255 2,867 3.1 4.2 3.5 4.5

Nebraska

1,037,741 1,031,496 1,033,276 1,031,054 27,173 27,574 27,581 28,859 2.6 2.7 2.7 2.8

Grand Island

43,662 43,416 43,505 43,735 1,202 1,722 1,294 1,941 2.8 4.0 3.0 4.4

Lincoln

187,817 189,584 186,998 188,745 4,636 5,133 4,385 5,451 2.5 2.7 2.3 2.9

Omaha-Council Bluffs

497,824 492,329 496,578 495,217 13,026 14,295 13,556 14,958 2.6 2.9 2.7 3.0

Nevada

1,554,598 1,494,958 1,550,143 1,482,807 52,974 151,482 52,275 133,043 3.4 10.1 3.4 9.0

Carson City

26,314 24,782 26,336 24,791 871 1,520 903 1,422 3.3 6.1 3.4 5.7

Las Vegas-Henderson-Paradise

1,139,511 1,097,932 1,136,500 1,084,944 40,777 129,421 39,891 112,990 3.6 11.8 3.5 10.4

Reno

262,162 249,953 261,692 251,522 7,108 13,999 7,206 12,626 2.7 5.6 2.8 5.0

New Hampshire

773,447 749,814 773,044 745,120 17,891 27,730 17,574 27,976 2.3 3.7 2.3 3.8

Dover-Durham

86,660 79,976 86,492 79,355 1,865 3,079 1,837 2,956 2.2 3.8 2.1 3.7

Manchester

123,988 120,700 123,691 119,789 2,741 4,451 2,609 4,447 2.2 3.7 2.1 3.7

Portsmouth

77,309 72,355 76,961 71,830 1,642 2,858 1,539 2,637 2.1 3.9 2.0 3.7

New Jersey

4,534,778 4,532,883 4,547,131 4,444,535 157,091 445,657 164,246 329,770 3.5 9.8 3.6 7.4

Atlantic City-Hammonton

120,041 120,181 120,456 114,080 6,004 18,029 6,571 13,737 5.0 15.0 5.5 12.0

Ocean City

43,106 42,493 43,012 41,609 3,763 5,796 4,508 4,829 8.7 13.6 10.5 11.6

Trenton

206,167 208,165 206,536 205,215 6,202 16,934 6,453 12,408 3.0 8.1 3.1 6.0

Vineland-Bridgeton

65,723 66,916 65,813 64,970 3,479 7,298 3,981 5,834 5.3 10.9 6.0 9.0

New Mexico

967,203 928,388 966,863 932,560 44,691 63,048 43,421 71,906 4.6 6.8 4.5 7.7

Albuquerque

443,346 431,105 442,230 434,669 19,219 27,472 18,346 31,772 4.3 6.4 4.1 7.3

Farmington

52,437 49,764 52,185 49,733 2,941 3,908 2,899 4,438 5.6 7.9 5.6 8.9

Las Cruces

99,237 91,758 99,485 92,700 5,267 6,116 5,242 6,909 5.3 6.7 5.3 7.5

Santa Fe

76,493 69,982 76,226 70,145 2,746 4,353 2,680 5,057 3.6 6.2 3.5 7.2

New York

9,487,235 9,061,253 9,468,280 9,037,394 341,376 735,708 351,928 733,171 3.6 8.1 3.7 8.1

Albany-Schenectady-Troy

451,668 431,708 449,737 429,996 15,278 20,890 16,617 22,983 3.4 4.8 3.7 5.3

Binghamton

105,698 103,378 105,819 104,052 4,475 5,540 5,187 6,431 4.2 5.4 4.9 6.2

Buffalo-Cheektowaga-Niagara Falls

539,888 527,044 539,840 531,813 22,591 31,282 25,642 40,139 4.2 5.9 4.7 7.5

Elmira

34,987 34,991 35,098 34,908 1,347 2,100 1,571 2,343 3.9 6.0 4.5 6.7

Glens Falls

58,333 55,496 58,315 55,927 2,475 2,793 2,986 3,294 4.2 5.0 5.1 5.9

Ithaca

49,795 49,397 49,738 49,471 1,641 1,962 1,665 2,133 3.3 4.0 3.3 4.3

Kingston

87,788 86,567 87,580 86,439 3,047 4,267 3,289 4,699 3.5 4.9 3.8 5.4

New York-Newark-Jersey City

9,949,170 9,616,481 9,938,480 9,521,481 336,610 914,463 334,790 797,026 3.4 9.5 3.4 8.4

Rochester

520,672 497,124 519,748 496,429 20,539 27,950 22,932 32,403 3.9 5.6 4.4 6.5

Syracuse

306,415 290,402 306,637 290,596 12,183 16,050 13,789 18,696 4.0 5.5 4.5 6.4

Utica-Rome

128,183 124,544 128,272 124,508 5,294 6,918 6,053 8,030 4.1 5.6 4.7 6.4

Watertown-Fort Drum

43,582 40,793 43,754 41,107 2,565 2,182 3,015 2,596 5.9 5.3 6.9 6.3

North Carolina

5,100,768 4,985,837 5,070,827 4,978,718 177,831 300,890 168,255 297,387 3.5 6.0 3.3 6.0

Asheville

239,917 226,196 237,702 225,854 6,562 12,727 6,407 12,426 2.7 5.6 2.7 5.5

Burlington

82,915 81,878 82,658 82,048 2,766 4,817 2,625 4,819 3.3 5.9 3.2 5.9

Charlotte-Concord-Gastonia

1,378,324 1,347,250 1,373,470 1,344,434 44,615 79,136 42,029 77,322 3.2 5.9 3.1 5.8

Durham-Chapel Hill

307,990 299,073 305,270 298,535 9,253 15,530 8,748 15,477 3.0 5.2 2.9 5.2

Fayetteville

149,085 144,965 148,437 145,648 6,970 12,011 6,554 11,909 4.7 8.3 4.4 8.2

Goldsboro

52,152 49,874 52,215 49,900 1,938 3,027 1,824 3,106 3.7 6.1 3.5 6.2

Greensboro-High Point

375,109 360,377 371,920 360,292 13,662 24,792 12,784 24,091 3.6 6.9 3.4 6.7

Greenville

91,146 86,786 90,462 87,494 3,466 5,337 3,224 5,419 3.8 6.1 3.6 6.2

Hickory-Lenoir-Morganton

176,490 167,340 175,300 167,580 5,850 10,172 5,547 10,063 3.3 6.1 3.2 6.0

Jacksonville

65,882 65,861 65,958 66,027 2,702 3,979 2,588 4,101 4.1 6.0 3.9 6.2

New Bern

51,903 50,234 51,746 50,156 1,840 2,858 1,747 2,960 3.5 5.7 3.4 5.9

Raleigh

736,107 716,328 731,065 715,982 22,409 37,482 21,164 37,000 3.0 5.2 2.9 5.2

Rocky Mount

65,444 63,672 65,201 63,624 3,025 5,227 2,771 5,055 4.6 8.2 4.2 7.9

Wilmington

155,884 148,725 154,880 148,115 4,934 8,126 4,733 8,104 3.2 5.5 3.1 5.5

Winston-Salem

331,760 322,310 329,944 323,658 11,065 19,366 10,540 19,119 3.3 6.0 3.2 5.9

North Dakota

399,846 397,707 398,298 396,991 7,968 16,681 8,852 16,323 2.0 4.2 2.2 4.1

Bismarck

66,983 68,552 66,708 69,083 1,449 2,367 1,630 2,452 2.2 3.5 2.4 3.5

Fargo

139,290 142,744 138,402 143,685 2,545 4,343 2,967 4,484 1.8 3.0 2.1 3.1

Grand Forks

53,997 55,246 53,839 54,774 1,126 1,900 1,347 1,976 2.1 3.4 2.5 3.6

Ohio

5,808,659 5,728,834 5,776,856 5,634,688 214,762 298,530 218,927 295,513 3.7 5.2 3.8 5.2

Akron

361,052 350,746 357,787 347,736 13,843 18,796 14,308 18,600 3.8 5.4 4.0 5.3

Canton-Massillon

199,093 194,842 197,435 194,081 8,519 10,136 8,881 10,207 4.3 5.2 4.5 5.3

Cincinnati

1,129,263 1,129,619 1,128,063 1,122,791 37,845 54,003 37,330 53,232 3.4 4.8 3.3 4.7

Cleveland-Elyria

1,038,615 1,012,788 1,026,107 971,301 34,448 58,255 35,865 60,293 3.3 5.8 3.5 6.2

Columbus

1,110,232 1,101,038 1,105,853 1,087,829 36,112 53,421 35,750 50,597 3.3 4.9 3.2 4.7

Dayton

391,422 393,592 390,673 388,216 14,344 20,413 14,188 19,488 3.7 5.2 3.6 5.0

Lima

47,691 47,259 47,440 47,083 1,775 2,498 1,816 2,434 3.7 5.3 3.8 5.2

Mansfield

52,036 52,998 51,966 52,483 2,260 2,901 2,369 2,941 4.3 5.5 4.6 5.6

Springfield

63,271 64,222 63,022 63,424 2,657 3,240 2,557 3,162 4.2 5.0 4.1 5.0

Toledo

304,821 301,372 302,309 296,983 11,753 16,828 11,926 16,234 3.9 5.6 3.9 5.5

Weirton-Steubenville(1)

50,846 49,432 50,611 48,965 2,722 3,360 2,748 3,421 5.4 6.8 5.4 7.0

Youngstown-Warren-Boardman

237,505 225,790 236,372 222,641 12,820 15,504 12,714 15,456 5.4 6.9 5.4 6.9

Oklahoma

1,852,252 1,870,942 1,837,940 1,839,955 59,724 111,252 58,211 95,263 3.2 5.9 3.2 5.2

Enid

26,875 26,266 26,722 25,585 808 1,517 824 1,310 3.0 5.8 3.1 5.1

Lawton

51,183 51,332 50,999 50,944 1,785 3,002 1,684 2,549 3.5 5.8 3.3 5.0

Oklahoma City

691,956 701,835 687,962 693,472 20,172 39,388 19,426 33,373 2.9 5.6 2.8 4.8

Tulsa

484,695 481,319 481,673 474,408 15,600 30,837 15,061 26,492 3.2 6.4 3.1 5.6

Oregon

2,103,774 2,121,235 2,089,779 2,111,895 61,282 116,823 61,165 125,889 2.9 5.5 2.9 6.0

Albany

58,829 59,942 58,446 60,096 1,993 3,312 1,978 3,585 3.4 5.5 3.4 6.0

Bend-Redmond

95,449 96,286 95,386 96,841 2,831 5,270 3,053 6,563 3.0 5.5 3.2 6.8

Corvallis

49,105 47,867 48,517 47,824 1,026 1,829 987 1,934 2.1 3.8 2.0 4.0

Eugene

181,668 187,643 180,491 187,094 5,730 9,868 5,563 10,718 3.2 5.3 3.1 5.7

Grants Pass

35,590 35,061 35,320 35,388 1,383 2,047 1,402 2,369 3.9 5.8 4.0 6.7

Medford

103,552 105,695 102,395 105,596 3,208 5,739 3,228 6,275 3.1 5.4 3.2 5.9

Portland-Vancouver-Hillsboro

1,334,229 1,327,489 1,332,520 1,316,280 38,933 77,112 37,717 80,340 2.9 5.8 2.8 6.1

Salem

201,777 199,098 199,689 197,960 6,149 10,365 6,187 11,467 3.0 5.2 3.1 5.8

Pennsylvania

6,536,425 6,280,344 6,524,296 6,239,878 284,629 394,781 295,120 397,625 4.4 6.3 4.5 6.4

Allentown-Bethlehem-Easton

449,086 435,949 448,501 434,989 18,902 28,244 20,313 26,781 4.2 6.5 4.5 6.2

Altoona

59,482 57,270 59,652 57,188 2,720 3,301 3,002 3,614 4.6 5.8 5.0 6.3

Bloomsburg-Berwick

43,148 42,318 42,825 41,628 1,786 2,074 2,175 2,356 4.1 4.9 5.1 5.7

Chambersburg-Waynesboro

78,498 75,781 79,539 76,473 2,965 3,665 3,342 3,815 3.8 4.8 4.2 5.0

East Stroudsburg

83,705 76,813 83,934 76,318 4,586 6,045 4,744 5,972 5.5 7.9 5.7 7.8

Erie

129,217 121,396 128,865 120,891 5,948 8,758 6,382 9,443 4.6 7.2 5.0 7.8

Gettysburg

55,091 54,551 54,708 54,131 1,756 2,160 1,832 2,286 3.2 4.0 3.3 4.2

Harrisburg-Carlisle

304,620 299,427 304,502 296,436 11,190 15,737 11,337 15,655 3.7 5.3 3.7 5.3

Johnstown

58,468 55,315 58,471 54,681 3,077 3,479 3,430 3,966 5.3 6.3 5.9 7.3

Lancaster

286,594 284,149 285,807 280,787 9,624 13,088 9,502 13,209 3.4 4.6 3.3 4.7

Lebanon

72,858 71,123 73,136 70,542 2,819 3,819 3,016 3,848 3.9 5.4 4.1 5.5

Philadelphia-Camden-Wilmington

3,152,069 3,061,951 3,143,725 3,020,411 127,987 220,807 125,759 197,203 4.1 7.2 4.0 6.5

Pittsburgh

1,220,951 1,160,693 1,217,975 1,157,008 52,783 73,416 55,175 76,368 4.3 6.3 4.5 6.6

Reading

217,344 219,669 217,465 218,689 9,413 13,295 9,469 13,088 4.3 6.1 4.4 6.0

Scranton--Wilkes-Barre--Hazleton

279,327 262,083 278,230 261,606 14,775 19,417 15,573 19,981 5.3 7.4 5.6 7.6

State College

82,187 75,318 81,215 74,297 2,685 2,859 2,824 3,263 3.3 3.8 3.5 4.4

Williamsport

57,158 52,200 57,240 51,787 2,714 3,377 3,166 3,725 4.7 6.5 5.5 7.2

York-Hanover

238,331 231,740 237,714 232,397 8,998 11,901 8,991 11,982 3.8 5.1 3.8 5.2

Rhode Island

560,489 544,204 558,770 542,723 18,234 38,000 17,797 42,022 3.3 7.0 3.2 7.7

Providence-Warwick

697,292 674,168 695,900 674,373 21,889 45,772 21,959 51,478 3.1 6.8 3.2 7.6

South Carolina

2,372,583 2,321,613 2,372,013 2,321,019 53,912 95,032 56,479 106,380 2.3 4.1 2.4 4.6

Charleston-North Charleston

394,746 380,686 395,683 381,666 7,436 15,044 7,745 16,522 1.9 4.0 2.0 4.3

Columbia

405,600 397,262 403,325 396,126 8,612 15,264 8,806 17,037 2.1 3.8 2.2 4.3

Florence

97,430 96,655 97,753 97,057 2,368 4,101 2,468 4,621 2.4 4.2 2.5 4.8

Greenville-Anderson-Mauldin

435,541 435,861 435,725 433,892 9,044 15,421 9,231 17,301 2.1 3.5 2.1 4.0

Hilton Head Island-Bluffton-Beaufort

90,169 90,528 90,006 90,035 1,815 2,948 1,903 3,381 2.0 3.3 2.1 3.8

Myrtle Beach-Conway-North Myrtle Beach

198,976 188,119 198,144 187,405 6,593 10,705 7,314 12,064 3.3 5.7 3.7 6.4

Spartanburg

165,181 159,841 165,165 160,662 3,491 6,852 3,581 7,592 2.1 4.3 2.2 4.7

Sumter

43,661 41,788 43,703 42,151 1,210 2,051 1,322 2,282 2.8 4.9 3.0 5.4

South Dakota

466,655 461,207 463,453 458,878 15,316 15,481 16,303 14,642 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.2

Rapid City

74,624 72,201 74,058 72,128 2,657 2,702 2,757 2,471 3.6 3.7 3.7 3.4

Sioux Falls

157,101 154,866 155,466 153,813 4,354 4,585 4,723 4,292 2.8 3.0 3.0 2.8

Tennessee

3,366,225 3,455,071 3,361,721 3,435,147 104,839 171,236 104,576 213,010 3.1 5.0 3.1 6.2

Chattanooga

277,686 288,686 277,616 285,653 8,207 12,256 8,970 15,306 3.0 4.2 3.2 5.4

Clarksville

118,072 121,392 118,102 120,516 4,536 6,518 4,455 8,028 3.8 5.4 3.8 6.7

Cleveland

62,326 64,126 62,275 63,599 1,923 2,960 1,962 3,865 3.1 4.6 3.2 6.1

Jackson

65,297 67,012 65,268 66,625 2,138 3,488 2,056 4,245 3.3 5.2 3.2 6.4

Johnson City

92,754 93,776 92,738 92,456 3,143 4,632 3,154 6,021 3.4 4.9 3.4 6.5

Kingsport-Bristol-Bristol

137,807 136,800 137,831 136,752 4,577 6,751 4,567 8,319 3.3 4.9 3.3 6.1

Knoxville

434,995 451,325 433,589 449,666 12,734 19,268 12,405 24,978 2.9 4.3 2.9 5.6

Memphis

648,047 668,305 647,507 668,382 25,064 44,768 24,859 49,589 3.9 6.7 3.8 7.4

Morristown

53,592 55,390 53,682 55,230 1,849 2,547 1,831 3,259 3.5 4.6 3.4 5.9

Nashville-Davidson--Murfreesboro--Franklin

1,102,956 1,117,207 1,102,127 1,112,635 26,697 46,460 25,755 57,815 2.4 4.2 2.3 5.2

Texas

14,209,425 14,200,317 14,192,255 14,170,462 480,312 1,130,172 470,136 1,006,737 3.4 8.0 3.3 7.1

Abilene

80,211 79,110 79,499 79,019 2,271 4,758 2,153 4,248 2.8 6.0 2.7 5.4

Amarillo

133,302 128,623 132,915 128,837 3,269 6,887 3,070 6,257 2.5 5.4 2.3 4.9

Austin-Round Rock

1,254,411 1,268,520 1,255,200 1,267,150 31,794 74,573 30,207 65,047 2.5 5.9 2.4 5.1

Beaumont-Port Arthur

174,868 173,481 174,064 172,288 9,192 20,545 9,553 19,033 5.3 11.8 5.5 11.0

Brownsville-Harlingen

167,329 167,162 167,835 166,224 8,968 18,722 9,502 17,136 5.4 11.2 5.7 10.3

College Station-Bryan

139,654 139,149 137,059 137,930 3,621 7,722 3,363 6,962 2.6 5.5 2.5 5.0

Corpus Christi

207,904 202,179 207,016 200,752 8,506 20,172 8,820 18,095 4.1 10.0 4.3 9.0

Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington

4,035,848 4,054,318 4,031,616 4,059,126 124,584 290,024 117,806 256,748 3.1 7.2 2.9 6.3

El Paso

368,898 370,722 367,648 366,204 13,630 34,665 13,112 29,486 3.7 9.4 3.6 8.1

Houston-The Woodlands-Sugar Land

3,467,354 3,461,909 3,462,635 3,445,575 127,368 309,711 126,019 276,405 3.7 8.9 3.6 8.0

Killeen-Temple

179,709 178,496 178,967 177,535 6,497 13,135 6,122 11,873 3.6 7.4 3.4 6.7

Laredo

119,514 117,221 119,349 116,769 4,206 10,673 4,283 9,453 3.5 9.1 3.6 8.1

Longview

99,837 97,706 99,240 97,206 3,624 8,681 3,559 7,738 3.6 8.9 3.6 8.0

Lubbock

164,576 162,761 163,636 161,483 4,327 10,071 4,043 8,990 2.6 6.2 2.5 5.6

McAllen-Edinburg-Mission

356,747 358,745 361,012 358,574 22,062 44,916 25,278 42,039 6.2 12.5 7.0 11.7

Midland

111,123 105,599 110,792 105,257 2,364 9,809 2,270 8,424 2.1 9.3 2.0 8.0

Odessa

88,379 87,183 88,129 86,333 2,563 11,396 2,564 9,922 2.9 13.1 2.9 11.5

San Angelo

55,526 53,533 55,188 53,522 1,625 3,842 1,550 3,428 2.9 7.2 2.8 6.4

San Antonio-New Braunfels

1,220,539 1,215,148 1,218,568 1,213,928 36,267 89,212 34,194 77,858 3.0 7.3 2.8 6.4

Sherman-Denison

64,467 65,118 64,218 65,406 1,941 3,988 1,864 3,555 3.0 6.1 2.9 5.4

Texarkana

65,489 65,448 65,290 65,942 2,524 4,538 2,485 3,742 3.9 6.9 3.8 5.7

Tyler

108,146 108,881 107,966 109,268 3,493 7,731 3,357 6,948 3.2 7.1 3.1 6.4

Victoria

46,349 45,679 46,208 45,756 1,640 4,026 1,572 3,590 3.5 8.8 3.4 7.8

Waco

127,219 129,665 126,616 128,902 3,952 8,476 3,815 7,658 3.1 6.5 3.0 5.9

Wichita Falls

65,821 64,990 65,538 65,141 1,933 4,750 1,892 4,413 2.9 7.3 2.9 6.8

Utah

1,629,725 1,650,422 1,629,253 1,653,543 33,756 64,580 35,240 55,016 2.1 3.9 2.2 3.3

Logan

72,365 73,626 72,903 73,238 1,225 1,938 1,272 1,760 1.7 2.6 1.7 2.4

Ogden-Clearfield

335,639 345,495 334,940 346,746 6,829 12,328 7,176 10,671 2.0 3.6 2.1 3.1

Provo-Orem

320,261 324,584 319,576 325,243 5,997 10,625 6,315 9,104 1.9 3.3 2.0 2.8

St. George

77,464 79,199 76,389 78,190 1,831 3,409 1,923 3,003 2.4 4.3 2.5 3.8

Salt Lake City

679,128 684,179 679,607 687,168 13,869 28,520 14,063 23,713 2.0 4.2 2.1 3.5

Vermont

339,375 321,324 338,615 320,239 7,647 8,892 7,241 9,036 2.3 2.8 2.1 2.8

Burlington-South Burlington

125,115 117,798 123,606 116,617 2,347 2,917 2,083 2,996 1.9 2.5 1.7 2.6

Virginia

4,431,196 4,270,221 4,425,963 4,259,711 108,653 192,526 107,305 198,530 2.5 4.5 2.4 4.7

Blacksburg-Christiansburg-Radford

92,132 88,138 93,140 86,827 2,367 3,101 3,114 3,399 2.6 3.5 3.3 3.9

Charlottesville

124,038 121,003 123,353 121,289 2,708 4,562 2,540 4,806 2.2 3.8 2.1 4.0

Harrisonburg

68,278 64,662 68,367 64,607 1,521 2,165 1,434 2,384 2.2 3.3 2.1 3.7

Lynchburg

123,964 116,089 122,988 115,661 3,533 5,174 3,507 5,588 2.9 4.5 2.9 4.8

Richmond

693,533 665,593 692,884 665,116 17,983 32,564 17,555 33,232 2.6 4.9 2.5 5.0

Roanoke

158,511 152,660 157,880 152,613 3,996 6,423 3,933 6,712 2.5 4.2 2.5 4.4

Staunton-Waynesboro

61,190 61,307 61,161 61,273 1,375 2,161 1,297 2,272 2.2 3.5 2.1 3.7

Virginia Beach-Norfolk-Newport News

856,143 833,422 858,173 834,317 23,484 42,799 23,301 44,172 2.7 5.1 2.7 5.3

Winchester

74,757 69,906 74,550 70,198 1,747 2,405 1,707 2,582 2.3 3.4 2.3 3.7

Washington

3,947,984 3,817,261 3,944,481 3,851,256 152,256 213,891 157,598 276,932 3.9 5.6 4.0 7.2

Bellingham

116,639 115,185 117,044 115,221 5,365 7,438 5,484 8,269 4.6 6.5 4.7 7.2

Bremerton-Silverdale

131,624 128,673 133,330 128,001 5,233 7,150 5,225 8,087 4.0 5.6 3.9 6.3

Kennewick-Richland

146,289 148,017 146,889 153,776 7,285 8,801 8,521 10,327 5.0 5.9 5.8 6.7

Longview

48,596 47,076 48,780 47,317 2,618 3,238 2,659 3,661 5.4 6.9 5.5 7.7

Mount Vernon-Anacortes

63,525 60,716 64,046 61,071 3,219 4,218 3,369 4,812 5.1 6.9 5.3 7.9

Olympia-Tumwater

146,356 141,232 146,960 140,555 6,423 8,198 6,313 9,170 4.4 5.8 4.3 6.5

Seattle-Tacoma-Bellevue

2,190,123 2,127,152 2,179,993 2,144,961 66,544 106,780 64,948 153,467 3.0 5.0 3.0 7.2

Spokane-Spokane Valley

283,967 265,334 287,722 263,210 13,201 16,575 14,511 19,655 4.6 6.2 5.0 7.5

Walla Walla

33,364 31,391 32,160 31,797 1,393 1,634 1,551 2,053 4.2 5.2 4.8 6.5

Wenatchee

65,148 61,823 65,121 66,786 3,164 3,764 3,532 4,624 4.9 6.1 5.4 6.9

Yakima

129,158 128,102 128,962 138,639 8,299 9,141 10,278 10,982 6.4 7.1 8.0 7.9

West Virginia

801,681 767,477 797,720 764,473 38,187 44,519 39,566 46,519 4.8 5.8 5.0 6.1

Beckley

46,610 45,976 46,538 45,672 2,339 2,959 2,440 3,038 5.0 6.4 5.2 6.7

Charleston

92,825 90,969 92,324 90,126 4,312 5,869 4,363 5,785 4.6 6.5 4.7 6.4

Huntington-Ashland

147,169 145,049 146,794 145,901 6,608 7,995 6,931 8,680 4.5 5.5 4.7 5.9

Morgantown

71,673 70,767 70,999 70,099 2,521 2,980 2,566 3,221 3.5 4.2 3.6 4.6

Parkersburg-Vienna

39,466 39,061 39,373 38,696 2,004 2,332 2,058 2,476 5.1 6.0 5.2 6.4

Wheeling

66,634 60,213 66,093 60,074 3,670 3,813 3,790 3,930 5.5 6.3 5.7 6.5

Wisconsin

3,099,895 3,103,507 3,089,959 3,094,145 93,112 144,593 99,409 162,589 3.0 4.7 3.2 5.3

Appleton

129,827 128,887 129,592 128,938 3,317 4,777 3,585 5,425 2.6 3.7 2.8 4.2

Eau Claire

92,113 92,572 92,322 92,881 2,535 3,892 3,219 4,776 2.8 4.2 3.5 5.1

Fond du Lac

57,087 59,052 56,847 59,028 1,435 2,268 1,522 2,516 2.5 3.8 2.7 4.3

Green Bay

173,484 174,537 172,794 173,847 4,862 7,321 5,219 8,034 2.8 4.2 3.0 4.6

Janesville-Beloit

85,334 84,344 84,511 84,075 3,009 4,207 2,984 4,548 3.5 5.0 3.5 5.4

La Crosse-Onalaska

77,359 76,616 76,867 76,693 1,865 2,730 2,155 3,205 2.4 3.6 2.8 4.2

Madison

392,185 391,852 390,192 389,396 8,767 14,468 8,822 15,844 2.2 3.7 2.3 4.1

Milwaukee-Waukesha-West Allis

818,281 821,099 811,069 812,442 26,957 46,493 25,734 48,535 3.3 5.7 3.2 6.0

Oshkosh-Neenah

91,241 92,257 91,003 92,440 2,498 3,527 2,559 3,961 2.7 3.8 2.8 4.3

Racine

97,594 101,373 97,092 101,015 3,721 5,551 3,684 6,186 3.8 5.5 3.8 6.1

Sheboygan

61,032 61,414 60,696 61,141 1,635 2,419 1,618 2,576 2.7 3.9 2.7 4.2

Wausau

73,448 73,432 73,837 73,628 1,854 2,647 2,022 3,009 2.5 3.6 2.7 4.1

Wyoming

292,723 294,251 290,539 291,676 10,771 14,594 10,701 13,527 3.7 5.0 3.7 4.6

Casper

39,651 39,959 39,229 39,317 1,570 2,820 1,636 2,569 4.0 7.1 4.2 6.5

Cheyenne

48,745 49,026 48,232 48,588 1,659 2,071 1,646 1,992 3.4 4.2 3.4 4.1

Puerto Rico

1,049,995 1,021,909 1,048,331 1,019,262 89,120 95,945 95,983 106,827 8.5 9.4 9.2 10.5

Aguadilla-Isabela

84,207 79,866 83,918 79,524 9,443 8,125 10,374 9,150 11.2 10.2 12.4 11.5

Arecibo

52,134 51,258 51,990 50,958 5,819 4,610 6,320 5,254 11.2 9.0 12.2 10.3

Guayama

19,116 17,927 19,212 18,009 2,529 1,752 2,829 2,055 13.2 9.8 14.7 11.4

Mayaguez

25,965 24,861 25,862 24,888 2,591 2,339 2,747 2,687 10.0 9.4 10.6 10.8

Ponce

89,470 86,917 89,883 87,071 10,306 8,653 11,179 9,908 11.5 10.0 12.4 11.4

San German

33,445 32,327 33,310 32,564 3,454 3,147 3,719 3,613 10.3 9.7 11.2 11.1

San Juan-Carolina-Caguas

704,592 689,980 702,792 687,329 49,735 63,236 53,038 69,365 7.1 9.2 7.5 10.1

Footnotes
(1) For operational reasons, these interstate areas are listed under the state that accounts for the larger share of the population, which is different from the state that contains the first principal city.
(2) The area boundary does not reflect the Office of Management and Budget delineation.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data refer to place of residence. Data for Puerto Rico are derived from a monthly household survey similar to the Current Population Survey. Area delineations are based on Office of Management and Budget Bulletin No. 18-03, dated April 10, 2018, and are available on the BLS website at https://www.bls.gov/lau/lausmsa.htm. Areas in the six New England states are Metropolitan New England City and Town Areas (NECTAs), while areas in other states are county-based. Some metropolitan areas lie in two or more states. They are listed under the state containing the first principal city, unless otherwise footnoted. Estimates for the latest month are subject to revision the following month.


LABOR FORCE DATA
NOT SEASONALLY ADJUSTED

Table 2. Civilian labor force and unemployment by state, selected metropolitan area, and metropolitan division(1)
State, area, and division Civilian labor force Unemployed
November December Number Percent of labor force
2019 2020 2019 2020(p) November December November December
2019 2020 2019 2020(p) 2019 2020 2019 2020(p)

California

19,534,610 18,938,160 19,470,116 18,916,444 718,032 1,495,691 711,206 1,669,625 3.7 7.9 3.7 8.8

Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim

6,807,214 6,592,637 6,789,326 6,494,897 255,515 635,157 246,208 640,692 3.8 9.6 3.6 9.9

Anaheim-Santa Ana-Irvine

1,630,097 1,593,353 1,631,145 1,598,738 41,786 101,547 39,118 119,074 2.6 6.4 2.4 7.4

Los Angeles-Long Beach-Glendale

5,177,117 4,999,284 5,158,181 4,896,159 213,729 533,610 207,090 521,618 4.1 10.7 4.0 10.7

San Francisco-Oakland-Hayward

2,606,601 2,501,158 2,601,889 2,510,304 61,892 153,215 58,324 175,014 2.4 6.1 2.2 7.0

Oakland-Hayward-Berkeley

1,410,385 1,355,499 1,407,195 1,365,634 38,535 92,007 36,300 105,641 2.7 6.8 2.6 7.7

San Francisco-Redwood City-South San Francisco

1,055,221 1,011,008 1,054,065 1,010,523 20,426 54,865 19,274 61,980 1.9 5.4 1.8 6.1

San Rafael

140,995 134,651 140,629 134,147 2,931 6,343 2,750 7,393 2.1 4.7 2.0 5.5

District of Columbia

412,346 397,117 411,233 413,304 20,781 28,919 20,426 31,477 5.0 7.3 5.0 7.6

Washington-Arlington-Alexandria(2)

3,494,549 3,364,918 3,478,905 3,362,850 96,701 195,545 91,336 187,136 2.8 5.8 2.6 5.6

Silver Spring-Frederick-Rockville(3)

705,359 682,027 699,284 676,199 18,548 42,768 17,103 37,651 2.6 6.3 2.4 5.6

Washington-Arlington-Alexandria(2)

2,789,190 2,682,891 2,779,621 2,686,651 78,153 152,777 74,233 149,485 2.8 5.7 2.7 5.6

Florida

10,411,499 10,092,127 10,397,884 10,093,945 283,039 621,086 264,725 586,855 2.7 6.2 2.5 5.8

Miami-Fort Lauderdale-West Palm Beach

3,165,667 3,041,436 3,170,610 3,027,975 74,470 217,242 68,845 201,466 2.4 7.1 2.2 6.7

Fort Lauderdale-Pompano Beach-Deerfield Beach

1,045,634 1,010,442 1,042,504 1,007,605 28,720 70,528 26,811 66,482 2.7 7.0 2.6 6.6

Miami-Miami Beach-Kendall

1,384,486 1,329,607 1,392,870 1,312,409 24,179 105,674 22,034 96,322 1.7 7.9 1.6 7.3

West Palm Beach-Boca Raton-Delray Beach

735,547 701,387 735,236 707,961 21,571 41,040 20,000 38,662 2.9 5.9 2.7 5.5

Illinois

6,416,333 6,170,882 6,377,232 6,152,160 215,173 399,750 220,397 462,321 3.4 6.5 3.5 7.5

Chicago-Naperville-Elgin(2)

4,830,451 4,654,723 4,806,250 4,676,900 152,664 321,601 152,642 376,995 3.2 6.9 3.2 8.1

Chicago-Naperville-Arlington Heights

3,693,414 3,559,855 3,674,796 3,591,077 110,045 254,912 104,413 310,752 3.0 7.2 2.8 8.7

Elgin

329,461 311,208 328,658 305,644 12,262 18,948 14,495 19,728 3.7 6.1 4.4 6.5

Gary(3)

342,629 334,956 340,218 338,449 13,902 22,298 14,943 19,176 4.1 6.7 4.4 5.7

Lake County-Kenosha County(2)

464,947 448,704 462,578 441,730 16,455 25,443 18,791 27,339 3.5 5.7 4.1 6.2

Massachusetts

3,825,517 3,582,691 3,822,997 3,648,590 87,801 223,481 90,442 258,000 2.3 6.2 2.4 7.1

Boston-Cambridge-Nashua(2)

2,841,892 2,667,188 2,835,333 2,708,100 60,115 158,230 59,887 177,206 2.1 5.9 2.1 6.5

Boston-Cambridge-Newton

1,700,863 1,584,432 1,694,809 1,609,639 33,108 93,974 32,267 104,425 1.9 5.9 1.9 6.5

Brockton-Bridgewater-Easton

112,996 106,132 112,948 107,431 2,793 7,667 2,884 8,839 2.5 7.2 2.6 8.2

Framingham

163,529 154,637 163,850 158,066 3,053 8,173 3,176 9,198 1.9 5.3 1.9 5.8

Haverhill-Newburyport-Amesbury Town(2)

118,674 111,042 118,385 112,312 2,853 6,043 2,975 6,665 2.4 5.4 2.5 5.9

Lawrence-Methuen Town-Salem(2)

99,425 94,928 99,312 96,724 3,145 8,073 3,221 9,346 3.2 8.5 3.2 9.7

Lowell-Billerica-Chelmsford(2)

198,457 184,998 198,166 188,808 4,580 10,797 4,598 12,478 2.3 5.8 2.3 6.6

Lynn-Saugus-Marblehead

87,477 84,013 87,362 85,559 2,003 6,213 2,009 7,205 2.3 7.4 2.3 8.4

Nashua(2)

177,738 174,263 177,558 173,489 4,470 6,766 4,504 6,783 2.5 3.9 2.5 3.9

Peabody-Salem-Beverly

94,994 90,503 95,266 92,430 1,984 5,413 1,978 6,248 2.1 6.0 2.1 6.8

Taunton-Middleborough-Norton

87,739 82,240 87,677 83,642 2,126 5,111 2,275 6,019 2.4 6.2 2.6 7.2

Michigan

4,931,109 4,932,851 4,922,109 4,783,402 159,361 311,286 174,864 346,968 3.2 6.3 3.6 7.3

Detroit-Warren-Dearborn

2,156,528 2,207,369 2,163,057 2,157,561 75,903 194,449 81,206 217,183 3.5 8.8 3.8 10.1

Detroit-Dearborn-Livonia

806,697 836,953 810,632 818,858 33,702 94,467 36,153 101,781 4.2 11.3 4.5 12.4

Warren-Troy-Farmington Hills

1,349,830 1,370,413 1,352,425 1,338,702 42,200 99,980 45,053 115,402 3.1 7.3 3.3 8.6

New York

9,487,235 9,061,253 9,468,280 9,037,394 341,376 735,708 351,928 733,171 3.6 8.1 3.7 8.1

New York-Newark-Jersey City(2)

9,949,170 9,616,481 9,938,480 9,521,481 336,610 914,463 334,790 797,026 3.4 9.5 3.4 8.4

Dutchess County-Putnam County

195,885 186,984 195,131 186,103 6,811 9,217 7,189 9,815 3.5 4.9 3.7 5.3

Nassau County-Suffolk County

1,487,564 1,431,442 1,485,584 1,434,931 51,235 76,803 53,852 79,242 3.4 5.4 3.6 5.5

Newark(3)

1,246,854 1,229,691 1,249,678 1,205,803 43,656 123,049 45,671 90,807 3.5 10.0 3.7 7.5

New York-Jersey City-White Plains(2)

7,018,867 6,768,364 7,008,087 6,694,644 234,908 705,394 228,078 617,162 3.3 10.4 3.3 9.2

Pennsylvania

6,536,425 6,280,344 6,524,296 6,239,878 284,629 394,781 295,120 397,625 4.4 6.3 4.5 6.4

Philadelphia-Camden-Wilmington(2)

3,152,069 3,061,951 3,143,725 3,020,411 127,987 220,807 125,759 197,203 4.1 7.2 4.0 6.5

Camden(3)

638,947 646,379 641,644 633,645 23,001 60,626 23,877 44,944 3.6 9.4 3.7 7.1

Montgomery County-Bucks County-Chester County

1,091,258 1,034,315 1,086,532 1,026,066 38,329 52,087 37,191 50,505 3.5 5.0 3.4 4.9

Philadelphia

1,037,254 1,006,605 1,031,591 989,425 53,073 88,252 51,296 82,572 5.1 8.8 5.0 8.3

Wilmington(3)

384,610 374,652 383,958 371,275 13,584 19,842 13,395 19,182 3.5 5.3 3.5 5.2

Texas

14,209,425 14,200,317 14,192,255 14,170,462 480,312 1,130,172 470,136 1,006,737 3.4 8.0 3.3 7.1

Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington

4,035,848 4,054,318 4,031,616 4,059,126 124,584 290,024 117,806 256,748 3.1 7.2 2.9 6.3

Dallas-Plano-Irving

2,718,272 2,736,881 2,719,675 2,742,810 83,828 193,422 79,319 171,157 3.1 7.1 2.9 6.2

Fort Worth-Arlington

1,317,576 1,317,437 1,311,941 1,316,316 40,756 96,602 38,487 85,591 3.1 7.3 2.9 6.5

Washington

3,947,984 3,817,261 3,944,481 3,851,256 152,256 213,891 157,598 276,932 3.9 5.6 4.0 7.2

Seattle-Tacoma-Bellevue

2,190,123 2,127,152 2,179,993 2,144,961 66,544 106,780 64,948 153,467 3.0 5.0 3.0 7.2

Seattle-Bellevue-Everett

1,740,335 1,689,848 1,725,656 1,713,680 45,462 76,532 43,872 120,696 2.6 4.5 2.5 7.0

Tacoma-Lakewood

449,788 437,304 454,337 431,281 21,082 30,248 21,076 32,771 4.7 6.9 4.6 7.6

Footnotes
(1) These 11 areas contain all of the 38 metropolitan divisions.
(2) Part of the area (or division) is in one or more adjacent states.
(3) All of the division is in one or more adjacent states.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data refer to place of residence. Area delineations are based on Office of Management and Budget Bulletin No. 18-03, dated April 10, 2018, and are available on the BLS website at https://www.bls.gov/lau/lausmsa.htm. Areas in the six New England states are Metropolitan New England City and Town Areas (NECTAs), while areas in other states are county-based. Some metropolitan areas lie in two or more states. They are listed under the state containing the first principal city. Metropolitan divisions are listed under their metropolitan areas. Some divisions lie in more than one state, and some, like Camden, NJ, are totally outside the states under which their metropolitan areas are listed. For Washington-Arlington-Alexandria, DC-VA-MD-WV, the metropolitan area and division titles are identical. Estimates for the latest month are subject to revision the following month.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
NOT SEASONALLY ADJUSTED
Table 3. Employees on nonfarm payrolls by state and metropolitan area, not seasonally adjusted
[In thousands]
State and area November December Change from
December 2019 to December 2020(p)
2019 2020 2019 2020(p) Number Percent

Alabama

2,093.1 2,052.8 2,093.2 2,059.0 -34.2 -1.6

Anniston-Oxford-Jacksonville

47.7 44.8 47.7 45.1 -2.6 -5.5

Auburn-Opelika

69.2 66.8 68.5 67.0 -1.5 -2.2

Birmingham-Hoover

551.0 533.6 553.6 536.5 -17.1 -3.1

Daphne-Fairhope-Foley

79.8 74.2 79.1 75.2 -3.9 -4.9

Decatur

57.9 55.7 57.8 56.3 -1.5 -2.6

Dothan

60.5 58.6 60.5 59.2 -1.3 -2.1

Florence-Muscle Shoals

58.2 56.4 57.4 55.9