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Metropolitan Area Employment and Unemployment (Monthly) News Release

For release 10:00 a.m. (EDT) Wednesday, May 1, 2019							USDL-19-0729

Technical information:
 Employment:	(202) 691-6559  *  sminfo@bls.gov    *  www.bls.gov/sae
 Unemployment:	(202) 691-6392  *  lausinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/lau

Media contact:	(202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov


		METROPOLITAN AREA EMPLOYMENT AND UNEMPLOYMENT -- MARCH 2019


Unemployment rates were lower in March than a year earlier in 267 of the 389 metropolitan areas, higher in 100 areas, 
and unchanged in 22 areas, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. Forty-eight areas had jobless rates of 
less than 3.0 percent and eight areas had rates of at least 10.0 percent. Nonfarm payroll employment increased over 
the year in 41 metropolitan areas and was essentially unchanged in 348 areas. The national unemployment rate in March 
was 3.9 percent, not seasonally adjusted, down from 4.1 percent a year earlier.

This news release presents statistics from two monthly programs. The civilian labor force and unemployment data are 
based on the same concepts and definitions as those used for the national household survey estimates. These data pertain 
to individuals by where they reside. The employment data come from an establishment survey that measures nonfarm employment, 
hours, and earnings by industry. These data pertain to jobs on payrolls defined by where the establishments are located.
For more information about the concepts and statistical methodologies used by these two programs, see the Technical Note.

Metropolitan Area Unemployment (Not Seasonally Adjusted)

In March, Ames, IA, had the lowest unemployment rate, 1.5 percent. El Centro, CA, had the highest unemployment rate, 
17.8 percent. A total of 204 areas had March jobless rates below the U.S. rate of 3.9 percent, 166 areas had rates 
above it, and 19 areas had rates equal to that of the nation. (See table 1.)

Ocean City, NJ, had the largest over-the-year unemployment rate decrease in March (-1.8 percentage points). An 
additional 16 areas had rate declines of at least 1.0 percentage point. The largest over-the-year rate increase 
occurred in Yakima, WA (+1.8 percentage points).

Of the 51 metropolitan areas with a 2010 Census population of 1 million or more, Nashville-Davidson--Murfreesboro--
Franklin, TN, had the lowest unemployment rate in March, 2.6 percent. Buffalo-Cheektowaga-Niagara Falls, NY, and 
Riverside-San Bernardino-Ontario, CA, had the highest jobless rates among the large areas, 4.5 percent each. Thirty-
three large areas had over-the-year unemployment rate decreases, 11 had increases, and 7 had no change. The largest 
rate decrease occurred in Las Vegas-Henderson-Paradise, NV (-1.1 percentage points). No large area had an unemployment 
rate increase of more than 0.4 percentage point.

Metropolitan Division Unemployment (Not Seasonally Adjusted)

Eleven of the most populous metropolitan areas are made up of 38 metropolitan divisions, which are essentially 
separately identifiable employment centers. In March, Boston-Cambridge-Newton, MA, and San Francisco-Redwood City-
South San Francisco, CA, had the lowest unemployment rates among the divisions, 2.5 percent each. Gary, IN, had the 
highest division rate, 6.3 percent. (See table 2.)

In March, 28 metropolitan divisions had over-the-year unemployment rate decreases and 10 had increases. The largest 
rate decline occurred in Lawrence-Methuen Town-Salem, MA-NH (-1.0 percentage point). The largest over-the-year jobless 
rate increase occurred in Gary, IN (+1.2 percentage points).

Metropolitan Area Nonfarm Employment (Not Seasonally Adjusted)

In March, 41 metropolitan areas had over-the-year increases in nonfarm payroll employment and 348 were essentially 
unchanged. The largest over-the-year employment increases occurred in New York-Newark-Jersey City, NY-NJ-PA 
(+123,300), Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington, TX (+110,700), and Houston-The Woodlands-Sugar Land, TX (+67,800). The 
largest over-the-year percentage gains in employment occurred in Atlantic City-Hammonton, NJ, and Reno, NV (+5.8 
percent each), Myrtle Beach-Conway-North Myrtle Beach, SC-NC (+4.5 percent), and Fresno, CA, and Idaho Falls, ID (+3.9 
percent each). (See table 3.)

Over the year, nonfarm employment rose in 28 of the 51 metropolitan areas with a 2010 Census population of 1 million 
or more, while employment was essentially unchanged in 23 areas. The largest over-the-year percentage increases in 
employment in these large metropolitan areas occurred in Orlando-Kissimmee-Sanford, FL (+3.7 percent), Dallas-Fort 
Worth-Arlington, TX (+3.0 percent), and Phoenix-Mesa-Scottsdale, AZ, and Sacramento--Roseville--Arden-Arcade, CA (+2.8 
percent each).

Metropolitan Division Nonfarm Employment (Not Seasonally Adjusted)

In March, nonfarm payroll employment increased in 11 of the 38 metropolitan divisions over the year and was 
essentially unchanged in 27 divisions. The largest over-the-year increase in employment among the metropolitan 
divisions occurred in New York-Jersey City-White Plains, NY-NJ (+103,300), followed by Dallas-Plano-Irving, TX 
(+90,600), and Seattle-Bellevue-Everett, WA (+46,500). (See table 4.)

The largest over-the-year percentage increases in employment occurred in San Francisco-Redwood City-South San 
Francisco, CA (+3.7 percent), Dallas-Plano-Irving, TX (+3.5 percent), and Seattle-Bellevue-Everett, WA (+2.7 percent).

_____________
The State Employment and Unemployment news release for April is scheduled to be released on Friday, May 17, 2019, at 
10:00 a.m. (EDT). The Metropolitan Area Employment and Unemployment news release for April is scheduled to be released 
on Wednesday, May 29, 2019, at 10:00 a.m. (EDT).




Technical Note
 
   This release presents civilian labor force and unemployment data from the
Local Area Unemployment Statistics (LAUS) program (tables 1 and 2) for 389
metropolitan statistical areas and metropolitan New England City and Town Areas
(NECTAs), plus 7 areas in Puerto Rico. Estimates for 38 metropolitan and NECTA
divisions also are presented. Nonfarm payroll employment estimates from the
Current Employment Statistics (CES) program (tables 3 and 4) are provided for
the same areas. State estimates were previously published in the news release
State Employment and Unemployment, and are republished in this release for
ease of reference. The LAUS and CES programs are both federal-state cooperative
endeavors.

Civilian labor force and unemployment--from the LAUS program

   Definitions. The civilian labor force and unemployment data are based on the
same concepts and definitions as those used for the official national estimates
obtained from the Current Population Survey (CPS), a sample survey of households
that is conducted for the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) by the U.S. Census
Bureau. The LAUS program measures employed persons and unemployed persons on a
place-of-residence basis.  The universe for each is the civilian noninstitutional
population 16 years of age and older. Employed persons are those who did any work
at all for pay or profit in the reference week (typically the week including the
12th of the month) or worked 15 hours or more without pay in a family business or
farm, plus those not working who had a job from which they were temporarily absent,
whether or not paid, for such reasons as labor-management dispute, illness, or
vacation. Unemployed persons are those who were not employed during the reference
week (based on the definition above), had actively looked for a job sometime in the
4-week period ending with the reference week, and were currently available for work;
persons on layoff expecting recall need not be looking for work to be counted as
unemployed. The civilian labor force is the sum of employed and unemployed persons.
The unemployment rate is the number of unemployed as a percent of the civilian labor
force.

   Method of estimation. Estimates for states, the District of Columbia, the Los
Angeles-Long Beach-Glendale metropolitan division, and New York City are produced
using time-series models with real-time benchmarking to national CPS totals. Model-
based estimates are also produced for the following areas and their respective
balances: the Chicago-Naperville-Arlington Heights, IL Metropolitan Division;
Cleveland-Elyria, OH Metropolitan Statistical Area; Detroit-Warren-Dearborn, MI
Metropolitan Statistical Area; Miami-Miami Beach-Kendall, FL Metropolitan Division;
and Seattle-Bellevue-Everett, WA Metropolitan Division. Modeling improves the
statistical basis of the estimation for these areas and provides important tools
for analysis, such as measures of errors and seasonally adjusted series. For all
other substate areas in this release, estimates are prepared through indirect
estimation procedures using a building-block approach.  Estimates of employed
persons, which are based largely on “place of work” estimates from the CES program,
are adjusted to refer to place of residence as used in the CPS. Unemployment
estimates are aggregates of persons previously employed in industries covered by
state unemployment insurance (UI) laws and entrants to the labor force from the
CPS. The substate estimates of employment and unemployment, which geographically
exhaust the entire state, are adjusted proportionally to ensure that they add to
the independently estimated model-based area totals. A detailed description of the
estimation procedures is available from BLS upon request.

   Annual revisions. Civilian labor force and unemployment data shown for the prior
year reflect adjustments made at the beginning of each year, usually implemented with
the issuance of January estimates. The adjusted model-based estimates typically reflect
updated population data from the U.S. Census Bureau, any revisions in other input
data sources, and model re-estimation. All substate estimates then are re-estimated
using updated inputs and adjusted to add to the revised model-based totals.  In early
2015, a new generation of time-series models was implemented, resulting in the
replacement of data back to the series beginnings. At the same time, enhancements were
made to the substate estimation methodology, and more timely inputs from the American
Community Survey were incorporated.

Employment--from the CES program 

   Definitions. Employment data refer to persons on establishment payrolls who receive
pay for any part of the pay period that includes the 12th of the month. Persons are
counted at their place of work rather than at their place of residence; those appearing
on more than one payroll are counted on each payroll. Industries are classified on the
basis of their principal activity in accordance with the 2017 version of the North
American Industry Classification System.

   Method of estimation. CES State and Area employment data are produced using several
estimation procedures. Where possible these data are produced using a "weighted link
relative" estimation technique in which a ratio of current-month weighted employment
to that of the previous-month weighted employment is computed from a sample of
establishments reporting for both months. The estimates of employment for the current
month are then obtained by multiplying these ratios by the previous month's employment
estimates. The weighted link relative technique is utilized for data series where the
sample size meets certain statistical criteria.

   For some employment series, the sample of establishments is very small or highly
variable. In these cases, a model-based approach is used in estimation. These models
use the direct sample estimates (described above), combined with forecasts of historical
(benchmarked) data to decrease volatility in estimation. Two different models
(Fay-Herriot Model and Small Domain Model) are used depending on the industry level
being estimated. For more detailed information about each model, refer to the BLS
Handbook of Methods.

   Annual revisions.  Employment estimates are adjusted annually to a complete count
of jobs, called benchmarks, derived principally from tax reports that are submitted by
employers who are covered under state unemployment insurance (UI) laws. The benchmark
information is used to adjust the monthly estimates between the new benchmark and the
preceding one and also to establish the level of employment for the new benchmark month.
Thus, the benchmarking process establishes the level of employment, and the sample is used
to measure the month-to-month changes in the level for the subsequent months.

   Seasonal adjustment. Payroll employment data are seasonally adjusted for states,
metropolitan areas, and metropolitan divisions at the total nonfarm level. For states,
data are seasonally adjusted at the supersector level as well. Revisions to historical
data for the most recent 5 years are made once a year, coincident with annual benchmark
adjustments.

   Payroll employment data are seasonally adjusted concurrently, using all available
estimates, including those for the current month, to develop sample-based seasonal factors.
Concurrent sample-based factors are created every month for the current month's preliminary
estimate as well as the previous month's final estimate in order to incorporate real-time
estimates. 

Reliability of the estimates

   The estimates presented in this release are based on sample surveys, administrative data,
and modeling and, thus, are subject to sampling and other types of errors. Sampling error
is a measure of sampling variability—that is, variation that occurs by chance because a
sample rather than the entire population is surveyed. Survey data also are subject to
nonsampling errors, such as those which can be introduced into the data collection and
processing operations. Estimates not directly derived from sample surveys are subject to
additional errors resulting from the specific estimation processes used. The sums of
individual items may not always equal the totals shown in the same tables because of
rounding.

Use of error measures

   Civilian labor force and unemployment estimates. Measures of sampling error are not
available for metropolitan areas or metropolitan divisions. Model-based error measures for
states are available on the BLS website at www.bls.gov/laus/lastderr.htm. Measures of
nonsampling error are not available for the areas contained in this release. Information
on recent data revisions for states and local areas is available online at
www.bls.gov/lau/launews1.htm.

   Employment estimates. Changes in metropolitan area nonfarm payroll employment are cited
in the analysis of this release only if they have been determined to be statistically
significant at the 90-percent confidence level.  Measures of sampling error for the total
nonfarm employment series are available for metropolitan areas and metropolitan divisions
at www.bls.gov/web/laus/790stderr.htm. Measures of sampling error for more detailed series
at the area and division level are available upon request. Measures of sampling error for
states  at the supersector level and for the private service-providing, goods-producing,
total private and total nonfarm levels are available on the BLS website at 
www.bls.gov/web/laus/790stderr.htm. Information on recent benchmark revisions
is available online at www.bls.gov/web/laus/benchmark.pdf.

Area definitions

   The substate area data published in this release reflect the delineations issued by the
U.S. Office of Management and Budget on April 10, 2018. Data reflect New England City and
Town Area (NECTA) definitions, rather than county-based definitions, in the six New England
States. A detailed list of the geographic definitions is available online at
www.bls.gov/lau/lausmsa.htm.

Additional information

   Estimates of unadjusted and seasonally adjusted civilian labor force and unemployment
data for states and seven substate areas are available in the news release State Employment
and Unemployment. Estimates of civilian labor force and unemployment for all states,
metropolitan areas, counties, cities with a population of 25,000 or more, and other areas
used in the administration of various federal economic assistance programs are available
on the Internet at www.bls.gov/lau/. Employment data from the CES program are available on
the BLS website at www.bls.gov/sae/.

   Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired individuals
upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay Service: (800) 877-8339. 




LABOR FORCE DATA
NOT SEASONALLY ADJUSTED

Table 1. Civilian labor force and unemployment by state and metropolitan area
State and area Civilian labor force Unemployed
February March Number Percent of labor force
2018 2019 2018 2019(p) February March February March
2018 2019 2018 2019(p) 2018 2019 2018 2019(p)

Alabama

2,195,436 2,220,068 2,199,359 2,235,635 97,322 87,696 88,824 84,129 4.4 4.0 4.0 3.8

Anniston-Oxford-Jacksonville

46,133 46,078 46,336 46,237 2,403 2,133 2,196 2,027 5.2 4.6 4.7 4.4

Auburn-Opelika

74,255 76,169 74,352 76,355 2,980 2,673 2,848 2,724 4.0 3.5 3.8 3.6

Birmingham-Hoover

543,796 550,949 544,191 554,469 21,521 19,591 19,718 18,875 4.0 3.6 3.6 3.4

Daphne-Fairhope-Foley

91,578 93,498 93,649 96,001 3,940 3,463 3,524 3,363 4.3 3.7 3.8 3.5

Decatur

69,462 71,479 69,799 71,816 3,000 2,539 2,703 2,433 4.3 3.6 3.9 3.4

Dothan

62,571 63,099 62,717 63,665 2,865 2,593 2,583 2,477 4.6 4.1 4.1 3.9

Florence-Muscle Shoals

64,991 65,437 65,475 65,927 3,162 2,972 2,857 2,716 4.9 4.5 4.4 4.1

Gadsden

43,067 43,551 43,389 44,089 2,028 1,824 1,835 1,803 4.7 4.2 4.2 4.1

Huntsville

222,264 225,322 221,872 226,539 8,690 7,568 7,929 7,434 3.9 3.4 3.6 3.3

Mobile

187,536 189,297 187,568 189,789 10,061 9,377 9,131 8,619 5.4 5.0 4.9 4.5

Montgomery

172,599 173,468 172,523 174,174 7,511 6,707 6,890 6,444 4.4 3.9 4.0 3.7

Tuscaloosa

115,332 118,184 115,007 118,482 4,832 4,239 4,441 4,156 4.2 3.6 3.9 3.5

Alaska

354,403 349,442 354,154 349,993 27,042 26,173 25,937 25,209 7.6 7.5 7.3 7.2

Anchorage

199,665 196,007 199,336 196,336 13,718 12,683 13,185 12,457 6.9 6.5 6.6 6.3

Fairbanks

45,699 44,689 45,821 44,884 3,077 2,992 2,918 2,893 6.7 6.7 6.4 6.4

Arizona

3,400,180 3,512,865 3,410,192 3,507,766 160,398 164,242 158,452 160,036 4.7 4.7 4.6 4.6

Flagstaff

74,937 76,844 75,840 76,766 4,325 4,669 4,188 4,369 5.8 6.1 5.5 5.7

Lake Havasu City-Kingman

84,026 86,826 84,262 86,320 4,882 4,982 4,798 4,872 5.8 5.7 5.7 5.6

Phoenix-Mesa-Scottsdale

2,383,191 2,469,839 2,386,454 2,462,863 100,444 103,109 98,300 100,412 4.2 4.2 4.1 4.1

Prescott

103,874 105,580 104,534 106,415 4,713 4,752 4,553 4,635 4.5 4.5 4.4 4.4

Sierra Vista-Douglas

49,165 50,022 49,612 50,411 2,779 2,903 2,765 2,866 5.7 5.8 5.6 5.7

Tucson

485,636 495,137 484,504 494,099 21,819 22,282 21,133 21,628 4.5 4.5 4.4 4.4

Yuma

91,174 97,000 95,093 98,623 11,695 11,940 12,973 11,935 12.8 12.3 13.6 12.1

Arkansas

1,344,868 1,355,762 1,348,676 1,357,559 57,510 58,889 51,025 46,683 4.3 4.3 3.8 3.4

Fayetteville-Springdale-Rogers

273,736 278,198 274,666 279,047 8,513 8,735 7,630 6,846 3.1 3.1 2.8 2.5

Fort Smith

120,122 119,018 119,860 118,211 5,490 5,191 4,813 4,094 4.6 4.4 4.0 3.5

Hot Springs

40,730 41,033 41,123 41,342 1,895 1,869 1,692 1,481 4.7 4.6 4.1 3.6

Jonesboro

63,833 64,584 64,100 64,643 2,360 2,317 2,073 1,808 3.7 3.6 3.2 2.8

Little Rock-North Little Rock-Conway

352,148 355,721 353,085 356,518 13,697 13,780 12,335 11,059 3.9 3.9 3.5 3.1

Pine Bluff

35,405 35,383 35,362 35,387 1,982 2,131 1,815 1,760 5.6 6.0 5.1 5.0

California

19,343,020 19,596,296 19,328,608 19,512,568 887,199 867,268 859,783 901,547 4.6 4.4 4.4 4.6

Bakersfield

385,186 395,166 377,314 388,712 37,087 36,656 37,740 39,268 9.6 9.3 10.0 10.1

Chico

101,024 104,504 102,802 104,504 5,870 6,343 5,617 6,491 5.8 6.1 5.5 6.2

El Centro

70,620 71,414 70,203 70,200 11,671 12,355 11,530 12,479 16.5 17.3 16.4 17.8

Fresno

447,013 461,836 447,145 461,736 40,649 41,052 40,613 43,184 9.1 8.9 9.1 9.4

Hanford-Corcoran

58,646 59,310 57,582 58,752 5,653 5,917 5,514 6,076 9.6 10.0 9.6 10.3

Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim

6,768,038 6,779,565 6,758,321 6,747,032 290,401 269,590 278,128 276,133 4.3 4.0 4.1 4.1

Madera

63,730 64,815 61,584 62,709 5,203 5,321 5,221 5,593 8.2 8.2 8.5 8.9

Merced

116,079 117,721 116,385 117,915 12,313 12,482 12,362 12,937 10.6 10.6 10.6 11.0

Modesto

242,901 244,732 243,286 244,271 17,929 17,482 17,940 18,382 7.4 7.1 7.4 7.5

Napa

74,007 74,729 73,810 74,380 2,503 2,543 2,382 2,597 3.4 3.4 3.2 3.5

Oxnard-Thousand Oaks-Ventura

426,854 430,210 426,571 428,992 17,196 17,056 16,259 17,354 4.0 4.0 3.8 4.0

Redding

74,035 74,393 74,095 74,046 4,379 4,581 4,375 4,590 5.9 6.2 5.9 6.2

Riverside-San Bernardino-Ontario

2,046,850 2,075,862 2,048,836 2,068,034 91,148 89,215 87,812 93,433 4.5 4.3 4.3 4.5

Sacramento--Roseville--Arden-Arcade

1,087,657 1,119,645 1,087,676 1,113,116 44,819 45,405 43,491 47,877 4.1 4.1 4.0 4.3

Salinas

215,651 220,256 217,515 221,969 21,817 22,780 20,856 22,521 10.1 10.3 9.6 10.1

San Diego-Carlsbad

1,586,759 1,610,073 1,587,029 1,602,137 55,641 55,753 53,335 58,692 3.5 3.5 3.4 3.7

San Francisco-Oakland-Hayward

2,565,305 2,629,126 2,570,413 2,620,786 75,234 73,947 72,265 78,453 2.9 2.8 2.8 3.0

San Jose-Sunnyvale-Santa Clara

1,072,411 1,096,998 1,072,857 1,095,216 31,657 30,661 30,357 32,744 3.0 2.8 2.8 3.0

San Luis Obispo-Paso Robles-Arroyo Grande

141,684 142,486 141,225 141,960 4,525 4,538 4,321 4,730 3.2 3.2 3.1 3.3

Santa Cruz-Watsonville

141,667 143,784 141,908 143,562 9,506 9,578 9,348 9,944 6.7 6.7 6.6 6.9

Santa Maria-Santa Barbara

215,308 219,886 215,610 220,045 10,574 10,580 9,975 10,700 4.9 4.8 4.6 4.9

Santa Rosa

261,077 261,629 260,419 260,683 7,950 8,048 7,676 8,495 3.0 3.1 2.9 3.3

Stockton-Lodi

325,766 328,974 324,999 327,256 22,900 22,964 22,484 23,918 7.0 7.0 6.9 7.3

Vallejo-Fairfield

208,952 210,287 208,932 209,337 9,114 9,194 8,791 9,531 4.4 4.4 4.2 4.6

Visalia-Porterville

205,692 210,934 202,208 208,502 23,543 23,965 23,655 25,244 11.4 11.4 11.7 12.1

Yuba City

73,689 75,590 74,158 76,020 6,565 6,753 6,688 7,129 8.9 8.9 9.0 9.4

Colorado

3,054,983 3,132,592 3,056,824 3,123,718 98,228 109,509 94,901 93,998 3.2 3.5 3.1 3.0

Boulder

192,105 198,466 192,324 198,372 5,311 5,715 5,132 4,950 2.8 2.9 2.7 2.5

Colorado Springs

345,172 353,835 345,397 353,540 12,991 14,647 12,728 12,620 3.8 4.1 3.7 3.6

Denver-Aurora-Lakewood

1,625,707 1,667,784 1,626,544 1,660,449 49,895 55,502 48,214 47,964 3.1 3.3 3.0 2.9

Fort Collins

198,588 205,263 198,473 205,042 5,613 6,289 5,296 5,301 2.8 3.1 2.7 2.6

Grand Junction

74,986 77,410 75,227 77,074 3,349 3,598 3,153 2,905 4.5 4.6 4.2 3.8

Greeley

162,035 167,161 161,962 166,728 4,879 5,361 4,677 4,619 3.0 3.2 2.9 2.8

Pueblo

75,695 76,404 75,783 75,932 3,575 3,967 3,514 3,396 4.7 5.2 4.6 4.5

Connecticut

1,881,241 1,905,164 1,887,096 1,903,775 94,440 83,677 88,048 79,680 5.0 4.4 4.7 4.2

Bridgeport-Stamford-Norwalk

459,283 463,493 461,297 463,148 22,658 20,315 21,117 19,193 4.9 4.4 4.6 4.1

Danbury

104,833 106,195 105,408 106,393 4,507 4,172 4,162 3,918 4.3 3.9 3.9 3.7

Hartford-West Hartford-East Hartford

619,446 628,326 621,585 628,363 30,977 27,403 29,056 26,219 5.0 4.4 4.7 4.2

New Haven

323,161 327,700 322,858 326,342 15,640 13,537 14,626 13,082 4.8 4.1 4.5 4.0

Norwich-New London-Westerly

140,574 141,551 140,924 141,840 7,141 6,266 6,516 5,804 5.1 4.4 4.6 4.1

Waterbury

111,125 112,494 111,612 112,725 7,105 6,150 6,596 5,899 6.4 5.5 5.9 5.2

Delaware

478,740 485,741 481,405 488,709 20,931 16,640 19,505 15,831 4.4 3.4 4.1 3.2

Dover

78,239 79,401 78,786 79,636 3,725 2,904 3,481 2,761 4.8 3.7 4.4 3.5

Salisbury(1)

184,552 188,302 186,278 190,050 12,176 10,600 10,629 9,503 6.6 5.6 5.7 5.0

District of Columbia

406,696 407,959 406,065 410,230 24,123 24,520 23,191 22,814 5.9 6.0 5.7 5.6

Washington-Arlington-Alexandria

3,389,423 3,412,017 3,393,699 3,421,626 124,482 119,665 117,932 113,347 3.7 3.5 3.5 3.3

Florida

10,187,885 10,366,434 10,202,284 10,314,179 386,033 354,790 373,111 337,962 3.8 3.4 3.7 3.3

Cape Coral-Fort Myers

344,552 353,367 345,524 351,483 12,173 11,593 11,602 11,019 3.5 3.3 3.4 3.1

Crestview-Fort Walton Beach-Destin

123,159 125,929 126,401 126,552 4,152 3,819 3,869 3,581 3.4 3.0 3.1 2.8

Deltona-Daytona Beach-Ormond Beach

299,344 303,478 300,559 301,011 12,202 11,405 11,640 10,697 4.1 3.8 3.9 3.6

Gainesville

144,554 145,716 144,623 144,322 5,074 4,639 4,835 4,412 3.5 3.2 3.3 3.1

Homosassa Springs

47,634 47,957 47,857 47,956 2,666 2,523 2,493 2,339 5.6 5.3 5.2 4.9

Jacksonville

766,947 769,813 769,616 767,811 27,584 25,921 26,480 24,478 3.6 3.4 3.4 3.2

Lakeland-Winter Haven

294,659 300,623 295,794 300,359 12,851 11,706 12,229 11,095 4.4 3.9 4.1 3.7

Miami-Fort Lauderdale-West Palm Beach

3,151,034 3,220,948 3,135,419 3,183,755 120,523 106,109 120,051 103,894 3.8 3.3 3.8 3.3

Naples-Immokalee-Marco Island

180,845 183,250 181,126 181,940 6,211 5,708 5,890 5,358 3.4 3.1 3.3 2.9

North Port-Sarasota-Bradenton

366,393 366,613 368,561 367,137 13,049 12,191 12,320 11,582 3.6 3.3 3.3 3.2

Ocala

135,108 136,685 135,102 136,625 6,226 5,749 5,916 5,383 4.6 4.2 4.4 3.9

Orlando-Kissimmee-Sanford

1,320,261 1,358,988 1,325,772 1,354,695 46,622 43,182 44,407 40,720 3.5 3.2 3.3 3.0

Palm Bay-Melbourne-Titusville

272,831 281,403 274,815 279,963 10,409 9,832 10,013 9,226 3.8 3.5 3.6 3.3

Panama City

92,844 92,102 94,298 93,121 3,779 4,661 3,431 4,055 4.1 5.1 3.6 4.4

Pensacola-Ferry Pass-Brent

222,200 225,824 223,619 225,153 8,413 7,671 7,959 7,220 3.8 3.4 3.6 3.2

Port St. Lucie

215,321 219,747 216,588 219,264 9,417 8,647 8,941 8,012 4.4 3.9 4.1 3.7

Punta Gorda

71,293 72,439 71,926 72,628 2,946 2,854 2,811 2,691 4.1 3.9 3.9 3.7

Sebastian-Vero Beach

65,233 66,489 65,353 66,437 2,877 2,617 2,756 2,477 4.4 3.9 4.2 3.7

Sebring

37,620 37,016 37,657 36,930 1,857 1,768 1,746 1,632 4.9 4.8 4.6 4.4

Tallahassee

193,289 196,322 192,859 196,006 7,014 6,466 6,746 6,155 3.6 3.3 3.5 3.1

Tampa-St. Petersburg-Clearwater

1,520,981 1,536,363 1,524,962 1,535,878 56,374 53,051 54,100 50,069 3.7 3.5 3.5 3.3

The Villages

31,311 31,854 31,336 31,744 1,707 1,634 1,622 1,567 5.5 5.1 5.2 4.9

Georgia

5,122,823 5,118,857 5,121,497 5,110,345 222,033 202,189 207,451 188,273 4.3 3.9 4.1 3.7

Albany

67,712 67,457 67,773 67,224 3,386 3,151 3,153 2,924 5.0 4.7 4.7 4.3

Athens-Clarke County

102,414 101,294 102,047 101,101 4,160 3,811 3,826 3,577 4.1 3.8 3.7 3.5

Atlanta-Sandy Springs-Roswell

3,080,204 3,078,164 3,079,660 3,074,287 128,616 115,940 120,593 109,351 4.2 3.8 3.9 3.6

Augusta-Richmond County

269,561 271,132 269,574 270,106 12,166 10,828 11,360 10,535 4.5 4.0 4.2 3.9

Brunswick

53,568 53,399 53,684 53,538 2,312 2,093 2,145 1,943 4.3 3.9 4.0 3.6

Columbus

125,934 125,110 126,245 124,949 6,491 5,721 5,976 5,408 5.2 4.6 4.7 4.3

Dalton

61,216 61,967 61,088 61,567 3,290 3,319 3,207 2,810 5.4 5.4 5.2 4.6

Gainesville

101,904 103,562 101,902 103,407 3,608 3,317 3,300 3,106 3.5 3.2 3.2 3.0

Hinesville

34,154 33,964 34,208 33,992 1,622 1,381 1,530 1,313 4.7 4.1 4.5 3.9

Macon-Bibb County

105,709 104,578 105,535 104,325 4,913 4,456 4,656 4,194 4.6 4.3 4.4 4.0

Rome

44,879 44,611 44,643 44,517 2,083 1,944 1,868 1,741 4.6 4.4 4.2 3.9

Savannah

190,085 188,728 191,648 187,795 7,523 6,980 7,023 6,576 4.0 3.7 3.7 3.5

Valdosta

64,563 64,862 64,755 65,071 2,840 2,618 2,624 2,423 4.4 4.0 4.1 3.7

Warner Robins

86,584 86,497 86,394 86,342 3,766 3,468 3,524 3,200 4.3 4.0 4.1 3.7

Hawaii

679,715 668,169 681,464 668,648 15,109 18,409 15,063 18,992 2.2 2.8 2.2 2.8

Kahului-Wailuku-Lahaina

85,525 84,608 86,284 84,758 1,979 2,451 1,889 2,410 2.3 2.9 2.2 2.8

Urban Honolulu

468,021 460,151 468,027 460,967 10,136 11,799 10,063 12,279 2.2 2.6 2.2 2.7

Idaho

846,864 867,922 848,084 867,972 31,758 32,079 30,213 29,627 3.8 3.7 3.6 3.4

Boise City

358,184 370,451 358,938 370,313 12,166 12,189 11,406 10,918 3.4 3.3 3.2 2.9

Coeur d'Alene

76,647 78,778 76,739 78,857 3,789 3,904 3,569 3,759 4.9 5.0 4.7 4.8

Idaho Falls

69,170 71,630 69,076 71,311 2,244 2,182 2,115 1,909 3.2 3.0 3.1 2.7

Lewiston

31,360 31,483 31,275 31,378 1,293 1,287 1,191 1,285 4.1 4.1 3.8 4.1

Pocatello

41,891 42,826 41,818 42,699 1,466 1,456 1,330 1,257 3.5 3.4 3.2 2.9

Twin Falls

52,368 52,919 52,391 52,887 1,744 1,791 1,659 1,642 3.3 3.4 3.2 3.1

Illinois

6,477,500 6,455,651 6,467,723 6,470,975 316,539 302,523 281,008 289,991 4.9 4.7 4.3 4.5

Bloomington

97,122 95,312 97,153 95,180 4,142 4,590 4,066 4,647 4.3 4.8 4.2 4.9

Carbondale-Marion

60,314 61,025 60,432 61,329 2,989 3,057 2,988 3,144 5.0 5.0 4.9 5.1

Champaign-Urbana

121,998 121,354 122,925 121,886 5,319 5,822 5,128 5,856 4.4 4.8 4.2 4.8

Chicago-Naperville-Elgin

4,887,130 4,873,577 4,868,194 4,889,415 232,517 210,843 200,658 201,196 4.8 4.3 4.1 4.1

Danville

33,869 33,128 34,270 33,432 2,242 2,086 2,170 2,104 6.6 6.3 6.3 6.3

Davenport-Moline-Rock Island(1)

189,841 191,594 191,324 193,736 9,192 9,222 8,549 9,489 4.8 4.8 4.5 4.9

Decatur

49,725 49,536 49,850 49,529 2,823 3,078 2,795 3,121 5.7 6.2 5.6 6.3

Kankakee

55,387 55,857 55,696 56,030 3,401 3,703 3,256 3,656 6.1 6.6 5.8 6.5

Peoria

177,354 179,789 178,907 180,268 10,197 10,743 9,748 10,702 5.7 6.0 5.4 5.9

Rockford

167,071 167,811 167,420 167,802 9,446 10,803 9,156 11,098 5.7 6.4 5.5 6.6

Springfield

110,892 110,172 111,504 110,579 5,054 5,635 4,830 5,606 4.6 5.1 4.3 5.1

Indiana

3,354,634 3,410,854 3,365,497 3,419,800 126,312 139,482 118,892 134,413 3.8 4.1 3.5 3.9

Bloomington

80,928 81,460 80,065 80,726 3,168 3,539 2,922 3,150 3.9 4.3 3.6 3.9

Columbus

44,643 46,274 44,897 46,392 1,323 1,484 1,210 1,343 3.0 3.2 2.7 2.9

Elkhart-Goshen

115,690 117,542 115,873 117,406 2,918 3,992 2,758 3,744 2.5 3.4 2.4 3.2

Evansville

162,446 166,466 163,264 166,768 5,657 6,098 5,282 5,788 3.5 3.7 3.2 3.5

Fort Wayne

214,693 219,704 214,721 219,466 7,277 8,095 6,777 7,535 3.4 3.7 3.2 3.4

Indianapolis-Carmel-Anderson

1,049,921 1,067,864 1,054,890 1,073,782 36,216 39,573 34,670 37,328 3.4 3.7 3.3 3.5

Kokomo

37,026 38,215 37,102 38,283 1,440 1,739 1,364 1,667 3.9 4.6 3.7 4.4

Lafayette-West Lafayette

112,278 113,015 112,288 112,101 3,908 4,130 3,637 3,801 3.5 3.7 3.2 3.4

Michigan City-La Porte

47,734 47,888 47,879 48,031 2,512 2,817 2,358 2,712 5.3 5.9 4.9 5.6

Muncie

54,175 55,232 54,467 55,130 2,426 2,601 2,256 2,433 4.5 4.7 4.1 4.4

South Bend-Mishawaka

161,118 163,466 161,256 163,646 6,504 6,968 6,099 6,762 4.0 4.3 3.8 4.1

Terre Haute

77,207 78,132 77,211 77,902 3,812 4,299 3,457 3,999 4.9 5.5 4.5 5.1

Iowa

1,677,441 1,708,614 1,677,530 1,714,804 56,014 46,786 50,720 47,553 3.3 2.7 3.0 2.8

Ames

58,760 60,262 58,525 60,457 1,100 857 994 892 1.9 1.4 1.7 1.5

Cedar Rapids

143,117 143,798 143,643 144,920 5,211 4,171 4,715 4,217 3.6 2.9 3.3 2.9

Des Moines-West Des Moines

350,336 359,407 350,939 362,323 11,041 9,739 10,107 10,044 3.2 2.7 2.9 2.8

Dubuque

54,864 56,060 55,184 56,749 1,893 1,564 1,675 1,582 3.5 2.8 3.0 2.8

Iowa City

97,978 97,813 98,345 98,674 2,358 1,795 2,117 1,844 2.4 1.8 2.2 1.9

Sioux City

90,555 93,821 90,828 93,983 3,021 2,655 2,807 2,665 3.3 2.8 3.1 2.8

Waterloo-Cedar Falls

89,417 90,662 89,537 91,221 3,028 2,433 2,834 2,495 3.4 2.7 3.2 2.7

Kansas

1,476,578 1,482,112 1,473,071 1,472,536 55,068 55,195 51,611 53,968 3.7 3.7 3.5 3.7

Lawrence

66,357 66,418 65,981 65,851 2,228 2,272 2,091 2,145 3.4 3.4 3.2 3.3

Manhattan

48,827 48,981 48,433 48,366 1,451 1,604 1,388 1,517 3.0 3.3 2.9 3.1

Topeka

119,552 120,772 119,383 120,434 4,699 4,929 4,182 4,743 3.9 4.1 3.5 3.9

Wichita

307,921 312,107 307,363 310,077 12,873 12,270 11,966 12,084 4.2 3.9 3.9 3.9

Kentucky

2,057,658 2,057,594 2,068,027 2,077,901 103,803 88,454 97,165 92,313 5.0 4.3 4.7 4.4

Bowling Green

83,415 84,221 83,883 84,987 3,856 3,432 3,501 3,527 4.6 4.1 4.2 4.2

Elizabethtown-Fort Knox

67,418 67,549 67,617 68,279 3,221 2,860 3,033 2,981 4.8 4.2 4.5 4.4

Lexington-Fayette

270,038 270,415 270,803 272,121 10,587 9,070 10,031 9,764 3.9 3.4 3.7 3.6

Louisville/Jefferson County

667,681 673,398 671,165 678,413 27,786 26,048 26,690 26,843 4.2 3.9 4.0 4.0

Owensboro

56,519 55,914 56,496 56,088 2,778 2,191 2,536 2,279 4.9 3.9 4.5 4.1

Louisiana

2,092,235 2,087,378 2,104,316 2,090,401 92,116 91,915 96,908 80,506 4.4 4.4 4.6 3.9

Alexandria

63,537 62,633 63,651 62,591 3,073 3,000 3,221 2,622 4.8 4.8 5.1 4.2

Baton Rouge

416,293 416,802 421,271 417,733 16,120 16,474 16,980 14,340 3.9 4.0 4.0 3.4

Hammond

53,977 54,024 54,124 53,962 2,600 2,680 2,739 2,340 4.8 5.0 5.1 4.3

Houma-Thibodaux

87,960 85,575 88,442 85,507 3,941 3,741 4,128 3,257 4.5 4.4 4.7 3.8

Lafayette

210,463 211,508 212,230 211,806 9,713 9,228 10,247 8,048 4.6 4.4 4.8 3.8

Lake Charles

113,186 112,842 114,408 113,482 3,892 3,962 4,081 3,494 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.1

Monroe

79,143 79,246 79,697 79,281 3,779 3,992 3,974 3,499 4.8 5.0 5.0 4.4

New Orleans-Metairie

591,549 592,814 591,946 594,096 24,333 24,123 25,609 21,240 4.1 4.1 4.3 3.6

Shreveport-Bossier City

187,056 184,770 187,519 184,478 8,656 8,674 9,230 7,614 4.6 4.7 4.9 4.1

Maine

689,944 687,164 691,740 687,467 27,522 26,936 27,137 26,273 4.0 3.9 3.9 3.8

Bangor

71,084 70,557 70,788 70,890 2,852 2,803 2,763 2,671 4.0 4.0 3.9 3.8

Lewiston-Auburn

55,451 55,327 55,645 55,757 2,015 2,025 2,033 2,043 3.6 3.7 3.7 3.7

Portland-South Portland

204,679 204,450 205,499 205,130 6,284 6,069 6,358 6,237 3.1 3.0 3.1 3.0

Maryland

3,187,022 3,200,023 3,191,821 3,206,767 142,920 132,193 132,160 124,330 4.5 4.1 4.1 3.9

Baltimore-Columbia-Towson

1,483,898 1,496,602 1,487,533 1,503,094 66,739 61,220 62,171 58,329 4.5 4.1 4.2 3.9

California-Lexington Park

55,318 55,581 55,375 55,660 2,396 2,174 2,218 2,043 4.3 3.9 4.0 3.7

Cumberland

44,473 44,537 44,433 44,525 2,941 2,685 2,718 2,420 6.6 6.0 6.1 5.4

Hagerstown-Martinsburg

130,602 131,624 130,484 131,751 6,775 6,070 6,180 5,497 5.2 4.6 4.7 4.2

Massachusetts

3,759,467 3,833,572 3,775,360 3,834,050 151,670 122,600 141,652 119,430 4.0 3.2 3.8 3.1

Barnstable Town

119,224 121,753 119,737 121,891 7,818 6,549 6,897 5,970 6.6 5.4 5.8 4.9

Boston-Cambridge-Nashua

2,783,408 2,835,612 2,796,606 2,841,453 98,227 78,993 92,321 78,043 3.5 2.8 3.3 2.7

Leominster-Gardner

80,748 83,122 80,983 83,112 3,811 3,167 3,580 3,089 4.7 3.8 4.4 3.7

New Bedford

85,885 87,739 85,979 87,155 5,848 4,554 5,319 4,243 6.8 5.2 6.2 4.9

Pittsfield

43,235 43,512 43,112 43,219 2,348 1,903 2,194 1,823 5.4 4.4 5.1 4.2

Springfield

376,670 388,739 378,214 387,036 18,208 15,234 17,254 14,731 4.8 3.9 4.6 3.8

Worcester

361,321 365,585 362,974 364,121 15,456 12,987 14,463 12,626 4.3 3.6 4.0 3.5

Michigan

4,902,969 4,938,198 4,899,905 4,948,184 241,250 202,232 222,478 219,633 4.9 4.1 4.5 4.4

Ann Arbor

197,149 196,362 196,755 197,443 6,443 5,322 5,674 5,989 3.3 2.7 2.9 3.0

Battle Creek

63,211 63,459 63,164 63,407 3,244 2,590 2,974 2,815 5.1 4.1 4.7 4.4

Bay City

50,783 50,405 50,537 50,184 3,201 2,593 2,933 2,683 6.3 5.1 5.8 5.3

Detroit-Warren-Dearborn

2,120,181 2,145,756 2,123,735 2,155,586 98,755 86,377 93,515 95,921 4.7 4.0 4.4 4.4

Flint

182,998 183,022 182,495 183,850 10,903 8,956 9,986 9,555 6.0 4.9 5.5 5.2

Grand Rapids-Wyoming

580,978 588,388 580,773 587,611 21,128 16,904 18,943 18,725 3.6 2.9 3.3 3.2

Jackson

74,778 74,916 74,965 75,098 3,608 2,928 3,207 3,097 4.8 3.9 4.3 4.1

Kalamazoo-Portage

169,687 170,452 169,148 170,506 7,864 6,081 7,028 6,672 4.6 3.6 4.2 3.9

Lansing-East Lansing

252,698 250,769 251,304 250,643 10,274 8,294 9,238 9,029 4.1 3.3 3.7 3.6

Midland

40,884 40,430 40,754 40,433 2,138 1,598 1,955 1,756 5.2 4.0 4.8 4.3

Monroe

75,946 76,485 75,757 76,467 3,700 3,216 3,047 3,143 4.9 4.2 4.0 4.1

Muskegon

77,809 78,276 77,855 78,304 4,316 3,323 3,997 3,580 5.5 4.2 5.1 4.6

Niles-Benton Harbor

73,234 72,669 73,472 73,099 4,007 3,183 3,602 3,315 5.5 4.4 4.9 4.5

Saginaw

87,535 87,316 87,257 87,371 5,222 4,429 4,778 4,597 6.0 5.1 5.5 5.3

Minnesota

3,058,954 3,082,754 3,056,957 3,089,899 116,243 121,872 111,160 127,114 3.8 4.0 3.6 4.1

Duluth

144,301 144,341 143,937 144,325 7,233 6,961 6,801 7,088 5.0 4.8 4.7 4.9

Mankato-North Mankato

61,155 61,683 61,357 61,888 1,901 1,998 1,798 2,077 3.1 3.2 2.9 3.4

Minneapolis-St. Paul-Bloomington

1,995,663 2,009,155 1,989,780 2,011,603 65,854 68,444 62,764 72,044 3.3 3.4 3.2 3.6

Rochester

122,014 124,316 122,916 125,248 4,200 4,257 3,943 4,548 3.4 3.4 3.2 3.6

St. Cloud

111,552 113,859 111,653 114,043 4,749 4,996 4,491 5,098 4.3 4.4 4.0 4.5

Mississippi

1,276,208 1,254,627 1,276,084 1,259,523 62,447 60,781 59,249 60,982 4.9 4.8 4.6 4.8

Gulfport-Biloxi-Pascagoula

163,529 161,930 164,347 162,568 8,430 8,041 7,908 7,994 5.2 5.0 4.8 4.9

Hattiesburg

69,032 69,344 68,430 69,254 2,907 2,958 2,772 2,924 4.2 4.3 4.1 4.2

Jackson

271,114 266,092 270,110 266,797 11,298 11,105 10,998 11,473 4.2 4.2 4.1 4.3

Missouri

3,052,969 3,045,104 3,055,283 3,041,039 121,881 112,876 113,538 118,145 4.0 3.7 3.7 3.9

Cape Girardeau

47,606 47,893 47,609 47,770 1,758 1,612 1,710 1,705 3.7 3.4 3.6 3.6

Columbia

97,829 97,368 98,048 97,212 2,607 2,537 2,472 2,728 2.7 2.6 2.5 2.8

Jefferson City

73,883 72,578 73,953 72,495 2,433 2,376 2,268 2,363 3.3 3.3 3.1 3.3

Joplin

84,298 84,632 84,253 84,415 2,768 2,646 2,652 2,939 3.3 3.1 3.1 3.5

Kansas City

1,127,530 1,127,787 1,126,493 1,127,019 43,903 41,502 41,219 42,935 3.9 3.7 3.7 3.8

St. Joseph

63,433 63,090 63,618 63,123 2,305 2,263 2,247 2,375 3.6 3.6 3.5 3.8

St. Louis(2)

1,456,768 1,458,175 1,456,706 1,454,297 57,918 55,542 55,409 58,233 4.0 3.8 3.8 4.0

Springfield

229,832 233,488 229,973 233,368 7,695 7,105 7,363 7,605 3.3 3.0 3.2 3.3

Montana

522,485 526,362 523,623 526,984 23,827 23,217 23,092 21,838 4.6 4.4 4.4 4.1

Billings

86,398 87,195 86,948 87,273 3,450 3,489 3,349 3,255 4.0 4.0 3.9 3.7

Great Falls

37,798 38,339 37,854 38,328 1,660 1,644 1,594 1,521 4.4 4.3 4.2 4.0

Missoula

62,816 63,929 63,064 64,031 2,647 2,587 2,519 2,438 4.2 4.0 4.0 3.8

Nebraska

1,011,707 1,026,761 1,014,563 1,031,404 31,810 31,927 30,993 33,371 3.1 3.1 3.1 3.2

Grand Island

43,412 43,585 43,638 44,011 1,470 1,435 1,381 1,507 3.4 3.3 3.2 3.4

Lincoln

181,987 183,804 181,917 183,317 5,013 5,063 4,871 5,358 2.8 2.8 2.7 2.9

Omaha-Council Bluffs

482,744 491,854 482,495 492,473 15,784 15,605 15,350 16,192 3.3 3.2 3.2 3.3

Nevada

1,485,731 1,524,643 1,485,939 1,515,842 71,877 63,194 70,413 55,642 4.8 4.1 4.7 3.7

Carson City

25,717 26,336 25,548 26,075 1,468 1,229 1,406 1,061 5.7 4.7 5.5 4.1

Las Vegas-Henderson-Paradise

1,087,931 1,112,690 1,086,932 1,105,839 54,604 46,784 53,483 41,637 5.0 4.2 4.9 3.8

Reno

247,166 261,069 246,700 258,883 9,937 9,584 9,821 8,144 4.0 3.7 4.0 3.1

New Hampshire

757,660 766,263 759,912 766,688 24,125 22,175 23,363 21,791 3.2 2.9 3.1 2.8

Dover-Durham

84,972 85,749 85,421 85,977 2,511 2,376 2,448 2,303 3.0 2.8 2.9 2.7

Manchester

119,713 121,704 120,105 122,305 3,583 3,265 3,442 3,221 3.0 2.7 2.9 2.6

Portsmouth

75,448 76,351 75,748 76,238 2,141 1,967 2,153 1,972 2.8 2.6 2.8 2.6

New Jersey

4,429,034 4,458,265 4,413,614 4,450,669 219,283 207,502 202,742 182,599 5.0 4.7 4.6 4.1

Atlantic City-Hammonton

115,613 120,938 115,541 120,669 9,112 8,265 8,288 7,263 7.9 6.8 7.2 6.0

Ocean City

40,776 41,956 40,768 41,954 6,072 5,463 5,442 4,815 14.9 13.0 13.3 11.5

Trenton

194,761 199,372 194,433 199,812 8,474 8,133 7,759 7,012 4.4 4.1 4.0 3.5

Vineland-Bridgeton

65,119 65,237 64,629 64,977 5,483 4,882 4,959 4,293 8.4 7.5 7.7 6.6

New Mexico

935,763 958,186 932,495 949,784 47,889 49,734 44,916 43,705 5.1 5.2 4.8 4.6

Albuquerque

428,826 437,402 427,054 434,393 20,282 20,910 19,002 18,405 4.7 4.8 4.4 4.2

Farmington

52,850 53,191 52,634 52,593 3,097 3,262 2,894 2,770 5.9 6.1 5.5 5.3

Las Cruces

96,822 99,059 96,544 98,082 5,935 6,206 5,674 5,615 6.1 6.3 5.9 5.7

Santa Fe

72,428 74,532 72,344 73,817 3,159 3,178 2,896 2,739 4.4 4.3 4.0 3.7

New York

9,562,886 9,556,617 9,554,320 9,593,646 484,589 418,851 436,236 394,615 5.1 4.4 4.6 4.1

Albany-Schenectady-Troy

446,759 451,177 446,771 454,460 21,832 17,642 19,335 16,919 4.9 3.9 4.3 3.7

Binghamton

107,221 107,018 107,107 107,329 6,958 5,408 6,099 5,221 6.5 5.1 5.7 4.9

Buffalo-Cheektowaga-Niagara Falls

538,099 537,303 539,279 542,021 32,738 25,411 29,092 24,235 6.1 4.7 5.4 4.5

Elmira

35,366 34,917 35,314 35,273 2,181 1,568 1,924 1,505 6.2 4.5 5.4 4.3

Glens Falls

58,707 59,189 58,167 59,064 3,808 3,089 3,384 2,998 6.5 5.2 5.8 5.1

Ithaca

50,706 51,525 50,459 51,542 2,276 1,839 1,956 1,763 4.5 3.6 3.9 3.4

Kingston

87,531 88,453 87,657 89,172 4,477 3,526 3,864 3,344 5.1 4.0 4.4 3.8

New York-Newark-Jersey City

9,943,751 9,948,485 9,933,424 9,972,978 467,383 429,258 428,187 393,845 4.7 4.3 4.3 3.9

Rochester

520,993 521,560 519,908 522,941 28,735 22,906 25,488 21,916 5.5 4.4 4.9 4.2

Syracuse

304,324 308,733 303,758 309,372 17,686 14,215 15,502 13,556 5.8 4.6 5.1 4.4

Utica-Rome

129,649 128,806 129,121 128,984 7,879 6,276 6,991 6,055 6.1 4.9 5.4 4.7

Watertown-Fort Drum

44,106 43,759 44,132 43,920 3,650 2,896 3,263 2,753 8.3 6.6 7.4 6.3

North Carolina

4,974,728 5,035,556 4,987,008 5,065,196 217,858 211,300 201,085 206,445 4.4 4.2 4.0 4.1

Asheville

231,935 239,116 232,815 240,670 8,100 8,187 7,587 8,041 3.5 3.4 3.3 3.3

Burlington

80,855 81,080 81,065 81,898 3,271 3,264 3,017 3,215 4.0 4.0 3.7 3.9

Charlotte-Concord-Gastonia

1,322,909 1,351,025 1,329,109 1,367,568 54,514 51,515 50,285 51,149 4.1 3.8 3.8 3.7

Durham-Chapel Hill

299,662 302,356 299,165 303,648 11,325 11,168 10,591 11,102 3.8 3.7 3.5 3.7

Fayetteville

148,670 150,196 148,884 151,125 8,322 8,147 7,599 7,881 5.6 5.4 5.1 5.2

Goldsboro

53,447 53,462 53,187 53,191 2,540 2,369 2,370 2,337 4.8 4.4 4.5 4.4

Greensboro-High Point

369,121 369,898 369,754 370,794 16,867 16,167 15,543 15,750 4.6 4.4 4.2 4.2

Greenville

90,359 90,715 90,694 91,454 4,156 3,997 3,820 3,931 4.6 4.4 4.2 4.3

Hickory-Lenoir-Morganton

173,509 176,720 174,029 176,675 6,785 6,990 6,372 6,888 3.9 4.0 3.7 3.9

Jacksonville

65,169 64,942 65,089 65,359 3,326 3,266 3,058 3,191 5.1 5.0 4.7 4.9

New Bern

51,146 51,649 51,342 51,734 2,299 2,305 2,151 2,256 4.5 4.5 4.2 4.4

Raleigh

707,978 717,694 710,826 723,583 26,830 26,392 25,152 26,231 3.8 3.7 3.5 3.6

Rocky Mount

65,730 65,727 65,720 65,153 4,202 3,609 3,792 3,466 6.4 5.5 5.8 5.3

Wilmington

147,825 151,106 148,715 151,400 6,113 6,092 5,621 5,905 4.1 4.0 3.8 3.9

Winston-Salem

326,380 332,648 327,018 334,222 13,531 13,032 12,556 12,817 4.1 3.9 3.8 3.8

North Dakota

402,071 403,007 402,467 403,336 13,729 12,026 13,573 12,070 3.4 3.0 3.4 3.0

Bismarck

67,866 67,969 67,809 67,943 2,612 2,352 2,538 2,326 3.8 3.5 3.7 3.4

Fargo

137,459 137,395 137,189 137,255 4,367 4,029 4,354 4,180 3.2 2.9 3.2 3.0

Grand Forks

55,636 54,816 55,486 54,929 1,838 1,749 1,851 1,795 3.3 3.2 3.3 3.3

Ohio

5,732,276 5,788,285 5,739,578 5,811,226 288,119 269,496 269,295 240,686 5.0 4.7 4.7 4.1

Akron

357,085 359,821 357,793 361,876 18,389 17,648 17,708 15,650 5.1 4.9 4.9 4.3

Canton-Massillon

198,868 200,086 199,998 201,132 11,004 10,407 10,920 9,480 5.5 5.2 5.5 4.7

Cincinnati

1,103,971 1,124,331 1,108,321 1,133,786 46,891 44,360 44,495 40,546 4.2 3.9 4.0 3.6

Cleveland-Elyria

1,035,283 1,033,732 1,025,785 1,035,610 61,077 50,039 53,346 45,789 5.9 4.8 5.2 4.4

Columbus

1,070,834 1,090,159 1,071,327 1,094,652 42,677 41,601 40,952 37,099 4.0 3.8 3.8 3.4

Dayton

385,443 388,792 386,590 388,972 17,424 16,847 16,418 14,832 4.5 4.3 4.2 3.8

Lima

47,669 48,122 47,891 48,307 2,290 2,119 2,181 1,871 4.8 4.4 4.6 3.9

Mansfield

52,633 52,913 52,854 53,575 2,868 2,658 2,746 2,384 5.4 5.0 5.2 4.4

Springfield

62,674 63,668 63,075 63,864 2,904 2,959 2,774 2,597 4.6 4.6 4.4 4.1

Toledo

301,912 302,226 301,883 302,697 15,633 14,874 14,549 13,003 5.2 4.9 4.8 4.3

Weirton-Steubenville(1)

50,173 50,295 49,952 49,870 3,648 3,300 3,446 2,835 7.3 6.6 6.9 5.7

Youngstown-Warren-Boardman

241,455 240,525 242,014 240,857 15,060 14,485 14,463 14,189 6.2 6.0 6.0 5.9

Oklahoma

1,844,674 1,823,176 1,847,864 1,824,593 73,999 64,029 68,196 58,979 4.0 3.5 3.7 3.2

Enid

27,362 26,950 27,499 26,825 992 875 922 831 3.6 3.2 3.4 3.1

Lawton

51,505 50,827 51,615 50,967 2,204 1,963 2,075 1,829 4.3 3.9 4.0 3.6

Oklahoma City

679,173 676,597 681,044 677,736 25,031 22,029 23,273 20,449 3.7 3.3 3.4 3.0

Tulsa

480,123 473,381 482,539 474,973 19,815 16,842 18,177 15,493 4.1 3.6 3.8 3.3

Oregon

2,094,704 2,115,245 2,092,084 2,112,727 97,154 98,838 94,516 96,718 4.6 4.7 4.5 4.6

Albany

58,571 59,037 58,425 58,907 3,103 3,200 2,978 3,003 5.3 5.4 5.1 5.1

Bend-Redmond

94,188 96,751 94,101 96,386 4,793 5,108 4,538 5,063 5.1 5.3 4.8 5.3

Corvallis

48,825 48,983 48,796 48,911 1,654 1,669 1,584 1,692 3.4 3.4 3.2 3.5

Eugene

183,175 182,357 182,545 182,377 8,941 8,921 8,754 8,940 4.9 4.9 4.8 4.9

Grants Pass

35,521 36,196 35,539 36,168 2,248 2,334 2,230 2,209 6.3 6.4 6.3 6.1

Medford

104,280 105,426 104,183 105,411 5,705 5,757 5,593 5,697 5.5 5.5 5.4 5.4

Portland-Vancouver-Hillsboro

1,308,636 1,329,667 1,307,443 1,327,860 55,840 54,988 54,323 55,297 4.3 4.1 4.2 4.2

Salem

199,121 201,467 198,954 202,023 9,501 9,776 9,278 9,631 4.8 4.9 4.7 4.8

Pennsylvania

6,398,071 6,461,939 6,376,939 6,449,716 319,905 270,966 288,596 249,391 5.0 4.2 4.5 3.9

Allentown-Bethlehem-Easton

434,648 437,735 433,246 436,047 22,353 19,417 20,658 18,075 5.1 4.4 4.8 4.1

Altoona

59,173 59,803 58,990 59,870 2,844 2,526 2,539 2,289 4.8 4.2 4.3 3.8

Bloomsburg-Berwick

42,959 42,708 42,794 42,427 2,377 1,969 2,125 1,774 5.5 4.6 5.0 4.2

Chambersburg-Waynesboro

76,411 78,511 75,941 77,896 3,370 2,761 2,988 2,579 4.4 3.5 3.9 3.3

East Stroudsburg

82,107 82,587 81,427 82,089 5,082 4,244 4,715 3,954 6.2 5.1 5.8 4.8

Erie

129,415 130,447 128,865 129,372 7,533 5,846 6,825 5,483 5.8 4.5 5.3 4.2

Gettysburg

55,466 55,457 54,939 55,109 2,141 1,838 1,808 1,537 3.9 3.3 3.3 2.8

Harrisburg-Carlisle

293,409 295,019 293,066 293,832 12,391 10,251 10,932 9,312 4.2 3.5 3.7 3.2

Johnstown

58,601 58,946 58,400 58,677 3,535 2,986 3,142 2,754 6.0 5.1 5.4 4.7

Lancaster

278,457 281,014 277,995 279,447 10,758 9,298 9,354 8,303 3.9 3.3 3.4 3.0

Lebanon

70,787 71,490 70,370 71,143 3,070 2,637 2,682 2,384 4.3 3.7 3.8 3.4

Philadelphia-Camden-Wilmington

3,077,765 3,117,401 3,067,552 3,115,297 145,846 126,196 133,934 115,743 4.7 4.0 4.4 3.7

Pittsburgh

1,199,459 1,207,204 1,196,991 1,209,136 61,253 51,662 54,886 47,057 5.1 4.3 4.6 3.9

Reading

211,516 213,733 210,920 213,006 10,158 8,890 9,055 8,101 4.8 4.2 4.3 3.8

Scranton--Wilkes-Barre--Hazleton

276,979 276,817 276,045 276,269 16,021 14,429 14,818 13,505 5.8 5.2 5.4 4.9

State College

80,106 83,004 80,117 82,757 3,004 2,522 2,485 2,242 3.8 3.0 3.1 2.7

Williamsport

57,793 56,821 57,595 56,870 3,392 2,796 3,157 2,658 5.9 4.9 5.5 4.7

York-Hanover

233,292 234,059 232,762 233,538 10,239 8,563 9,041 7,686 4.4 3.7 3.9 3.3

Rhode Island

553,441 549,106 551,741 545,317 27,865 23,763 25,465 20,269 5.0 4.3 4.6 3.7

Providence-Warwick

687,459 685,597 686,273 681,634 35,176 29,793 32,162 26,047 5.1 4.3 4.7 3.8

South Carolina

2,312,220 2,349,066 2,312,170 2,367,031 91,910 76,762 79,655 78,972 4.0 3.3 3.4 3.3

Charleston-North Charleston

380,515 386,136 380,777 389,946 12,675 10,680 11,095 11,248 3.3 2.8 2.9 2.9

Columbia

398,427 400,511 397,712 403,765 15,138 12,100 13,260 12,696 3.8 3.0 3.3 3.1

Florence

96,239 97,528 96,146 97,894 4,108 3,482 3,579 3,497 4.3 3.6 3.7 3.6

Greenville-Anderson-Mauldin

425,325 431,779 425,595 433,433 15,105 12,551 13,195 13,163 3.6 2.9 3.1 3.0

Hilton Head Island-Bluffton-Beaufort

86,163 88,117 86,439 89,418 3,277 2,693 2,833 2,796 3.8 3.1 3.3 3.1

Myrtle Beach-Conway-North Myrtle Beach

191,932 197,016 193,782 202,842 10,828 9,840 8,902 9,188 5.6 5.0 4.6 4.5

Spartanburg

159,555 162,039 159,723 163,721 5,814 4,706 5,073 4,920 3.6 2.9 3.2 3.0

Sumter

44,172 44,793 44,009 44,985 2,067 1,619 1,824 1,713 4.7 3.6 4.1 3.8

South Dakota

454,597 461,790 456,469 463,349 16,458 15,145 15,809 14,525 3.6 3.3 3.5 3.1

Rapid City

72,247 73,886 72,449 73,880 2,791 2,638 2,637 2,499 3.9 3.6 3.6 3.4

Sioux Falls

151,006 155,438 150,942 155,584 4,699 4,407 4,550 4,218 3.1 2.8 3.0 2.7

Tennessee

3,232,664 3,299,396 3,236,419 3,331,549 121,427 104,160 115,544 110,812 3.8 3.2 3.6 3.3

Chattanooga

270,514 272,825 270,886 275,322 10,298 9,274 9,759 9,083 3.8 3.4 3.6 3.3

Clarksville

114,013 116,277 114,692 117,977 5,026 4,431 4,865 4,705 4.4 3.8 4.2 4.0

Cleveland

57,492 58,229 56,736 58,441 2,205 1,900 2,124 2,045 3.8 3.3 3.7 3.5

Jackson

63,732 64,810 63,951 65,617 2,630 2,117 2,481 2,277 4.1 3.3 3.9 3.5

Johnson City

92,129 92,778 92,043 93,784 3,756 3,217 3,513 3,417 4.1 3.5 3.8 3.6

Kingsport-Bristol-Bristol

137,295 139,410 137,686 139,929 5,517 5,021 5,288 5,192 4.0 3.6 3.8 3.7

Knoxville

420,816 429,932 420,941 435,793 14,678 12,706 14,147 13,726 3.5 3.0 3.4 3.1

Memphis

632,023 638,861 631,969 642,004 27,206 24,209 26,244 25,346 4.3 3.8 4.2 3.9

Morristown

51,802 52,567 51,655 53,004 2,253 1,943 1,993 1,977 4.3 3.7 3.9 3.7

Nashville-Davidson--Murfreesboro--Franklin

1,034,488 1,066,556 1,037,411 1,076,401 29,236 25,069 29,033 28,041 2.8 2.4 2.8 2.6

Texas

13,828,682 14,086,922 13,818,674 14,059,553 573,412 548,929 556,082 494,696 4.1 3.9 4.0 3.5

Abilene

77,062 77,799 77,116 77,725 2,703 2,613 2,644 2,451 3.5 3.4 3.4 3.2

Amarillo

132,777 133,479 132,704 133,197 3,807 3,830 3,843 3,609 2.9 2.9 2.9 2.7

Austin-Round Rock

1,192,661 1,216,398 1,192,406 1,214,310 36,619 36,535 36,284 33,115 3.1 3.0 3.0 2.7

Beaumont-Port Arthur

177,667 178,580 175,983 177,150 12,053 10,605 11,411 9,336 6.8 5.9 6.5 5.3

Brownsville-Harlingen

167,557 167,429 167,777 166,945 11,169 10,505 10,679 9,100 6.7 6.3 6.4 5.5

College Station-Bryan

133,755 137,109 134,170 136,827 4,077 4,078 3,982 3,700 3.0 3.0 3.0 2.7

Corpus Christi

210,345 211,320 210,314 209,595 11,550 10,461 11,133 9,272 5.5 5.0 5.3 4.4

Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington

3,883,436 3,980,401 3,871,473 3,977,057 143,732 143,676 141,507 131,305 3.7 3.6 3.7 3.3

El Paso

363,019 366,739 360,702 364,721 16,389 15,866 15,777 14,169 4.5 4.3 4.4 3.9

Houston-The Woodlands-Sugar Land

3,393,747 3,447,188 3,385,539 3,434,142 160,361 144,470 152,210 128,713 4.7 4.2 4.5 3.7

Killeen-Temple

176,587 179,473 175,427 178,422 7,406 7,620 7,205 6,750 4.2 4.2 4.1 3.8

Laredo

116,549 119,029 116,428 118,470 4,615 5,027 4,517 4,481 4.0 4.2 3.9 3.8

Longview

97,750 98,490 98,326 97,309 4,431 4,020 4,222 3,676 4.5 4.1 4.3 3.8

Lubbock

162,413 164,331 162,854 164,347 5,157 5,055 5,619 5,108 3.2 3.1 3.5 3.1

McAllen-Edinburg-Mission

351,358 357,323 352,540 355,777 24,880 23,950 23,655 20,265 7.1 6.7 6.7 5.7

Midland

101,858 107,549 102,325 107,250 2,386 2,410 2,318 2,223 2.3 2.2 2.3 2.1

Odessa

83,241 87,261 83,752 86,780 2,550 2,362 2,443 2,148 3.1 2.7 2.9 2.5

San Angelo

55,741 56,619 55,778 56,146 1,818 1,889 1,801 1,715 3.3 3.3 3.2 3.1

San Antonio-New Braunfels

1,186,384 1,209,287 1,186,087 1,208,355 41,249 41,465 40,240 37,577 3.5 3.4 3.4 3.1

Sherman-Denison

63,116 64,686 62,920 64,611 2,189 2,126 2,164 1,970 3.5 3.3 3.4 3.0

Texarkana

64,438 65,532 64,557 65,067 3,152 3,451 2,986 2,903 4.9 5.3 4.6 4.5

Tyler

106,504 108,688 106,346 108,262 4,079 4,031 3,936 3,645 3.8 3.7 3.7 3.4

Victoria

46,645 47,075 46,629 46,697 1,974 1,756 1,900 1,614 4.2 3.7 4.1 3.5

Waco

125,199 127,094 125,154 126,423 4,712 4,627 4,593 4,287 3.8 3.6 3.7 3.4

Wichita Falls

66,048 66,533 65,947 66,343 2,315 2,337 2,368 2,110 3.5 3.5 3.6 3.2

Utah

1,563,401 1,584,005 1,562,912 1,585,179 52,933 48,683 51,270 47,619 3.4 3.1 3.3 3.0

Logan

69,996 70,999 70,211 71,290 2,032 1,949 1,941 1,807 2.9 2.7 2.8 2.5

Ogden-Clearfield

323,851 327,935 323,847 328,643 11,115 10,149 10,730 9,861 3.4 3.1 3.3 3.0

Provo-Orem

304,710 310,762 304,170 310,349 9,250 8,597 8,891 8,490 3.0 2.8 2.9 2.7

St. George

72,706 75,206 73,165 75,448 2,645 2,546 2,595 2,388 3.6 3.4 3.5 3.2

Salt Lake City

649,499 655,290 646,825 653,688 21,121 19,571 20,934 19,482 3.3 3.0 3.2 3.0

Vermont

346,363 345,774 346,762 345,226 10,919 8,668 10,833 8,088 3.2 2.5 3.1 2.3

Burlington-South Burlington

125,675 125,797 125,702 125,874 2,920 2,259 2,990 2,226 2.3 1.8 2.4 1.8

Virginia

4,322,765 4,366,696 4,336,468 4,373,984 147,068 139,324 138,404 133,136 3.4 3.2 3.2 3.0

Blacksburg-Christiansburg-Radford

90,922 91,144 91,720 91,087 3,158 3,035 2,987 2,874 3.5 3.3 3.3 3.2

Charlottesville

119,906 121,050 120,316 120,810 3,626 3,455 3,455 3,350 3.0 2.9 2.9 2.8

Harrisonburg

65,998 67,324 65,569 66,255 2,170 2,094 2,072 1,976 3.3 3.1 3.2 3.0

Lynchburg

121,712 123,411 121,928 123,558 4,876 4,429 4,545 4,301 4.0 3.6 3.7 3.5

Richmond

675,560 680,998 676,398 680,912 24,303 22,638 22,822 21,713 3.6 3.3 3.4 3.2

Roanoke

156,295 158,200 157,105 159,111 5,406 4,934 5,073 4,774 3.5 3.1 3.2 3.0

Staunton-Waynesboro

59,084 60,234 59,189 60,303 1,907 1,748 1,792 1,742 3.2 2.9 3.0 2.9

Virginia Beach-Norfolk-Newport News

847,202 852,051 853,309 855,487 31,400 30,332 29,218 28,665 3.7 3.6 3.4 3.4

Winchester

71,949 72,866 71,633 72,877 2,538 2,371 2,276 2,215 3.5 3.3 3.2 3.0

Washington

3,767,711 3,879,775 3,770,820 3,893,261 198,256 203,229 181,793 201,706 5.3 5.2 4.8 5.2

Bellingham

110,390 115,977 111,313 115,560 6,208 6,850 5,641 6,066 5.6 5.9 5.1 5.2

Bremerton-Silverdale

121,730 126,927 122,140 126,601 6,632 6,752 6,148 6,625 5.4 5.3 5.0 5.2

Kennewick-Richland

136,257 143,379 138,169 144,777 9,715 10,736 8,706 10,251 7.1 7.5 6.3 7.1

Longview

45,604 46,820 45,801 47,028 3,175 3,095 3,003 3,162 7.0 6.6 6.6 6.7

Mount Vernon-Anacortes

58,890 61,717 59,169 61,819 3,686 4,200 3,319 3,636 6.3 6.8 5.6 5.9

Olympia-Tumwater

137,065 142,540 137,266 142,766 7,638 7,813 7,033 7,638 5.6 5.5 5.1 5.4

Seattle-Tacoma-Bellevue

2,117,935 2,163,681 2,111,285 2,171,580 89,364 88,906 82,880 89,628 4.2 4.1 3.9 4.1

Spokane-Spokane Valley

266,365 278,638 266,645 279,026 18,272 18,109 16,403 18,971 6.9 6.5 6.2 6.8

Walla Walla

29,978 31,661 30,332 31,982 1,846 1,909 1,623 1,947 6.2 6.0 5.4 6.1

Wenatchee

62,047 64,500 63,443 65,048 4,240 4,544 3,817 4,273 6.8 7.0 6.0 6.6

Yakima

123,875 129,228 125,271 130,937 10,356 12,733 9,222 12,056 8.4 9.9 7.4 9.2

West Virginia

781,287 789,122 776,686 783,453 51,009 48,352 47,142 41,200 6.5 6.1 6.1 5.3

Beckley

45,015 45,083 44,572 44,763 3,181 2,887 3,060 2,497 7.1 6.4 6.9 5.6

Charleston

93,349 92,163 93,068 91,491 6,056 5,527 5,860 4,728 6.5 6.0 6.3 5.2

Huntington-Ashland

145,763 144,386 145,822 144,577 9,473 8,454 8,811 7,611 6.5 5.9 6.0 5.3

Morgantown

69,313 68,711 68,783 68,046 3,468 3,308 3,216 2,829 5.0 4.8 4.7 4.2

Parkersburg-Vienna

38,143 38,215 37,701 37,838 2,737 2,649 2,373 2,181 7.2 6.9 6.3 5.8

Wheeling

64,681 68,388 64,676 68,112 4,516 4,324 4,111 3,757 7.0 6.3 6.4 5.5

Wisconsin

3,143,901 3,118,580 3,135,185 3,120,692 118,147 104,005 111,906 102,631 3.8 3.3 3.6 3.3

Appleton

132,008 130,137 131,522 130,369 4,416 3,760 4,241 3,704 3.3 2.9 3.2 2.8

Eau Claire

93,541 93,064 93,572 93,119 3,450 3,261 3,345 3,173 3.7 3.5 3.6 3.4

Fond du Lac

57,468 57,204 57,473 57,790 1,917 1,631 1,750 1,614 3.3 2.9 3.0 2.8

Green Bay

175,945 176,058 175,361 176,099 6,399 5,361 5,929 5,293 3.6 3.0 3.4 3.0

Janesville-Beloit

85,385 85,595 85,416 85,878 3,477 3,058 3,275 3,076 4.1 3.6 3.8 3.6

La Crosse-Onalaska

79,293 78,779 77,767 78,924 2,715 2,421 2,528 2,431 3.4 3.1 3.3 3.1

Madison

389,424 386,797 388,362 387,143 10,846 9,358 10,346 9,439 2.8 2.4 2.7 2.4

Milwaukee-Waukesha-West Allis

831,960 829,157 829,008 825,948 30,004 26,303 29,006 26,464 3.6 3.2 3.5 3.2

Oshkosh-Neenah

93,896 92,877 93,471 93,084 2,957 2,440 2,836 2,501 3.1 2.6 3.0 2.7

Racine

100,117 99,469 99,774 99,500 4,469 3,964 4,157 3,920 4.5 4.0 4.2 3.9

Sheboygan

62,621 62,311 62,528 62,557 1,889 1,574 1,804 1,614 3.0 2.5 2.9 2.6

Wausau

74,412 73,933 74,481 74,483 2,463 2,095 2,438 2,114 3.3 2.8 3.3 2.8

Wyoming

287,190 287,199 288,281 287,800 12,971 10,977 12,764 10,915 4.5 3.8 4.4 3.8

Casper

39,105 39,397 39,340 39,527 2,043 1,645 1,906 1,595 5.2 4.2 4.8 4.0

Cheyenne

47,763 47,854 48,029 48,261 2,012 1,641 1,904 1,741 4.2 3.4 4.0 3.6

Puerto Rico

1,080,833 1,071,130 1,080,951 1,066,612 108,362 95,466 105,882 98,451 10.0 8.9 9.8 9.2

Aguadilla-Isabela

86,438 85,686 86,628 85,571 11,900 10,591 11,646 10,929 13.8 12.4 13.4 12.8

Arecibo

51,423 52,006 51,380 51,642 6,560 6,048 6,308 6,212 12.8 11.6 12.3 12.0

Guayama

20,075 20,122 20,129 19,995 3,251 2,961 3,163 3,014 16.2 14.7 15.7 15.1

Mayaguez

27,201 27,193 27,296 27,077 3,077 2,939 3,049 2,988 11.3 10.8 11.2 11.0

Ponce

91,265 90,859 91,727 90,690 11,339 11,461 11,293 11,907 12.4 12.6 12.3 13.1

San German

34,165 34,845 34,534 34,806 4,536 3,998 4,569 4,151 13.3 11.5 13.2 11.9

San Juan-Carolina-Caguas

727,759 718,472 726,519 714,805 61,400 51,861 59,661 53,342 8.4 7.2 8.2 7.5

Footnotes
(1) For operational reasons, these interstate areas are listed under the state that accounts for the larger share of the population, which is different from the state that contains the first principal city.
(2) The area boundary does not reflect the Office of Management and Budget delineation.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data refer to place of residence. Data for Puerto Rico are derived from a monthly household survey similar to the Current Population Survey. Area delineations are based on Office of Management and Budget Bulletin No. 18-03, dated April 10, 2018, and are available on the BLS website at https://www.bls.gov/lau/lausmsa.htm. Areas in the six New England states are Metropolitan New England City and Town Areas (NECTAs), while areas in other states are county-based. Some metropolitan areas lie in two or more states. They are listed under the state containing the first principal city, unless otherwise footnoted. Estimates for the latest month are subject to revision the following month.


LABOR FORCE DATA
NOT SEASONALLY ADJUSTED

Table 2. Civilian labor force and unemployment by state, selected metropolitan area, and metropolitan division(1)
State, area, and division Civilian labor force Unemployed
February March Number Percent of labor force
2018 2019 2018 2019(p) February March February March
2018 2019 2018 2019(p) 2018 2019 2018 2019(p)

California

19,343,020 19,596,296 19,328,608 19,512,568 887,199 867,268 859,783 901,547 4.6 4.4 4.4 4.6

Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim

6,768,038 6,779,565 6,758,321 6,747,032 290,401 269,590 278,128 276,133 4.3 4.0 4.1 4.1

Anaheim-Santa Ana-Irvine

1,624,709 1,638,991 1,623,642 1,631,463 50,262 49,456 47,909 52,742 3.1 3.0 3.0 3.2

Los Angeles-Long Beach-Glendale

5,143,329 5,140,574 5,134,679 5,115,569 240,139 220,134 230,219 223,391 4.7 4.3 4.5 4.4

San Francisco-Oakland-Hayward

2,565,305 2,629,126 2,570,413 2,620,786 75,234 73,947 72,265 78,453 2.9 2.8 2.8 3.0

Oakland-Hayward-Berkeley

1,405,992 1,431,672 1,408,558 1,428,160 46,322 45,934 44,457 48,513 3.3 3.2 3.2 3.4

San Francisco-Redwood City-South San Francisco

1,019,293 1,054,978 1,021,870 1,050,617 25,367 24,496 24,405 26,159 2.5 2.3 2.4 2.5

San Rafael

140,020 142,476 139,985 142,009 3,545 3,517 3,403 3,781 2.5 2.5 2.4 2.7

District of Columbia

406,696 407,959 406,065 410,230 24,123 24,520 23,191 22,814 5.9 6.0 5.7 5.6

Washington-Arlington-Alexandria(2)

3,389,423 3,412,017 3,393,699 3,421,626 124,482 119,665 117,932 113,347 3.7 3.5 3.5 3.3

Silver Spring-Frederick-Rockville(3)

685,614 686,312 686,940 684,827 24,952 23,757 23,251 22,277 3.6 3.5 3.4 3.3

Washington-Arlington-Alexandria(2)

2,703,809 2,725,705 2,706,759 2,736,799 99,530 95,908 94,681 91,070 3.7 3.5 3.5 3.3

Florida

10,187,885 10,366,434 10,202,284 10,314,179 386,033 354,790 373,111 337,962 3.8 3.4 3.7 3.3

Miami-Fort Lauderdale-West Palm Beach

3,151,034 3,220,948 3,135,419 3,183,755 120,523 106,109 120,051 103,894 3.8 3.3 3.8 3.3

Fort Lauderdale-Pompano Beach-Deerfield Beach

1,027,996 1,040,315 1,031,539 1,033,300 37,177 34,607 35,664 32,081 3.6 3.3 3.5 3.1

Miami-Miami Beach-Kendall

1,391,643 1,440,202 1,370,087 1,409,438 56,085 46,147 58,407 47,946 4.0 3.2 4.3 3.4

West Palm Beach-Boca Raton-Delray Beach

731,395 740,431 733,793 741,017 27,261 25,355 25,980 23,867 3.7 3.4 3.5 3.2

Illinois

6,477,500 6,455,651 6,467,723 6,470,975 316,539 302,523 281,008 289,991 4.9 4.7 4.3 4.5

Chicago-Naperville-Elgin(2)

4,887,130 4,873,577 4,868,194 4,889,415 232,517 210,843 200,658 201,196 4.8 4.3 4.1 4.1

Chicago-Naperville-Arlington Heights

3,756,090 3,729,095 3,732,796 3,739,527 173,794 147,377 143,752 133,456 4.6 4.0 3.9 3.6

Elgin

326,842 330,044 328,624 329,903 17,471 19,516 17,086 19,965 5.3 5.9 5.2 6.1

Gary(3)

340,046 345,899 341,634 350,815 18,065 19,012 17,259 22,039 5.3 5.5 5.1 6.3

Lake County-Kenosha County(2)

464,152 468,539 465,140 469,170 23,187 24,938 22,561 25,736 5.0 5.3 4.9 5.5

Massachusetts

3,759,467 3,833,572 3,775,360 3,834,050 151,670 122,600 141,652 119,430 4.0 3.2 3.8 3.1

Boston-Cambridge-Nashua(2)

2,783,408 2,835,612 2,796,606 2,841,453 98,227 78,993 92,321 78,043 3.5 2.8 3.3 2.7

Boston-Cambridge-Newton

1,658,601 1,694,318 1,666,532 1,698,501 53,866 42,503 50,586 42,497 3.2 2.5 3.0 2.5

Brockton-Bridgewater-Easton

110,439 112,643 110,882 112,581 4,735 3,848 4,472 3,684 4.3 3.4 4.0 3.3

Framingham

162,228 164,491 162,970 164,606 5,411 4,368 5,066 4,337 3.3 2.7 3.1 2.6

Haverhill-Newburyport-Amesbury Town(2)

116,467 118,111 117,170 118,310 4,456 3,823 4,164 3,743 3.8 3.2 3.6 3.2

Lawrence-Methuen Town-Salem(2)

99,509 99,257 99,984 99,664 5,248 4,241 5,052 4,069 5.3 4.3 5.1 4.1

Lowell-Billerica-Chelmsford(2)

195,751 199,012 196,431 199,130 7,639 6,192 7,220 6,023 3.9 3.1 3.7 3.0

Lynn-Saugus-Marblehead

86,512 87,603 86,813 87,771 3,264 2,721 3,035 2,677 3.8 3.1 3.5 3.0

Nashua(2)

172,839 176,196 173,945 176,783 6,215 5,456 5,910 5,351 3.6 3.1 3.4 3.0

Peabody-Salem-Beverly

94,414 96,076 94,713 96,154 3,409 2,664 3,193 2,640 3.6 2.8 3.4 2.7

Taunton-Middleborough-Norton

86,648 87,905 87,166 87,953 3,984 3,177 3,623 3,022 4.6 3.6 4.2 3.4

Michigan

4,902,969 4,938,198 4,899,905 4,948,184 241,250 202,232 222,478 219,633 4.9 4.1 4.5 4.4

Detroit-Warren-Dearborn

2,120,181 2,145,756 2,123,735 2,155,586 98,755 86,377 93,515 95,921 4.7 4.0 4.4 4.4

Detroit-Dearborn-Livonia

792,558 800,364 792,800 805,438 44,056 37,702 41,242 41,184 5.6 4.7 5.2 5.1

Warren-Troy-Farmington Hills

1,327,622 1,345,393 1,330,935 1,350,147 54,698 48,676 52,273 54,737 4.1 3.6 3.9 4.1

New York

9,562,886 9,556,617 9,554,320 9,593,646 484,589 418,851 436,236 394,615 5.1 4.4 4.6 4.1

New York-Newark-Jersey City(2)

9,943,751 9,948,485 9,933,424 9,972,978 467,383 429,258 428,187 393,845 4.7 4.3 4.3 3.9

Dutchess County-Putnam County

193,107 194,978 193,196 196,855 9,077 7,250 7,915 6,940 4.7 3.7 4.1 3.5

Nassau County-Suffolk County

1,461,971 1,474,461 1,471,075 1,488,991 69,724 54,897 61,173 52,182 4.8 3.7 4.2 3.5

Newark(3)

1,226,848 1,231,260 1,220,828 1,227,940 59,983 56,585 55,809 50,586 4.9 4.6 4.6 4.1

New York-Jersey City-White Plains(2)

7,061,825 7,047,786 7,048,325 7,059,192 328,599 310,526 303,290 284,137 4.7 4.4 4.3 4.0

Pennsylvania

6,398,071 6,461,939 6,376,939 6,449,716 319,905 270,966 288,596 249,391 5.0 4.2 4.5 3.9

Philadelphia-Camden-Wilmington(2)

3,077,765 3,117,401 3,067,552 3,115,297 145,846 126,196 133,934 115,743 4.7 4.0 4.4 3.7

Camden(3)

631,077 630,323 627,669 629,104 30,818 29,802 28,419 26,002 4.9 4.7 4.5 4.1

Montgomery County-Bucks County-Chester County

1,061,633 1,078,886 1,059,331 1,079,109 41,814 35,937 37,586 32,908 3.9 3.3 3.5 3.0

Philadelphia

1,003,172 1,022,939 998,461 1,020,786 56,229 46,494 52,141 43,612 5.6 4.5 5.2 4.3

Wilmington(3)

381,883 385,253 382,091 386,298 16,985 13,963 15,788 13,221 4.4 3.6 4.1 3.4

Texas

13,828,682 14,086,922 13,818,674 14,059,553 573,412 548,929 556,082 494,696 4.1 3.9 4.0 3.5

Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington

3,883,436 3,980,401 3,871,473 3,977,057 143,732 143,676 141,507 131,305 3.7 3.6 3.7 3.3

Dallas-Plano-Irving

2,620,108 2,695,296 2,610,796 2,690,991 97,496 97,418 95,812 88,478 3.7 3.6 3.7 3.3

Fort Worth-Arlington

1,263,328 1,285,105 1,260,677 1,286,066 46,236 46,258 45,695 42,827 3.7 3.6 3.6 3.3

Washington

3,767,711 3,879,775 3,770,820 3,893,261 198,256 203,229 181,793 201,706 5.3 5.2 4.8 5.2

Seattle-Tacoma-Bellevue

2,117,935 2,163,681 2,111,285 2,171,580 89,364 88,906 82,880 89,628 4.2 4.1 3.9 4.1

Seattle-Bellevue-Everett

1,696,928 1,730,346 1,689,893 1,734,374 64,023 62,864 59,255 64,495 3.8 3.6 3.5 3.7

Tacoma-Lakewood

421,007 433,335 421,392 437,206 25,341 26,042 23,625 25,133 6.0 6.0 5.6 5.7

Footnotes
(1) These 11 areas contain all of the 38 metropolitan divisions.
(2) Part of the area (or division) is in one or more adjacent states.
(3) All of the division is in one or more adjacent states.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data refer to place of residence. Area delineations are based on Office of Management and Budget Bulletin No. 18-03, dated April 10, 2018, and are available on the BLS website at https://www.bls.gov/lau/lausmsa.htm. Areas in the six New England states are Metropolitan New England City and Town Areas (NECTAs), while areas in other states are county-based. Some metropolitan areas lie in two or more states. They are listed under the state containing the first principal city. Metropolitan divisions are listed under their metropolitan areas. Some divisions lie in more than one state, and some, like Camden, NJ, are totally outside the states under which their metropolitan areas are listed. For Washington-Arlington-Alexandria, DC-VA-MD-WV, the metropolitan area and division titles are identical. Estimates for the latest month are subject to revision the following month.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
NOT SEASONALLY ADJUSTED
Table 3. Employees on nonfarm payrolls by state and metropolitan area, not seasonally adjusted
[In thousands]
State and area February March Change from
March 2018 to March 2019(p)
2018 2019 2018 2019(p) Number Percent

Alabama

2,018.5 2,053.9 2,029.9 2,063.1 33.2 1.6

Anniston-Oxford-Jacksonville

47.0 46.8 47.2 47.0 -0.2 -0.4

Auburn-Opelika

64.5 66.5 64.6 66.6 2.0 3.1

Birmingham-Hoover

533.0 541.0 535.0 543.9 8.9 1.7

Daphne-Fairhope-Foley

74.2 76.3 76.6 78.7 2.1 2.7

Decatur

54.1 56.1 54.7 56.5 1.8 3.3

Dothan

58.1 58.6 58.2 59.1 0.9 1.5

Florence-Muscle Shoals

56.2 56.3 56.8 57.0 0.2 0.4

Gadsden

37.7 38.1 38.1 38.7 0.6 1.6

Huntsville

236.1 240.3 236.4 241.0 4.6 1.9

Mobile

182.9 184.8 184.0 186.0 2.0 1.1

Montgomery

175.6 177.0 176.2 177.4 1.2 0.7

Tuscaloosa

108.8 112.0 108.9 112.1 3.2 2.9


Alaska

314.7 317.7 316.3 319.9 3.6 1.1

Anchorage

171.4 170.4 172.1 171.3 -0.8 -0.5

Fairbanks

36.4 35.8 36.7 36.3 -0.4 -1.1


Arizona

2,839.4 2,912.5 2,850.6 2,918.8 68.2 2.4

Flagstaff

66.2 67.0 67.2 67.3 0.1 0.1

Lake Havasu City-Kingman

50.3 51.7 50.7 51.6 0.9 1.8

Phoenix-Mesa-Scottsdale

2,093.2 2,155.4 2,101.2 2,159.7 58.5 2.8

Prescott

64.7 65.4 65.4 65.8 0.4 0.6

Sierra Vista-Douglas