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Economic News Release
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Metropolitan Area Employment and Unemployment (Monthly) News Release

For release 10:00 a.m. (ET) Tuesday, February 6, 2024 	                               USDL-24-0190

Technical information: 
 Employment:   (202) 691-6559  *  sminfo@bls.gov    *  www.bls.gov/sae 
 Unemployment: (202) 691-6392  *  lausinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/lau 

Media contact: (202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov


              METROPOLITAN AREA EMPLOYMENT AND UNEMPLOYMENT -- DECEMBER 2023
              
              
Unemployment rates were higher in December than a year earlier in 230 of the 389 
metropolitan areas, lower in 128 areas, and unchanged in 31 areas, the U.S. Bureau 
of Labor Statistics reported today. A total of 9 areas had jobless rates of less 
than 2.0 percent and 10 areas had rates of at least 8.0 percent. Nonfarm payroll 
employment increased over the year in 61 metropolitan areas and was essentially
unchanged in 328 areas. The national unemployment rate in December was 3.5 percent, 
not seasonally adjusted, up from 3.3 percent a year earlier.

This news release presents statistics from two monthly programs. The civilian labor 
force and unemployment data are based on the same concepts and definitions as those 
used for the national household survey estimates. These data pertain to individuals
by where they reside. The employment data are from an establishment survey that
measures nonfarm employment, hours, and earnings by industry. These data pertain 
to jobs on payrolls defined by where the establishments are located. For more
information about the concepts and statistical methodologies used by these two 
programs, see the Technical Note.

Metropolitan Area Unemployment (Not Seasonally Adjusted)

In December, Burlington-South Burlington, VT, had the lowest unemployment rate, 
1.6 percent. The next lowest rates were in Fargo, ND-MN, and Manhattan, KS, 1.7 
percent each. El Centro, CA, had the highest rate, 18.3 percent. A total of 217
areas had December jobless rates below the U.S. rate of 3.5 percent, 155 areas
had rates above it, and 17 areas had rates equal to that of the nation.
(See table 1.)

The largest over-the-year unemployment rate increase in December occurred in El 
Centro, CA (+3.1 percentage points). Fifty-one other areas had rate increases of 
at least 1.0 percentage point. Grants Pass, OR, had the largest over-the-year rate 
decrease in December (-1.6 percentage points). Ten other areas had rate declines 
of at least 1.0 percentage point.

Of the 51 metropolitan areas with a 2010 Census population of 1 million or more, 
Baltimore-Columbia-Towson, MD, had the lowest jobless rate in December, 2.0 percent. 
Las Vegas-Henderson-Paradise, NV, had the highest rate, 5.3 percent. Thirty-five 
large areas had over-the-year unemployment rate increases, 11 had decreases, and 5 
had no change. The largest rate increase was in San Jose-Sunnyvale-Santa Clara, CA 
(+1.6 percentage points). The largest jobless rate decline occurred in Pittsburgh, 
PA (-1.2 percentage points).

Metropolitan Division Unemployment (Not Seasonally Adjusted)

Eleven of the most populous metropolitan areas are made up of 38 metropolitan
divisions, which are essentially separately identifiable employment centers. 
In December, Miami-Miami Beach-Kendall, FL, had the lowest division unemployment
rate, 1.6 percent. Takoma-Lakewood, WA, had the highest rate among the divisions,
5.5 percent. (See table 2.)

In December, 31 metropolitan divisions had over-the-year unemployment rate
increases, 6 had decreases, and 1 had no change. The largest rate increase occurred
in Oakland-Hayward-Berkeley, CA (+1.5 percentage points). The largest over-the-year 
jobless rate decline occurred in Philadelphia, PA (-0.9 percentage point).

Metropolitan Area Nonfarm Employment (Not Seasonally Adjusted)

In December, nonfarm payroll employment increased over the year in 61 metropolitan 
areas and was essentially unchanged in 328 areas. The largest over-the-year employment 
increases occurred in Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington, TX (+134,200), Los Angeles-Long Beach-
Anaheim, CA (+132,100), and New York-Newark-Jersey City, NY-NJ-PA (+93,000). The largest
over-the-year percentage gains in employment occurred in Charleston-North Charleston,
SC (+6.0 percent), and Bloomington, IN (+4.5 percent), followed by Las Vegas-Henderson-
Paradise, NV; Raleigh, NC; Rochester, MN; and Salinas, CA (+4.1 percent each). (See
table 3.)

Over the year, nonfarm employment increased in 30 metropolitan areas with a 2010 Census 
population of 1 million or more and was essentially unchanged in 21 areas. The largest 
over-the-year percentage increases in employment in these large metropolitan areas 
occurred in Las Vegas-Henderson-Paradise, NV, and Raleigh, NC (+4.1 percent each), 
followed by Birmingham-Hoover, AL; Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington, TX; Jacksonville, FL; 
Miami-Fort Lauderdale-West Palm Beach, FL; and San Antonio-New Braunfels, TX 
(+3.2 percent each).

Metropolitan Division Nonfarm Employment (Not Seasonally Adjusted)

In December, nonfarm payroll employment increased over the year in 14 metropolitan 
divisions and was essentially unchanged in 24 divisions. The largest over-the-year 
increases in employment among the metropolitan divisions occurred in Dallas-Plano-Irving, 
TX (+101,000), Los Angeles-Long Beach-Glendale, CA (+95,800), and Boston-Cambridge-Newton, 
MA (+64,500). (See table 4.)

The largest over-the-year percentage increases in employment occurred in Miami-Miami 
Beach-Kendall, FL (+3.9 percent), Fort Lauderdale-Pompano Beach-Deerfield Beach, FL 
(+3.7 percent), and Boston-Cambridge-Newton, MA (+3.4 percent).

_____________
The Regional and State Unemployment 2023 Annual Averages news release is scheduled to
be released on Friday, March 1, 2024, at 10:00 a.m. (ET). The State Employment and 
Unemployment news release for January 2024 is scheduled to be released on Monday, 
March 11, 2024, at 10:00 a.m. (ET). The Metropolitan Area Employment and Unemployment 
news release for January 2024 is scheduled to be released on Wednesday, March 13, 2024, 
at 10:00 a.m. (ET).


  _________________________________________________________________________________________
 |											   |
 |               Upcoming Changes to Current Employment Statistics (CES) Data		   |
 |											   |
 | Effective with the release of January 2024 estimates on March 11, 2024, all nonfarm	   |
 | payroll employment estimates for states and areas presented in tables 3 and 4 of this   |
 | news release will be adjusted to 2023 benchmark levels. Not seasonally adjusted data	   |
 | beginning with April 2022 and seasonally adjusted data beginning with January 2019	   |
 | are subject to revision. Some not seasonally adjusted and seasonally adjusted series	   |
 | may be revised as far back as 1990.                                                     |
 |                                                                                         |
 | Also effective with the release of January 2024 estimates on March 11, 2024, the CES    |
 | program will implement a new weight smoothing procedure for state and metropolitan	   |
 | area employment data. Background information on the new weight smoothing procedure is   |
 | available on the BLS website at www.bls.gov/osmr/research-papers/2014/pdf/st140140.pdf. |
 |_________________________________________________________________________________________|


  _________________________________________________________________________________________
 |											   |
 |                Upcoming Changes to Local Area Unemployment Statistics Data              |
 |                                                                                         |
 | Effective with the release of Regional and State Unemployment 2023 Annual Averages      |
 | on March 1, 2024, the civilian labor force and unemployment data for the states, the    |
 | District of Columbia, and the modeled substate areas presented in tables 1 and 2 of     |
 | this news release will be revised from 2019 to 2023 to incorporate updated inputs, new  |
 | population controls, reestimation of models, and adjustment to new census division and  |
 | national control totals. The population controls will continue to reflect a "blended    |
 | base," with elements from three independent data sources for April 1, 2020.             |
 | Subsequently, civilian labor force and unemployment estimates for all other             |
 | metropolitan areas and metropolitan divisions will be revised to reflect updated inputs |
 | and adjustment to the new statewide estimates. These revised estimates will be          |
 | published in conjunction with the March 2024 State Employment and Unemployment news     |
 | release on April 19, 2024.                                                              |
 |_________________________________________________________________________________________|




Technical Note
  
   This news release presents civilian labor force and unemployment data from the
Local Area Unemployment Statistics (LAUS) program (tables 1 and 2) for 389
metropolitan statistical areas and metropolitan New England City and Town Areas
(NECTAs), plus 7 areas in Puerto Rico. Estimates for 38 metropolitan and NECTA
divisions also are presented. Nonfarm payroll employment estimates from the
Current Employment Statistics (CES) program (tables 3 and 4) are provided for
the same areas. State estimates were previously published in the news release
State Employment and Unemployment, and are republished in this news release for
ease of reference. The LAUS and CES programs are both federal-state cooperative
endeavors.

Civilian labor force and unemployment--from the LAUS program

   Definitions. The civilian labor force and unemployment data are based on the
same concepts and definitions as those used for the official national estimates
obtained from the Current Population Survey (CPS), a sample survey of households
that is conducted for the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) by the U.S. Census
Bureau. The LAUS program measures employed persons and unemployed persons on a
place-of-residence basis. The universe for each is the civilian noninstitutional
population 16 years of age and older. Employed persons are those who did any work
at all for pay or profit in the reference week (typically the week including the
12th of the month) or worked 15 hours or more without pay in a family business or
farm, plus those not working who had a job from which they were temporarily absent,
whether or not paid, for such reasons as labor-management dispute, illness, or
vacation. Unemployed persons are those who were not employed during the reference
week (based on the definition above), had actively looked for a job sometime in the
4-week period ending with the reference week, and were currently available for work;
persons on layoff expecting recall need not be looking for work to be counted as
unemployed. The civilian labor force is the sum of employed and unemployed persons.
The unemployment rate is the number of unemployed as a percent of the civilian labor
force.

   Method of estimation. Estimates for states, the District of Columbia, the Los
Angeles-Long Beach-Glendale metropolitan division, and New York City are produced
using time-series models with real-time benchmarking to national CPS totals. Model-
based estimates are also produced for the following areas and their respective
balances: the Chicago-Naperville-Arlington Heights, IL Metropolitan Division;
Cleveland-Elyria, OH Metropolitan Statistical Area; Detroit-Warren-Dearborn, MI
Metropolitan Statistical Area; Miami-Miami Beach-Kendall, FL Metropolitan Division;
and Seattle-Bellevue-Everett, WA Metropolitan Division. Modeling improves the
statistical basis of the estimation for these areas and provides important tools
for analysis, such as measures of errors and seasonally adjusted series. For all
other substate areas in this news release, estimates are prepared through indirect
estimation procedures using a building-block approach. Estimates of employed
persons, which are based largely on “place of work” estimates from the CES program,
are adjusted to refer to place of residence as used in the CPS. Unemployment
estimates are aggregates of persons previously employed in industries covered by
state unemployment insurance (UI) laws and entrants to the labor force from the
CPS. The substate estimates of employment and unemployment, which geographically
exhaust the entire state, are adjusted proportionally to ensure that they add to
the independently estimated model-based area totals. A detailed description of the
estimation procedures is available from BLS upon request.

   Annual revisions. Civilian labor force and unemployment data shown for the prior
year reflect adjustments made at the beginning of each year, usually implemented with
the issuance of January estimates. The adjusted model-based estimates typically reflect
updated population data from the U.S. Census Bureau, any revisions in other input
data sources, and model re-estimation. All substate estimates then are re-estimated
using updated inputs and adjusted to add to the revised model-based totals. In early
2021, a new generation of time-series models was implemented, resulting in the
replacement of data back to the series beginnings.

Employment--from the CES program 

   Definitions. Employment data refer to persons on establishment payrolls who receive
pay for any part of the pay period that includes the 12th of the month. Persons are
counted at their place of work rather than at their place of residence; those appearing
on more than one payroll are counted on each payroll. Industries are classified on the
basis of their principal activity in accordance with the 2022 version of the North
American Industry Classification System.

   Method of estimation. CES State and Area employment data are produced using several
estimation procedures. Where possible, these data are produced using a "weighted link
relative" estimation technique in which a ratio of current month weighted employment
to that of the previous-month weighted employment is computed from a sample of
establishments reporting for both months. The estimates of employment for the current
month are then obtained by multiplying these ratios by the previous month's employment
estimates. The weighted link relative technique is utilized for data series where the
sample size meets certain statistical criteria. For some employment series, the
estimates are produced with a model that uses direct sample estimates (described
above) combined with other regressors to compensate for smaller sample sizes. 

   Annual revisions.  Employment estimates are adjusted annually to a complete count
of jobs, called benchmarks, derived principally from tax reports that are submitted by
employers who are covered under state unemployment insurance (UI) laws. The benchmark
information is used to adjust the monthly estimates between the new benchmark and the
preceding one and also to establish the level of employment for the new benchmark month.
Thus, the benchmarking process establishes the level of employment, and the sample is used
to measure the month-to-month changes in the level for the subsequent months.

   Seasonal adjustment. Payroll employment data are seasonally adjusted for states,
metropolitan areas, and metropolitan divisions at the total nonfarm level. For states,
data are seasonally adjusted at the supersector level as well. Revisions to historical
data for the most recent 5 years are made once a year, coincident with annual benchmark
adjustments.

   Payroll employment data are seasonally adjusted concurrently, using all available
estimates including those for the current month, to develop sample-based seasonal factors.
Concurrent sample-based factors are created every month for the current month's preliminary
estimate as well as the previous month's final estimate.

Reliability of the estimates

   The estimates presented in this news release are based on sample surveys, administrative data,
and modeling and, thus, are subject to sampling and other types of errors. Sampling error
is a measure of sampling variability—that is, variation that occurs by chance because a
sample rather than the entire population is surveyed. Survey data also are subject to
nonsampling errors, such as those which can be introduced into the data collection and
processing operations. Estimates not directly derived from sample surveys are subject to
additional errors resulting from the specific estimation processes used. The sums of
individual items may not always equal the totals shown in the same tables because of
rounding.

Use of error measures

   Civilian labor force and unemployment estimates. Measures of sampling error are not
available for metropolitan areas or metropolitan divisions. Model-based error measures for
states are available on the BLS website at www.bls.gov/laus/lastderr.htm. Measures of
nonsampling error are not available for the areas contained in this news release. Information
on recent data revisions for states and local areas is available online at
www.bls.gov/lau/launews1.htm.

   Employment estimates. Changes in metropolitan area nonfarm payroll employment are cited
in the analysis of this news release only if they have been determined to be statistically
significant at the 90-percent confidence level.  Measures of sampling error for the total
nonfarm employment series are available for metropolitan areas and metropolitan divisions
at www.bls.gov/web/laus/790stderr.htm. Measures of sampling error for more detailed series
at the area and division level are available upon request. Measures of sampling error for
states at the supersector level and for the private service-providing, goods-producing,
total private and total nonfarm levels are available on the BLS website at 
www.bls.gov/web/laus/790stderr.htm. Information on recent benchmark revisions
is available online at www.bls.gov/web/laus/benchmark.pdf.

Area definitions

   The substate area data published in this news release reflect the delineations issued by the
U.S. Office of Management and Budget on April 10, 2018. Data reflect New England City and
Town Area (NECTA) definitions, rather than county-based definitions, in the six New England
States. A detailed list of the geographic definitions is available online at
www.bls.gov/lau/lausmsa.htm.

Additional information

   Estimates of unadjusted and seasonally adjusted civilian labor force and unemployment
data for states and seven substate areas are available in the news release State Employment
and Unemployment. Estimates of civilian labor force and unemployment for all states,
metropolitan areas, counties, cities with a population of 25,000 or more, and other areas
used in the administration of various federal economic assistance programs are available
on the Internet at www.bls.gov/lau/. Employment data from the CES program for states and
metropolitan areas are available on the BLS website at www.bls.gov/sae/.

   If you are deaf, hard of hearing, or have a speech disability, please dial 7-1-1 to 
access telecommunications relay services.




LABOR FORCE DATA
NOT SEASONALLY ADJUSTED

Table 1. Civilian labor force and unemployment by state and metropolitan area
State and area Civilian labor force Unemployed
November December Number Percent of labor force
2022 2023 2022 2023(p) November December November December
2022 2023 2022 2023(p) 2022 2023 2022 2023(p)

Alabama

2,284,604 2,340,322 2,286,709 2,329,102 51,233 57,953 49,167 61,670 2.2 2.5 2.2 2.6

Anniston-Oxford-Jacksonville

45,985 47,014 46,022 46,719 1,143 1,317 1,055 1,348 2.5 2.8 2.3 2.9

Auburn-Opelika

80,332 82,167 80,224 81,627 1,648 1,790 1,515 1,949 2.1 2.2 1.9 2.4

Birmingham-Hoover

561,805 578,446 564,006 577,987 11,524 13,081 10,755 13,717 2.1 2.3 1.9 2.4

Daphne-Fairhope-Foley

102,495 105,291 102,420 104,123 2,120 2,416 2,054 2,618 2.1 2.3 2.0 2.5

Decatur

75,908 77,244 76,153 76,858 1,398 1,530 1,274 1,649 1.8 2.0 1.7 2.1

Dothan

66,815 68,011 66,825 67,629 1,478 1,724 1,426 1,816 2.2 2.5 2.1 2.7

Florence-Muscle Shoals

67,035 67,373 66,476 66,962 1,585 1,772 1,571 1,930 2.4 2.6 2.4 2.9

Gadsden

38,980 39,820 38,985 39,424 990 1,125 924 1,141 2.5 2.8 2.4 2.9

Huntsville

249,148 258,016 249,673 256,198 4,585 5,422 4,292 5,676 1.8 2.1 1.7 2.2

Mobile

192,605 197,607 193,070 196,951 5,232 6,153 5,288 6,804 2.7 3.1 2.7 3.5

Montgomery

176,401 177,405 176,050 176,742 4,270 4,573 4,121 4,818 2.4 2.6 2.3 2.7

Tuscaloosa

118,590 121,521 118,386 120,470 2,637 2,843 2,390 2,948 2.2 2.3 2.0 2.4

Alaska

354,496 358,102 354,714 354,046 13,152 15,778 12,822 16,392 3.7 4.4 3.6 4.6

Anchorage

204,485 206,140 205,033 204,515 6,485 7,784 6,269 8,115 3.2 3.8 3.1 4.0

Fairbanks

46,072 45,991 46,383 45,802 1,587 1,847 1,507 1,907 3.4 4.0 3.2 4.2

Arizona

3,647,457 3,765,484 3,645,105 3,726,943 130,494 149,827 120,978 141,162 3.6 4.0 3.3 3.8

Flagstaff

75,205 76,883 74,672 75,517 2,887 3,163 2,832 3,220 3.8 4.1 3.8 4.3

Lake Havasu City-Kingman

90,108 91,891 89,561 91,084 3,971 4,135 3,630 4,030 4.4 4.5 4.1 4.4

Phoenix-Mesa-Scottsdale

2,597,686 2,690,106 2,600,056 2,666,620 80,750 95,146 76,128 90,082 3.1 3.5 2.9 3.4

Prescott

108,970 111,364 108,284 109,765 3,447 3,819 3,288 3,585 3.2 3.4 3.0 3.3

Sierra Vista-Douglas

49,202 50,124 49,152 49,470 2,060 2,301 1,949 2,145 4.2 4.6 4.0 4.3

Tucson

491,826 507,370 493,570 502,829 17,107 19,161 16,063 18,126 3.5 3.8 3.3 3.6

Yuma

104,024 104,781 100,191 100,489 13,525 14,798 10,789 12,922 13.0 14.1 10.8 12.9

Arkansas

1,364,205 1,380,208 1,362,369 1,372,350 38,916 42,531 39,515 46,735 2.9 3.1 2.9 3.4

Fayetteville-Springdale-Rogers

307,799 316,595 306,071 313,628 6,218 7,178 6,190 7,609 2.0 2.3 2.0 2.4

Fort Smith

118,086 120,228 117,984 120,218 3,364 4,348 3,229 4,522 2.8 3.6 2.7 3.8

Hot Springs

41,683 41,510 41,932 41,316 1,367 1,416 1,425 1,538 3.3 3.4 3.4 3.7

Jonesboro

67,791 67,754 67,780 66,875 1,654 1,810 1,641 1,949 2.4 2.7 2.4 2.9

Little Rock-North Little Rock-Conway

358,408 362,725 359,096 362,716 9,652 10,717 9,739 11,635 2.7 3.0 2.7 3.2

Pine Bluff

31,943 31,867 32,086 31,571 1,345 1,321 1,406 1,434 4.2 4.1 4.4 4.5

California

19,350,057 19,382,806 19,336,344 19,207,991 779,616 946,463 748,684 972,262 4.0 4.9 3.9 5.1

Bakersfield

397,974 401,067 393,145 393,349 25,337 31,241 26,576 34,417 6.4 7.8 6.8 8.7

Chico

92,908 91,814 92,734 91,271 4,072 4,726 4,003 5,208 4.4 5.1 4.3 5.7

El Centro

72,259 74,968 72,272 73,987 11,837 14,165 10,985 13,543 16.4 18.9 15.2 18.3

Fresno

457,730 459,345 459,690 459,738 28,980 34,942 29,169 37,582 6.3 7.6 6.3 8.2

Hanford-Corcoran

57,223 57,887 57,764 58,029 3,821 4,649 4,056 5,270 6.7 8.0 7.0 9.1

Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim

6,591,246 6,569,171 6,574,236 6,494,750 274,680 306,498 262,334 304,259 4.2 4.7 4.0 4.7

Madera

63,621 63,683 64,970 65,020 3,856 4,585 4,004 5,125 6.1 7.2 6.2 7.9

Merced

115,314 113,384 114,181 112,709 8,201 9,645 8,993 11,475 7.1 8.5 7.9 10.2

Modesto

242,692 247,339 243,061 244,669 12,882 15,768 12,840 16,939 5.3 6.4 5.3 6.9

Napa

70,289 69,943 69,987 69,274 2,237 2,580 2,198 2,852 3.2 3.7 3.1 4.1

Oxnard-Thousand Oaks-Ventura

415,270 419,689 416,426 417,440 15,624 19,705 14,502 19,805 3.8 4.7 3.5 4.7

Redding

73,864 71,682 73,501 71,013 3,255 3,745 3,199 4,010 4.4 5.2 4.4 5.6

Riverside-San Bernardino-Ontario

2,172,447 2,186,676 2,178,188 2,171,992 88,164 110,335 80,560 110,336 4.1 5.0 3.7 5.1

Sacramento--Roseville--Arden-Arcade

1,130,528 1,139,100 1,128,754 1,130,511 41,428 50,961 38,952 52,574 3.7 4.5 3.5 4.7

Salinas

221,749 228,680 215,385 220,231 11,605 12,889 15,175 19,040 5.2 5.6 7.0 8.6

San Diego-Carlsbad

1,603,979 1,605,467 1,606,945 1,593,235 52,873 67,968 48,132 68,205 3.3 4.2 3.0 4.3

San Francisco-Oakland-Hayward

2,547,274 2,547,788 2,552,704 2,533,610 73,140 101,665 67,363 101,536 2.9 4.0 2.6 4.0

San Jose-Sunnyvale-Santa Clara

1,086,282 1,087,062 1,092,055 1,079,276 28,401 42,413 26,142 42,705 2.6 3.9 2.4 4.0

San Luis Obispo-Paso Robles-Arroyo Grande

137,828 139,961 137,450 137,710 4,021 4,911 3,690 5,000 2.9 3.5 2.7 3.6

Santa Cruz-Watsonville

134,417 134,260 131,866 132,070 6,059 7,461 6,559 8,729 4.5 5.6 5.0 6.6

Santa Maria-Santa Barbara

224,645 228,008 221,269 223,284 7,537 8,994 7,601 10,038 3.4 3.9 3.4 4.5

Santa Rosa

249,031 251,396 249,325 248,820 7,537 9,302 7,024 9,570 3.0 3.7 2.8 3.8

Stockton-Lodi

346,744 348,137 346,891 344,583 17,977 22,228 17,939 23,557 5.2 6.4 5.2 6.8

Vallejo-Fairfield

202,773 202,836 203,724 201,486 8,171 9,838 7,762 10,274 4.0 4.9 3.8 5.1

Visalia-Porterville

209,242 211,071 208,051 209,130 17,303 21,621 17,638 23,474 8.3 10.2 8.5 11.2

Yuba City

78,039 78,624 78,293 78,225 4,744 5,380 5,062 6,291 6.1 6.8 6.5 8.0

Colorado

3,203,799 3,269,255 3,202,346 3,235,414 88,386 104,649 81,136 105,087 2.8 3.2 2.5 3.2

Boulder

204,887 210,261 201,999 206,694 4,662 5,950 4,171 5,857 2.3 2.8 2.1 2.8

Colorado Springs

373,589 387,140 370,760 381,754 11,060 12,792 9,998 12,699 3.0 3.3 2.7 3.3

Denver-Aurora-Lakewood

1,732,145 1,752,267 1,720,339 1,722,619 46,666 56,293 43,087 57,252 2.7 3.2 2.5 3.3

Fort Collins

210,464 219,429 209,338 216,535 5,161 6,262 4,723 6,098 2.5 2.9 2.3 2.8

Grand Junction

77,325 78,819 76,893 77,431 2,323 2,554 2,228 2,705 3.0 3.2 2.9 3.5

Greeley

169,718 172,794 169,617 170,653 4,854 5,667 4,590 5,694 2.9 3.3 2.7 3.3

Pueblo

76,600 77,441 76,199 76,425 3,039 3,289 2,792 3,428 4.0 4.2 3.7 4.5

Connecticut

1,915,432 1,907,862 1,901,411 1,886,117 65,299 66,366 61,252 73,068 3.4 3.5 3.2 3.9

Bridgeport-Stamford-Norwalk

466,143 464,928 464,140 461,938 16,581 17,429 15,465 18,770 3.6 3.7 3.3 4.1

Danbury

106,840 105,501 106,112 104,708 3,208 3,328 3,027 3,642 3.0 3.2 2.9 3.5

Hartford-West Hartford-East Hartford

625,758 620,067 620,881 611,428 21,151 21,311 19,833 23,483 3.4 3.4 3.2 3.8

New Haven

340,034 341,672 336,991 336,067 11,000 11,126 10,141 12,036 3.2 3.3 3.0 3.6

Norwich-New London-Westerly

139,403 140,105 137,360 138,529 4,704 4,555 4,234 5,125 3.4 3.3 3.1 3.7

Waterbury

111,209 111,353 110,603 110,415 4,515 4,642 4,423 5,441 4.1 4.2 4.0 4.9

Delaware

493,999 508,380 494,576 510,830 20,874 19,100 20,600 18,971 4.2 3.8 4.2 3.7

Dover

79,450 82,586 79,531 82,768 3,822 3,469 3,770 3,397 4.8 4.2 4.7 4.1

Salisbury(1)

193,412 198,791 194,028 198,221 8,394 6,421 8,426 7,004 4.3 3.2 4.3 3.5

District of Columbia

386,175 400,785 386,520 402,075 15,712 19,247 15,733 19,176 4.1 4.8 4.1 4.8

Washington-Arlington-Alexandria

3,423,207 3,504,466 3,422,792 3,462,738 96,195 87,585 86,238 86,654 2.8 2.5 2.5 2.5

Florida

10,828,238 11,184,520 10,862,301 11,121,678 284,382 325,848 250,216 321,827 2.6 2.9 2.3 2.9

Cape Coral-Fort Myers

380,847 392,869 384,222 389,359 13,669 12,175 11,412 11,690 3.6 3.1 3.0 3.0

Crestview-Fort Walton Beach-Destin

137,246 142,534 137,201 142,127 3,154 3,938 2,749 3,812 2.3 2.8 2.0 2.7

Deltona-Daytona Beach-Ormond Beach

318,562 330,074 319,680 328,424 9,411 11,198 8,323 11,128 3.0 3.4 2.6 3.4

Gainesville

151,106 156,015 150,218 154,565 3,978 5,018 3,211 4,771 2.6 3.2 2.1 3.1

Homosassa Springs

49,310 52,036 49,489 51,930 1,884 2,349 1,685 2,319 3.8 4.5 3.4 4.5

Jacksonville

837,597 880,568 845,463 877,975 21,218 26,222 18,588 25,458 2.5 3.0 2.2 2.9

Lakeland-Winter Haven

341,477 349,653 341,181 347,215 10,772 13,142 9,376 13,093 3.2 3.8 2.7 3.8

Miami-Fort Lauderdale-West Palm Beach

3,209,695 3,307,761 3,227,327 3,280,872 75,397 75,969 68,190 77,530 2.3 2.3 2.1 2.4

Naples-Immokalee-Marco Island

189,468 192,583 189,333 193,153 5,135 5,621 4,298 5,341 2.7 2.9 2.3 2.8

North Port-Sarasota-Bradenton

384,100 396,212 384,244 397,249 10,295 12,613 8,991 12,227 2.7 3.2 2.3 3.1

Ocala

149,341 153,244 149,506 153,309 4,676 5,716 4,107 5,670 3.1 3.7 2.7 3.7

Orlando-Kissimmee-Sanford

1,440,213 1,486,451 1,439,771 1,476,666 37,579 45,201 32,691 44,081 2.6 3.0 2.3 3.0

Palm Bay-Melbourne-Titusville

298,189 305,604 299,634 304,633 7,815 9,647 6,930 9,414 2.6 3.2 2.3 3.1

Panama City

93,353 96,388 93,605 96,341 2,292 2,747 2,096 2,891 2.5 2.8 2.2 3.0

Pensacola-Ferry Pass-Brent

237,420 242,516 236,591 240,993 6,248 7,666 5,696 7,566 2.6 3.2 2.4 3.1

Port St. Lucie

232,173 241,012 233,854 240,457 6,556 8,078 5,799 7,968 2.8 3.4 2.5 3.3

Punta Gorda

77,289 79,137 77,705 79,283 2,817 2,728 2,448 2,635 3.6 3.4 3.2 3.3

Sebastian-Vero Beach

67,521 69,394 67,806 69,246 2,008 2,527 1,798 2,446 3.0 3.6 2.7 3.5

Sebring

35,760 36,882 36,090 36,807 1,422 1,628 1,255 1,590 4.0 4.4 3.5 4.3

Tallahassee

203,027 209,853 200,969 208,042 5,601 6,648 4,694 6,290 2.8 3.2 2.3 3.0

Tampa-St. Petersburg-Clearwater

1,665,563 1,721,663 1,668,127 1,711,710 42,704 53,193 37,485 52,279 2.6 3.1 2.2 3.1

The Villages

37,632 39,573 37,755 39,259 1,375 1,721 1,269 1,702 3.7 4.3 3.4 4.3

Georgia

5,231,596 5,369,686 5,248,482 5,336,733 146,249 163,138 145,435 153,551 2.8 3.0 2.8 2.9

Albany

64,363 66,150 64,578 65,276 2,256 2,356 2,225 2,120 3.5 3.6 3.4 3.2

Athens-Clarke County

99,594 102,414 99,296 101,733 2,688 2,742 2,656 2,871 2.7 2.7 2.7 2.8

Atlanta-Sandy Springs-Roswell

3,186,153 3,274,108 3,199,920 3,258,356 85,254 100,217 84,375 92,793 2.7 3.1 2.6 2.8

Augusta-Richmond County

260,169 261,706 260,671 261,179 8,557 9,300 8,507 8,886 3.3 3.6 3.3 3.4

Brunswick

53,325 55,201 53,446 54,409 1,489 1,495 1,447 1,415 2.8 2.7 2.7 2.6

Columbus

121,524 124,564 121,961 124,142 4,108 4,258 3,983 4,094 3.4 3.4 3.3 3.3

Dalton

57,810 58,862 58,336 58,905 2,128 2,016 2,364 2,142 3.7 3.4 4.1 3.6

Gainesville

107,212 110,521 108,074 109,447 2,341 2,462 2,375 2,379 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.2

Hinesville

34,729 35,073 34,543 35,066 1,021 1,051 983 976 2.9 3.0 2.8 2.8

Macon-Bibb County

99,120 100,955 99,773 100,318 3,196 3,428 3,140 3,241 3.2 3.4 3.1 3.2

Rome

44,336 45,623 44,717 45,617 1,240 1,282 1,258 1,259 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.8

Savannah

197,412 200,422 197,325 199,666 5,171 5,245 5,041 4,950 2.6 2.6 2.6 2.5

Valdosta

62,391 63,173 62,257 62,548 1,912 1,975 1,855 1,896 3.1 3.1 3.0 3.0

Warner Robins

85,876 87,249 86,170 86,936 2,570 2,432 2,502 2,300 3.0 2.8 2.9 2.6

Hawaii

680,226 678,256 680,927 672,952 26,347 19,835 23,514 19,211 3.9 2.9 3.5 2.9

Kahului-Wailuku-Lahaina

87,401 87,702 87,661 86,678 3,246 5,503 2,902 4,605 3.7 6.3 3.3 5.3

Urban Honolulu

460,910 456,998 461,503 454,603 17,777 11,137 15,776 11,321 3.9 2.4 3.4 2.5

Idaho

953,486 978,789 952,696 971,638 23,973 30,495 22,824 30,567 2.5 3.1 2.4 3.1

Boise City

406,213 428,176 409,668 425,931 9,744 13,309 8,915 12,805 2.4 3.1 2.2 3.0

Coeur d'Alene

83,659 87,380 83,838 87,323 2,711 3,307 2,810 3,646 3.2 3.8 3.4 4.2

Idaho Falls

79,716 83,258 79,912 82,959 1,695 2,045 1,650 2,014 2.1 2.5 2.1 2.4

Lewiston

31,624 32,513 31,636 32,332 967 942 964 1,030 3.1 2.9 3.0 3.2

Pocatello

43,941 46,660 43,566 46,457 1,103 1,400 987 1,389 2.5 3.0 2.3 3.0

Twin Falls

62,692 57,220 62,729 57,120 1,443 1,750 1,461 1,836 2.3 3.1 2.3 3.2

Illinois

6,456,955 6,498,213 6,438,153 6,404,211 268,071 272,744 260,429 269,963 4.2 4.2 4.0 4.2

Bloomington

97,169 98,879 96,419 97,009 3,066 3,325 2,833 3,671 3.2 3.4 2.9 3.8

Carbondale-Marion

58,227 59,589 58,047 59,150 2,184 2,193 2,012 2,460 3.8 3.7 3.5 4.2

Champaign-Urbana

127,662 130,296 123,905 125,266 4,176 4,599 3,858 4,984 3.3 3.5 3.1 4.0

Chicago-Naperville-Elgin

4,954,500 4,960,170 4,946,683 4,882,710 209,996 213,183 204,857 198,416 4.2 4.3 4.1 4.1

Danville

31,715 33,011 31,578 32,391 1,451 1,585 1,395 1,746 4.6 4.8 4.4 5.4

Davenport-Moline-Rock Island(1)

186,922 188,725 185,853 185,855 6,508 6,960 6,707 7,278 3.5 3.7 3.6 3.9

Decatur

45,230 45,376 44,996 44,983 2,165 2,334 2,020 2,574 4.8 5.1 4.5 5.7

Kankakee

51,661 52,102 51,686 51,888 2,484 2,566 2,455 3,045 4.8 4.9 4.7 5.9

Peoria

169,424 171,623 168,958 170,545 6,707 7,032 6,538 8,168 4.0 4.1 3.9 4.8

Rockford

157,170 158,264 157,541 158,289 7,477 8,167 7,310 9,340 4.8 5.2 4.6 5.9

Springfield

103,122 106,324 102,761 105,181 3,725 3,716 3,504 4,134 3.6 3.5 3.4 3.9

Indiana

3,408,814 3,436,138 3,396,110 3,384,774 99,838 118,038 87,295 96,202 2.9 3.4 2.6 2.8

Bloomington

81,956 83,376 79,347 81,311 2,285 2,893 1,741 2,065 2.8 3.5 2.2 2.5

Columbus

44,596 44,853 44,602 44,136 1,039 1,341 880 1,052 2.3 3.0 2.0 2.4

Elkhart-Goshen

116,504 113,629 116,222 111,469 3,556 4,191 3,266 3,552 3.1 3.7 2.8 3.2

Evansville

159,202 158,923 158,964 156,446 4,533 5,229 3,924 4,229 2.8 3.3 2.5 2.7

Fort Wayne

222,520 225,205 220,879 221,005 6,008 7,210 5,063 5,596 2.7 3.2 2.3 2.5

Indianapolis-Carmel-Anderson

1,125,504 1,143,129 1,118,266 1,126,619 30,053 35,730 25,176 28,478 2.7 3.1 2.3 2.5

Kokomo

33,097 33,919 32,984 33,581 1,562 2,257 1,432 2,142 4.7 6.7 4.3 6.4

Lafayette-West Lafayette

112,712 111,932 112,333 109,484 3,063 3,572 2,344 2,507 2.7 3.2 2.1 2.3

Michigan City-La Porte

46,976 47,172 46,951 46,658 1,670 1,864 1,592 1,686 3.6 4.0 3.4 3.6

Muncie

52,102 52,114 51,653 51,297 1,729 2,067 1,421 1,628 3.3 4.0 2.8 3.2

South Bend-Mishawaka

156,128 157,573 155,116 154,654 5,550 6,089 5,133 5,291 3.6 3.9 3.3 3.4

Terre Haute

72,510 73,207 72,420 72,006 2,482 2,748 2,224 2,245 3.4 3.8 3.1 3.1

Iowa

1,720,546 1,707,076 1,716,118 1,687,655 45,111 48,701 49,754 44,983 2.6 2.9 2.9 2.7

Ames

61,614 59,599 61,058 58,614 1,244 1,302 1,103 1,095 2.0 2.2 1.8 1.9

Cedar Rapids

144,731 145,025 144,955 143,038 4,368 4,766 4,747 4,399 3.0 3.3 3.3 3.1

Des Moines-West Des Moines

377,619 374,817 377,553 372,583 9,462 10,597 9,933 9,420 2.5 2.8 2.6 2.5

Dubuque

56,387 55,455 56,534 55,284 1,434 1,509 1,702 1,529 2.5 2.7 3.0 2.8

Iowa City

99,872 98,831 98,318 97,216 2,269 2,402 2,261 1,981 2.3 2.4 2.3 2.0

Sioux City

94,500 93,819 94,503 92,897 2,396 2,442 2,674 2,436 2.5 2.6 2.8 2.6

Waterloo-Cedar Falls

88,925 88,554 88,938 87,482 2,379 2,581 2,701 2,403 2.7 2.9 3.0 2.7

Kansas

1,506,563 1,511,087 1,507,786 1,501,833 38,166 32,132 36,930 30,612 2.5 2.1 2.4 2.0

Lawrence

67,503 70,816 66,361 69,692 1,604 1,320 1,586 1,260 2.4 1.9 2.4 1.8

Manhattan

48,489 51,151 47,509 50,479 1,139 850 1,170 861 2.3 1.7 2.5 1.7

Topeka

120,494 120,613 120,891 120,042 3,129 2,584 3,058 2,451 2.6 2.1 2.5 2.0

Wichita

319,711 319,027 319,125 315,169 9,115 7,863 8,710 7,683 2.9 2.5 2.7 2.4

Kentucky

2,034,283 2,029,527 2,030,826 2,019,568 68,575 79,832 66,610 77,502 3.4 3.9 3.3 3.8

Bowling Green

84,794 85,074 84,127 85,214 2,799 3,277 2,611 3,226 3.3 3.9 3.1 3.8

Elizabethtown-Fort Knox

63,425 63,449 63,507 62,926 2,314 2,590 2,227 2,473 3.6 4.1 3.5 3.9

Lexington-Fayette

274,145 276,708 275,275 274,445 7,740 8,929 7,087 8,640 2.8 3.2 2.6 3.1

Louisville/Jefferson County

665,004 660,319 660,015 655,284 19,353 23,582 17,904 21,454 2.9 3.6 2.7 3.3

Owensboro

52,822 51,941 53,017 51,813 1,980 2,092 1,959 2,077 3.7 4.0 3.7 4.0

Louisiana

2,089,080 2,089,964 2,083,961 2,071,208 66,367 73,233 66,596 78,483 3.2 3.5 3.2 3.8

Alexandria

65,025 64,394 64,895 63,890 1,932 2,186 1,947 2,378 3.0 3.4 3.0 3.7

Baton Rouge

433,234 438,126 431,987 432,135 12,423 13,443 12,295 14,431 2.9 3.1 2.8 3.3

Hammond

56,835 56,732 56,601 56,252 2,134 2,294 2,177 2,484 3.8 4.0 3.8 4.4

Houma-Thibodaux

85,027 83,582 83,963 82,885 2,605 2,673 2,594 2,961 3.1 3.2 3.1 3.6

Lafayette

214,130 212,933 213,002 211,323 6,495 7,052 6,521 7,689 3.0 3.3 3.1 3.6

Lake Charles

96,425 96,195 95,756 94,920 2,930 3,073 2,930 3,338 3.0 3.2 3.1 3.5

Monroe

80,103 79,044 79,495 78,243 2,626 2,899 2,588 3,049 3.3 3.7 3.3 3.9

New Orleans-Metairie

588,884 592,019 590,291 587,317 18,767 21,112 18,835 22,396 3.2 3.6 3.2 3.8

Shreveport-Bossier City

185,136 183,304 184,600 182,626 6,174 6,831 6,120 7,240 3.3 3.7 3.3 4.0

Maine

666,439 694,095 666,164 685,741 19,003 21,942 17,994 23,245 2.9 3.2 2.7 3.4

Bangor

69,431 71,499 69,331 70,190 1,851 2,207 1,718 2,291 2.7 3.1 2.5 3.3

Lewiston-Auburn

52,982 55,085 53,283 54,616 1,563 1,727 1,472 1,824 3.0 3.1 2.8 3.3

Portland-South Portland

204,942 214,365 203,650 211,208 4,896 5,921 4,448 5,975 2.4 2.8 2.2 2.8

Maryland

3,156,027 3,190,446 3,163,206 3,175,604 88,603 56,436 79,530 64,387 2.8 1.8 2.5 2.0

Baltimore-Columbia-Towson

1,471,905 1,493,470 1,475,863 1,490,214 41,352 26,747 36,839 30,021 2.8 1.8 2.5 2.0

California-Lexington Park

56,962 57,311 57,373 57,124 1,492 881 1,353 1,072 2.6 1.5 2.4 1.9

Cumberland

43,746 44,316 43,654 44,041 1,466 1,181 1,421 1,375 3.4 2.7 3.3 3.1

Hagerstown-Martinsburg

130,634 130,511 131,677 129,861 3,721 3,236 3,389 3,508 2.8 2.5 2.6 2.7

Massachusetts

3,715,913 3,744,869 3,715,508 3,747,957 120,931 104,563 123,092 130,561 3.3 2.8 3.3 3.5

Barnstable Town

119,100 119,750 117,786 118,932 4,834 3,914 5,415 5,323 4.1 3.3 4.6 4.5

Boston-Cambridge-Nashua

2,773,173 2,805,254 2,773,312 2,805,459 83,160 74,700 82,671 89,741 3.0 2.7 3.0 3.2

Leominster-Gardner

78,268 78,133 78,734 78,549 2,928 2,374 3,124 3,127 3.7 3.0 4.0 4.0

New Bedford

83,778 83,352 83,728 83,884 3,994 3,133 4,103 3,974 4.8 3.8 4.9 4.7

Pittsfield

39,820 39,292 40,122 39,644 1,635 1,173 1,775 1,543 4.1 3.0 4.4 3.9

Springfield

370,144 366,717 368,744 364,437 13,716 11,558 13,893 14,339 3.7 3.2 3.8 3.9

Worcester

356,148 355,840 357,503 356,744 11,768 10,293 12,024 12,777 3.3 2.9 3.4 3.6

Michigan

4,825,413 5,077,787 4,820,879 5,007,910 170,445 180,413 181,172 177,226 3.5 3.6 3.8 3.5

Ann Arbor

198,238 212,341 195,674 207,120 6,248 5,568 5,885 5,487 3.2 2.6 3.0 2.6

Battle Creek

59,646 62,477 59,458 61,244 2,424 2,214 2,543 2,453 4.1 3.5 4.3 4.0

Bay City

48,890 51,795 48,806 50,940 2,126 1,894 2,409 2,266 4.3 3.7 4.9 4.4

Detroit-Warren-Dearborn

2,101,369 2,206,735 2,110,988 2,199,087 65,092 85,499 68,384 72,983 3.1 3.9 3.2 3.3

Flint

178,168 186,535 177,892 183,049 8,482 7,556 8,783 8,051 4.8 4.1 4.9 4.4

Grand Rapids-Wyoming

581,509 617,303 581,286 605,874 17,752 16,256 18,010 17,128 3.1 2.6 3.1 2.8

Jackson

73,710 77,625 73,452 75,911 2,752 2,491 2,932 2,715 3.7 3.2 4.0 3.6

Kalamazoo-Portage

166,611 175,027 164,895 170,358 6,118 5,461 6,365 5,892 3.7 3.1 3.9 3.5

Lansing-East Lansing

245,305 259,418 243,003 252,864 8,410 7,615 8,540 7,839 3.4 2.9 3.5 3.1

Midland

39,778 42,317 39,477 41,551 1,510 1,290 1,581 1,405 3.8 3.0 4.0 3.4

Monroe

74,159 78,169 73,887 76,424 2,906 2,875 3,035 2,863 3.9 3.7 4.1 3.7

Muskegon

76,138 80,261 75,788 78,810 3,436 3,010 3,447 3,193 4.5 3.8 4.5 4.1

Niles-Benton Harbor

71,907 75,602 71,565 73,900 2,866 2,561 3,140 2,843 4.0 3.4 4.4 3.8

Saginaw

82,381 86,955 82,522 84,981 3,896 3,556 4,261 3,940 4.7 4.1 5.2 4.6

Minnesota

3,078,424 3,072,985 3,085,422 3,077,287 75,792 58,165 97,776 79,223 2.5 1.9 3.2 2.6

Duluth

141,382 139,990 140,348 140,004 4,509 3,476 5,380 4,408 3.2 2.5 3.8 3.1

Mankato-North Mankato

62,156 64,367 62,194 63,805 1,195 890 1,613 1,248 1.9 1.4 2.6 2.0

Minneapolis-St. Paul-Bloomington

2,012,721 2,007,320 2,008,571 2,012,554 47,313 37,778 56,962 48,689 2.4 1.9 2.8 2.4

Rochester

126,306 128,946 126,962 129,434 2,537 1,845 3,367 2,554 2.0 1.4 2.7 2.0

St. Cloud

111,517 110,402 112,149 110,403 2,942 2,124 4,033 3,093 2.6 1.9 3.6 2.8

Mississippi

1,236,060 1,224,803 1,236,831 1,226,148 43,490 31,661 41,105 32,428 3.5 2.6 3.3 2.6

Gulfport-Biloxi-Pascagoula

161,849 159,935 161,691 159,704 5,850 4,155 5,419 4,280 3.6 2.6 3.4 2.7

Hattiesburg

69,245 69,236 68,486 68,709 2,133 1,537 1,986 1,559 3.1 2.2 2.9 2.3

Jackson

261,119 262,127 261,362 262,388 8,150 5,821 7,423 5,830 3.1 2.2 2.8 2.2

Missouri

3,053,880 3,090,934 3,063,184 3,081,975 68,723 88,313 68,213 86,522 2.3 2.9 2.2 2.8

Cape Girardeau

47,649 48,265 47,836 48,539 1,049 1,287 1,017 1,230 2.2 2.7 2.1 2.5

Columbia

100,277 102,729 100,039 102,130 1,818 2,376 1,702 2,105 1.8 2.3 1.7 2.1

Jefferson City

74,709 76,776 75,245 76,859 1,407 1,821 1,377 1,741 1.9 2.4 1.8 2.3

Joplin

83,399 85,487 84,060 85,545 1,847 2,441 1,800 2,394 2.2 2.9 2.1 2.8

Kansas City

1,151,435 1,158,148 1,154,916 1,151,848 27,360 30,298 26,647 29,097 2.4 2.6 2.3 2.5

St. Joseph

59,135 59,629 59,518 59,723 1,258 1,477 1,215 1,460 2.1 2.5 2.0 2.4

St. Louis(2)

1,460,443 1,485,581 1,456,670 1,474,008 36,386 44,250 34,939 44,592 2.5 3.0 2.4 3.0

Springfield

243,088 244,190 243,524 243,318 4,780 6,099 4,566 5,676 2.0 2.5 1.9 2.3

Montana

566,024 581,251 565,461 578,459 12,762 17,403 14,453 21,793 2.3 3.0 2.6 3.8

Billings

91,889 93,639 91,600 92,893 1,813 2,469 2,061 3,249 2.0 2.6 2.3 3.5

Great Falls

39,408 40,231 39,370 40,233 957 1,163 994 1,574 2.4 2.9 2.5 3.9

Missoula

67,315 69,144 67,330 69,065 1,451 2,094 1,767 2,704 2.2 3.0 2.6 3.9

Nebraska

1,057,744 1,056,704 1,056,963 1,048,287 23,789 21,568 24,433 22,850 2.2 2.0 2.3 2.2

Grand Island

45,447 45,466 45,590 45,377 1,002 898 1,090 1,065 2.2 2.0 2.4 2.3

Lincoln

190,371 191,993 189,969 189,774 4,193 3,684 4,066 3,900 2.2 1.9 2.1 2.1

Omaha-Council Bluffs

507,432 506,159 504,887 501,935 12,290 11,654 12,834 11,995 2.4 2.3 2.5 2.4

Nevada

1,566,809 1,634,406 1,562,272 1,620,298 82,969 79,043 80,095 81,737 5.3 4.8 5.1 5.0

Carson City

25,329 26,131 25,402 25,934 1,062 1,064 1,040 1,126 4.2 4.1 4.1 4.3

Las Vegas-Henderson-Paradise

1,160,010 1,211,762 1,155,570 1,200,572 67,022 62,194 64,760 64,080 5.8 5.1 5.6 5.3

Reno

261,070 272,294 261,321 269,502 9,471 10,112 9,127 10,580 3.6 3.7 3.5 3.9

New Hampshire

766,352 764,677 767,992 759,646 20,341 19,349 19,214 19,066 2.7 2.5 2.5 2.5

Dover-Durham

85,999 86,144 85,887 85,244 2,062 2,008 1,904 1,932 2.4 2.3 2.2 2.3

Manchester

122,147 122,935 122,337 122,075 3,116 3,017 2,885 2,964 2.6 2.5 2.4 2.4

Portsmouth

77,244 77,351 77,788 77,012 1,873 1,871 1,756 1,876 2.4 2.4 2.3 2.4

New Jersey

4,761,059 4,813,602 4,775,069 4,819,766 146,522 208,611 148,454 215,650 3.1 4.3 3.1 4.5

Atlantic City-Hammonton

123,158 126,094 123,302 126,362 5,143 7,157 5,560 7,747 4.2 5.7 4.5 6.1

Ocean City

43,080 46,538 43,597 47,400 2,885 3,816 3,551 4,714 6.7 8.2 8.1 9.9

Trenton

218,419 223,812 218,908 223,874 5,862 8,284 5,746 8,322 2.7 3.7 2.6 3.7

Vineland-Bridgeton

69,185 70,520 69,063 70,831 2,981 4,317 3,409 4,889 4.3 6.1 4.9 6.9

New Mexico

949,624 979,095 950,456 970,448 29,828 36,546 28,052 35,253 3.1 3.7 3.0 3.6

Albuquerque

443,736 456,875 442,830 453,708 12,719 16,607 11,968 15,694 2.9 3.6 2.7 3.5

Farmington

49,880 51,167 49,820 50,575 1,766 2,027 1,701 1,990 3.5 4.0 3.4 3.9

Las Cruces

100,214 102,456 100,689 101,492 3,560 4,175 3,349 4,282 3.6 4.1 3.3 4.2

Santa Fe

72,494 74,293 72,305 72,961 1,962 2,534 1,854 2,333 2.7 3.4 2.6 3.2

New York

9,563,388 9,786,493 9,574,556 9,645,984 365,500 395,592 366,139 426,712 3.8 4.0 3.8 4.4

Albany-Schenectady-Troy

455,219 474,704 453,342 466,026 12,174 15,126 12,234 16,827 2.7 3.2 2.7 3.6

Binghamton

103,733 106,545 103,841 104,932 3,290 3,989 3,506 4,779 3.2 3.7 3.4 4.6

Buffalo-Cheektowaga-Niagara Falls

538,138 557,929 537,375 545,779 17,599 22,168 18,194 24,308 3.3 4.0 3.4 4.5

Elmira

34,257 35,366 34,255 34,701 1,162 1,398 1,188 1,549 3.4 4.0 3.5 4.5

Glens Falls

57,537 59,667 57,663 58,979 1,786 2,199 1,950 2,591 3.1 3.7 3.4 4.4

Ithaca

50,463 51,382 50,242 50,782 1,310 1,494 1,279 1,795 2.6 2.9 2.5 3.5

Kingston

86,715 89,861 86,461 88,395 2,368 3,182 2,403 3,444 2.7 3.5 2.8 3.9

New York-Newark-Jersey City

10,207,165 10,348,902 10,232,361 10,261,121 382,553 437,327 379,154 456,771 3.7 4.2 3.7 4.5

Rochester

517,777 533,350 516,344 524,573 15,652 19,482 15,940 21,571 3.0 3.7 3.1 4.1

Syracuse

310,511 321,995 309,823 316,349 9,427 11,461 9,818 13,077 3.0 3.6 3.2 4.1

Utica-Rome

125,708 129,044 125,579 126,948 4,153 4,832 4,394 5,555 3.3 3.7 3.5 4.4

Watertown-Fort Drum

43,284 45,207 43,272 44,368 1,681 2,020 1,847 2,406 3.9 4.5 4.3 5.4

North Carolina

5,144,500 5,264,056 5,126,883 5,225,936 184,461 177,149 163,788 167,065 3.6 3.4 3.2 3.2

Asheville

236,193 240,940 234,341 239,472 7,019 6,638 6,010 6,038 3.0 2.8 2.6 2.5

Burlington

82,609 84,338 82,268 83,663 2,999 2,807 2,663 2,628 3.6 3.3 3.2 3.1

Charlotte-Concord-Gastonia

1,419,590 1,467,731 1,422,615 1,459,737 47,442 46,841 43,422 45,357 3.3 3.2 3.1 3.1

Durham-Chapel Hill

315,027 327,811 314,429 325,014 9,959 9,769 8,653 8,965 3.2 3.0 2.8 2.8

Fayetteville

146,540 148,277 145,945 147,674 7,371 6,764 6,695 6,479 5.0 4.6 4.6 4.4

Goldsboro

50,152 50,721 50,007 50,364 1,987 1,885 1,728 1,763 4.0 3.7 3.5 3.5

Greensboro-High Point

364,031 370,346 362,713 366,411 14,318 13,658 12,919 12,920 3.9 3.7 3.6 3.5

Greenville

87,754 89,154 87,186 88,467 3,491 3,403 3,094 3,225 4.0 3.8 3.5 3.6

Hickory-Lenoir-Morganton

174,513 175,613 174,236 174,114 5,931 5,774 5,078 5,330 3.4 3.3 2.9 3.1

Jacksonville

68,366 69,712 68,474 69,242 2,899 2,779 2,547 2,563 4.2 4.0 3.7 3.7

New Bern

51,606 52,204 51,394 51,751 1,929 1,746 1,665 1,605 3.7 3.3 3.2 3.1

Raleigh

773,778 807,434 771,653 804,184 23,832 24,302 20,809 23,046 3.1 3.0 2.7 2.9

Rocky Mount

61,803 62,297 61,541 61,772 3,258 2,880 2,978 2,785 5.3 4.6 4.8 4.5

Wilmington

159,788 159,440 159,495 158,783 5,252 5,046 4,756 4,781 3.3 3.2 3.0 3.0

Winston-Salem

331,219 339,348 328,980 336,633 11,644 10,988 10,379 10,263 3.5 3.2 3.2 3.0

North Dakota

410,014 412,196 409,011 409,259 7,086 5,819 8,347 7,131 1.7 1.4 2.0 1.7

Bismarck

70,282 69,334 69,779 69,143 1,215 1,014 1,497 1,249 1.7 1.5 2.1 1.8

Fargo

147,324 146,941 146,249 145,441 2,302 1,879 2,745 2,442 1.6 1.3 1.9 1.7

Grand Forks

53,791 54,376 53,712 54,135 979 776 1,208 993 1.8 1.4 2.2 1.8

Ohio

5,700,958 5,809,995 5,698,019 5,741,173 192,853 174,939 197,925 178,534 3.4 3.0 3.5 3.1

Akron

344,948 355,000 346,100 354,642 11,877 11,346 12,944 11,596 3.4 3.2 3.7 3.3

Canton-Massillon

192,096 194,836 192,622 193,942 6,726 6,231 7,217 6,458 3.5 3.2 3.7 3.3

Cincinnati

1,132,083 1,154,073 1,130,514 1,145,650 34,484 34,740 33,397 33,381 3.0 3.0 3.0 2.9

Cleveland-Elyria

1,014,043 1,045,531 1,010,141 1,015,339 36,204 28,486 34,491 31,257 3.6 2.7 3.4 3.1

Columbus

1,113,552 1,128,653 1,115,671 1,119,383 33,205 31,148 33,521 30,595 3.0 2.8 3.0 2.7

Dayton

378,414 388,120 380,417 385,422 12,969 12,355 13,101 11,919 3.4 3.2 3.4 3.1

Lima

45,942 46,375 46,097 46,057 1,638 1,413 1,657 1,403 3.6 3.0 3.6 3.0

Mansfield

49,854 51,176 50,396 51,014 1,982 1,814 2,207 1,917 4.0 3.5 4.4 3.8

Springfield

62,046 63,589 62,335 63,025 2,095 2,089 2,219 2,108 3.4 3.3 3.6 3.3

Toledo

294,195 294,752 293,274 292,424 10,713 10,479 11,233 10,220 3.6 3.6 3.8 3.5

Weirton-Steubenville(1)

49,178 49,723 49,252 49,312 2,184 2,397 2,271 2,435 4.4 4.8 4.6 4.9

Youngstown-Warren-Boardman

226,977 225,407 227,111 223,698 9,524 8,362 9,939 8,585 4.2 3.7 4.4 3.8

Oklahoma

1,896,655 1,980,598 1,886,457 1,978,615 54,446 64,744 49,524 64,012 2.9 3.3 2.6 3.2

Enid

26,081 27,146 26,077 27,087 727 898 676 909 2.8 3.3 2.6 3.4

Lawton

50,227 51,938 49,906 51,654 1,722 2,058 1,589 2,015 3.4 4.0 3.2 3.9

Oklahoma City

722,880 753,112 718,740 753,447 19,342 23,241 17,477 22,627 2.7 3.1 2.4 3.0

Tulsa

489,473 513,628 484,899 512,408 14,451 17,003 13,047 16,902 3.0 3.3 2.7 3.3

Oregon

2,185,639 2,161,117 2,176,351 2,159,283 99,348 74,807 99,086 83,367 4.5 3.5 4.6 3.9

Albany

61,931 61,279 61,687 61,429 3,135 2,331 3,085 2,526 5.1 3.8 5.0 4.1

Bend-Redmond

103,388 102,322 103,082 102,885 4,785 3,589 5,094 4,067 4.6 3.5 4.9 4.0

Corvallis

50,019 50,450 49,857 50,346 1,772 1,319 1,823 1,583 3.5 2.6 3.7 3.1

Eugene

183,192 177,081 182,218 177,861 9,408 6,637 9,062 7,436 5.1 3.7 5.0 4.2

Grants Pass

36,970 36,318 36,851 36,400 2,335 1,654 2,414 1,824 6.3 4.6 6.6 5.0

Medford

107,461 105,867 106,225 105,247 5,488 4,084 5,491 4,495 5.1 3.9 5.2 4.3

Portland-Vancouver-Hillsboro

1,381,002 1,370,815 1,379,189 1,370,774 58,764 46,790 57,682 51,882 4.3 3.4 4.2 3.8

Salem

214,918 213,153 213,415 212,066 9,833 7,311 9,659 8,313 4.6 3.4 4.5 3.9

Pennsylvania

6,454,677 6,550,383 6,452,027 6,493,055 253,823 192,925 247,618 190,448 3.9 2.9 3.8 2.9

Allentown-Bethlehem-Easton

451,278 460,110 452,608 456,492 17,303 15,434 16,563 14,841 3.8 3.4 3.7 3.3

Altoona

58,232 58,999 58,471 58,759 2,288 1,594 2,388 1,654 3.9 2.7 4.1 2.8

Bloomsburg-Berwick

43,426 44,040 43,193 43,598 1,746 1,285 1,716 1,331 4.0 2.9 4.0 3.1

Chambersburg-Waynesboro

77,622 78,015 77,988 77,295 2,584 1,837 2,528 1,847 3.3 2.4 3.2 2.4

East Stroudsburg

82,042 82,490 82,029 81,760 4,460 3,246 4,201 3,094 5.4 3.9 5.1 3.8

Erie

124,860 125,309 124,734 124,252 5,641 3,954 5,661 4,099 4.5 3.2 4.5 3.3

Gettysburg

54,765 55,180 54,765 54,811 1,540 1,158 1,506 1,189 2.8 2.1 2.7 2.2

Harrisburg-Carlisle

305,688 313,845 305,697 311,407 10,057 7,882 9,647 7,547 3.3 2.5 3.2 2.4

Johnstown

54,993 55,047 55,116 54,718 2,557 1,902 2,736 1,982 4.6 3.5 5.0 3.6

Lancaster

288,345 294,378 289,123 291,760 8,590 6,668 8,305 6,625 3.0 2.3 2.9 2.3

Lebanon

73,490 75,684 73,680 75,419 2,291 1,773 2,225 1,745 3.1 2.3 3.0 2.3

Philadelphia-Camden-Wilmington

3,217,622 3,290,417 3,215,537 3,275,200 119,318 109,242 113,549 107,541 3.7 3.3 3.5 3.3

Pittsburgh

1,171,533 1,179,286 1,169,980 1,165,946 47,467 33,616 47,508 33,850 4.1 2.9 4.1 2.9

Reading

213,346 215,705 213,661 213,522 8,152 6,676 7,760 6,407 3.8 3.1 3.6 3.0

Scranton--Wilkes-Barre--Hazleton

276,843 281,715 277,571 280,371 12,628 9,836 12,472 9,809 4.6 3.5 4.5 3.5

State College

79,755 81,005 79,725 80,751 2,464 1,737 2,550 1,859 3.1 2.1 3.2 2.3

Williamsport

55,198 55,586 54,990 55,154 2,303 1,658 2,380 1,771 4.2 3.0 4.3 3.2

York-Hanover

237,418 241,930 237,742 240,532 7,927 6,226 7,616 5,975 3.3 2.6 3.2 2.5

Rhode Island

566,590 578,755 562,580 574,161 16,872 18,363 13,110 18,979 3.0 3.2 2.3 3.3

Providence-Warwick

698,704 709,354 694,767 705,599 21,904 22,493 18,635 24,459 3.1 3.2 2.7 3.5

South Carolina

2,351,868 2,469,138 2,357,355 2,463,552 66,880 72,408 70,510 75,252 2.8 2.9 3.0 3.1

Charleston-North Charleston

405,202 438,735 405,219 437,019 9,745 10,781 10,341 11,032 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.5

Columbia

394,670 413,208 396,299 413,750 10,810 11,700 11,144 12,015 2.7 2.8 2.8 2.9

Florence

94,330 99,749 94,966 99,383 2,782 3,002 2,841 3,125 2.9 3.0 3.0 3.1

Greenville-Anderson-Mauldin

436,271 453,884 436,533 452,681 11,203 12,577 11,626 12,933 2.6 2.8 2.7 2.9

Hilton Head Island-Bluffton-Beaufort

88,034 92,512 88,903 92,253 2,366 2,577 2,595 2,694 2.7 2.8 2.9 2.9

Myrtle Beach-Conway-North Myrtle Beach

205,383 213,648 203,054 211,470 7,605 7,622 8,052 8,278 3.7 3.6 4.0 3.9

Spartanburg

163,964 171,389 164,513 172,116 4,662 5,011 4,896 5,159 2.8 2.9 3.0 3.0

Sumter

41,012 42,914 41,488 42,929 1,486 1,559 1,653 1,622 3.6 3.6 4.0 3.8

South Dakota

473,627 483,823 472,483 479,519 9,011 8,175 10,256 9,739 1.9 1.7 2.2 2.0

Rapid City

78,269 79,955 77,727 79,136 1,624 1,416 1,658 1,592 2.1 1.8 2.1 2.0

Sioux Falls

162,416 167,447 161,466 165,761 2,661 2,553 3,107 2,982 1.6 1.5 1.9 1.8

Tennessee

3,308,733 3,395,592 3,300,137 3,392,133 104,278 114,194 96,764 102,515 3.2 3.4 2.9 3.0

Chattanooga

271,402 278,645 271,892 276,569 8,146 8,827 7,911 8,063 3.0 3.2 2.9 2.9

Clarksville

117,645 119,027 118,266 119,214 4,341 4,911 4,213 4,479 3.7 4.1 3.6 3.8

Cleveland

56,453 57,851 56,235 57,785 1,969 2,035 1,794 1,817 3.5 3.5 3.2 3.1

Jackson

63,327 63,826 63,113 63,912 2,038 2,169 1,827 1,944 3.2 3.4 2.9 3.0

Johnson City

91,558 93,613 91,141 93,406 3,059 3,324 2,837 2,979 3.3 3.6 3.1 3.2

Kingsport-Bristol-Bristol

134,621 137,209 134,578 136,814 4,522 4,793 4,183 4,329 3.4 3.5 3.1 3.2

Knoxville

434,958 450,278 433,540 448,878 12,864 13,904 11,783 12,419 3.0 3.1 2.7 2.8

Memphis

621,358 622,950 620,278 624,962 23,377 24,570 21,790 23,072 3.8 3.9 3.5 3.7

Morristown

52,402 53,424 52,436 53,603 1,732 1,846 1,619 1,658 3.3 3.5 3.1 3.1

Nashville-Davidson--Murfreesboro--Franklin

1,117,008 1,151,166 1,115,102 1,149,610 28,730 31,541 26,267 27,956 2.6 2.7 2.4 2.4

Texas

14,765,864 15,276,313 14,773,939 15,147,835 543,279 534,672 513,171 528,483 3.7 3.5 3.5 3.5

Abilene

81,159 82,943 81,308 82,152 2,641 2,433 2,546 2,417 3.3 2.9 3.1 2.9

Amarillo

136,042 138,365 135,995 136,667 3,924 3,583 3,495 3,452 2.9 2.6 2.6 2.5

Austin-Round Rock

1,412,243 1,468,193 1,411,415 1,453,639 39,573 44,469 37,225 43,178 2.8 3.0 2.6 3.0

Beaumont-Port Arthur

166,642 170,954 167,079 169,927 9,186 8,699 9,516 8,898 5.5 5.1 5.7 5.2

Brownsville-Harlingen

177,169 183,183 178,432 181,053 9,392 8,541 9,323 8,677 5.3 4.7 5.2 4.8

College Station-Bryan

149,057 153,933 147,900 151,663 4,550 4,151 3,999 3,938 3.1 2.7 2.7 2.6

Corpus Christi

201,718 206,861 201,590 205,013 8,919 7,948 8,474 7,828 4.4 3.8 4.2 3.8

Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington

4,313,209 4,494,911 4,312,594 4,459,186 144,909 148,104 135,095 145,057 3.4 3.3 3.1 3.3

El Paso

374,278 381,098 375,134 378,491 15,348 15,109 14,027 14,623 4.1 4.0 3.7 3.9

Houston-The Woodlands-Sugar Land

3,530,741 3,644,919 3,538,096 3,620,924 139,451 138,448 132,818 137,940 3.9 3.8 3.8 3.8

Killeen-Temple

183,966 188,784 184,264 186,894 7,712 7,284 7,150 7,052 4.2 3.9 3.9 3.8

Laredo

117,404 120,810 117,547 120,238 4,474 4,227 4,159 4,225 3.8 3.5 3.5 3.5

Longview

97,321 99,832 97,133 99,343 3,859 3,821 3,647 3,926 4.0 3.8 3.8 4.0

Lubbock

168,515 173,151 168,486 170,905 5,470 4,923 4,842 4,704 3.2 2.8 2.9 2.8

McAllen-Edinburg-Mission

374,227 387,859 375,941 383,671 22,411 20,323 23,470 22,178 6.0 5.2 6.2 5.8

Midland

111,119 116,728 111,759 115,613 2,835 2,513 2,546 2,418 2.6 2.2 2.3 2.1

Odessa

85,019 87,547 85,044 86,974 2,887 2,562 2,599 2,518 3.4 2.9 3.1 2.9

San Angelo

56,347 57,828 56,492 57,276 1,816 1,730 1,668 1,643 3.2 3.0 3.0 2.9

San Antonio-New Braunfels

1,261,476 1,303,352 1,257,527 1,297,694 43,980 42,091 40,379 40,816 3.5 3.2 3.2 3.1

Sherman-Denison

66,322 68,225 66,559 67,656 2,345 2,279 2,219 2,203 3.5 3.3 3.3 3.3

Texarkana

62,077 63,448 62,275 62,974 2,392 2,185 2,289 2,230 3.9 3.4 3.7 3.5

Tyler

112,290 114,414 112,357 113,270 3,983 3,759 3,725 3,696 3.5 3.3 3.3 3.3

Victoria

44,748 45,403 44,751 45,030 1,735 1,593 1,582 1,533 3.9 3.5 3.5 3.4

Waco

134,477 138,341 134,653 136,875 4,557 4,250 4,261 4,108 3.4 3.1 3.2 3.0

Wichita Falls

64,041 65,467 64,064 64,963 2,314 2,167 2,146 2,139 3.6 3.3 3.3 3.3

Utah

1,762,976 1,821,316 1,761,651 1,809,122 38,865 46,982 37,320 45,679 2.2 2.6 2.1 2.5

Logan

80,431 82,017 80,463 81,590 1,589 1,812 1,519 1,692 2.0 2.2 1.9 2.1

Ogden-Clearfield

355,596 369,404 354,690 366,671 7,787 9,369 7,400 8,954 2.2 2.5 2.1 2.4

Provo-Orem

356,567 364,870 355,694 360,471 7,554 9,387 7,066 8,825 2.1 2.6 2.0 2.4

St. George

88,747 91,998 88,154 91,097 2,075 2,521 2,073 2,476 2.3 2.7 2.4 2.7

Salt Lake City

726,641 749,633 726,375 744,415 15,697 19,203 15,056 18,912 2.2 2.6 2.1 2.5

Vermont

342,596 352,498 342,924 351,165 9,451 7,033 9,179 6,924 2.8 2.0 2.7 2.0

Burlington-South Burlington

127,930 131,585 127,058 129,345 2,955 2,212 2,703 2,039 2.3 1.7 2.1 1.6

Virginia

4,449,271 4,607,249 4,457,897 4,547,751 133,361 133,782 117,355 123,186 3.0 2.9 2.6 2.7

Blacksburg-Christiansburg-Radford

96,318 98,423 95,673 96,931 2,864 2,845 2,456 2,583 3.0 2.9 2.6 2.7

Charlottesville

124,308 130,375 124,268 128,471 3,491 3,416 3,035 3,037 2.8 2.6 2.4 2.4

Harrisonburg

68,835 72,212 68,921 71,541 2,050 2,067 1,712 1,883 3.0 2.9 2.5 2.6

Lynchburg

122,582 125,492 122,957 124,757 4,163 4,290 3,678 4,020 3.4 3.4 3.0 3.2

Richmond

700,320 734,816 704,379 728,447 22,107 22,663 19,699 21,169 3.2 3.1 2.8 2.9

Roanoke

159,180 164,585 160,616 163,363 4,743 4,747 4,166 4,435 3.0 2.9 2.6 2.7

Staunton-Waynesboro

62,386 63,930 62,286 63,177 1,686 1,686 1,461 1,498 2.7 2.6 2.3 2.4

Virginia Beach-Norfolk-Newport News

852,943 876,038 855,268 868,349 28,571 27,746 25,232 25,479 3.3 3.2 3.0 2.9

Winchester

78,688 81,171 78,904 80,846 2,075 2,078 1,845 1,986 2.6 2.6 2.3 2.5

Washington

4,016,778 4,071,955 4,027,238 4,044,730 177,306 172,260 184,170 187,109 4.4 4.2 4.6 4.6

Bellingham

116,667 115,281 117,120 115,115 6,073 4,956 6,003 5,881 5.2 4.3 5.1 5.1

Bremerton-Silverdale

131,268 131,336 131,714 131,450 6,341 5,432 6,036 6,208 4.8 4.1 4.6 4.7

Kennewick-Richland

151,575 150,679 151,023 151,131 8,617 6,977 9,914 8,868 5.7 4.6 6.6 5.9

Longview

49,982 49,607 50,157 49,798 3,093 2,400 2,991 2,805 6.2 4.8 6.0 5.6

Mount Vernon-Anacortes

62,303 62,002 62,345 61,901 3,546 2,939 3,516 3,489 5.7 4.7 5.6 5.6

Olympia-Tumwater

152,309 153,217 152,708 152,901 7,657 6,289 7,312 7,260 5.0 4.1 4.8 4.7

Seattle-Tacoma-Bellevue

2,227,242 2,298,468 2,241,501 2,271,359 77,145 92,235 78,450 88,538 3.5 4.0 3.5 3.9

Spokane-Spokane Valley

293,181 294,810 292,621 295,305 15,782 12,022 16,881 15,274 5.4 4.1 5.8 5.2

Walla Walla

33,355 31,856 32,315 31,940 1,545 1,252 1,744 1,632 4.6 3.9 5.4 5.1

Wenatchee

66,176 63,785 65,786 63,890 3,601 2,782 4,197 3,636 5.4 4.4 6.4 5.7

Yakima

129,267 125,236 129,713 126,143 9,219 7,138 11,677 9,902 7.1 5.7 9.0 7.8

West Virginia

780,781 785,044 776,499 783,556 26,791 28,349 26,253 31,021 3.4 3.6 3.4 4.0

Beckley

45,273 45,853 44,787 45,837 1,638 1,706 1,582 1,817 3.6 3.7 3.5 4.0

Charleston

88,340 89,076 87,784 88,623 3,016 3,219 2,909 3,411 3.4 3.6 3.3 3.8

Huntington-Ashland

143,014 146,431 143,434 146,315 5,190 5,536 5,402 5,894 3.6 3.8 3.8 4.0

Morgantown

70,746 71,336 70,277 70,897 2,129 2,143 2,063 2,338 3.0 3.0 2.9 3.3

Parkersburg-Vienna

38,439 38,486 38,090 38,548 1,440 1,461 1,421 1,683 3.7 3.8 3.7 4.4

Wheeling

59,225 59,050 59,128 59,067 2,405 2,240 2,519 2,516 4.1 3.8 4.3 4.3

Wisconsin

3,061,150 3,149,521 3,045,784 3,124,860 75,738 86,323 68,255 85,678 2.5 2.7 2.2 2.7

Appleton

131,548 135,544 131,225 134,418 2,729 3,078 2,435 3,070 2.1 2.3 1.9 2.3

Eau Claire

93,624 95,898 92,584 95,692 2,148 2,404 2,287 2,652 2.3 2.5 2.5 2.8

Fond du Lac

55,771 57,639 55,562 57,471 1,188 1,328 1,018 1,292 2.1 2.3 1.8 2.2

Green Bay

172,650 177,774 171,726 176,542 3,876 4,328 3,504 4,376 2.2 2.4 2.0 2.5

Janesville-Beloit

85,395 87,948 84,892 87,323 2,462 2,746 2,141 2,640 2.9 3.1 2.5 3.0

La Crosse-Onalaska

77,610 79,930 77,596 79,600 1,596 1,683 1,546 1,746 2.1 2.1 2.0 2.2

Madison

398,129 411,772 394,476 407,376 7,684 8,717 6,370 8,216 1.9 2.1 1.6 2.0

Milwaukee-Waukesha-West Allis

801,936 823,693 798,587 815,338 22,016 25,767 17,989 23,551 2.7 3.1 2.3 2.9

Oshkosh-Neenah

92,642 95,319 92,062 94,334 2,033 2,269 1,743 2,200 2.2 2.4 1.9 2.3

Racine

97,393 101,088 97,150 100,157 2,778 3,280 2,413 3,074 2.9 3.2 2.5 3.1

Sheboygan

60,873 62,948 60,526 62,382 1,325 1,433 1,076 1,340 2.2 2.3 1.8 2.1

Wausau

72,119 73,744 71,746 73,491 1,505 1,773 1,361 1,793 2.1 2.4 1.9 2.4

Wyoming

293,469 298,574 292,126 292,264 10,434 8,994 10,374 7,416 3.6 3.0 3.6 2.5

Casper

40,458 40,982 39,831 39,691 1,521 1,287 1,513 1,080 3.8 3.1 3.8 2.7

Cheyenne

50,101 50,604 49,825 49,287 1,721 1,522 1,771 1,296 3.4 3.0 3.6 2.6

Puerto Rico

1,205,411 1,229,111 1,222,390 1,217,808 74,805 70,396 73,342 70,173 6.2 5.7 6.0 5.8

Aguadilla-Isabela

99,831 100,994 100,732 100,099 8,606 7,503 8,363 7,508 8.6 7.4 8.3 7.5

Arecibo

59,941 60,958 60,431 60,346 4,942 3,966 4,799 3,993 8.2 6.5 7.9 6.6

Guayama

21,291 21,980 21,678 21,841 1,711 1,749 1,724 1,801 8.0 8.0 8.0 8.2

Mayaguez

31,045 32,092 31,263 31,761 2,065 1,896 2,031 1,924 6.7 5.9 6.5 6.1

Ponce

100,845 104,454 102,660 103,854 8,643 8,467 8,548 8,372 8.6 8.1 8.3 8.1

San German

38,494 39,529 38,855 39,056 3,013 2,782 2,862 2,783 7.8 7.0 7.4 7.1

San Juan-Carolina-Caguas

808,355 822,539 820,395 814,250 41,835 40,286 41,118 40,174 5.2 4.9 5.0 4.9

Footnotes
(1) For operational reasons, these interstate areas are listed under the state that accounts for the larger share of the population, which is different from the state that contains the first principal city.
(2) The area boundary does not reflect the Office of Management and Budget delineation.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data refer to place of residence. Data for Puerto Rico are derived from a monthly household survey similar to the Current Population Survey. Area delineations are based on Office of Management and Budget Bulletin No. 18-03, dated April 10, 2018, and are available on the BLS website at https://www.bls.gov/lau/lausmsa.htm. Areas in the six New England states are Metropolitan New England City and Town Areas (NECTAs), while areas in other states are county-based. Some metropolitan areas lie in two or more states. They are listed under the state containing the first principal city, unless otherwise footnoted. Estimates for the latest month are subject to revision the following month.


LABOR FORCE DATA
NOT SEASONALLY ADJUSTED

Table 2. Civilian labor force and unemployment by state, selected metropolitan area, and metropolitan division(1)
State, area, and division Civilian labor force Unemployed
November December Number Percent of labor force
2022 2023 2022 2023(p) November December November December
2022 2023 2022 2023(p) 2022 2023 2022 2023(p)

California

19,350,057 19,382,806 19,336,344 19,207,991 779,616 946,463 748,684 972,262 4.0 4.9 3.9 5.1

Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim

6,591,246 6,569,171 6,574,236 6,494,750 274,680 306,498 262,334 304,259 4.2 4.7 4.0 4.7

Anaheim-Santa Ana-Irvine

1,604,830 1,608,535 1,608,725 1,599,923 48,396 60,674 43,866 60,603 3.0 3.8 2.7 3.8

Los Angeles-Long Beach-Glendale

4,986,416 4,960,636 4,965,511 4,894,827 226,284 245,824 218,468 243,656 4.5 5.0 4.4 5.0

San Francisco-Oakland-Hayward

2,547,274 2,547,788 2,552,704 2,533,610 73,140 101,665 67,363 101,536 2.9 4.0 2.6 4.0

Oakland-Hayward-Berkeley

1,383,119 1,388,021 1,383,901 1,377,285 45,276 61,866 41,643 61,982 3.3 4.5 3.0 4.5

San Francisco-Redwood City-South San Francisco

1,032,719 1,028,238 1,037,210 1,025,670 24,422 34,961 22,559 34,746 2.4 3.4 2.2 3.4

San Rafael

131,436 131,529 131,593 130,655 3,442 4,838 3,161 4,808 2.6 3.7 2.4 3.7

District of Columbia

386,175 400,785 386,520 402,075 15,712 19,247 15,733 19,176 4.1 4.8 4.1 4.8

Washington-Arlington-Alexandria(2)

3,423,207 3,504,466 3,422,792 3,462,738 96,195 87,585 86,238 86,654 2.8 2.5 2.5 2.5

Silver Spring-Frederick-Rockville(3)

680,802 684,114 679,884 676,737 16,830 10,497 14,901 12,311 2.5 1.5 2.2 1.8

Washington-Arlington-Alexandria(2)

2,742,405 2,820,352 2,742,908 2,786,001 79,365 77,088 71,337 74,343 2.9 2.7 2.6 2.7

Florida

10,828,238 11,184,520 10,862,301 11,121,678 284,382 325,848 250,216 321,827 2.6 2.9 2.3 2.9

Miami-Fort Lauderdale-West Palm Beach

3,209,695 3,307,761 3,227,327 3,280,872 75,397 75,969 68,190 77,530 2.3 2.3 2.1 2.4

Fort Lauderdale-Pompano Beach-Deerfield Beach

1,065,099 1,111,070 1,064,280 1,109,563 26,725 32,390 23,299 31,406 2.5 2.9 2.2 2.8

Miami-Miami Beach-Kendall

1,379,414 1,411,953 1,397,307 1,391,159 28,781 19,285 27,771 22,694 2.1 1.4 2.0 1.6

West Palm Beach-Boca Raton-Delray Beach

765,182 784,738 765,740 780,150 19,891 24,294 17,120 23,430 2.6 3.1 2.2 3.0

Illinois

6,456,955 6,498,213 6,438,153 6,404,211 268,071 272,744 260,429 269,963 4.2 4.2 4.0 4.2

Chicago-Naperville-Elgin(2)

4,954,500 4,960,170 4,946,683 4,882,710 209,996 213,183 204,857 198,416 4.2 4.3 4.1 4.1

Chicago-Naperville-Arlington Heights

3,848,800 3,833,436 3,838,545 3,762,879 168,589 166,272 162,187 145,962 4.4 4.3 4.2 3.9

Elgin

317,955 325,488 317,706 324,882 12,157 13,315 12,787 16,443 3.8 4.1 4.0 5.1

Gary(3)

338,039 341,479 338,004 336,408 13,411 15,510 13,214 14,008 4.0 4.5 3.9 4.2

Lake County-Kenosha County(2)

449,706 459,767 452,428 458,541 15,839 18,086 16,669 22,003 3.5 3.9 3.7 4.8

Massachusetts

3,715,913 3,744,869 3,715,508 3,747,957 120,931 104,563 123,092 130,561 3.3 2.8 3.3 3.5

Boston-Cambridge-Nashua(2)

2,773,173 2,805,254 2,773,312 2,805,459 83,160 74,700 82,671 89,741 3.0 2.7 3.0 3.2

Boston-Cambridge-Newton

1,661,795 1,689,138 1,659,426 1,688,045 47,378 42,757 46,608 51,746 2.9 2.5 2.8 3.1

Brockton-Bridgewater-Easton

108,816 108,828 108,925 109,288 4,024 3,515 4,098 4,349 3.7 3.2 3.8 4.0

Framingham

155,237 157,240 155,859 157,835 4,072 3,807 4,270 4,775 2.6 2.4 2.7 3.0

Haverhill-Newburyport-Amesbury Town(2)

116,018 116,902 116,201 116,787 3,510 3,204 3,563 3,681 3.0 2.7 3.1 3.2

Lawrence-Methuen Town-Salem(2)

98,134 98,609 98,469 99,060 4,348 3,709 4,336 4,419 4.4 3.8 4.4 4.5

Lowell-Billerica-Chelmsford(2)

193,776 194,838 193,907 195,882 6,174 5,489 6,234 6,802 3.2 2.8 3.2 3.5

Lynn-Saugus-Marblehead

84,337 84,921 84,402 85,101 2,925 2,511 2,961 3,142 3.5 3.0 3.5 3.7

Nashua(2)

177,671 176,321 178,367 175,053 4,878 4,835 4,725 4,765 2.7 2.7 2.6 2.7

Peabody-Salem-Beverly

92,327 93,046 92,622 92,960 2,839 2,377 2,803 2,916 3.1 2.6 3.0 3.1

Taunton-Middleborough-Norton

85,062 85,411 85,134 85,448 3,012 2,496 3,073 3,146 3.5 2.9 3.6 3.7

Michigan

4,825,413 5,077,787 4,820,879 5,007,910 170,445 180,413 181,172 177,226 3.5 3.6 3.8 3.5

Detroit-Warren-Dearborn

2,101,369 2,206,735 2,110,988 2,199,087 65,092 85,499 68,384 72,983 3.1 3.9 3.2 3.3

Detroit-Dearborn-Livonia

785,989 825,612 791,297 824,012 28,884 39,010 30,087 33,055 3.7 4.7 3.8 4.0

Warren-Troy-Farmington Hills

1,315,380 1,381,122 1,319,691 1,375,075 36,207 46,489 38,297 39,928 2.8 3.4 2.9 2.9

New York

9,563,388 9,786,493 9,574,556 9,645,984 365,500 395,592 366,139 426,712 3.8 4.0 3.8 4.4

New York-Newark-Jersey City(2)

10,207,165 10,348,902 10,232,361 10,261,121 382,553 437,327 379,154 456,771 3.7 4.2 3.7 4.5

Dutchess County-Putnam County

193,323 202,031 192,361 198,257 5,257 6,676 5,123 7,074 2.7 3.3 2.7 3.6

Nassau County-Suffolk County

1,517,606 1,568,562 1,515,967 1,539,238 40,717 52,365 39,636 54,835 2.7 3.3 2.6 3.6

Newark(3)

1,300,159 1,316,909 1,304,133 1,318,532 40,684 57,915 41,109 59,580 3.1 4.4 3.2 4.5

New York-Jersey City-White Plains(2)

7,196,077 7,261,400 7,219,900 7,205,094 295,895 320,371 293,286 335,282 4.1 4.4 4.1 4.7

Pennsylvania

6,454,677 6,550,383 6,452,027 6,493,055 253,823 192,925 247,618 190,448 3.9 2.9 3.8 2.9

Philadelphia-Camden-Wilmington(2)

3,217,622 3,290,417 3,215,537 3,275,200 119,318 109,242 113,549 107,541 3.7 3.3 3.5 3.3

Camden(3)

682,477 693,939 684,323 696,202 21,162 29,375 21,697 30,880 3.1 4.2 3.2 4.4

Montgomery County-Bucks County-Chester County

1,108,865 1,138,550 1,109,836 1,129,773 34,989 27,741 33,401 26,731 3.2 2.4 3.0 2.4

Philadelphia

1,037,682 1,059,855 1,031,718 1,048,462 48,333 38,148 43,952 35,821 4.7 3.6 4.3 3.4

Wilmington(3)

388,598 398,073 389,660 400,763 14,834 13,978 14,499 14,109 3.8 3.5 3.7 3.5

Texas

14,765,864 15,276,313 14,773,939 15,147,835 543,279 534,672 513,171 528,483 3.7 3.5 3.5 3.5

Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington

4,313,209 4,494,911 4,312,594 4,459,186 144,909 148,104 135,095 145,057 3.4 3.3 3.1 3.3

Dallas-Plano-Irving

2,923,914 3,051,042 2,920,511 3,024,741 97,625 100,657 91,309 98,766 3.3 3.3 3.1 3.3

Fort Worth-Arlington

1,389,295 1,443,869 1,392,083 1,434,445 47,284 47,447 43,786 46,291 3.4 3.3 3.1 3.2

Washington

4,016,778 4,071,955 4,027,238 4,044,730 177,306 172,260 184,170 187,109 4.4 4.2 4.6 4.6

Seattle-Tacoma-Bellevue

2,227,242 2,298,468 2,241,501 2,271,359 77,145 92,235 78,450 88,538 3.5 4.0 3.5 3.9

Seattle-Bellevue-Everett

1,767,151 1,831,152 1,779,111 1,806,714 51,678 70,644 53,616 63,178 2.9 3.9 3.0 3.5

Tacoma-Lakewood

460,091 467,316 462,390 464,645 25,467 21,591 24,834 25,360 5.5 4.6 5.4 5.5

Footnotes
(1) These 11 areas contain all of the 38 metropolitan divisions.
(2) Part of the area (or division) is in one or more adjacent states.
(3) All of the division is in one or more adjacent states.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data refer to place of residence. Area delineations are based on Office of Management and Budget Bulletin No. 18-03, dated April 10, 2018, and are available on the BLS website at https://www.bls.gov/lau/lausmsa.htm. Areas in the six New England states are Metropolitan New England City and Town Areas (NECTAs), while areas in other states are county-based. Some metropolitan areas lie in two or more states. They are listed under the state containing the first principal city. Metropolitan divisions are listed under their metropolitan areas. Some divisions lie in more than one state, and some, like Camden, NJ, are totally outside the states under which their metropolitan areas are listed. For Washington-Arlington-Alexandria, DC-VA-MD-WV, the metropolitan area and division titles are identical. Estimates for the latest month are subject to revision the following month.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
NOT SEASONALLY ADJUSTED
Table 3. Employees on nonfarm payrolls by state and metropolitan area, not seasonally adjusted
[In thousands]
State and area November December Change from
December 2022 to December 2023(p)
2022 2023 2022 2023(p) Number Percent

Alabama

2,147.4 2,184.2 2,146.4 2,184.5 38.1 1.8

Anniston-Oxford-Jacksonville

47.7 48.8 47.7 48.7 1.0 2.1

Auburn-Opelika

72.2 73.7 71.7 73.6 1.9 2.6

Birmingham-Hoover

559.4 575.9 560.8 579.0 18.2 3.2

Daphne-Fairhope-Foley

85.8 88.1 85.6 87.6 2.0 2.3

Decatur

60.1 60.9 60.4 60.9 0.5 0.8

Dothan

63.2 64.1 63.3 64.2 0.9 1.4

Florence-Muscle Shoals

58.8 59.0 58.1 59.1 1.0 1.7

Gadsden

34.2 34.8 34.4 34.8 0.4 1.2

Huntsville

269.7 278.9 269.8 278.7 8.9 3.3

Mobile

192.4 197.2 192.2 197.1 4.9 2.5

Montgomery

182.3 183.3 181.6 183.6 2.0 1.1

Tuscaloosa

113.3 116.5 113.1 116.1 3.0 2.7


Alaska

313.6 316.7 311.1 317.0 5.9 1.9

Anchorage

175.0 178.1