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Economic News Release
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Metropolitan Area Employment and Unemployment (Monthly) News Release

For release 10:00 a.m. (ET) Wednesday, April 5, 2023 	               USDL-23-0629

Technical information: 
 Employment:   (202) 691-6559  *  sminfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/sae 
 Unemployment: (202) 691-6392  *  lausinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/lau 

Media contact: (202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov


         METROPOLITAN AREA EMPLOYMENT AND UNEMPLOYMENT -- FEBRUARY 2023


(NOTE: On April 21, 2023, BLS corrected errors in estimates for not seasonally adjusted
all employees in other services and its aggregates for Arkansas and the Little Rock-North
Little Rock-Conway, AR metropolitan area. Seasonally adjusted estimates for all employees
and 3-month average change were corrected at aggregate levels. Tables in this news release
contain the incorrect data and will not be reissued. Corrected data are available in the 
LABSTAT database, at www.bls.gov/sae/data/. For a complete list of series and products 
impacted by the correction, see www.bls.gov/bls/errata/sae_errata.htm.)


Unemployment rates were lower in February than a year earlier in 228 of the 389
metropolitan areas, higher in 131 areas, and unchanged in 30 areas, the U.S.
Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. A total of 95 areas had jobless rates
of less than 3.0 percent and 12 areas had rates of at least 8.0 percent. Nonfarm
payroll employment increased over the year in 96 metropolitan areas and was
essentially unchanged in 293 areas. The national unemployment rate in February
was 3.9 percent, not seasonally adjusted, down from 4.1 percent a year earlier.

This news release presents statistics from two monthly programs. The civilian
labor force and unemployment data are based on the same concepts and definitions
as those used for the national household survey estimates. These data pertain
to individuals by where they reside. The employment data are from an establishment
survey that measures nonfarm employment, hours, and earnings by industry. These
data pertain to jobs on payrolls defined by where the establishments are located.
For more information about the concepts and statistical methodologies used by
these two programs, see the Technical Note.

Metropolitan Area Unemployment (Not Seasonally Adjusted)

In February, Ames, IA, and Madison, WI, had the lowest unemployment rates, 1.9
percent each. The next lowest rates were in Appleton, WI; Columbia, MO; Decatur,
AL; Huntsville, AL; Lincoln, NE; and Sheboygan, WI, 2.0 percent each. El Centro,
CA, had the highest rate, 15.6 percent. The next highest rate was in Ocean City,
NJ, 11.4 percent. A total of 216 areas had February jobless rates below the U.S.
rate of 3.9 percent, 163 areas had rates above it, and 10 areas had rates equal
to that of the nation. (See table 1.)

The largest over-the-year unemployment rate decreases in February occurred in 
Lima, OH (-2.0 percentage points), and Atlantic City-Hammonton, NJ, and Pine 
Bluff, AR (-1.7 points each). Sixteen other areas had rate declines of at least
1.0 percentage point. El Centro, CA, had the largest over-the-year rate increase
in February (+2.2 percentage points).

Of the 51 metropolitan areas with a 2010 Census population of 1 million or more,
Birmingham-Hoover, AL, and Miami-Fort Lauderdale-West Palm Beach, FL, had the
lowest jobless rates in February, 2.2 percent each. Las Vegas-Henderson-Paradise,
NV, had the highest rate, 6.0 percent. Thirty-three large areas had over-the-year
unemployment rate decreases, 11 had increases, and 7 had no change. The largest
rate decline occurred in New York-Newark-Jersey City, NY-NJ-PA (-1.2 percentage
points). The largest jobless rate increase was in Portland-Vancouver-Hillsboro,
OR-WA (+0.7 percentage point).

Metropolitan Division Unemployment (Not Seasonally Adjusted)

Eleven of the most populous metropolitan areas are made up of 38 metropolitan
divisions, which are essentially separately identifiable employment centers. 
In February, Miami-Miami Beach-Kendall, FL, had the lowest division unemployment
rate, 1.7 percent. Tacoma-Lakewood, WA, had the highest rate among the divisions,
6.7 percent. (See table 2.)

In February, 30 metropolitan divisions had over-the-year unemployment rate 
decreases, 5 had increases, and 3 had no change. The largest rate decline 
occurred in Detroit-Dearborn-Livonia, MI (-1.8 percentage points). The largest
over-the-year jobless rate increase occurred in Tacoma-Lakewood, WA (+1.1
percentage points).

Metropolitan Area Nonfarm Employment (Not Seasonally Adjusted)

In February, nonfarm payroll employment increased over the year in 96 metropolitan
areas and was essentially unchanged in 293 areas. The largest over-the-year
employment increases occurred in New York-Newark-Jersey City, NY-NJ-PA (+287,600),
Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington, TX (+211,600), and Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim,
CA (+146,900). The largest over-the-year percentage gains in employment occurred
in Midland, TX (+10.1 percent), Odessa, TX (+6.6 percent), and Pocatello, ID
(+6.3 percent). (See table 3.)

Over the year, nonfarm employment increased in 37 metropolitan areas with a 
2010 Census population of 1 million or more, while employment was essentially
unchanged in 14 areas. The largest over-the-year percentage increases in 
employment in these large metropolitan areas occurred in Jacksonville, FL 
(+5.6 percent), Las Vegas-Henderson-Paradise, NV (+5.4 percent), and Dallas-
Fort Worth-Arlington, TX (+5.3 percent).

Metropolitan Division Nonfarm Employment (Not Seasonally Adjusted)

In February, nonfarm payroll employment increased over the year in 20 metropolitan
divisions and was essentially unchanged in 18 divisions. The largest over-the-year
increases in employment among the metropolitan divisions occurred in New York-
Jersey City-White Plains, NY-NJ (+236,700), Dallas-Plano-Irving, TX (+154,500),
and Los Angeles-Long Beach-Glendale, CA (+102,300). (See table 4.)

The largest over-the-year percentage increases in employment occurred in Dallas-
Plano-Irving, TX (+5.4 percent), Fort Worth-Arlington, TX (+5.0 percent), and
Miami-Miami Beach-Kendall, FL (+4.4 percent).

_____________
The State Employment and Unemployment news release for March is scheduled to
be released on Friday, April 21, 2023, at 10:00 a.m. (ET). The Metropolitan
Area Employment and Unemployment news release for March is scheduled to be
released on Wednesday, May 3, 2023, at 10:00 a.m. (ET).




Technical Note
  
   This news release presents civilian labor force and unemployment data from the
Local Area Unemployment Statistics (LAUS) program (tables 1 and 2) for 389
metropolitan statistical areas and metropolitan New England City and Town Areas
(NECTAs), plus 7 areas in Puerto Rico. Estimates for 38 metropolitan and NECTA
divisions also are presented. Nonfarm payroll employment estimates from the
Current Employment Statistics (CES) program (tables 3 and 4) are provided for
the same areas. State estimates were previously published in the news release
State Employment and Unemployment, and are republished in this news release for
ease of reference. The LAUS and CES programs are both federal-state cooperative
endeavors.

Civilian labor force and unemployment--from the LAUS program

   Definitions. The civilian labor force and unemployment data are based on the
same concepts and definitions as those used for the official national estimates
obtained from the Current Population Survey (CPS), a sample survey of households
that is conducted for the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) by the U.S. Census
Bureau. The LAUS program measures employed persons and unemployed persons on a
place-of-residence basis.  The universe for each is the civilian noninstitutional
population 16 years of age and older. Employed persons are those who did any work
at all for pay or profit in the reference week (typically the week including the
12th of the month) or worked 15 hours or more without pay in a family business or
farm, plus those not working who had a job from which they were temporarily absent,
whether or not paid, for such reasons as labor-management dispute, illness, or
vacation. Unemployed persons are those who were not employed during the reference
week (based on the definition above), had actively looked for a job sometime in the
4-week period ending with the reference week, and were currently available for work;
persons on layoff expecting recall need not be looking for work to be counted as
unemployed. The civilian labor force is the sum of employed and unemployed persons.
The unemployment rate is the number of unemployed as a percent of the civilian labor
force.

   Method of estimation. Estimates for states, the District of Columbia, the Los
Angeles-Long Beach-Glendale metropolitan division, and New York City are produced
using time-series models with real-time benchmarking to national CPS totals. Model-
based estimates are also produced for the following areas and their respective
balances: the Chicago-Naperville-Arlington Heights, IL Metropolitan Division;
Cleveland-Elyria, OH Metropolitan Statistical Area; Detroit-Warren-Dearborn, MI
Metropolitan Statistical Area; Miami-Miami Beach-Kendall, FL Metropolitan Division;
and Seattle-Bellevue-Everett, WA Metropolitan Division. Modeling improves the
statistical basis of the estimation for these areas and provides important tools
for analysis, such as measures of errors and seasonally adjusted series. For all
other substate areas in this news release, estimates are prepared through indirect
estimation procedures using a building-block approach.  Estimates of employed
persons, which are based largely on “place of work” estimates from the CES program,
are adjusted to refer to place of residence as used in the CPS. Unemployment
estimates are aggregates of persons previously employed in industries covered by
state unemployment insurance (UI) laws and entrants to the labor force from the
CPS. The substate estimates of employment and unemployment, which geographically
exhaust the entire state, are adjusted proportionally to ensure that they add to
the independently estimated model-based area totals. A detailed description of the
estimation procedures is available from BLS upon request.

   Annual revisions. Civilian labor force and unemployment data shown for the prior
year reflect adjustments made at the beginning of each year, usually implemented with
the issuance of January estimates. The adjusted model-based estimates typically reflect
updated population data from the U.S. Census Bureau, any revisions in other input
data sources, and model re-estimation. All substate estimates then are re-estimated
using updated inputs and adjusted to add to the revised model-based totals. In early
2021, a new generation of time-series models was implemented, resulting in the
replacement of data back to the series beginnings.

Employment--from the CES program 

   Definitions. Employment data refer to persons on establishment payrolls who receive
pay for any part of the pay period that includes the 12th of the month. Persons are
counted at their place of work rather than at their place of residence; those appearing
on more than one payroll are counted on each payroll. Industries are classified on the
basis of their principal activity in accordance with the 2022 version of the North
American Industry Classification System.

   Method of estimation. CES State and Area employment data are produced using several
estimation procedures. Where possible, these data are produced using a "weighted link
relative" estimation technique in which a ratio of current month weighted employment
to that of the previous-month weighted employment is computed from a sample of
establishments reporting for both months. The estimates of employment for the current
month are then obtained by multiplying these ratios by the previous month's employment
estimates. The weighted link relative technique is utilized for data series where the
sample size meets certain statistical criteria. For some employment series, the
estimates are produced with a model that uses direct sample estimates (described
above) combined with other regressors to compensate for smaller sample sizes. 

   Annual revisions.  Employment estimates are adjusted annually to a complete count
of jobs, called benchmarks, derived principally from tax reports that are submitted by
employers who are covered under state unemployment insurance (UI) laws. The benchmark
information is used to adjust the monthly estimates between the new benchmark and the
preceding one and also to establish the level of employment for the new benchmark month.
Thus, the benchmarking process establishes the level of employment, and the sample is used
to measure the month-to-month changes in the level for the subsequent months.

   Seasonal adjustment. Payroll employment data are seasonally adjusted for states,
metropolitan areas, and metropolitan divisions at the total nonfarm level. For states,
data are seasonally adjusted at the supersector level as well. Revisions to historical
data for the most recent 5 years are made once a year, coincident with annual benchmark
adjustments.

   Payroll employment data are seasonally adjusted concurrently, using all available
estimates including those for the current month, to develop sample-based seasonal factors.
Concurrent sample-based factors are created every month for the current month's preliminary
estimate as well as the previous month's final estimate.

Reliability of the estimates

   The estimates presented in this news release are based on sample surveys, administrative data,
and modeling and, thus, are subject to sampling and other types of errors. Sampling error
is a measure of sampling variability—that is, variation that occurs by chance because a
sample rather than the entire population is surveyed. Survey data also are subject to
nonsampling errors, such as those which can be introduced into the data collection and
processing operations. Estimates not directly derived from sample surveys are subject to
additional errors resulting from the specific estimation processes used. The sums of
individual items may not always equal the totals shown in the same tables because of
rounding.

Use of error measures

   Civilian labor force and unemployment estimates. Measures of sampling error are not
available for metropolitan areas or metropolitan divisions. Model-based error measures for
states are available on the BLS website at www.bls.gov/laus/lastderr.htm. Measures of
nonsampling error are not available for the areas contained in this news release. Information
on recent data revisions for states and local areas is available online at
www.bls.gov/lau/launews1.htm.

   Employment estimates. Changes in metropolitan area nonfarm payroll employment are cited
in the analysis of this news release only if they have been determined to be statistically
significant at the 90-percent confidence level.  Measures of sampling error for the total
nonfarm employment series are available for metropolitan areas and metropolitan divisions
at www.bls.gov/web/laus/790stderr.htm. Measures of sampling error for more detailed series
at the area and division level are available upon request. Measures of sampling error for
states  at the supersector level and for the private service-providing, goods-producing,
total private and total nonfarm levels are available on the BLS website at 
www.bls.gov/web/laus/790stderr.htm. Information on recent benchmark revisions
is available online at www.bls.gov/web/laus/benchmark.pdf.

Area definitions

   The substate area data published in this news release reflect the delineations issued by the
U.S. Office of Management and Budget on April 10, 2018. Data reflect New England City and
Town Area (NECTA) definitions, rather than county-based definitions, in the six New England
States. A detailed list of the geographic definitions is available online at
www.bls.gov/lau/lausmsa.htm.

Additional information

   Estimates of unadjusted and seasonally adjusted civilian labor force and unemployment
data for states and seven substate areas are available in the news release State Employment
and Unemployment. Estimates of civilian labor force and unemployment for all states,
metropolitan areas, counties, cities with a population of 25,000 or more, and other areas
used in the administration of various federal economic assistance programs are available
on the Internet at www.bls.gov/lau/. Employment data from the CES program for states and
metropolitan areas are available on the BLS website at www.bls.gov/sae/.

   If you are deaf, hard of hearing, or have a speech disability, please dial 7-1-1 to 
access telecommunications relay services.




LABOR FORCE DATA
NOT SEASONALLY ADJUSTED

Table 1. Civilian labor force and unemployment by state and metropolitan area
State and area Civilian labor force Unemployed
January February Number Percent of labor force
2022 2023 2022 2023(p) January February January February
2022 2023 2022 2023(p) 2022 2023 2022 2023(p)

Alabama

2,267,838 2,275,488 2,277,291 2,285,238 70,208 59,323 66,470 54,401 3.1 2.6 2.9 2.4

Anniston-Oxford-Jacksonville

46,059 46,031 46,141 46,268 1,701 1,275 1,615 1,180 3.7 2.8 3.5 2.6

Auburn-Opelika

77,865 79,572 78,751 80,294 2,120 1,853 2,044 1,739 2.7 2.3 2.6 2.2

Birmingham-Hoover

565,329 562,036 567,571 564,383 16,189 13,181 15,275 12,222 2.9 2.3 2.7 2.2

Daphne-Fairhope-Foley

100,294 101,860 100,785 102,746 2,835 2,513 2,707 2,292 2.8 2.5 2.7 2.2

Decatur

74,640 75,917 74,884 76,327 1,917 1,597 1,798 1,501 2.6 2.1 2.4 2.0

Dothan

65,576 66,560 65,598 66,527 2,050 1,805 1,900 1,561 3.1 2.7 2.9 2.3

Florence-Muscle Shoals

66,127 66,221 66,125 66,421 2,209 1,934 2,049 1,683 3.3 2.9 3.1 2.5

Gadsden

39,297 38,596 39,445 38,970 1,443 1,128 1,372 1,063 3.7 2.9 3.5 2.7

Huntsville

243,494 248,824 245,817 251,803 6,083 5,230 5,813 4,918 2.5 2.1 2.4 2.0

Mobile

191,605 192,208 192,522 192,951 7,449 6,127 7,186 5,528 3.9 3.2 3.7 2.9

Montgomery

175,264 175,057 175,315 176,535 5,853 4,953 5,545 4,542 3.3 2.8 3.2 2.6

Tuscaloosa

115,240 117,861 116,523 119,003 3,660 2,874 3,424 2,647 3.2 2.4 2.9 2.2

Alaska

353,520 354,065 355,282 355,227 20,831 15,668 19,350 16,002 5.9 4.4 5.4 4.5

Anchorage

202,548 203,659 202,163 203,016 10,661 7,687 9,844 7,998 5.3 3.8 4.9 3.9

Fairbanks

45,010 45,576 45,152 45,549 2,398 1,873 2,234 1,860 5.3 4.1 4.9 4.1

Arizona

3,566,494 3,667,774 3,579,498 3,664,239 136,387 119,197 129,382 118,578 3.8 3.2 3.6 3.2

Flagstaff

72,398 75,064 72,725 74,866 3,492 2,890 3,262 2,780 4.8 3.9 4.5 3.7

Lake Havasu City-Kingman

88,133 89,826 88,442 90,011 4,087 3,607 3,925 3,627 4.6 4.0 4.4 4.0

Phoenix-Mesa-Scottsdale

2,541,732 2,621,195 2,552,691 2,619,650 87,115 75,639 83,302 75,983 3.4 2.9 3.3 2.9

Prescott

104,492 108,649 105,145 108,955 3,543 3,303 3,487 3,332 3.4 3.0 3.3 3.1

Sierra Vista-Douglas

48,658 48,800 48,979 49,181 2,130 1,935 2,031 2,003 4.4 4.0 4.1 4.1

Tucson

485,313 496,155 487,530 495,750 18,671 15,787 17,834 15,803 3.8 3.2 3.7 3.2

Yuma

99,164 98,610 97,522 96,567 10,615 9,691 9,154 8,794 10.7 9.8 9.4 9.1

Arkansas

1,341,627 1,353,849 1,363,781 1,369,508 51,283 49,104 51,617 39,568 3.8 3.6 3.8 2.9

Fayetteville-Springdale-Rogers

293,281 305,801 301,269 310,478 7,925 7,892 8,081 6,399 2.7 2.6 2.7 2.1

Fort Smith

116,051 117,479 117,814 118,323 4,324 4,102 4,381 3,495 3.7 3.5 3.7 3.0

Hot Springs

41,511 41,711 42,111 41,901 1,812 1,724 1,826 1,404 4.4 4.1 4.3 3.4

Jonesboro

66,033 67,279 66,769 67,959 2,123 2,117 2,133 1,636 3.2 3.1 3.2 2.4

Little Rock-North Little Rock-Conway

353,782 355,226 359,151 358,951 13,114 11,926 13,215 9,772 3.7 3.4 3.7 2.7

Pine Bluff

32,206 31,873 32,681 32,246 1,898 1,619 1,849 1,298 5.9 5.1 5.7 4.0

California

19,157,660 19,273,632 19,292,418 19,464,035 1,068,647 894,693 965,748 937,649 5.6 4.6 5.0 4.8

Bakersfield

390,440 393,275 391,512 399,178 32,631 31,939 31,891 35,677 8.4 8.1 8.1 8.9

Chico

91,591 92,345 92,543 93,351 5,357 5,153 4,871 5,188 5.8 5.6 5.3 5.6

El Centro

69,694 72,254 69,208 71,670 10,373 11,734 9,304 11,180 14.9 16.2 13.4 15.6

Fresno

447,364 458,484 451,149 466,840 35,950 34,646 34,953 37,948 8.0 7.6 7.7 8.1

Hanford-Corcoran

56,251 57,863 56,216 58,782 5,141 5,010 4,996 5,387 9.1 8.7 8.9 9.2

Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim

6,612,833 6,575,514 6,655,059 6,649,201 394,567 299,414 351,849 320,321 6.0 4.6 5.3 4.8

Madera

64,180 65,803 64,656 66,991 4,967 4,967 4,704 5,418 7.7 7.5 7.3 8.1

Merced

114,453 115,289 115,568 117,603 11,451 11,229 11,216 12,391 10.0 9.7 9.7 10.5

Modesto

240,279 242,287 241,431 244,533 16,818 15,800 15,379 16,230 7.0 6.5 6.4 6.6

Napa

67,967 70,663 69,471 71,738 3,258 2,767 2,812 2,678 4.8 3.9 4.0 3.7

Oxnard-Thousand Oaks-Ventura

410,540 413,374 415,052 417,689 20,047 17,381 17,658 17,131 4.9 4.2 4.3 4.1

Redding

73,549 74,029 72,703 74,146 4,513 4,238 4,105 4,287 6.1 5.7 5.6 5.8

Riverside-San Bernardino-Ontario

2,160,620 2,159,363 2,179,176 2,171,682 116,616 95,988 102,860 97,994 5.4 4.4 4.7 4.5

Sacramento--Roseville--Arden-Arcade

1,113,702 1,126,609 1,120,644 1,135,930 56,046 48,659 49,918 49,296 5.0 4.3 4.5 4.3

Salinas

204,245 216,615 207,849 221,608 19,889 19,259 20,054 20,966 9.7 8.9 9.6 9.5

San Diego-Carlsbad

1,573,905 1,600,536 1,583,030 1,610,770 73,163 58,735 64,558 59,792 4.6 3.7 4.1 3.7

San Francisco-Oakland-Hayward

2,508,703 2,536,964 2,525,056 2,555,363 101,201 83,716 89,875 86,243 4.0 3.3 3.6 3.4

San Jose-Sunnyvale-Santa Clara

1,056,569 1,076,430 1,062,905 1,084,494 38,122 32,969 34,566 34,740 3.6 3.1 3.3 3.2

San Luis Obispo-Paso Robles-Arroyo Grande

134,879 137,322 136,738 139,591 5,487 4,749 4,936 4,742 4.1 3.5 3.6 3.4

Santa Cruz-Watsonville

130,799 132,456 132,231 134,744 8,649 8,221 8,677 9,015 6.6 6.2 6.6 6.7

Santa Maria-Santa Barbara

215,764 220,755 218,530 225,162 11,123 9,962 10,251 10,154 5.2 4.5 4.7 4.5

Santa Rosa

243,986 248,585 246,352 250,688 10,438 8,927 9,215 8,963 4.3 3.6 3.7 3.6

Stockton-Lodi

341,131 344,698 345,517 350,315 23,812 21,737 21,565 22,266 7.0 6.3 6.2 6.4

Vallejo-Fairfield

201,079 201,242 202,166 203,500 11,706 9,558 10,415 9,630 5.8 4.7 5.2 4.7

Visalia-Porterville

204,319 209,430 205,690 212,652 19,338 20,746 19,120 22,622 9.5 9.9 9.3 10.6

Yuba City

76,020 78,033 77,040 79,008 6,261 6,359 5,919 6,549 8.2 8.1 7.7 8.3

Colorado

3,186,411 3,215,820 3,202,616 3,243,529 134,215 96,742 126,841 105,023 4.2 3.0 4.0 3.2

Boulder

198,763 203,090 201,797 206,377 6,846 5,009 6,601 5,651 3.4 2.5 3.3 2.7

Colorado Springs

371,186 376,871 373,067 380,235 16,375 11,978 15,510 12,920 4.4 3.2 4.2 3.4

Denver-Aurora-Lakewood

1,719,204 1,734,362 1,724,125 1,742,823 71,377 51,236 67,094 55,716 4.2 3.0 3.9 3.2

Fort Collins

208,640 208,630 209,998 210,919 7,802 5,644 7,575 6,198 3.7 2.7 3.6 2.9

Grand Junction

76,079 77,369 76,779 77,698 3,812 2,834 3,522 2,980 5.0 3.7 4.6 3.8

Greeley

167,869 168,556 168,765 171,012 7,607 5,381 7,167 5,876 4.5 3.2 4.2 3.4

Pueblo

76,681 76,467 76,964 76,988 4,836 3,337 4,390 3,551 6.3 4.4 5.7 4.6

Connecticut

1,949,048 1,904,608 1,939,318 1,890,238 105,525 79,776 99,897 87,189 5.4 4.2 5.2 4.6

Bridgeport-Stamford-Norwalk

474,361 465,690 471,124 463,353 25,771 20,048 24,663 22,091 5.4 4.3 5.2 4.8

Danbury

108,437 106,504 107,468 105,099 5,327 4,093 5,157 4,484 4.9 3.8 4.8 4.3

Hartford-West Hartford-East Hartford

640,686 622,674 637,750 616,183 34,481 25,707 32,488 28,073 5.4 4.1 5.1 4.6

New Haven

342,884 335,281 343,169 334,276 17,491 13,159 16,348 14,178 5.1 3.9 4.8 4.2

Norwich-New London-Westerly

140,314 137,967 139,288 136,568 7,964 5,662 7,516 6,127 5.7 4.1 5.4 4.5

Waterbury

113,788 111,032 112,877 110,323 7,483 5,709 7,007 6,357 6.6 5.1 6.2 5.8

Delaware

497,250 497,782 497,407 494,636 25,954 23,550 24,081 22,672 5.2 4.7 4.8 4.6

Dover

81,574 80,459 81,306 79,885 4,768 4,160 4,331 4,084 5.8 5.2 5.3 5.1

Salisbury(1)

190,883 195,135 191,674 194,018 10,999 10,112 10,175 9,395 5.8 5.2 5.3 4.8

District of Columbia

380,671 392,894 387,107 392,205 23,937 19,292 21,593 19,161 6.3 4.9 5.6 4.9

Washington-Arlington-Alexandria

3,373,592 3,443,770 3,400,815 3,469,052 116,484 104,388 109,261 100,499 3.5 3.0 3.2 2.9

Florida

10,592,114 10,847,669 10,620,017 10,942,109 396,676 279,332 345,408 275,426 3.7 2.6 3.3 2.5

Cape Coral-Fort Myers

369,493 381,816 371,508 384,215 13,737 11,370 11,845 10,840 3.7 3.0 3.2 2.8

Crestview-Fort Walton Beach-Destin

133,860 137,799 134,362 139,250 4,327 3,262 3,756 3,270 3.2 2.4 2.8 2.3

Deltona-Daytona Beach-Ormond Beach

310,326 320,495 312,593 323,538 12,841 9,465 11,207 9,337 4.1 3.0 3.6 2.9

Gainesville

147,677 151,019 147,822 152,746 5,161 3,871 4,508 3,913 3.5 2.6 3.0 2.6

Homosassa Springs

48,660 49,394 48,704 49,612 2,627 1,936 2,246 1,909 5.4 3.9 4.6 3.8

Jacksonville

815,680 845,815 815,170 855,482 29,146 21,308 25,358 21,427 3.6 2.5 3.1 2.5

Lakeland-Winter Haven

332,526 341,350 333,154 342,252 14,922 10,532 12,885 10,475 4.5 3.1 3.9 3.1

Miami-Fort Lauderdale-West Palm Beach

3,163,428 3,205,126 3,179,035 3,236,463 111,975 73,069 98,792 70,322 3.5 2.3 3.1 2.2

Naples-Immokalee-Marco Island

188,718 189,373 189,241 190,714 6,234 4,780 5,383 4,730 3.3 2.5 2.8 2.5

North Port-Sarasota-Bradenton

377,682 388,010 378,229 389,802 13,761 10,335 11,942 10,296 3.6 2.7 3.2 2.6

Ocala

146,471 149,679 146,416 150,641 6,497 4,739 5,597 4,745 4.4 3.2 3.8 3.1

Orlando-Kissimmee-Sanford

1,387,891 1,437,909 1,393,590 1,450,450 54,832 37,122 47,213 37,124 4.0 2.6 3.4 2.6

Palm Bay-Melbourne-Titusville

292,461 298,829 292,824 300,588 10,655 7,913 9,323 7,812 3.6 2.6 3.2 2.6

Panama City

90,133 93,187 90,484 93,859 3,435 2,478 2,888 2,304 3.8 2.7 3.2 2.5

Pensacola-Ferry Pass-Brent

232,165 236,840 231,473 239,053 8,852 6,260 7,557 6,216 3.8 2.6 3.3 2.6

Port St. Lucie

228,543 232,893 228,714 234,815 9,220 6,731 8,084 6,710 4.0 2.9 3.5 2.9

Punta Gorda

75,676 77,869 76,107 78,477 3,145 2,546 2,752 2,463 4.2 3.3 3.6 3.1

Sebastian-Vero Beach

67,610 67,863 67,447 68,472 2,835 2,042 2,492 2,062 4.2 3.0 3.7 3.0

Sebring

36,465 36,094 36,372 36,525 1,857 1,412 1,624 1,372 5.1 3.9 4.5 3.8

Tallahassee

197,973 201,795 198,478 204,333 7,645 5,453 6,645 5,489 3.9 2.7 3.3 2.7

Tampa-St. Petersburg-Clearwater

1,621,511 1,672,479 1,621,160 1,686,322 59,222 42,963 51,375 42,855 3.7 2.6 3.2 2.5

The Villages

36,543 38,227 36,658 38,421 1,940 1,488 1,688 1,448 5.3 3.9 4.6 3.8

Georgia

5,225,787 5,267,916 5,243,847 5,296,842 179,894 177,345 170,502 175,082 3.4 3.4 3.3 3.3

Albany

65,296 64,694 65,314 64,738 2,840 2,609 2,667 2,647 4.3 4.0 4.1 4.1

Athens-Clarke County

98,217 100,212 98,539 100,396 3,232 3,250 3,112 3,158 3.3 3.2 3.2 3.1

Atlanta-Sandy Springs-Roswell

3,170,874 3,210,594 3,187,225 3,232,880 105,466 102,866 100,245 103,411 3.3 3.2 3.1 3.2

Augusta-Richmond County

263,807 260,328 264,589 262,082 10,090 10,290 9,973 10,461 3.8 4.0 3.8 4.0

Brunswick

52,745 53,735 52,748 53,984 1,820 1,742 1,761 1,712 3.5 3.2 3.3 3.2

Columbus

121,172 123,251 121,142 123,942 5,061 5,029 4,635 4,666 4.2 4.1 3.8 3.8

Dalton

59,110 59,121 59,166 58,801 2,449 2,964 2,226 2,366 4.1 5.0 3.8 4.0

Gainesville

106,229 108,616 106,696 108,975 2,791 2,896 2,680 2,809 2.6 2.7 2.5 2.6

Hinesville

34,641 34,786 34,847 35,066 1,237 1,217 1,169 1,205 3.6 3.5 3.4 3.4

Macon-Bibb County

100,837 99,969 100,744 100,598 3,920 3,759 3,682 3,739 3.9 3.8 3.7 3.7

Rome

43,429 45,042 43,639 45,316 1,556 1,625 1,435 1,532 3.6 3.6 3.3 3.4

Savannah

198,073 197,536 199,371 197,801 6,712 6,066 6,366 5,991 3.4 3.1 3.2 3.0

Valdosta

63,694 62,894 63,367 63,368 2,263 2,292 2,171 2,298 3.6 3.6 3.4 3.6

Warner Robins

87,324 86,748 87,217 87,072 3,046 2,943 2,873 2,840 3.5 3.4 3.3 3.3

Hawaii

668,908 678,243 670,038 678,433 21,768 21,112 21,071 21,847 3.3 3.1 3.1 3.2

Kahului-Wailuku-Lahaina

86,563 88,130 86,353 87,191 3,131 2,714 2,989 2,828 3.6 3.1 3.5 3.2

Urban Honolulu

452,394 458,068 453,922 459,382 14,328 14,077 13,880 14,560 3.2 3.1 3.1 3.2

Idaho

936,030 957,356 940,225 960,831 32,522 29,838 30,454 30,435 3.5 3.1 3.2 3.2

Boise City

406,917 414,530 409,549 416,639 12,840 11,579 11,909 12,061 3.2 2.8 2.9 2.9

Coeur d'Alene

83,965 85,640 83,838 85,475 3,886 3,637 3,455 3,440 4.6 4.2 4.1 4.0

Idaho Falls

79,269 80,667 79,694 80,926 2,374 2,189 2,344 2,291 3.0 2.7 2.9 2.8

Lewiston

31,923 31,808 31,945 32,111 1,189 1,091 1,115 1,169 3.7 3.4 3.5 3.6

Pocatello

43,674 44,659 44,058 45,246 1,522 1,269 1,431 1,314 3.5 2.8 3.2 2.9

Twin Falls

55,459 61,618 55,652 61,315 1,916 2,041 1,797 1,885 3.5 3.3 3.2 3.1

Illinois

6,440,896 6,411,718 6,463,046 6,452,326 345,550 302,868 329,505 292,609 5.4 4.7 5.1 4.5

Bloomington

94,669 93,956 94,747 96,696 4,094 3,442 3,802 3,850 4.3 3.7 4.0 4.0

Carbondale-Marion

56,908 56,418 58,111 57,856 3,045 2,435 2,757 2,624 5.4 4.3 4.7 4.5

Champaign-Urbana

124,433 123,177 125,351 126,777 5,499 4,654 5,144 5,182 4.4 3.8 4.1 4.1

Chicago-Naperville-Elgin

4,940,760 4,943,331 4,964,380 4,955,016 257,571 232,565 252,425 216,174 5.2 4.7 5.1 4.4

Danville

31,865 31,390 31,748 31,855 1,986 1,774 1,845 1,908 6.2 5.7 5.8 6.0

Davenport-Moline-Rock Island(1)

185,743 184,205 186,376 186,058 9,146 8,312 8,064 8,640 4.9 4.5 4.3 4.6

Decatur

45,844 44,717 45,572 45,231 3,213 2,415 2,970 2,675 7.0 5.4 6.5 5.9

Kankakee

52,017 51,212 51,878 51,882 3,585 3,102 3,311 3,378 6.9 6.1 6.4 6.5

Peoria

167,941 167,375 167,689 169,864 9,904 8,400 9,141 9,158 5.9 5.0 5.5 5.4

Rockford

159,313 155,517 158,245 156,507 13,255 9,045 11,275 9,892 8.3 5.8 7.1 6.3

Springfield

102,830 101,968 103,196 102,829 5,376 4,358 5,039 4,684 5.2 4.3 4.9 4.6

Indiana

3,353,322 3,395,204 3,373,819 3,396,737 109,517 113,772 113,368 120,354 3.3 3.4 3.4 3.5

Bloomington

80,217 81,144 80,297 80,746 2,313 2,499 2,468 2,812 2.9 3.1 3.1 3.5

Columbus

43,140 44,452 43,681 44,570 1,112 1,204 1,160 1,300 2.6 2.7 2.7 2.9

Elkhart-Goshen

116,907 118,100 118,556 116,717 2,705 5,777 2,749 4,438 2.3 4.9 2.3 3.8

Evansville

157,322 158,822 158,110 158,803 5,132 4,855 5,208 5,333 3.3 3.1 3.3 3.4

Fort Wayne

218,465 220,842 219,548 221,070 6,689 6,566 6,760 7,123 3.1 3.0 3.1 3.2

Indianapolis-Carmel-Anderson

1,096,185 1,119,739 1,100,073 1,120,449 33,312 31,793 33,824 35,110 3.0 2.8 3.1 3.1

Kokomo

33,797 32,580 33,759 32,805 1,814 1,542 1,718 1,771 5.4 4.7 5.1 5.4

Lafayette-West Lafayette

111,358 109,170 112,012 109,371 3,429 3,248 3,492 3,591 3.1 3.0 3.1 3.3

Michigan City-La Porte

46,567 46,961 46,696 46,973 2,013 2,056 2,064 2,204 4.3 4.4 4.4 4.7

Muncie

51,183 51,283 51,527 51,376 1,982 1,891 2,053 2,088 3.9 3.7 4.0 4.1

South Bend-Mishawaka

153,168 155,709 154,048 155,972 5,808 6,569 5,864 6,637 3.8 4.2 3.8 4.3

Terre Haute

71,089 72,426 71,494 72,547 2,825 2,790 2,933 3,046 4.0 3.9 4.1 4.2

Iowa

1,698,672 1,707,735 1,720,435 1,727,617 61,978 60,231 51,738 56,211 3.6 3.5 3.0 3.3

Ames

56,654 58,789 59,924 61,195 1,330 1,227 1,063 1,178 2.3 2.1 1.8 1.9

Cedar Rapids

143,876 145,040 144,631 146,671 5,679 5,653 4,746 5,232 3.9 3.9 3.3 3.6

Des Moines-West Des Moines

368,848 379,266 373,796 379,764 12,557 12,658 10,606 11,510 3.4 3.3 2.8 3.0

Dubuque

55,992 56,816 56,820 56,785 2,216 2,091 1,845 1,970 4.0 3.7 3.2 3.5

Iowa City

97,157 98,630 98,530 99,950 2,746 2,521 2,255 2,398 2.8 2.6 2.3 2.4

Sioux City

92,989 94,062 94,078 94,830 2,987 2,736 2,506 2,690 3.2 2.9 2.7 2.8

Waterloo-Cedar Falls

87,000 87,848 88,631 89,667 3,244 3,079 2,606 2,908 3.7 3.5 2.9 3.2

Kansas

1,493,175 1,507,580 1,500,948 1,516,581 39,966 43,538 39,782 48,241 2.7 2.9 2.7 3.2

Lawrence

65,668 67,809 66,883 68,819 1,680 1,906 1,639 2,063 2.6 2.8 2.5 3.0

Manhattan

46,442 48,821 47,518 49,390 1,201 1,343 1,095 1,427 2.6 2.8 2.3 2.9

Topeka

120,237 120,762 120,904 121,993 3,395 3,726 3,435 4,187 2.8 3.1 2.8 3.4

Wichita

316,918 319,595 317,974 321,726 10,302 10,224 10,069 10,923 3.3 3.2 3.2 3.4

Kentucky

2,038,241 2,039,026 2,043,365 2,039,326 90,803 85,014 87,208 92,246 4.5 4.2 4.3 4.5

Bowling Green

82,709 83,911 83,356 85,362 3,332 3,284 3,224 3,621 4.0 3.9 3.9 4.2

Elizabethtown-Fort Knox

64,471 64,041 64,522 64,205 2,941 2,876 2,921 3,047 4.6 4.5 4.5 4.7

Lexington-Fayette

272,348 275,459 272,364 274,866 9,032 8,634 8,820 9,540 3.3 3.1 3.2 3.5

Louisville/Jefferson County

667,889 664,768 670,013 662,608 28,805 25,184 25,827 26,757 4.3 3.8 3.9 4.0

Owensboro

53,653 52,893 53,791 53,117 2,099 2,243 2,123 2,555 3.9 4.2 3.9 4.8

Louisiana

2,064,394 2,082,630 2,074,997 2,100,473 87,108 75,724 76,063 74,034 4.2 3.6 3.7 3.5

Alexandria

63,383 64,531 63,633 65,359 2,228 2,163 1,941 2,110 3.5 3.4 3.1 3.2

Baton Rouge

423,085 431,826 427,615 434,620 15,983 14,006 13,916 13,474 3.8 3.2 3.3 3.1

Hammond

56,475 56,476 56,690 57,364 2,810 2,448 2,453 2,377 5.0 4.3 4.3 4.1

Houma-Thibodaux

83,174 83,459 84,064 84,881 3,731 2,891 3,247 2,820 4.5 3.5 3.9 3.3

Lafayette

211,924 212,721 212,294 214,565 8,244 7,282 7,204 7,258 3.9 3.4 3.4 3.4

Lake Charles

97,112 95,411 96,551 96,198 3,852 3,300 3,365 3,197 4.0 3.5 3.5 3.3

Monroe

79,244 79,426 79,194 80,236 3,219 2,963 2,806 2,913 4.1 3.7 3.5 3.6

New Orleans-Metairie

582,712 590,076 586,537 595,917 26,777 21,644 23,292 21,222 4.6 3.7 4.0 3.6

Shreveport-Bossier City

184,315 184,624 184,384 186,035 7,633 6,901 6,708 6,809 4.1 3.7 3.6 3.7

Maine

672,354 667,730 672,752 668,881 28,989 18,711 26,323 20,817 4.3 2.8 3.9 3.1

Bangor

68,565 69,039 69,166 69,870 2,832 1,750 2,460 1,899 4.1 2.5 3.6 2.7

Lewiston-Auburn

53,635 53,215 53,468 53,100 2,281 1,467 2,003 1,654 4.3 2.8 3.7 3.1

Portland-South Portland

202,747 202,288 202,613 202,689 7,207 4,424 6,299 4,750 3.6 2.2 3.1 2.3

Maryland

3,153,658 3,153,047 3,163,757 3,170,134 120,502 94,063 117,442 96,663 3.8 3.0 3.7 3.0

Baltimore-Columbia-Towson

1,477,695 1,466,768 1,480,709 1,467,946 54,747 43,644 54,007 44,750 3.7 3.0 3.6 3.0

California-Lexington Park

57,513 57,126 57,855 57,807 1,812 1,596 1,916 1,676 3.2 2.8 3.3 2.9

Cumberland

43,146 43,453 43,429 44,039 2,150 1,853 2,058 1,729 5.0 4.3 4.7 3.9

Hagerstown-Martinsburg

132,215 130,417 132,303 130,687 4,493 4,217 4,670 4,166 3.4 3.2 3.5 3.2

Massachusetts

3,740,152 3,759,154 3,752,740 3,762,667 173,233 153,152 162,389 158,799 4.6 4.1 4.3 4.2

Barnstable Town

116,828 119,688 117,393 119,743 7,831 7,298 7,855 7,898 6.7 6.1 6.7 6.6

Boston-Cambridge-Nashua

2,787,812 2,809,555 2,793,558 2,805,205 113,718 101,747 104,706 102,787 4.1 3.6 3.7 3.7

Leominster-Gardner

78,884 79,044 79,228 79,292 4,293 3,840 4,087 4,088 5.4 4.9 5.2 5.2

New Bedford

85,027 84,950 85,332 84,799 6,043 5,268 5,928 5,622 7.1 6.2 6.9 6.6

Pittsfield

41,028 40,362 40,784 40,349 2,403 2,097 2,296 2,169 5.9 5.2 5.6 5.4

Springfield

369,161 371,122 371,908 373,179 19,947 17,192 18,808 17,667 5.4 4.6 5.1 4.7

Worcester

362,019 360,884 362,593 361,367 17,263 15,110 16,299 16,024 4.8 4.2 4.5 4.4

Michigan

4,779,816 4,812,375 4,801,422 4,840,276 237,928 229,613 236,630 220,769 5.0 4.8 4.9 4.6

Ann Arbor

191,430 196,720 193,723 200,407 6,535 6,916 7,354 7,022 3.4 3.5 3.8 3.5

Battle Creek

58,951 59,841 59,221 60,207 3,167 3,061 3,102 3,098 5.4 5.1 5.2 5.1

Bay City

48,317 49,494 48,382 49,750 2,952 3,132 2,927 3,255 6.1 6.3 6.0 6.5

Detroit-Warren-Dearborn

2,111,175 2,088,599 2,113,536 2,089,905 102,027 88,690 101,541 78,699 4.8 4.2 4.8 3.8

Flint

175,832 178,784 175,854 179,430 11,502 10,925 10,892 10,962 6.5 6.1 6.2 6.1

Grand Rapids-Wyoming

571,487 585,531 574,407 587,953 21,413 21,551 20,955 21,818 3.7 3.7 3.6 3.7

Jackson

72,997 74,104 73,442 74,685 3,730 3,627 3,713 3,648 5.1 4.9 5.1 4.9

Kalamazoo-Portage

162,936 166,167 163,995 168,318 7,282 7,657 7,237 7,767 4.5 4.6 4.4 4.6

Lansing-East Lansing

232,196 241,008 238,725 247,990 11,457 12,034 10,224 10,697 4.9 5.0 4.3 4.3

Midland

39,044 39,889 39,191 40,292 1,809 1,968 1,870 2,052 4.6 4.9 4.8 5.1

Monroe

73,451 74,631 75,021 75,343 3,595 3,837 4,687 3,878 4.9 5.1 6.2 5.1

Muskegon

75,805 76,258 75,663 76,845 4,482 4,006 4,160 4,056 5.9 5.3 5.5 5.3

Niles-Benton Harbor

69,401 72,094 69,778 72,779 3,619 3,819 3,529 3,758 5.2 5.3 5.1 5.2

Saginaw

82,873 83,378 82,267 83,632 5,173 5,272 5,072 5,532 6.2 6.3 6.2 6.6

Minnesota

3,052,225 3,063,644 3,054,593 3,071,248 112,330 102,151 96,942 109,743 3.7 3.3 3.2 3.6

Duluth

139,433 140,158 140,238 141,165 6,186 5,607 5,654 6,089 4.4 4.0 4.0 4.3

Mankato-North Mankato

60,746 62,173 61,370 62,413 1,804 1,658 1,589 1,807 3.0 2.7 2.6 2.9

Minneapolis-St. Paul-Bloomington

1,987,290 1,996,506 1,989,342 2,003,771 65,983 58,670 57,111 63,849 3.3 2.9 2.9 3.2

Rochester

126,170 127,524 125,635 127,677 4,190 3,697 3,581 3,916 3.3 2.9 2.9 3.1

St. Cloud

110,712 112,272 111,005 112,396 4,724 4,291 4,038 4,507 4.3 3.8 3.6 4.0

Mississippi

1,249,502 1,233,994 1,258,225 1,240,374 58,002 43,495 52,912 40,115 4.6 3.5 4.2 3.2

Gulfport-Biloxi-Pascagoula

166,303 161,930 167,220 162,841 7,944 5,735 7,214 5,258 4.8 3.5 4.3 3.2

Hattiesburg

68,956 68,178 69,657 69,000 2,899 2,143 2,678 1,998 4.2 3.1 3.8 2.9

Jackson

260,436 260,628 261,842 261,530 10,865 7,893 10,009 7,492 4.2 3.0 3.8 2.9

Missouri

3,034,974 3,053,506 3,040,565 3,075,219 101,324 86,635 95,447 81,652 3.3 2.8 3.1 2.7

Cape Girardeau

47,142 47,546 47,115 47,974 1,459 1,267 1,233 1,115 3.1 2.7 2.6 2.3

Columbia

97,157 98,589 99,250 100,613 2,502 2,241 2,044 2,005 2.6 2.3 2.1 2.0

Jefferson City

74,362 75,815 74,076 76,361 2,006 1,786 1,746 1,649 2.7 2.4 2.4 2.2

Joplin

83,455 84,101 83,352 84,523 2,433 2,148 2,084 1,973 2.9 2.6 2.5 2.3

Kansas City

1,141,058 1,158,953 1,147,262 1,158,984 34,053 31,584 38,134 33,508 3.0 2.7 3.3 2.9

St. Joseph

59,393 59,660 59,448 59,965 1,787 1,542 1,668 1,543 3.0 2.6 2.8 2.6

St. Louis(2)

1,449,757 1,447,851 1,448,168 1,460,896 53,327 44,119 46,542 41,473 3.7 3.0 3.2 2.8

Springfield

239,608 241,713 241,047 245,486 6,632 5,759 5,586 5,268 2.8 2.4 2.3 2.1

Montana

555,351 568,745 562,214 571,148 19,922 16,842 18,029 16,001 3.6 3.0 3.2 2.8

Billings

90,806 91,491 92,232 91,666 2,901 2,340 2,625 2,211 3.2 2.6 2.8 2.4

Great Falls

38,478 39,539 38,845 39,494 1,287 1,124 1,160 1,052 3.3 2.8 3.0 2.7

Missoula

65,374 67,478 66,262 67,782 2,480 2,033 2,203 1,897 3.8 3.0 3.3 2.8

Nebraska

1,048,602 1,051,402 1,054,133 1,058,467 26,924 23,001 25,559 23,252 2.6 2.2 2.4 2.2

Grand Island

45,173 45,926 45,544 46,045 1,196 1,069 1,142 1,034 2.6 2.3 2.5 2.2

Lincoln

185,685 186,600 188,159 191,343 4,396 3,752 4,088 3,851 2.4 2.0 2.2 2.0

Omaha-Council Bluffs

499,596 500,704 501,962 503,882 14,598 12,450 13,429 12,530 2.9 2.5 2.7 2.5

Nevada

1,505,999 1,571,159 1,524,000 1,581,127 87,432 88,535 82,882 89,814 5.8 5.6 5.4 5.7

Carson City

24,573 25,803 24,758 25,853 1,006 1,352 939 1,353 4.1 5.2 3.8 5.2

Las Vegas-Henderson-Paradise

1,110,161 1,158,540 1,120,640 1,164,406 72,638 68,812 69,137 70,033 6.5 5.9 6.2 6.0

Reno

249,897 264,125 254,765 266,399 9,011 11,948 8,297 11,894 3.6 4.5 3.3 4.5

New Hampshire

757,680 774,167 761,347 766,450 22,258 23,682 19,754 18,522 2.9 3.1 2.6 2.4

Dover-Durham

83,422 85,686 84,764 86,246 2,350 2,325 1,972 1,799 2.8 2.7 2.3 2.1

Manchester

120,065 123,886 120,989 121,809 3,301 3,552 2,928 2,716 2.7 2.9 2.4 2.2

Portsmouth

75,684 77,977 75,711 77,662 2,066 2,047 1,839 1,706 2.7 2.6 2.4 2.2

New Jersey

4,657,359 4,812,635 4,688,627 4,848,250 260,370 193,404 239,496 197,508 5.6 4.0 5.1 4.1

Atlantic City-Hammonton

119,317 124,445 120,444 125,886 10,183 7,345 9,089 7,248 8.5 5.9 7.5 5.8

Ocean City

41,506 43,243 41,523 43,649 5,477 5,012 5,147 4,967 13.2 11.6 12.4 11.4

Trenton

212,774 221,547 214,834 223,587 9,664 7,402 8,939 7,458 4.5 3.3 4.2 3.3

Vineland-Bridgeton

68,876 70,637 68,706 70,545 5,375 4,472 4,880 4,480 7.8 6.3 7.1 6.4

New Mexico

946,519 949,738 951,294 957,683 53,022 36,563 47,820 37,405 5.6 3.8 5.0 3.9

Albuquerque

441,890 441,449 444,417 444,546 22,739 15,624 20,384 15,848 5.1 3.5 4.6 3.6

Farmington

49,261 49,529 49,366 50,277 3,239 2,247 2,866 2,305 6.6 4.5 5.8 4.6

Las Cruces

98,972 99,805 99,540 101,404 5,776 4,530 5,348 4,734 5.8 4.5 5.4 4.7

Santa Fe

71,753 72,173 72,487 72,440 3,680 2,399 3,313 2,453 5.1 3.3 4.6 3.4

New York

9,593,515 9,594,419 9,594,922 9,663,984 533,325 439,371 516,107 431,816 5.6 4.6 5.4 4.5

Albany-Schenectady-Troy

451,960 456,025 451,817 459,316 15,871 16,216 16,632 15,276 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.3

Binghamton

104,447 104,399 104,871 104,828 4,711 4,759 4,842 4,344 4.5 4.6 4.6 4.1

Buffalo-Cheektowaga-Niagara Falls

541,432 540,165 539,813 542,320 23,517 23,518 24,447 21,942 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.0

Elmira

35,269 34,732 34,692 34,518 1,436 1,523 1,539 1,461 4.1 4.4 4.4 4.2

Glens Falls

58,074 58,257 57,691 58,427 2,572 2,529 2,650 2,412 4.4 4.3 4.6 4.1

Ithaca

48,129 49,281 51,133 50,832 1,505 1,702 1,568 1,470 3.1 3.5 3.1 2.9

Kingston

86,658 86,935 86,849 87,135 3,323 3,264 3,496 3,050 3.8 3.8 4.0 3.5

New York-Newark-Jersey City

10,138,492 10,262,350 10,163,600 10,344,050 602,422 454,624 565,078 459,886 5.9 4.4 5.6 4.4

Rochester

524,325 516,448 523,595 521,196 20,423 20,682 21,473 19,238 3.9 4.0 4.1 3.7

Syracuse

307,196 308,709 307,578 310,176 12,433 12,786 13,057 11,816 4.0 4.1 4.2 3.8

Utica-Rome

127,679 127,620 127,494 127,397 5,565 5,741 5,786 5,252 4.4 4.5 4.5 4.1

Watertown-Fort Drum

43,784 43,789 43,585 43,621 2,163 2,369 2,334 2,199 4.9 5.4 5.4 5.0

North Carolina

5,087,762 5,156,886 5,134,373 5,165,808 197,624 190,570 190,375 186,006 3.9 3.7 3.7 3.6

Asheville

234,520 236,581 236,687 236,526 7,669 7,258 7,474 7,151 3.3 3.1 3.2 3.0

Burlington

82,691 82,754 83,517 82,946 3,196 3,017 3,056 2,905 3.9 3.6 3.7 3.5

Charlotte-Concord-Gastonia

1,408,751 1,428,369 1,420,588 1,433,119 52,993 50,385 50,684 49,871 3.8 3.5 3.6 3.5

Durham-Chapel Hill

311,771 316,838 315,024 316,697 10,091 10,028 9,760 9,745 3.2 3.2 3.1 3.1

Fayetteville

148,924 146,841 150,081 146,592 8,098 7,508 7,687 7,289 5.4 5.1 5.1 5.0

Goldsboro

50,431 50,337 50,541 50,599 2,160 2,018 2,099 1,952 4.3 4.0 4.2 3.9

Greensboro-High Point

363,317 365,734 366,500 364,717 15,565 14,786 14,858 14,448 4.3 4.0 4.1 4.0

Greenville

87,312 88,244 88,048 88,183 3,669 3,596 3,538 3,470 4.2 4.1 4.0 3.9

Hickory-Lenoir-Morganton

173,023 175,414 174,725 174,855 6,330 5,898 6,052 5,794 3.7 3.4 3.5 3.3

Jacksonville

67,401 69,356 67,628 69,228 2,900 2,946 2,821 2,852 4.3 4.2 4.2 4.1

New Bern

51,624 51,922 51,797 51,929 1,971 1,968 1,872 1,919 3.8 3.8 3.6 3.7

Raleigh

756,570 774,299 765,384 776,149 24,658 24,313 23,872 24,060 3.3 3.1 3.1 3.1

Rocky Mount

63,316 62,019 63,615 62,046 3,630 3,362 3,604 3,226 5.7 5.4 5.7 5.2

Wilmington

156,142 160,782 158,209 162,224 5,465 5,533 5,331 5,311 3.5 3.4 3.4 3.3

Winston-Salem

327,960 332,238 330,465 332,873 12,325 11,893 11,839 11,518 3.8 3.6 3.6 3.5

North Dakota

407,942 409,522 410,158 412,584 11,763 10,604 11,259 10,862 2.9 2.6 2.7 2.6

Bismarck

71,775 70,536 71,779 70,662 2,103 1,918 1,985 1,933 2.9 2.7 2.8 2.7

Fargo

145,834 147,187 146,711 148,186 3,681 3,438 3,493 3,627 2.5 2.3 2.4 2.4

Grand Forks

53,694 54,442 53,942 54,802 1,603 1,395 1,481 1,511 3.0 2.6 2.7 2.8

Ohio

5,685,474 5,707,142 5,723,384 5,770,596 272,624 234,129 269,052 241,864 4.8 4.1 4.7 4.2

Akron

345,090 345,637 346,124 350,620 16,990 14,911 16,313 15,108 4.9 4.3 4.7 4.3

Canton-Massillon

191,564 192,866 192,400 194,647 9,596 8,539 9,273 8,481 5.0 4.4 4.8 4.4

Cincinnati

1,124,977 1,134,877 1,131,069 1,143,492 44,702 39,607 42,992 40,815 4.0 3.5 3.8 3.6

Cleveland-Elyria

1,008,740 1,018,049 1,016,599 1,031,359 55,994 42,616 61,411 50,591 5.6 4.2 6.0 4.9

Columbus

1,116,328 1,116,781 1,122,557 1,125,769 43,085 38,534 41,012 38,612 3.9 3.5 3.7 3.4

Dayton

378,656 384,866 380,688 387,068 17,223 15,048 16,297 15,080 4.5 3.9 4.3 3.9

Lima

46,697 46,256 46,514 46,276 2,296 1,952 2,879 1,961 4.9 4.2 6.2 4.2

Mansfield

50,889 50,608 51,242 51,047 2,808 2,561 2,656 2,554 5.5 5.1 5.2 5.0

Springfield

62,807 62,596 62,928 63,047 3,408 2,687 2,715 2,507 5.4 4.3 4.3 4.0

Toledo

290,670 292,841 294,085 295,367 14,704 12,807 13,789 12,863 5.1 4.4 4.7 4.4

Weirton-Steubenville(1)

49,331 49,508 49,645 49,994 2,915 2,914 2,908 2,712 5.9 5.9 5.9 5.4

Youngstown-Warren-Boardman

227,162 228,242 228,849 229,357 13,284 11,950 13,236 11,739 5.8 5.2 5.8 5.1

Oklahoma

1,868,352 1,893,117 1,875,420 1,899,574 60,359 60,786 59,975 58,625 3.2 3.2 3.2 3.1

Enid

26,714 26,194 26,781 26,230 826 834 819 791 3.1 3.2 3.1 3.0

Lawton

49,915 50,171 50,066 50,107 1,854 1,863 1,829 1,765 3.7 3.7 3.7 3.5

Oklahoma City

706,592 723,358 708,700 728,487 21,087 21,593 20,847 20,954 3.0 3.0 2.9 2.9

Tulsa

481,702 487,518 483,108 486,872 16,076 15,753 15,988 15,212 3.3 3.2 3.3 3.1

Oregon

2,152,329 2,164,688 2,169,415 2,163,910 93,718 108,055 85,859 100,418 4.4 5.0 4.0 4.6

Albany

61,416 61,192 61,929 61,291 2,920 3,281 2,714 3,069 4.8 5.4 4.4 5.0

Bend-Redmond

102,172 103,345 102,839 102,540 4,643 5,470 4,260 5,107 4.5 5.3 4.1 5.0

Corvallis

48,585 49,175 49,336 49,988 1,575 1,790 1,486 1,789 3.2 3.6 3.0 3.6

Eugene

183,490 181,418 184,503 181,181 8,311 9,677 7,638 9,080 4.5 5.3 4.1 5.0

Grants Pass

36,647 36,975 36,842 36,581 2,101 2,725 1,923 2,384 5.7 7.4 5.2 6.5

Medford

105,818 106,568 106,085 106,016 5,075 6,384 4,651 5,936 4.8 6.0 4.4 5.6

Portland-Vancouver-Hillsboro

1,355,085 1,372,554 1,365,108 1,375,671 55,479 61,803 52,392 61,227 4.1 4.5 3.8 4.5

Salem

208,352 210,481 210,667 211,995 9,088 10,404 8,389 9,985 4.4 4.9 4.0 4.7

Pennsylvania

6,408,694 6,481,742 6,421,513 6,478,173 315,009 293,251 299,996 300,846 4.9 4.5 4.7 4.6

Allentown-Bethlehem-Easton

448,325 454,586 449,336 455,048 22,290 20,372 21,069 20,817 5.0 4.5 4.7 4.6

Altoona

58,761 58,920 58,235 58,799 2,943 2,699 2,854 2,770 5.0 4.6 4.9 4.7

Bloomsburg-Berwick

42,590 43,081 42,974 43,613 2,086 2,167 1,896 2,154 4.9 5.0 4.4 4.9

Chambersburg-Waynesboro

77,303 77,988 77,356 77,166 3,106 2,924 2,966 2,997 4.0 3.7 3.8 3.9

East Stroudsburg

81,165 82,479 81,504 82,606 4,976 4,926 4,890 5,138 6.1 6.0 6.0 6.2

Erie

124,991 126,439 125,414 126,177 7,351 6,865 7,005 6,998 5.9 5.4 5.6 5.5

Gettysburg

53,572 54,819 54,311 54,536 1,956 1,833 1,811 1,888 3.7 3.3 3.3 3.5

Harrisburg-Carlisle

300,903 307,834 301,508 307,357 12,294 11,348 11,571 11,805 4.1 3.7 3.8 3.8

Johnstown

55,200 55,585 55,209 55,579 3,365 3,149 3,167 3,281 6.1 5.7 5.7 5.9

Lancaster

284,418 289,773 285,321 287,594 11,086 9,859 10,496 10,082 3.9 3.4 3.7 3.5

Lebanon

72,246 73,908 72,434 73,800 2,997 2,645 2,850 2,682 4.1 3.6 3.9 3.6

Philadelphia-Camden-Wilmington

3,176,857 3,239,448 3,188,949 3,243,976 155,462 134,510 145,431 136,391 4.9 4.2 4.6 4.2

Pittsburgh

1,171,695 1,173,641 1,171,216 1,175,018 59,521 56,583 57,212 58,052 5.1 4.8 4.9 4.9

Reading

210,946 214,255 211,735 213,811 10,395 9,351 9,867 9,737 4.9 4.4 4.7 4.6

Scranton--Wilkes-Barre--Hazleton

274,533 279,172 275,706 279,729 16,062 15,338 15,257 15,741 5.9 5.5 5.5 5.6

State College

76,308 77,996 77,714 79,502 2,943 2,961 2,788 2,905 3.9 3.8 3.6 3.7

Williamsport

54,923 55,731 54,932 55,536 3,114 2,840 2,935 2,902 5.7 5.1 5.3 5.2

York-Hanover

236,561 238,926 237,260 238,043 9,673 8,933 9,156 9,211 4.1 3.7 3.9 3.9

Rhode Island

566,029 568,986 570,069 566,677 24,028 20,370 23,327 21,949 4.2 3.6 4.1 3.9

Providence-Warwick

699,786 702,331 705,354 700,815 32,059 27,554 31,268 29,761 4.6 3.9 4.4 4.2

South Carolina

2,358,505 2,378,036 2,375,243 2,411,344 92,192 83,694 90,864 89,568 3.9 3.5 3.8 3.7

Charleston-North Charleston

398,778 408,296 400,877 417,600 13,534 11,974 13,657 13,428 3.4 2.9 3.4 3.2

Columbia

400,660 400,495 405,320 403,691 14,340 13,295 14,254 14,146 3.6 3.3 3.5 3.5

Florence

95,521 95,936 95,649 96,852 3,871 3,433 3,746 3,614 4.1 3.6 3.9 3.7

Greenville-Anderson-Mauldin

436,703 440,516 441,074 447,943 14,822 13,614 15,171 15,289 3.4 3.1 3.4 3.4

Hilton Head Island-Bluffton-Beaufort

87,651 89,219 88,364 90,307 3,191 2,871 3,419 3,378 3.6 3.2 3.9 3.7

Myrtle Beach-Conway-North Myrtle Beach

199,329 205,872 201,102 208,570 11,129 10,242 10,327 10,058 5.6 5.0 5.1 4.8

Spartanburg

165,569 166,149 166,566 167,945 6,400 5,669 6,192 6,066 3.9 3.4 3.7 3.6

Sumter

42,399 42,112 42,458 42,295 1,844 1,941 1,820 1,956 4.3 4.6 4.3 4.6

South Dakota

465,900 469,112 469,888 475,004 10,765 9,723 11,696 11,726 2.3 2.1 2.5 2.5

Rapid City

75,413 77,306 75,745 77,862 1,685 1,504 1,871 1,855 2.2 1.9 2.5 2.4

Sioux Falls

160,625 161,230 159,996 162,131 3,346 3,045 3,633 3,725 2.1 1.9 2.3 2.3

Tennessee

3,345,488 3,333,798 3,374,782 3,361,790 124,433 118,064 116,625 120,560 3.7 3.5 3.5 3.6

Chattanooga

273,711 273,743 275,850 276,358 10,748 9,136 9,872 9,184 3.9 3.3 3.6 3.3

Clarksville

119,191 119,539 119,908 120,114 4,953 4,934 4,742 5,125 4.2 4.1 4.0 4.3

Cleveland

57,821 56,871 58,703 57,363 2,414 2,097 2,253 2,203 4.2 3.7 3.8 3.8

Jackson

64,956 63,821 65,582 64,284 2,344 2,290 2,128 2,324 3.6 3.6 3.2 3.6

Johnson City

92,421 91,775 93,848 93,190 3,211 3,332 3,011 3,448 3.5 3.6 3.2 3.7

Kingsport-Bristol-Bristol

133,788 136,586 134,658 137,866 4,685 4,996 4,391 4,996 3.5 3.7 3.3 3.6

Knoxville

439,742 437,737 444,442 442,060 14,017 14,246 13,445 14,429 3.2 3.3 3.0 3.3

Memphis

636,107 623,679 639,679 630,961 30,847 26,011 28,471 26,279 4.8 4.2 4.5 4.2

Morristown

53,002 53,439 53,739 53,687 2,266 2,308 2,092 2,262 4.3 4.3 3.9 4.2

Nashville-Davidson--Murfreesboro--Franklin

1,116,112 1,123,544 1,127,906 1,133,185 32,755 30,856 31,590 31,873 2.9 2.7 2.8 2.8

Texas

14,511,328 14,877,616 14,613,813 15,046,646 675,477 622,847 634,693 677,294 4.7 4.2 4.3 4.5

Abilene

80,406 82,316 81,013 82,701 3,199 3,348 3,068 3,430 4.0 4.1 3.8 4.1

Amarillo

134,909 137,323 136,655 138,703 4,774 4,376 4,636 4,907 3.5 3.2 3.4 3.5

Austin-Round Rock

1,365,729 1,417,885 1,378,012 1,428,398 45,988 46,448 44,409 52,760 3.4 3.3 3.2 3.7

Beaumont-Port Arthur

166,356 169,009 166,684 170,034 12,719 11,208 11,229 11,111 7.6 6.6 6.7 6.5

Brownsville-Harlingen

177,372 180,290 177,550 181,572 12,384 10,991 11,349 11,466 7.0 6.1 6.4 6.3

College Station-Bryan

141,953 147,353 147,067 151,568 5,301 5,169 5,007 5,708 3.7 3.5 3.4 3.8

Corpus Christi

202,333 202,618 203,884 205,439 12,463 10,101 11,430 10,566 6.2 5.0 5.6 5.1

Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington

4,201,279 4,342,928 4,221,091 4,386,747 171,987 163,531 163,748 180,660 4.1 3.8 3.9 4.1

El Paso

372,055 378,152 373,384 380,397 18,858 17,113 17,715 19,246 5.1 4.5 4.7 5.1

Houston-The Woodlands-Sugar Land

3,475,888 3,551,177 3,496,121 3,595,720 177,729 159,536 165,121 171,504 5.1 4.5 4.7 4.8

Killeen-Temple

183,579 185,981 183,859 188,218 9,306 9,187 8,860 10,029 5.1 4.9 4.8 5.3

Laredo

116,949 118,487 117,347 119,631 6,086 5,305 5,722 5,831 5.2 4.5 4.9 4.9

Longview

96,707 98,363 97,431 99,231 4,933 4,390 4,642 4,770 5.1 4.5 4.8 4.8

Lubbock

168,665 170,075 170,636 172,308 6,470 6,066 6,193 6,730 3.8 3.6 3.6 3.9

McAllen-Edinburg-Mission

372,698 380,179 372,980 382,689 30,408 26,869 26,736 26,125 8.2 7.1 7.2 6.8

Midland

105,434 113,569 106,476 114,496 4,105 3,097 3,849 3,434 3.9 2.7 3.6 3.0

Odessa

81,896 85,746 82,544 86,381 4,287 3,134 3,955 3,407 5.2 3.7 4.8 3.9

San Angelo

55,965 57,176 56,687 57,873 2,348 2,073 2,220 2,340 4.2 3.6 3.9 4.0

San Antonio-New Braunfels

1,240,858 1,268,493 1,250,809 1,286,258 52,939 49,696 50,440 54,930 4.3 3.9 4.0 4.3

Sherman-Denison

64,841 67,083 65,202 67,791 2,749 2,733 2,666 2,997 4.2 4.1 4.1 4.4

Texarkana

62,335 62,403 62,648 62,801 3,222 2,786 3,100 2,746 5.2 4.5 4.9 4.4

Tyler

111,070 112,632 111,811 113,717 4,897 4,468 4,635 4,911 4.4 4.0 4.1 4.3

Victoria

44,679 44,700 44,769 45,143 2,325 1,915 2,178 2,109 5.2 4.3 4.9 4.7

Waco

133,124 136,244 134,424 137,931 5,637 5,697 5,304 6,192 4.2 4.2 3.9 4.5

Wichita Falls

64,457 64,716 64,506 65,448 2,970 2,672 2,783 2,919 4.6 4.1 4.3 4.5

Utah

1,714,694 1,773,335 1,726,744 1,782,703 42,543 45,871 43,309 46,218 2.5 2.6 2.5 2.6

Logan

78,287 80,383 79,462 81,044 1,644 1,841 1,697 1,832 2.1 2.3 2.1 2.3

Ogden-Clearfield

346,673 356,374 348,468 357,474 8,353 8,927 8,553 8,981 2.4 2.5 2.5 2.5

Provo-Orem

348,258 358,422 350,348 360,121 7,412 8,628 7,428 8,647 2.1 2.4 2.1 2.4

St. George

85,505 88,602 86,874 89,377 2,461 2,672 2,413 2,558 2.9 3.0 2.8 2.9

Salt Lake City

704,881 731,085 706,565 733,331 17,395 18,447 17,841 19,030 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.6

Vermont

337,420 343,122 338,329 345,428 10,333 9,447 9,055 9,617 3.1 2.8 2.7 2.8

Burlington-South Burlington

123,405 125,836 125,091 127,769 2,956 2,501 2,527 2,682 2.4 2.0 2.0 2.1

Virginia

4,342,684 4,477,079 4,387,721 4,518,998 126,156 145,856 118,297 130,326 2.9 3.3 2.7 2.9

Blacksburg-Christiansburg-Radford

89,737 92,047 94,829 97,308 2,500 3,007 2,573 2,703 2.8 3.3 2.7 2.8

Charlottesville

120,113 124,876 122,078 126,406 3,272 3,858 3,009 3,355 2.7 3.1 2.5 2.7

Harrisonburg

66,626 67,934 67,693 69,755 1,817 2,128 1,702 1,899 2.7 3.1 2.5 2.7

Lynchburg

119,878 123,617 121,321 124,861 3,872 4,719 3,624 4,240 3.2 3.8 3.0 3.4

Richmond

683,921 709,163 690,437 712,933 20,537 24,137 19,244 21,706 3.0 3.4 2.8 3.0

Roanoke

154,986 161,216 156,590 162,729 4,476 5,276 4,163 4,737 2.9 3.3 2.7 2.9

Staunton-Waynesboro

60,052 62,363 60,402 62,780 1,657 1,870 1,509 1,620 2.8 3.0 2.5 2.6

Virginia Beach-Norfolk-Newport News

838,993 857,088 847,954 865,565 26,997 30,375 25,402 27,419 3.2 3.5 3.0 3.2

Winchester

75,971 78,491 76,550 79,084 1,944 2,319 1,846 2,052 2.6 3.0 2.4 2.6

Washington

3,937,188 4,029,150 3,967,866 4,092,579 185,646 203,358 177,269 205,034 4.7 5.0 4.5 5.0

Bellingham

114,652 117,400 114,922 118,475 6,102 6,508 6,069 7,479 5.3 5.5 5.3 6.3

Bremerton-Silverdale

129,225 131,520 129,201 133,766 6,049 6,612 6,183 7,878 4.7 5.0 4.8 5.9

Kennewick-Richland

145,394 151,119 146,407 154,211 9,360 10,643 9,116 11,606 6.4 7.0 6.2 7.5

Longview

48,893 50,146 48,812 50,866 2,864 3,260 2,939 3,723 5.9 6.5 6.0 7.3

Mount Vernon-Anacortes

61,237 62,163 61,412 63,296 3,669 3,754 3,605 4,286 6.0 6.0 5.9 6.8

Olympia-Tumwater

147,832 152,961 148,563 156,023 7,246 7,941 7,316 9,354 4.9 5.2 4.9 6.0

Seattle-Tacoma-Bellevue

2,198,167 2,242,624 2,220,773 2,273,675 83,415 88,031 75,457 76,677 3.8 3.9 3.4 3.4

Spokane-Spokane Valley

287,474 293,433 288,016 298,594 16,085 18,687 16,247 20,499 5.6 6.4 5.6 6.9

Walla Walla

31,213 32,148 31,821 33,083 1,740 1,868 1,709 2,118 5.6 5.8 5.4 6.4

Wenatchee

63,368 65,361 63,784 66,367 4,103 4,654 3,919 4,856 6.5 7.1 6.1 7.3

Yakima

124,753 129,419 126,573 131,879 10,627 12,536 9,964 12,522 8.5 9.7 7.9 9.5

West Virginia

776,175 774,274 782,675 775,427 36,041 32,589 37,215 28,583 4.6 4.2 4.8 3.7

Beckley

44,505 44,974 44,578 44,809 2,181 1,894 2,211 1,690 4.9 4.2 5.0 3.8

Charleston

89,236 87,910 89,948 87,655 4,168 3,541 4,236 3,104 4.7 4.0 4.7 3.5

Huntington-Ashland

143,422 143,787 144,356 144,058 6,924 6,438 7,017 6,190 4.8 4.5 4.9 4.3

Morgantown

70,541 69,543 71,283 70,441 2,850 2,469 3,009 2,094 4.0 3.6 4.2 3.0

Parkersburg-Vienna

38,128 38,394 38,368 38,270 2,019 1,842 2,096 1,687 5.3 4.8 5.5 4.4

Wheeling

60,347 59,068 60,615 59,041 3,579 3,213 3,611 3,094 5.9 5.4 6.0 5.2

Wisconsin

3,063,647 3,039,152 3,081,787 3,068,181 98,068 81,098 101,659 84,512 3.2 2.7 3.3 2.8

Appleton

130,622 131,587 130,600 131,382 3,387 2,787 3,506 2,672 2.6 2.1 2.7 2.0

Eau Claire

92,197 92,476 93,421 93,632 3,036 2,715 3,135 2,767 3.3 2.9 3.4 3.0

Fond du Lac

56,245 55,963 56,618 56,202 1,593 1,285 1,576 1,276 2.8 2.3 2.8 2.3

Green Bay

171,587 172,616 171,818 173,114 4,938 4,060 5,078 4,246 2.9 2.4 3.0 2.5

Janesville-Beloit

84,764 84,995 85,207 85,372 3,181 2,536 3,289 2,673 3.8 3.0 3.9 3.1

La Crosse-Onalaska

75,640 76,786 76,945 77,692 2,165 1,870 2,188 1,909 2.9 2.4 2.8 2.5

Madison

389,454 390,680 394,159 399,107 9,154 7,813 9,468 7,460 2.4 2.0 2.4 1.9

Milwaukee-Waukesha-West Allis

801,286 791,413 803,253 795,187 26,120 20,698 26,917 21,476 3.3 2.6 3.4 2.7

Oshkosh-Neenah

91,284 91,890 91,627 91,957 2,344 1,977 2,359 1,913 2.6 2.2 2.6 2.1

Racine

97,114 97,376 97,662 97,632 3,786 2,970 3,948 3,236 3.9 3.1 4.0 3.3

Sheboygan

60,526 60,961 60,548 60,910 1,553 1,251 1,569 1,244 2.6 2.1 2.6 2.0

Wausau

73,333 72,492 73,479 72,834 1,951 1,636 2,023 1,659 2.7 2.3 2.8 2.3

Wyoming

286,456 296,449 286,831 296,482 12,316 12,713 11,156 11,768 4.3 4.3 3.9 4.0

Casper

38,635 40,488 38,400 40,478 1,967 1,840 1,734 1,730 5.1 4.5 4.5 4.3

Cheyenne

49,104 50,644 48,914 50,399 2,012 2,119 1,840 1,966 4.1 4.2 3.8 3.9

Puerto Rico

1,207,050 1,215,801 1,216,754 1,206,059 77,527 68,752 73,325 71,524 6.4 5.7 6.0 5.9

Aguadilla-Isabela

97,295 100,723 98,021 99,613 8,103 8,225 8,013 8,553 8.3 8.2 8.2 8.6

Arecibo

59,118 60,290 59,569 59,353 5,024 4,613 5,159 4,668 8.5 7.7 8.7 7.9

Guayama

21,407 21,546 21,651 21,460 1,682 1,619 1,648 1,783 7.9 7.5 7.6 8.3

Mayaguez

30,626 30,989 30,737 30,879 2,302 1,782 2,103 1,906 7.5 5.8 6.8 6.2

Ponce

100,687 102,720 101,193 102,238 8,286 8,638 7,914 9,116 8.2 8.4 7.8 8.9

San German

38,128 38,842 38,301 38,640 3,159 2,888 3,006 2,944 8.3 7.4 7.8 7.6

San Juan-Carolina-Caguas

812,263 814,420 820,387 808,444 44,989 37,131 41,767 38,496 5.5 4.6 5.1 4.8

Footnotes
(1) For operational reasons, these interstate areas are listed under the state that accounts for the larger share of the population, which is different from the state that contains the first principal city.
(2) The area boundary does not reflect the Office of Management and Budget delineation.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data refer to place of residence. Data for Puerto Rico are derived from a monthly household survey similar to the Current Population Survey. Area delineations are based on Office of Management and Budget Bulletin No. 18-03, dated April 10, 2018, and are available on the BLS website at https://www.bls.gov/lau/lausmsa.htm. Areas in the six New England states are Metropolitan New England City and Town Areas (NECTAs), while areas in other states are county-based. Some metropolitan areas lie in two or more states. They are listed under the state containing the first principal city, unless otherwise footnoted. Data for 2022 in this table have been revised to incorporate updated inputs and adjustment to new state controls. Estimates for the latest month are subject to revision the following month.


LABOR FORCE DATA
NOT SEASONALLY ADJUSTED

Table 2. Civilian labor force and unemployment by state, selected metropolitan area, and metropolitan division(1)
State, area, and division Civilian labor force Unemployed
January February Number Percent of labor force
2022 2023 2022 2023(p) January February January February
2022 2023 2022 2023(p) 2022 2023 2022 2023(p)

California

19,157,660 19,273,632 19,292,418 19,464,035 1,068,647 894,693 965,748 937,649 5.6 4.6 5.0 4.8

Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim

6,612,833 6,575,514 6,655,059 6,649,201 394,567 299,414 351,849 320,321 6.0 4.6 5.3 4.8

Anaheim-Santa Ana-Irvine

1,577,298 1,593,371 1,589,672 1,606,452 66,565 53,714 59,160 55,072 4.2 3.4 3.7 3.4

Los Angeles-Long Beach-Glendale

5,035,535 4,982,143 5,065,387 5,042,749 328,002 245,700 292,689 265,249 6.5 4.9 5.8 5.3

San Francisco-Oakland-Hayward

2,508,703 2,536,964 2,525,056 2,555,363 101,201 83,716 89,875 86,243 4.0 3.3 3.6 3.4

Oakland-Hayward-Berkeley

1,368,946 1,373,114 1,377,518 1,388,133 62,200 51,481 55,158 52,791 4.5 3.7 4.0 3.8

San Francisco-Redwood City-South San Francisco

1,009,775 1,033,257 1,016,451 1,035,288 34,547 28,241 30,667 29,303 3.4 2.7 3.0 2.8

San Rafael

129,982 130,593 131,087 131,942 4,454 3,994 4,050 4,149 3.4 3.1 3.1 3.1

District of Columbia

380,671 392,894 387,107 392,205 23,937 19,292 21,593 19,161 6.3 4.9 5.6 4.9

Washington-Arlington-Alexandria(2)

3,373,592 3,443,770 3,400,815 3,469,052 116,484 104,388 109,261 100,499 3.5 3.0 3.2 2.9

Silver Spring-Frederick-Rockville(3)

675,912 684,052 679,386 690,190 22,069 16,681 22,443 18,329 3.3 2.4 3.3 2.7

Washington-Arlington-Alexandria(2)

2,697,680 2,759,718 2,721,429 2,778,862 94,415 87,707 86,818 82,170 3.5 3.2 3.2 3.0

Florida

10,592,114 10,847,669