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Economic News Release
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Metropolitan Area Employment and Unemployment (Monthly) News Release

For release 10:00 a.m. (EDT) Wednesday, April 29, 2020				USDL-20-0719

Technical information:
 Employment:		sminfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/sae
 Unemployment:		lausinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/lau
	
Media contact:		(202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov


		METROPOLITAN AREA EMPLOYMENT AND UNEMPLOYMENT -- MARCH 2020


Unemployment rates were higher in March than a year earlier in 253 of the 389 metropolitan
areas, lower in 123 areas, and unchanged in 13 areas, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics
reported today. A total of 45 areas had jobless rates of less than 3.0 percent and 11
areas had rates of at least 10.0 percent. Nonfarm payroll employment increased over the
year in 21 metropolitan areas, decreased in 1 area, and was essentially unchanged in the
remaining 367 areas. The national unemployment rate in March was 4.5 percent, not
seasonally adjusted, up from 3.9 percent a year earlier.

This news release presents statistics from two monthly programs. The civilian labor force
and unemployment data are based on the same concepts and definitions as those used for the
national household survey estimates. These data pertain to individuals by where they
reside. The employment data are from an establishment survey that measures nonfarm
employment, hours, and earnings by industry. These data pertain to jobs on payrolls 
defined by where the establishments are located. For more information about the concepts
and statistical methodologies used by these two programs, see the Technical Note.

Metropolitan Area Unemployment (Not Seasonally Adjusted)

In March, Kahului-Wailuku-Lahaina, HI, and Urban Honolulu, HI, had the lowest unemployment
rates, 2.1 percent each, while El Centro, CA, had the highest unemployment rate, 20.5
percent. A total of 226 areas had March jobless rates below the U.S. rate of 4.5 percent,
150 areas had rates above it, and 13 areas had rates equal to that of the nation. (See 
table 1.)

El Centro, CA, had the largest over-the-year unemployment rate increase in March (+3.9
percentage points). One hundred seventeen other areas had rate increases of at least 1.0
percentage point. The largest over-the-year rate decrease occurred in Yakima, WA (-2.5 
percentage points).

Of the 51 metropolitan areas with a 2010 Census population of 1 million or more, Oklahoma
City, OK, had the lowest unemployment rate in March, 2.5 percent. Cleveland-Elyria, OH,
and Las Vegas-Henderson-Paradise, NV, had the highest jobless rates among the large areas,
7.3 percent and 6.7 percent, respectively. Forty-three large areas had over-the-year 
unemployment rate increases, seven had decreases, and one had no change. The largest
jobless rate increases were in Cleveland-Elyria, OH (+3.0 percentage points), and Las 
Vegas-Henderson-Paradise, NV (+2.6 points). The largest rate decrease occurred in Portland-
Vancouver-Hillsboro, OR-WA (-0.6 percentage point).

Metropolitan Division Unemployment (Not Seasonally Adjusted)

Eleven of the most populous metropolitan areas are made up of 38 metropolitan divisions,
which are essentially separately identifiable employment centers. In March, Boston-
Cambridge-Newton, MA, had the lowest unemployment rate among the divisions, 2.7 percent.
Philadelphia, PA, and Los Angeles-Long Beach-Glendale, CA, had the highest division rates,
6.6 percent and 6.4 percent, respectively. (See table 2.)

In March, 29 metropolitan divisions had over-the-year unemployment rate increases, 6 had
decreases, and 3 had no change. Seattle-Bellevue-Everett, WA, had the largest rate
increase (+2.5 percentage points), followed by Los Angeles-Long Beach-Glendale, CA, and
Philadelphia, PA (+1.9 points each). The largest rate decline occurred in Elgin, IL (-1.7
percentage points).

Metropolitan Area Nonfarm Employment (Not Seasonally Adjusted)

In March, 21 metropolitan areas had over-the-year increases in nonfarm payroll employment,
1 had a decrease, and 367 were essentially unchanged. The largest over-the-year employment
increases occurred in Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington, TX (+86,200), Houston-The Woodlands-
Sugar Land, TX (+59,000), and Phoenix-Mesa-Scottsdale, AZ (+58,100). The largest over-the-
year percentage gains in employment occurred in Yuba City, CA (+8.2 percent), and Boise 
City, ID, and Nashville-Davidson--Murfreesboro--Franklin, TN (+2.9 percent each). 
Employment fell in Lake Charles, LA (-6,300, or -5.4 percent). (See table 3.)

Over the year, nonfarm employment rose in 16 of the 51 metropolitan areas with a 2010 
Census population of 1 million or more, while employment was essentially unchanged in 35
areas. The largest over-the-year percentage increases in employment in these large
metropolitan areas occurred in Nashville-Davidson--Murfreesboro--Franklin, TN (+2.9 
percent), Phoenix-Mesa-Scottsdale, AZ (+2.7 percent), and Denver-Aurora-Lakewood, CO 
(+2.6 percent). 

Metropolitan Division Nonfarm Employment (Not Seasonally Adjusted)

In March, nonfarm payroll employment increased in 5 of the 38 metropolitan divisions over
the year and was essentially unchanged in 33 divisions. The largest over-the-year increase
in employment among the metropolitan divisions occurred in Dallas-Plano-Irving, TX 
(+77,500), followed by Los Angeles-Long Beach-Glendale, CA (+41,300), and Washington-Arlington-
Alexandria, DC-VA-MD-WV (+34,900). (See table 4.)

The largest over-the-year percentage increases in employment occurred in Dallas-Plano-
Irving, TX (+2.9 percent), Philadelphia, PA (+2.2 percent), and Seattle-Bellevue-Everett,
WA (+1.6 percent). 

_____________
The State Employment and Unemployment news release for April is scheduled to be released
on Friday, May 22, 2020, at 10:00 a.m. (EDT). The Metropolitan Area Employment and 
Unemployment news release for April is scheduled to be released on Wednesday, June 3, 2020,
at 10:00 a.m. (EDT).


  __________________________________________________________________________________
 |										    |
 |		     Coronavirus (COVID-19) Impact on March 2020		    |
 |		       Establishment and Household Survey Data			    |
 |										    |
 | March data from the establishment and household surveys broadly reflect some of  |
 | the early effects of the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic on the labor market. We |
 | cannot precisely quantify the effects of the pandemic on state and local job     |
 | markets in March. However, it is clear that the decreases in employment and      |
 | hours and the increases in unemployment can be ascribed to effects of the        |
 | illness and efforts to contain the virus. It is important to keep in mind that   |
 | the March survey reference periods for both surveys predated many coronavirus-   |
 | related business and school closures in the second half of the month. More       |
 | information on the impacts of the coronavirus on the surveys is available in the |
 | “Frequently asked questions” document at					    |
 | www.bls.gov/cps/employment-situation-covid19-faq-march-2020.pdf.		    |
 |										    |
 | For the March 2020 estimates of household employment and unemployment from the   |
 | Local Area Unemployment Statistics (LAUS) program, BLS determined that no        |
 | modifications to the estimation procedures for substate areas were necessary. At |
 | the state level, however, the LAUS program implemented level-shift outliers in   |
 | employment and/or unemployment in many modeled areas based on statistical        |
 | evaluation of movements in each area's Current Population Survey inputs. These   |
 | level shifts preserved movements in the published estimates that the models      |
 | otherwise would have discounted, without requiring changes to how the models     |
 | create estimates at other points in the time series. Household data for substate |
 | areas are controlled to the employment and unemployment totals for their         |
 | respective model-based areas. Hence, the substate area estimates for March       |
 | reflect level-shift outliers, where implemented, in the Current Population       |
 | Survey inputs for their model-based control areas.				    |
 |										    |
 | Due to the effects of the illness and efforts to contain the virus, Puerto Rico  |
 | was not able to conduct normal data collection for its household survey in March |
 | 2020; therefore, its data were not published. Household data for Puerto Rico are |
 | not modeled, but rather are derived from a monthly household survey similar to   |
 | the Current Population Survey. In the absence of total controls for March, data  |
 | for substate areas in Puerto Rico could not be produced.			    |
 |										    |
 | In anticipation of issues due to the pandemic, BLS carefully reviewed all        |
 | estimation and methodological procedures for the establishment survey, which     |
 | included the review of data, estimation processes, the application of the        |
 | birth/death model, and seasonal adjustment. No changes were made; the estimation |
 | process for the production of the March 2020 establishment survey estimates      |
 | followed standard protocol. Outlier detection is a usual part of the seasonal    |
 | adjustment process. Outliers for seasonal adjustment are identified in the       |
 | establishment survey seasonal adjustment documentation, which is available at    |
 | www.bls.gov/sae/seasonal-adjustment/home.htm.				    |
 |__________________________________________________________________________________|




Technical Note
 
   This news release presents civilian labor force and unemployment data from the
Local Area Unemployment Statistics (LAUS) program (tables 1 and 2) for 389
metropolitan statistical areas and metropolitan New England City and Town Areas
(NECTAs), plus 7 areas in Puerto Rico. Estimates for 38 metropolitan and NECTA
divisions also are presented. Nonfarm payroll employment estimates from the
Current Employment Statistics (CES) program (tables 3 and 4) are provided for
the same areas. State estimates were previously published in the news release
State Employment and Unemployment, and are republished in this news release for
ease of reference. The LAUS and CES programs are both federal-state cooperative
endeavors.

Civilian labor force and unemployment--from the LAUS program

   Definitions. The civilian labor force and unemployment data are based on the
same concepts and definitions as those used for the official national estimates
obtained from the Current Population Survey (CPS), a sample survey of households
that is conducted for the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) by the U.S. Census
Bureau. The LAUS program measures employed persons and unemployed persons on a
place-of-residence basis.  The universe for each is the civilian noninstitutional
population 16 years of age and older. Employed persons are those who did any work
at all for pay or profit in the reference week (typically the week including the
12th of the month) or worked 15 hours or more without pay in a family business or
farm, plus those not working who had a job from which they were temporarily absent,
whether or not paid, for such reasons as labor-management dispute, illness, or
vacation. Unemployed persons are those who were not employed during the reference
week (based on the definition above), had actively looked for a job sometime in the
4-week period ending with the reference week, and were currently available for work;
persons on layoff expecting recall need not be looking for work to be counted as
unemployed. The civilian labor force is the sum of employed and unemployed persons.
The unemployment rate is the number of unemployed as a percent of the civilian labor
force.

   Method of estimation. Estimates for states, the District of Columbia, the Los
Angeles-Long Beach-Glendale metropolitan division, and New York City are produced
using time-series models with real-time benchmarking to national CPS totals. Model-
based estimates are also produced for the following areas and their respective
balances: the Chicago-Naperville-Arlington Heights, IL Metropolitan Division;
Cleveland-Elyria, OH Metropolitan Statistical Area; Detroit-Warren-Dearborn, MI
Metropolitan Statistical Area; Miami-Miami Beach-Kendall, FL Metropolitan Division;
and Seattle-Bellevue-Everett, WA Metropolitan Division. Modeling improves the
statistical basis of the estimation for these areas and provides important tools
for analysis, such as measures of errors and seasonally adjusted series. For all
other substate areas in this news release, estimates are prepared through indirect
estimation procedures using a building-block approach.  Estimates of employed
persons, which are based largely on “place of work” estimates from the CES program,
are adjusted to refer to place of residence as used in the CPS. Unemployment
estimates are aggregates of persons previously employed in industries covered by
state unemployment insurance (UI) laws and entrants to the labor force from the
CPS. The substate estimates of employment and unemployment, which geographically
exhaust the entire state, are adjusted proportionally to ensure that they add to
the independently estimated model-based area totals. A detailed description of the
estimation procedures is available from BLS upon request.

   Annual revisions. Civilian labor force and unemployment data shown for the prior
year reflect adjustments made at the beginning of each year, usually implemented with
the issuance of January estimates. The adjusted model-based estimates typically reflect
updated population data from the U.S. Census Bureau, any revisions in other input
data sources, and model re-estimation. All substate estimates then are re-estimated
using updated inputs and adjusted to add to the revised model-based totals.  In early
2015, a new generation of time-series models was implemented, resulting in the
replacement of data back to the series beginnings. At the same time, enhancements were
made to the substate estimation methodology, and more timely inputs from the American
Community Survey were incorporated.

Employment--from the CES program 

   Definitions. Employment data refer to persons on establishment payrolls who receive
pay for any part of the pay period that includes the 12th of the month. Persons are
counted at their place of work rather than at their place of residence; those appearing
on more than one payroll are counted on each payroll. Industries are classified on the
basis of their principal activity in accordance with the 2017 version of the North
American Industry Classification System.

   Method of estimation. CES State and Area employment data are produced using several
estimation procedures. Where possible these data are produced using a "weighted link
relative" estimation technique in which a ratio of current-month weighted employment
to that of the previous-month weighted employment is computed from a sample of
establishments reporting for both months. The estimates of employment for the current
month are then obtained by multiplying these ratios by the previous month's employment
estimates. The weighted link relative technique is utilized for data series where the
sample size meets certain statistical criteria.

   For some employment series, the sample of establishments is very small or highly
variable. In these cases, a model-based approach is used in estimation. These models
use the direct sample estimates (described above), combined with forecasts of historical
(benchmarked) data to decrease volatility in estimation. Two different models
(Fay-Herriot Model and Small Domain Model) are used depending on the industry level
being estimated. For more detailed information about each model, refer to the BLS
Handbook of Methods.

   Annual revisions.  Employment estimates are adjusted annually to a complete count
of jobs, called benchmarks, derived principally from tax reports that are submitted by
employers who are covered under state unemployment insurance (UI) laws. The benchmark
information is used to adjust the monthly estimates between the new benchmark and the
preceding one and also to establish the level of employment for the new benchmark month.
Thus, the benchmarking process establishes the level of employment, and the sample is used
to measure the month-to-month changes in the level for the subsequent months.

   Seasonal adjustment. Payroll employment data are seasonally adjusted for states,
metropolitan areas, and metropolitan divisions at the total nonfarm level. For states,
data are seasonally adjusted at the supersector level as well. Revisions to historical
data for the most recent 5 years are made once a year, coincident with annual benchmark
adjustments.

   Payroll employment data are seasonally adjusted concurrently, using all available
estimates including those for the current month, to develop sample-based seasonal factors.
Concurrent sample-based factors are created every month for the current month's preliminary
estimate as well as the previous month's final estimate in order to incorporate real-time
estimates. 

Reliability of the estimates

   The estimates presented in this news release are based on sample surveys, administrative data,
and modeling and, thus, are subject to sampling and other types of errors. Sampling error
is a measure of sampling variability—that is, variation that occurs by chance because a
sample rather than the entire population is surveyed. Survey data also are subject to
nonsampling errors, such as those which can be introduced into the data collection and
processing operations. Estimates not directly derived from sample surveys are subject to
additional errors resulting from the specific estimation processes used. The sums of
individual items may not always equal the totals shown in the same tables because of
rounding.

Use of error measures

   Civilian labor force and unemployment estimates. Measures of sampling error are not
available for metropolitan areas or metropolitan divisions. Model-based error measures for
states are available on the BLS website at www.bls.gov/laus/lastderr.htm. Measures of
nonsampling error are not available for the areas contained in this news release. Information
on recent data revisions for states and local areas is available online at
www.bls.gov/lau/launews1.htm.

   Employment estimates. Changes in metropolitan area nonfarm payroll employment are cited
in the analysis of this news release only if they have been determined to be statistically
significant at the 90-percent confidence level.  Measures of sampling error for the total
nonfarm employment series are available for metropolitan areas and metropolitan divisions
at www.bls.gov/web/laus/790stderr.htm. Measures of sampling error for more detailed series
at the area and division level are available upon request. Measures of sampling error for
states  at the supersector level and for the private service-providing, goods-producing,
total private and total nonfarm levels are available on the BLS website at 
www.bls.gov/web/laus/790stderr.htm. Information on recent benchmark revisions
is available online at www.bls.gov/web/laus/benchmark.pdf.

Area definitions

   The substate area data published in this news release reflect the delineations issued by the
U.S. Office of Management and Budget on April 10, 2018. Data reflect New England City and
Town Area (NECTA) definitions, rather than county-based definitions, in the six New England
States. A detailed list of the geographic definitions is available online at
www.bls.gov/lau/lausmsa.htm.

Additional information

   Estimates of unadjusted and seasonally adjusted civilian labor force and unemployment
data for states and seven substate areas are available in the news release State Employment
and Unemployment. Estimates of civilian labor force and unemployment for all states,
metropolitan areas, counties, cities with a population of 25,000 or more, and other areas
used in the administration of various federal economic assistance programs are available
on the Internet at www.bls.gov/lau/. Employment data from the CES program are available on
the BLS website at www.bls.gov/sae/.

   Information in this news release will be made available to sensory impaired individuals
upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay Service: (800) 877-8339. 




LABOR FORCE DATA
NOT SEASONALLY ADJUSTED

Table 1. Civilian labor force and unemployment by state and metropolitan area
State and area Civilian labor force Unemployed
February March Number Percent of labor force
2019 2020 2019 2020(p) February March February March
2019 2020 2019 2020(p) 2019 2020 2019 2020(p)

Alabama

2,243,685 2,230,950 2,246,183 2,205,479 85,826 64,214 77,314 73,858 3.8 2.9 3.4 3.3

Anniston-Oxford-Jacksonville

46,263 45,942 46,300 45,447 2,084 1,566 1,858 1,786 4.5 3.4 4.0 3.9

Auburn-Opelika

76,301 77,018 76,430 75,892 2,634 1,875 2,522 2,305 3.5 2.4 3.3 3.0

Birmingham-Hoover

554,591 550,083 554,480 544,075 19,157 14,016 17,341 16,416 3.5 2.5 3.1 3.0

Daphne-Fairhope-Foley

95,901 95,924 97,617 95,672 3,447 2,506 3,149 2,873 3.6 2.6 3.2 3.0

Decatur

72,456 72,279 72,688 71,386 2,483 1,807 2,235 2,077 3.4 2.5 3.1 2.9

Dothan

64,354 63,818 64,509 63,039 2,540 1,799 2,282 2,100 3.9 2.8 3.5 3.3

Florence-Muscle Shoals

66,134 65,783 66,296 64,989 2,903 2,152 2,491 2,363 4.4 3.3 3.8 3.6

Gadsden

42,937 42,803 43,087 42,565 1,784 1,680 1,653 1,884 4.2 3.9 3.8 4.4

Huntsville

228,783 230,247 229,485 226,854 7,466 5,369 6,888 6,326 3.3 2.3 3.0 2.8

Mobile

190,591 188,250 189,946 186,280 9,169 7,102 7,911 7,854 4.8 3.8 4.2 4.2

Montgomery

173,972 171,122 173,681 169,180 6,551 4,989 5,911 5,744 3.8 2.9 3.4 3.4

Tuscaloosa

119,428 119,890 118,770 118,351 4,143 3,030 3,814 3,621 3.5 2.5 3.2 3.1

Alaska

345,233 338,951 345,061 341,081 24,287 19,898 23,455 19,932 7.0 5.9 6.8 5.8

Anchorage

194,168 190,982 194,115 191,887 11,775 9,566 11,583 10,012 6.1 5.0 6.0 5.2

Fairbanks

44,307 43,236 44,388 43,769 2,759 2,155 2,674 2,174 6.2 5.0 6.0 5.0

Arizona

3,510,890 3,633,324 3,521,017 3,597,808 165,408 158,258 165,883 192,349 4.7 4.4 4.7 5.3

Flagstaff

76,069 77,685 76,714 76,959 4,722 4,494 4,541 5,436 6.2 5.8 5.9 7.1

Lake Havasu City-Kingman

86,395 89,571 86,827 88,181 4,961 4,903 5,008 5,902 5.7 5.5 5.8 6.7

Phoenix-Mesa-Scottsdale

2,468,232 2,565,813 2,470,520 2,536,443 104,111 98,781 104,295 119,772 4.2 3.8 4.2 4.7

Prescott

104,703 108,048 105,992 106,256 4,755 4,583 4,776 5,460 4.5 4.2 4.5 5.1

Sierra Vista-Douglas

50,253 52,169 50,888 51,977 2,946 2,824 2,988 3,359 5.9 5.4 5.9 6.5

Tucson

496,016 507,744 497,331 501,837 22,278 21,505 22,254 26,029 4.5 4.2 4.5 5.2

Yuma

97,638 98,881 99,841 101,957 12,042 11,871 12,438 15,043 12.3 12.0 12.5 14.8

Arkansas

1,356,816 1,363,390 1,358,425 1,381,124 55,054 53,718 47,229 65,021 4.1 3.9 3.5 4.7

Fayetteville-Springdale-Rogers

277,382 283,912 278,115 286,927 8,294 7,637 6,984 9,605 3.0 2.7 2.5 3.3

Fort Smith

118,596 118,469 118,290 119,035 4,949 4,529 4,131 4,959 4.2 3.8 3.5 4.2

Hot Springs

41,300 41,317 41,557 41,870 1,747 1,669 1,498 2,003 4.2 4.0 3.6 4.8

Jonesboro

65,031 66,962 65,204 67,744 2,163 2,115 1,826 2,629 3.3 3.2 2.8 3.9

Little Rock-North Little Rock-Conway

358,936 355,568 359,094 358,847 12,898 12,862 11,205 15,857 3.6 3.6 3.1 4.4

Pine Bluff

34,987 34,847 34,840 35,183 1,974 2,003 1,766 2,416 5.6 5.7 5.1 6.9

California

19,429,914 19,528,486 19,393,147 19,217,893 867,237 842,362 864,141 1,084,652 4.5 4.3 4.5 5.6

Bakersfield

391,062 395,841 383,237 392,406 35,834 35,982 36,681 46,906 9.2 9.1 9.6 12.0

Chico

100,619 98,511 100,421 98,840 6,248 5,358 6,150 6,670 6.2 5.4 6.1 6.7

El Centro

71,306 71,651 71,080 73,189 12,203 12,211 11,769 15,029 17.1 17.0 16.6 20.5

Fresno

451,352 453,973 450,465 457,432 40,125 38,508 40,314 49,558 8.9 8.5 8.9 10.8

Hanford-Corcoran

58,793 58,494 58,193 58,945 5,794 5,738 5,730 7,226 9.9 9.8 9.8 12.3

Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim

6,759,581 6,846,736 6,741,839 6,607,386 282,125 283,762 278,628 378,309 4.2 4.1 4.1 5.7

Madera

63,514 63,995 61,899 63,175 5,200 5,138 5,259 6,652 8.2 8.0 8.5 10.5

Merced

117,498 115,543 117,654 117,622 12,220 12,014 12,086 15,121 10.4 10.4 10.3 12.9

Modesto

242,617 243,980 243,865 245,588 17,101 15,987 17,148 20,333 7.0 6.6 7.0 8.3

Napa

73,037 73,598 73,303 73,175 2,469 2,359 2,415 2,920 3.4 3.2 3.3 4.0

Oxnard-Thousand Oaks-Ventura

425,987 424,746 425,351 422,948 16,646 15,771 16,228 19,540 3.9 3.7 3.8 4.6

Redding

73,756 73,409 74,448 73,398 4,469 3,998 4,273 5,009 6.1 5.4 5.7 6.8

Riverside-San Bernardino-Ontario

2,075,608 2,074,360 2,073,615 2,062,576 87,548 82,754 87,684 105,184 4.2 4.0 4.2 5.1

Sacramento--Roseville--Arden-Arcade

1,103,559 1,104,852 1,102,678 1,096,901 44,503 41,469 44,656 51,844 4.0 3.8 4.0 4.7

Salinas

214,512 217,071 215,483 220,845 22,232 21,755 21,183 26,169 10.4 10.0 9.8 11.8

San Diego-Carlsbad

1,594,441 1,595,340 1,590,122 1,577,646 54,539 51,075 54,887 64,640 3.4 3.2 3.5 4.1

San Francisco-Oakland-Hayward

2,588,395 2,589,037 2,586,967 2,559,043 72,462 68,796 73,419 88,322 2.8 2.7 2.8 3.5

San Jose-Sunnyvale-Santa Clara

1,085,980 1,086,926 1,085,203 1,074,156 29,995 29,133 30,553 36,821 2.8 2.7 2.8 3.4

San Luis Obispo-Paso Robles-Arroyo Grande

140,695 142,474 141,534 141,399 4,453 4,273 4,430 5,370 3.2 3.0 3.1 3.8

Santa Cruz-Watsonville

140,963 141,054 141,236 141,653 9,348 9,004 9,304 11,256 6.6 6.4 6.6 7.9

Santa Maria-Santa Barbara

215,022 215,493 216,468 215,047 10,354 9,881 10,093 12,006 4.8 4.6 4.7 5.6

Santa Rosa

258,236 258,841 258,219 256,596 7,842 7,346 7,904 9,312 3.0 2.8 3.1 3.6

Stockton-Lodi

328,182 326,471 327,051 328,443 22,482 21,605 22,323 27,108 6.9 6.6 6.8 8.3

Vallejo-Fairfield

209,971 208,513 209,461 208,176 8,984 8,172 8,921 10,394 4.3 3.9 4.3 5.0

Visalia-Porterville

204,501 205,441 202,617 207,884 23,446 23,618 23,793 30,046 11.5 11.5 11.7 14.5

Yuba City

74,599 77,472 75,078 78,459 6,615 6,298 6,714 7,885 8.9 8.1 8.9 10.0

Colorado

3,117,842 3,190,122 3,114,112 3,129,300 102,050 93,770 97,015 150,104 3.3 2.9 3.1 4.8

Boulder

196,069 199,780 196,468 196,115 5,337 4,889 5,121 7,761 2.7 2.4 2.6 4.0

Colorado Springs

352,678 360,387 352,349 356,814 13,692 12,308 13,055 19,769 3.9 3.4 3.7 5.5

Denver-Aurora-Lakewood

1,659,738 1,704,084 1,655,557 1,676,811 51,662 47,563 49,469 76,973 3.1 2.8 3.0 4.6

Fort Collins

202,261 209,210 202,331 204,316 5,873 5,527 5,487 8,635 2.9 2.6 2.7 4.2

Grand Junction

76,358 76,746 76,563 75,720 3,340 3,166 2,985 4,765 4.4 4.1 3.9 6.3

Greeley

166,737 172,414 166,439 168,650 5,045 4,914 4,810 7,722 3.0 2.9 2.9 4.6

Pueblo

75,819 76,588 75,855 76,329 3,680 3,304 3,489 5,249 4.9 4.3 4.6 6.9

Connecticut

1,894,430 1,917,529 1,896,122 1,912,049 81,710 84,348 75,987 74,997 4.3 4.4 4.0 3.9

Bridgeport-Stamford-Norwalk

459,821 463,720 461,058 463,373 19,840 20,796 18,325 18,456 4.3 4.5 4.0 4.0

Danbury

105,287 106,524 105,751 106,172 4,067 4,272 3,721 3,688 3.9 4.0 3.5 3.5

Hartford-West Hartford-East Hartford

626,404 634,692 626,733 633,050 26,769 27,574 25,003 24,467 4.3 4.3 4.0 3.9

New Haven

326,228 332,776 325,658 330,379 13,214 13,651 12,474 12,168 4.1 4.1 3.8 3.7

Norwich-New London-Westerly

140,380 141,889 140,515 141,713 6,124 6,242 5,583 5,842 4.4 4.4 4.0 4.1

Waterbury

111,409 111,973 111,541 111,750 5,999 6,158 5,623 5,591 5.4 5.5 5.0 5.0

Delaware

483,342 488,387 486,109 478,704 18,515 19,762 17,869 23,972 3.8 4.0 3.7 5.0

Dover

79,061 80,309 79,490 79,017 3,235 3,505 3,115 4,383 4.1 4.4 3.9 5.5

Salisbury(1)

187,096 191,435 188,813 189,098 10,996 10,407 9,914 10,988 5.9 5.4 5.3 5.8

District of Columbia

409,166 419,329 409,447 421,784 24,537 21,660 22,965 24,786 6.0 5.2 5.6 5.9

Washington-Arlington-Alexandria

3,435,866 3,514,011 3,447,284 3,504,894 118,320 104,522 112,028 114,660 3.4 3.0 3.2 3.3

Florida

10,273,434 10,481,896 10,264,830 10,328,420 337,903 297,542 330,228 442,448 3.3 2.8 3.2 4.3

Cape Coral-Fort Myers

349,163 356,562 350,207 353,717 11,364 10,613 11,119 15,051 3.3 3.0 3.2 4.3

Crestview-Fort Walton Beach-Destin

124,600 127,318 126,952 128,359 3,763 3,460 3,631 4,785 3.0 2.7 2.9 3.7

Deltona-Daytona Beach-Ormond Beach

300,655 305,394 300,575 303,104 11,132 10,384 10,736 14,836 3.7 3.4 3.6 4.9

Gainesville

146,187 149,879 146,139 148,677 4,504 4,059 4,406 5,736 3.1 2.7 3.0 3.9

Homosassa Springs

47,685 47,719 47,766 47,881 2,458 2,279 2,339 3,168 5.2 4.8 4.9 6.6

Jacksonville

771,574 797,968 772,005 788,159 25,323 23,664 24,599 33,804 3.3 3.0 3.2 4.3

Lakeland-Winter Haven

301,377 309,082 303,081 308,580 11,568 10,700 11,280 15,113 3.8 3.5 3.7 4.9

Miami-Fort Lauderdale-West Palm Beach

3,156,716 3,195,794 3,131,428 3,090,790 94,709 73,433 94,725 124,579 3.0 2.3 3.0 4.0

Naples-Immokalee-Marco Island

184,896 185,284 184,789 184,708 5,599 5,277 5,408 7,363 3.0 2.8 2.9 4.0

North Port-Sarasota-Bradenton

369,756 377,051 370,723 373,783 11,947 11,150 11,685 15,772 3.2 3.0 3.2 4.2

Ocala

136,477 138,944 136,656 138,446 5,618 5,148 5,410 7,220 4.1 3.7 4.0 5.2

Orlando-Kissimmee-Sanford

1,344,337 1,379,082 1,347,674 1,368,636 42,406 39,442 41,143 56,835 3.2 2.9 3.1 4.2

Palm Bay-Melbourne-Titusville

279,454 286,715 279,950 283,811 9,588 8,885 9,251 12,587 3.4 3.1 3.3 4.4

Panama City

89,146 87,763 89,746 88,533 4,547 2,890 4,064 3,938 5.1 3.3 4.5 4.4

Pensacola-Ferry Pass-Brent

225,037 230,631 226,799 230,744 7,466 7,078 7,234 9,959 3.3 3.1 3.2 4.3

Port St. Lucie

217,954 223,119 218,557 222,963 8,446 7,762 8,054 11,012 3.9 3.5 3.7 4.9

Punta Gorda

72,267 73,904 72,270 73,435 2,782 2,599 2,700 3,576 3.8 3.5 3.7 4.9

Sebastian-Vero Beach

65,459 66,698 65,690 66,358 2,563 2,371 2,494 3,388 3.9 3.6 3.8 5.1

Sebring

36,287 36,683 36,197 36,691 1,731 1,627 1,645 2,236 4.8 4.4 4.5 6.1

Tallahassee

194,374 196,607 194,590 195,301 6,300 5,781 6,163 8,229 3.2 2.9 3.2 4.2

Tampa-St. Petersburg-Clearwater

1,538,418 1,581,737 1,539,396 1,567,765 51,801 47,738 50,297 67,639 3.4 3.0 3.3 4.3

The Villages

32,434 33,349 32,592 33,395 1,608 1,533 1,589 2,098 5.0 4.6 4.9 6.3

Georgia

5,107,139 5,187,312 5,102,935 5,160,139 193,831 181,223 182,864 223,659 3.8 3.5 3.6 4.3

Albany

66,533 67,734 66,647 67,266 3,123 2,896 2,926 3,518 4.7 4.3 4.4 5.2

Athens-Clarke County

99,734 100,234 99,057 99,164 3,644 3,274 3,465 4,182 3.7 3.3 3.5 4.2

Atlanta-Sandy Springs-Roswell

3,079,343 3,139,975 3,076,301 3,125,711 111,282 104,683 106,344 130,298 3.6 3.3 3.5 4.2

Augusta-Richmond County

267,623 270,370 268,195 270,424 10,699 9,920 10,332 11,275 4.0 3.7 3.9 4.2

Brunswick

52,281 52,591 52,295 52,131 2,006 1,818 1,887 2,251 3.8 3.5 3.6 4.3

Columbus

124,270 123,578 124,449 122,569 5,479 4,857 5,183 5,887 4.4 3.9 4.2 4.8

Dalton

59,699 59,151 59,415 58,610 3,163 2,587 2,720 2,983 5.3 4.4 4.6 5.1

Gainesville

101,933 103,806 101,899 102,923 3,201 2,855 3,033 3,548 3.1 2.8 3.0 3.4

Hinesville

34,229 35,079 34,372 34,820 1,316 1,325 1,269 1,632 3.8 3.8 3.7 4.7

Macon-Bibb County

104,047 104,241 103,785 103,860 4,251 3,999 4,056 4,818 4.1 3.8 3.9 4.6

Rome

44,229 44,830 44,207 44,490 1,848 1,675 1,679 1,972 4.2 3.7 3.8 4.4

Savannah

190,161 189,838 190,089 188,968 6,668 6,322 6,366 7,893 3.5 3.3 3.3 4.2

Valdosta

63,872 64,811 64,050 63,919 2,500 2,390 2,346 2,861 3.9 3.7 3.7 4.5

Warner Robins

86,564 87,564 86,563 86,985 3,336 3,024 3,118 3,678 3.9 3.5 3.6 4.2

Hawaii

664,846 669,107 665,482 667,638 17,830 17,761 17,942 14,831 2.7 2.7 2.7 2.2

Kahului-Wailuku-Lahaina

86,562 87,084 86,596 86,602 2,376 2,308 2,278 1,843 2.7 2.7 2.6 2.1

Urban Honolulu

451,403 453,659 452,267 452,873 11,418 11,398 11,596 9,549 2.5 2.5 2.6 2.1

Idaho

868,778 891,314 870,361 892,318 32,131 27,457 30,707 25,820 3.7 3.1 3.5 2.9

Boise City

371,796 383,990 372,146 383,691 12,241 10,389 11,333 9,505 3.3 2.7 3.0 2.5

Coeur d'Alene

78,428 80,559 78,371 80,314 3,913 3,317 3,896 3,107 5.0 4.1 5.0 3.9

Idaho Falls

70,975 73,698 70,919 74,100 2,189 1,893 1,981 1,779 3.1 2.6 2.8 2.4

Lewiston

31,317 31,989 31,288 31,482 1,288 1,074 1,292 992 4.1 3.4 4.1 3.2

Pocatello

42,790 43,600 42,955 43,591 1,467 1,323 1,313 1,199 3.4 3.0 3.1 2.8

Twin Falls

52,916 53,577 53,020 53,430 1,785 1,628 1,695 1,475 3.4 3.0 3.2 2.8

Illinois

6,458,354 6,336,267 6,458,721 6,279,902 303,327 223,485 286,272 278,468 4.7 3.5 4.4 4.4

Bloomington

96,764 93,883 96,136 89,369 4,370 2,629 4,250 2,462 4.5 2.8 4.4 2.8

Carbondale-Marion

61,131 59,725 61,268 56,687 2,879 1,871 2,847 1,786 4.7 3.1 4.6 3.2

Champaign-Urbana

126,305 125,738 125,648 118,667 5,546 3,341 5,360 3,048 4.4 2.7 4.3 2.6

Chicago-Naperville-Elgin

4,869,718 4,802,144 4,874,596 4,829,975 217,245 171,435 207,130 232,660 4.5 3.6 4.2 4.8

Danville

33,311 32,271 33,329 30,618 1,959 1,311 1,898 1,159 5.9 4.1 5.7 3.8

Davenport-Moline-Rock Island(1)

192,815 190,763 194,893 186,059 9,238 7,721 9,331 7,791 4.8 4.0 4.8 4.2

Decatur

48,845 47,129 48,648 44,959 2,904 2,042 2,823 1,979 5.9 4.3 5.8 4.4

Kankakee

55,699 55,329 55,974 52,865 3,528 2,507 3,345 2,220 6.3 4.5 6.0 4.2

Peoria

176,450 170,205 176,517 161,255 10,147 7,092 9,722 6,344 5.8 4.2 5.5 3.9

Rockford

167,566 160,030 167,187 151,206 10,214 7,699 10,080 6,974 6.1 4.8 6.0 4.6

Springfield

108,376 105,227 108,413 100,556 5,340 3,417 5,102 3,082 4.9 3.2 4.7 3.1

Indiana

3,392,383 3,393,079 3,391,157 3,280,029 132,171 114,009 126,893 111,099 3.9 3.4 3.7 3.4

Bloomington

81,804 81,967 80,421 78,537 3,345 2,704 2,964 2,627 4.1 3.3 3.7 3.3

Columbus

44,987 45,236 44,883 43,584 1,411 1,128 1,268 1,098 3.1 2.5 2.8 2.5

Elkhart-Goshen

114,570 112,571 114,568 109,061 3,778 3,089 3,532 3,040 3.3 2.7 3.1 2.8

Evansville

164,849 164,115 164,962 159,387 5,881 5,118 5,520 5,291 3.6 3.1 3.3 3.3

Fort Wayne

218,125 220,040 217,598 211,695 7,701 7,349 7,138 6,758 3.5 3.3 3.3 3.2

Indianapolis-Carmel-Anderson

1,067,523 1,074,150 1,066,187 1,038,185 37,656 31,603 35,354 31,285 3.5 2.9 3.3 3.0

Kokomo

37,163 37,021 36,850 35,794 1,644 1,425 1,567 1,473 4.4 3.8 4.3 4.1

Lafayette-West Lafayette

114,711 120,058 114,256 115,772 3,960 3,406 3,627 3,394 3.5 2.8 3.2 2.9

Michigan City-La Porte

48,165 47,772 48,258 46,064 2,662 2,249 2,568 2,078 5.5 4.7 5.3 4.5

Muncie

54,642 54,905 54,766 53,280 2,465 2,177 2,294 2,119 4.5 4.0 4.2 4.0

South Bend-Mishawaka

162,195 161,923 162,045 157,139 6,741 5,911 6,479 5,912 4.2 3.7 4.0 3.8

Terre Haute

76,898 75,995 76,784 73,227 4,066 3,299 3,762 3,072 5.3 4.3 4.9 4.2

Iowa

1,717,025 1,734,341 1,723,627 1,709,397 53,763 54,585 55,431 65,723 3.1 3.1 3.2 3.8

Ames

59,627 59,598 59,940 58,685 986 996 1,040 1,303 1.7 1.7 1.7 2.2

Cedar Rapids

146,390 147,604 148,190 146,418 4,803 4,974 4,929 6,078 3.3 3.4 3.3 4.2

Des Moines-West Des Moines

359,714 365,231 362,782 359,940 11,231 10,805 11,743 12,986 3.1 3.0 3.2 3.6

Dubuque

56,095 57,069 56,576 55,855 1,796 1,941 1,845 2,284 3.2 3.4 3.3 4.1

Iowa City

98,838 98,838 99,727 97,246 2,070 2,070 2,159 2,675 2.1 2.1 2.2 2.8

Sioux City

92,914 94,152 93,403 92,755 2,974 3,058 3,029 3,532 3.2 3.2 3.2 3.8

Waterloo-Cedar Falls

90,558 90,131 91,216 89,180 2,792 3,019 2,899 3,787 3.1 3.3 3.2 4.2

Kansas

1,478,880 1,499,466 1,476,085 1,495,917 51,300 49,770 49,849 46,942 3.5 3.3 3.4 3.1

Lawrence

66,265 67,075 66,081 66,756 2,132 1,999 2,007 1,906 3.2 3.0 3.0 2.9

Manhattan

48,785 48,503 48,044 48,212 1,485 1,331 1,392 1,241 3.0 2.7 2.9 2.6

Topeka

118,831 119,934 118,945 119,624 4,569 4,322 4,386 3,926 3.8 3.6 3.7 3.3

Wichita

312,783 321,207 313,189 319,738 11,390 12,308 11,129 11,306 3.6 3.8 3.6 3.5

Kentucky

2,057,642 2,071,812 2,072,300 2,050,023 98,295 90,500 97,348 117,434 4.8 4.4 4.7 5.7

Bowling Green

83,897 84,862 84,829 84,101 3,835 3,333 3,729 4,568 4.6 3.9 4.4 5.4

Elizabethtown-Fort Knox

67,483 67,706 67,943 67,148 3,195 2,945 3,158 3,858 4.7 4.3 4.6 5.7

Lexington-Fayette

269,413 270,407 270,740 267,046 10,141 8,910 10,338 12,113 3.8 3.3 3.8 4.5

Louisville/Jefferson County

672,114 677,263 676,297 668,287 27,992 23,942 27,872 30,278 4.2 3.5 4.1 4.5

Owensboro

55,301 55,939 55,549 54,957 2,445 2,217 2,413 2,878 4.4 4.0 4.3 5.2

Louisiana

2,080,031 2,096,578 2,082,795 2,138,115 88,147 89,715 85,628 129,665 4.2 4.3 4.1 6.1

Alexandria

62,588 62,964 62,559 64,155 2,871 2,860 2,781 4,047 4.6 4.5 4.4 6.3

Baton Rouge

419,429 422,781 419,976 431,165 15,789 15,908 15,257 23,069 3.8 3.8 3.6 5.4

Hammond

53,534 54,463 53,752 55,653 2,592 2,576 2,506 3,768 4.8 4.7 4.7 6.8

Houma-Thibodaux

86,537 87,754 87,287 88,873 3,589 3,431 3,463 5,096 4.1 3.9 4.0 5.7

Lafayette

209,308 209,906 210,062 214,645 8,861 9,040 8,563 13,154 4.2 4.3 4.1 6.1

Lake Charles

109,682 107,321 111,079 109,082 3,822 4,292 3,744 6,159 3.5 4.0 3.4 5.6

Monroe

78,847 79,345 79,209 81,148 3,819 3,942 3,715 5,597 4.8 5.0 4.7 6.9

New Orleans-Metairie

591,143 599,055 588,563 607,407 23,160 23,262 22,611 33,773 3.9 3.9 3.8 5.6

Shreveport-Bossier City

184,915 185,752 185,334 189,635 8,304 8,486 8,083 12,201 4.5 4.6 4.4 6.4

Maine

684,088 687,867 685,242 686,903 27,128 29,459 26,477 25,820 4.0 4.3 3.9 3.8

Bangor

70,301 71,654 70,755 71,437 2,806 2,986 2,674 2,665 4.0 4.2 3.8 3.7

Lewiston-Auburn

55,257 55,945 55,697 56,069 2,048 2,143 2,064 1,869 3.7 3.8 3.7 3.3

Portland-South Portland

204,320 205,654 205,392 206,463 6,115 6,594 6,297 5,873 3.0 3.2 3.1 2.8

Maryland

3,231,432 3,272,916 3,239,714 3,276,709 129,713 116,012 121,415 113,156 4.0 3.5 3.7 3.5

Baltimore-Columbia-Towson

1,506,458 1,527,006 1,510,674 1,527,704 60,058 53,792 56,848 52,714 4.0 3.5 3.8 3.5

California-Lexington Park

57,097 58,016 57,357 58,168 2,142 1,884 2,008 1,788 3.8 3.2 3.5 3.1

Cumberland

45,162 45,304 45,305 45,208 2,618 2,477 2,370 2,499 5.8 5.5 5.2 5.5

Hagerstown-Martinsburg

131,491 133,933 131,857 133,396 5,969 5,031 5,477 5,153 4.5 3.8 4.2 3.9

Massachusetts

3,799,710 3,814,900 3,801,221 3,735,527 131,066 125,639 124,631 126,089 3.4 3.3 3.3 3.4

Barnstable Town

119,513 120,097 119,494 116,553 6,990 6,647 6,223 6,425 5.8 5.5 5.2 5.5

Boston-Cambridge-Nashua

2,817,367 2,834,871 2,822,786 2,779,608 84,372 82,066 81,485 83,330 3.0 2.9 2.9 3.0

Leominster-Gardner

81,335 81,342 81,173 79,574 3,382 3,282 3,224 3,245 4.2 4.0 4.0 4.1

New Bedford

87,221 86,703 86,534 84,328 4,863 4,651 4,417 4,435 5.6 5.4 5.1 5.3

Pittsfield

42,768 42,281 42,737 40,982 2,032 1,886 1,892 1,873 4.8 4.5 4.4 4.6

Springfield

380,904 382,036 380,460 373,854 16,068 15,257 15,188 14,406 4.2 4.0 4.0 3.9

Worcester

364,059 364,882 363,777 358,956 13,710 13,118 13,016 12,839 3.8 3.6 3.6 3.6

Michigan

4,932,764 4,953,202 4,937,472 4,904,442 222,644 179,595 228,961 207,897 4.5 3.6 4.6 4.2

Ann Arbor

199,435 203,704 199,992 199,466 5,897 4,448 6,251 4,790 3.0 2.2 3.1 2.4

Battle Creek

63,092 63,089 63,089 61,374 2,850 2,263 2,922 2,285 4.5 3.6 4.6 3.7

Bay City

50,311 49,951 50,299 48,577 2,848 2,303 2,775 2,296 5.7 4.6 5.5 4.7

Detroit-Warren-Dearborn

2,152,070 2,148,004 2,158,185 2,170,123 95,557 79,862 100,870 106,439 4.4 3.7 4.7 4.9

Flint

182,778 185,753 182,521 180,508 9,866 7,558 9,909 7,788 5.4 4.1 5.4 4.3

Grand Rapids-Wyoming

584,342 589,733 584,367 575,542 18,644 14,476 19,482 15,334 3.2 2.5 3.3 2.7

Jackson

74,632 75,042 74,845 73,295 3,214 2,555 3,205 2,574 4.3 3.4 4.3 3.5

Kalamazoo-Portage

169,945 171,608 170,301 166,657 6,677 5,304 6,924 5,406 3.9 3.1 4.1 3.2

Lansing-East Lansing

253,351 255,462 252,402 248,262 9,128 6,990 9,370 7,364 3.6 2.7 3.7 3.0

Midland

40,587 40,307 40,736 39,614 1,752 1,477 1,815 1,543 4.3 3.7 4.5 3.9

Monroe

76,073 75,999 75,770 73,870 3,536 2,568 3,263 2,478 4.6 3.4 4.3 3.4

Muskegon

76,792 77,865 76,784 75,904 3,649 2,921 3,707 3,091 4.8 3.8 4.8 4.1

Niles-Benton Harbor

72,944 74,034 73,588 72,468 3,490 2,784 3,427 2,721 4.8 3.8 4.7 3.8

Saginaw

87,153 87,086 87,158 84,903 4,843 3,821 4,738 3,814 5.6 4.4 5.4 4.5

Minnesota

3,086,374 3,104,185 3,090,439 3,065,289 120,118 111,049 121,301 118,542 3.9 3.6 3.9 3.9

Duluth

144,642 144,290 144,313 142,463 7,007 6,892 6,949 6,971 4.8 4.8 4.8 4.9

Mankato-North Mankato

61,679 63,207 61,837 62,807 1,975 1,788 1,986 1,943 3.2 2.8 3.2 3.1

Minneapolis-St. Paul-Bloomington

2,020,532 2,032,360 2,019,968 2,006,195 68,013 62,816 69,395 69,130 3.4 3.1 3.4 3.4

Rochester

123,679 124,671 124,500 123,020 4,207 3,923 4,356 4,183 3.4 3.1 3.5 3.4

St. Cloud

113,280 113,792 113,341 112,647 4,938 4,602 4,882 4,710 4.4 4.0 4.3 4.2

Mississippi

1,267,685 1,262,857 1,269,582 1,260,763 65,518 64,711 64,742 63,557 5.2 5.1 5.1 5.0

Gulfport-Biloxi-Pascagoula

161,846 163,202 161,912 162,057 8,726 8,465 8,546 8,185 5.4 5.2 5.3 5.1

Hattiesburg

68,422 68,425 67,923 68,139 3,174 3,088 3,098 3,023 4.6 4.5 4.6 4.4

Jackson

267,177 264,459 266,799 261,981 11,996 11,852 12,200 11,899 4.5 4.5 4.6 4.5

Missouri

3,064,263 3,091,488 3,068,119 3,102,435 114,401 115,101 112,909 139,489 3.7 3.7 3.7 4.5

Cape Girardeau

48,424 48,940 48,295 48,787 1,629 1,672 1,625 2,107 3.4 3.4 3.4 4.3

Columbia

98,958 99,179 99,258 99,410 2,585 2,517 2,620 2,950 2.6 2.5 2.6 3.0

Jefferson City

74,508 74,935 74,795 74,728 2,401 2,316 2,253 2,706 3.2 3.1 3.0 3.6

Joplin

84,470 85,463 84,653 85,407 2,692 2,736 2,819 3,477 3.2 3.2 3.3 4.1

Kansas City

1,125,245 1,146,432 1,126,938 1,145,370 40,732 38,920 40,624 44,527 3.6 3.4 3.6 3.9

St. Joseph

63,249 63,310 63,165 63,280 2,278 2,273 2,263 2,615 3.6 3.6 3.6 4.1

St. Louis(2)

1,466,730 1,470,303 1,466,050 1,456,609 55,103 48,883 54,829 57,617 3.8 3.3 3.7 4.0

Springfield

234,868 237,666 234,712 238,975 7,235 7,615 7,294 9,235 3.1 3.2 3.1 3.9

Montana

526,862 535,223 527,703 535,923 22,234 22,474 22,162 22,012 4.2 4.2 4.2 4.1

Billings

87,290 87,619 87,557 87,316 3,338 3,266 3,302 3,158 3.8 3.7 3.8 3.6

Great Falls

37,930 38,088 38,029 37,774 1,568 1,431 1,534 1,393 4.1 3.8 4.0 3.7

Missoula

63,570 64,456 63,711 64,121 2,480 2,570 2,475 2,525 3.9 4.0 3.9 3.9

Nebraska

1,025,913 1,041,996 1,029,235 1,057,184 34,201 31,420 34,777 45,607 3.3 3.0 3.4 4.3

Grand Island

43,671 44,049 44,039 44,527 1,538 1,549 1,556 2,093 3.5 3.5 3.5 4.7

Lincoln

185,619 189,362 185,335 191,621 5,445 5,013 5,594 7,276 2.9 2.6 3.0 3.8

Omaha-Council Bluffs

491,714 500,093 491,732 504,366 16,888 15,452 17,176 22,371 3.4 3.1 3.5 4.4

Nevada

1,532,073 1,572,996 1,530,663 1,567,365 64,458 59,543 62,206 100,845 4.2 3.8 4.1 6.4

Carson City

26,076 26,889 26,020 26,689 1,256 1,106 1,178 1,785 4.8 4.1 4.5 6.7

Las Vegas-Henderson-Paradise

1,124,004 1,154,132 1,122,507 1,150,593 47,691 44,754 46,519 77,257 4.2 3.9 4.1 6.7

Reno

255,753 263,834 254,720 260,810 9,789 8,516 9,139 13,767 3.8 3.2 3.6 5.3

New Hampshire

768,121 780,428 770,508 764,875 23,351 23,964 22,725 21,581 3.0 3.1 2.9 2.8

Dover-Durham

86,111 87,166 86,282 85,317 2,494 2,488 2,393 2,171 2.9 2.9 2.8 2.5

Manchester

123,241 125,204 124,071 122,507 3,442 3,519 3,359 3,160 2.8 2.8 2.7 2.6

Portsmouth

75,643 77,050 75,974 75,177 2,050 2,160 2,042 1,930 2.7 2.8 2.7 2.6

New Jersey

4,458,702 4,582,170 4,450,191 4,574,016 183,781 191,582 164,678 176,303 4.1 4.2 3.7 3.9

Atlantic City-Hammonton

119,234 121,288 119,237 121,369 7,311 7,718 6,531 7,095 6.1 6.4 5.5 5.8

Ocean City

39,834 41,867 39,870 41,434 4,843 5,077 4,340 4,725 12.2 12.1 10.9 11.4

Trenton

201,467 207,301 200,508 208,262 7,203 7,504 6,336 6,817 3.6 3.6 3.2 3.3

Vineland-Bridgeton

64,759 66,290 64,385 66,168 4,330 4,534 3,857 4,157 6.7 6.8 6.0 6.3

New Mexico

949,111 962,141 945,164 966,489 48,330 48,687 45,161 56,777 5.1 5.1 4.8 5.9

Albuquerque

434,108 438,909 432,327 440,980 20,338 20,331 19,036 23,527 4.7 4.6 4.4 5.3

Farmington

51,950 51,597 51,684 52,257 3,150 3,260 2,845 3,804 6.1 6.3 5.5 7.3

Las Cruces

97,519 98,887 97,029 99,221 6,054 6,194 5,823 7,487 6.2 6.3 6.0 7.5

Santa Fe

74,166 77,000 73,746 75,919 3,093 3,062 2,832 3,447 4.2 4.0 3.8 4.5

New York

9,542,016 9,566,614 9,529,122 9,437,901 433,666 375,715 400,570 417,788 4.5 3.9 4.2 4.4

Albany-Schenectady-Troy

446,904 455,958 446,382 452,212 18,825 17,551 17,339 18,458 4.2 3.8 3.9 4.1

Binghamton

106,518 107,247 106,651 106,526 5,768 5,717 5,350 5,918 5.4 5.3 5.0 5.6

Buffalo-Cheektowaga-Niagara Falls

538,717 543,348 539,734 541,459 27,105 26,590 24,820 28,037 5.0 4.9 4.6 5.2

Elmira

35,181 35,369 35,147 35,151 1,662 1,674 1,531 1,738 4.7 4.7 4.4 4.9

Glens Falls

58,096 58,928 57,634 58,345 3,295 3,000 3,071 3,225 5.7 5.1 5.3 5.5

Ithaca

51,018 50,354 50,805 49,538 1,946 1,781 1,790 1,812 3.8 3.5 3.5 3.7

Kingston

86,963 88,527 87,153 88,314 3,768 3,610 3,429 3,747 4.3 4.1 3.9 4.2

New York-Newark-Jersey City

9,945,367 10,035,662 9,938,360 9,927,084 418,254 371,702 384,067 396,979 4.2 3.7 3.9 4.0

Rochester

522,564 525,925 519,912 521,180 24,436 23,564 22,453 24,745 4.7 4.5 4.3 4.7

Syracuse

305,511 309,246 304,662 306,458 15,155 14,577 13,882 15,124 5.0 4.7 4.6 4.9

Utica-Rome

129,745 129,365 128,922 128,190 6,697 6,240 6,203 6,594 5.2 4.8 4.8 5.1

Watertown-Fort Drum

43,765 43,773 43,497 43,440 3,066 3,091 2,798 3,247 7.0 7.1 6.4 7.5

North Carolina

5,059,666 5,123,363 5,072,312 4,982,207 211,746 189,167 203,528 210,268 4.2 3.7 4.0 4.2

Asheville

237,382 239,152 237,524 230,062 8,153 7,319 7,872 8,225 3.4 3.1 3.3 3.6

Burlington

82,393 83,276 82,651 80,670 3,343 2,958 3,243 3,320 4.1 3.6 3.9 4.1

Charlotte-Concord-Gastonia

1,355,614 1,387,937 1,363,808 1,356,450 52,385 47,652 50,841 52,427 3.9 3.4 3.7 3.9

Durham-Chapel Hill

306,386 311,463 305,996 302,593 11,223 9,725 10,975 10,947 3.7 3.1 3.6 3.6

Fayetteville

149,598 149,056 150,025 145,629 8,089 7,283 7,700 8,029 5.4 4.9 5.1 5.5

Goldsboro

53,403 52,632 53,052 50,343 2,338 2,057 2,269 2,281 4.4 3.9 4.3 4.5

Greensboro-High Point

372,767 373,280 374,294 363,702 16,220 14,373 15,547 16,064 4.4 3.9 4.2 4.4

Greenville

91,076 90,938 91,455 88,093 3,975 3,515 3,847 3,904 4.4 3.9 4.2 4.4

Hickory-Lenoir-Morganton

175,720 176,955 176,254 172,391 6,979 6,087 6,761 6,839 4.0 3.4 3.8 4.0

Jacksonville

65,667 66,639 65,764 63,870 3,299 2,822 3,172 3,120 5.0 4.2 4.8 4.9

New Bern

51,864 52,120 51,967 50,074 2,300 1,933 2,210 2,145 4.4 3.7 4.3 4.3

Raleigh

726,131 744,440 730,024 725,933 26,655 23,608 26,073 26,549 3.7 3.2 3.6 3.7

Rocky Mount

66,245 65,259 65,658 62,609 3,588 3,095 3,389 3,414 5.4 4.7 5.2 5.5

Wilmington

152,241 155,557 152,254 149,971 6,202 5,400 5,926 5,949 4.1 3.5 3.9 4.0

Winston-Salem

332,108 333,708 333,192 324,766 12,971 11,747 12,552 13,144 3.9 3.5 3.8 4.0

North Dakota

399,102 400,739 399,926 401,671 12,206 11,145 12,136 10,918 3.1 2.8 3.0 2.7

Bismarck

66,922 67,510 67,023 67,271 2,393 2,118 2,343 1,955 3.6 3.1 3.5 2.9

Fargo

137,757 139,640 137,618 138,879 4,064 3,572 4,137 3,690 3.0 2.6 3.0 2.7

Grand Forks

53,542 53,620 53,891 53,434 1,741 1,615 1,749 1,730 3.3 3.0 3.2 3.2

Ohio

5,769,567 5,836,731 5,774,816 5,736,291 262,543 276,600 244,786 323,194 4.6 4.7 4.2 5.6

Akron

357,946 360,685 358,664 355,404 17,109 17,554 16,072 20,076 4.8 4.9 4.5 5.6

Canton-Massillon

197,649 200,017 198,500 197,901 10,055 10,744 9,710 12,100 5.1 5.4 4.9 6.1

Cincinnati

1,114,289 1,130,901 1,121,271 1,111,007 44,234 44,739 41,809 51,203 4.0 4.0 3.7 4.6

Cleveland-Elyria

1,043,109 1,036,852 1,036,143 1,004,579 49,655 52,645 44,343 73,812 4.8 5.1 4.3 7.3

Columbus

1,084,434 1,116,485 1,085,692 1,099,701 40,619 42,338 38,380 47,936 3.7 3.8 3.5 4.4

Dayton

385,884 392,235 387,323 389,120 16,373 16,920 15,269 18,929 4.2 4.3 3.9 4.9

Lima

47,626 48,093 47,731 47,548 2,046 2,346 1,912 2,699 4.3 4.9 4.0 5.7

Mansfield

52,266 52,506 52,230 51,525 2,579 2,732 2,449 3,087 4.9 5.2 4.7 6.0

Springfield

63,255 63,841 63,127 63,248 2,874 3,184 2,667 3,558 4.5 5.0 4.2 5.6

Toledo

302,460 304,984 302,558 300,035 14,377 14,577 13,470 16,350 4.8 4.8 4.5 5.4

Weirton-Steubenville(1)

50,570 50,798 50,288 50,588 3,182 3,232 2,875 3,528 6.3 6.4 5.7 7.0

Youngstown-Warren-Boardman

239,060 238,029 239,543 234,797 14,202 15,238 14,678 16,871 5.9 6.4 6.1 7.2

Oklahoma

1,834,246 1,835,093 1,837,114 1,835,178 63,821 55,185 59,370 50,773 3.5 3.0 3.2 2.8

Enid

27,289 26,518 27,032 26,030 865 789 832 748 3.2 3.0 3.1 2.9

Lawton

50,650 50,776 50,883 50,519 1,939 1,499 1,827 1,409 3.8 3.0 3.6 2.8

Oklahoma City

681,844 685,950 683,593 684,538 22,052 18,319 20,695 17,051 3.2 2.7 3.0 2.5

Tulsa

478,145 478,450 481,111 478,711 16,781 14,415 15,611 13,297 3.5 3.0 3.2 2.8

Oregon

2,098,128 2,100,525 2,096,772 2,105,533 95,571 78,843 94,455 81,057 4.6 3.8 4.5 3.8

Albany

59,152 58,878 58,877 59,113 3,109 2,494 2,959 2,660 5.3 4.2 5.0 4.5

Bend-Redmond

95,242 95,628 94,850 95,952 4,962 3,897 4,972 3,783 5.2 4.1 5.2 3.9

Corvallis

48,788 49,214 48,747 49,423 1,621 1,362 1,653 1,435 3.3 2.8 3.4 2.9

Eugene

180,902 182,398 181,248 183,121 8,648 7,060 8,734 7,331 4.8 3.9 4.8 4.0

Grants Pass

35,761 35,664 35,615 35,792 2,260 1,813 2,171 1,829 6.3 5.1 6.1 5.1

Medford

103,304 102,301 103,253 102,521 5,561 4,578 5,565 4,734 5.4 4.5 5.4 4.6

Portland-Vancouver-Hillsboro

1,324,686 1,335,977 1,324,868 1,332,501 53,765 46,168 53,953 47,275 4.1 3.5 4.1 3.5

Salem

200,324 201,531 200,439 201,902 9,480 8,015 9,414 8,125 4.7 4.0 4.7 4.0

Pennsylvania

6,442,370 6,558,725 6,431,249 6,503,958 287,000 333,814 275,015 391,377 4.5 5.1 4.3 6.0

Allentown-Bethlehem-Easton

439,745 447,234 439,923 444,220 20,167 22,149 19,563 25,866 4.6 5.0 4.4 5.8

Altoona

58,787 59,633 58,803 59,042 2,667 3,203 2,523 3,682 4.5 5.4 4.3 6.2

Bloomsburg-Berwick

42,759 43,587 42,681 43,415 2,077 2,282 1,933 2,783 4.9 5.2 4.5 6.4

Chambersburg-Waynesboro

77,261 79,274 76,848 77,939 2,925 3,710 2,847 4,225 3.8 4.7 3.7 5.4

East Stroudsburg

82,794 84,724 82,615 83,818 4,508 5,251 4,381 6,171 5.4 6.2 5.3 7.4

Erie

128,805 129,859 128,543 128,611 6,172 7,486 6,005 8,850 4.8 5.8 4.7 6.9

Gettysburg

55,508 55,499 55,159 54,688 1,954 2,104 1,694 2,299 3.5 3.8 3.1 4.2

Harrisburg-Carlisle

297,805 303,802 296,996 300,805 10,859 12,761 10,299 14,530 3.6 4.2 3.5 4.8

Johnstown

58,026 58,746 57,872 58,415 3,152 3,757 3,014 4,523 5.4 6.4 5.2 7.7

Lancaster

281,378 287,319 280,334 283,011 9,869 11,217 9,189 12,544 3.5 3.9 3.3 4.4

Lebanon

71,775 73,307 71,381 72,409 2,805 3,328 2,639 3,756 3.9 4.5 3.7 5.2

Philadelphia-Camden-Wilmington

3,105,899 3,171,805 3,104,354 3,143,922 128,609 142,899 122,249 160,704 4.1 4.5 3.9 5.1

Pittsburgh

1,204,304 1,223,707 1,202,821 1,216,609 54,608 64,016 51,853 75,798 4.5 5.2 4.3 6.2

Reading

214,502 219,323 213,819 216,603 9,427 10,904 8,968 12,729 4.4 5.0 4.2 5.9

Scranton--Wilkes-Barre--Hazleton

275,089 279,113 274,883 279,145 15,280 17,383 14,870 20,719 5.6 6.2 5.4 7.4

State College

80,520 82,197 80,926 81,778 2,670 3,141 2,452 3,612 3.3 3.8 3.0 4.4

Williamsport

57,079 57,434 56,557 57,251 2,961 3,497 2,929 4,226 5.2 6.1 5.2 7.4

York-Hanover

234,322 237,650 233,997 235,499 9,083 10,503 8,511 11,709 3.9 4.4 3.6 5.0

Rhode Island

552,145 558,430 549,669 562,326 23,490 22,198 21,490 28,453 4.3 4.0 3.9 5.1

Providence-Warwick

688,937 696,001 686,034 695,570 30,000 28,433 27,506 34,227 4.4 4.1 4.0 4.9

South Carolina

2,361,320 2,397,123 2,370,345 2,402,980 83,113 73,179 79,731 71,526 3.5 3.1 3.4 3.0

Charleston-North Charleston

391,809 399,546 394,408 398,663 11,579 10,161 11,375 9,993 3.0 2.5 2.9 2.5

Columbia

401,704 408,657 402,352 410,491 13,068 11,440 12,786 11,212 3.3 2.8 3.2 2.7

Florence

97,757 97,476 97,569 98,043 3,732 3,101 3,497 3,098 3.8 3.2 3.6 3.2

Greenville-Anderson-Mauldin

434,470 439,006 435,870 440,104 13,572 12,159 13,272 11,862 3.1 2.8 3.0 2.7

Hilton Head Island-Bluffton-Beaufort

88,566 91,895 89,229 91,451 2,926 2,556 2,834 2,459 3.3 2.8 3.2 2.7

Myrtle Beach-Conway-North Myrtle Beach

195,572 201,489 199,239 202,135 10,566 9,048 9,368 8,755 5.4 4.5 4.7 4.3

Spartanburg

164,589 166,567 165,801 167,707 5,116 4,739 4,995 4,678 3.1 2.8 3.0 2.8

Sumter

43,799 44,352 43,724 44,327 1,735 1,630 1,709 1,633 4.0 3.7 3.9 3.7

South Dakota

458,034 464,194 459,822 465,939 16,673 16,749 16,563 16,045 3.6 3.6 3.6 3.4

Rapid City

72,595 74,830 72,728 74,833 2,909 2,821 2,852 2,690 4.0 3.8 3.9 3.6

Sioux Falls

153,932 157,118 154,133 156,559 4,878 5,003 4,850 4,778 3.2 3.2 3.1 3.1

Tennessee

3,316,279 3,352,938 3,330,420 3,356,651 113,360 127,359 116,176 124,665 3.4 3.8 3.5 3.7

Chattanooga

276,435 279,726 277,039 280,932 9,673 9,962 9,320 10,344 3.5 3.6 3.4 3.7

Clarksville

116,166 119,038 116,624 118,931 4,928 5,284 5,036 5,761 4.2 4.4 4.3 4.8

Cleveland

58,559 61,008 58,339 60,764 2,063 2,300 2,144 2,361 3.5 3.8 3.7 3.9

Jackson

64,614 65,064 65,195 64,476 2,287 2,519 2,372 2,425 3.5 3.9 3.6 3.8

Johnson City

92,854 92,505 93,367 92,192 3,487 3,898 3,571 3,768 3.8 4.2 3.8 4.1

Kingsport-Bristol-Bristol

138,054 137,805 138,303 137,632 5,264 5,621 5,319 5,739 3.8 4.1 3.8 4.2

Knoxville

430,020 433,025 432,342 433,505 13,821 15,441 14,382 15,094 3.2 3.6 3.3 3.5

Memphis

640,813 640,744 642,790 642,198 26,097 27,918 26,549 27,824 4.1 4.4 4.1 4.3

Morristown

53,039 53,917 53,025 53,210 2,103 2,449 2,062 2,221 4.0 4.5 3.9 4.2

Nashville-Davidson--Murfreesboro--Franklin

1,076,676 1,099,619 1,082,608 1,102,976 27,421 30,873 29,556 31,364 2.5 2.8 2.7 2.8

Texas

14,001,465 14,283,348 13,976,212 14,075,576 515,242 508,138 489,883 666,301 3.7 3.6 3.5 4.7

Abilene

78,081 80,086 78,315 78,697 2,433 2,393 2,406 3,155 3.1 3.0 3.1 4.0

Amarillo

131,752 134,084 131,682 132,242 3,557 3,440 3,529 4,473 2.7 2.6 2.7 3.4

Austin-Round Rock

1,229,192 1,264,917 1,228,466 1,240,100 34,528 33,432 33,047 43,971 2.8 2.6 2.7 3.5

Beaumont-Port Arthur

175,149 175,185 174,312 173,879 9,850 9,580 9,137 13,099 5.6 5.5 5.2 7.5

Brownsville-Harlingen

166,709 169,117 166,421 168,477 9,818 9,824 8,985 12,451 5.9 5.8 5.4 7.4

College Station-Bryan

137,024 139,993 137,377 137,913 3,827 3,835 3,663 5,035 2.8 2.7 2.7 3.7

Corpus Christi

207,319 207,745 206,895 206,032 9,741 9,103 9,100 11,822 4.7 4.4 4.4 5.7

Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington

3,939,335 4,047,164 3,931,453 3,972,331 135,391 128,811 130,478 170,741 3.4 3.2 3.3 4.3

El Paso

365,270 371,033 363,698 366,160 14,783 14,265 13,933 18,242 4.0 3.8 3.8 5.0

Houston-The Woodlands-Sugar Land

3,430,158 3,494,246 3,416,311 3,449,838 135,643 134,536 127,436 176,566 4.0 3.9 3.7 5.1

Killeen-Temple

176,812 180,216 175,929 178,417 7,172 6,742 6,701 8,678 4.1 3.7 3.8 4.9

Laredo

118,668 120,300 118,259 118,885 4,708 4,737 4,430 6,131 4.0 3.9 3.7 5.2

Longview

99,208 98,817 99,221 97,363 3,767 4,029 3,628 5,151 3.8 4.1 3.7 5.3

Lubbock

163,208 164,394 163,213 161,817 4,709 4,557 5,024 5,909 2.9 2.8 3.1 3.7

McAllen-Edinburg-Mission

353,073 362,658 352,114 359,818 22,462 24,346 20,245 30,715 6.4 6.7 5.7 8.5

Midland

110,021 111,020 109,512 108,995 2,300 2,593 2,238 3,377 2.1 2.3 2.0 3.1

Odessa

88,895 88,372 88,268 86,479 2,236 2,927 2,144 3,764 2.5 3.3 2.4 4.4

San Angelo

55,897 55,716 55,679 54,778 1,750 1,658 1,671 2,183 3.1 3.0 3.0 4.0

San Antonio-New Braunfels

1,197,494 1,224,110 1,196,465 1,202,469 38,993 37,991 37,248 50,142 3.3 3.1 3.1 4.2

Sherman-Denison

64,091 64,461 64,018 63,669 2,008 2,075 1,952 2,753 3.1 3.2 3.0 4.3

Texarkana

64,966 65,739 65,051 65,685 3,214 2,858 2,874 3,531 4.9 4.3 4.4 5.4

Tyler

106,791 107,438 107,033 105,897 3,767 3,713 3,589 4,792 3.5 3.5 3.4 4.5

Victoria

46,530 46,048 46,363 45,369 1,636 1,755 1,581 2,307 3.5 3.8 3.4 5.1

Waco

125,798 127,453 125,701 125,789 4,329 4,168 4,225 5,670 3.4 3.3 3.4 4.5

Wichita Falls

65,529 65,700 65,321 64,594 2,167 2,061 2,065 2,695 3.3 3.1 3.2 4.2

Utah

1,587,922 1,635,980 1,590,434 1,624,766 49,673 46,499 48,291 62,035 3.1 2.8 3.0 3.8

Logan

71,337 72,038 71,901 71,793 1,982 1,636 1,832 2,092 2.8 2.3 2.5 2.9

Ogden-Clearfield

327,573 337,075 328,015 334,318 10,327 9,499 9,973 12,720 3.2 2.8 3.0 3.8

Provo-Orem

311,452 321,439 311,496 318,616 8,821 8,129 8,657 10,918 2.8 2.5 2.8 3.4

St. George

75,008 77,990 75,225 77,862 2,627 2,645 2,448 3,269 3.5 3.4 3.3 4.2

Salt Lake City

658,427 679,762 657,756 673,465 19,925 18,539 19,724 25,314 3.0 2.7 3.0 3.8

Vermont

343,442 338,132 343,679 339,762 9,359 8,910 9,206 11,639 2.7 2.6 2.7 3.4

Burlington-South Burlington

125,722 123,345 125,188 123,899 2,451 2,421 2,539 3,291 1.9 2.0 2.0 2.7

Virginia

4,379,746 4,472,457 4,392,682 4,440,727 137,614 122,999 131,359 146,405 3.1 2.8 3.0 3.3

Blacksburg-Christiansburg-Radford

93,095 93,740 92,880 92,151 3,010 3,018 2,839 3,726 3.2 3.2 3.1 4.0

Charlottesville

121,835 125,955 122,011 125,055 3,411 2,966 3,295 3,614 2.8 2.4 2.7 2.9

Harrisonburg

67,928 69,207 67,112 68,104 2,072 1,660 1,957 2,110 3.1 2.4 2.9 3.1

Lynchburg

124,010 124,180 124,164 123,998 4,379 4,046 4,243 4,819 3.5 3.3 3.4 3.9

Richmond

684,023 702,349 685,554 695,548 22,348 19,805 21,420 23,509 3.3 2.8 3.1 3.4

Roanoke

157,816 159,984 158,733 159,314 4,853 4,595 4,695 5,408 3.1 2.9 3.0 3.4

Staunton-Waynesboro

60,402 61,928 60,595 60,582 1,722 1,522 1,718 1,812 2.9 2.5 2.8 3.0

Virginia Beach-Norfolk-Newport News

853,801 863,353 859,214 862,618 29,921 26,214 28,240 30,938 3.5 3.0 3.3 3.6

Winchester

73,470 75,451 73,382 73,748 2,344 1,962 2,205 2,299 3.2 2.6 3.0 3.1

Washington

3,880,267 3,980,083 3,889,343 3,896,439 198,314 166,643 187,240 205,177 5.1 4.2 4.8 5.3

Bellingham

115,073 118,175 115,563 115,302 7,035 5,879 5,980 5,324 6.1 5.0 5.2 4.6

Bremerton-Silverdale

127,585 133,434 127,968 130,308 6,904 5,622 6,485 5,338 5.4 4.2 5.1 4.1

Kennewick-Richland

139,940 147,643 142,055 145,194 11,046 8,828 10,100 7,681 7.9 6.0 7.1 5.3

Longview

47,884 49,047 48,125 48,098 3,183 2,871 3,110 2,702 6.6 5.9 6.5 5.6

Mount Vernon-Anacortes

62,138 63,484 62,367 62,216 4,317 3,629 3,579 3,249 6.9 5.7 5.7 5.2

Olympia-Tumwater

142,026 148,241 142,696 145,383 8,029 6,938 7,532 6,516 5.7 4.7 5.3 4.5

Seattle-Tacoma-Bellevue

2,169,493 2,212,729 2,169,172 2,167,686 80,992 66,917 77,012 115,973 3.7 3.0 3.6 5.4

Spokane-Spokane Valley

278,492 287,454 279,265 280,037 18,575 16,808 18,646 14,620 6.7 5.8 6.7 5.2

Walla Walla

30,976 32,072 31,460 31,676 1,951 1,578 1,909 1,377 6.3 4.9 6.1 4.3

Wenatchee

63,047 64,037 63,410 63,091 4,665 3,955 4,219 3,386 7.4 6.2 6.7 5.4

Yakima

124,686 130,037 127,283 128,777 13,049 10,385 11,818 8,787 10.5 8.0 9.3 6.8

West Virginia

789,220 807,356 784,130 811,726 46,841 44,283 41,124 49,602 5.9 5.5 5.2 6.1

Beckley

46,287 46,983 45,844 47,463 2,788 2,824 2,480 3,193 6.0 6.0 5.4 6.7

Charleston

92,409 93,525 91,551 94,377 5,334 4,882 4,681 5,547 5.8 5.2 5.1 5.9

Huntington-Ashland

145,780 148,717 145,540 148,502 8,429 8,127 7,687 9,024 5.8 5.5 5.3 6.1

Morgantown

70,152 72,353 69,579 72,386 3,230 2,753 2,842 3,134 4.6 3.8 4.1 4.3

Parkersburg-Vienna

38,716 39,975 38,266 40,226 2,561 2,430 2,164 2,672 6.6 6.1 5.7 6.6

Wheeling

64,801 65,217 64,706 65,379 4,181 4,486 3,810 4,970 6.5 6.9 5.9 7.6

Wisconsin

3,101,942 3,095,473 3,096,679 3,078,261 118,589 124,380 117,577 106,695 3.8 4.0 3.8 3.5

Appleton

130,803 129,787 130,377 129,432 4,307 4,302 4,258 3,663 3.3 3.3 3.3 2.8

Eau Claire

92,375 92,566 92,350 92,169 3,727 3,894 3,635 3,373 4.0 4.2 3.9 3.7

Fond du Lac

57,104 57,255 57,225 57,339 1,864 1,958 1,863 1,736 3.3 3.4 3.3 3.0

Green Bay

173,214 173,573 173,108 171,933 6,135 6,452 6,089 5,532 3.5 3.7 3.5 3.2

Janesville-Beloit

84,948 85,480 85,227 84,427 3,489 3,952 3,524 3,343 4.1 4.6 4.1 4.0

La Crosse-Onalaska

77,629 77,140 77,324 76,231 2,677 2,608 2,672 2,243 3.4 3.4 3.5 2.9

Madison

386,658 389,056 385,718 388,148 10,717 10,835 10,861 9,400 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.4

Milwaukee-Waukesha-West Allis

820,519 820,451 818,575 811,926 29,895 31,167 30,214 27,128 3.6 3.8 3.7 3.3

Oshkosh-Neenah

91,955 91,287 91,766 90,682 2,785 2,896 2,873 2,529 3.0 3.2 3.1 2.8

Racine

99,147 98,104 98,748 96,972 4,517 4,868 4,495 4,147 4.6 5.0 4.6 4.3

Sheboygan

61,720 61,246 61,845 61,019 1,792 1,948 1,851 1,736 2.9 3.2 3.0 2.8

Wausau

73,263 73,830 73,431 73,616 2,388 2,413 2,424 2,088 3.3 3.3 3.3 2.8

Wyoming

288,220 293,750 289,806 294,153 11,011 12,578 11,211 12,544 3.8 4.3 3.9 4.3

Casper

39,226 39,532 39,514 39,480 1,650 1,848 1,633 1,794 4.2 4.7 4.1 4.5

Cheyenne

48,335 49,166 48,713 49,529 1,650 1,999 1,795 1,900 3.4 4.1 3.7 3.8

Puerto Rico

1,075,897 1,038,055 1,073,349 - 96,802 80,739 99,258 - 9.0 7.8 9.2 -

Aguadilla-Isabela

86,427 82,368 86,208 - 10,707 9,222 10,983 - 12.4 11.2 12.7 -

Arecibo

52,271 51,160 52,452 - 6,133 5,373 6,244 - 11.7 10.5 11.9 -

Guayama

20,234 18,888 20,200 - 3,002 2,389 3,047 - 14.8 12.6 15.1 -

Mayaguez

26,857 25,525 26,813 - 2,985 2,310 3,011 - 11.1 9.0 11.2 -

Ponce

92,098 88,797 91,824 - 11,586 9,905 11,974 - 12.6 11.2 13.0 -

San German

33,921 32,859 34,196 - 4,047 3,420 4,189 - 11.9 10.4 12.2 -

San Juan-Carolina-Caguas

721,055 697,674 718,614 - 52,658 43,356 53,882 - 7.3 6.2 7.5 -

Footnotes
(1) For operational reasons, these interstate areas are listed under the state that accounts for the larger share of the population, which is different from the state that contains the first principal city.
(2) The area boundary does not reflect the Office of Management and Budget delineation.
(p) Preliminary

- Data not available.
NOTE: Data refer to place of residence. Data for Puerto Rico are derived from a monthly household survey similar to the Current Population Survey. Area delineations are based on Office of Management and Budget Bulletin No. 18-03, dated April 10, 2018, and are available on the BLS website at https://www.bls.gov/lau/lausmsa.htm. Areas in the six New England states are Metropolitan New England City and Town Areas (NECTAs), while areas in other states are county-based. Some metropolitan areas lie in two or more states. They are listed under the state containing the first principal city, unless otherwise footnoted. Estimates for the latest month are subject to revision the following month.


LABOR FORCE DATA
NOT SEASONALLY ADJUSTED

Table 2. Civilian labor force and unemployment by state, selected metropolitan area, and metropolitan division(1)
State, area, and division Civilian labor force Unemployed
February March Number Percent of labor force
2019 2020 2019 2020(p) February March February March
2019 2020 2019 2020(p) 2019 2020 2019 2020(p)

California

19,429,914 19,528,486 19,393,147 19,217,893 867,237 842,362 864,141 1,084,652 4.5 4.3 4.5 5.6

Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim

6,759,581 6,846,736 6,741,839 6,607,386 282,125 283,762 278,628 378,309 4.2 4.1 4.1 5.7

Anaheim-Santa Ana-Irvine

1,630,270 1,623,913 1,625,454 1,602,940 48,226 45,543 49,066 57,761 3.0 2.8 3.0 3.6

Los Angeles-Long Beach-Glendale

5,129,311 5,222,823 5,116,385 5,004,446 233,899 238,219 229,562 320,548 4.6 4.6 4.5 6.4

San Francisco-Oakland-Hayward

2,588,395 2,589,037 2,586,967 2,559,043 72,462 68,796 73,419 88,322 2.8 2.7 2.8 3.5

Oakland-Hayward-Berkeley

1,410,557 1,399,140 1,409,414 1,387,713 45,076 42,491 45,511 54,120 3.2 3.0 3.2 3.9

San Francisco-Redwood City-South San Francisco

1,038,425 1,050,138 1,037,997 1,033,676 23,942 23,027 24,398 30,008 2.3 2.2 2.4 2.9

San Rafael

139,413 139,759 139,556 137,654 3,444 3,278 3,510 4,194 2.5 2.3 2.5 3.0

District of Columbia

409,166 419,329 409,447 421,784 24,537 21,660 22,965 24,786 6.0 5.2 5.6 5.9

Washington-Arlington-Alexandria(2)

3,435,866 3,514,011 3,447,284 3,504,894 118,320 104,522 112,028 114,660 3.4 3.0 3.2 3.3

Silver Spring-Frederick-Rockville(3)

696,708 702,237 696,950 701,196 23,298 20,853 21,771 19,699 3.3 3.0 3.1 2.8

Washington-Arlington-Alexandria(2)

2,739,158 2,811,774 2,750,334 2,803,698 95,022 83,669 90,257 94,961 3.5 3.0 3.3 3.4

Florida

10,273,434 10,481,896 10,264,830 10,328,420 337,903 297,542 330,228 442,448 3.3 2.8 3.2 4.3

Miami-Fort Lauderdale-West Palm Beach

3,156,716 3,195,794 3,131,428 3,090,790 94,709 73,433 94,725 124,579 3.0 2.3 3.0 4.0

Fort Lauderdale-Pompano Beach-Deerfield Beach

1,030,950 1,048,957 1,031,298 1,036,617 33,564 30,394 31,978 43,568 3.3 2.9 3.1 4.2

Miami-Miami Beach-Kendall

1,393,318 1,404,551 1,366,682 1,318,178 36,442 20,390 38,833 48,970 2.6 1.5 2.8 3.7

West Palm Beach-Boca Raton-Delray Beach

732,448 742,286 733,448 735,995 24,703 22,649 23,914 32,041 3.4 3.1 3.3 4.4

Illinois

6,458,354 6,336,267 6,458,721 6,279,902 303,327 223,485 286,272 278,468 4.7 3.5 4.4 4.4

Chicago-Naperville-Elgin(2)

4,869,718 4,802,144 4,874,596 4,829,975 217,245 171,435 207,130 232,660 4.5 3.6 4.2 4.8

Chicago-Naperville-Arlington Heights

3,728,758 3,678,063 3,729,765 3,753,757 156,467 123,938 143,941 188,107 4.2 3.4 3.9 5.0

Elgin

329,895 324,696 329,924 307,199 18,508 12,891 18,178 11,796 5.6 4.0 5.5 3.8

Gary(3)

343,314 342,986 347,378 331,809 17,961 16,649 20,764 16,426 5.2 4.9 6.0 5.0

Lake County-Kenosha County(2)

467,751 456,399 467,529 437,210 24,309 17,957 24,247 16,331 5.2 3.9 5.2 3.7

Massachusetts

3,799,710 3,814,900 3,801,221 3,735,527 131,066 125,639 124,631 126,089 3.4 3.3 3.3 3.4

Boston-Cambridge-Nashua(2)

2,817,367 2,834,871 2,822,786 2,779,608 84,372 82,066 81,485 83,330 3.0 2.9 2.9 3.0

Boston-Cambridge-Newton

1,682,315 1,694,178 1,685,647 1,662,605 45,489 43,906 44,413 45,632 2.7 2.6 2.6 2.7

Brockton-Bridgewater-Easton

112,095 112,351 111,946 110,130 4,107 4,066 3,834 4,146 3.7 3.6 3.4 3.8

Framingham

162,533 163,587 162,732 160,219 4,658 4,481 4,514 4,483 2.9 2.7 2.8 2.8

Haverhill-Newburyport-Amesbury Town(2)

117,586 118,285 118,080 115,287 4,061 4,037 3,900 3,922 3.5 3.4 3.3 3.4

Lawrence-Methuen Town-Salem(2)

99,529 99,193 99,652 97,000 4,530 4,416 4,257 4,158 4.6 4.5 4.3 4.3

Lowell-Billerica-Chelmsford(2)

198,667 198,293 198,648 194,467 6,618 6,289 6,278 6,317 3.3 3.2 3.2 3.2

Lynn-Saugus-Marblehead

86,964 87,172 87,170 85,539 2,917 2,720 2,803 2,855 3.4 3.1 3.2 3.3

Nashua(2)

175,790 179,497 176,840 175,915 5,754 6,024 5,587 5,460 3.3 3.4 3.2 3.1

Peabody-Salem-Beverly

94,569 94,951 94,734 93,079 2,842 2,748 2,751 2,958 3.0 2.9 2.9 3.2

Taunton-Middleborough-Norton

87,319 87,364 87,337 85,367 3,396 3,379 3,148 3,399 3.9 3.9 3.6 4.0

Michigan

4,932,764 4,953,202 4,937,472 4,904,442 222,644 179,595 228,961 207,897 4.5 3.6 4.6 4.2

Detroit-Warren-Dearborn

2,152,070 2,148,004 2,158,185 2,170,123 95,557 79,862 100,870 106,439 4.4 3.7 4.7 4.9

Detroit-Dearborn-Livonia

804,744 802,802 807,165 812,573 41,649 34,958 43,238 46,356 5.2 4.4 5.4 5.7

Warren-Troy-Farmington Hills

1,347,324 1,345,201 1,351,020 1,357,550 53,907 44,904 57,632 60,083 4.0 3.3 4.3 4.4

New York

9,542,016 9,566,614 9,529,122 9,437,901 433,666 375,715 400,570 417,788 4.5 3.9 4.2 4.4

New York-Newark-Jersey City(2)

9,945,367 10,035,662 9,938,360 9,927,084 418,254 371,702 384,067 396,979 4.2 3.7 3.9 4.0

Dutchess County-Putnam County

194,287 196,938 194,990 196,252 7,734 7,638 7,109 7,926 4.0 3.9 3.6 4.0

Nassau County-Suffolk County

1,468,560 1,495,974 1,478,657 1,491,559 58,399 56,363 53,309 58,946 4.0 3.8 3.6 4.0

Newark(3)

1,232,160 1,260,100 1,228,545 1,254,494 50,367 52,999 45,904 49,738 4.1 4.2 3.7 4.0

New York-Jersey City-White Plains(2)

7,050,360 7,082,650 7,036,168 6,984,779 301,754 254,702 277,745 280,369 4.3 3.6 3.9 4.0

Pennsylvania

6,442,370 6,558,725 6,431,249 6,503,958 287,000 333,814 275,015 391,377 4.5 5.1 4.3 6.0

Philadelphia-Camden-Wilmington(2)

3,105,899 3,171,805 3,104,354 3,143,922 128,609 142,899 122,249 160,704 4.1 4.5 3.9 5.1

Camden(3)

629,927 647,023 629,599 646,881 26,426 27,190 23,482 24,599 4.2 4.2 3.7 3.8

Montgomery County-Bucks County-Chester County

1,076,378 1,091,293 1,075,634 1,076,899 38,156 43,376 36,408 50,356 3.5 4.0 3.4 4.7

Philadelphia

1,015,487 1,046,605 1,013,987 1,039,134 49,264 56,999 48,156 68,095 4.9 5.4 4.7 6.6

Wilmington(3)

384,107 386,884 385,134 381,008 14,763 15,334 14,203 17,654 3.8 4.0 3.7 4.6

Texas

14,001,465 14,283,348 13,976,212 14,075,576 515,242 508,138 489,883 666,301 3.7 3.6 3.5 4.7

Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington

3,939,335 4,047,164 3,931,453 3,972,331 135,391 128,811 130,478 170,741 3.4 3.2 3.3 4.3

Dallas-Plano-Irving

2,651,621 2,728,260 2,644,829 2,684,182 91,900 86,375 88,036 114,076 3.5 3.2 3.3 4.2

Fort Worth-Arlington

1,287,714 1,318,904 1,286,624 1,288,149 43,491 42,436 42,442 56,665 3.4 3.2 3.3 4.4

Washington

3,880,267 3,980,083 3,889,343 3,896,439 198,314 166,643 187,240 205,177 5.1 4.2 4.8 5.3

Seattle-Tacoma-Bellevue

2,169,493 2,212,729 2,169,172 2,167,686 80,992 66,917 77,012 115,973 3.7 3.0 3.6 5.4

Seattle-Bellevue-Everett

1,730,544 1,756,384 1,728,706 1,720,459 54,283 44,273 52,310 94,540 3.1 2.5 3.0 5.5

Tacoma-Lakewood

438,949 456,345 440,466 447,227 26,709 22,644 24,702 21,433 6.1 5.0 5.6 4.8

Footnotes
(1) These 11 areas contain all of the 38 metropolitan divisions.
(2) Part of the area (or division) is in one or more adjacent states.
(3) All of the division is in one or more adjacent states.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data refer to place of residence. Area delineations are based on Office of Management and Budget Bulletin No. 18-03, dated April 10, 2018, and are available on the BLS website at https://www.bls.gov/lau/lausmsa.htm. Areas in the six New England states are Metropolitan New England City and Town Areas (NECTAs), while areas in other states are county-based. Some metropolitan areas lie in two or more states. They are listed under the state containing the first principal city. Metropolitan divisions are listed under their metropolitan areas. Some divisions lie in more than one state, and some, like Camden, NJ, are totally outside the states under which their metropolitan areas are listed. For Washington-Arlington-Alexandria, DC-VA-MD-WV, the metropolitan area and division titles are identical. Estimates for the latest month are subject to revision the following month.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
NOT SEASONALLY ADJUSTED
Table 3. Employees on nonfarm payrolls by state and metropolitan area, not seasonally adjusted
[In thousands]
State and area February March Change from
March 2019 to March 2020(p)
2019 2020 2019 2020(p) Number Percent

Alabama

2,053.7 2,075.6 2,061.4 2,074.0 12.6 0.6

Anniston-Oxford-Jacksonville

46.9 47.4 47.1 47.5 0.4 0.8

Auburn-Opelika

66.3 68.3 66.2 68.1 1.9 2.9

Birmingham-Hoover

541.3 544.3 542.8 544.7 1.9 0.4

Daphne-Fairhope-Foley

78.1 79.2 79.9 80.2 0.3 0.4

Decatur

56.6 57.0 57.1 57.3 0.2 0.4

Dothan

59.6 59.8 59.9 60.0 0.1 0.2

Florence-Muscle Shoals

56.8 57.1 57.3 57.6 0.3 0.5

Gadsden

37.3 37.6 37.5 37.8 0.3 0.8

Huntsville

242.3 247.2 243.5 246.6 3.1 1.3

Mobile

185.4 185.5 185.9 186.2 0.3 0.2

Montgomery

176.4 175.4 176.7 175.5 -1.2 -0.7

Tuscaloosa

112.5 114.7 111.9 114.5 2.6 2.3


Alaska

316.4 317.3 317.9 316.5 -1.4