Department of Labor Logo United States Department of Labor
Dot gov

The .gov means it's official.
Federal government websites often end in .gov or .mil. Before sharing sensitive information, make sure you're on a federal government site.

Https

The site is secure.
The https:// ensures that you are connecting to the official website and that any information you provide is encrypted and transmitted securely.

Economic News Release
PRINT:Print
LAU LAU Program Links
SAE SAE Program Links

Metropolitan Area Employment and Unemployment (Monthly) News Release

For release 10:00 a.m. (ET) Wednesday, April 28, 2021 			    		USDL-21-0723

Technical information: 
 Employment:		sminfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/sae 
 Unemployment: 		lausinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/lau 

Media contact: 	        (202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov


        	 METROPOLITAN AREA EMPLOYMENT AND UNEMPLOYMENT -- MARCH 2021


Unemployment rates were higher in March than a year earlier in 308 of the 389 metropolitan
areas, lower in 75 areas, and unchanged in 6 areas, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics
reported today. A total of 16 areas had jobless rates of at least 10.0 percent and 10 areas
had rates of less than 3.0 percent. Nonfarm payroll employment decreased over the year in
159 metropolitan areas, increased in 3 areas, and was essentially unchanged in 227 areas.
The national unemployment rate in March was 6.2 percent, not seasonally adjusted, up from
4.5 percent a year earlier.

This news release presents statistics from two monthly programs. The civilian labor force
and unemployment data are based on the same concepts and definitions as those used for 
the national household survey estimates. These data pertain to individuals by where they
reside. The employment data are from an establishment survey that measures nonfarm
employment, hours, and earnings by industry. These data pertain to jobs on payrolls 
defined by where the establishments are located. For more information about the concepts
and statistical methodologies used by these two programs, see the Technical Note.

Metropolitan Area Unemployment (Not Seasonally Adjusted)

In March, El Centro, CA, had the highest unemployment rate, 15.7 percent, while Logan,
UT-ID, had the lowest rate, 2.1 percent. A total of 245 areas had March jobless rates below
the U.S. rate of 6.2 percent, 138 areas had rates above it, and 6 areas had rates equal 
to that of the nation. (See table 1.)

The largest over-the-year unemployment rate increase in March occurred in Kahului-Wailuku-
Lahaina, HI (+10.1 percentage points). Rates rose over the year by at least 4.0 percentage
points in an additional 11 areas. The largest over-the-year jobless rate decrease occurred
in El Centro, CA (-4.4 percentage points).

Of the 51 metropolitan areas with a 2010 Census population of 1 million or more, Los
Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim, CA, had the highest unemployment rate in March, 9.8 percent,
followed by Las Vegas-Henderson-Paradise, NV, and New York-Newark-Jersey City, NY-NJ-PA,
8.8 percent each. Salt Lake City, UT, and Birmingham-Hoover, AL, had the lowest jobless
rates among the large areas, 3.0 percent and 3.2 percent, respectively. Forty-six large
areas had over-the-year unemployment rate increases, the largest of which were in Los
Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim, CA (+4.8 percentage points), and New York-Newark-Jersey City,
NY-NJ-PA (+4.7 points). Five areas had rate decreases from a year earlier, the largest
of which was in Cleveland-Elyria, OH (-1.3 percentage points).

Metropolitan Division Unemployment (Not Seasonally Adjusted)

Eleven of the most populous metropolitan areas are made up of 38 metropolitan divisions,
which are essentially separately identifiable employment centers. In March, Los Angeles-
Long Beach-Glendale, CA, had the highest unemployment rate among the divisions, 10.9
percent. Nashua, NH-MA, had the lowest division rate, 3.3 percent. (See table 2.)

Thirty-three metropolitan divisions had over-the-year unemployment rate increases in
March, while five areas had rate declines. The largest over-the-year rate increase was
in Miami-Miami Beach-Kendall, FL (+6.0 percentage points). The largest rate decrease
occurred in West Palm Beach-Boca Raton-Delray Beach, FL (-0.7 percentage point). 

Metropolitan Area Nonfarm Employment (Not Seasonally Adjusted)

In March, 159 metropolitan areas had over-the-year decreases in nonfarm payroll employment,
3 had increases, and 227 were essentially unchanged. The largest over-the-year employment
decreases occurred in New York-Newark-Jersey City, NY-NJ-PA (-932,900), Los Angeles-Long
Beach-Anaheim, CA (-594,700), and Chicago-Naperville-Elgin, IL-IN-WI (-331,200). The
largest over-the-year percentage losses in employment occurred in Kahului-Wailuku-Lahaina,
HI (-24.5 percent), Odessa, TX (-16.7 percent), and Midland, TX (-16.2 percent). The
over-the-year increases in employment occurred in Provo-Orem, UT (+10,100, or +3.7
percent), Ogden-Clearfield, UT (+7,600, or +2.8 percent), and Ocean City, NJ (+4,200, or
+12.0 percent). (See table 3.)

Over the year, nonfarm employment declined in 48 metropolitan areas with a 2010 Census
population of 1 million or more, while employment was essentially unchanged in 3 areas.
The largest over-the-year percentage decreases in employment in these large metropolitan
areas occurred in Las Vegas-Henderson-Paradise, NV (-12.4 percent), Orlando-Kissimmee-
Sanford, FL (-11.6 percent), and Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim, CA, and New Orleans-
Metairie, LA (-9.6 percent each). 

Metropolitan Division Nonfarm Employment (Not Seasonally Adjusted)

In March, nonfarm payroll employment decreased in 33 metropolitan divisions and was 
essentially unchanged in 5 divisions over the year. The largest over-the-year decrease
in employment among the metropolitan divisions occurred in New York-Jersey City-White
Plains, NY-NJ (-723,100), followed by Los Angeles-Long Beach-Glendale, CA (-456,000),
and Chicago-Naperville-Arlington Heights, IL (-280,400). (See table 4.)

The largest over-the-year percentage decreases in employment occurred in San Francisco-
Redwood City-South San Francisco, CA (-10.9 percent), New York-Jersey City-White Plains,
NY-NJ (-10.1 percent), and Los Angeles-Long Beach-Glendale, CA (-10.0 percent). 

_____________
The State Employment and Unemployment news release for April is scheduled
to be released on Friday, May 21, 2021, at 10:00 a.m. (ET). The Metropolitan
Area Employment and Unemployment news release for April is scheduled to be
released on Wednesday, June 2, 2021, at 10:00 a.m. (ET).


 _________________________________________________________________________________________________
|												  |
|                      Coronavirus (COVID-19) Pandemic Impact on March 2021                       |
|			      Establishment and Household Survey Data				  |
|												  |
| BLS has continued to review all estimation and methodological procedures for the establishment  |
| survey, which included the review of data, estimation processes, the application of the	  |
| birth-death model, and seasonal adjustment. Business births and deaths cannot be adequately	  |
| captured by the establishment survey as they occur. Therefore, the Current Employment		  |
| Statistics (CES) program uses a model to account for the relatively stable net employment	  |
| change generated by business births and deaths. Due to the impact of COVID-19, the relationship |
| between business births and deaths is no longer stable. Typically, reports with zero employment |
| are not included in estimation. For the February final and March preliminary estimates, CES	  |
| included a portion of these reports in the estimates and made modifications to the birth-death  |
| model. In addition for both months, the establishment survey included a portion of the reports  |
| that returned to reporting positive employment from reporting zero employment. For more	  |
| information, see www.bls.gov/web/empsit/cesbd.htm.						  |
| 												  |
| In the establishment survey, workers who are paid by their employer for all or any part of the  |
| pay period including the 12th of the month are counted as employed, even if they were not	  |
| actually at their jobs. Workers who are temporarily or permanently absent from their jobs and   |
| are not being paid are not counted as employed, even if they are continuing to receive	  |
| benefits. The length of the reference period does vary across the respondents in the		  |
| establishment survey; one-third of businesses have a weekly pay period, slightly over 40	  |
| percent a bi-weekly, about 20 percent semi-monthly, and a small amount monthly.		  |
| 												  |
| For the March 2021 estimates of household employment and unemployment from the Local Area	  |
| Unemployment Statistics (LAUS) program, BLS continued to implement level-shift outliers 	  |
| in the employment and/or unemployment inputs to the state models, based on statistical	  |
| evaluation of movements in each area's inputs. Both the Current Population Survey inputs,	  |
| which serve as the primary inputs to the LAUS models, and the nonfarm payroll employment	  |
| and unemployment insurance claims covariates were examined for outliers. The resulting 	  |
| implementation of level shifts preserved movements in the published estimates that the	  |
| models otherwise would have discounted, without requiring changes to how the models create	  |
| estimates at other points in the time series.							  |
| 												  |
| The "Frequently asked questions" document at							  |
| www.bls.gov/covid19/employment-situation-covid19-faq-march-2021.htm extensively discusses the	  |
| impact of a misclassification in the household survey on the national estimates for March	  |
| 2021. Despite the considerable decline in its degree relative to prior months, this		  |
| misclassification continued to be widespread geographically, with BLS analysis indicating	  |
| that most states again were affected to at least some extent. However, according to usual 	  |
| practice, the data from the household survey are accepted as recorded. To maintain data 	  |
| integrity, no ad hoc actions are taken to reclassify survey responses. Hence, the household	  |
| survey estimates of employed and unemployed people that serve as the primary inputs to the 	  |
| state models were affected to varying degrees by the misclassification, which in turn affected  |
| the official LAUS estimates for March 2021. Similar misclassifications had occurred in the 	  |
| household survey from March 2020 through February 2021 (see www.bls.gov/covid19/effects-of-	  |
| covid-19-pandemic-and-response-on-the-employment-situation-news-release.htm#summaries).	  |
| 												  |
| Household data for substate areas are controlled to the employment and unemployment totals for  |
| their respective model-based areas. Hence, the preliminary March and revised February 	  |
| estimates for substate areas reflect the use of level-shift outliers, where implemented, in the |
| inputs for their model-based control areas. The substate area estimates also were impacted by	  |
| misclassification in the household survey, in proportion to the impacts of the		  |
| misclassifications on the data for their model-based control areas.				  |
| 												  |
| Household data for Puerto Rico are not modeled, but rather are derived from a monthly household |
| survey similar to the Current Population Survey. The Puerto Rico Department of Labor has	  |
| reported a misclassification in its household survey since May 2020 similar in nature to the	  |
| misclassification in the Current Population Survey, which has affected the local area data	  |
| proportionally.										  |
|_________________________________________________________________________________________________|




Technical Note
 
   Special technical note: This technical note describes the procedures regularly
used on a monthly basis to develop estimates from the CES survey and the LAUS
program. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, some of the procedures described in this
technical note have been modified. The modifications are briefly described in the
box note of this news release. More information on the changes to the CES business
birth-death model is available at www.bls.gov/web/empsit/cesbd.htm.
   
   This news release presents civilian labor force and unemployment data from the
Local Area Unemployment Statistics (LAUS) program (tables 1 and 2) for 389
metropolitan statistical areas and metropolitan New England City and Town Areas
(NECTAs), plus 7 areas in Puerto Rico. Estimates for 38 metropolitan and NECTA
divisions also are presented. Nonfarm payroll employment estimates from the
Current Employment Statistics (CES) program (tables 3 and 4) are provided for
the same areas. State estimates were previously published in the news release
State Employment and Unemployment, and are republished in this news release for
ease of reference. The LAUS and CES programs are both federal-state cooperative
endeavors.

Civilian labor force and unemployment--from the LAUS program

   Definitions. The civilian labor force and unemployment data are based on the
same concepts and definitions as those used for the official national estimates
obtained from the Current Population Survey (CPS), a sample survey of households
that is conducted for the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) by the U.S. Census
Bureau. The LAUS program measures employed persons and unemployed persons on a
place-of-residence basis.  The universe for each is the civilian noninstitutional
population 16 years of age and older. Employed persons are those who did any work
at all for pay or profit in the reference week (typically the week including the
12th of the month) or worked 15 hours or more without pay in a family business or
farm, plus those not working who had a job from which they were temporarily absent,
whether or not paid, for such reasons as labor-management dispute, illness, or
vacation. Unemployed persons are those who were not employed during the reference
week (based on the definition above), had actively looked for a job sometime in the
4-week period ending with the reference week, and were currently available for work;
persons on layoff expecting recall need not be looking for work to be counted as
unemployed. The civilian labor force is the sum of employed and unemployed persons.
The unemployment rate is the number of unemployed as a percent of the civilian labor
force.

   Method of estimation. Estimates for states, the District of Columbia, the Los
Angeles-Long Beach-Glendale metropolitan division, and New York City are produced
using time-series models with real-time benchmarking to national CPS totals. Model-
based estimates are also produced for the following areas and their respective
balances: the Chicago-Naperville-Arlington Heights, IL Metropolitan Division;
Cleveland-Elyria, OH Metropolitan Statistical Area; Detroit-Warren-Dearborn, MI
Metropolitan Statistical Area; Miami-Miami Beach-Kendall, FL Metropolitan Division;
and Seattle-Bellevue-Everett, WA Metropolitan Division. Modeling improves the
statistical basis of the estimation for these areas and provides important tools
for analysis, such as measures of errors and seasonally adjusted series. For all
other substate areas in this news release, estimates are prepared through indirect
estimation procedures using a building-block approach.  Estimates of employed
persons, which are based largely on “place of work” estimates from the CES program,
are adjusted to refer to place of residence as used in the CPS. Unemployment
estimates are aggregates of persons previously employed in industries covered by
state unemployment insurance (UI) laws and entrants to the labor force from the
CPS. The substate estimates of employment and unemployment, which geographically
exhaust the entire state, are adjusted proportionally to ensure that they add to
the independently estimated model-based area totals. A detailed description of the
estimation procedures is available from BLS upon request.

   Annual revisions. Civilian labor force and unemployment data shown for the prior
year reflect adjustments made at the beginning of each year, usually implemented with
the issuance of January estimates. The adjusted model-based estimates typically reflect
updated population data from the U.S. Census Bureau, any revisions in other input
data sources, and model re-estimation. All substate estimates then are re-estimated
using updated inputs and adjusted to add to the revised model-based totals. In early
2021, a new generation of time-series models was implemented, resulting in the
replacement of data back to the series beginnings.

Employment--from the CES program 

   Definitions. Employment data refer to persons on establishment payrolls who receive
pay for any part of the pay period that includes the 12th of the month. Persons are
counted at their place of work rather than at their place of residence; those appearing
on more than one payroll are counted on each payroll. Industries are classified on the
basis of their principal activity in accordance with the 2017 version of the North
American Industry Classification System.

   Method of estimation. CES State and Area employment data are produced using several
estimation procedures. Where possible these data are produced using a "weighted link
relative" estimation technique in which a ratio of current-month weighted employment
to that of the previous-month weighted employment is computed from a sample of
establishments reporting for both months. The estimates of employment for the current
month are then obtained by multiplying these ratios by the previous month's employment
estimates. The weighted link relative technique is utilized for data series where the
sample size meets certain statistical criteria.

   For some employment series, the sample of establishments is very small or highly
variable. In these cases, a model-based approach is used in estimation. These models
use the direct sample estimates (described above), combined with forecasts of historical
(benchmarked) data to decrease volatility in estimation. Two different models
(Fay-Herriot Model and Small Domain Model) are used depending on the industry level
being estimated. For more detailed information about each model, refer to the BLS
Handbook of Methods.

   Annual revisions.  Employment estimates are adjusted annually to a complete count
of jobs, called benchmarks, derived principally from tax reports that are submitted by
employers who are covered under state unemployment insurance (UI) laws. The benchmark
information is used to adjust the monthly estimates between the new benchmark and the
preceding one and also to establish the level of employment for the new benchmark month.
Thus, the benchmarking process establishes the level of employment, and the sample is used
to measure the month-to-month changes in the level for the subsequent months.

   Seasonal adjustment. Payroll employment data are seasonally adjusted for states,
metropolitan areas, and metropolitan divisions at the total nonfarm level. For states,
data are seasonally adjusted at the supersector level as well. Revisions to historical
data for the most recent 5 years are made once a year, coincident with annual benchmark
adjustments.

   Payroll employment data are seasonally adjusted concurrently, using all available
estimates including those for the current month, to develop sample-based seasonal factors.
Concurrent sample-based factors are created every month for the current month's preliminary
estimate as well as the previous month's final estimate.

Reliability of the estimates

   The estimates presented in this news release are based on sample surveys, administrative data,
and modeling and, thus, are subject to sampling and other types of errors. Sampling error
is a measure of sampling variability—that is, variation that occurs by chance because a
sample rather than the entire population is surveyed. Survey data also are subject to
nonsampling errors, such as those which can be introduced into the data collection and
processing operations. Estimates not directly derived from sample surveys are subject to
additional errors resulting from the specific estimation processes used. The sums of
individual items may not always equal the totals shown in the same tables because of
rounding.

Use of error measures

   Civilian labor force and unemployment estimates. Measures of sampling error are not
available for metropolitan areas or metropolitan divisions. Model-based error measures for
states are available on the BLS website at www.bls.gov/laus/lastderr.htm. Measures of
nonsampling error are not available for the areas contained in this news release. Information
on recent data revisions for states and local areas is available online at
www.bls.gov/lau/launews1.htm.

   Employment estimates. Changes in metropolitan area nonfarm payroll employment are cited
in the analysis of this news release only if they have been determined to be statistically
significant at the 90-percent confidence level.  Measures of sampling error for the total
nonfarm employment series are available for metropolitan areas and metropolitan divisions
at www.bls.gov/web/laus/790stderr.htm. Measures of sampling error for more detailed series
at the area and division level are available upon request. Measures of sampling error for
states  at the supersector level and for the private service-providing, goods-producing,
total private and total nonfarm levels are available on the BLS website at 
www.bls.gov/web/laus/790stderr.htm. Information on recent benchmark revisions
is available online at www.bls.gov/web/laus/benchmark.pdf.

Area definitions

   The substate area data published in this news release reflect the delineations issued by the
U.S. Office of Management and Budget on April 10, 2018. Data reflect New England City and
Town Area (NECTA) definitions, rather than county-based definitions, in the six New England
States. A detailed list of the geographic definitions is available online at
www.bls.gov/lau/lausmsa.htm.

Additional information

   Estimates of unadjusted and seasonally adjusted civilian labor force and unemployment
data for states and seven substate areas are available in the news release State Employment
and Unemployment. Estimates of civilian labor force and unemployment for all states,
metropolitan areas, counties, cities with a population of 25,000 or more, and other areas
used in the administration of various federal economic assistance programs are available
on the Internet at www.bls.gov/lau/. Employment data from the CES program are available on
the BLS website at www.bls.gov/sae/.

   Information in this news release will be made available to sensory impaired individuals
upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay Service: (800) 877-8339. 




LABOR FORCE DATA
NOT SEASONALLY ADJUSTED

Table 1. Civilian labor force and unemployment by state and metropolitan area
State and area Civilian labor force Unemployed
February March Number Percent of labor force
2020 2021 2020 2021(p) February March February March
2020 2021 2020 2021(p) 2020 2021 2020 2021(p)

Alabama

2,236,698 2,228,554 2,227,126 2,213,630 62,212 83,386 61,666 75,633 2.8 3.7 2.8 3.4

Anniston-Oxford-Jacksonville

46,095 46,026 45,990 45,684 1,509 1,921 1,475 1,780 3.3 4.2 3.2 3.9

Auburn-Opelika

76,548 76,461 75,701 75,655 1,820 2,225 1,935 2,011 2.4 2.9 2.6 2.7

Birmingham-Hoover

550,554 551,093 547,477 547,205 13,581 19,001 13,683 17,286 2.5 3.4 2.5 3.2

Daphne-Fairhope-Foley

96,660 95,716 96,986 96,150 2,447 3,127 2,418 2,801 2.5 3.3 2.5 2.9

Decatur

72,991 73,445 73,053 73,301 1,748 1,956 1,723 1,796 2.4 2.7 2.4 2.5

Dothan

64,177 63,831 63,576 63,567 1,745 2,232 1,753 2,030 2.7 3.5 2.8 3.2

Florence-Muscle Shoals

65,514 65,305 65,774 64,715 2,082 2,144 1,967 1,982 3.2 3.3 3.0 3.1

Gadsden

41,742 39,617 41,527 39,261 1,625 1,696 1,559 1,554 3.9 4.3 3.8 4.0

Huntsville

232,549 234,378 232,161 235,083 5,276 6,319 5,368 5,801 2.3 2.7 2.3 2.5

Mobile

188,985 188,214 188,033 187,389 6,854 10,750 6,547 9,715 3.6 5.7 3.5 5.2

Montgomery

172,059 171,506 171,888 170,102 4,855 8,622 4,816 7,739 2.8 5.0 2.8 4.5

Tuscaloosa

119,480 115,103 118,627 113,423 2,922 4,680 3,004 4,232 2.4 4.1 2.5 3.7

Alaska

350,406 346,481 349,989 343,912 18,227 24,507 21,832 24,588 5.2 7.1 6.2 7.1

Anchorage

197,489 196,573 197,073 194,300 8,763 13,275 10,982 13,324 4.4 6.8 5.6 6.9

Fairbanks

45,017 43,374 45,115 43,691 1,962 2,125 2,367 2,463 4.4 4.9 5.2 5.6

Arizona

3,597,043 3,590,240 3,585,541 3,600,382 162,885 253,833 186,149 232,833 4.5 7.1 5.2 6.5

Flagstaff

76,899 74,005 77,285 74,647 4,634 6,653 5,273 6,000 6.0 9.0 6.8 8.0

Lake Havasu City-Kingman

88,057 88,307 87,760 88,899 5,030 6,884 5,723 6,292 5.7 7.8 6.5 7.1

Phoenix-Mesa-Scottsdale

2,538,917 2,546,848 2,526,025 2,550,458 102,011 171,214 116,275 156,531 4.0 6.7 4.6 6.1

Prescott

106,946 107,604 106,658 108,310 4,703 6,595 5,266 6,050 4.4 6.1 4.9 5.6

Sierra Vista-Douglas

51,765 51,877 52,122 52,621 2,832 3,380 3,159 3,119 5.5 6.5 6.1 5.9

Tucson

503,706 496,831 500,907 499,135 22,004 36,237 25,025 33,203 4.4 7.3 5.0 6.7

Yuma

99,384 94,625 102,359 95,710 12,187 11,126 14,547 10,791 12.3 11.8 14.2 11.3

Arkansas

1,371,586 1,353,169 1,367,760 1,358,770 55,507 72,037 57,100 64,739 4.0 5.3 4.2 4.8

Fayetteville-Springdale-Rogers

287,952 288,734 287,777 290,382 7,962 11,053 8,475 10,111 2.8 3.8 2.9 3.5

Fort Smith

118,333 119,566 117,737 119,157 4,681 6,737 4,740 5,770 4.0 5.6 4.0 4.8

Hot Springs

41,513 41,514 41,923 41,373 1,721 2,820 1,760 2,519 4.1 6.8 4.2 6.1

Jonesboro

66,619 65,548 66,660 66,055 2,190 2,966 2,300 2,672 3.3 4.5 3.5 4.0

Little Rock-North Little Rock-Conway

359,884 352,498 358,344 353,202 13,380 19,210 14,208 17,397 3.7 5.4 4.0 4.9

Pine Bluff

34,512 34,630 34,458 35,025 2,062 2,605 2,110 2,379 6.0 7.5 6.1 6.8

California

19,514,077 19,020,738 19,167,207 18,912,315 844,212 1,598,534 974,161 1,551,202 4.3 8.4 5.1 8.2

Bakersfield

389,747 379,994 386,184 368,501 35,563 41,423 42,450 40,925 9.1 10.9 11.0 11.1

Chico

96,992 92,604 97,618 92,830 5,193 7,154 5,947 6,917 5.4 7.7 6.1 7.5

El Centro

71,965 66,277 72,740 65,099 13,046 10,573 14,586 10,235 18.1 16.0 20.1 15.7

Fresno

453,583 443,147 456,060 438,301 38,065 44,733 44,876 43,577 8.4 10.1 9.8 9.9

Hanford-Corcoran

58,063 56,117 58,171 55,182 5,672 6,022 6,572 5,816 9.8 10.7 11.3 10.5

Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim

6,835,541 6,670,484 6,539,772 6,645,232 290,924 660,504 329,070 653,725 4.3 9.9 5.0 9.8

Madera

64,246 63,280 62,882 60,622 5,067 6,058 6,023 5,857 7.9 9.6 9.6 9.7

Merced

116,772 116,044 118,777 115,077 11,899 13,513 13,756 13,145 10.2 11.6 11.6 11.4

Modesto

242,289 240,390 244,322 238,225 15,799 21,768 18,505 21,055 6.5 9.1 7.6 8.8

Napa

72,503 68,789 71,732 68,431 2,322 4,903 2,666 4,489 3.2 7.1 3.7 6.6

Oxnard-Thousand Oaks-Ventura

423,480 408,681 421,354 406,586 15,545 27,710 17,864 26,113 3.7 6.8 4.2 6.4

Redding

72,868 73,985 73,347 73,531 3,955 5,759 4,524 5,533 5.4 7.8 6.2 7.5

Riverside-San Bernardino-Ontario

2,101,506 2,105,843 2,091,475 2,094,684 81,841 169,529 96,058 162,232 3.9 8.1 4.6 7.7

Sacramento--Roseville--Arden-Arcade

1,104,262 1,098,861 1,102,083 1,089,935 41,110 78,568 47,342 75,070 3.7 7.1 4.3 6.9

Salinas

212,684 206,057 214,867 206,787 21,547 22,897 23,969 21,601 10.1 11.1 11.2 10.4

San Diego-Carlsbad

1,585,590 1,548,520 1,573,622 1,538,248 50,564 111,442 59,209 105,664 3.2 7.2 3.8 6.9

San Francisco-Oakland-Hayward

2,583,420 2,453,372 2,564,034 2,441,399 68,045 152,455 81,028 145,457 2.6 6.2 3.2 6.0

San Jose-Sunnyvale-Santa Clara

1,087,720 1,050,662 1,078,812 1,044,269 28,764 56,868 33,697 54,277 2.6 5.4 3.1 5.2

San Luis Obispo-Paso Robles-Arroyo Grande

139,965 130,407 138,870 130,278 4,214 8,187 4,860 7,603 3.0 6.3 3.5 5.8

Santa Cruz-Watsonville

139,667 130,537 139,057 129,788 8,938 11,108 10,258 10,577 6.4 8.5 7.4 8.1

Santa Maria-Santa Barbara

221,977 213,584 222,676 214,632 9,754 15,332 10,979 14,155 4.4 7.2 4.9 6.6

Santa Rosa

256,046 241,353 254,505 240,987 7,224 15,309 8,496 14,431 2.8 6.3 3.3 6.0

Stockton-Lodi

330,931 334,185 330,476 333,251 21,422 31,880 24,736 30,686 6.5 9.5 7.5 9.2

Vallejo-Fairfield

207,480 203,662 206,981 201,965 8,080 16,478 9,474 15,663 3.9 8.1 4.6 7.8

Visalia-Porterville

205,976 197,542 206,179 193,664 23,326 22,833 27,193 22,377 11.3 11.6 13.2 11.6

Yuba City

76,221 73,750 77,312 73,303 6,229 7,561 7,197 7,299 8.2 10.3 9.3 10.0

Colorado

3,163,054 3,178,875 3,079,676 3,156,337 91,030 211,931 153,311 206,319 2.9 6.7 5.0 6.5

Boulder

198,994 195,900 193,451 195,376 4,705 11,031 7,876 10,806 2.4 5.6 4.1 5.5

Colorado Springs

358,726 363,258 351,891 362,398 11,932 25,293 20,199 24,441 3.3 7.0 5.7 6.7

Denver-Aurora-Lakewood

1,685,611 1,699,010 1,644,922 1,687,070 46,224 114,501 78,692 112,569 2.7 6.7 4.8 6.7

Fort Collins

206,916 208,447 200,202 206,828 5,397 12,580 8,864 12,077 2.6 6.0 4.4 5.8

Grand Junction

76,322 75,928 75,042 75,552 3,071 5,755 4,854 5,466 4.0 7.6 6.5 7.2

Greeley

170,316 169,041 164,607 167,316 4,828 11,854 7,952 11,465 2.8 7.0 4.8 6.9

Pueblo

77,437 78,960 76,877 78,223 3,185 7,021 5,327 6,772 4.1 8.9 6.9 8.7

Connecticut

1,912,972 1,685,742 1,903,646 1,724,725 76,856 140,032 80,956 143,201 4.0 8.3 4.3 8.3

Bridgeport-Stamford-Norwalk

463,290 404,262 461,632 415,389 18,966 34,412 19,871 34,977 4.1 8.5 4.3 8.4

Danbury

106,406 92,658 105,914 94,831 3,904 6,988 3,990 6,965 3.7 7.5 3.8 7.3

Hartford-West Hartford-East Hartford

633,051 559,586 630,237 570,810 25,100 45,853 26,386 46,985 4.0 8.2 4.2 8.2

New Haven

332,669 298,572 330,140 305,364 12,444 22,891 13,152 23,488 3.7 7.7 4.0 7.7

Norwich-New London-Westerly

140,161 122,792 139,270 125,571 5,798 11,549 6,201 11,667 4.1 9.4 4.5 9.3

Waterbury

111,617 100,659 111,341 103,107 5,615 9,885 6,093 10,376 5.0 9.8 5.5 10.1

Delaware

495,454 489,296 482,043 491,224 22,248 32,489 25,293 32,599 4.5 6.6 5.2 6.6

Dover

81,298 79,690 79,448 80,454 3,953 5,966 4,632 6,023 4.9 7.5 5.8 7.5

Salisbury(1)

190,842 187,216 188,235 189,759 10,949 13,565 11,928 13,171 5.7 7.2 6.3 6.9

District of Columbia

425,308 407,673 420,428 403,736 20,714 30,949 22,944 28,128 4.9 7.6 5.5 7.0

Washington-Arlington-Alexandria

3,528,641 3,316,385 3,508,530 3,332,534 99,283 190,753 111,125 185,497 2.8 5.8 3.2 5.6

Florida

10,501,385 10,221,907 10,566,114 10,271,970 321,065 516,995 531,061 543,013 3.1 5.1 5.0 5.3

Cape Coral-Fort Myers

360,135 350,740 364,016 356,314 11,419 15,127 18,830 16,453 3.2 4.3 5.2 4.6

Crestview-Fort Walton Beach-Destin

128,743 130,764 131,770 132,927 3,700 5,040 5,831 5,354 2.9 3.9 4.4 4.0

Deltona-Daytona Beach-Ormond Beach

306,712 300,227 311,485 302,966 11,134 14,472 18,345 15,531 3.6 4.8 5.9 5.1

Gainesville

148,852 147,891 150,162 148,781 4,257 5,949 6,943 6,018 2.9 4.0 4.6 4.0

Homosassa Springs

47,460 47,641 48,742 48,994 2,418 2,884 3,808 3,128 5.1 6.1 7.8 6.4

Jacksonville

794,641 791,552 803,316 800,796 25,171 33,624 41,586 35,304 3.2 4.2 5.2 4.4

Lakeland-Winter Haven

314,138 321,125 320,814 324,544 11,558 17,251 19,071 18,092 3.7 5.4 5.9 5.6

Miami-Fort Lauderdale-West Palm Beach

3,193,207 3,063,215 3,159,869 3,043,651 81,535 188,141 133,330 194,296 2.6 6.1 4.2 6.4

Naples-Immokalee-Marco Island

188,863 186,834 189,817 188,272 5,654 6,684 9,232 7,487 3.0 3.6 4.9 4.0

North Port-Sarasota-Bradenton

375,480 371,675 380,253 375,820 11,955 15,197 19,521 16,677 3.2 4.1 5.1 4.4

Ocala

141,331 142,507 143,537 142,923 5,498 7,356 8,954 7,807 3.9 5.2 6.2 5.5

Orlando-Kissimmee-Sanford

1,380,321 1,255,417 1,395,686 1,268,888 42,173 65,441 71,463 69,124 3.1 5.2 5.1 5.4

Palm Bay-Melbourne-Titusville

287,132 287,381 290,746 290,065 9,359 13,068 15,223 13,084 3.3 4.5 5.2 4.5

Panama City

89,053 90,134 91,265 92,054 2,909 4,091 4,548 4,158 3.3 4.5 5.0 4.5

Pensacola-Ferry Pass-Brent

231,622 234,610 235,825 235,190 7,506 10,362 12,100 10,690 3.2 4.4 5.1 4.5

Port St. Lucie

224,836 221,334 228,496 225,020 8,310 10,193 13,597 10,972 3.7 4.6 6.0 4.9

Punta Gorda

73,943 72,551 74,827 73,547 2,764 3,273 4,324 3,705 3.7 4.5 5.8 5.0

Sebastian-Vero Beach

67,255 65,733 68,049 66,497 2,509 3,150 4,104 3,441 3.7 4.8 6.0 5.2

Sebring

35,871 35,550 36,748 36,080 1,712 2,081 2,766 2,238 4.8 5.9 7.5 6.2

Tallahassee

197,040 195,422 198,559 195,730 6,152 8,969 10,210 9,044 3.1 4.6 5.1 4.6

Tampa-St. Petersburg-Clearwater

1,587,471 1,581,548 1,608,157 1,591,991 51,394 69,284 87,928 74,188 3.2 4.4 5.5 4.7

The Villages

33,750 32,427 34,598 32,835 1,647 1,872 2,589 2,179 4.9 5.8 7.5 6.6

Georgia

5,236,253 5,154,233 5,201,099 5,174,235 177,360 229,290 192,874 208,021 3.4 4.4 3.7 4.0

Albany

68,207 66,251 67,544 66,358 2,784 3,887 2,988 3,508 4.1 5.9 4.4 5.3

Athens-Clarke County

102,314 98,321 100,407 98,633 3,228 3,708 3,448 3,318 3.2 3.8 3.4 3.4

Atlanta-Sandy Springs-Roswell

3,156,234 3,094,202 3,136,377 3,104,099 102,643 140,214 115,140 126,734 3.3 4.5 3.7 4.1

Augusta-Richmond County

273,204 271,069 271,696 272,351 9,639 12,104 9,737 11,217 3.5 4.5 3.6 4.1

Brunswick

52,760 52,323 52,224 53,394 1,759 2,256 1,812 2,030 3.3 4.3 3.5 3.8

Columbus

125,739 122,749 125,174 123,010 4,760 6,013 4,916 5,493 3.8 4.9 3.9 4.5

Dalton

60,015 59,825 59,631 59,989 2,503 2,616 2,437 2,357 4.2 4.4 4.1 3.9

Gainesville

105,092 103,716 104,362 104,676 2,771 3,152 2,875 2,772 2.6 3.0 2.8 2.6

Hinesville

34,891 34,573 34,697 34,924 1,283 1,452 1,326 1,345 3.7 4.2 3.8 3.9

Macon-Bibb County

104,946 104,350 103,922 104,320 3,951 5,246 4,088 4,725 3.8 5.0 3.9 4.5

Rome

44,477 44,290 44,038 44,364 1,632 1,841 1,622 1,632 3.7 4.2 3.7 3.7

Savannah

195,338 197,001 196,679 200,186 6,163 8,927 6,881 7,999 3.2 4.5 3.5 4.0

Valdosta

65,675 66,026 65,370 66,146 2,374 2,900 2,492 2,613 3.6 4.4 3.8 4.0

Warner Robins

89,034 88,309 88,334 88,693 2,977 3,458 3,011 3,348 3.3 3.9 3.4 3.8

Hawaii

675,724 658,637 670,957 651,735 11,645 56,643 14,196 55,875 1.7 8.6 2.1 8.6

Kahului-Wailuku-Lahaina

87,474 81,254 87,053 80,810 1,515 10,001 1,817 9,865 1.7 12.3 2.1 12.2

Urban Honolulu

459,784 453,706 455,618 448,485 7,457 34,732 9,126 34,172 1.6 7.7 2.0 7.6

Idaho

889,882 896,782 884,713 894,390 26,414 40,053 29,288 36,108 3.0 4.5 3.3 4.0

Boise City

383,273 384,204 380,060 381,787 10,039 16,412 10,831 14,597 2.6 4.3 2.8 3.8

Coeur d'Alene

79,964 81,204 79,596 81,367 3,200 4,594 3,542 4,075 4.0 5.7 4.4 5.0

Idaho Falls

72,696 75,176 72,086 74,946 1,820 2,781 2,012 2,439 2.5 3.7 2.8 3.3

Lewiston

31,535 30,870 31,318 31,239 1,071 1,260 1,139 1,244 3.4 4.1 3.6 4.0

Pocatello

42,767 43,927 42,712 43,881 1,271 1,849 1,362 1,676 3.0 4.2 3.2 3.8

Twin Falls

53,412 53,189 53,280 53,060 1,561 2,327 1,673 2,089 2.9 4.4 3.1 3.9

Illinois

6,359,497 6,097,520 6,307,742 6,103,570 237,430 475,543 253,673 434,049 3.7 7.8 4.0 7.1

Bloomington

94,425 89,068 92,787 88,396 2,679 4,579 2,966 4,430 2.8 5.1 3.2 5.0

Carbondale-Marion

59,249 56,877 58,822 57,017 1,905 3,408 2,153 3,458 3.2 6.0 3.7 6.1

Champaign-Urbana

125,539 123,624 124,163 123,632 3,407 6,257 3,692 6,119 2.7 5.1 3.0 4.9

Chicago-Naperville-Elgin

4,817,627 4,629,300 4,784,802 4,637,599 183,479 382,879 196,554 345,624 3.8 8.3 4.1 7.5

Danville

32,279 31,794 32,106 31,904 1,338 2,197 1,390 2,207 4.1 6.9 4.3 6.9

Davenport-Moline-Rock Island(1)

190,632 181,458 188,685 181,741 7,863 11,489 8,318 10,769 4.1 6.3 4.4 5.9

Decatur

47,125 45,162 46,528 45,082 2,084 3,798 2,398 3,888 4.4 8.4 5.2 8.6

Kankakee

55,126 51,375 54,190 51,275 2,564 3,864 2,679 3,857 4.7 7.5 4.9 7.5

Peoria

172,082 162,782 169,462 162,462 7,238 11,357 7,699 11,166 4.2 7.0 4.5 6.9

Rockford

161,349 152,558 158,555 152,832 7,869 14,879 8,440 12,340 4.9 9.8 5.3 8.1

Springfield

104,312 99,843 102,957 99,500 3,492 6,179 3,725 6,219 3.3 6.2 3.6 6.3

Indiana

3,360,761 3,300,840 3,313,299 3,296,498 114,552 155,827 123,603 153,805 3.4 4.7 3.7 4.7

Bloomington

81,903 77,561 79,791 76,547 2,718 3,295 2,902 3,218 3.3 4.2 3.6 4.2

Columbus

44,930 43,589 44,477 43,696 1,135 1,692 1,213 1,666 2.5 3.9 2.7 3.8

Elkhart-Goshen

111,096 113,013 109,792 113,730 3,096 3,941 3,383 3,940 2.8 3.5 3.1 3.5

Evansville

159,840 155,146 157,782 155,809 5,124 6,885 5,459 7,004 3.2 4.4 3.5 4.5

Fort Wayne

218,106 217,846 214,207 216,129 7,400 9,576 7,600 9,695 3.4 4.4 3.5 4.5

Indianapolis-Carmel-Anderson

1,074,863 1,062,821 1,059,372 1,066,528 31,948 48,063 35,042 48,221 3.0 4.5 3.3 4.5

Kokomo

35,880 35,813 35,570 34,613 1,424 3,039 1,627 2,065 4.0 8.5 4.6 6.0

Lafayette-West Lafayette

113,992 110,503 111,834 110,260 3,461 4,567 3,820 4,444 3.0 4.1 3.4 4.0

Michigan City-La Porte

47,028 46,789 46,336 46,800 2,242 3,217 2,330 3,122 4.8 6.9 5.0 6.7

Muncie

53,993 52,640 53,326 52,537 2,163 2,708 2,313 2,603 4.0 5.1 4.3 5.0

South Bend-Mishawaka

160,154 156,457 157,920 156,323 5,937 8,435 6,510 8,289 3.7 5.4 4.1 5.3

Terre Haute

72,887 70,290 71,821 70,016 3,304 3,881 3,397 3,786 4.5 5.5 4.7 5.4

Iowa

1,736,013 1,650,496 1,709,220 1,640,146 55,416 82,098 60,457 72,510 3.2 5.0 3.5 4.4

Ames

60,633 56,047 59,824 55,808 1,008 1,744 1,188 1,651 1.7 3.1 2.0 3.0

Cedar Rapids

147,883 138,954 146,343 137,976 5,063 7,918 5,621 7,219 3.4 5.7 3.8 5.2

Des Moines-West Des Moines

367,312 352,022 362,251 352,150 11,039 17,550 12,166 15,193 3.0 5.0 3.4 4.3

Dubuque

57,144 54,239 56,108 54,418 1,985 2,948 2,113 2,585 3.5 5.4 3.8 4.8

Iowa City

100,024 92,950 98,548 92,610 2,111 3,823 2,498 3,513 2.1 4.1 2.5 3.8

Sioux City

94,011 89,206 92,800 88,750 3,052 3,899 3,176 3,582 3.2 4.4 3.4 4.0

Waterloo-Cedar Falls

91,011 85,149 89,615 85,132 3,060 4,217 3,450 3,805 3.4 5.0 3.8 4.5

Kansas

1,505,032 1,500,139 1,487,454 1,507,020 49,549 58,056 52,338 57,536 3.3 3.9 3.5 3.8

Lawrence

66,832 64,374 64,968 64,936 1,996 2,416 2,140 2,418 3.0 3.8 3.3 3.7

Manhattan

48,736 45,907 47,355 46,380 1,336 1,463 1,382 1,465 2.7 3.2 2.9 3.2

Topeka

120,509 121,762 118,972 121,392 4,297 4,528 4,371 4,238 3.6 3.7 3.7 3.5

Wichita

322,815 318,355 319,164 321,326 12,250 17,190 12,525 16,960 3.8 5.4 3.9 5.3

Kentucky

2,073,203 1,974,131 2,071,046 1,981,069 90,378 100,063 100,710 99,174 4.4 5.1 4.9 5.0

Bowling Green

84,773 80,960 84,579 80,959 3,367 4,230 3,958 3,647 4.0 5.2 4.7 4.5

Elizabethtown-Fort Knox

66,980 62,885 67,210 63,026 2,947 3,085 3,341 3,126 4.4 4.9 5.0 5.0

Lexington-Fayette

274,481 262,721 274,067 264,161 8,929 11,278 10,430 11,359 3.3 4.3 3.8 4.3

Louisville/Jefferson County

674,303 646,846 671,134 650,044 23,971 29,896 27,362 30,222 3.6 4.6 4.1 4.6

Owensboro

54,983 52,117 54,872 52,180 2,218 2,565 2,437 2,591 4.0 4.9 4.4 5.0

Louisiana

2,138,252 2,041,035 2,146,472 2,059,165 90,410 144,228 113,933 135,345 4.2 7.1 5.3 6.6

Alexandria

64,102 62,451 64,491 63,249 2,852 2,968 3,480 2,762 4.4 4.8 5.4 4.4

Baton Rouge

426,316 415,598 429,374 417,886 16,282 25,671 21,201 24,117 3.8 6.2 4.9 5.8

Hammond

56,190 55,728 56,870 56,146 2,603 4,461 3,328 4,182 4.6 8.0 5.9 7.4

Houma-Thibodaux

89,352 86,912 90,078 88,037 3,475 5,359 4,480 5,005 3.9 6.2 5.0 5.7

Lafayette

216,421 207,014 218,106 210,757 9,066 13,481 11,404 12,704 4.2 6.5 5.2 6.0

Lake Charles

109,462 95,272 109,724 96,632 4,317 6,997 5,348 6,579 3.9 7.3 4.9 6.8

Monroe

80,333 77,410 81,010 78,280 3,933 4,823 4,807 4,525 4.9 6.2 5.9 5.8

New Orleans-Metairie

615,016 581,823 610,860 585,169 23,451 50,242 29,639 47,089 3.8 8.6 4.9 8.0

Shreveport-Bossier City

188,395 180,592 189,846 182,420 8,457 12,240 10,478 11,536 4.5 6.8 5.5 6.3

Maine

692,530 666,069 692,623 668,089 23,859 37,182 29,481 36,120 3.4 5.6 4.3 5.4

Bangor

71,805 68,078 71,806 67,893 2,393 3,379 2,924 3,352 3.3 5.0 4.1 4.9

Lewiston-Auburn

55,735 53,610 56,037 54,460 1,758 2,854 2,150 2,842 3.2 5.3 3.8 5.2

Portland-South Portland

207,798 197,381 208,652 198,284 5,569 9,811 7,507 9,458 2.7 5.0 3.6 4.8

Maryland

3,296,282 3,084,074 3,287,072 3,106,449 113,812 189,122 127,045 186,611 3.5 6.1 3.9 6.0

Baltimore-Columbia-Towson

1,535,255 1,443,703 1,533,411 1,454,964 52,729 84,548 58,947 82,916 3.4 5.9 3.8 5.7

California-Lexington Park

59,420 56,546 59,118 56,684 1,862 2,513 2,040 2,417 3.1 4.4 3.5 4.3

Cumberland

44,709 42,260 44,660 42,399 2,471 2,972 2,694 2,762 5.5 7.0 6.0 6.5

Hagerstown-Martinsburg

133,785 126,979 133,236 126,953 5,091 6,888 5,520 6,409 3.8 5.4 4.1 5.0

Massachusetts

3,758,153 3,708,222 3,712,130 3,702,706 117,212 269,738 116,907 243,164 3.1 7.3 3.1 6.6

Barnstable Town

117,336 119,169 115,961 119,724 6,186 11,389 5,895 10,043 5.3 9.6 5.1 8.4

Boston-Cambridge-Nashua

2,802,059 2,756,598 2,769,234 2,751,893 76,862 179,190 79,061 162,362 2.7 6.5 2.9 5.9

Leominster-Gardner

79,615 79,100 78,877 79,056 3,065 6,676 2,991 5,989 3.8 8.4 3.8 7.6

New Bedford

85,636 84,574 84,649 84,592 4,339 8,087 4,071 7,323 5.1 9.6 4.8 8.7

Pittsfield

41,000 40,795 40,363 40,815 1,761 3,765 1,726 3,482 4.3 9.2 4.3 8.5

Springfield

373,024 359,415 368,731 358,917 14,150 29,567 13,582 27,131 3.8 8.2 3.7 7.6

Worcester

359,447 348,971 355,689 348,849 12,183 25,611 12,120 23,391 3.4 7.3 3.4 6.7

Michigan

4,919,562 4,643,494 4,894,999 4,686,955 185,581 238,534 217,985 242,722 3.8 5.1 4.5 5.2

Ann Arbor

201,577 189,931 200,254 190,659 4,439 7,960 5,353 8,119 2.2 4.2 2.7 4.3

Battle Creek

62,071 59,805 61,787 59,988 2,277 3,880 2,574 3,823 3.7 6.5 4.2 6.4

Bay City

50,086 48,192 49,711 48,235 2,314 3,176 2,587 3,071 4.6 6.6 5.2 6.4

Detroit-Warren-Dearborn

2,141,857 1,978,549 2,138,004 2,016,622 85,710 84,678 103,866 90,940 4.0 4.3 4.9 4.5

Flint

181,229 175,320 179,316 174,754 7,594 12,875 8,815 12,438 4.2 7.3 4.9 7.1

Grand Rapids-Wyoming

587,605 563,714 581,842 563,492 14,620 26,694 17,381 26,518 2.5 4.7 3.0 4.7

Jackson

75,272 71,659 75,236 71,606 2,557 4,402 2,900 4,197 3.4 6.1 3.9 5.9

Kalamazoo-Portage

170,494 161,255 169,763 161,333 5,339 8,729 6,070 8,686 3.1 5.4 3.6 5.4

Lansing-East Lansing

253,024 236,248 251,087 237,152 7,042 11,533 8,374 11,865 2.8 4.9 3.3 5.0

Midland

39,708 38,571 39,556 38,766 1,488 2,024 1,742 2,002 3.7 5.2 4.4 5.2

Monroe

75,613 71,693 75,054 71,546 2,422 4,250 2,820 3,999 3.2 5.9 3.8 5.6

Muskegon

76,755 74,394 76,418 74,033 2,947 5,656 3,518 5,559 3.8 7.6 4.6 7.5

Niles-Benton Harbor

73,065 70,488 72,897 70,612 2,779 4,233 2,936 4,129 3.8 6.0 4.0 5.8

Saginaw

85,924 82,652 85,404 82,813 3,844 5,781 4,306 5,613 4.5 7.0 5.0 6.8

Minnesota

3,118,067 3,009,494 3,111,045 3,003,073 112,407 146,150 139,838 136,004 3.6 4.9 4.5 4.5

Duluth

144,852 140,994 144,282 139,637 6,747 7,740 8,094 7,023 4.7 5.5 5.6 5.0

Mankato-North Mankato

62,373 60,373 61,803 60,345 1,807 2,481 2,283 2,297 2.9 4.1 3.7 3.8

Minneapolis-St. Paul-Bloomington

2,046,625 1,960,106 2,040,801 1,966,665 63,178 90,451 81,333 85,065 3.1 4.6 4.0 4.3

Rochester

125,785 124,456 126,206 123,638 3,976 5,453 4,952 4,889 3.2 4.4 3.9 4.0

St. Cloud

113,578 111,300 113,125 110,568 4,671 6,021 5,535 5,524 4.1 5.4 4.9 5.0

Mississippi

1,277,395 1,268,332 1,281,468 1,265,696 68,048 77,591 79,363 79,454 5.3 6.1 6.2 6.3

Gulfport-Biloxi-Pascagoula

165,553 166,070 167,969 165,495 8,993 10,784 11,711 10,779 5.4 6.5 7.0 6.5

Hattiesburg

68,493 69,955 68,494 69,376 3,292 3,816 3,919 3,845 4.8 5.5 5.7 5.5

Jackson

267,257 263,639 266,804 263,032 12,704 14,711 15,993 14,953 4.8 5.6 6.0 5.7

Missouri

3,092,673 3,057,225 3,084,107 3,067,023 118,969 158,791 134,961 135,460 3.8 5.2 4.4 4.4

Cape Girardeau

48,323 48,179 48,361 48,178 1,726 2,124 2,058 1,887 3.6 4.4 4.3 3.9

Columbia

99,376 97,197 98,876 97,538 2,596 3,390 2,848 2,923 2.6 3.5 2.9 3.0

Jefferson City

75,132 75,556 75,111 75,851 2,396 3,041 2,729 2,444 3.2 4.0 3.6 3.2

Joplin

82,976 83,930 82,899 83,982 2,844 3,639 3,368 3,248 3.4 4.3 4.1 3.9

Kansas City

1,145,645 1,146,088 1,139,934 1,157,951 39,807 54,556 45,352 48,701 3.5 4.8 4.0 4.2

St. Joseph

63,131 62,663 62,925 62,741 2,330 2,760 2,546 2,347 3.7 4.4 4.0 3.7

St. Louis(2)

1,480,848 1,441,975 1,470,669 1,444,155 50,317 76,265 58,025 68,633 3.4 5.3 3.9 4.8

Springfield

237,639 238,615 236,504 238,218 7,887 9,645 8,966 8,582 3.3 4.0 3.8 3.6

Montana

542,851 528,910 539,456 530,458 22,794 26,270 25,551 23,429 4.2 5.0 4.7 4.4

Billings

89,587 86,216 88,937 86,378 3,313 4,071 3,660 3,550 3.7 4.7 4.1 4.1

Great Falls

38,493 36,825 38,132 36,854 1,443 1,815 1,606 1,590 3.7 4.9 4.2 4.3

Missoula

65,224 62,085 64,824 61,956 2,606 3,073 2,932 2,740 4.0 4.9 4.5 4.4

Nebraska

1,044,596 1,013,732 1,039,301 1,015,073 31,919 32,022 36,687 28,495 3.1 3.2 3.5 2.8

Grand Island

44,332 43,002 44,001 43,304 1,571 1,536 1,678 1,335 3.5 3.6 3.8 3.1

Lincoln

188,801 183,151 187,459 183,981 5,069 5,918 5,899 5,309 2.7 3.2 3.1 2.9

Omaha-Council Bluffs

499,652 482,801 494,276 483,246 15,792 17,681 18,239 15,694 3.2 3.7 3.7 3.2

Nevada

1,611,382 1,552,065 1,586,360 1,548,115 57,476 124,289 105,533 117,885 3.6 8.0 6.7 7.6

Carson City

27,058 27,392 26,675 27,285 1,055 1,490 1,835 1,388 3.9 5.4 6.9 5.1

Las Vegas-Henderson-Paradise

1,185,697 1,120,683 1,168,130 1,117,466 43,266 103,206 81,130 98,430 3.6 9.2 6.9 8.8

Reno

267,724 272,605 261,462 270,600 8,206 13,214 14,332 12,377 3.1 4.8 5.5 4.6

New Hampshire

773,709 752,724 766,392 749,817 22,946 23,667 24,141 24,024 3.0 3.1 3.1 3.2

Dover-Durham

87,036 84,801 86,205 84,930 2,315 2,880 2,439 2,874 2.7 3.4 2.8 3.4

Manchester

123,554 119,345 122,266 118,669 3,366 3,706 3,531 3,764 2.7 3.1 2.9 3.2

Portsmouth

77,108 75,091 76,811 75,352 1,980 2,617 2,214 2,613 2.6 3.5 2.9 3.5

New Jersey

4,596,012 4,403,221 4,560,340 4,436,700 181,355 363,133 189,899 344,023 3.9 8.2 4.2 7.8

Atlantic City-Hammonton

122,716 116,577 122,921 116,940 7,305 14,502 7,640 13,513 6.0 12.4 6.2 11.6

Ocean City

41,003 44,498 41,300 44,953 4,809 5,980 5,072 5,635 11.7 13.4 12.3 12.5

Trenton

208,602 203,413 206,544 203,262 7,091 13,396 7,345 12,615 3.4 6.6 3.6 6.2

Vineland-Bridgeton

66,545 64,688 66,428 64,798 4,269 6,532 4,424 6,097 6.4 10.1 6.7 9.4

New Mexico

966,815 955,199 955,595 947,531 49,236 78,941 52,848 75,461 5.1 8.3 5.5 8.0

Albuquerque

442,706 438,267 437,598 433,263 20,575 34,061 21,984 32,353 4.6 7.8 5.0 7.5

Farmington

51,736 50,481 51,173 49,583 3,285 5,112 3,517 4,818 6.3 10.1 6.9 9.7

Las Cruces

99,621 98,113 98,794 96,849 6,270 7,842 6,927 7,747 6.3 8.0 7.0 8.0

Santa Fe

74,509 70,900 72,779 70,664 3,099 5,634 3,215 5,319 4.2 7.9 4.4 7.5

New York

9,524,311 9,215,509 9,463,134 9,436,946 394,346 889,674 419,555 798,744 4.1 9.7 4.4 8.5

Albany-Schenectady-Troy

446,051 446,365 445,198 447,093 17,700 28,255 18,411 25,675 4.0 6.3 4.1 5.7

Binghamton

104,576 102,790 104,607 102,813 5,750 7,773 5,873 6,968 5.5 7.6 5.6 6.8

Buffalo-Cheektowaga-Niagara Falls

537,290 534,029 536,907 534,801 26,845 42,920 28,031 38,797 5.0 8.0 5.2 7.3

Elmira

35,230 34,696 35,377 34,541 1,687 2,634 1,733 2,384 4.8 7.6 4.9 6.9

Glens Falls

57,513 58,346 57,052 58,235 3,024 4,263 3,199 3,934 5.3 7.3 5.6 6.8

Ithaca

49,853 47,819 49,243 47,505 1,800 2,584 1,792 2,252 3.6 5.4 3.6 4.7

Kingston

86,748 84,791 86,076 85,067 3,645 5,824 3,747 5,275 4.2 6.9 4.4 6.2

New York-Newark-Jersey City

10,054,969 9,603,158 9,975,768 9,859,364 381,885 947,199 409,113 864,114 3.8 9.9 4.1 8.8

Rochester

517,136 518,640 515,169 517,192 23,814 37,071 24,694 33,438 4.6 7.1 4.8 6.5

Syracuse

303,457 299,920 303,343 299,629 14,720 22,105 15,036 19,871 4.9 7.4 5.0 6.6

Utica-Rome

127,814 127,504 127,466 126,944 6,298 9,985 6,549 8,918 4.9 7.8 5.1 7.0

Watertown-Fort Drum

42,713 42,650 42,636 42,712 3,098 3,410 3,189 3,038 7.3 8.0 7.5 7.1

North Carolina

5,112,398 5,001,539 4,890,781 4,992,356 174,325 280,026 193,957 229,665 3.4 5.6 4.0 4.6

Asheville

237,499 228,011 226,004 227,368 6,793 11,652 7,636 9,508 2.9 5.1 3.4 4.2

Burlington

83,244 81,631 79,533 81,508 2,737 4,579 3,063 3,693 3.3 5.6 3.9 4.5

Charlotte-Concord-Gastonia

1,384,308 1,363,926 1,333,559 1,363,396 44,364 74,289 49,193 62,396 3.2 5.4 3.7 4.6

Durham-Chapel Hill

314,605 306,779 299,234 306,660 9,230 14,185 10,319 11,574 2.9 4.6 3.4 3.8

Fayetteville

149,365 147,006 143,605 146,236 6,745 11,341 7,523 9,407 4.5 7.7 5.2 6.4

Goldsboro

52,787 50,482 50,343 50,653 1,877 2,930 2,068 2,422 3.6 5.8 4.1 4.8

Greensboro-High Point

372,485 361,273 356,786 360,251 13,216 22,818 14,823 18,666 3.5 6.3 4.2 5.2

Greenville

90,886 90,512 86,662 90,278 3,195 4,997 3,560 4,128 3.5 5.5 4.1 4.6

Hickory-Lenoir-Morganton

175,303 173,628 168,208 172,223 5,556 9,355 6,198 7,697 3.2 5.4 3.7 4.5

Jacksonville

65,517 65,225 62,645 65,059 2,556 3,793 2,836 3,126 3.9 5.8 4.5 4.8

New Bern

51,747 50,929 49,257 51,082 1,750 2,789 1,937 2,273 3.4 5.5 3.9 4.4

Raleigh

738,830 726,116 707,405 726,406 21,986 34,292 24,712 28,095 3.0 4.7 3.5 3.9

Rocky Mount

64,473 63,852 61,499 63,418 2,833 4,900 3,147 4,019 4.4 7.7 5.1 6.3

Wilmington

154,504 150,862 147,064 151,350 4,959 7,609 5,455 6,161 3.2 5.0 3.7 4.1

Winston-Salem

333,215 324,029 318,958 324,700 10,761 17,640 12,026 14,508 3.2 5.4 3.8 4.5

North Dakota

405,223 400,731 402,014 400,457 11,444 21,993 12,846 19,348 2.8 5.5 3.2 4.8

Bismarck

68,219 70,332 67,284 69,829 2,175 3,623 2,297 3,069 3.2 5.2 3.4 4.4

Fargo

141,172 142,004 139,650 142,617 3,649 6,236 4,343 5,379 2.6 4.4 3.1 3.8

Grand Forks

53,501 52,718 52,976 52,315 1,636 2,537 2,020 2,248 3.1 4.8 3.8 4.3

Ohio

5,882,748 5,704,897 5,821,848 5,721,419 292,656 316,838 337,584 280,126 5.0 5.6 5.8 4.9

Akron

364,277 354,051 364,531 354,490 18,396 21,246 22,006 19,493 5.1 6.0 6.0 5.5

Canton-Massillon

200,610 196,757 200,953 197,662 11,258 11,963 13,230 10,765 5.6 6.1 6.6 5.4

Cincinnati

1,137,424 1,106,555 1,136,979 1,107,987 46,605 55,712 53,979 47,067 4.1 5.0 4.7 4.2

Cleveland-Elyria

1,065,483 975,492 1,004,201 982,983 57,479 47,254 62,192 47,913 5.4 4.8 6.2 4.9

Columbus

1,116,248 1,117,532 1,109,946 1,123,866 44,675 60,087 52,654 55,925 4.0 5.4 4.7 5.0

Dayton

394,174 388,606 394,724 390,104 17,772 22,400 20,714 19,717 4.5 5.8 5.2 5.1

Lima

48,403 49,117 48,746 48,809 2,457 3,295 2,955 2,644 5.1 6.7 6.1 5.4

Mansfield

52,925 52,385 52,699 52,305 2,867 3,222 3,359 2,611 5.4 6.2 6.4 5.0

Springfield

63,697 62,833 63,562 63,067 3,339 3,551 3,868 3,204 5.2 5.7 6.1 5.1

Toledo

307,087 296,223 307,195 295,771 15,274 18,486 18,424 16,263 5.0 6.2 6.0 5.5

Weirton-Steubenville(1)

51,256 49,898 50,831 49,733 3,370 3,806 3,870 3,259 6.6 7.6 7.6 6.6

Youngstown-Warren-Boardman

238,908 231,712 238,700 229,911 15,834 18,088 18,534 15,800 6.6 7.8 7.8 6.9

Oklahoma

1,851,114 1,863,302 1,834,662 1,854,700 57,949 95,622 61,962 75,918 3.1 5.1 3.4 4.1

Enid

26,724 26,744 26,723 26,602 829 1,261 914 939 3.1 4.7 3.4 3.5

Lawton

51,050 51,040 50,615 50,618 1,571 2,463 1,713 1,952 3.1 4.8 3.4 3.9

Oklahoma City

692,692 693,608 684,670 698,091 19,353 33,982 20,996 27,879 2.8 4.9 3.1 4.0

Tulsa

483,913 481,949 480,456 479,964 15,131 25,883 16,208 20,048 3.1 5.4 3.4 4.2

Oregon

2,106,874 2,135,709 2,098,879 2,153,827 75,501 142,236 89,389 140,284 3.6 6.7 4.3 6.5

Albany

58,710 59,731 58,635 60,865 2,401 4,175 2,948 4,148 4.1 7.0 5.0 6.8

Bend-Redmond

97,069 100,564 96,547 101,820 3,768 7,432 4,216 7,022 3.9 7.4 4.4 6.9

Corvallis

48,084 47,444 47,759 47,866 1,315 2,372 1,597 2,325 2.7 5.0 3.3 4.9

Eugene

182,468 180,386 181,253 181,311 6,752 12,445 8,073 12,317 3.7 6.9 4.5 6.8

Grants Pass

35,570 37,163 35,647 37,514 1,729 2,762 2,015 2,809 4.9 7.4 5.7 7.5

Medford

104,010 107,613 104,001 109,071 4,381 7,343 5,221 7,344 4.2 6.8 5.0 6.7

Portland-Vancouver-Hillsboro

1,340,313 1,325,843 1,330,750 1,333,751 45,629 84,674 53,372 83,371 3.4 6.4 4.0 6.3

Salem

201,416 207,516 201,104 209,523 7,668 13,200 8,931 12,833 3.8 6.4 4.4 6.1

Pennsylvania

6,528,280 6,322,924 6,471,607 6,290,511 328,362 502,160 361,564 460,786 5.0 7.9 5.6 7.3

Allentown-Bethlehem-Easton

446,791 435,581 443,038 434,154 21,765 34,414 24,358 31,862 4.9 7.9 5.5 7.3

Altoona

59,529 58,691 59,388 58,203 3,145 4,453 3,382 3,910 5.3 7.6 5.7 6.7

Bloomsburg-Berwick

43,348 42,469 43,138 42,356 2,239 3,001 2,519 2,622 5.2 7.1 5.8 6.2

Chambersburg-Waynesboro

78,137 75,708 77,330 75,126 3,647 4,858 3,883 4,419 4.7 6.4 5.0 5.9

East Stroudsburg

84,009 79,847 83,189 79,728 5,177 7,417 5,715 6,945 6.2 9.3 6.9 8.7

Erie

130,076 126,165 129,057 125,515 7,352 12,186 8,136 11,376 5.7 9.7 6.3 9.1

Gettysburg

55,990 54,393 55,348 53,967 2,066 3,012 2,096 2,627 3.7 5.5 3.8 4.9

Harrisburg-Carlisle

302,102 297,731 299,701 296,902 12,583 19,774 13,507 18,194 4.2 6.6 4.5 6.1

Johnstown

57,708 55,286 57,422 55,005 3,673 4,828 4,118 4,433 6.4 8.7 7.2 8.1

Lancaster

286,859 278,356 284,207 275,203 11,048 17,158 11,611 15,330 3.9 6.2 4.1 5.6

Lebanon

72,749 71,100 71,880 70,585 3,279 4,900 3,458 4,479 4.5 6.9 4.8 6.3

Philadelphia-Camden-Wilmington

3,178,323 3,073,903 3,145,416 3,071,206 141,212 240,034 155,617 224,966 4.4 7.8 4.9 7.3

Pittsburgh

1,213,091 1,169,532 1,204,315 1,165,658 62,874 95,318 69,788 86,937 5.2 8.2 5.8 7.5

Reading

216,029 208,543 214,327 206,827 10,733 16,974 11,820 15,670 5.0 8.1 5.5 7.6

Scranton--Wilkes-Barre--Hazleton

279,013 271,552 278,100 270,298 17,111 26,056 19,126 24,192 6.1 9.6 6.9 9.0

State College

81,503 73,454 79,691 73,217 3,081 4,119 3,295 3,613 3.8 5.6 4.1 4.9

Williamsport

57,026 55,573 56,316 55,416 3,427 4,780 3,839 4,336 6.0 8.6 6.8 7.8

York-Hanover

235,990 232,975 234,159 231,774 10,346 15,462 10,812 13,869 4.4 6.6 4.6 6.0

Rhode Island

562,428 536,759 558,186 539,748 24,047 42,248 27,014 38,993 4.3 7.9 4.8 7.2

Providence-Warwick

696,454 670,492 690,340 673,318 29,741 53,131 32,306 48,748 4.3 7.9 4.7 7.2

South Carolina

2,368,555 2,379,174 2,354,415 2,392,993 70,660 122,983 73,206 115,056 3.0 5.2 3.1 4.8

Charleston-North Charleston

395,613 395,063 392,668 396,164 9,830 18,832 10,208 17,434 2.5 4.8 2.6 4.4

Columbia

402,505 403,423 399,101 404,624 10,984 19,327 11,453 18,045 2.7 4.8 2.9 4.5

Florence

96,617 97,398 96,106 97,674 2,976 5,178 3,166 4,856 3.1 5.3 3.3 5.0

Greenville-Anderson-Mauldin

433,483 434,604 431,105 436,982 11,708 19,992 12,060 18,829 2.7 4.6 2.8 4.3

Hilton Head Island-Bluffton-Beaufort

89,580 90,067 88,885 91,525 2,471 4,141 2,507 3,744 2.8 4.6 2.8 4.1

Myrtle Beach-Conway-North Myrtle Beach

197,231 196,288 196,294 200,386 8,698 13,926 8,762 12,389 4.4 7.1 4.5 6.2

Spartanburg

167,159 170,457 166,851 171,575 4,600 8,695 4,805 8,362 2.8 5.1 2.9 4.9

Sumter

43,204 43,788 42,855 43,844 1,592 2,591 1,711 2,399 3.7 5.9 4.0 5.5

South Dakota

460,964 468,708 459,393 466,772 14,905 16,798 16,100 15,309 3.2 3.6 3.5 3.3

Rapid City

73,699 75,642 73,188 75,001 2,530 2,796 2,728 2,554 3.4 3.7 3.7 3.4

Sioux Falls

157,239 158,735 155,631 158,583 4,469 5,297 4,815 4,800 2.8 3.3 3.1 3.0

Tennessee

3,341,965 3,298,451 3,306,102 3,298,593 128,090 160,386 142,819 167,333 3.8 4.9 4.3 5.1

Chattanooga

278,265 272,712 275,725 273,407 9,910 11,184 10,773 11,716 3.6 4.1 3.9 4.3

Clarksville

118,517 116,408 117,621 116,354 5,320 6,151 6,008 6,568 4.5 5.3 5.1 5.6

Cleveland

59,820 59,881 58,536 59,322 2,313 2,796 2,672 3,040 3.9 4.7 4.6 5.1

Jackson

64,987 64,491 64,398 64,230 2,518 3,091 2,741 3,192 3.9 4.8 4.3 5.0

Johnson City

93,127 90,409 92,367 90,438 3,897 4,324 4,226 4,585 4.2 4.8 4.6 5.1

Kingsport-Bristol-Bristol

137,974 133,923 137,022 134,254 5,468 6,687 5,951 7,165 4.0 5.0 4.3 5.3

Knoxville

434,444 431,296 430,995 431,122 15,518 18,310 17,215 19,461 3.6 4.2 4.0 4.5

Memphis

640,978 640,612 636,440 641,448 28,264 40,506 31,971 40,706 4.4 6.3 5.0 6.3

Morristown

53,669 52,757 52,717 52,714 2,457 2,549 2,508 2,603 4.6 4.8 4.8 4.9

Nashville-Davidson--Murfreesboro--Franklin

1,093,819 1,076,114 1,080,770 1,078,124 31,210 42,805 36,387 45,605 2.9 4.0 3.4 4.2

Texas

14,262,779 14,047,933 13,953,661 14,096,630 501,576 1,058,776 704,889 1,009,732 3.5 7.5 5.1 7.2

Abilene

80,093 78,747 78,116 79,032 2,338 4,671 3,277 4,564 2.9 5.9 4.2 5.8

Amarillo

133,543 133,492 130,475 133,956 3,348 6,841 4,599 6,516 2.5 5.1 3.5 4.9

Austin-Round Rock

1,272,971 1,261,016 1,240,287 1,271,187 33,307 70,436 47,005 67,445 2.6 5.6 3.8 5.3

Beaumont-Port Arthur

174,829 173,259 172,548 173,429 9,393 20,491 13,730 18,729 5.4 11.8 8.0 10.8

Brownsville-Harlingen

170,264 170,341 168,585 170,857 9,653 18,525 13,021 17,139 5.7 10.9 7.7 10.0

College Station-Bryan

139,798 135,199 135,619 135,035 3,768 7,572 5,263 7,126 2.7 5.6 3.9 5.3

Corpus Christi

205,664 202,472 202,562 203,406 8,910 18,969 12,337 17,913 4.3 9.4 6.1 8.8

Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington

4,047,221 4,011,975 3,951,243 4,020,984 127,693 273,471 181,844 263,021 3.2 6.8 4.6 6.5

El Paso

369,581 369,005 362,402 367,266 13,962 30,528 18,954 28,685 3.8 8.3 5.2 7.8

Houston-The Woodlands-Sugar Land

3,486,370 3,377,102 3,411,243 3,395,317 132,926 283,530 187,892 271,412 3.8 8.4 5.5 8.0

Killeen-Temple

179,693 178,692 176,021 178,549 6,694 13,207 9,180 12,594 3.7 7.4 5.2 7.1

Laredo

119,899 115,715 117,054 116,025 4,647 9,881 6,338 9,219 3.9 8.5 5.4 7.9

Longview

98,915 96,048 97,158 96,240 3,948 7,956 5,382 7,550 4.0 8.3 5.5 7.8

Lubbock

164,707 163,896 160,666 164,812 4,499 9,644 6,187 9,532 2.7 5.9 3.9 5.8

McAllen-Edinburg-Mission

362,022 365,385 359,125 364,450 23,920 43,858 32,458 40,843 6.6 12.0 9.0 11.2

Midland

110,101 97,061 107,083 97,356 2,568 8,021 3,607 7,436 2.3 8.3 3.4 7.6

Odessa

87,888 79,777 85,687 79,257 2,898 9,414 4,055 8,698 3.3 11.8 4.7 11.0

San Angelo

55,974 54,706 54,654 54,580 1,623 3,536 2,263 3,325 2.9 6.5 4.1 6.1

San Antonio-New Braunfels

1,216,430 1,212,989 1,187,428 1,218,042 37,498 82,619 53,106 79,163 3.1 6.8 4.5 6.5

Sherman-Denison

65,345 65,200 63,815 65,299 2,046 3,902 2,868 3,732 3.1 6.0 4.5 5.7

Texarkana

64,656 63,709 63,986 63,564 2,845 4,468 3,435 4,207 4.4 7.0 5.4 6.6

Tyler

109,545 109,995 107,191 109,998 3,667 7,533 5,097 7,131 3.3 6.8 4.8 6.5

Victoria

45,136 44,139 44,299 44,283 1,714 3,793 2,409 3,497 3.8 8.6 5.4 7.9

Waco

127,389 129,455 124,904 130,063 4,091 8,080 5,929 7,920 3.2 6.2 4.7 6.1

Wichita Falls

65,057 64,068 63,798 64,135 2,006 4,513 2,785 4,216 3.1 7.0 4.4 6.6

Utah

1,640,139 1,641,809 1,626,054 1,636,857 43,633 59,216 47,156 47,017 2.7 3.6 2.9 2.9

Logan

72,715 72,507 73,416 72,284 1,533 1,945 1,639 1,542 2.1 2.7 2.2 2.1

Ogden-Clearfield

337,750 341,102 334,962 339,668 8,917 11,792 9,667 9,191 2.6 3.5 2.9 2.7

Provo-Orem

321,168 325,214 316,777 324,715 7,687 10,029 8,360 7,985 2.4 3.1 2.6 2.5

St. George

78,291 80,990 78,260 81,278 2,513 3,176 2,542 2,426 3.2 3.9 3.2 3.0

Salt Lake City

682,018 674,762 674,749 672,712 17,304 24,896 19,113 20,180 2.5 3.7 2.8 3.0

Vermont

343,087 309,693 340,422 312,734 8,861 9,659 9,779 10,172 2.6 3.1 2.9 3.3

Burlington-South Burlington

126,021 114,390 123,809 114,895 2,409 3,024 2,777 3,181 1.9 2.6 2.2 2.8

Virginia

4,461,764 4,224,831 4,436,793 4,249,613 111,375 226,104 123,223 217,904 2.5 5.4 2.8 5.1

Blacksburg-Christiansburg-Radford

94,349 88,225 92,974 88,835 2,718 3,923 3,109 3,869 2.9 4.4 3.3 4.4

Charlottesville

124,951 114,861 122,977 115,561 2,678 5,428 3,034 5,254 2.1 4.7 2.5 4.5

Harrisonburg

68,996 64,441 67,338 64,664 1,494 2,889 1,758 2,862 2.2 4.5 2.6 4.4

Lynchburg

124,783 116,634 123,613 117,444 3,651 6,483 4,025 6,352 2.9 5.6 3.3 5.4

Richmond

695,699 653,875 692,545 656,352 17,979 38,069 19,865 36,410 2.6 5.8 2.9 5.5

Roanoke

160,247 152,508 159,726 153,313 4,155 7,762 4,528 7,567 2.6 5.1 2.8 4.9

Staunton-Waynesboro

61,308 59,128 60,728 59,553 1,378 2,672 1,520 2,691 2.2 4.5 2.5 4.5

Virginia Beach-Norfolk-Newport News

867,378 828,525 863,445 832,460 23,745 50,821 26,157 48,452 2.7 6.1 3.0 5.8

Winchester

75,596 73,247 75,222 73,957 1,840 3,000 2,014 2,986 2.4 4.1 2.7 4.0

Washington

3,988,229 3,874,189 3,930,706 3,892,706 177,565 246,890 229,593 238,866 4.5 6.4 5.8 6.1

Bellingham

118,345 110,487 117,972 111,150 6,367 7,874 6,986 7,419 5.4 7.1 5.9 6.7

Bremerton-Silverdale

132,110 122,887 130,853 123,138 6,062 7,401 6,790 7,146 4.6 6.0 5.2 5.8

Kennewick-Richland

145,278 142,734 145,128 151,083 9,551 10,018 9,467 9,420 6.6 7.0 6.5 6.2

Longview

49,013 46,785 48,756 46,983 3,116 3,489 3,300 3,289 6.4 7.5 6.8 7.0

Mount Vernon-Anacortes

63,511 59,463 62,929 60,035 3,914 4,512 3,879 4,230 6.2 7.6 6.2 7.0

Olympia-Tumwater

147,423 140,466 147,279 140,475 7,511 8,476 8,918 8,246 5.1 6.0 6.1 5.9

Seattle-Tacoma-Bellevue

2,223,969 2,196,037 2,175,804 2,186,074 69,732 129,136 118,769 128,402 3.1 5.9 5.5 5.9

Spokane-Spokane Valley

288,351 270,952 287,461 272,080 18,237 18,941 18,825 17,578 6.3 7.0 6.5 6.5

Walla Walla

32,149 31,561 32,303 32,291 1,693 1,885 1,856 1,689 5.3 6.0 5.7 5.2

Wenatchee

64,398 62,006 64,505 67,460 4,268 4,421 4,226 3,973 6.6 7.1 6.6 5.9

Yakima

129,441 128,056 128,463 137,620 11,201 10,976 10,045 9,879 8.7 8.6 7.8 7.2

West Virginia

805,171 790,202 794,966 783,020 46,326 54,312 49,152 47,923 5.8 6.9 6.2 6.1

Beckley

46,928 46,357 46,521 45,734 2,950 3,546 3,153 3,156 6.3 7.6 6.8 6.9

Charleston

94,633 92,605 93,189 91,882 5,098 6,658 5,483 5,919 5.4 7.2 5.9 6.4

Huntington-Ashland

148,989 145,862 147,904 145,926 8,386 9,268 8,772 8,281 5.6 6.4 5.9 5.7

Morgantown

72,476 71,402 71,344 70,721 2,869 3,634 3,082 3,221 4.0 5.1 4.3 4.6

Parkersburg-Vienna

39,494 38,347 38,734 37,830 2,542 2,913 2,643 2,582 6.4 7.6 6.8 6.8

Wheeling

64,140 62,348 63,904 62,097 4,691 4,589 5,250 3,929 7.3 7.4 8.2 6.3

Wisconsin

3,070,731 3,057,176 3,041,275 3,070,311 107,685 148,925 115,879 146,583 3.5 4.9 3.8 4.8

Appleton

130,074 130,118 128,551 130,918 3,723 5,130 3,976 5,093 2.9 3.9 3.1 3.9

Eau Claire

91,709 93,746 91,405 94,010 3,377 4,557 3,677 4,382 3.7 4.9 4.0 4.7

Fond du Lac

55,876 57,163 55,411 57,861 1,695 2,390 1,900 2,345 3.0 4.2 3.4 4.1

Green Bay

170,853 170,309 169,216 171,091 5,595 7,488 6,016 7,455 3.3 4.4 3.6 4.4

Janesville-Beloit

84,643 84,726 83,909 84,572 3,422 4,708 3,632 4,317 4.0 5.6 4.3 5.1

La Crosse-Onalaska

76,558 76,330 75,822 76,355 2,310 3,193 2,471 2,989 3.0 4.2 3.3 3.9

Madison

389,924 385,685 384,987 388,557 9,397 14,140 10,218 14,263 2.4 3.7 2.7 3.7

Milwaukee-Waukesha-West Allis

809,445 797,936 799,499 799,701 26,947 41,717 29,428 41,958 3.3 5.2 3.7 5.2

Oshkosh-Neenah

91,152 91,796 90,146 92,403 2,510 3,633 2,746 3,561 2.8 4.0 3.0 3.9

Racine

96,860 95,960 95,815 96,400 4,211 5,730 4,505 5,655 4.3 6.0 4.7 5.9

Sheboygan

60,490 61,641 59,912 62,063 1,683 2,338 1,896 2,311 2.8 3.8 3.2 3.7

Wausau

72,101 72,620 71,683 72,559 2,089 2,782 2,268 2,776 2.9 3.8 3.2 3.8

Wyoming

297,365 295,352 297,605 294,787 14,440 19,312 17,589 17,370 4.9 6.5 5.9 5.9

Casper

40,892 40,771 41,123 40,818 2,123 3,647 2,513 3,239 5.2 8.9 6.1 7.9

Cheyenne

50,954 50,972 51,042 51,125 2,302 2,852 2,669 2,581 4.5 5.6 5.2 5.0

Puerto Rico

1,056,845 1,044,854 - 1,068,462 82,583 80,964 - 78,891 7.8 7.7 - 7.4

Aguadilla-Isabela

83,957 81,833 - 83,388 9,383 7,183 - 7,034 11.2 8.8 - 8.4

Arecibo

52,018 50,705 - 51,710 5,508 4,004 - 3,943 10.6 7.9 - 7.6

Guayama

19,613 19,092 - 19,712 2,433 1,603 - 1,594 12.4 8.4 - 8.1

Mayaguez

25,939 25,811 - 26,462 2,384 2,145 - 2,117 9.2 8.3 - 8.0

Ponce

89,756 87,236 - 89,166 10,154 8,117 - 7,861 11.3 9.3 - 8.8

San German

33,289 33,626 - 34,496 3,506 2,893 - 2,874 10.5 8.6 - 8.3

San Juan-Carolina-Caguas

710,508 705,453 - 721,905 44,361 50,975 - 49,453 6.2 7.2 - 6.9

Footnotes
(1) For operational reasons, these interstate areas are listed under the state that accounts for the larger share of the population, which is different from the state that contains the first principal city.
(2) The area boundary does not reflect the Office of Management and Budget delineation.
(p) Preliminary

- Data not available.
NOTE: Data refer to place of residence. Data for Puerto Rico are derived from a monthly household survey similar to the Current Population Survey. Area delineations are based on Office of Management and Budget Bulletin No. 18-03, dated April 10, 2018, and are available on the BLS website at https://www.bls.gov/lau/lausmsa.htm. Areas in the six New England states are Metropolitan New England City and Town Areas (NECTAs), while areas in other states are county-based. Some metropolitan areas lie in two or more states. They are listed under the state containing the first principal city, unless otherwise footnoted. Estimates for the latest month are subject to revision the following month.


LABOR FORCE DATA
NOT SEASONALLY ADJUSTED

Table 2. Civilian labor force and unemployment by state, selected metropolitan area, and metropolitan division(1)
State, area, and division Civilian labor force Unemployed
February March Number Percent of labor force
2020 2021 2020 2021(p) February March February March
2020 2021 2020 2021(p) 2020 2021 2020 2021(p)

California

19,514,077 19,020,738 19,167,207 18,912,315 844,212 1,598,534 974,161 1,551,202 4.3 8.4 5.1 8.2

Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim

6,835,541 6,670,484 6,539,772 6,645,232 290,924 660,504 329,070 653,725 4.3 9.9 5.0 9.8

Anaheim-Santa Ana-Irvine

1,617,047 1,545,141 1,598,456 1,541,862 44,936 103,887 52,690 98,601 2.8 6.7 3.3 6.4

Los Angeles-Long Beach-Glendale

5,218,494 5,125,343 4,941,316 5,103,370 245,988 556,617 276,380 555,124 4.7 10.9 5.6 10.9

San Francisco-Oakland-Hayward

2,583,420 2,453,372 2,564,034 2,441,399 68,045 152,455 81,028 145,457 2.6 6.2 3.2 6.0

Oakland-Hayward-Berkeley

1,402,171 1,351,783 1,393,246 1,341,335 42,082 92,705 49,618 88,460 3.0 6.9 3.6 6.6

San Francisco-Redwood City-South San Francisco

1,043,328 970,533 1,034,270 968,716 22,712 53,194 27,570 50,752 2.2 5.5 2.7 5.2

San Rafael

137,921 131,056 136,518 131,348 3,251 6,556 3,840 6,245 2.4 5.0 2.8 4.8

District of Columbia

425,308 407,673 420,428 403,736 20,714 30,949 22,944 28,128 4.9 7.6 5.5 7.0

Washington-Arlington-Alexandria(2)

3,528,641 3,316,385 3,508,530 3,332,534 99,283 190,753 111,125 185,497 2.8 5.8 3.2 5.6

Silver Spring-Frederick-Rockville(3)

710,693 660,052 705,671 665,752 20,478 37,309 22,180 36,924 2.9 5.7 3.1 5.5

Washington-Arlington-Alexandria(2)

2,817,948 2,656,333 2,802,859 2,666,782 78,805 153,444 88,945 148,573 2.8 5.8 3.2 5.6

Florida

10,501,385 10,221,907 10,566,114 10,271,970 321,065 516,995 531,061 543,013 3.1 5.1 5.0 5.3

Miami-Fort Lauderdale-West Palm Beach

3,193,207 3,063,215 3,159,869 3,043,651 81,535 188,141 133,330 194,296 2.6 6.1 4.2 6.4

Fort Lauderdale-Pompano Beach-Deerfield Beach

1,056,657 1,017,917 1,068,549 1,023,552 34,567 52,174 63,142 54,041 3.3 5.1 5.9 5.3

Miami-Miami Beach-Kendall

1,385,366 1,314,453 1,331,833 1,285,555 22,521 103,447 29,164 105,441 1.6 7.9 2.2 8.2

West Palm Beach-Boca Raton-Delray Beach

751,184 730,845 759,487 734,544 24,447 32,520 41,024 34,814 3.3 4.4 5.4 4.7

Illinois

6,359,497 6,097,520 6,307,742 6,103,570 237,430 475,543 253,673 434,049 3.7 7.8 4.0 7.1

Chicago-Naperville-Elgin(2)

4,817,627 4,629,300 4,784,802 4,637,599 183,479 382,879 196,554 345,624 3.8 8.3 4.1 7.5

Chicago-Naperville-Arlington Heights

3,700,823 3,564,997 3,683,584 3,573,292 135,881 313,004 144,554 275,065 3.7 8.8 3.9 7.7

Elgin

322,316 302,518 317,010 301,827 13,190 21,064 14,409 21,145 4.1 7.0 4.5 7.0

Gary(3)

335,557 323,590 331,752 323,539 16,723 21,899 18,320 22,189 5.0 6.8 5.5 6.9

Lake County-Kenosha County(2)

458,931 438,195 452,456 438,941 17,685 26,912 19,271 27,225 3.9 6.1 4.3 6.2

Massachusetts

3,758,153 3,708,222 3,712,130 3,702,706 117,212 269,738 116,907 243,164 3.1 7.3 3.1 6.6

Boston-Cambridge-Nashua(2)

2,802,059 2,756,598 2,769,234 2,751,893 76,862 179,190 79,061 162,362 2.7 6.5 2.9 5.9

Boston-Cambridge-Newton

1,675,270 1,642,346 1,654,310 1,640,204 41,026 104,672 42,578 94,163 2.4 6.4 2.6 5.7

Brockton-Bridgewater-Easton

110,441 108,969 109,258 108,459 3,811 9,272 3,881 8,362 3.5 8.5 3.6 7.7

Framingham

161,309 158,605 159,386 158,426 4,178 9,135 4,159 8,137 2.6 5.8 2.6 5.1

Haverhill-Newburyport-Amesbury Town(2)

117,383 116,250 116,597 115,885 3,808 6,784 3,911 6,292 3.2 5.8 3.4 5.4

Lawrence-Methuen Town-Salem(2)

98,226 100,389 96,798 99,871 4,152 9,949 4,014 9,232 4.2 9.9 4.1 9.2

Lowell-Billerica-Chelmsford(2)

196,590 193,937 193,836 194,035 5,862 13,092 5,898 11,946 3.0 6.8 3.0 6.2

Lynn-Saugus-Marblehead

85,855 86,180 84,911 85,848 2,544 7,489 2,676 6,737 3.0 8.7 3.2 7.8

Nashua(2)

177,833 172,561 176,908 172,040 5,766 5,811 6,041 5,741 3.2 3.4 3.4 3.3

Peabody-Salem-Beverly

93,320 91,308 92,335 90,975 2,558 6,336 2,751 5,771 2.7 6.9 3.0 6.3

Taunton-Middleborough-Norton

85,832 86,053 84,895 86,150 3,157 6,650 3,152 5,981 3.7 7.7 3.7 6.9

Michigan

4,919,562 4,643,494 4,894,999 4,686,955 185,581 238,534 217,985 242,722 3.8 5.1 4.5 5.2

Detroit-Warren-Dearborn

2,141,857 1,978,549 2,138,004 2,016,622 85,710 84,678 103,866 90,940 4.0 4.3 4.9 4.5

Detroit-Dearborn-Livonia

801,197 741,326 799,923 758,067 37,437 40,205 45,228 42,313 4.7 5.4 5.7 5.6

Warren-Troy-Farmington Hills

1,340,661 1,237,223 1,338,079 1,258,556 48,273 44,472 58,637 48,628 3.6 3.6 4.4 3.9

New York

9,524,311 9,215,509 9,463,134 9,436,946 394,346 889,674 419,555 798,744 4.1 9.7 4.4 8.5

New York-Newark-Jersey City(2)

10,054,969 9,603,158 9,975,768 9,859,364 381,885 947,199 409,113 864,114 3.8 9.9 4.1 8.8

Dutchess County-Putnam County

194,496 189,524 193,112 190,173 7,728 12,083 7,935 10,829 4.0 6.4 4.1 5.7

Nassau County-Suffolk County

1,470,243 1,431,841 1,467,456 1,441,390 57,124 96,895 59,482 86,715 3.9 6.8 4.1 6.0

Newark(3)

1,267,740 1,202,879 1,257,784 1,212,178 50,247 98,950 53,313 94,196 4.0 8.2 4.2 7.8

New York-Jersey City-White Plains(2)

7,122,490 6,778,914 7,057,416 7,015,623 266,786 739,271 288,383 672,374 3.7 10.9 4.1 9.6

Pennsylvania

6,528,280 6,322,924 6,471,607 6,290,511 328,362 502,160 361,564 460,786 5.0 7.9 5.6 7.3

Philadelphia-Camden-Wilmington(2)

3,178,323 3,073,903 3,145,416 3,071,206 141,212 240,034 155,617 224,966 4.4 7.8 4.9 7.3

Camden(3)

650,016 628,916 646,462 635,644 25,729 49,434 26,526 46,239 4.0 7.9 4.1 7.3

Montgomery County-Bucks County-Chester County

1,095,859 1,056,559 1,083,715 1,055,095 42,665 63,560 46,735 58,350 3.9 6.0 4.3 5.5

Philadelphia

1,040,617 1,004,393 1,031,951 996,047 56,223 101,914 63,545 95,420 5.4 10.1 6.2 9.6

Wilmington(3)

391,831 384,035 383,288 384,420 16,595 25,126 18,811 24,957 4.2 6.5 4.9 6.5

Texas

14,262,779 14,047,933 13,953,661 14,096,630 501,576 1,058,776 704,889 1,009,732 3.5 7.5 5.1 7.2

Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington

4,047,221 4,011,975 3,951,243 4,020,984 127,693 273,471 181,844 263,021 3.2 6.8 4.6 6.5

Dallas-Plano-Irving

2,729,544 2,710,587 2,661,798 2,714,255 85,778 181,864 121,744 174,612 3.1 6.7 4.6 6.4

Fort Worth-Arlington

1,317,677 1,301,388 1,289,445 1,306,729 41,915 91,607 60,100 88,409 3.2 7.0 4.7 6.8

Washington

3,988,229 3,874,189 3,930,706 3,892,706 177,565 246,890 229,593 238,866 4.5 6.4 5.8 6.1

Seattle-Tacoma-Bellevue

2,223,969 2,196,037 2,175,804 2,186,074 69,732 129,136 118,769 128,402 3.1 5.9 5.5 5.9

Seattle-Bellevue-Everett

1,766,052 1,766,168 1,719,132 1,757,694 45,152 98,744 90,813 99,161 2.6 5.6 5.3 5.6

Tacoma-Lakewood

457,917 429,869 456,672 428,380 24,580 30,392 27,956 29,241 5.4 7.1 6.1 6.8

Footnotes
(1) These 11 areas contain all of the 38 metropolitan divisions.
(2) Part of the area (or division) is in one or more adjacent states.
(3) All of the division is in one or more adjacent states.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data refer to place of residence. Area delineations are based on Office of Management and Budget Bulletin No. 18-03, dated April 10, 2018, and are available on the BLS website at https://www.bls.gov/lau/lausmsa.htm. Areas in the six New England states are Metropolitan New England City and Town Areas (NECTAs), while areas in other states are county-based. Some metropolitan areas lie in two or more states. They are listed under the state containing the first principal city. Metropolitan divisions are listed under their metropolitan areas. Some divisions lie in more than one state, and some, like Camden, NJ, are totally outside the states under which their metropolitan areas are listed. For Washington-Arlington-Alexandria, DC-VA-MD-WV, the metropolitan area and division titles are identical. Estimates for the latest month are subject to revision the following month.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
NOT SEASONALLY ADJUSTED
Table 3. Employees on nonfarm payrolls by state and metropolitan area, not seasonally adjusted
[In thousands]
State and area February March Change from
March 2020 to March 2021(p)
2020 2021 2020 2021(p) Number Percent

Alabama

2,073.8 2,010.4 2,070.4 2,019.5 -50.9 -2.5

Anniston-Oxford-Jacksonville

47.5 46.0 47.2 46.2 -1.0 -2.1

Auburn-Opelika

67.4 66.4 66.5 66.2 -0.3 -0.5

Birmingham-Hoover

544.6 529.2 541.5 530.3 -11.2 -2.1

Daphne-Fairhope-Foley

79.7 77.0 80.4 78.4 -2.0 -2.5

Decatur

57.9 57.0 58.2 57.4 -0.8 -1.4

Dothan

60.2 58.4 59.9 58.8 -1.1 -1.8

Florence-Muscle Shoals

56.9 55.7 57.5 55.8 -1.7 -3.0

Gadsden

36.4 33.9 36.5 33.7 -2.8 -7.7

Huntsville

249.5 245.7 249.2 249.0 -0.2 -0.1

Mobile

186.5 178.2 186.1 179.8 -6.3 -3.4

Montgomery

176.6 168.5<