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Economic News Release
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Metropolitan Area Employment and Unemployment (Monthly) News Release

For release 10:00 a.m. (ET) Wednesday, June 1, 2022 			       USDL-22-1080

Technical information: 
 Employment:      (202) 691-6559  *  sminfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/sae 
 Unemployment:    (202) 691-6392  *  lausinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/lau 

Media contact:    (202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov


	     METROPOLITAN AREA EMPLOYMENT AND UNEMPLOYMENT -- APRIL 2022


Unemployment rates were lower in April than a year earlier in 388 of the 389 metropolitan
areas and higher in 1 area, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. A total
of 169 areas had jobless rates of less than 3.0 percent and 2 areas had rates of at least
10.0 percent. Nonfarm payroll employment increased over the year in 129 metropolitan areas
and was essentially unchanged in 260 areas. The national unemployment rate in April was 
3.3 percent, not seasonally adjusted, down from 5.7 percent a year earlier.

This news release presents statistics from two monthly programs. The civilian labor force
and unemployment data are based on the same concepts and definitions as those used for the
national household survey estimates. These data pertain to individuals by where they 
reside. The employment data are from an establishment survey that measures nonfarm 
employment, hours, and earnings by industry. These data pertain to jobs on payrolls 
defined by where the establishments are located. For more information about the concepts 
and statistical methodologies used by these two programs, see the Technical Note.

Metropolitan Area Unemployment (Not Seasonally Adjusted)

In April, Mankato-North Mankato, MN, and Rochester, MN, had the lowest unemployment 
rates, 1.3 percent each, closely followed by Elkhart-Goshen, IN, 1.4 percent. Yuma, AZ,
had the highest rate, 13.1 percent. A total of 215 areas had April jobless rates below 
the U.S. rate of 3.3 percent, 158 areas had rates above it, and 16 areas had rates equal
to that of the nation. (See table 1.)

The largest over-the-year unemployment rate decrease in April occurred in El Centro, CA 
(-5.9 percentage points). The next largest rate decreases were in Atlantic City-Hammonton,
NJ (-5.4 percentage points), and Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim, CA (-5.1 points). Rates 
fell over the year by at least 4.0 percentage points in an additional 16 areas. Yuma, AZ,
was the only area with an unemployment rate increase (+1.5 percentage points).

Of the 51 metropolitan areas with a 2010 Census population of 1 million or more, 
Minneapolis-St. Paul-Bloomington, MN-WI, had the lowest jobless rate in April, 1.5 
percent. Cleveland-Elyria, OH, had the highest rate, 5.4 percent. All 51 large areas had 
over-the-year unemployment rate decreases, the largest of which was in Los Angeles-Long 
Beach-Anaheim, CA (-5.1 percentage points). The smallest rate decrease occurred in 
Cleveland-Elyria, OH (-0.6 percentage point).

Metropolitan Division Unemployment (Not Seasonally Adjusted)

Eleven of the most populous metropolitan areas are made up of 38 metropolitan divisions,
which are essentially separately identifiable employment centers. In April, Seattle-
Bellevue-Everett, WA, had the lowest division unemployment rate, 2.0 percent, closely 
followed by San Francisco-Redwood City-South San Francisco, CA, and San Rafael, CA, 2.1 
percent each. Detroit-Dearborn-Livonia, MI, and Philadelphia, PA, had the highest rates 
among the divisions, 5.5 percent each. (See table 2.)

In April, all 38 metropolitan divisions had over-the-year unemployment rate decreases.
Los Angeles-Long Beach-Glendale, CA, had the largest rate decline (-5.6 percentage points).
The smallest rate declines occurred in Elgin, IL, and Lake County-Kenosha County, IL-WI
(-0.9 percentage point each).

Metropolitan Area Nonfarm Employment (Not Seasonally Adjusted)

In April, nonfarm payroll employment increased over the year in 129 metropolitan areas
and was essentially unchanged in 260 areas. The largest over-the-year employment increases
occurred in New York-Newark-Jersey City, NY-NJ-PA (+483,900), Los Angeles-Long Beach-
Anaheim, CA (+333,700), and Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington, TX (+277,900). The largest 
over-the-year percentage gains in employment occurred in Atlantic City-Hammonton, NJ 
(+12.5 percent), Las Vegas-Henderson-Paradise, NV (+10.3 percent), and Orlando-Kissimmee-
Sanford, FL (+8.3 percent). (See table 3.)

Over the year, nonfarm employment increased in 45 metropolitan areas with a 2010 Census
population of 1 million or more, while employment was essentially unchanged in 6 areas.
The largest over-the-year percentage increase in employment in these large metropolitan
areas occurred in Las Vegas-Henderson-Paradise, NV (+10.3 percent), followed by Orlando-
Kissimmee-Sanford, FL (+8.3 percent), and Austin-Round Rock, TX (+8.1 percent). 

Metropolitan Division Nonfarm Employment (Not Seasonally Adjusted)

In April, nonfarm payroll employment increased over the year in 26 metropolitan divisions
and was essentially unchanged in 12 divisions. The largest over-the-year increases in 
employment among the metropolitan divisions occurred in New York-Jersey City-White Plains,
NY-NJ (+375,400), Los Angeles-Long Beach-Glendale, CA (+255,400), and Dallas-Plano-Irving,
TX (+215,400). (See table 4.)

The largest over-the-year percentage increase in employment occurred in San Francisco-
Redwood City-South San Francisco, CA (+8.6 percent), followed by Dallas-Plano-Irving, TX
(+8.0 percent), and Miami-Miami Beach-Kendall, FL (+6.6 percent). 

_____________
The State Employment and Unemployment news release for May is scheduled to be released on
Friday, June 17, 2022, at 10:00 a.m. (ET). The Metropolitan Area Employment and 
Unemployment news release for May is scheduled to be released on Wednesday, June 29,
2022, at 10:00 a.m. (ET).




Technical Note
  
   This news release presents civilian labor force and unemployment data from the
Local Area Unemployment Statistics (LAUS) program (tables 1 and 2) for 389
metropolitan statistical areas and metropolitan New England City and Town Areas
(NECTAs), plus 7 areas in Puerto Rico. Estimates for 38 metropolitan and NECTA
divisions also are presented. Nonfarm payroll employment estimates from the
Current Employment Statistics (CES) program (tables 3 and 4) are provided for
the same areas. State estimates were previously published in the news release
State Employment and Unemployment, and are republished in this news release for
ease of reference. The LAUS and CES programs are both federal-state cooperative
endeavors.

Civilian labor force and unemployment--from the LAUS program

   Definitions. The civilian labor force and unemployment data are based on the
same concepts and definitions as those used for the official national estimates
obtained from the Current Population Survey (CPS), a sample survey of households
that is conducted for the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) by the U.S. Census
Bureau. The LAUS program measures employed persons and unemployed persons on a
place-of-residence basis.  The universe for each is the civilian noninstitutional
population 16 years of age and older. Employed persons are those who did any work
at all for pay or profit in the reference week (typically the week including the
12th of the month) or worked 15 hours or more without pay in a family business or
farm, plus those not working who had a job from which they were temporarily absent,
whether or not paid, for such reasons as labor-management dispute, illness, or
vacation. Unemployed persons are those who were not employed during the reference
week (based on the definition above), had actively looked for a job sometime in the
4-week period ending with the reference week, and were currently available for work;
persons on layoff expecting recall need not be looking for work to be counted as
unemployed. The civilian labor force is the sum of employed and unemployed persons.
The unemployment rate is the number of unemployed as a percent of the civilian labor
force.

   Method of estimation. Estimates for states, the District of Columbia, the Los
Angeles-Long Beach-Glendale metropolitan division, and New York City are produced
using time-series models with real-time benchmarking to national CPS totals. Model-
based estimates are also produced for the following areas and their respective
balances: the Chicago-Naperville-Arlington Heights, IL Metropolitan Division;
Cleveland-Elyria, OH Metropolitan Statistical Area; Detroit-Warren-Dearborn, MI
Metropolitan Statistical Area; Miami-Miami Beach-Kendall, FL Metropolitan Division;
and Seattle-Bellevue-Everett, WA Metropolitan Division. Modeling improves the
statistical basis of the estimation for these areas and provides important tools
for analysis, such as measures of errors and seasonally adjusted series. For all
other substate areas in this news release, estimates are prepared through indirect
estimation procedures using a building-block approach.  Estimates of employed
persons, which are based largely on “place of work” estimates from the CES program,
are adjusted to refer to place of residence as used in the CPS. Unemployment
estimates are aggregates of persons previously employed in industries covered by
state unemployment insurance (UI) laws and entrants to the labor force from the
CPS. The substate estimates of employment and unemployment, which geographically
exhaust the entire state, are adjusted proportionally to ensure that they add to
the independently estimated model-based area totals. A detailed description of the
estimation procedures is available from BLS upon request.

   Annual revisions. Civilian labor force and unemployment data shown for the prior
year reflect adjustments made at the beginning of each year, usually implemented with
the issuance of January estimates. The adjusted model-based estimates typically reflect
updated population data from the U.S. Census Bureau, any revisions in other input
data sources, and model re-estimation. All substate estimates then are re-estimated
using updated inputs and adjusted to add to the revised model-based totals. In early
2021, a new generation of time-series models was implemented, resulting in the
replacement of data back to the series beginnings.

Employment--from the CES program 

   Definitions. Employment data refer to persons on establishment payrolls who receive
pay for any part of the pay period that includes the 12th of the month. Persons are
counted at their place of work rather than at their place of residence; those appearing
on more than one payroll are counted on each payroll. Industries are classified on the
basis of their principal activity in accordance with the 2017 version of the North
American Industry Classification System.

   Method of estimation. CES State and Area employment data are produced using several
estimation procedures. Where possible, these data are produced using a "weighted link
relative" estimation technique in which a ratio of current month weighted employment
to that of the previous-month weighted employment is computed from a sample of
establishments reporting for both months. The estimates of employment for the current
month are then obtained by multiplying these ratios by the previous month's employment
estimates. The weighted link relative technique is utilized for data series where the
sample size meets certain statistical criteria. For some employment series, the
estimates are produced with a model that uses direct sample estimates (described
above) combined with other regressors to compensate for smaller sample sizes. 

   Annual revisions.  Employment estimates are adjusted annually to a complete count
of jobs, called benchmarks, derived principally from tax reports that are submitted by
employers who are covered under state unemployment insurance (UI) laws. The benchmark
information is used to adjust the monthly estimates between the new benchmark and the
preceding one and also to establish the level of employment for the new benchmark month.
Thus, the benchmarking process establishes the level of employment, and the sample is used
to measure the month-to-month changes in the level for the subsequent months.

   Seasonal adjustment. Payroll employment data are seasonally adjusted for states,
metropolitan areas, and metropolitan divisions at the total nonfarm level. For states,
data are seasonally adjusted at the supersector level as well. Revisions to historical
data for the most recent 5 years are made once a year, coincident with annual benchmark
adjustments.

   Payroll employment data are seasonally adjusted concurrently, using all available
estimates including those for the current month, to develop sample-based seasonal factors.
Concurrent sample-based factors are created every month for the current month's preliminary
estimate as well as the previous month's final estimate.

Reliability of the estimates

   The estimates presented in this news release are based on sample surveys, administrative data,
and modeling and, thus, are subject to sampling and other types of errors. Sampling error
is a measure of sampling variability—that is, variation that occurs by chance because a
sample rather than the entire population is surveyed. Survey data also are subject to
nonsampling errors, such as those which can be introduced into the data collection and
processing operations. Estimates not directly derived from sample surveys are subject to
additional errors resulting from the specific estimation processes used. The sums of
individual items may not always equal the totals shown in the same tables because of
rounding.

Use of error measures

   Civilian labor force and unemployment estimates. Measures of sampling error are not
available for metropolitan areas or metropolitan divisions. Model-based error measures for
states are available on the BLS website at www.bls.gov/laus/lastderr.htm. Measures of
nonsampling error are not available for the areas contained in this news release. Information
on recent data revisions for states and local areas is available online at
www.bls.gov/lau/launews1.htm.

   Employment estimates. Changes in metropolitan area nonfarm payroll employment are cited
in the analysis of this news release only if they have been determined to be statistically
significant at the 90-percent confidence level.  Measures of sampling error for the total
nonfarm employment series are available for metropolitan areas and metropolitan divisions
at www.bls.gov/web/laus/790stderr.htm. Measures of sampling error for more detailed series
at the area and division level are available upon request. Measures of sampling error for
states  at the supersector level and for the private service-providing, goods-producing,
total private and total nonfarm levels are available on the BLS website at 
www.bls.gov/web/laus/790stderr.htm. Information on recent benchmark revisions
is available online at www.bls.gov/web/laus/benchmark.pdf.

Area definitions

   The substate area data published in this news release reflect the delineations issued by the
U.S. Office of Management and Budget on April 10, 2018. Data reflect New England City and
Town Area (NECTA) definitions, rather than county-based definitions, in the six New England
States. A detailed list of the geographic definitions is available online at
www.bls.gov/lau/lausmsa.htm.

Additional information

   Estimates of unadjusted and seasonally adjusted civilian labor force and unemployment
data for states and seven substate areas are available in the news release State Employment
and Unemployment. Estimates of civilian labor force and unemployment for all states,
metropolitan areas, counties, cities with a population of 25,000 or more, and other areas
used in the administration of various federal economic assistance programs are available
on the Internet at www.bls.gov/lau/. Employment data from the CES program for states and
metropolitan areas are available on the BLS website at www.bls.gov/sae/.

   If you are deaf, hard of hearing, or have a speech disability, please dial 7-1-1 to 
access telecommunications relay services.




LABOR FORCE DATA
NOT SEASONALLY ADJUSTED

Table 1. Civilian labor force and unemployment by state and metropolitan area
State and area Civilian labor force Unemployed
March April Number Percent of labor force
2021 2022 2021 2022(p) March April March April
2021 2022 2021 2022(p) 2021 2022 2021 2022(p)

Alabama

2,240,631 2,281,222 2,251,429 2,270,148 81,602 56,338 74,298 47,462 3.6 2.5 3.3 2.1

Anniston-Oxford-Jacksonville

46,289 46,791 46,398 46,432 1,995 1,420 1,833 1,186 4.3 3.0 4.0 2.6

Auburn-Opelika

76,434 78,892 76,764 78,667 2,253 1,691 2,011 1,376 2.9 2.1 2.6 1.7

Birmingham-Hoover

552,596 566,455 557,018 565,682 18,582 12,812 17,134 10,736 3.4 2.3 3.1 1.9

Daphne-Fairhope-Foley

97,962 101,024 99,320 100,477 3,166 2,225 2,883 1,845 3.2 2.2 2.9 1.8

Decatur

73,670 74,691 73,706 74,445 2,087 1,482 1,892 1,257 2.8 2.0 2.6 1.7

Dothan

64,476 65,470 64,363 65,171 2,241 1,551 2,049 1,311 3.5 2.4 3.2 2.0

Florence-Muscle Shoals

65,546 66,500 65,598 66,235 2,364 1,670 2,145 1,433 3.6 2.5 3.3 2.2

Gadsden

39,527 39,512 39,469 39,383 1,705 1,167 1,546 988 4.3 3.0 3.9 2.5

Huntsville

238,297 244,575 240,057 243,587 6,632 4,761 5,995 3,948 2.8 1.9 2.5 1.6

Mobile

190,731 192,694 191,932 191,641 9,677 6,279 8,846 5,391 5.1 3.3 4.6 2.8

Montgomery

173,978 175,594 174,609 175,133 7,596 5,032 7,024 4,210 4.4 2.9 4.0 2.4

Tuscaloosa

114,813 116,702 115,262 116,297 4,470 2,973 4,110 2,502 3.9 2.5 3.6 2.2

Alaska

347,584 357,447 350,052 355,759 26,831 18,012 26,304 17,214 7.7 5.0 7.5 4.8

Anchorage

197,340 203,485 198,106 202,180 14,532 9,096 14,259 8,778 7.4 4.5 7.2 4.3

Fairbanks

44,524 46,031 44,796 45,843 2,697 1,931 2,633 1,877 6.1 4.2 5.9 4.1

Arizona

3,507,434 3,565,120 3,500,887 3,557,400 200,107 100,022 193,423 113,051 5.7 2.8 5.5 3.2

Flagstaff

70,122 74,729 71,396 74,595 5,146 2,735 4,753 2,957 7.3 3.7 6.7 4.0

Lake Havasu City-Kingman

86,048 88,698 86,666 89,323 5,444 3,098 5,380 3,473 6.3 3.5 6.2 3.9

Phoenix-Mesa-Scottsdale

2,494,901 2,531,693 2,492,459 2,531,058 134,620 61,363 128,942 68,481 5.4 2.4 5.2 2.7

Prescott

104,755 106,883 104,638 106,480 5,170 2,433 5,022 2,781 4.9 2.3 4.8 2.6

Sierra Vista-Douglas

49,358 49,561 48,885 48,671 2,683 1,468 2,645 1,667 5.4 3.0 5.4 3.4

Tucson

481,821 486,744 479,442 487,827 28,410 13,564 27,291 15,287 5.9 2.8 5.7 3.1

Yuma

93,011 98,905 90,624 95,200 9,329 9,999 10,529 12,462 10.0 10.1 11.6 13.1

Arkansas

1,333,827 1,353,629 1,334,092 1,356,972 63,044 43,987 55,656 43,156 4.7 3.2 4.2 3.2

Fayetteville-Springdale-Rogers

283,389 296,900 284,143 297,918 10,009 6,806 8,500 6,543 3.5 2.3 3.0 2.2

Fort Smith

115,461 117,234 115,794 117,314 5,278 3,746 4,742 3,592 4.6 3.2 4.1 3.1

Hot Springs

40,552 40,349 40,732 41,009 2,428 1,603 2,141 1,574 6.0 4.0 5.3 3.8

Jonesboro

65,451 66,436 65,225 66,372 2,636 1,772 2,273 1,719 4.0 2.7 3.5 2.6

Little Rock-North Little Rock-Conway

347,692 351,722 348,958 355,124 17,082 11,506 15,544 11,373 4.9 3.3 4.5 3.2

Pine Bluff

33,358 33,181 33,258 33,610 2,304 1,751 2,127 1,793 6.9 5.3 6.4 5.3

California

18,800,220 19,379,086 18,761,567 19,190,197 1,622,335 827,550 1,557,726 736,562 8.6 4.3 8.3 3.8

Bakersfield

372,161 379,919 380,183 382,898 45,651 29,446 43,668 25,953 12.3 7.8 11.5 6.8

Chico

92,247 93,163 91,460 92,557 7,668 4,151 7,042 3,561 8.3 4.5 7.7 3.8

El Centro

67,977 69,393 67,819 67,590 11,662 8,743 11,908 7,927 17.2 12.6 17.6 11.7

Fresno

438,213 453,887 441,025 453,324 48,992 31,423 46,043 27,424 11.2 6.9 10.4 6.0

Hanford-Corcoran

55,257 56,680 55,021 56,082 6,486 4,315 6,084 3,683 11.7 7.6 11.1 6.6

Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim

6,530,794 6,672,701 6,532,927 6,609,099 627,706 298,538 616,226 281,301 9.6 4.5 9.4 4.3

Madera

61,190 63,667 60,373 62,172 6,584 4,125 6,220 3,551 10.8 6.5 10.3 5.7

Merced

114,015 117,002 114,035 115,538 14,812 9,837 13,657 8,451 13.0 8.4 12.0 7.3

Modesto

239,612 241,826 237,865 239,759 23,626 13,850 22,547 12,238 9.9 5.7 9.5 5.1

Napa

67,643 70,275 67,971 69,620 4,942 2,280 4,640 1,902 7.3 3.2 6.8 2.7

Oxnard-Thousand Oaks-Ventura

405,573 415,125 403,680 409,582 28,871 14,500 27,161 12,486 7.1 3.5 6.7 3.0

Redding

72,935 74,068 72,380 73,398 6,130 3,406 5,523 2,899 8.4 4.6 7.6 3.9

Riverside-San Bernardino-Ontario

2,107,973 2,186,531 2,091,877 2,159,467 178,873 94,060 171,668 81,590 8.5 4.3 8.2 3.8

Sacramento--Roseville--Arden-Arcade

1,097,051 1,130,333 1,089,169 1,117,484 82,890 42,161 78,010 36,233 7.6 3.7 7.2 3.2

Salinas

200,616 207,616 213,256 215,057 24,242 16,002 20,366 12,431 12.1 7.7 9.6 5.8

San Diego-Carlsbad

1,527,225 1,594,932 1,521,308 1,575,086 116,069 54,938 110,963 47,619 7.6 3.4 7.3 3.0

San Francisco-Oakland-Hayward

2,434,644 2,547,324 2,417,723 2,514,022 160,317 74,400 154,474 63,804 6.6 2.9 6.4 2.5

San Jose-Sunnyvale-Santa Clara

1,036,306 1,081,719 1,028,482 1,072,788 59,837 27,515 56,874 23,329 5.8 2.5 5.5 2.2

San Luis Obispo-Paso Robles-Arroyo Grande

135,319 140,061 133,392 136,637 8,447 3,876 7,848 3,303 6.2 2.8 5.9 2.4

Santa Cruz-Watsonville

131,751 134,763 131,708 133,611 11,845 7,121 10,929 6,050 9.0 5.3 8.3 4.5

Santa Maria-Santa Barbara

215,193 221,989 217,415 222,575 15,724 7,885 13,961 6,325 7.3 3.6 6.4 2.8

Santa Rosa

240,742 249,049 239,766 245,797 16,028 7,464 14,922 6,367 6.7 3.0 6.2 2.6

Stockton-Lodi

333,881 339,031 330,810 333,487 34,046 19,421 32,200 16,805 10.2 5.7 9.7 5.0

Vallejo-Fairfield

198,348 202,510 197,559 199,388 17,350 9,276 16,493 7,977 8.7 4.6 8.3 4.0

Visalia-Porterville

198,107 203,613 200,916 205,236 25,431 17,261 23,984 15,125 12.8 8.5 11.9 7.4

Yuba City

75,144 77,365 75,414 76,739 8,255 5,099 7,533 4,397 11.0 6.6 10.0 5.7

Colorado

3,119,190 3,225,858 3,133,047 3,198,422 194,294 115,218 191,157 100,128 6.2 3.6 6.1 3.1

Boulder

192,948 201,517 194,332 200,812 9,928 5,564 9,670 4,794 5.1 2.8 5.0 2.4

Colorado Springs

361,090 369,187 361,106 368,692 23,412 13,886 22,723 12,196 6.5 3.8 6.3 3.3

Denver-Aurora-Lakewood

1,662,951 1,720,528 1,672,298 1,718,978 104,859 62,119 104,415 54,051 6.3 3.6 6.2 3.1

Fort Collins

202,909 210,799 204,493 210,624 11,347 6,434 10,820 5,500 5.6 3.1 5.3 2.6

Grand Junction

77,176 79,321 77,286 78,841 5,242 3,114 4,896 2,637 6.8 3.9 6.3 3.3

Greeley

163,960 168,683 164,889 167,499 11,072 6,530 10,609 5,671 6.8 3.9 6.4 3.4

Pueblo

77,052 79,180 77,421 78,765 6,734 4,588 6,743 3,999 8.7 5.8 8.7 5.1

Connecticut

1,839,446 1,898,391 1,834,134 1,863,652 135,893 80,983 125,066 69,925 7.4 4.3 6.8 3.8

Bridgeport-Stamford-Norwalk

445,393 462,104 444,932 454,050 33,278 19,994 30,055 17,203 7.5 4.3 6.8 3.8

Danbury

101,663 105,118 101,625 103,597 6,639 3,956 5,984 3,304 6.5 3.8 5.9 3.2

Hartford-West Hartford-East Hartford

609,296 624,678 605,936 612,783 44,586 26,241 41,806 23,226 7.3 4.2 6.9 3.8

New Haven

322,704 334,801 322,090 328,165 22,237 13,057 20,825 11,376 6.9 3.9 6.5 3.5

Norwich-New London-Westerly

133,346 135,571 132,580 133,876 10,951 6,336 9,939 5,343 8.2 4.7 7.5 4.0

Waterbury

107,971 111,046 107,743 108,414 9,819 6,046 9,010 5,122 9.1 5.4 8.4 4.7

Delaware

496,699 498,604 497,578 498,081 29,426 23,194 28,218 21,894 5.9 4.7 5.7 4.4

Dover

81,814 82,128 82,027 81,780 5,407 4,320 5,287 4,154 6.6 5.3 6.4 5.1

Salisbury(1)

189,956 192,382 191,070 192,539 12,562 10,146 11,304 8,585 6.6 5.3 5.9 4.5

District of Columbia

377,021 386,783 375,753 382,590 24,808 21,915 24,244 17,572 6.6 5.7 6.5 4.6

Washington-Arlington-Alexandria

3,336,922 3,399,369 3,335,469 3,376,198 175,421 120,702 165,054 101,347 5.3 3.6 4.9 3.0

Florida

10,151,654 10,543,604 10,204,811 10,562,401 533,837 284,223 500,120 254,457 5.3 2.7 4.9 2.4

Cape Coral-Fort Myers

354,884 367,599 354,912 369,748 16,693 9,241 15,548 8,142 4.7 2.5 4.4 2.2

Crestview-Fort Walton Beach-Destin

131,943 134,522 132,504 135,115 5,131 2,890 4,517 2,538 3.9 2.1 3.4 1.9

Deltona-Daytona Beach-Ormond Beach

299,825 307,897 300,713 308,889 15,651 8,787 14,763 7,840 5.2 2.9 4.9 2.5

Gainesville

144,993 148,672 145,634 150,132 5,858 3,496 5,435 3,177 4.0 2.4 3.7 2.1

Homosassa Springs

47,448 47,643 47,125 47,248 3,050 1,753 2,737 1,563 6.4 3.7 5.8 3.3

Jacksonville

783,539 817,307 784,902 819,513 35,520 20,182 32,984 18,220 4.5 2.5 4.2 2.2

Lakeland-Winter Haven

324,788 334,950 325,725 335,608 19,165 10,568 18,473 9,709 5.9 3.2 5.7 2.9

Miami-Fort Lauderdale-West Palm Beach

3,014,009 3,124,593 3,048,989 3,122,334 178,603 87,367 166,459 77,373 5.9 2.8 5.5 2.5

Naples-Immokalee-Marco Island

181,185 187,927 181,308 187,736 7,413 4,149 6,611 3,640 4.1 2.2 3.6 1.9

North Port-Sarasota-Bradenton

368,588 388,576 368,879 389,697 16,428 9,272 14,863 8,105 4.5 2.4 4.0 2.1

Ocala

141,259 142,594 140,605 142,569 7,776 4,436 7,222 3,970 5.5 3.1 5.1 2.8

Orlando-Kissimmee-Sanford

1,291,061 1,373,922 1,301,732 1,378,970 75,153 39,481 72,211 36,234 5.8 2.9 5.5 2.6

Palm Bay-Melbourne-Titusville

286,205 293,263 286,691 292,847 12,992 7,315 12,089 6,486 4.5 2.5 4.2 2.2

Panama City

90,476 92,256 90,473 92,671 3,997 2,178 3,670 1,896 4.4 2.4 4.1 2.0

Pensacola-Ferry Pass-Brent

227,709 234,607 228,322 236,345 10,496 6,016 9,722 5,358 4.6 2.6 4.3 2.3

Port St. Lucie

222,378 227,926 222,608 228,451 11,009 6,373 10,458 5,721 5.0 2.8 4.7 2.5

Punta Gorda

72,912 75,460 72,639 75,234 3,603 2,135 3,211 1,833 4.9 2.8 4.4 2.4

Sebastian-Vero Beach

64,910 66,431 64,269 66,338 3,379 1,965 3,210 1,810 5.2 3.0 5.0 2.7

Sebring

35,108 34,683 35,052 34,466 2,222 1,327 2,105 1,211 6.3 3.8 6.0 3.5

Tallahassee

192,361 198,837 193,509 199,489 8,922 5,212 8,369 4,857 4.6 2.6 4.3 2.4

Tampa-St. Petersburg-Clearwater

1,553,999 1,613,958 1,555,971 1,619,344 74,788 40,740 70,683 36,436 4.8 2.5 4.5 2.3

The Villages

34,305 35,587 34,094 35,563 2,112 1,286 1,830 1,070 6.2 3.6 5.4 3.0

Georgia

5,186,684 5,306,837 5,168,390 5,254,815 225,608 175,630 211,587 129,256 4.3 3.3 4.1 2.5

Albany

67,077 66,351 66,636 65,912 3,938 2,825 3,708 2,198 5.9 4.3 5.6 3.3

Athens-Clarke County

99,942 103,673 99,888 103,382 3,542 3,044 3,282 2,116 3.5 2.9 3.3 2.0

Atlanta-Sandy Springs-Roswell

3,118,142 3,228,027 3,111,987 3,200,031 136,571 104,663 129,027 77,387 4.4 3.2 4.1 2.4

Augusta-Richmond County

268,617 268,003 268,966 267,422 11,513 9,622 10,501 7,390 4.3 3.6 3.9 2.8

Brunswick

52,721 53,087 52,408 53,204 2,175 1,742 2,033 1,255 4.1 3.3 3.9 2.4

Columbus

123,084 123,728 122,129 122,699 6,000 4,742 5,502 3,633 4.9 3.8 4.5 3.0

Dalton

59,082 59,497 59,077 58,613 2,562 2,139 2,529 1,512 4.3 3.6 4.3 2.6

Gainesville

105,116 107,119 104,518 106,070 3,004 2,661 2,813 1,851 2.9 2.5 2.7 1.7

Hinesville

35,301 35,183 34,965 34,813 1,457 1,197 1,293 907 4.1 3.4 3.7 2.6

Macon-Bibb County

103,346 104,397 102,383 103,193 5,161 3,855 4,794 2,869 5.0 3.7 4.7 2.8

Rome

44,272 44,082 44,092 43,791 1,771 1,413 1,667 1,048 4.0 3.2 3.8 2.4

Savannah

196,002 203,691 196,564 200,607 8,649 6,546 8,274 4,802 4.4 3.2 4.2 2.4

Valdosta

65,128 64,195 64,698 63,834 2,823 2,155 2,746 1,542 4.3 3.4 4.2 2.4

Warner Robins

88,684 88,519 87,860 87,450 3,754 2,843 3,307 2,053 4.2 3.2 3.8 2.3

Hawaii

659,436 669,177 662,973 669,780 38,749 22,933 38,280 23,933 5.9 3.4 5.8 3.6

Kahului-Wailuku-Lahaina

84,654 87,366 85,926 86,596 6,760 3,703 6,644 3,706 8.0 4.2 7.7 4.3

Urban Honolulu

447,459 452,044 448,542 455,069 23,796 14,475 23,454 15,291 5.3 3.2 5.2 3.4

Idaho

908,745 944,732 909,676 940,664 40,922 29,120 35,918 24,105 4.5 3.1 3.9 2.6

Boise City

393,552 408,739 391,912 405,371 16,608 11,378 14,891 9,544 4.2 2.8 3.8 2.4

Coeur d'Alene

81,557 85,312 81,949 84,971 4,627 3,217 3,787 2,567 5.7 3.8 4.6 3.0

Idaho Falls

75,543 79,908 75,445 79,399 2,764 2,178 2,389 1,695 3.7 2.7 3.2 2.1

Lewiston

31,559 32,390 31,718 32,128 1,347 1,043 1,156 858 4.3 3.2 3.6 2.7

Pocatello

42,731 44,843 42,554 44,358 1,886 1,355 1,674 1,136 4.4 3.0 3.9 2.6

Twin Falls

54,253 56,539 53,966 56,615 2,354 1,736 2,072 1,381 4.3 3.1 3.8 2.4

Illinois

6,257,339 6,458,029 6,274,112 6,396,406 419,661 302,053 403,173 282,139 6.7 4.7 6.4 4.4

Bloomington

91,272 95,269 92,247 94,735 4,721 3,538 4,259 3,590 5.2 3.7 4.6 3.8

Carbondale-Marion

58,999 59,544 58,869 58,936 3,709 2,698 3,257 2,721 6.3 4.5 5.5 4.6

Champaign-Urbana

124,031 124,919 124,814 124,128 6,528 4,779 5,965 4,982 5.3 3.8 4.8 4.0

Chicago-Naperville-Elgin

4,747,348 4,938,152 4,765,965 4,891,945 323,374 223,647 318,640 201,618 6.8 4.5 6.7 4.1

Danville

31,958 31,670 31,914 31,316 2,345 1,784 2,054 1,828 7.3 5.6 6.4 5.8

Davenport-Moline-Rock Island(1)

184,940 187,128 185,136 188,093 11,676 8,169 10,802 6,961 6.3 4.4 5.8 3.7

Decatur

46,369 46,829 46,017 46,526 4,129 3,178 3,562 3,246 8.9 6.8 7.7 7.0

Kankakee

53,206 52,621 52,435 52,011 4,076 3,168 3,436 3,173 7.7 6.0 6.6 6.1

Peoria

168,708 169,499 168,732 168,306 11,856 8,985 10,338 9,036 7.0 5.3 6.1 5.4

Rockford

157,323 160,698 157,408 159,629 13,105 13,691 14,509 12,353 8.3 8.5 9.2 7.7

Springfield

103,804 105,270 102,781 104,046 6,650 4,755 5,797 4,787 6.4 4.5 5.6 4.6

Indiana

3,319,913 3,364,639 3,330,221 3,357,756 152,000 92,112 131,119 72,277 4.6 2.7 3.9 2.2

Bloomington

77,869 81,184 78,203 81,985 3,107 1,996 2,470 1,450 4.0 2.5 3.2 1.8

Columbus

43,137 43,338 42,996 43,341 1,644 980 1,348 723 3.8 2.3 3.1 1.7

Elkhart-Goshen

115,356 120,444 115,188 121,027 3,829 2,175 3,167 1,660 3.3 1.8 2.7 1.4

Evansville

157,116 158,932 157,297 159,753 6,710 4,353 5,818 3,450 4.3 2.7 3.7 2.2

Fort Wayne

215,206 218,451 215,097 219,679 9,755 5,586 8,347 4,862 4.5 2.6 3.9 2.2

Indianapolis-Carmel-Anderson

1,078,048 1,102,681 1,081,847 1,097,352 48,327 28,032 42,093 22,180 4.5 2.5 3.9 2.0

Kokomo

35,184 33,580 34,636 33,586 2,056 1,515 2,004 1,283 5.8 4.5 5.8 3.8

Lafayette-West Lafayette

106,877 110,486 108,131 110,849 4,367 2,754 3,617 2,047 4.1 2.5 3.3 1.8

Michigan City-La Porte

46,110 46,328 46,492 46,311 3,082 1,797 2,664 1,376 6.7 3.9 5.7 3.0

Muncie

52,461 52,731 52,552 52,907 2,553 1,628 2,177 1,302 4.9 3.1 4.1 2.5

South Bend-Mishawaka

155,131 154,966 154,643 155,559 8,612 4,802 7,423 3,932 5.6 3.1 4.8 2.5

Terre Haute

71,714 72,248 72,230 72,565 3,742 2,394 3,266 1,837 5.2 3.3 4.5 2.5

Iowa

1,669,835 1,700,512 1,669,848 1,694,890 79,770 56,599 74,311 37,857 4.8 3.3 4.5 2.2

Ames

57,771 59,693 58,059 59,775 1,806 1,271 1,657 923 3.1 2.1 2.9 1.5

Cedar Rapids

141,948 141,415 142,214 140,691 7,994 5,223 7,555 3,585 5.6 3.7 5.3 2.5

Des Moines-West Des Moines

358,266 366,339 360,014 367,456 16,813 11,689 16,137 7,807 4.7 3.2 4.5 2.1

Dubuque

54,784 55,115 55,122 55,030 2,842 1,981 2,564 1,305 5.2 3.6 4.7 2.4

Iowa City

95,060 98,217 95,103 97,966 3,895 2,555 3,780 1,767 4.1 2.6 4.0 1.8

Sioux City

91,550 93,090 90,989 92,285 3,966 2,710 3,635 1,912 4.3 2.9 4.0 2.1

Waterloo-Cedar Falls

87,320 88,755 87,864 89,173 4,183 2,927 3,981 2,023 4.8 3.3 4.5 2.3

Kansas

1,487,544 1,502,146 1,486,869 1,498,358 52,025 39,957 47,838 31,185 3.5 2.7 3.2 2.1

Lawrence

64,237 67,174 64,628 67,420 2,188 1,658 1,986 1,263 3.4 2.5 3.1 1.9

Manhattan

46,097 47,085 46,182 47,251 1,310 1,119 1,136 865 2.8 2.4 2.5 1.8

Topeka

120,876 120,639 120,707 121,411 3,849 3,327 3,493 2,513 3.2 2.8 2.9 2.1

Wichita

317,722 322,445 318,434 321,911 15,273 10,699 14,463 8,434 4.8 3.3 4.5 2.6

Kentucky

2,025,059 2,071,930 2,024,226 2,055,669 103,623 87,834 87,655 69,991 5.1 4.2 4.3 3.4

Bowling Green

82,740 85,358 82,830 84,504 3,827 3,203 3,206 2,723 4.6 3.8 3.9 3.2

Elizabethtown-Fort Knox

64,439 65,355 63,933 64,892 3,268 2,857 2,933 2,332 5.1 4.4 4.6 3.6

Lexington-Fayette

267,496 274,508 267,671 273,385 11,926 8,603 9,676 7,742 4.5 3.1 3.6 2.8

Louisville/Jefferson County

662,972 681,257 662,179 677,233 31,260 29,124 28,483 18,561 4.7 4.3 4.3 2.7

Owensboro

53,940 55,032 53,832 54,618 2,625 1,988 2,109 1,758 4.9 3.6 3.9 3.2

Louisiana

2,047,172 2,097,103 2,063,696 2,097,597 113,912 80,599 121,093 73,931 5.6 3.8 5.9 3.5

Alexandria

63,111 65,057 63,271 65,118 2,596 1,830 2,578 1,662 4.1 2.8 4.1 2.6

Baton Rouge

412,417 422,272 414,681 422,600 20,231 14,292 21,813 13,152 4.9 3.4 5.3 3.1

Hammond

55,956 56,489 56,192 56,805 3,530 2,626 3,680 2,435 6.3 4.6 6.5 4.3

Houma-Thibodaux

86,772 85,407 87,137 85,648 4,384 3,162 4,457 2,817 5.1 3.7 5.1 3.3

Lafayette

210,610 216,743 211,266 217,558 11,274 7,412 11,395 6,763 5.4 3.4 5.4 3.1

Lake Charles

96,537 103,087 97,743 102,955 5,918 3,787 5,998 3,474 6.1 3.7 6.1 3.4

Monroe

78,118 78,547 78,202 78,546 4,117 2,799 4,194 2,566 5.3 3.6 5.4 3.3

New Orleans-Metairie

579,848 595,509 588,750 593,410 36,227 26,383 41,003 24,179 6.2 4.4 7.0 4.1

Shreveport-Bossier City

181,391 186,921 181,855 187,848 9,922 7,089 10,383 6,549 5.5 3.8 5.7 3.5

Maine

677,577 675,745 678,991 668,242 36,601 27,475 35,957 20,500 5.4 4.1 5.3 3.1

Bangor

69,094 70,516 69,248 69,518 3,391 2,626 3,412 1,913 4.9 3.7 4.9 2.8

Lewiston-Auburn

55,074 54,772 54,712 53,663 2,878 2,147 2,892 1,576 5.2 3.9 5.3 2.9

Portland-South Portland

203,019 203,075 204,019 201,040 9,635 6,869 9,508 4,863 4.7 3.4 4.7 2.4

Maryland

3,149,626 3,208,258 3,146,253 3,180,681 188,437 139,457 180,329 109,904 6.0 4.3 5.7 3.5

Baltimore-Columbia-Towson

1,469,368 1,507,922 1,467,351 1,495,009 83,618 62,682 78,736 49,580 5.7 4.2 5.4 3.3

California-Lexington Park

57,501 57,946 57,445 56,964 2,432 2,163 2,352 1,690 4.2 3.7 4.1 3.0

Cumberland

42,389 42,770 42,560 42,420 2,775 2,115 2,476 1,723 6.5 4.9 5.8 4.1

Hagerstown-Martinsburg

131,013 132,780 131,196 131,561 6,506 4,714 6,001 3,764 5.0 3.6 4.6 2.9

Massachusetts

3,727,618 3,782,622 3,723,599 3,721,459 249,178 142,468 225,995 124,057 6.7 3.8 6.1 3.3

Barnstable Town

118,870 120,146 120,982 118,862 10,290 6,423 8,586 4,929 8.7 5.3 7.1 4.1

Boston-Cambridge-Nashua

2,769,507 2,817,990 2,762,728 2,779,303 168,936 93,186 154,747 82,835 6.1 3.3 5.6 3.0

Leominster-Gardner

79,223 79,652 79,479 78,328 6,128 3,647 5,561 3,170 7.7 4.6 7.0 4.0

New Bedford

84,183 84,620 84,356 82,988 7,495 5,007 6,464 4,067 8.9 5.9 7.7 4.9

Pittsfield

40,923 40,586 40,631 39,356 3,561 2,076 3,161 1,762 8.7 5.1 7.8 4.5

Springfield

370,296 378,624 369,919 369,865 27,539 16,515 25,452 14,503 7.4 4.4 6.9 3.9

Worcester

354,713 358,777 355,084 351,164 23,840 13,914 21,417 12,131 6.7 3.9 6.0 3.5

Michigan

4,742,773 4,852,996 4,722,624 4,810,595 314,738 217,411 292,258 204,388 6.6 4.5 6.2 4.2

Ann Arbor

189,714 198,756 189,026 197,041 9,106 6,136 8,611 5,922 4.8 3.1 4.6 3.0

Battle Creek

59,690 60,028 59,036 59,894 4,279 2,843 4,029 2,779 7.2 4.7 6.8 4.6

Bay City

47,627 48,790 47,742 48,875 3,422 2,503 3,120 2,433 7.2 5.1 6.5 5.0

Detroit-Warren-Dearborn

2,091,920 2,147,792 2,077,632 2,111,067 144,840 99,480 133,137 89,168 6.9 4.6 6.4 4.2

Flint

174,379 176,424 174,068 175,767 13,937 10,164 13,624 10,093 8.0 5.8 7.8 5.7

Grand Rapids-Wyoming

561,891 574,360 560,526 571,835 29,728 18,695 26,891 17,761 5.3 3.3 4.8 3.1

Jackson

72,195 73,376 72,007 73,214 4,672 3,148 4,342 3,109 6.5 4.3 6.0 4.2

Kalamazoo-Portage

162,624 166,360 161,847 165,397 9,710 6,469 8,834 6,186 6.0 3.9 5.5 3.7

Lansing-East Lansing

236,925 240,868 235,451 241,269 13,249 9,089 14,657 9,622 5.6 3.8 6.2 4.0

Midland

38,039 38,646 38,257 38,640 2,241 1,615 1,977 1,571 5.9 4.2 5.2 4.1

Monroe

71,777 74,147 71,960 73,792 4,475 3,355 4,939 3,126 6.2 4.5 6.9 4.2

Muskegon

74,620 76,676 74,332 76,212 6,235 4,052 5,803 4,065 8.4 5.3 7.8 5.3

Niles-Benton Harbor

69,423 71,228 69,753 70,412 4,635 3,122 4,171 2,971 6.7 4.4 6.0 4.2

Saginaw

81,306 81,914 81,058 81,698 6,282 4,657 6,091 4,648 7.7 5.7 7.5 5.7

Minnesota

3,000,619 3,083,385 3,008,051 3,071,203 132,263 85,830 112,354 49,988 4.4 2.8 3.7 1.6

Duluth

137,720 142,457 137,892 141,123 6,888 5,014 6,217 3,480 5.0 3.5 4.5 2.5

Mankato-North Mankato

59,705 61,466 59,534 61,120 2,244 1,380 1,848 766 3.8 2.2 3.1 1.3

Minneapolis-St. Paul-Bloomington

1,967,233 2,024,548 1,975,219 2,034,386 83,029 51,976 73,402 31,110 4.2 2.6 3.7 1.5

Rochester

123,514 128,368 123,626 127,185 4,760 3,105 3,658 1,700 3.9 2.4 3.0 1.3

St. Cloud

109,699 112,969 109,704 112,070 5,384 3,470 4,396 1,975 4.9 3.1 4.0 1.8

Mississippi

1,252,474 1,264,314 1,255,816 1,266,336 80,113 44,173 73,728 45,521 6.4 3.5 5.9 3.6

Gulfport-Biloxi-Pascagoula

164,317 167,369 164,184 166,834 10,724 6,010 9,882 6,130 6.5 3.6 6.0 3.7

Hattiesburg

68,535 69,605 68,432 69,300 3,888 2,169 3,651 2,239 5.7 3.1 5.3 3.2

Jackson

260,080 258,518 260,161 258,751 15,051 8,299 13,875 8,523 5.8 3.2 5.3 3.3

Missouri

3,045,280 3,082,314 3,058,002 3,065,159 154,191 110,651 137,983 74,772 5.1 3.6 4.5 2.4

Cape Girardeau

47,716 48,038 47,801 47,819 2,133 1,552 1,818 1,067 4.5 3.2 3.8 2.2

Columbia

98,720 100,858 98,776 100,556 3,328 2,598 2,859 1,704 3.4 2.6 2.9 1.7

Jefferson City

73,737 73,846 74,157 73,954 2,764 2,100 2,239 1,370 3.7 2.8 3.0 1.9

Joplin

83,993 85,459 83,453 84,753 3,696 2,720 3,127 1,828 4.4 3.2 3.7 2.2

Kansas City

1,133,257 1,146,904 1,137,623 1,146,210 52,042 37,862 51,033 27,158 4.6 3.3 4.5 2.4

St. Joseph

61,035 62,281 60,830 61,718 2,599 2,002 2,130 1,256 4.3 3.2 3.5 2.0

St. Louis(2)

1,447,482 1,466,766 1,450,020 1,459,490 76,590 54,505 68,691 42,591 5.3 3.7 4.7 2.9

Springfield

237,430 242,275 237,178 239,987 9,752 6,985 8,137 4,584 4.1 2.9 3.4 1.9

Montana

544,265 562,705 545,094 562,543 23,608 15,875 19,602 15,065 4.3 2.8 3.6 2.7

Billings

89,216 92,428 89,385 92,777 3,572 2,279 2,953 2,228 4.0 2.5 3.3 2.4

Great Falls

37,788 38,612 37,529 38,485 1,593 1,056 1,297 1,035 4.2 2.7 3.5 2.7

Missoula

64,356 66,638 64,657 67,115 2,777 1,883 2,302 1,769 4.3 2.8 3.6 2.6

Nebraska

1,042,362 1,063,398 1,043,501 1,063,147 31,163 24,531 26,772 20,092 3.0 2.3 2.6 1.9

Grand Island

44,836 45,286 44,674 45,006 1,449 1,086 1,195 853 3.2 2.4 2.7 1.9

Lincoln

187,180 191,007 185,834 191,195 5,826 4,070 4,527 3,416 3.1 2.1 2.4 1.8

Omaha-Council Bluffs

494,345 506,371 494,590 509,086 17,129 13,234 15,234 10,584 3.5 2.6 3.1 2.1

Nevada

1,516,751 1,502,972 1,512,277 1,512,720 136,196 66,155 130,043 67,591 9.0 4.4 8.6 4.5

Carson City

26,422 25,116 26,130 25,410 1,611 751 1,574 775 6.1 3.0 6.0 3.0

Las Vegas-Henderson-Paradise

1,099,258 1,102,628 1,096,412 1,109,257 113,650 55,380 107,940 55,973 10.3 5.0 9.8 5.0

Reno

261,242 251,453 258,641 254,224 14,360 6,513 13,933 6,960 5.5 2.6 5.4 2.7

New Hampshire

755,354 763,433 751,084 753,969 32,912 18,290 29,221 16,514 4.4 2.4 3.9 2.2

Dover-Durham

84,747 84,778 84,515 83,583 3,684 1,875 3,269 1,647 4.3 2.2 3.9 2.0

Manchester

120,105 120,778 119,182 119,525 5,151 2,744 4,528 2,502 4.3 2.3 3.8 2.1

Portsmouth

75,160 76,176 75,465 75,191 3,250 1,800 2,851 1,518 4.3 2.4 3.8 2.0

New Jersey

4,661,726 4,642,587 4,641,403 4,627,326 340,098 193,465 311,651 162,852 7.3 4.2 6.7 3.5

Atlantic City-Hammonton

120,563 125,696 121,738 126,288 13,360 7,548 12,639 6,349 11.1 6.0 10.4 5.0

Ocean City

41,732 41,597 43,746 43,169 5,561 3,831 4,591 2,932 13.3 9.2 10.5 6.8

Trenton

213,183 210,781 212,146 209,500 12,621 6,988 11,437 5,939 5.9 3.3 5.4 2.8

Vineland-Bridgeton

69,175 67,221 68,875 66,986 6,036 3,895 5,350 3,193 8.7 5.8 7.8 4.8

New Mexico

931,884 943,705 938,964 939,778 64,210 43,149 66,553 41,511 6.9 4.6 7.1 4.4

Albuquerque

433,469 441,263 436,586 438,471 27,484 18,240 28,786 17,500 6.3 4.1 6.6 4.0

Farmington

48,715 49,582 49,346 49,654 4,077 2,680 4,071 2,549 8.4 5.4 8.2 5.1

Las Cruces

96,662 98,294 97,406 97,986 6,604 4,757 6,845 4,748 6.8 4.8 7.0 4.8

Santa Fe

71,147 72,920 71,836 73,170 4,534 2,917 4,711 2,746 6.4 4.0 6.6 3.8

New York

9,552,051 9,438,676 9,509,804 9,398,799 789,070 443,291 731,672 392,642 8.3 4.7 7.7 4.2

Albany-Schenectady-Troy

448,054 452,144 448,111 453,003 24,398 15,012 21,176 12,165 5.4 3.3 4.7 2.7

Binghamton

104,114 105,028 103,896 104,248 6,626 4,374 5,503 3,471 6.4 4.2 5.3 3.3

Buffalo-Cheektowaga-Niagara Falls

534,034 538,471 531,865 536,247 36,716 23,065 31,810 19,133 6.9 4.3 6.0 3.6

Elmira

34,776 34,693 34,277 34,521 2,271 1,438 1,957 1,189 6.5 4.1 5.7 3.4

Glens Falls

57,181 58,269 56,919 57,932 3,702 2,370 3,066 1,831 6.5 4.1 5.4 3.2

Ithaca

50,845 49,589 50,596 49,358 2,148 1,356 1,890 1,125 4.2 2.7 3.7 2.3

Kingston

85,699 87,886 86,002 87,311 5,028 3,093 4,306 2,508 5.9 3.5 5.0 2.9

New York-Newark-Jersey City

10,127,880 9,973,335 10,080,160 9,925,098 861,026 470,975 808,589 419,525 8.5 4.7 8.0 4.2

Rochester

517,182 523,748 515,429 524,418 31,746 19,977 27,926 16,554 6.1 3.8 5.4 3.2

Syracuse

304,496 304,554 302,943 304,946 18,824 11,901 16,348 9,955 6.2 3.9 5.4 3.3

Utica-Rome

127,888 128,093 127,578 127,471 8,450 5,322 7,190 4,388 6.6 4.2 5.6 3.4

Watertown-Fort Drum

43,087 43,540 42,706 43,425 2,872 2,066 2,335 1,669 6.7 4.7 5.5 3.8

North Carolina

4,927,647 5,085,550 4,926,336 5,102,548 259,442 182,202 246,840 175,278 5.3 3.6 5.0 3.4

Asheville

225,262 235,774 225,268 235,938 10,696 6,821 9,866 6,631 4.7 2.9 4.4 2.8

Burlington

80,832 82,748 80,589 83,015 4,191 2,861 3,948 2,826 5.2 3.5 4.9 3.4

Charlotte-Concord-Gastonia

1,350,458 1,399,695 1,349,648 1,404,748 68,395 48,846 65,727 45,336 5.1 3.5 4.9 3.2

Durham-Chapel Hill

306,459 318,706 305,759 320,710 13,077 8,938 12,234 8,911 4.3 2.8 4.0 2.8

Fayetteville

145,366 149,134 144,681 149,563 10,608 8,084 10,145 7,602 7.3 5.4 7.0 5.1

Goldsboro

50,205 51,379 50,437 51,381 2,721 1,955 2,583 1,911 5.4 3.8 5.1 3.7

Greensboro-High Point

356,696 366,085 354,087 367,018 21,014 14,588 20,015 13,981 5.9 4.0 5.7 3.8

Greenville

87,410 89,611 87,261 89,678 4,669 3,388 4,508 3,339 5.3 3.8 5.2 3.7

Hickory-Lenoir-Morganton

167,837 172,480 167,041 172,767 8,634 5,675 8,279 5,437 5.1 3.3 5.0 3.1

Jacksonville

64,832 66,696 64,764 67,132 3,601 2,556 3,387 2,576 5.6 3.8 5.2 3.8

New Bern

49,770 50,756 49,690 50,767 2,536 1,721 2,360 1,647 5.1 3.4 4.7 3.2

Raleigh

717,972 755,981 719,621 761,114 31,924 22,221 30,208 21,707 4.4 2.9 4.2 2.9

Rocky Mount

61,795 62,270 61,565 62,026 4,531 3,795 4,486 3,611 7.3 6.1 7.3 5.8

Wilmington

149,686 155,951 150,435 156,686 6,974 4,902 6,606 4,754 4.7 3.1 4.4 3.0

Winston-Salem

320,734 327,116 318,363 326,290 16,350 11,095 15,848 10,838 5.1 3.4 5.0 3.3

North Dakota

403,208 406,220 404,117 407,362 19,720 13,469 17,092 10,243 4.9 3.3 4.2 2.5

Bismarck

70,221 71,110 70,417 71,499 3,131 2,213 2,526 1,647 4.5 3.1 3.6 2.3

Fargo

142,157 144,385 141,851 145,683 5,436 3,896 4,640 2,754 3.8 2.7 3.3 1.9

Grand Forks

52,364 53,809 52,421 53,661 2,263 1,574 2,054 1,121 4.3 2.9 3.9 2.1

Ohio

5,696,967 5,778,904 5,706,814 5,743,866 339,941 253,535 316,026 210,237 6.0 4.4 5.5 3.7

Akron

350,648 350,035 349,446 347,510 22,999 14,426 19,908 12,314 6.6 4.1 5.7 3.5

Canton-Massillon

195,605 195,898 195,171 194,346 12,697 8,131 11,472 6,823 6.5 4.2 5.9 3.5

Cincinnati

1,114,000 1,133,293 1,115,571 1,124,662 54,143 39,119 51,143 33,416 4.9 3.5 4.6 3.0

Cleveland-Elyria

990,248 1,008,201 1,004,045 1,007,233 64,831 67,408 60,702 54,706 6.5 6.7 6.0 5.4

Columbus

1,115,098 1,130,665 1,106,560 1,120,035 66,384 37,511 56,876 32,912 6.0 3.3 5.1 2.9

Dayton

384,415 391,304 382,206 387,897 23,376 14,961 21,300 12,688 6.1 3.8 5.6 3.3

Lima

47,977 47,284 48,167 47,013 3,139 1,956 3,588 1,669 6.5 4.1 7.4 3.6

Mansfield

50,991 51,648 51,358 51,117 3,080 2,340 3,126 2,035 6.0 4.5 6.1 4.0

Springfield

62,482 63,181 62,137 62,543 3,777 2,704 3,411 2,222 6.0 4.3 5.5 3.6

Toledo

296,444 301,068 296,227 301,716 19,351 12,375 18,727 10,829 6.5 4.1 6.3 3.6

Weirton-Steubenville(1)

49,709 50,114 50,374 50,070 3,568 2,609 3,449 2,384 7.2 5.2 6.8 4.8

Youngstown-Warren-Boardman

229,957 230,996 231,157 229,056 17,855 11,990 17,312 10,140 7.8 5.2 7.5 4.4

Oklahoma

1,850,247 1,883,417 1,850,570 1,862,268 80,419 55,324 82,796 51,465 4.3 2.9 4.5 2.8

Enid

26,966 26,683 26,904 26,618 1,053 736 1,071 681 3.9 2.8 4.0 2.6

Lawton

50,445 50,212 50,675 49,388 2,184 1,696 2,309 1,600 4.3 3.4 4.6 3.2

Oklahoma City

696,069 713,825 696,325 706,936 29,950 19,282 32,011 17,972 4.3 2.7 4.6 2.5

Tulsa

481,475 489,131 478,798 485,646 21,432 14,959 21,921 13,900 4.5 3.1 4.6 2.9

Oregon

2,144,981 2,202,685 2,144,560 2,201,334 139,822 86,725 124,077 78,796 6.5 3.9 5.8 3.6

Albany

60,767 62,045 60,562 61,951 4,138 2,717 3,660 2,509 6.8 4.4 6.0 4.0

Bend-Redmond

101,851 105,403 102,297 105,519 7,029 4,202 5,927 3,601 6.9 4.0 5.8 3.4

Corvallis

47,599 49,948 47,833 50,037 2,320 1,473 2,010 1,456 4.9 2.9 4.2 2.9

Eugene

182,447 186,967 182,930 186,603 12,266 7,746 11,056 7,183 6.7 4.1 6.0 3.8

Grants Pass

37,177 37,666 37,110 37,659 2,802 1,956 2,447 1,784 7.5 5.2 6.6 4.7

Medford

107,686 108,643 107,707 108,934 7,316 4,671 6,423 4,307 6.8 4.3 6.0 4.0

Portland-Vancouver-Hillsboro

1,339,834 1,392,547 1,335,066 1,383,381 84,186 54,085 75,586 48,114 6.3 3.9 5.7 3.5

Salem

208,316 212,190 209,105 212,567 12,845 8,280 11,632 7,741 6.2 3.9 5.6 3.6

Pennsylvania

6,394,362 6,403,477 6,375,823 6,381,039 450,900 291,915 417,322 268,215 7.1 4.6 6.5 4.2

Allentown-Bethlehem-Easton

447,261 452,008 444,603 448,817 31,355 20,228 29,468 18,434 7.0 4.5 6.6 4.1

Altoona

58,885 58,974 59,084 58,620 3,791 2,602 3,585 2,341 6.4 4.4 6.1 4.0

Bloomsburg-Berwick

42,324 42,565 42,149 42,057 2,564 1,773 2,256 1,489 6.1 4.2 5.4 3.5

Chambersburg-Waynesboro

76,988 76,658 76,095 76,303 4,408 2,689 4,084 2,485 5.7 3.5 5.4 3.3

East Stroudsburg

81,925 82,727 81,022 82,073 6,858 5,044 6,405 4,636 8.4 6.1 7.9 5.6

Erie

126,984 126,859 126,303 125,868 10,882 7,068 9,657 6,311 8.6 5.6 7.6 5.0

Gettysburg

54,514 54,738 53,554 54,530 2,569 1,635 2,396 1,505 4.7 3.0 4.5 2.8

Harrisburg-Carlisle

300,719 306,452 299,342 306,248 17,844 11,021 16,740 10,242 5.9 3.6 5.6 3.3

Johnstown

55,809 55,580 55,755 54,993 4,233 2,986 3,853 2,657 7.6 5.4 6.9 4.8

Lancaster

282,029 281,621 282,367 281,001 14,944 9,582 13,956 8,864 5.3 3.4 4.9 3.2

Lebanon

72,268 72,660 71,750 72,557 4,367 2,701 4,077 2,463 6.0 3.7 5.7 3.4

Philadelphia-Camden-Wilmington

3,156,084 3,172,707 3,149,282 3,157,615 220,709 139,095 207,004 128,403 7.0 4.4 6.6 4.1

Pittsburgh

1,177,174 1,170,922 1,175,272 1,172,424 83,854 54,391 77,272 49,383 7.1 4.6 6.6 4.2

Reading

211,351 209,084 209,810 208,097 15,389 9,780 14,170 9,017 7.3 4.7 6.8 4.3

Scranton--Wilkes-Barre--Hazleton

273,602 273,799 271,914 273,318 23,688 15,534 21,524 14,014 8.7 5.7 7.9 5.1

State College

76,222 77,785 75,997 77,536 3,540 2,580 3,305 2,232 4.6 3.3 4.3 2.9

Williamsport

56,060 54,982 55,558 54,226 4,207 2,796 3,782 2,489 7.5 5.1 6.8 4.6

York-Hanover

234,642 235,869 233,335 235,166 13,840 8,564 13,037 8,074 5.9 3.6 5.6 3.4

Rhode Island

565,056 569,923 564,441 563,389 34,656 16,880 31,250 15,440 6.1 3.0 5.5 2.7

Providence-Warwick

699,267 705,644 698,372 696,727 44,861 23,690 40,146 20,897 6.4 3.4 5.7 3.0

South Carolina

2,357,430 2,397,595 2,350,961 2,399,753 103,402 79,309 89,231 62,900 4.4 3.3 3.8 2.6

Charleston-North Charleston

390,764 406,043 390,547 407,340 15,780 11,665 13,528 9,580 4.0 2.9 3.5 2.4

Columbia

401,280 398,433 399,506 401,306 16,234 12,399 14,009 9,888 4.0 3.1 3.5 2.5

Florence

95,771 95,214 95,183 95,360 4,356 3,275 3,824 2,574 4.5 3.4 4.0 2.7

Greenville-Anderson-Mauldin

432,406 443,336 428,132 441,621 16,877 12,709 14,547 10,089 3.9 2.9 3.4 2.3

Hilton Head Island-Bluffton-Beaufort

88,181 90,043 88,410 90,945 3,373 2,726 2,784 2,099 3.8 3.0 3.1 2.3

Myrtle Beach-Conway-North Myrtle Beach

197,713 206,542 202,024 210,148 11,928 9,071 10,377 7,254 6.0 4.4 5.1 3.5

Spartanburg

168,348 170,026 166,671 169,751 7,558 5,499 6,664 4,363 4.5 3.2 4.0 2.6

Sumter

43,156 42,361 42,957 42,401 2,143 1,615 1,874 1,282 5.0 3.8 4.4 3.0

South Dakota

462,717 473,531 465,136 473,526 16,430 12,093 15,263 10,607 3.6 2.6 3.3 2.2

Rapid City

74,398 76,659 75,625 77,183 2,757 1,917 2,641 1,732 3.7 2.5 3.5 2.2

Sioux Falls

156,843 160,704 157,499 161,912 5,165 3,721 4,622 3,131 3.3 2.3 2.9 1.9

Tennessee

3,304,743 3,394,097 3,304,662 3,410,648 163,521 102,137 146,548 104,829 4.9 3.0 4.4 3.1

Chattanooga

274,910 277,437 273,203 278,211 11,452 7,947 10,052 7,736 4.2 2.9 3.7 2.8

Clarksville

118,139 121,096 117,595 120,889 6,430 4,370 5,492 4,330 5.4 3.6 4.7 3.6

Cleveland

58,287 57,920 57,773 58,194 2,780 1,755 2,291 1,784 4.8 3.0 4.0 3.1

Jackson

64,833 64,972 64,507 65,194 3,134 1,910 2,792 1,944 4.8 2.9 4.3 3.0

Johnson City

92,663 94,101 92,186 94,463 4,104 2,655 3,450 2,729 4.4 2.8 3.7 2.9

Kingsport-Bristol-Bristol

133,666 135,238 132,972 135,245 6,506 4,009 5,511 3,988 4.9 3.0 4.1 2.9

Knoxville

430,889 445,697 431,351 448,249 17,766 11,424 14,883 11,865 4.1 2.6 3.5 2.6

Memphis

638,077 647,510 636,282 651,037 43,920 27,003 41,341 27,533 6.9 4.2 6.5 4.2

Morristown

52,625 53,769 52,174 54,078 2,414 1,671 2,070 1,677 4.6 3.1 4.0 3.1

Nashville-Davidson--Murfreesboro--Franklin

1,082,021 1,136,815 1,085,364 1,144,478 45,957 27,700 43,058 28,581 4.2 2.4 4.0 2.5

Texas

14,143,869 14,536,411 14,150,421 14,462,593 915,304 562,546 836,773 530,214 6.5 3.9 5.9 3.7

Abilene

78,917 80,032 78,841 79,133 4,107 2,513 3,538 2,366 5.2 3.1 4.5 3.0

Amarillo

134,134 136,478 133,465 134,952 5,869 3,670 5,058 3,394 4.4 2.7 3.8 2.5

Austin-Round Rock

1,279,555 1,355,875 1,288,843 1,351,818 61,597 36,624 54,883 33,867 4.8 2.7 4.3 2.5

Beaumont-Port Arthur

167,875 166,693 167,006 165,426 16,916 11,056 16,271 10,405 10.1 6.6 9.7 6.3

Brownsville-Harlingen

175,211 177,539 175,700 175,739 15,617 10,799 14,831 10,389 8.9 6.1 8.4 5.9

College Station-Bryan

137,704 142,471 139,287 139,862 6,428 4,061 5,739 3,822 4.7 2.9 4.1 2.7

Corpus Christi

204,036 204,353 202,816 202,488 16,139 10,889 15,121 10,215 7.9 5.3 7.5 5.0

Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington

4,053,529 4,225,391 4,060,047 4,217,738 238,797 141,536 216,133 133,179 5.9 3.3 5.3 3.2

El Paso

366,002 366,122 363,917 362,393 25,880 15,911 23,791 15,061 7.1 4.3 6.5 4.2

Houston-The Woodlands-Sugar Land

3,407,239 3,473,736 3,405,099 3,463,565 246,426 151,576 228,906 143,736 7.2 4.4 6.7 4.1

Killeen-Temple

180,432 183,654 180,756 182,504 11,483 7,453 10,214 7,013 6.4 4.1 5.7 3.8

Laredo

115,313 118,227 115,584 117,256 8,304 5,122 7,587 4,878 7.2 4.3 6.6 4.2

Longview

95,765 96,733 95,474 95,919 6,809 4,215 6,218 3,938 7.1 4.4 6.5 4.1

Lubbock

166,332 169,581 166,086 168,113 8,606 5,090 7,590 4,788 5.2 3.0 4.6 2.8

McAllen-Edinburg-Mission

366,067 373,135 367,042 369,525 36,928 25,940 35,682 25,161 10.1 7.0 9.7 6.8

Midland

100,543 104,344 101,243 103,670 6,695 3,645 6,264 3,330 6.7 3.5 6.2 3.2

Odessa

80,428 81,369 80,667 80,983 7,850 4,142 7,363 3,879 9.8 5.1 9.1 4.8

San Angelo

55,294 55,584 55,108 54,907 2,992 1,826 2,696 1,672 5.4 3.3 4.9 3.0

San Antonio-New Braunfels

1,200,341 1,229,299 1,202,373 1,222,845 71,863 42,910 64,402 40,239 6.0 3.5 5.4 3.3

Sherman-Denison

65,396 67,173 65,688 66,758 3,391 2,194 2,927 2,018 5.2 3.3 4.5 3.0

Texarkana

63,097 64,100 63,207 63,894 3,882 2,634 3,511 2,562 6.2 4.1 5.6 4.0

Tyler

109,587 111,749 109,368 110,450 6,446 3,862 5,818 3,624 5.9 3.5 5.3 3.3

Victoria

44,075 44,189 43,566 43,789 3,140 1,925 2,883 1,805 7.1 4.4 6.6 4.1

Waco

127,373 132,513 127,786 131,414 7,163 4,480 6,272 4,154 5.6 3.4 4.9 3.2

Wichita Falls

64,620 64,478 64,199 64,016 3,809 2,309 3,341 2,202 5.9 3.6 5.2 3.4

Utah

1,667,015 1,731,075 1,664,386 1,724,650 53,054 35,574 48,602 35,121 3.2 2.1 2.9 2.0

Logan

76,300 79,370 75,890 79,124 1,732 1,374 1,574 1,309 2.3 1.7 2.1 1.7

Ogden-Clearfield

340,868 350,704 340,153 349,415 10,368 7,095 9,527 7,012 3.0 2.0 2.8 2.0

Provo-Orem

334,742 354,181 334,492 355,250 9,034 6,237 8,269 6,265 2.7 1.8 2.5 1.8

St. George

83,180 86,646 83,317 85,882 2,787 1,921 2,553 1,869 3.4 2.2 3.1 2.2

Salt Lake City

683,477 706,123 680,499 701,449 22,654 14,782 20,859 14,683 3.3 2.1 3.1 2.1

Vermont

327,725 334,580 325,980 330,598 14,421 7,871 13,963 7,835 4.4 2.4 4.3 2.4

Burlington-South Burlington

120,725 123,312 120,725 123,897 4,494 2,260 4,197 2,302 3.7 1.8 3.5 1.9

Virginia

4,271,427 4,339,319 4,255,479 4,330,928 193,867 117,549 167,671 109,567 4.5 2.7 3.9 2.5

Blacksburg-Christiansburg-Radford

90,419 93,921 90,417 93,573 3,410 2,451 2,826 2,077 3.8 2.6 3.1 2.2

Charlottesville

116,738 119,856 116,932 119,317 4,669 2,931 3,894 2,694 4.0 2.4 3.3 2.3

Harrisonburg

64,838 66,843 65,265 67,034 2,540 1,645 2,050 1,491 3.9 2.5 3.1 2.2

Lynchburg

119,366 120,269 118,050 119,748 5,592 3,510 4,634 3,225 4.7 2.9 3.9 2.7

Richmond

668,047 669,754 664,152 666,152 32,369 19,582 28,340 18,467 4.8 2.9 4.3 2.8

Roanoke

153,936 154,225 152,546 152,832 6,682 4,084 5,582 3,810 4.3 2.6 3.7 2.5

Staunton-Waynesboro

58,599 59,521 58,206 59,604 2,380 1,446 1,914 1,354 4.1 2.4 3.3 2.3

Virginia Beach-Norfolk-Newport News

835,677 832,446 829,557 830,489 43,153 26,046 37,840 24,597 5.2 3.1 4.6 3.0

Winchester

73,924 75,683 73,913 75,189 2,724 1,713 2,277 1,578 3.7 2.3 3.1 2.1

Washington

3,882,427 4,049,406 3,858,704 4,015,271 239,333 173,051 207,713 142,422 6.2 4.3 5.4 3.5

Bellingham

112,255 119,522 111,672 117,231 7,930 6,269 6,967 5,232 7.1 5.2 6.2 4.5

Bremerton-Silverdale

127,084 133,545 125,794 130,723 7,653 6,205 6,650 5,218 6.0 4.6 5.3 4.0

Kennewick-Richland

144,124 153,077 146,215 152,216 10,067 9,035 8,867 7,433 7.0 5.9 6.1 4.9

Longview

48,705 50,768 47,638 49,497 3,521 3,015 3,147 2,638 7.2 5.9 6.6 5.3

Mount Vernon-Anacortes

60,883 64,125 60,724 62,786 4,521 3,782 3,940 3,123 7.4 5.9 6.5 5.0

Olympia-Tumwater

144,410 151,550 142,819 147,743 8,851 7,447 7,708 6,276 6.1 4.9 5.4 4.2

Seattle-Tacoma-Bellevue

2,160,663 2,235,696 2,144,314 2,237,705 121,117 71,685 104,922 58,277 5.6 3.2 4.9 2.6

Spokane-Spokane Valley

282,866 299,533 280,727 292,076 18,820 15,867 15,794 12,625 6.7 5.3 5.6 4.3

Walla Walla

32,657 33,808 32,609 33,089 1,802 1,556 1,539 1,310 5.5 4.6 4.7 4.0

Wenatchee

63,976 66,092 63,606 65,045 4,242 3,650 3,631 2,976 6.6 5.5 5.7 4.6

Yakima

126,691 131,903 127,586 131,276 10,518 9,524 9,374 8,147 8.3 7.2 7.3 6.2

West Virginia

777,455 785,721 786,589 791,168 48,533 31,731 44,637 28,663 6.2 4.0 5.7 3.6

Beckley

44,826 45,449 45,518 46,159 3,215 1,926 2,976 1,775 7.2 4.2 6.5 3.8

Charleston

91,628 91,084 92,616 92,062 5,978 3,722 5,830 3,421 6.5 4.1 6.3 3.7

Huntington-Ashland

143,388 145,025 144,569 145,405 8,624 6,112 7,915 5,360 6.0 4.2 5.5 3.7

Morgantown

70,063 72,186 71,077 73,086 3,287 2,429 3,128 2,247 4.7 3.4 4.4 3.1

Parkersburg-Vienna

38,278 38,864 38,736 39,242 2,615 1,742 2,352 1,548 6.8 4.5 6.1 3.9

Wheeling

60,766 61,867 61,826 61,623 4,236 3,099 4,029 2,704 7.0 5.0 6.5 4.4

Wisconsin

3,114,001 3,140,085 3,115,077 3,117,184 148,520 105,248 132,859 94,986 4.8 3.4 4.3 3.0

Appleton

131,562 133,738 131,372 133,070 5,154 3,557 4,397 3,164 3.9 2.7 3.3 2.4

Eau Claire

94,157 94,484 94,155 93,785 4,428 3,155 3,645 2,729 4.7 3.3 3.9 2.9

Fond du Lac

56,829 58,121 56,337 57,479 2,370 1,607 1,940 1,330 4.2 2.8 3.4 2.3

Green Bay

173,117 175,174 172,820 174,032 7,547 5,219 6,455 4,617 4.4 3.0 3.7 2.7

Janesville-Beloit

86,067 87,363 86,408 86,613 4,377 3,554 4,390 3,133 5.1 4.1 5.1 3.6

La Crosse-Onalaska

77,055 78,264 77,178 77,685 3,008 2,108 2,463 1,684 3.9 2.7 3.2 2.2

Madison

394,097 400,003 394,885 399,802 14,496 9,680 12,810 8,375 3.7 2.4 3.2 2.1

Milwaukee-Waukesha-West Allis

812,110 816,972 812,772 815,221 42,526 29,405 41,085 28,304 5.2 3.6 5.1 3.5

Oshkosh-Neenah

92,527 92,939 92,295 92,357 3,600 2,487 3,216 2,289 3.9 2.7 3.5 2.5

Racine

98,217 98,512 98,200 97,815 5,722 4,127 5,297 3,720 5.8 4.2 5.4 3.8

Sheboygan

61,261 62,785 61,200 62,430 2,343 1,622 2,109 1,453 3.8 2.6 3.4 2.3

Wausau

74,232 75,453 73,734 74,744 2,805 2,025 2,399 1,842 3.8 2.7 3.3 2.5

Wyoming

289,646 290,099 287,973 287,750 15,737 10,700 14,307 10,068 5.4 3.7 5.0 3.5

Casper

39,368 39,140 39,117 39,138 2,940 1,825 2,659 1,740 7.5 4.7 6.8 4.4

Cheyenne

49,514 50,061 49,166 49,644 2,349 1,671 2,068 1,533 4.7 3.3 4.2 3.1

Puerto Rico

1,150,909 1,214,827 1,165,496 1,205,021 84,963 70,320 82,608 70,056 7.4 5.8 7.1 5.8

Aguadilla-Isabela

89,940 95,446 91,828 94,593 7,899 7,291 7,885 7,376 8.8 7.6 8.6 7.8

Arecibo

55,484 58,325 56,334 58,098 4,277 3,851 4,143 3,938 7.7 6.6 7.4 6.8

Guayama

20,845 21,782 21,180 21,665 1,717 1,511 1,668 1,550 8.2 6.9 7.9 7.2

Mayaguez

29,052 30,472 29,523 30,173 2,288 2,088 2,244 2,062 7.9 6.9 7.6 6.8

Ponce

96,385 101,848 97,768 101,829 8,461 7,713 8,331 8,061 8.8 7.6 8.5 7.9

San German

36,539 38,776 37,027 38,479 3,101 2,964 3,206 2,913 8.5 7.6 8.7 7.6

San Juan-Carolina-Caguas

778,622 821,402 788,017 815,021 52,979 41,271 50,957 40,507 6.8 5.0 6.5 5.0

Footnotes
(1) For operational reasons, these interstate areas are listed under the state that accounts for the larger share of the population, which is different from the state that contains the first principal city.
(2) The area boundary does not reflect the Office of Management and Budget delineation.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data refer to place of residence. Data for Puerto Rico are derived from a monthly household survey similar to the Current Population Survey. Area delineations are based on Office of Management and Budget Bulletin No. 18-03, dated April 10, 2018, and are available on the BLS website at https://www.bls.gov/lau/lausmsa.htm. Areas in the six New England states are Metropolitan New England City and Town Areas (NECTAs), while areas in other states are county-based. Some metropolitan areas lie in two or more states. They are listed under the state containing the first principal city, unless otherwise footnoted. Estimates for the latest month are subject to revision the following month.


LABOR FORCE DATA
NOT SEASONALLY ADJUSTED

Table 2. Civilian labor force and unemployment by state, selected metropolitan area, and metropolitan division(1)
State, area, and division Civilian labor force Unemployed
March April Number Percent of labor force
2021 2022 2021 2022(p) March April March April
2021 2022 2021 2022(p) 2021 2022 2021 2022(p)

California

18,800,220 19,379,086 18,761,567 19,190,197 1,622,335 827,550 1,557,726 736,562 8.6 4.3 8.3 3.8

Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim

6,530,794 6,672,701 6,532,927 6,609,099 627,706 298,538 616,226 281,301 9.6 4.5 9.4 4.3

Anaheim-Santa Ana-Irvine

1,542,111 1,599,751 1,536,897 1,580,021 108,537 49,932 103,945 43,264 7.0 3.1 6.8 2.7

Los Angeles-Long Beach-Glendale

4,988,683 5,072,950 4,996,030 5,029,078 519,169 248,606 512,281 238,037 10.4 4.9 10.3 4.7

San Francisco-Oakland-Hayward

2,434,644 2,547,324 2,417,723 2,514,022 160,317 74,400 154,474 63,804 6.6 2.9 6.4 2.5

Oakland-Hayward-Berkeley

1,344,783 1,390,265 1,336,049 1,369,255 97,713 46,346 93,626 40,096 7.3 3.3 7.0 2.9

San Francisco-Redwood City-South San Francisco

961,758 1,025,412 954,763 1,016,018 55,743 24,929 54,347 21,049 5.8 2.4 5.7 2.1

San Rafael

128,103 131,647 126,911 128,749 6,861 3,125 6,501 2,659 5.4 2.4 5.1 2.1

District of Columbia

377,021 386,783 375,753 382,590 24,808 21,915 24,244 17,572 6.6 5.7 6.5 4.6

Washington-Arlington-Alexandria(2)

3,336,922 3,399,369 3,335,469 3,376,198 175,421 120,702 165,054 101,347 5.3 3.6 4.9 3.0

Silver Spring-Frederick-Rockville(3)

676,685 689,609 676,097 687,069 37,280 26,494 36,181 20,369 5.5 3.8 5.4 3.0

Washington-Arlington-Alexandria(2)

2,660,237 2,709,760 2,659,372 2,689,129 138,141 94,208 128,873 80,978 5.2 3.5 4.8 3.0

Florida

10,151,654 10,543,604 10,204,811 10,562,401 533,837 284,223 500,120 254,457 5.3 2.7 4.9 2.4

Miami-Fort Lauderdale-West Palm Beach

3,014,009 3,124,593 3,048,989 3,122,334 178,603 87,367 166,459 77,373 5.9 2.8 5.5 2.5

Fort Lauderdale-Pompano Beach-Deerfield Beach

1,013,248 1,040,339 1,018,103 1,042,829 57,097 28,810 54,196 26,176 5.6 2.8 5.3 2.5

Miami-Miami Beach-Kendall

1,277,195 1,333,485 1,305,004 1,324,596 86,297 39,278 79,326 33,935 6.8 2.9 6.1 2.6

West Palm Beach-Boca Raton-Delray Beach

723,566 750,769 725,882 754,909 35,209 19,279 32,937 17,262 4.9 2.6 4.5 2.3

Illinois

6,257,339 6,458,029 6,274,112 6,396,406 419,661 302,053 403,173 282,139 6.7 4.7 6.4 4.4

Chicago-Naperville-Elgin(2)

4,747,348 4,938,152 4,765,965 4,891,945 323,374 223,647 318,640 201,618 6.8 4.5 6.7 4.1

Chicago-Naperville-Arlington Heights

3,654,404 3,828,289 3,672,195 3,791,468 250,074 170,844 255,239 154,054 6.8 4.5 7.0 4.1

Elgin

310,920 319,029 310,025 314,046 22,586 17,204 18,855 16,326 7.3 5.4 6.1 5.2

Gary(3)

327,819 331,039 331,197 331,595 21,905 13,650 20,529 11,131 6.7 4.1 6.2 3.4

Lake County-Kenosha County(2)

454,205 459,795 452,548 454,836 28,809 21,949 24,017 20,107 6.3 4.8 5.3 4.4

Massachusetts

3,727,618 3,782,622 3,723,599 3,721,459 249,178 142,468 225,995 124,057 6.7 3.8 6.1 3.3

Boston-Cambridge-Nashua(2)

2,769,507 2,817,990 2,762,728 2,779,303 168,936 93,186 154,747 82,835 6.1 3.3 5.6 3.0

Boston-Cambridge-Newton

1,653,600 1,689,159 1,648,496 1,667,342 96,424 52,084 88,915 46,797 5.8 3.1 5.4 2.8

Brockton-Bridgewater-Easton

109,576 109,797 109,690 107,689 8,584 4,990 7,896 4,431 7.8 4.5 7.2 4.1

Framingham

157,578 159,700 156,599 157,007 8,339 4,756 7,415 3,999 5.3 3.0 4.7 2.5

Haverhill-Newburyport-Amesbury Town(2)

115,750 117,469 116,003 115,915 6,935 3,878 6,203 3,349 6.0 3.3 5.3 2.9

Lawrence-Methuen Town-Salem(2)

100,456 100,086 99,861 98,574 9,708 5,269 9,091 4,750 9.7 5.3 9.1 4.8

Lowell-Billerica-Chelmsford(2)

194,834 199,083 195,357 196,338 12,305 6,883 11,245 6,052 6.3 3.5 5.8 3.1

Lynn-Saugus-Marblehead

85,473 86,132 85,356 84,437 6,915 3,877 6,379 3,396 8.1 4.5 7.5 4.0

Nashua(2)

174,734 177,881 173,960 176,810 7,692 4,493 6,760 4,031 4.4 2.5 3.9 2.3

Peabody-Salem-Beverly

92,046 92,334 91,819 90,516 5,903 3,249 5,387 2,866 6.4 3.5 5.9 3.2

Taunton-Middleborough-Norton

85,460 86,349 85,587 84,675 6,131 3,707 5,456 3,164 7.2 4.3 6.4 3.7

Michigan

4,742,773 4,852,996 4,722,624 4,810,595 314,738 217,411 292,258 204,388 6.6 4.5 6.2 4.2

Detroit-Warren-Dearborn

2,091,920 2,147,792 2,077,632 2,111,067 144,840 99,480 133,137 89,168 6.9 4.6 6.4 4.2

Detroit-Dearborn-Livonia

789,987 810,431 784,310 794,854 67,445 47,200 65,316 43,448 8.5 5.8 8.3 5.5

Warren-Troy-Farmington Hills

1,301,934 1,337,361 1,293,322 1,316,213 77,396 52,280 67,821 45,721 5.9 3.9 5.2 3.5

New York

9,552,051 9,438,676 9,509,804 9,398,799 789,070 443,291 731,672 392,642 8.3 4.7 7.7 4.2

New York-Newark-Jersey City(2)

10,127,880 9,973,335 10,080,160 9,925,098 861,026 470,975 808,589 419,525 8.5 4.7 8.0 4.2

Dutchess County-Putnam County

192,967 194,311 193,284 194,210 10,301 6,475 9,162 5,332 5.3 3.3 4.7 2.7

Nassau County-Suffolk County

1,472,465 1,503,374 1,473,232 1,512,011 82,518 50,612 74,061 41,378 5.6 3.4 5.0 2.7

Newark(3)

1,281,216 1,278,151 1,274,669 1,271,427 93,379 53,627 85,585 45,228 7.3 4.2 6.7 3.6

New York-Jersey City-White Plains(2)

7,181,232 6,997,499 7,138,975 6,947,450 674,828 360,261 639,781 327,587 9.4 5.1 9.0 4.7

Pennsylvania

6,394,362 6,403,477 6,375,823 6,381,039 450,900 291,915 417,322 268,215 7.1 4.6 6.5 4.2

Philadelphia-Camden-Wilmington(2)

3,156,084 3,172,707 3,149,282 3,157,615 220,709 139,095 207,004 128,403 7.0 4.4 6.6 4.1

Camden(3)

670,032 673,302 665,643 671,954 45,977 26,334 42,151 22,162 6.9 3.9 6.3 3.3

Montgomery County-Bucks County-Chester County

1,077,235 1,089,887 1,078,697 1,084,429 57,263 37,089 53,404 34,584 5.3 3.4 5.0 3.2

Philadelphia

1,019,158 1,020,962 1,016,320 1,014,195 94,392 58,177 89,464 55,656 9.3 5.7 8.8 5.5

Wilmington(3)

389,659 388,556 388,622 387,037 23,077 17,495 21,985 16,001 5.9 4.5 5.7 4.1

Texas

14,143,869 14,536,411 14,150,421 14,462,593 915,304 562,546 836,773 530,214 6.5 3.9 5.9 3.7

Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington

4,053,529 4,225,391 4,060,047 4,217,738 238,797 141,536 216,133 133,179 5.9 3.3 5.3 3.2

Dallas-Plano-Irving

2,738,298 2,867,132 2,747,280 2,868,810 158,579 95,123 144,129 89,449 5.8 3.3 5.2 3.1

Fort Worth-Arlington

1,315,231 1,358,259 1,312,767 1,348,928 80,218 46,413 72,004 43,730 6.1 3.4 5.5 3.2

Washington

3,882,427 4,049,406 3,858,704 4,015,271 239,333 173,051 207,713 142,422 6.2 4.3 5.4 3.5

Seattle-Tacoma-Bellevue

2,160,663 2,235,696 2,144,314 2,237,705 121,117 71,685 104,922 58,277 5.6 3.2 4.9 2.6

Seattle-Bellevue-Everett

1,712,736 1,770,583 1,701,776 1,781,054 89,810 45,204 77,294 35,852 5.2 2.6 4.5 2.0

Tacoma-Lakewood

447,927 465,113 442,538 456,651 31,307 26,481 27,628 22,425 7.0 5.7 6.2 4.9

Footnotes
(1) These 11 areas contain all of the 38 metropolitan divisions.
(2) Part of the area (or division) is in one or more adjacent states.
(3) All of the division is in one or more adjacent states.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data refer to place of residence. Area delineations are based on Office of Management and Budget Bulletin No. 18-03, dated April 10, 2018, and are available on the BLS website at https://www.bls.gov/lau/lausmsa.htm. Areas in the six New England states are Metropolitan New England City and Town Areas (NECTAs), while areas in other states are county-based. Some metropolitan areas lie in two or more states. They are listed under the state containing the first principal city. Metropolitan divisions are listed under their metropolitan areas. Some divisions lie in more than one state, and some, like Camden, NJ, are totally outside the states under which their metropolitan areas are listed. For Washington-Arlington-Alexandria, DC-VA-MD-WV, the metropolitan area and division titles are identical. Estimates for the latest month are subject to revision the following month.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
NOT SEASONALLY ADJUSTED
Table 3. Employees on nonfarm payrolls by state and metropolitan area, not seasonally adjusted
[In thousands]
State and area March April Change from
April 2021 to April 2022(p)
2021 2022 2021 2022(p) Number Percent

Alabama

2,024.9 2,065.2 2,028.4 2,071.2 42.8 2.1

Anniston-Oxford-Jacksonville

46.1 46.8 46.0 47.0 1.0 2.2

Auburn-Opelika

66.1 68.1 66.1 68.6 2.5 3.8

Birmingham-Hoover

530.8 544.7 532.8 547.8 15.0 2.8

Daphne-Fairhope-Foley

78.9 81.8 79.9 81.9 2.0 2.5

Decatur

57.0 57.4 56.6 57.5 0.9 1.6

Dothan

59.1 60.3 58.7 60.4 1.7 2.9

Florence-Muscle Shoals

55.7 56.7 55.7 56.8 1.1 2.0

Gadsden

33.6 33.6 33.5 33.8 0.3 0.9

Huntsville

249.7 255.6 250.5 256.5 6.0 2.4

Mobile

182.1 185.4 182.9 186.0 3.1 1.7

Montgomery

172.2 174.6 172.4 175.6 3.2 1.9

Tuscaloosa

106.0 107.9 106.0 108.5 2.5 2.4


Alaska

299.2 306.5 303.9 311.2 7.3 2.4

Anchorage

164.9 169.9 166.1 172.2 6.1 3.7

Fairbanks

35.1 35.8 35.3 36.3 1.0 2.8


Arizona

2,926.9 3,034.0 2,935.8 3,047.1 111.3 3.8

Flagstaff

61.0 67.2 63.3 67.9 4.6 7.3

Lake Havasu City-Kingman

53.0 54.9 53.3 55.6 2.3 4.3

Phoenix-Mesa-Scottsdale

2,187.2 2,267.8 2,193.0 2,275.8 82.8