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Economic News Release
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Metropolitan Area Employment and Unemployment (Monthly) News Release

For release 10:00 a.m. (EST) Wednesday, February 5, 2020				    USDL-20-0178

Technical information:
 Employment:		(202) 691-6559  *  sminfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/sae
 Unemployment:		(202) 691-6392  *  lausinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/lau

Media contact:		(202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov


		     METROPOLITAN AREA EMPLOYMENT AND UNEMPLOYMENT -- DECEMBER 2019


Unemployment rates were lower in December than a year earlier in 266 of the 389 metropolitan areas,
higher in 101 areas, and unchanged in 22 areas, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. A
total of 136 areas had jobless rates of less than 3.0 percent and 3 areas had rates of at least 10.0
percent. Nonfarm payroll employment increased over the year in 45 metropolitan areas and was
essentially unchanged in the remaining 344 areas. The national unemployment rate in December was 3.4
percent, not seasonally adjusted, down from 3.7 percent a year earlier.

This news release presents statistics from two monthly programs. The civilian labor force and
unemployment data are based on the same concepts and definitions as those used for the national
household survey estimates. These data pertain to individuals by where they reside. The employment
data are from an establishment survey that measures nonfarm employment, hours, and earnings by
industry. These data pertain to jobs on payrolls defined by where the establishments are located. For
more information about the concepts and statistical methodologies used by these two programs, see the
Technical Note.

Metropolitan Area Unemployment (Not Seasonally Adjusted)

In December, Burlington-South Burlington, VT, and Logan, UT-ID, had the lowest unemployment rates,
1.6 percent and 1.7 percent, respectively. El Centro, CA, had the highest unemployment rate, 19.4
percent. A total of 212 areas had December jobless rates below the U.S. rate of 3.4 percent, 162 areas
had rates above it, and 15 areas had rates equal to that of the nation. (See table 1.)

Panama City, FL, had the largest over-the-year unemployment rate decrease in December (-3.1 percentage
points). Forty-nine other areas had rate declines of at least 1.0 percentage point. The largest 
over-the-year rate increase occurred in El Centro, CA (+1.7 percentage points).

Of the 51 metropolitan areas with a 2010 Census population of 1 million or more, Salt Lake City, UT,
had the lowest unemployment rate in December, 2.0 percent. Buffalo-Cheektowaga-Niagara Falls, NY, had
the highest jobless rate among the large areas, 4.7 percent. Thirty-nine large areas had over-the-year
unemployment rate decreases, 10 had increases, and 2 had no change. The largest rate decreases
occurred in Cleveland-Elyria, OH (-1.5 percentage points), and Denver-Aurora-Lakewood, CO (-1.3 points).
The largest jobless rate increase was in Pittsburgh, PA (+0.8 percentage point).

Metropolitan Division Unemployment (Not Seasonally Adjusted)

Eleven of the most populous metropolitan areas are made up of 38 metropolitan divisions, which are
essentially separately identifiable employment centers. In December, Miami-Miami Beach-Kendall, FL, and
San Francisco-Redwood City-South San Francisco, CA, had the lowest unemployment rates among the
divisions, 1.8 percent each. Philadelphia, PA, and Tacoma-Lakewood, WA, had the highest division rates,
5.0 percent and 4.8 percent, respectively. (See table 2.)

In December, 30 metropolitan divisions had over-the-year unemployment rate decreases, 6 had increases,
and 2 had no change. The largest rate decline occurred in Miami-Miami Beach-Kendall, FL (-1.7
percentage points). The largest over-the-year jobless rate increase occurred in Philadelphia, PA (+0.6
percentage point).

Metropolitan Area Nonfarm Employment (Not Seasonally Adjusted)

In December, 45 metropolitan areas had over-the-year increases in nonfarm payroll employment and 344
were essentially unchanged. The largest over-the-year employment increases occurred in Dallas-Fort 
Worth-Arlington, TX (+127,600), New York-Newark-Jersey City, NY-NJ-PA (+97,300), and Los Angeles-Long
Beach-Anaheim, CA (+93,200). The largest over-the-year percentage gains in employment occurred in Idaho
Falls, ID, and Wilmington, NC (+4.8 percent each), and Myrtle Beach-Conway-North Myrtle Beach, SC-NC 
(+4.7 percent). (See table 3.)

Over the year, nonfarm employment rose in 33 of the 51 metropolitan areas with a 2010 Census population
of 1 million or more, while employment was essentially unchanged in 18 areas. The largest over-the-year
percentage increases in employment in these large metropolitan areas occurred in Raleigh, NC (+3.7
percent), Austin-Round Rock, TX (+3.5 percent), and Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington, TX (+3.4 percent). 

Metropolitan Division Nonfarm Employment (Not Seasonally Adjusted)

In December, nonfarm payroll employment increased in 11 of the 38 metropolitan divisions over the year
and was essentially unchanged in 27 divisions. The largest over-the-year increase in employment among 
the metropolitan divisions occurred in Dallas-Plano-Irving, TX (+108,400), followed by New York-Jersey 
City-White Plains, NY-NJ (+81,700), and Los Angeles-Long Beach-Glendale, CA (+67,800). (See table 4.)

The largest over-the-year percentage increases in employment occurred in Dallas-Plano-Irving, TX (+4.0
percent), Seattle-Bellevue-Everett, WA (+3.4 percent), and San Francisco-Redwood City-South San 
Francisco, CA (+2.5 percent). 

_____________
The Regional and State Unemployment 2019 Annual Averages news release is scheduled to be released on
Wednesday, March 4, 2020, at 10:00 a.m. (EST). The State Employment and Unemployment news release for
January 2020 is scheduled to be released on Monday, March 16, 2020, at 10:00 a.m. (EDT). The
Metropolitan Area Employment and Unemployment news release for January 2020 is scheduled to be released
on Friday, March 20, 2020, at 10:00 a.m. (EDT).


   ________________________________________________________________________________________________
  |												   |
  |		        Upcoming Changes to Local Area Unemployment Statistics Data                |
  |												   |
  |Effective with the release of Regional and State Unemployment 2019 Annual Averages on Wednesday,|
  |March 4, 2020, the civilian labor force and unemployment data for census regions and divisions  |
  |and all states, the District of Columbia, and the modeled substate areas presented in tables 1  |
  |and 2 of this news release will be revised from 2015 forward to incorporate updated inputs, new |
  |population controls, and reestimation of models. Subsequently, civilian labor force and         |
  |unemployment estimates for all other metropolitan areas and metropolitan divisions will be      |
  |revised to reflect updated inputs and adjustment to the new statewide estimates. These revised  |
  |estimates will be published in conjunction with the March 2020 State Employment and Unemployment|
  |news release on Friday, April 17, 2020.							   |
  |________________________________________________________________________________________________|


   ________________________________________________________________________________________________
  |												   |
  |			  Upcoming Changes to Current Employment Statistics Data		   |
  |												   |
  |Effective with the release of January 2020 estimates on Monday, March 16, 2020, all nonfarm     |
  |payroll employment estimates for states and areas presented in tables 3 and 4 of this news      |
  |release will be adjusted to 2019 benchmark levels. Not seasonally adjusted data beginning with  |
  |April 2018 and seasonally adjusted data beginning with January 2015 are subject to revision.    |
  |Some not seasonally adjusted and seasonally adjusted series may be revised as far back as 1990. |
  |________________________________________________________________________________________________|




Technical Note
 
   This news release presents civilian labor force and unemployment data from the
Local Area Unemployment Statistics (LAUS) program (tables 1 and 2) for 389
metropolitan statistical areas and metropolitan New England City and Town Areas
(NECTAs), plus 7 areas in Puerto Rico. Estimates for 38 metropolitan and NECTA
divisions also are presented. Nonfarm payroll employment estimates from the
Current Employment Statistics (CES) program (tables 3 and 4) are provided for
the same areas. State estimates were previously published in the news release
State Employment and Unemployment, and are republished in this news release for
ease of reference. The LAUS and CES programs are both federal-state cooperative
endeavors.

Civilian labor force and unemployment--from the LAUS program

   Definitions. The civilian labor force and unemployment data are based on the
same concepts and definitions as those used for the official national estimates
obtained from the Current Population Survey (CPS), a sample survey of households
that is conducted for the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) by the U.S. Census
Bureau. The LAUS program measures employed persons and unemployed persons on a
place-of-residence basis.  The universe for each is the civilian noninstitutional
population 16 years of age and older. Employed persons are those who did any work
at all for pay or profit in the reference week (typically the week including the
12th of the month) or worked 15 hours or more without pay in a family business or
farm, plus those not working who had a job from which they were temporarily absent,
whether or not paid, for such reasons as labor-management dispute, illness, or
vacation. Unemployed persons are those who were not employed during the reference
week (based on the definition above), had actively looked for a job sometime in the
4-week period ending with the reference week, and were currently available for work;
persons on layoff expecting recall need not be looking for work to be counted as
unemployed. The civilian labor force is the sum of employed and unemployed persons.
The unemployment rate is the number of unemployed as a percent of the civilian labor
force.

   Method of estimation. Estimates for states, the District of Columbia, the Los
Angeles-Long Beach-Glendale metropolitan division, and New York City are produced
using time-series models with real-time benchmarking to national CPS totals. Model-
based estimates are also produced for the following areas and their respective
balances: the Chicago-Naperville-Arlington Heights, IL Metropolitan Division;
Cleveland-Elyria, OH Metropolitan Statistical Area; Detroit-Warren-Dearborn, MI
Metropolitan Statistical Area; Miami-Miami Beach-Kendall, FL Metropolitan Division;
and Seattle-Bellevue-Everett, WA Metropolitan Division. Modeling improves the
statistical basis of the estimation for these areas and provides important tools
for analysis, such as measures of errors and seasonally adjusted series. For all
other substate areas in this news release, estimates are prepared through indirect
estimation procedures using a building-block approach.  Estimates of employed
persons, which are based largely on “place of work” estimates from the CES program,
are adjusted to refer to place of residence as used in the CPS. Unemployment
estimates are aggregates of persons previously employed in industries covered by
state unemployment insurance (UI) laws and entrants to the labor force from the
CPS. The substate estimates of employment and unemployment, which geographically
exhaust the entire state, are adjusted proportionally to ensure that they add to
the independently estimated model-based area totals. A detailed description of the
estimation procedures is available from BLS upon request.

   Annual revisions. Civilian labor force and unemployment data shown for the prior
year reflect adjustments made at the beginning of each year, usually implemented with
the issuance of January estimates. The adjusted model-based estimates typically reflect
updated population data from the U.S. Census Bureau, any revisions in other input
data sources, and model re-estimation. All substate estimates then are re-estimated
using updated inputs and adjusted to add to the revised model-based totals.  In early
2015, a new generation of time-series models was implemented, resulting in the
replacement of data back to the series beginnings. At the same time, enhancements were
made to the substate estimation methodology, and more timely inputs from the American
Community Survey were incorporated.

Employment--from the CES program 

   Definitions. Employment data refer to persons on establishment payrolls who receive
pay for any part of the pay period that includes the 12th of the month. Persons are
counted at their place of work rather than at their place of residence; those appearing
on more than one payroll are counted on each payroll. Industries are classified on the
basis of their principal activity in accordance with the 2017 version of the North
American Industry Classification System.

   Method of estimation. CES State and Area employment data are produced using several
estimation procedures. Where possible these data are produced using a "weighted link
relative" estimation technique in which a ratio of current-month weighted employment
to that of the previous-month weighted employment is computed from a sample of
establishments reporting for both months. The estimates of employment for the current
month are then obtained by multiplying these ratios by the previous month's employment
estimates. The weighted link relative technique is utilized for data series where the
sample size meets certain statistical criteria.

   For some employment series, the sample of establishments is very small or highly
variable. In these cases, a model-based approach is used in estimation. These models
use the direct sample estimates (described above), combined with forecasts of historical
(benchmarked) data to decrease volatility in estimation. Two different models
(Fay-Herriot Model and Small Domain Model) are used depending on the industry level
being estimated. For more detailed information about each model, refer to the BLS
Handbook of Methods.

   Annual revisions.  Employment estimates are adjusted annually to a complete count
of jobs, called benchmarks, derived principally from tax reports that are submitted by
employers who are covered under state unemployment insurance (UI) laws. The benchmark
information is used to adjust the monthly estimates between the new benchmark and the
preceding one and also to establish the level of employment for the new benchmark month.
Thus, the benchmarking process establishes the level of employment, and the sample is used
to measure the month-to-month changes in the level for the subsequent months.

   Seasonal adjustment. Payroll employment data are seasonally adjusted for states,
metropolitan areas, and metropolitan divisions at the total nonfarm level. For states,
data are seasonally adjusted at the supersector level as well. Revisions to historical
data for the most recent 5 years are made once a year, coincident with annual benchmark
adjustments.

   Payroll employment data are seasonally adjusted concurrently, using all available
estimates including those for the current month, to develop sample-based seasonal factors.
Concurrent sample-based factors are created every month for the current month's preliminary
estimate as well as the previous month's final estimate in order to incorporate real-time
estimates. 

Reliability of the estimates

   The estimates presented in this news release are based on sample surveys, administrative data,
and modeling and, thus, are subject to sampling and other types of errors. Sampling error
is a measure of sampling variability—that is, variation that occurs by chance because a
sample rather than the entire population is surveyed. Survey data also are subject to
nonsampling errors, such as those which can be introduced into the data collection and
processing operations. Estimates not directly derived from sample surveys are subject to
additional errors resulting from the specific estimation processes used. The sums of
individual items may not always equal the totals shown in the same tables because of
rounding.

Use of error measures

   Civilian labor force and unemployment estimates. Measures of sampling error are not
available for metropolitan areas or metropolitan divisions. Model-based error measures for
states are available on the BLS website at www.bls.gov/laus/lastderr.htm. Measures of
nonsampling error are not available for the areas contained in this news release. Information
on recent data revisions for states and local areas is available online at
www.bls.gov/lau/launews1.htm.

   Employment estimates. Changes in metropolitan area nonfarm payroll employment are cited
in the analysis of this news release only if they have been determined to be statistically
significant at the 90-percent confidence level.  Measures of sampling error for the total
nonfarm employment series are available for metropolitan areas and metropolitan divisions
at www.bls.gov/web/laus/790stderr.htm. Measures of sampling error for more detailed series
at the area and division level are available upon request. Measures of sampling error for
states  at the supersector level and for the private service-providing, goods-producing,
total private and total nonfarm levels are available on the BLS website at 
www.bls.gov/web/laus/790stderr.htm. Information on recent benchmark revisions
is available online at www.bls.gov/web/laus/benchmark.pdf.

Area definitions

   The substate area data published in this news release reflect the delineations issued by the
U.S. Office of Management and Budget on April 10, 2018. Data reflect New England City and
Town Area (NECTA) definitions, rather than county-based definitions, in the six New England
States. A detailed list of the geographic definitions is available online at
www.bls.gov/lau/lausmsa.htm.

Additional information

   Estimates of unadjusted and seasonally adjusted civilian labor force and unemployment
data for states and seven substate areas are available in the news release State Employment
and Unemployment. Estimates of civilian labor force and unemployment for all states,
metropolitan areas, counties, cities with a population of 25,000 or more, and other areas
used in the administration of various federal economic assistance programs are available
on the Internet at www.bls.gov/lau/. Employment data from the CES program are available on
the BLS website at www.bls.gov/sae/.

   Information in this news release will be made available to sensory impaired individuals
upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay Service: (800) 877-8339. 




LABOR FORCE DATA
NOT SEASONALLY ADJUSTED

Table 1. Civilian labor force and unemployment by state and metropolitan area
State and area Civilian labor force Unemployed
November December Number Percent of labor force
2018 2019 2018 2019(p) November December November December
2018 2019 2018 2019(p) 2018 2019 2018 2019(p)

Alabama

2,205,363 2,258,828 2,199,965 2,252,513 73,717 55,676 77,928 57,084 3.3 2.5 3.5 2.5

Anniston-Oxford-Jacksonville

45,801 46,407 45,797 46,199 1,819 1,353 1,918 1,395 4.0 2.9 4.2 3.0

Auburn-Opelika

76,282 78,405 75,957 77,708 2,299 1,718 2,413 1,710 3.0 2.2 3.2 2.2

Birmingham-Hoover

548,078 561,326 548,724 562,040 16,618 12,457 17,366 12,579 3.0 2.2 3.2 2.2

Daphne-Fairhope-Foley

92,774 96,176 92,307 95,405 2,934 2,191 3,142 2,272 3.2 2.3 3.4 2.4

Decatur

71,190 73,261 70,989 72,807 2,147 1,634 2,253 1,659 3.0 2.2 3.2 2.3

Dothan

62,325 63,660 62,365 63,555 2,193 1,601 2,312 1,629 3.5 2.5 3.7 2.6

Florence-Muscle Shoals

65,949 66,907 65,113 66,565 2,346 1,833 2,620 2,000 3.6 2.7 4.0 3.0

Gadsden

43,063 44,195 43,440 44,134 1,523 1,184 1,593 1,219 3.5 2.7 3.7 2.8

Huntsville

224,908 231,688 223,518 230,171 6,598 4,790 6,829 4,849 2.9 2.1 3.1 2.1

Mobile

187,958 191,665 188,116 190,753 7,367 5,784 7,938 6,096 3.9 3.0 4.2 3.2

Montgomery

171,846 175,914 171,866 175,597 5,773 4,325 6,105 4,434 3.4 2.5 3.6 2.5

Tuscaloosa

117,080 120,699 116,773 119,784 3,640 2,792 3,763 2,776 3.1 2.3 3.2 2.3

Alaska

353,278 342,474 351,704 341,376 22,657 20,627 22,693 20,753 6.4 6.0 6.5 6.1

Anchorage

201,422 195,237 201,055 195,190 11,379 10,217 11,233 10,172 5.6 5.2 5.6 5.2

Fairbanks

46,182 44,271 45,970 44,040 2,573 2,352 2,648 2,339 5.6 5.3 5.8 5.3

Arizona

3,512,594 3,622,092 3,510,545 3,612,137 166,722 156,929 173,271 153,861 4.7 4.3 4.9 4.3

Flagstaff

77,887 78,989 77,498 77,665 4,115 3,775 4,819 4,268 5.3 4.8 6.2 5.5

Lake Havasu City-Kingman

86,525 89,362 86,076 88,875 4,997 4,799 5,282 4,798 5.8 5.4 6.1 5.4

Phoenix-Mesa-Scottsdale

2,459,584 2,546,142 2,460,986 2,543,195 102,136 95,524 106,742 93,382 4.2 3.8 4.3 3.7

Prescott

107,496 110,097 106,143 108,707 4,882 4,572 4,918 4,364 4.5 4.2 4.6 4.0

Sierra Vista-Douglas

50,734 51,936 50,732 51,228 2,844 2,755 2,954 2,712 5.6 5.3 5.8 5.3

Tucson

495,039 508,476 493,719 506,773 22,132 20,921 23,124 20,612 4.5 4.1 4.7 4.1

Yuma

103,119 102,725 102,643 101,666 16,107 15,813 15,135 14,727 15.6 15.4 14.7 14.5

Arkansas

1,351,062 1,367,798 1,344,510 1,363,533 43,405 43,750 48,618 46,448 3.2 3.2 3.6 3.4

Fayetteville-Springdale-Rogers

275,869 286,250 273,049 284,283 6,644 6,402 7,279 6,603 2.4 2.2 2.7 2.3

Fort Smith

118,675 119,038 118,086 118,097 3,890 4,157 4,298 4,211 3.3 3.5 3.6 3.6

Hot Springs

40,099 40,721 40,005 40,568 1,463 1,385 1,592 1,420 3.6 3.4 4.0 3.5

Jonesboro

64,643 66,146 64,122 65,754 1,749 1,669 1,947 1,777 2.7 2.5 3.0 2.7

Little Rock-North Little Rock-Conway

353,968 359,393 352,310 358,168 10,347 10,712 11,539 11,232 2.9 3.0 3.3 3.1

Pine Bluff

35,338 35,079 35,221 34,902 1,603 1,698 1,791 1,777 4.5 4.8 5.1 5.1

California

19,562,413 19,616,815 19,533,844 19,588,361 760,287 719,542 794,295 719,072 3.9 3.7 4.1 3.7

Bakersfield

388,958 389,862 386,773 385,551 25,161 24,795 28,821 27,883 6.5 6.4 7.5 7.2

Chico

103,625 103,163 104,320 102,671 4,503 4,095 5,734 4,321 4.3 4.0 5.5 4.2

El Centro

72,596 74,232 72,167 73,767 13,455 15,312 12,740 14,279 18.5 20.6 17.7 19.4

Fresno

449,306 451,758 450,752 453,103 30,606 29,450 33,329 31,487 6.8 6.5 7.4 6.9

Hanford-Corcoran

57,493 57,824 57,941 58,319 3,951 4,084 4,624 4,476 6.9 7.1 8.0 7.7

Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim

6,817,785 6,833,023 6,801,328 6,827,937 278,806 262,363 280,620 247,708 4.1 3.8 4.1 3.6

Madera

60,846 61,039 61,301 61,821 3,726 3,697 4,344 4,200 6.1 6.1 7.1 6.8

Merced

114,185 115,929 114,492 115,588 7,808 7,584 9,516 9,124 6.8 6.5 8.3 7.9

Modesto

242,704 243,112 242,180 241,909 13,668 12,642 15,028 13,649 5.6 5.2 6.2 5.6

Napa

73,517 73,885 72,461 72,794 1,934 1,902 2,317 2,079 2.6 2.6 3.2 2.9

Oxnard-Thousand Oaks-Ventura

428,472 424,908 427,930 423,996 15,726 14,513 16,126 14,438 3.7 3.4 3.8 3.4

Redding

74,406 74,020 73,947 73,518 3,235 2,919 3,559 3,106 4.3 3.9 4.8 4.2

Riverside-San Bernardino-Ontario

2,086,173 2,092,679 2,083,585 2,090,212 80,930 75,879 81,152 73,293 3.9 3.6 3.9 3.5

Sacramento--Roseville--Arden-Arcade

1,108,474 1,105,722 1,110,840 1,105,986 37,570 35,136 39,213 35,294 3.4 3.2 3.5 3.2

Salinas

221,037 222,626 212,826 214,493 10,618 10,090 16,790 15,350 4.8 4.5 7.9 7.2

San Diego-Carlsbad

1,607,105 1,613,735 1,605,195 1,614,240 50,138 46,135 50,481 44,815 3.1 2.9 3.1 2.8

San Francisco-Oakland-Hayward

2,617,117 2,632,307 2,621,107 2,631,087 65,402 60,977 65,598 58,904 2.5 2.3 2.5 2.2

San Jose-Sunnyvale-Santa Clara

1,090,373 1,104,021 1,090,272 1,105,101 26,422 25,477 26,853 24,813 2.4 2.3 2.5 2.2

San Luis Obispo-Paso Robles-Arroyo Grande

142,702 142,581 140,149 140,133 3,817 3,560 3,924 3,555 2.7 2.5 2.8 2.5

Santa Cruz-Watsonville

142,585 142,414 140,952 139,932 5,837 5,616 7,473 6,828 4.1 3.9 5.3 4.9

Santa Maria-Santa Barbara

218,589 218,135 216,910 215,804 7,329 6,884 8,651 7,758 3.4 3.2 4.0 3.6

Santa Rosa

261,752 261,943 262,033 262,554 6,502 6,223 6,816 6,184 2.5 2.4 2.6 2.4

Stockton-Lodi

326,746 324,424 326,831 325,070 17,860 17,235 19,734 18,518 5.5 5.3 6.0 5.7

Vallejo-Fairfield

210,504 208,014 210,612 207,711 7,475 6,925 7,963 7,037 3.6 3.3 3.8 3.4

Visalia-Porterville

203,862 203,321 206,283 203,694 17,396 17,312 19,461 19,009 8.5 8.5 9.4 9.3

Yuba City

74,294 75,432 74,243 75,417 4,627 4,282 5,447 5,046 6.2 5.7 7.3 6.7

Colorado

3,133,401 3,182,392 3,136,729 3,181,390 111,166 79,530 118,956 75,357 3.5 2.5 3.8 2.4

Boulder

196,896 200,265 196,253 199,775 5,905 4,193 6,256 3,943 3.0 2.1 3.2 2.0

Colorado Springs

356,109 362,582 354,699 360,819 15,008 10,621 16,327 9,985 4.2 2.9 4.6 2.8

Denver-Aurora-Lakewood

1,659,436 1,686,732 1,661,129 1,686,434 56,732 40,611 60,489 38,512 3.4 2.4 3.6 2.3

Fort Collins

206,475 211,424 205,266 209,499 6,222 4,387 6,586 4,183 3.0 2.1 3.2 2.0

Grand Junction

77,634 77,980 77,349 77,383 3,253 2,300 3,703 2,399 4.2 2.9 4.8 3.1

Greeley

168,221 172,881 167,084 172,101 5,352 3,989 5,749 3,888 3.2 2.3 3.4 2.3

Pueblo

76,703 76,742 76,526 76,198 4,045 2,888 4,459 2,777 5.3 3.8 5.8 3.6

Connecticut

1,920,441 1,934,414 1,916,138 1,918,550 60,478 63,642 61,246 61,610 3.1 3.3 3.2 3.2

Bridgeport-Stamford-Norwalk

470,566 473,986 468,574 470,660 14,932 15,790 14,968 14,965 3.2 3.3 3.2 3.2

Danbury

107,558 108,335 107,651 107,573 2,775 2,958 2,894 2,933 2.6 2.7 2.7 2.7

Hartford-West Hartford-East Hartford

631,538 634,341 630,881 630,170 19,784 21,011 20,183 20,637 3.1 3.3 3.2 3.3

New Haven

329,597 333,163 328,183 329,322 10,176 10,650 10,151 10,046 3.1 3.2 3.1 3.1

Norwich-New London-Westerly

142,507 143,417 141,901 141,856 4,508 4,657 4,614 4,530 3.2 3.2 3.3 3.2

Waterbury

113,033 113,801 112,953 112,920 4,563 4,612 4,489 4,593 4.0 4.1 4.0 4.1

Delaware

482,804 492,766 483,727 492,487 14,349 18,138 14,782 17,425 3.0 3.7 3.1 3.5

Dover

78,215 80,345 78,287 80,006 2,451 3,181 2,506 3,006 3.1 4.0 3.2 3.8

Salisbury(1)

187,353 189,098 188,599 190,698 8,390 8,934 9,768 9,465 4.5 4.7 5.2 5.0

District of Columbia

402,811 415,128 401,943 414,297 20,563 20,540 19,759 20,444 5.1 4.9 4.9 4.9

Washington-Arlington-Alexandria

3,385,124 3,491,666 3,375,670 3,482,300 98,787 96,593 97,200 91,914 2.9 2.8 2.9 2.6

Florida

10,293,133 10,477,386 10,284,492 10,463,470 335,916 287,798 338,922 265,350 3.3 2.7 3.3 2.5

Cape Coral-Fort Myers

346,877 356,712 347,954 357,053 10,902 9,433 10,837 9,039 3.1 2.6 3.1 2.5

Crestview-Fort Walton Beach-Destin

125,952 128,449 124,412 126,316 3,539 2,999 3,559 2,936 2.8 2.3 2.9 2.3

Deltona-Daytona Beach-Ormond Beach

301,176 305,148 300,074 305,333 10,604 9,316 10,573 9,042 3.5 3.1 3.5 3.0

Gainesville

145,611 146,259 144,555 145,544 4,352 3,725 4,400 3,620 3.0 2.5 3.0 2.5

Homosassa Springs

47,863 48,088 47,564 47,721 2,317 1,968 2,351 1,924 4.8 4.1 4.9 4.0

Jacksonville

769,881 792,145 771,967 792,732 23,986 20,948 23,959 20,282 3.1 2.6 3.1 2.6

Lakeland-Winter Haven

302,265 305,725 301,188 304,525 11,074 9,660 11,020 9,264 3.7 3.2 3.7 3.0

Miami-Fort Lauderdale-West Palm Beach

3,168,158 3,222,907 3,177,276 3,216,941 101,211 87,421 105,339 71,780 3.2 2.7 3.3 2.2

Naples-Immokalee-Marco Island

179,149 183,875 181,061 185,360 5,661 4,923 5,579 4,638 3.2 2.7 3.1 2.5

North Port-Sarasota-Bradenton

365,866 371,897 364,563 372,234 11,603 9,973 11,495 9,622 3.2 2.7 3.2 2.6

Ocala

136,236 138,524 135,748 137,527 5,365 4,563 5,339 4,415 3.9 3.3 3.9 3.2

Orlando-Kissimmee-Sanford

1,353,797 1,384,636 1,348,435 1,386,798 40,219 35,150 40,421 33,987 3.0 2.5 3.0 2.5

Palm Bay-Melbourne-Titusville

277,669 285,159 277,113 283,078 8,991 7,936 9,001 7,691 3.2 2.8 3.2 2.7

Panama City

95,413 91,629 93,220 90,393 6,687 2,607 5,626 2,586 7.0 2.8 6.0 2.9

Pensacola-Ferry Pass-Brent

227,183 228,066 225,701 227,562 7,121 6,214 7,237 6,088 3.1 2.7 3.2 2.7

Port St. Lucie

219,678 221,636 218,495 221,239 7,992 6,948 8,022 6,705 3.6 3.1 3.7 3.0

Punta Gorda

71,476 73,148 71,438 73,318 2,710 2,327 2,680 2,200 3.8 3.2 3.8 3.0

Sebastian-Vero Beach

66,266 67,757 66,295 67,971 2,529 2,151 2,499 2,079 3.8 3.2 3.8 3.1

Sebring

36,158 36,259 36,510 36,552 1,636 1,407 1,653 1,390 4.5 3.9 4.5 3.8

Tallahassee

196,231 200,216 194,785 198,444 6,216 5,266 6,227 5,114 3.2 2.6 3.2 2.6

Tampa-St. Petersburg-Clearwater

1,536,852 1,562,386 1,531,930 1,558,569 49,015 42,774 49,086 41,111 3.2 2.7 3.2 2.6

The Villages

31,335 32,084 31,344 31,890 1,508 1,324 1,510 1,260 4.8 4.1 4.8 4.0

Georgia

5,111,058 5,125,408 5,123,539 5,145,931 176,023 139,265 189,782 149,262 3.4 2.7 3.7 2.9

Albany

68,204 66,734 67,890 66,867 3,019 2,261 3,113 2,389 4.4 3.4 4.6 3.6

Athens-Clarke County

103,622 102,462 101,914 101,966 3,259 2,489 3,485 2,564 3.1 2.4 3.4 2.5

Atlanta-Sandy Springs-Roswell

3,066,497 3,096,775 3,086,445 3,117,021 100,086 79,681 109,386 83,585 3.3 2.6 3.5 2.7

Augusta-Richmond County

266,171 267,668 267,966 268,502 9,545 7,554 10,419 7,900 3.6 2.8 3.9 2.9

Brunswick

53,430 53,462 53,332 53,362 1,784 1,417 1,968 1,520 3.3 2.7 3.7 2.8

Columbus

124,888 123,159 125,554 123,187 4,942 3,933 5,422 4,114 4.0 3.2 4.3 3.3

Dalton

60,942 60,569 61,521 61,440 2,619 2,194 3,021 2,902 4.3 3.6 4.9 4.7

Gainesville

103,495 105,027 103,419 105,243 2,812 2,195 3,017 2,310 2.7 2.1 2.9 2.2

Hinesville

33,634 33,756 33,708 33,732 1,232 1,040 1,324 1,086 3.7 3.1 3.9 3.2

Macon-Bibb County

104,859 103,969 105,035 104,238 4,162 3,050 4,236 3,160 4.0 2.9 4.0 3.0

Rome

44,113 44,698 44,312 45,074 1,673 1,388 1,948 1,682 3.8 3.1 4.4 3.7

Savannah

187,340 188,377 187,716 187,665 5,963 4,843 6,461 5,111 3.2 2.6 3.4 2.7

Valdosta

65,291 65,103 64,721 64,681 2,266 1,872 2,411 1,917 3.5 2.9 3.7 3.0

Warner Robins

86,877 86,147 86,198 86,253 3,844 2,313 3,294 2,413 4.4 2.7 3.8 2.8

Hawaii

678,100 668,016 676,173 668,675 18,287 16,996 15,385 15,243 2.7 2.5 2.3 2.3

Kahului-Wailuku-Lahaina

85,147 84,328 85,282 84,688 2,297 2,122 1,918 1,897 2.7 2.5 2.2 2.2

Urban Honolulu

466,316 459,785 465,138 460,930 12,004 10,915 10,069 9,855 2.6 2.4 2.2 2.1

Idaho

861,411 886,751 860,899 889,472 22,900 25,144 24,640 25,659 2.7 2.8 2.9 2.9

Boise City

365,395 376,802 365,982 379,001 9,259 10,338 9,702 10,081 2.5 2.7 2.7 2.7

Coeur d'Alene

77,644 79,591 77,859 79,767 2,520 2,762 2,916 3,066 3.2 3.5 3.7 3.8

Idaho Falls

71,129 74,397 70,880 74,923 1,538 1,684 1,572 1,725 2.2 2.3 2.2 2.3

Lewiston

31,433 32,337 31,409 32,350 1,015 1,019 1,104 1,050 3.2 3.2 3.5 3.2

Pocatello

42,426 43,728 42,613 43,813 1,098 1,152 1,146 1,203 2.6 2.6 2.7 2.7

Twin Falls

52,998 54,403 52,819 54,434 1,306 1,478 1,452 1,536 2.5 2.7 2.7 2.8

Illinois

6,468,774 6,448,014 6,449,049 6,384,505 259,018 218,269 285,488 220,590 4.0 3.4 4.4 3.5

Bloomington

95,626 95,227 94,353 93,279 3,949 2,982 4,471 3,171 4.1 3.1 4.7 3.4

Carbondale-Marion

61,426 62,439 60,293 60,425 2,817 2,099 3,148 2,255 4.6 3.4 5.2 3.7

Champaign-Urbana

121,100 124,193 119,875 122,196 5,205 3,903 5,514 4,075 4.3 3.1 4.6 3.3

Chicago-Naperville-Elgin

4,873,710 4,852,717 4,864,146 4,813,035 172,179 158,705 191,835 152,669 3.5 3.3 3.9 3.2

Danville

33,218 33,057 33,126 32,696 1,914 1,517 2,227 1,732 5.8 4.6 6.7 5.3

Davenport-Moline-Rock Island(1)

191,934 194,314 192,294 191,800 7,129 7,587 8,983 8,561 3.7 3.9 4.7 4.5

Decatur

49,898 50,178 49,593 49,611 2,762 2,260 3,146 2,527 5.5 4.5 6.3 5.1

Kankakee

56,305 56,444 56,285 56,314 2,914 2,622 3,588 3,032 5.2 4.6 6.4 5.4

Peoria

181,127 177,685 179,929 175,904 8,694 7,065 10,365 8,115 4.8 4.0 5.8 4.6

Rockford

171,319 167,835 168,473 166,069 16,052 8,527 10,793 9,618 9.4 5.1 6.4 5.8

Springfield

111,458 111,839 111,257 110,323 4,646 3,596 5,557 4,007 4.2 3.2 5.0 3.6

Indiana

3,387,893 3,366,205 3,366,433 3,352,305 111,876 106,195 113,727 101,464 3.3 3.2 3.4 3.0

Bloomington

80,789 80,210 79,456 79,298 2,747 2,567 2,711 2,217 3.4 3.2 3.4 2.8

Columbus

45,671 45,672 45,455 45,418 1,115 1,051 1,145 968 2.4 2.3 2.5 2.1

Elkhart-Goshen

115,736 115,658 115,567 115,658 3,181 3,296 3,296 3,081 2.7 2.8 2.9 2.7

Evansville

165,658 164,740 164,135 163,729 4,912 4,920 4,980 4,648 3.0 3.0 3.0 2.8

Fort Wayne

217,697 218,656 216,687 216,608 6,327 6,880 6,445 6,137 2.9 3.1 3.0 2.8

Indianapolis-Carmel-Anderson

1,063,148 1,058,871 1,053,560 1,050,171 32,520 30,534 32,628 28,083 3.1 2.9 3.1 2.7

Kokomo

39,569 37,639 37,886 37,785 3,161 1,264 1,455 1,302 8.0 3.4 3.8 3.4

Lafayette-West Lafayette

112,984 110,695 111,910 110,779 3,353 3,195 3,316 2,843 3.0 2.9 3.0 2.6

Michigan City-La Porte

47,787 47,202 47,754 47,024 1,935 1,834 2,224 1,991 4.0 3.9 4.7 4.2

Muncie

54,518 54,691 54,122 54,238 2,074 2,034 2,116 1,882 3.8 3.7 3.9 3.5

South Bend-Mishawaka

161,687 161,506 160,969 160,964 5,419 5,581 5,988 5,537 3.4 3.5 3.7 3.4

Terre Haute

77,361 76,683 77,418 76,446 3,183 2,994 3,522 3,007 4.1 3.9 4.5 3.9

Iowa

1,691,018 1,768,803 1,688,961 1,752,493 31,556 41,096 42,521 50,748 1.9 2.3 2.5 2.9

Ames

59,610 63,296 58,570 61,519 717 998 868 1,244 1.2 1.6 1.5 2.0

Cedar Rapids

142,484 149,838 142,170 147,690 3,102 3,956 3,903 4,651 2.2 2.6 2.7 3.1

Des Moines-West Des Moines

353,450 375,308 354,020 371,754 6,602 8,480 8,573 9,943 1.9 2.3 2.4 2.7

Dubuque

55,433 58,227 55,335 57,864 981 1,291 1,371 1,766 1.8 2.2 2.5 3.1

Iowa City

97,193 100,411 96,035 98,546 1,476 1,810 1,782 2,231 1.5 1.8 1.9 2.3

Sioux City

93,244 96,352 92,876 94,877 1,859 2,478 2,545 2,905 2.0 2.6 2.7 3.1

Waterloo-Cedar Falls

89,642 92,881 89,291 91,769 1,696 2,472 2,294 3,063 1.9 2.7 2.6 3.3

Kansas

1,490,418 1,504,465 1,487,183 1,496,669 44,166 42,716 46,484 42,889 3.0 2.8 3.1 2.9

Lawrence

66,643 67,334 65,717 66,598 1,767 1,750 1,843 1,697 2.7 2.6 2.8 2.5

Manhattan

49,471 49,476 48,562 48,308 1,273 1,223 1,368 1,171 2.6 2.5 2.8 2.4

Topeka

119,877 122,356 119,994 121,802 3,712 3,587 4,033 3,745 3.1 2.9 3.4 3.1

Wichita

310,890 312,917 310,148 311,313 10,140 9,845 10,545 9,954 3.3 3.1 3.4 3.2

Kentucky

2,054,178 2,087,751 2,053,820 2,085,841 72,305 80,523 78,868 80,676 3.5 3.9 3.8 3.9

Bowling Green

83,633 85,487 83,489 85,504 2,630 3,008 2,863 3,314 3.1 3.5 3.4 3.9

Elizabethtown-Fort Knox

67,239 67,782 66,974 67,791 2,310 2,566 2,516 2,547 3.4 3.8 3.8 3.8

Lexington-Fayette

272,920 278,044 273,212 275,996 7,455 8,424 8,127 8,219 2.7 3.0 3.0 3.0

Louisville/Jefferson County

666,983 675,303 665,757 674,773 21,900 22,771 23,279 21,949 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.3

Owensboro

55,542 55,819 55,660 55,849 1,807 1,914 1,968 1,995 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6

Louisiana

2,098,944 2,110,527 2,083,413 2,091,614 90,359 102,257 91,047 103,412 4.3 4.8 4.4 4.9

Alexandria

62,595 62,279 62,411 62,067 3,053 3,304 3,098 3,425 4.9 5.3 5.0 5.5

Baton Rouge

419,997 423,558 414,696 420,515 16,093 18,636 16,164 18,752 3.8 4.4 3.9 4.5

Hammond

54,174 55,233 54,035 54,852 2,615 2,974 2,793 3,070 4.8 5.4 5.2 5.6

Houma-Thibodaux

86,786 85,062 85,674 84,121 3,747 4,036 3,629 3,973 4.3 4.7 4.2 4.7

Lafayette

211,594 211,661 210,698 210,614 9,135 10,177 9,043 10,293 4.3 4.8 4.3 4.9

Lake Charles

113,932 113,597 112,730 111,652 3,781 4,584 3,863 4,790 3.3 4.0 3.4 4.3

Monroe

79,585 79,015 79,258 78,521 3,837 4,395 3,955 4,444 4.8 5.6 5.0 5.7

New Orleans-Metairie

596,750 607,156 592,957 601,195 24,191 26,785 23,823 26,725 4.1 4.4 4.0 4.4

Shreveport-Bossier City

186,258 185,126 185,270 182,155 8,654 9,821 8,659 9,780 4.6 5.3 4.7 5.4

Maine

693,756 687,509 691,825 689,157 23,036 18,439 23,188 19,639 3.3 2.7 3.4 2.8

Bangor

71,476 71,633 71,073 71,733 2,359 1,871 2,399 1,960 3.3 2.6 3.4 2.7

Lewiston-Auburn

55,925 55,729 55,578 55,576 1,814 1,454 1,732 1,479 3.2 2.6 3.1 2.7

Portland-South Portland

208,589 207,591 207,395 207,018 5,820 4,620 5,363 4,698 2.8 2.2 2.6 2.3

Maryland

3,191,352 3,292,102 3,184,211 3,287,685 109,903 104,754 110,035 98,267 3.4 3.2 3.5 3.0

Baltimore-Columbia-Towson

1,495,407 1,546,231 1,493,054 1,547,061 51,551 49,169 51,511 45,558 3.4 3.2 3.5 2.9

California-Lexington Park

54,961 56,412 54,779 56,371 1,776 1,614 1,673 1,501 3.2 2.9 3.1 2.7

Cumberland

44,339 45,366 44,185 44,843 2,034 2,254 2,202 2,184 4.6 5.0 5.0 4.9

Hagerstown-Martinsburg

132,392 136,965 132,154 136,622 4,808 4,334 4,796 4,231 3.6 3.2 3.6 3.1

Massachusetts

3,823,218 3,837,569 3,821,194 3,849,752 98,823 88,787 101,990 91,543 2.6 2.3 2.7 2.4

Barnstable Town

124,516 123,577 124,355 123,966 4,012 3,701 4,624 4,261 3.2 3.0 3.7 3.4

Boston-Cambridge-Nashua

2,827,796 2,844,647 2,821,489 2,849,800 66,984 60,610 66,864 60,555 2.4 2.1 2.4 2.1

Leominster-Gardner

82,856 83,046 83,095 83,620 2,369 2,201 2,611 2,425 2.9 2.7 3.1 2.9

New Bedford

86,990 86,836 87,258 87,736 3,277 3,043 3,471 3,312 3.8 3.5 4.0 3.8

Pittsfield

43,319 43,170 43,812 43,827 1,462 1,253 1,637 1,416 3.4 2.9 3.7 3.2

Springfield

385,892 390,317 386,818 389,742 12,003 11,027 12,562 11,424 3.1 2.8 3.2 2.9

Worcester

364,388 362,548 364,469 364,448 10,166 9,366 10,611 9,723 2.8 2.6 2.9 2.7

Michigan

4,893,580 4,933,486 4,896,726 4,932,803 166,773 157,409 201,376 174,820 3.4 3.2 4.1 3.5

Ann Arbor

196,725 199,210 195,792 197,707 4,947 4,433 5,407 4,300 2.5 2.2 2.8 2.2

Battle Creek

63,021 62,912 63,035 62,634 2,109 2,025 2,629 2,170 3.3 3.2 4.2 3.5

Bay City

50,164 49,847 50,161 49,551 1,754 1,832 2,294 2,111 3.5 3.7 4.6 4.3

Detroit-Warren-Dearborn

2,129,400 2,148,122 2,139,584 2,160,849 78,916 72,509 91,163 79,904 3.7 3.4 4.3 3.7

Flint

181,767 184,442 181,930 184,202 6,935 7,015 8,505 7,383 3.8 3.8 4.7 4.0

Grand Rapids-Wyoming

578,696 579,881 578,445 576,809 13,815 13,471 16,767 14,067 2.4 2.3 2.9 2.4

Jackson

74,347 74,524 74,503 74,307 2,310 2,236 2,847 2,414 3.1 3.0 3.8 3.2

Kalamazoo-Portage

168,969 170,514 168,341 169,898 4,929 4,804 6,199 5,152 2.9 2.8 3.7 3.0

Lansing-East Lansing

251,305 254,530 247,767 251,363 7,526 6,462 7,992 6,785 3.0 2.5 3.2 2.7

Midland

40,274 40,356 40,290 40,112 1,212 1,219 1,528 1,335 3.0 3.0 3.8 3.3

Monroe

76,390 76,309 75,786 75,647 2,794 2,190 3,067 2,312 3.7 2.9 4.0 3.1

Muskegon

77,669 79,213 77,717 79,046 2,759 2,821 3,392 2,962 3.6 3.6 4.4 3.7

Niles-Benton Harbor

72,828 73,781 72,347 73,433 2,452 2,307 3,171 2,628 3.4 3.1 4.4 3.6

Saginaw

87,094 87,424 86,911 87,425 3,224 3,386 3,988 3,603 3.7 3.9 4.6 4.1

Minnesota

3,073,359 3,130,497 3,082,219 3,119,177 69,288 89,608 98,693 108,919 2.3 2.9 3.2 3.5

Duluth

143,339 145,552 143,173 143,951 4,386 5,658 5,737 6,468 3.1 3.9 4.0 4.5

Mankato-North Mankato

61,952 64,009 62,068 63,109 1,052 1,301 1,581 1,625 1.7 2.0 2.5 2.6

Minneapolis-St. Paul-Bloomington

2,005,563 2,033,858 2,004,332 2,024,153 41,742 54,188 56,242 61,365 2.1 2.7 2.8 3.0

Rochester

122,834 126,185 124,108 125,420 2,314 2,957 3,376 3,712 1.9 2.3 2.7 3.0

St. Cloud

112,343 115,136 112,565 114,445 2,548 3,168 3,901 4,290 2.3 2.8 3.5 3.7

Mississippi

1,274,959 1,284,490 1,278,260 1,281,471 53,790 70,280 60,187 67,402 4.2 5.5 4.7 5.3

Gulfport-Biloxi-Pascagoula

162,915 166,265 163,658 166,058 7,248 9,209 8,127 8,912 4.4 5.5 5.0 5.4

Hattiesburg

69,997 71,555 70,144 70,481 2,518 3,289 2,839 3,068 3.6 4.6 4.0 4.4

Jackson

270,220 271,909 270,995 270,623 10,015 12,971 11,041 12,157 3.7 4.8 4.1 4.5

Missouri

3,039,341 3,127,518 3,046,032 3,097,174 75,593 93,521 93,192 105,566 2.5 3.0 3.1 3.4

Cape Girardeau

47,942 49,307 48,138 49,018 1,143 1,509 1,403 1,559 2.4 3.1 2.9 3.2

Columbia

97,940 100,293 97,916 98,881 1,730 2,171 2,115 2,405 1.8 2.2 2.2 2.4

Jefferson City

72,897 74,693 72,793 73,398 1,470 1,862 1,861 2,082 2.0 2.5 2.6 2.8

Joplin

83,847 86,222 84,130 85,804 1,897 2,477 2,260 2,727 2.3 2.9 2.7 3.2

Kansas City

1,131,451 1,162,944 1,131,703 1,153,374 31,057 33,004 35,223 35,410 2.7 2.8 3.1 3.1

St. Joseph

63,040 63,705 63,170 63,393 1,463 1,663 1,853 1,901 2.3 2.6 2.9 3.0

St. Louis(2)

1,452,805 1,497,706 1,460,250 1,480,617 42,518 44,228 50,022 48,882 2.9 3.0 3.4 3.3

Springfield

231,420 238,075 232,930 236,207 4,895 6,608 6,069 7,467 2.1 2.8 2.6 3.2

Montana

527,399 536,751 525,061 535,304 18,980 18,321 20,496 19,412 3.6 3.4 3.9 3.6

Billings

86,316 87,466 86,491 87,087 2,753 2,683 2,956 2,748 3.2 3.1 3.4 3.2

Great Falls

37,827 38,287 37,866 38,279 1,281 1,228 1,404 1,287 3.4 3.2 3.7 3.4

Missoula

63,291 65,077 63,235 64,808 2,011 1,995 2,361 2,264 3.2 3.1 3.7 3.5

Nebraska

1,020,931 1,045,850 1,018,612 1,041,475 23,458 28,996 27,381 28,039 2.3 2.8 2.7 2.7

Grand Island

43,231 44,046 43,275 43,845 1,067 1,248 1,274 1,278 2.5 2.8 2.9 2.9

Lincoln

182,547 187,220 181,210 186,255 3,825 4,943 4,282 4,464 2.1 2.6 2.4 2.4

Omaha-Council Bluffs

486,576 505,429 487,841 503,648 11,586 13,641 13,575 13,621 2.4 2.7 2.8 2.7

Nevada

1,518,855 1,571,659 1,518,338 1,565,827 64,041 54,543 64,928 52,035 4.2 3.5 4.3 3.3

Carson City

25,759 26,855 25,910 26,814 1,079 897 1,152 898 4.2 3.3 4.4 3.3

Las Vegas-Henderson-Paradise

1,108,053 1,144,183 1,109,001 1,140,841 49,415 41,955 49,739 39,746 4.5 3.7 4.5 3.5

Reno

260,367 273,469 260,564 272,324 8,447 7,329 8,748 7,148 3.2 2.7 3.4 2.6

New Hampshire

761,578 775,189 759,790 776,513 16,449 17,694 15,969 17,729 2.2 2.3 2.1 2.3

Dover-Durham

85,912 86,769 85,506 86,728 1,750 1,826 1,725 1,841 2.0 2.1 2.0 2.1

Manchester

120,902 123,313 120,178 123,308 2,484 2,707 2,347 2,637 2.1 2.2 2.0 2.1

Portsmouth

77,128 78,172 76,761 78,047 1,655 1,608 1,558 1,546 2.1 2.1 2.0 2.0

New Jersey

4,409,867 4,562,145 4,421,437 4,585,378 145,777 150,144 158,306 165,220 3.3 3.3 3.6 3.6

Atlantic City-Hammonton

118,704 122,489 119,021 123,389 5,504 5,746 6,329 6,631 4.6 4.7 5.3 5.4

Ocean City

41,888 45,078 41,930 45,218 3,601 3,592 4,338 4,540 8.6 8.0 10.3 10.0

Trenton

197,184 205,787 197,848 206,630 5,698 5,933 6,135 6,465 2.9 2.9 3.1 3.1

Vineland-Bridgeton

64,269 67,510 64,311 67,449 3,200 3,336 3,741 4,009 5.0 4.9 5.8 5.9

New Mexico

952,647 971,039 953,970 968,900 46,012 44,663 46,133 43,457 4.8 4.6 4.8 4.5

Albuquerque

436,153 443,494 436,121 441,367 19,947 19,181 19,724 18,349 4.6 4.3 4.5 4.2

Farmington

53,171 53,737 53,241 53,455 2,926 2,959 3,034 2,917 5.5 5.5 5.7 5.5

Las Cruces

98,138 100,122 98,516 100,138 5,291 5,250 5,456 5,231 5.4 5.2 5.5 5.2

Santa Fe

75,162 75,375 74,736 74,986 3,068 2,737 2,999 2,678 4.1 3.6 4.0 3.6

New York

9,576,358 9,510,615 9,583,357 9,477,621 339,417 345,362 371,398 350,924 3.5 3.6 3.9 3.7

Albany-Schenectady-Troy

453,576 450,946 452,937 450,172 14,178 14,392 15,687 16,417 3.1 3.2 3.5 3.6

Binghamton

107,389 105,963 107,200 106,098 4,036 4,226 4,770 5,138 3.8 4.0 4.4 4.8

Buffalo-Cheektowaga-Niagara Falls

542,340 541,733 542,970 540,581 20,485 21,321 23,553 25,376 3.8 3.9 4.3 4.7

Elmira

35,394 34,797 35,354 34,908 1,286 1,281 1,463 1,563 3.6 3.7 4.1 4.5

Glens Falls

59,462 58,410 59,546 58,255 2,272 2,336 2,771 2,950 3.8 4.0 4.7 5.1

Ithaca

51,313 51,890 51,092 52,056 1,539 1,561 1,607 1,659 3.0 3.0 3.1 3.2

Kingston

89,005 88,893 89,119 88,609 2,804 2,871 3,178 3,249 3.2 3.2 3.6 3.7

New York-Newark-Jersey City

9,916,030 9,977,244 9,930,612 9,961,663 337,329 342,275 360,417 335,883 3.4 3.4 3.6 3.4

Rochester

523,910 524,706 522,938 524,082 18,382 19,386 20,913 22,702 3.5 3.7 4.0 4.3

Syracuse

308,308 309,039 309,109 309,147 11,044 11,493 12,906 13,649 3.6 3.7 4.2 4.4

Utica-Rome

129,908 128,086 130,002 128,356 4,910 4,992 5,807 5,990 3.8 3.9 4.5 4.7

Watertown-Fort Drum

44,450 44,301 44,339 44,502 2,179 2,442 2,603 3,006 4.9 5.5 5.9 6.8

North Carolina

4,992,016 5,110,118 4,966,260 5,078,529 180,250 173,545 185,156 169,153 3.6 3.4 3.7 3.3

Asheville

235,217 244,881 235,262 242,984 6,747 6,431 7,141 6,467 2.9 2.6 3.0 2.7

Burlington

81,337 82,300 80,852 81,883 2,712 2,652 2,825 2,598 3.3 3.2 3.5 3.2

Charlotte-Concord-Gastonia

1,343,343 1,378,411 1,336,800 1,373,676 44,468 43,238 45,898 42,004 3.3 3.1 3.4 3.1

Durham-Chapel Hill

298,863 304,560 297,860 301,746 9,521 9,000 9,797 8,768 3.2 3.0 3.3 2.9

Fayetteville

148,750 150,117 148,535 149,426 7,185 6,839 7,354 6,633 4.8 4.6 5.0 4.4

Goldsboro

52,416 53,086 52,377 52,970 2,123 1,922 2,150 1,863 4.1 3.6 4.1 3.5

Greensboro-High Point

368,821 374,695 364,408 371,154 14,077 13,337 14,190 12,866 3.8 3.6 3.9 3.5

Greenville

89,483 91,399 89,395 90,845 3,446 3,397 3,495 3,258 3.9 3.7 3.9 3.6

Hickory-Lenoir-Morganton

176,130 176,183 174,462 174,931 5,863 5,729 6,188 5,594 3.3 3.3 3.5 3.2

Jacksonville

64,041 64,795 64,192 64,600 2,942 2,617 3,006 2,583 4.6 4.0 4.7 4.0

New Bern

51,323 51,785 51,043 51,716 2,146 1,806 2,143 1,769 4.2 3.5 4.2 3.4

Raleigh

711,827 735,023 708,060 730,317 22,460 21,714 23,176 21,122 3.2 3.0 3.3 2.9

Rocky Mount

65,596 65,449 65,373 65,128 3,177 2,975 3,150 2,811 4.8 4.5 4.8 4.3

Wilmington

149,949 155,721 148,535 154,731 5,511 4,752 5,543 4,701 3.7 3.1 3.7 3.0

Winston-Salem

328,237 334,672 326,870 332,876 11,196 10,855 11,539 10,648 3.4 3.2 3.5 3.2

North Dakota

398,404 401,983 397,048 400,858 8,348 8,419 9,532 8,846 2.1 2.1 2.4 2.2

Bismarck

66,201 67,178 66,463 66,825 1,539 1,528 1,832 1,623 2.3 2.3 2.8 2.4

Fargo

135,217 138,508 135,388 137,662 2,522 2,639 3,162 2,963 1.9 1.9 2.3 2.2

Grand Forks

54,111 54,937 54,219 54,706 1,108 1,181 1,373 1,353 2.0 2.1 2.5 2.5

Ohio

5,754,616 5,821,691 5,739,445 5,807,136 243,308 220,831 274,826 219,006 4.2 3.8 4.8 3.8

Akron

358,174 359,765 359,804 357,283 15,524 14,359 17,766 14,317 4.3 4.0 4.9 4.0

Canton-Massillon

199,757 201,834 199,276 200,759 9,122 8,855 10,387 8,905 4.6 4.4 5.2 4.4

Cincinnati

1,117,245 1,146,588 1,119,005 1,147,422 40,452 39,013 44,391 37,256 3.6 3.4 4.0 3.2

Cleveland-Elyria

1,030,378 1,037,367 1,018,535 1,031,269 45,012 34,197 50,491 36,128 4.4 3.3 5.0 3.5

Columbus

1,085,672 1,110,424 1,087,903 1,107,792 39,665 37,127 44,284 35,470 3.7 3.3 4.1 3.2

Dayton

385,780 391,539 386,119 391,334 15,893 14,822 17,815 14,162 4.1 3.8 4.6 3.6

Lima

47,843 48,401 47,885 48,253 1,922 1,849 2,238 1,826 4.0 3.8 4.7 3.8

Mansfield

52,471 53,617 52,560 53,471 2,433 2,336 2,842 2,363 4.6 4.4 5.4 4.4

Springfield

63,182 64,120 63,134 63,881 2,703 2,745 3,093 2,552 4.3 4.3 4.9 4.0

Toledo

302,741 303,095 302,082 302,573 14,287 12,226 15,551 11,961 4.7 4.0 5.1 4.0

Weirton-Steubenville(1)

49,874 50,156 49,775 50,012 2,719 2,800 2,939 2,744 5.5 5.6 5.9 5.5

Youngstown-Warren-Boardman

239,635 237,634 239,699 236,819 12,986 13,192 14,319 12,778 5.4 5.6 6.0 5.4

Oklahoma

1,845,292 1,842,382 1,831,981 1,822,098 53,190 63,398 55,288 58,024 2.9 3.4 3.0 3.2

Enid

27,183 26,741 27,066 26,450 704 859 737 820 2.6 3.2 2.7 3.1

Lawton

51,118 51,378 50,825 50,898 1,774 1,906 1,762 1,690 3.5 3.7 3.5 3.3

Oklahoma City

684,831 686,137 681,977 679,962 18,145 21,336 18,798 19,315 2.6 3.1 2.8 2.8

Tulsa

480,197 477,936 478,355 473,432 14,250 16,560 14,799 15,012 3.0 3.5 3.1 3.2

Oregon

2,117,387 2,109,316 2,104,382 2,097,247 85,731 65,158 89,585 60,847 4.0 3.1 4.3 2.9

Albany

58,968 58,807 58,472 58,191 2,779 2,107 2,807 1,947 4.7 3.6 4.8 3.3

Bend-Redmond

96,098 96,192 96,237 96,226 4,002 2,995 4,493 3,022 4.2 3.1 4.7 3.1

Corvallis

49,307 49,305 48,663 48,604 1,495 1,090 1,478 981 3.0 2.2 3.0 2.0

Eugene

182,036 181,015 180,879 180,152 7,932 6,085 8,208 5,518 4.4 3.4 4.5 3.1

Grants Pass

36,131 36,155 35,945 35,761 1,948 1,473 2,098 1,392 5.4 4.1 5.8 3.9

Medford

105,973 106,287 105,313 104,932 4,778 3,417 5,086 3,216 4.5 3.2 4.8 3.1

Portland-Vancouver-Hillsboro

1,329,266 1,337,778 1,326,617 1,337,061 49,963 41,798 51,668 37,053 3.8 3.1 3.9 2.8

Salem

202,927 200,449 199,988 198,434 8,566 6,519 8,913 6,144 4.2 3.3 4.5 3.1

Pennsylvania

6,437,401 6,544,150 6,430,281 6,532,299 233,777 279,665 247,993 297,499 3.6 4.3 3.9 4.6

Allentown-Bethlehem-Easton

436,483 447,193 436,212 446,371 16,519 18,481 17,183 20,451 3.8 4.1 3.9 4.6

Altoona

59,220 60,263 59,385 60,428 2,136 2,681 2,314 3,036 3.6 4.4 3.9 5.0

Bloomsburg-Berwick

42,568 43,246 42,100 43,052 1,512 1,762 1,812 2,202 3.6 4.1 4.3 5.1

Chambersburg-Waynesboro

77,501 79,552 77,910 80,492 2,390 2,913 2,483 3,354 3.1 3.7 3.2 4.2

East Stroudsburg

81,791 83,674 82,002 83,914 3,823 4,490 3,977 4,765 4.7 5.4 4.8 5.7

Erie

129,319 130,658 128,878 130,219 4,967 5,872 5,502 6,456 3.8 4.5 4.3 5.0

Gettysburg

54,921 55,474 54,443 55,006 1,481 1,722 1,557 1,842 2.7 3.1 2.9 3.3

Harrisburg-Carlisle

296,465 300,395 295,926 299,972 9,410 10,986 9,592 11,424 3.2 3.7 3.2 3.8

Johnstown

58,204 59,382 58,508 59,537 2,478 3,040 2,799 3,477 4.3 5.1 4.8 5.8

Lancaster

279,701 283,948 278,929 283,323 8,078 9,444 8,311 9,550 2.9 3.3 3.0 3.4

Lebanon

71,018 72,895 71,104 73,088 2,279 2,758 2,483 3,014 3.2 3.8 3.5 4.1

Philadelphia-Camden-Wilmington

3,093,266 3,166,021 3,095,680 3,158,309 109,302 125,696 112,206 126,538 3.5 4.0 3.6 4.0

Pittsburgh

1,208,177 1,218,322 1,204,906 1,217,578 42,483 51,965 46,258 55,761 3.5 4.3 3.8 4.6

Reading

212,784 217,367 212,597 216,981 7,618 9,224 7,903 9,502 3.6 4.2 3.7 4.4

Scranton--Wilkes-Barre--Hazleton

278,639 280,136 277,417 279,027 12,079 14,528 13,061 15,707 4.3 5.2 4.7 5.6

State College

82,865 84,355 81,785 82,967 2,138 2,635 2,387 2,851 2.6 3.1 2.9 3.4

Williamsport

56,381 57,559 56,544 57,566 2,290 2,667 2,625 3,209 4.1 4.6 4.6 5.6

York-Hanover

234,006 236,818 233,653 236,143 7,627 8,822 7,764 9,056 3.3 3.7 3.3 3.8

Rhode Island

558,933 562,904 556,929 561,942 21,567 18,038 20,988 17,992 3.9 3.2 3.8 3.2

Providence-Warwick

694,124 699,632 692,203 699,392 25,470 21,752 25,190 22,208 3.7 3.1 3.6 3.2

South Carolina

2,318,289 2,370,350 2,324,318 2,371,383 68,439 51,232 77,078 55,936 3.0 2.2 3.3 2.4

Charleston-North Charleston

384,176 389,636 383,576 391,060 9,499 7,045 10,801 7,649 2.5 1.8 2.8 2.0

Columbia

396,103 402,713 397,571 402,903 11,276 8,204 12,536 8,740 2.8 2.0 3.2 2.2

Florence

95,928 97,224 96,287 97,367 3,156 2,273 3,523 2,468 3.3 2.3 3.7 2.5

Greenville-Anderson-Mauldin

423,423 430,953 424,613 431,264 11,322 8,606 12,543 9,157 2.7 2.0 3.0 2.1

Hilton Head Island-Bluffton-Beaufort

86,788 90,438 86,357 89,823 2,378 1,720 2,620 1,877 2.7 1.9 3.0 2.1

Myrtle Beach-Conway-North Myrtle Beach

194,464 203,837 193,762 202,185 7,916 6,216 9,411 7,165 4.1 3.0 4.9 3.5

Spartanburg

158,999 164,412 159,149 164,596 4,274 3,297 4,722 3,525 2.7 2.0 3.0 2.1

Sumter

44,107 44,522 44,366 44,588 1,502 1,163 1,645 1,323 3.4 2.6 3.7 3.0

South Dakota

461,667 471,441 459,874 468,381 12,749 14,944 13,849 16,384 2.8 3.2 3.0 3.5

Rapid City

74,378 75,482 73,491 74,958 2,272 2,590 2,369 2,768 3.1 3.4 3.2 3.7

Sioux Falls

154,167 159,886 153,792 158,085 3,502 4,207 3,860 4,713 2.3 2.6 2.5 3.0

Tennessee

3,255,813 3,355,736 3,245,759 3,358,778 98,204 102,908 97,655 104,990 3.0 3.1 3.0 3.1

Chattanooga

269,455 276,238 267,898 276,302 8,140 8,075 8,329 9,010 3.0 2.9 3.1 3.3

Clarksville

115,539 118,641 114,874 118,827 4,047 4,451 4,026 4,401 3.5 3.8 3.5 3.7

Cleveland

58,783 59,968 60,976 60,057 1,841 1,884 1,807 1,968 3.1 3.1 3.0 3.3

Jackson

63,908 66,345 63,829 66,421 2,043 2,106 2,034 2,071 3.2 3.2 3.2 3.1

Johnson City

90,880 93,667 90,649 93,641 2,999 3,091 3,053 3,176 3.3 3.3 3.4 3.4

Kingsport-Bristol-Bristol

137,301 142,140 136,798 142,770 4,269 4,544 4,522 4,625 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.2

Knoxville

421,738 437,210 419,974 436,817 12,123 12,510 11,827 12,460 2.9 2.9 2.8 2.9

Memphis

639,381 649,789 638,849 649,469 22,951 25,166 23,505 25,069 3.6 3.9 3.7 3.9

Morristown

51,356 53,272 51,271 53,337 1,698 1,823 1,674 1,846 3.3 3.4 3.3 3.5

Nashville-Davidson--Murfreesboro--Franklin

1,052,145 1,086,666 1,047,588 1,089,367 25,305 26,071 24,209 25,742 2.4 2.4 2.3 2.4

Texas

13,961,940 14,264,714 13,975,415 14,228,471 485,960 476,916 501,787 470,429 3.5 3.3 3.6 3.3

Abilene

77,284 78,137 77,311 77,336 2,355 2,275 2,399 2,172 3.0 2.9 3.1 2.8

Amarillo

132,672 133,175 132,466 132,641 3,390 3,280 3,422 3,099 2.6 2.5 2.6 2.3

Austin-Round Rock

1,207,111 1,235,828 1,205,457 1,235,899 32,915 31,363 33,102 30,028 2.7 2.5 2.7 2.4

Beaumont-Port Arthur

176,834 178,256 177,127 177,467 9,150 9,211 10,062 9,637 5.2 5.2 5.7 5.4

Brownsville-Harlingen

164,708 165,718 165,378 165,897 8,793 8,938 9,560 9,544 5.3 5.4 5.8 5.8

College Station-Bryan

136,390 138,879 134,831 136,874 3,607 3,600 3,701 3,372 2.6 2.6 2.7 2.5

Corpus Christi

209,039 210,817 208,998 209,848 8,937 8,513 9,366 8,889 4.3 4.0 4.5 4.2

Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington

3,948,427 4,062,973 3,956,122 4,054,399 126,608 123,312 128,944 117,547 3.2 3.0 3.3 2.9

El Paso

362,747 368,463 363,184 366,925 14,047 13,630 14,388 13,208 3.9 3.7 4.0 3.6

Houston-The Woodlands-Sugar Land

3,420,558 3,498,843 3,423,935 3,487,842 130,454 126,373 134,591 126,011 3.8 3.6 3.9 3.6

Killeen-Temple

177,549 181,526 177,787 180,295 6,849 6,430 7,025 6,108 3.9 3.5 4.0 3.4

Laredo

117,309 118,975 117,954 118,131 4,047 4,194 4,373 4,305 3.4 3.5 3.7 3.6

Longview

98,464 97,533 98,093 96,762 3,691 3,600 3,774 3,569 3.7 3.7 3.8 3.7

Lubbock

163,408 165,760 163,151 164,550 4,493 4,327 4,595 4,079 2.7 2.6 2.8 2.5

McAllen-Edinburg-Mission

348,987 358,519 353,177 362,502 20,259 21,910 23,391 25,298 5.8 6.1 6.6 7.0

Midland

107,736 108,438 108,490 107,732 2,083 2,313 2,107 2,243 1.9 2.1 1.9 2.1

Odessa

86,910 87,872 87,216 87,446 2,043 2,522 2,096 2,546 2.4 2.9 2.4 2.9

San Angelo

56,098 56,285 55,910 56,015 1,692 1,633 1,718 1,567 3.0 2.9 3.1 2.8

San Antonio-New Braunfels

1,196,835 1,228,759 1,198,243 1,225,779 36,813 35,963 37,491 34,168 3.1 2.9 3.1 2.8

Sherman-Denison

64,302 65,213 64,114 64,892 1,923 1,919 1,920 1,857 3.0 2.9 3.0 2.9

Texarkana

65,391 65,215 65,165 64,900 3,065 2,567 3,102 2,520 4.7 3.9 4.8 3.9

Tyler

108,817 109,470 108,916 109,055 3,743 3,484 3,823 3,371 3.4 3.2 3.5 3.1

Victoria

47,058 46,667 47,065 46,433 1,610 1,637 1,617 1,578 3.4 3.5 3.4 3.4

Waco

125,969 127,482 125,940 126,627 4,095 3,939 4,155 3,828 3.3 3.1 3.3 3.0

Wichita Falls

66,105 66,216 66,260 65,863 2,060 1,941 2,126 1,910 3.1 2.9 3.2 2.9

Utah

1,584,804 1,634,892 1,584,918 1,633,854 44,023 30,829 45,909 33,942 2.8 1.9 2.9 2.1

Logan

71,918 73,612 71,603 73,359 1,692 1,138 1,743 1,232 2.4 1.5 2.4 1.7

Ogden-Clearfield

327,254 339,861 327,901 339,457 9,180 6,251 9,597 6,927 2.8 1.8 2.9 2.0

Provo-Orem

310,416 321,550 309,291 320,302 7,738 5,440 8,004 6,045 2.5 1.7 2.6 1.9

St. George

75,364 78,028 74,622 77,454 2,322 1,651 2,481 1,831 3.1 2.1 3.3 2.4

Salt Lake City

658,694 676,430 658,811 676,659 18,030 12,709 18,408 13,581 2.7 1.9 2.8 2.0

Vermont

344,435 339,844 343,727 339,321 8,218 7,330 7,821 7,087 2.4 2.2 2.3 2.1

Burlington-South Burlington

125,252 125,860 124,151 124,398 2,489 2,234 2,216 2,025 2.0 1.8 1.8 1.6

Virginia

4,319,915 4,441,393 4,313,833 4,447,462 108,524 108,770 112,968 109,243 2.5 2.4 2.6 2.5

Blacksburg-Christiansburg-Radford

90,375 92,346 89,969 93,571 2,409 2,358 2,403 3,151 2.7 2.6 2.7 3.4

Charlottesville

119,530 123,010 119,283 122,279 2,752 2,713 2,786 2,586 2.3 2.2 2.3 2.1

Harrisonburg

66,543 68,349 66,675 68,527 1,659 1,521 1,639 1,462 2.5 2.2 2.5 2.1

Lynchburg

122,469 125,253 122,233 124,567 3,433 3,532 3,482 3,561 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.9

Richmond

673,149 694,895 672,717 697,928 17,975 17,971 18,764 17,860 2.7 2.6 2.8 2.6

Roanoke

155,643 161,540 155,202 161,521 3,808 4,015 3,890 4,013 2.4 2.5 2.5 2.5

Staunton-Waynesboro

59,718 61,398 59,608 61,429 1,410 1,381 1,426 1,317 2.4 2.2 2.4 2.1

Virginia Beach-Norfolk-Newport News

840,941 859,233 838,887 862,415 23,747 23,544 25,255 23,790 2.8 2.7 3.0 2.8

Winchester

72,119 74,937 71,786 74,480 1,768 1,744 1,850 1,723 2.5 2.3 2.6 2.3

Washington

3,828,288 3,972,004 3,833,104 3,972,769 169,864 157,340 182,795 154,954 4.4 4.0 4.8 3.9

Bellingham

114,478 119,032 114,741 119,412 5,228 5,862 5,806 5,675 4.6 4.9 5.1 4.8

Bremerton-Silverdale

125,449 132,318 126,790 133,649 5,586 5,744 6,170 5,424 4.5 4.3 4.9 4.1

Kennewick-Richland

140,632 147,587 140,576 147,420 7,326 7,933 9,120 8,755 5.2 5.4 6.5 5.9

Longview

46,663 48,462 46,940 48,508 2,621 2,851 2,949 2,654 5.6 5.9 6.3 5.5

Mount Vernon-Anacortes

61,408 63,700 61,628 64,106 3,085 3,514 3,471 3,478 5.0 5.5 5.6 5.4

Olympia-Tumwater

140,936 148,006 141,656 148,616 6,477 7,008 7,103 6,522 4.6 4.7 5.0 4.4

Seattle-Tacoma-Bellevue

2,127,070 2,205,234 2,130,985 2,200,057 83,265 63,690 81,056 60,440 3.9 2.9 3.8 2.7

Spokane-Spokane Valley

274,118 285,614 276,755 288,671 13,546 14,428 16,353 14,987 4.9 5.1 5.9 5.2

Walla Walla

32,513 33,675 31,268 32,438 1,407 1,527 1,716 1,573 4.3 4.5 5.5 4.8

Wenatchee

64,855 66,871 64,274 66,515 3,166 3,453 3,916 3,645 4.9 5.2 6.1 5.5

Yakima

126,242 129,334 124,771 128,630 8,394 9,080 10,673 10,634 6.6 7.0 8.6 8.3

West Virginia

781,723 803,794 777,812 799,727 35,750 39,018 37,917 39,591 4.6 4.9 4.9 5.0

Beckley

44,627 46,044 44,654 45,978 2,310 2,395 2,401 2,447 5.2 5.2 5.4 5.3

Charleston

91,279 93,101 91,069 92,948 4,333 4,424 4,469 4,381 4.7 4.8 4.9 4.7

Huntington-Ashland

144,570 146,506 143,863 146,194 6,752 6,801 7,285 6,951 4.7 4.6 5.1 4.8

Morgantown

68,955 70,103 68,506 69,375 2,621 2,556 2,815 2,547 3.8 3.6 4.1 3.7

Parkersburg-Vienna

37,726 38,936 37,820 38,870 1,847 2,052 2,022 2,066 4.9 5.3 5.3 5.3

Wheeling

67,457 69,408 67,420 68,909 2,845 3,774 3,273 3,789 4.2 5.4 4.9 5.5

Wisconsin

3,116,247 3,102,403 3,106,624 3,091,105 77,545 90,865 86,683 98,595 2.5 2.9 2.8 3.2

Appleton

130,308 128,792 130,020 128,365 2,912 3,231 3,366 3,547 2.2 2.5 2.6 2.8

Eau Claire

92,945 92,055 93,035 92,101 2,102 2,472 2,726 3,194 2.3 2.7 2.9 3.5

Fond du Lac

57,564 56,783 57,391 56,493 1,185 1,399 1,355 1,503 2.1 2.5 2.4 2.7

Green Bay

176,011 175,660 175,541 175,193 3,910 4,731 4,518 5,165 2.2 2.7 2.6 2.9

Janesville-Beloit

85,503 85,683 84,708 84,837 2,837 2,932 2,444 2,959 3.3 3.4 2.9 3.5

La Crosse-Onalaska

77,926 78,613 77,688 78,057 1,606 1,836 1,969 2,130 2.1 2.3 2.5 2.7

Madison

387,637 387,316 385,718 385,059 7,445 8,507 8,018 8,707 1.9 2.2 2.1 2.3

Milwaukee-Waukesha-West Allis

819,065 823,071 814,966 815,313 22,596 26,386 22,942 25,558 2.8 3.2 2.8 3.1

Oshkosh-Neenah

92,209 91,752 92,173 91,293 2,040 2,436 2,243 2,543 2.2 2.7 2.4 2.8

Racine

98,565 98,046 98,185 97,450 2,909 3,634 3,193 3,663 3.0 3.7 3.3 3.8

Sheboygan

62,262 62,157 61,872 61,735 1,325 1,598 1,400 1,609 2.1 2.6 2.3 2.6

Wausau

73,764 73,468 73,979 73,871 1,539 1,818 1,763 2,013 2.1 2.5 2.4 2.7

Wyoming

289,088 294,086 286,957 291,756 11,587 10,532 11,527 10,487 4.0 3.6 4.0 3.6

Casper

39,147 39,612 39,143 39,222 1,719 1,535 1,729 1,602 4.4 3.9 4.4 4.1

Cheyenne

47,773 48,531 47,663 47,964 1,784 1,614 1,869 1,604 3.7 3.3 3.9 3.3

Puerto Rico

1,066,244 1,045,943 1,083,677 1,044,531 81,077 88,581 92,102 95,369 7.6 8.5 8.5 9.1

Aguadilla-Isabela

84,842 84,153 86,820 84,104 8,957 9,407 10,302 10,327 10.6 11.2 11.9 12.3

Arecibo

51,890 51,797 52,908 51,731 5,164 5,790 5,924 6,288 10.0 11.2 11.2 12.2

Guayama

19,563 19,230 20,144 19,342 2,323 2,522 2,749 2,821 11.9 13.1 13.6 14.6

Mayaguez

27,275 26,760 27,714 26,692 2,602 2,568 2,867 2,730 9.5 9.6 10.3 10.2

Ponce

89,586 88,728 91,978 89,003 9,045 10,271 10,600 11,128 10.1 11.6 11.5 12.5

San German

34,563 34,255 35,107 34,138 3,364 3,432 3,748 3,690 9.7 10.0 10.7 10.8

San Juan-Carolina-Caguas

718,434 700,206 727,267 698,562 45,152 49,380 50,685 52,640 6.3 7.1 7.0 7.5

Footnotes
(1) For operational reasons, these interstate areas are listed under the state that accounts for the larger share of the population, which is different from the state that contains the first principal city.
(2) The area boundary does not reflect the Office of Management and Budget delineation.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data refer to place of residence. Data for Puerto Rico are derived from a monthly household survey similar to the Current Population Survey. Area delineations are based on Office of Management and Budget Bulletin No. 18-03, dated April 10, 2018, and are available on the BLS website at https://www.bls.gov/lau/lausmsa.htm. Areas in the six New England states are Metropolitan New England City and Town Areas (NECTAs), while areas in other states are county-based. Some metropolitan areas lie in two or more states. They are listed under the state containing the first principal city, unless otherwise footnoted. Estimates for the latest month are subject to revision the following month.


LABOR FORCE DATA
NOT SEASONALLY ADJUSTED

Table 2. Civilian labor force and unemployment by state, selected metropolitan area, and metropolitan division(1)
State, area, and division Civilian labor force Unemployed
November December Number Percent of labor force
2018 2019 2018 2019(p) November December November December
2018 2019 2018 2019(p) 2018 2019 2018 2019(p)

California

19,562,413 19,616,815 19,533,844 19,588,361 760,287 719,542 794,295 719,072 3.9 3.7 4.1 3.7

Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim

6,817,785 6,833,023 6,801,328 6,827,937 278,806 262,363 280,620 247,708 4.1 3.8 4.1 3.6

Anaheim-Santa Ana-Irvine

1,642,110 1,630,633 1,635,420 1,633,170 44,401 41,280 44,718 39,667 2.7 2.5 2.7 2.4

Los Angeles-Long Beach-Glendale

5,175,675 5,202,390 5,165,908 5,194,767 234,405 221,083 235,902 208,041 4.5 4.2 4.6 4.0

San Francisco-Oakland-Hayward

2,617,117 2,632,307 2,621,107 2,631,087 65,402 60,977 65,598 58,904 2.5 2.3 2.5 2.2

Oakland-Hayward-Berkeley

1,427,522 1,429,881 1,428,145 1,429,384 40,455 37,950 40,683 36,649 2.8 2.7 2.8 2.6

San Francisco-Redwood City-South San Francisco

1,047,093 1,059,280 1,050,391 1,058,768 21,770 20,150 21,781 19,492 2.1 1.9 2.1 1.8

San Rafael

142,502 143,146 142,571 142,935 3,177 2,877 3,134 2,763 2.2 2.0 2.2 1.9

District of Columbia

402,811 415,128 401,943 414,297 20,563 20,540 19,759 20,444 5.1 4.9 4.9 4.9

Washington-Arlington-Alexandria(2)

3,385,124 3,491,666 3,375,670 3,482,300 98,787 96,593 97,200 91,914 2.9 2.8 2.9 2.6

Silver Spring-Frederick-Rockville(3)

683,897 702,687 679,130 697,138 19,785 18,632 18,668 17,106 2.9 2.7 2.7 2.5

Washington-Arlington-Alexandria(2)

2,701,227 2,788,979 2,696,540 2,785,162 79,002 77,961 78,532 74,808 2.9 2.8 2.9 2.7

Florida

10,293,133 10,477,386 10,284,492 10,463,470 335,916 287,798 338,922 265,350 3.3 2.7 3.3 2.5

Miami-Fort Lauderdale-West Palm Beach

3,168,158 3,222,907 3,177,276 3,216,941 101,211 87,421 105,339 71,780 3.2 2.7 3.3 2.2

Fort Lauderdale-Pompano Beach-Deerfield Beach

1,042,740 1,052,172 1,036,784 1,049,805 31,944 27,803 31,986 26,705 3.1 2.6 3.1 2.5

Miami-Miami Beach-Kendall

1,386,673 1,430,239 1,403,293 1,426,150 45,184 38,792 49,482 25,207 3.3 2.7 3.5 1.8

West Palm Beach-Boca Raton-Delray Beach

738,745 740,496 737,199 740,986 24,083 20,826 23,871 19,868 3.3 2.8 3.2 2.7

Illinois

6,468,774 6,448,014 6,449,049 6,384,505 259,018 218,269 285,488 220,590 4.0 3.4 4.4 3.5

Chicago-Naperville-Elgin(2)

4,873,710 4,852,717 4,864,146 4,813,035 172,179 158,705 191,835 152,669 3.5 3.3 3.9 3.2

Chicago-Naperville-Arlington Heights

3,728,038 3,708,581 3,718,529 3,675,020 123,652 116,772 132,494 104,056 3.3 3.1 3.6 2.8

Elgin

332,238 331,229 331,626 329,254 15,572 11,804 19,361 14,531 4.7 3.6 5.8 4.4

Gary(3)

343,936 342,557 342,604 341,323 14,265 14,228 16,278 15,253 4.1 4.2 4.8 4.5

Lake County-Kenosha County(2)

469,498 470,350 471,387 467,438 18,690 15,901 23,702 18,829 4.0 3.4 5.0 4.0

Massachusetts

3,823,218 3,837,569 3,821,194 3,849,752 98,823 88,787 101,990 91,543 2.6 2.3 2.7 2.4

Boston-Cambridge-Nashua(2)

2,827,796 2,844,647 2,821,489 2,849,800 66,984 60,610 66,864 60,555 2.4 2.1 2.4 2.1

Boston-Cambridge-Newton

1,689,324 1,701,542 1,685,640 1,703,235 37,737 33,445 37,072 32,637 2.2 2.0 2.2 1.9

Brockton-Bridgewater-Easton

112,319 112,798 112,180 113,396 3,179 2,830 3,218 2,926 2.8 2.5 2.9 2.6

Framingham

163,941 164,048 164,088 164,917 3,504 3,087 3,649 3,218 2.1 1.9 2.2 2.0

Haverhill-Newburyport-Amesbury Town(2)

118,090 119,082 117,854 119,101 2,999 2,857 3,109 3,003 2.5 2.4 2.6 2.5

Lawrence-Methuen Town-Salem(2)

99,127 98,341 98,809 98,561 3,432 3,166 3,480 3,247 3.5 3.2 3.5 3.3

Lowell-Billerica-Chelmsford(2)

198,295 198,903 197,377 199,486 5,023 4,626 5,251 4,654 2.5 2.3 2.7 2.3

Lynn-Saugus-Marblehead

87,547 87,897 87,586 88,137 2,254 2,020 2,288 2,026 2.6 2.3 2.6 2.3

Nashua(2)

175,641 178,065 174,561 178,205 4,186 4,422 4,021 4,541 2.4 2.5 2.3 2.5

Peabody-Salem-Beverly

95,400 95,901 95,592 96,420 2,297 2,006 2,312 2,001 2.4 2.1 2.4 2.1

Taunton-Middleborough-Norton

88,112 88,070 87,802 88,342 2,373 2,151 2,464 2,302 2.7 2.4 2.8 2.6

Michigan

4,893,580 4,933,486 4,896,726 4,932,803 166,773 157,409 201,376 174,820 3.4 3.2 4.1 3.5

Detroit-Warren-Dearborn

2,129,400 2,148,122 2,139,584 2,160,849 78,916 72,509 91,163 79,904 3.7 3.4 4.3 3.7

Detroit-Dearborn-Livonia

793,199 799,617 798,644 806,014 35,833 32,268 40,864 35,607 4.5 4.0 5.1 4.4

Warren-Troy-Farmington Hills

1,336,201 1,348,505 1,340,940 1,354,836 43,083 40,241 50,299 44,298 3.2 3.0 3.8 3.3

New York

9,576,358 9,510,615 9,583,357 9,477,621 339,417 345,362 371,398 350,924 3.5 3.6 3.9 3.7

New York-Newark-Jersey City(2)

9,916,030 9,977,244 9,930,612 9,961,663 337,329 342,275 360,417 335,883 3.4 3.4 3.6 3.4

Dutchess County-Putnam County

196,123 196,175 196,039 195,222 6,005 6,422 6,425 7,109 3.1 3.3 3.3 3.6

Nassau County-Suffolk County

1,481,455 1,483,330 1,482,532 1,482,026 45,686 48,447 48,913 53,385 3.1 3.3 3.3 3.6

Newark(3)

1,213,853 1,259,144 1,218,526 1,264,840 40,270 41,757 43,410 45,964 3.3 3.3 3.6 3.6

New York-Jersey City-White Plains(2)

7,024,599 7,038,595 7,033,515 7,019,575 245,368 245,649 261,669 229,425 3.5 3.5 3.7 3.3

Pennsylvania

6,437,401 6,544,150 6,430,281 6,532,299 233,777 279,665 247,993 297,499 3.6 4.3 3.9 4.6

Philadelphia-Camden-Wilmington(2)

3,093,266 3,166,021 3,095,680 3,158,309 109,302 125,696 112,206 126,538 3.5 4.0 3.6 4.0

Camden(3)

623,304 639,082 626,077 642,474 21,276 21,940 22,974 23,976 3.4 3.4 3.7 3.7

Montgomery County-Bucks County-Chester County

1,074,776 1,094,063 1,074,972 1,089,179 31,958 37,592 32,563 37,403 3.0 3.4 3.0 3.4

Philadelphia

1,013,168 1,040,925 1,011,671 1,035,096 44,307 52,131 44,726 51,689 4.4 5.0 4.4 5.0

Wilmington(3)

382,018 391,951 382,960 391,560 11,761 14,033 11,943 13,470 3.1 3.6 3.1 3.4

Texas

13,961,940 14,264,714 13,975,415 14,228,471 485,960 476,916 501,787 470,429 3.5 3.3 3.6 3.3

Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington

3,948,427 4,062,973 3,956,122 4,054,399 126,608 123,312 128,944 117,547 3.2 3.0 3.3 2.9

Dallas-Plano-Irving

2,665,536 2,751,400 2,669,612 2,749,395 85,627 82,923 87,258 79,097 3.2 3.0 3.3 2.9

Fort Worth-Arlington

1,282,891 1,311,573 1,286,510 1,305,004 40,981 40,389 41,686 38,450 3.2 3.1 3.2 2.9

Washington

3,828,288 3,972,004 3,833,104 3,972,769 169,864 157,340 182,795 154,954 4.4 4.0 4.8 3.9

Seattle-Tacoma-Bellevue

2,127,070 2,205,234 2,130,985 2,200,057 83,265 63,690 81,056 60,440 3.9 2.9 3.8 2.7

Seattle-Bellevue-Everett

1,693,502 1,751,913 1,693,796 1,741,945 61,951 40,637 57,609 38,632 3.7 2.3 3.4 2.2

Tacoma-Lakewood

433,568 453,321 437,189 458,112 21,314 23,053 23,447 21,808 4.9 5.1 5.4 4.8

Footnotes
(1) These 11 areas contain all of the 38 metropolitan divisions.
(2) Part of the area (or division) is in one or more adjacent states.
(3) All of the division is in one or more adjacent states.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data refer to place of residence. Area delineations are based on Office of Management and Budget Bulletin No. 18-03, dated April 10, 2018, and are available on the BLS website at https://www.bls.gov/lau/lausmsa.htm. Areas in the six New England states are Metropolitan New England City and Town Areas (NECTAs), while areas in other states are county-based. Some metropolitan areas lie in two or more states. They are listed under the state containing the first principal city. Metropolitan divisions are listed under their metropolitan areas. Some divisions lie in more than one state, and some, like Camden, NJ, are totally outside the states under which their metropolitan areas are listed. For Washington-Arlington-Alexandria, DC-VA-MD-WV, the metropolitan area and division titles are identical. Estimates for the latest month are subject to revision the following month.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
NOT SEASONALLY ADJUSTED
Table 3. Employees on nonfarm payrolls by state and metropolitan area, not seasonally adjusted
[In thousands]
State and area November December Change from
December 2018 to December 2019(p)
2018 2019 2018 2019(p) Number Percent

Alabama

2,064.4 2,113.2 2,066.6 2,112.9 46.3 2.2

Anniston-Oxford-Jacksonville

47.2 47.5 47.2 47.5 0.3 0.6

Auburn-Opelika

67.3 69.2 67.1 68.8 1.7 2.5

Birmingham-Hoover

544.1 553.4 545.5 555.9 10.4 1.9

Daphne-Fairhope-Foley

76.5 79.2 76.4 78.6 2.2 2.9

Decatur

56.8 58.2 56.9 57.8 0.9 1.6

Dothan

58.8 59.6 59.3 59.7 0.4 0.7

Florence-Muscle Shoals

57.9 58.3 57.1 57.9 0.8 1.4

Gadsden

38.2 39.1 38.6 39.0 0.4 1.0

Huntsville

242.3 248.2 240.9 247.0 6.1 2.5

Mobile

186.7 189.4 186.7 188.8 2.1 1.1

Montgomery

177.2 180.3 177.4 180.4 3.0 1.7

Tuscaloosa

111.9 114.7 112.1 114.1 2.0 1.8


Alaska

313.8 314.6 313.7 313.4 -0.3 -0.1

Anchorage

173.4 174.1 172.9 173.5 0.6 0.3

Fairbanks

36.7 36.5 36.5 36.2 -0.3 -0.8