Department of Labor Logo United States Department of Labor
Dot gov

The .gov means it's official.
Federal government websites often end in .gov or .mil. Before sharing sensitive information, make sure you're on a federal government site.

Https

The site is secure.
The https:// ensures that you are connecting to the official website and that any information you provide is encrypted and transmitted securely.

Economic News Release
PRINT:Print
LAU LAU Program Links
SAE SAE Program Links

Metropolitan Area Employment and Unemployment (Monthly) News Release

For release 10:00 a.m. (ET) Wednesday, June 2, 2021 			    USDL-21-0978

Technical information: 
 Employment:	 sminfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/sae 
 Unemployment:   lausinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/lau 

Media contact:   (202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov


           METROPOLITAN AREA EMPLOYMENT AND UNEMPLOYMENT -- APRIL 2021


Unemployment rates were lower in April than a year earlier in all 389 metropolitan
areas, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. A total of 27 areas had
jobless rates of less than 3.0 percent and 10 areas had rates of at least 10.0
percent. Nonfarm payroll employment increased over the year in 335 metropolitan
areas and was essentially unchanged in 54 areas. The national unemployment rate
in April was 5.7 percent, not seasonally adjusted, down from 14.4 percent a year
earlier.

This news release presents statistics from two monthly programs. The civilian labor
force and unemployment data are based on the same concepts and definitions as those
used for the national household survey estimates. These data pertain to individuals
by where they reside. The employment data are from an establishment survey that
measures nonfarm employment, hours, and earnings by industry. These data pertain
to jobs on payrolls defined by where the establishments are located. For more
information about the concepts and statistical methodologies used by these two
programs, see the Technical Note.

Metropolitan Area Unemployment (Not Seasonally Adjusted)

In April, Logan, UT-ID, had the lowest unemployment rate, 2.0 percent, followed by
Huntsville, AL, and Lincoln, NE, 2.2 percent each. El Centro, CA, had the highest
rate, 16.1 percent. A total of 237 areas had April jobless rates below the U.S. rate
of 5.7 percent, 143 areas had rates above it, and 9 areas had rates equal to that
of the nation. (See table 1.)

The largest over-the-year unemployment rate decreases occurred in Elkhart-Goshen,
IN (-27.8 percentage points), and Kokomo, IN (-24.9 points). Rates fell over the
year by at least 15.0 percentage points in an additional 25 areas.

Of the 51 metropolitan areas with a 2010 Census population of 1 million or more,
Birmingham-Hoover, AL, and Salt Lake City, UT, had the lowest jobless rates among
the large areas, 2.7 percent and 2.9 percent, respectively. Los Angeles-Long Beach-
Anaheim, CA, had the highest unemployment rate in April, 9.9 percent, followed by
Las Vegas-Henderson-Paradise, NV, 9.0 percent. All 51 large areas had over-the-year
unemployment rate decreases. The largest jobless rate declines were in Las Vegas-
Henderson-Paradise, NV (-24.3 percentage points); Detroit-Warren-Dearborn, MI
(-20.9 points); and Cleveland-Elyria, OH (-17.2 points).

Metropolitan Division Unemployment (Not Seasonally Adjusted)

Eleven of the most populous metropolitan areas are made up of 38 metropolitan
divisions, which are essentially separately identifiable employment centers. In 
April, Nashua, NH-MA, had the lowest division unemployment rate, 2.8 percent. Los
Angeles-Long Beach-Glendale, CA, had the highest rate among the divisions, 11.0
percent. (See table 2.)

In April, all 38 metropolitan divisions had over-the-year unemployment rate
decreases. Detroit-Dearborn-Livonia, MI, had the largest rate decline (-21.3
percentage points), followed by Warren-Troy-Farmington Hills, MI (-20.7 points).
The smallest rate decreases occurred in Silver Spring-Frederick-Rockville, MD (-2.3
percentage points), and Miami-Miami Beach-Kendall, FL (-3.4 points).

Metropolitan Area Nonfarm Employment (Not Seasonally Adjusted)

In April, 335 metropolitan areas had over-the-year increases in nonfarm payroll 
employment and 54 were essentially unchanged. The largest over-the-year employment
increases occurred in New York-Newark-Jersey City, NY-NJ-PA (+966,700), Los Angeles-
Long Beach-Anaheim, CA (+431,600), and Detroit-Warren-Dearborn, MI (+378,800). The
largest over-the-year percentage gains in employment occurred in Elkhart-Goshen,
IN (+52.8 percent), Ocean City, NJ (+46.7 percent), and Atlantic City-Hammonton,
NJ (+31.5 percent). (See table 3.)

Over the year, nonfarm employment increased in all metropolitan areas with a 2010
Census population of 1 million or more. The largest over-the-year percentage
increases in employment in these large metropolitan areas occurred in Detroit-Warren-
Dearborn, MI (+25.2 percent), Las Vegas-Henderson-Paradise, NV (+19.3 percent),
and Buffalo-Cheektowaga-Niagara Falls, NY (+18.7 percent). 

Metropolitan Division Nonfarm Employment (Not Seasonally Adjusted)

In April, nonfarm payroll employment increased in all 38 metropolitan divisions.
The largest over-the-year increase in employment among the metropolitan divisions
occurred in New York-Jersey City-White Plains, NY-NJ (+664,400), followed by Los
Angeles-Long Beach-Glendale, CA (+295,300), and Warren-Troy-Farmington Hills, MI
(+252,000). (See table 4.)

The largest over-the-year percentage increases in employment occurred in Warren-
Troy-Farmington Hills, MI (+27.4 percent), Detroit-Dearborn-Livonia, MI (+21.7 
percent), and Haverhill-Newburyport-Amesbury Town, MA-NH (+21.4 percent).

_____________
The State Employment and Unemployment news release for May is scheduled to be
released on Wednesday, June 23, 2021, at 10:00 a.m. (ET). The Metropolitan Area
Employment and Unemployment news release for May is scheduled to be released
on Wednesday, June 30, 2021, at 10:00 a.m. (ET).


 ______________________________________________________________________________________
|										       |
|                 Coronavirus (COVID-19) Pandemic Impact on April 2021                 |
|                       Establishment and Household Survey Data			       |
|										       |
| BLS has continued to review all estimation and methodological procedures for the     |
| establishment survey, which included the review of data, estimation processes,       |
| the application of the birth-death model, and seasonal adjustment. Business 	       |
| births and deaths cannot be adequately captured by the establishment survey as       |
| they occur. Therefore, the Current Employment Statistics (CES) program uses a	       |
| model to account for the relatively stable net employment change generated by	       |
| business births and deaths. Due to the impact of COVID-19, the relationship	       |
| between business births and deaths is no longer stable. Typically, reports with      |
| zero employment are not included in estimation. For the March final and April	       |
| preliminary estimates, CES included a portion of these reports in the estimates      |
| and made modifications to the birth-death model. In addition for both months, the    |
| establishment survey included a portion of the reports that returned to reporting    |
| positive employment from reporting zero employment. For more information, see	       |
| www.bls.gov/web/empsit/cesbd.htm.						       |
|										       |
| In the establishment survey, workers who are paid by their employer for all or       |
| any part of the pay period including the 12th of the month are counted as employed,  |
| even if they were not actually at their jobs. Workers who are temporarily or	       |
| permanently absent from their jobs and are not being paid are not counted as	       |
| employed, even if they are continuing to receive benefits. The length of the 	       |
| reference period does vary across the respondents in the establishment survey;       |
| one-third of businesses have a weekly pay period, slightly over 40 percent a	       |
| bi-weekly, about 20 percent semi-monthly, and a small amount monthly.		       |
|										       |
| For the April 2021 estimates of household employment and unemployment from the       |
| Local Area Unemployment Statistics (LAUS) program, BLS continued to implement	       |
| level-shift outliers in the employment and/or unemployment inputs to the state       |
| models, based on statistical evaluation of movements in each area's inputs. Both     |
| the Current Population Survey inputs, which serve as the primary inputs to the       |
| LAUS models, and the nonfarm payroll employment and unemployment insurance claims    |
| covariates were examined for outliers. The resulting implementation of level	       |
| shifts preserved movements in the published estimates that the models otherwise      |
| would have discounted, without requiring changes to how the models create 	       |
| estimates at other points in the time series.					       |
|										       |
| The "Frequently asked questions" document at www.bls.gov/covid19/employment-	       |
| situation-covid19-faq-april-2021.htm extensively discusses the impact of a 	       |
| misclassification in the household survey on the national estimates for April	       |
| 2021. Despite the considerable decline in its degree relative to prior months,       |
| this misclassification continued to be widespread geographically, with BLS	       |
| analysis indicating that most states again were affected to at least some extent.    |
| However, according to usual practice, the data from the household survey are	       |
| accepted as recorded. To maintain data integrity, no ad hoc actions are taken	       |
| to reclassify survey responses. Hence, the household survey estimates of employed    |
| and unemployed people that serve as the primary inputs to the state models were      |
| affected to varying degrees by the misclassification, which in turn affected	       |
| the official LAUS estimates for April 2021. Similar misclassifications had	       |
| occurred in the household survey from March 2020 through March 2021 (see 	       |
| www.bls.gov/covid19/effects-of-covid-19-pandemic-and-response-on-the-employment-     |
| situation-news-release.htm#summaries).					       |
|										       |
| Household data for substate areas are controlled to the employment and unemployment  |
| totals for their respective model-based areas. Hence, the preliminary April and      |
| revised March estimates for substate areas reflect the use of level-shift 	       |
| outliers, where implemented, in the inputs for their model-based control areas.      |
| The substate area estimates also were impacted by misclassification in the 	       |
| household survey, in proportion to the impacts of the misclassifications on the      |
| data for their model-based control areas.					       |
|										       |
| Household data for Puerto Rico are not modeled, but rather are derived from a	       |
| monthly household survey similar to the Current Population Survey. The Puerto	       |
| Rico Department of Labor has reported a misclassification in its household survey    |
| since May 2020 similar in nature to the misclassification in the Current 	       |
| Population Survey, which has affected the local area data proportionally.	       |
|______________________________________________________________________________________|




Technical Note
 
   Special technical note: This technical note describes the procedures regularly
used on a monthly basis to develop estimates from the CES survey and the LAUS
program. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, some of the procedures described in this
technical note have been modified. The modifications are briefly described in the
box note of this news release. More information on the changes to the CES business
birth-death model is available at www.bls.gov/web/empsit/cesbd.htm.
   
   This news release presents civilian labor force and unemployment data from the
Local Area Unemployment Statistics (LAUS) program (tables 1 and 2) for 389
metropolitan statistical areas and metropolitan New England City and Town Areas
(NECTAs), plus 7 areas in Puerto Rico. Estimates for 38 metropolitan and NECTA
divisions also are presented. Nonfarm payroll employment estimates from the
Current Employment Statistics (CES) program (tables 3 and 4) are provided for
the same areas. State estimates were previously published in the news release
State Employment and Unemployment, and are republished in this news release for
ease of reference. The LAUS and CES programs are both federal-state cooperative
endeavors.

Civilian labor force and unemployment--from the LAUS program

   Definitions. The civilian labor force and unemployment data are based on the
same concepts and definitions as those used for the official national estimates
obtained from the Current Population Survey (CPS), a sample survey of households
that is conducted for the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) by the U.S. Census
Bureau. The LAUS program measures employed persons and unemployed persons on a
place-of-residence basis.  The universe for each is the civilian noninstitutional
population 16 years of age and older. Employed persons are those who did any work
at all for pay or profit in the reference week (typically the week including the
12th of the month) or worked 15 hours or more without pay in a family business or
farm, plus those not working who had a job from which they were temporarily absent,
whether or not paid, for such reasons as labor-management dispute, illness, or
vacation. Unemployed persons are those who were not employed during the reference
week (based on the definition above), had actively looked for a job sometime in the
4-week period ending with the reference week, and were currently available for work;
persons on layoff expecting recall need not be looking for work to be counted as
unemployed. The civilian labor force is the sum of employed and unemployed persons.
The unemployment rate is the number of unemployed as a percent of the civilian labor
force.

   Method of estimation. Estimates for states, the District of Columbia, the Los
Angeles-Long Beach-Glendale metropolitan division, and New York City are produced
using time-series models with real-time benchmarking to national CPS totals. Model-
based estimates are also produced for the following areas and their respective
balances: the Chicago-Naperville-Arlington Heights, IL Metropolitan Division;
Cleveland-Elyria, OH Metropolitan Statistical Area; Detroit-Warren-Dearborn, MI
Metropolitan Statistical Area; Miami-Miami Beach-Kendall, FL Metropolitan Division;
and Seattle-Bellevue-Everett, WA Metropolitan Division. Modeling improves the
statistical basis of the estimation for these areas and provides important tools
for analysis, such as measures of errors and seasonally adjusted series. For all
other substate areas in this news release, estimates are prepared through indirect
estimation procedures using a building-block approach.  Estimates of employed
persons, which are based largely on “place of work” estimates from the CES program,
are adjusted to refer to place of residence as used in the CPS. Unemployment
estimates are aggregates of persons previously employed in industries covered by
state unemployment insurance (UI) laws and entrants to the labor force from the
CPS. The substate estimates of employment and unemployment, which geographically
exhaust the entire state, are adjusted proportionally to ensure that they add to
the independently estimated model-based area totals. A detailed description of the
estimation procedures is available from BLS upon request.

   Annual revisions. Civilian labor force and unemployment data shown for the prior
year reflect adjustments made at the beginning of each year, usually implemented with
the issuance of January estimates. The adjusted model-based estimates typically reflect
updated population data from the U.S. Census Bureau, any revisions in other input
data sources, and model re-estimation. All substate estimates then are re-estimated
using updated inputs and adjusted to add to the revised model-based totals. In early
2021, a new generation of time-series models was implemented, resulting in the
replacement of data back to the series beginnings.

Employment--from the CES program 

   Definitions. Employment data refer to persons on establishment payrolls who receive
pay for any part of the pay period that includes the 12th of the month. Persons are
counted at their place of work rather than at their place of residence; those appearing
on more than one payroll are counted on each payroll. Industries are classified on the
basis of their principal activity in accordance with the 2017 version of the North
American Industry Classification System.

   Method of estimation. CES State and Area employment data are produced using several
estimation procedures. Where possible these data are produced using a "weighted link
relative" estimation technique in which a ratio of current-month weighted employment
to that of the previous-month weighted employment is computed from a sample of
establishments reporting for both months. The estimates of employment for the current
month are then obtained by multiplying these ratios by the previous month's employment
estimates. The weighted link relative technique is utilized for data series where the
sample size meets certain statistical criteria.

   For some employment series, the sample of establishments is very small or highly
variable. In these cases, a model-based approach is used in estimation. These models
use the direct sample estimates (described above), combined with forecasts of historical
(benchmarked) data to decrease volatility in estimation. Two different models
(Fay-Herriot Model and Small Domain Model) are used depending on the industry level
being estimated. For more detailed information about each model, refer to the BLS
Handbook of Methods.

   Annual revisions.  Employment estimates are adjusted annually to a complete count
of jobs, called benchmarks, derived principally from tax reports that are submitted by
employers who are covered under state unemployment insurance (UI) laws. The benchmark
information is used to adjust the monthly estimates between the new benchmark and the
preceding one and also to establish the level of employment for the new benchmark month.
Thus, the benchmarking process establishes the level of employment, and the sample is used
to measure the month-to-month changes in the level for the subsequent months.

   Seasonal adjustment. Payroll employment data are seasonally adjusted for states,
metropolitan areas, and metropolitan divisions at the total nonfarm level. For states,
data are seasonally adjusted at the supersector level as well. Revisions to historical
data for the most recent 5 years are made once a year, coincident with annual benchmark
adjustments.

   Payroll employment data are seasonally adjusted concurrently, using all available
estimates including those for the current month, to develop sample-based seasonal factors.
Concurrent sample-based factors are created every month for the current month's preliminary
estimate as well as the previous month's final estimate.

Reliability of the estimates

   The estimates presented in this news release are based on sample surveys, administrative data,
and modeling and, thus, are subject to sampling and other types of errors. Sampling error
is a measure of sampling variability—that is, variation that occurs by chance because a
sample rather than the entire population is surveyed. Survey data also are subject to
nonsampling errors, such as those which can be introduced into the data collection and
processing operations. Estimates not directly derived from sample surveys are subject to
additional errors resulting from the specific estimation processes used. The sums of
individual items may not always equal the totals shown in the same tables because of
rounding.

Use of error measures

   Civilian labor force and unemployment estimates. Measures of sampling error are not
available for metropolitan areas or metropolitan divisions. Model-based error measures for
states are available on the BLS website at www.bls.gov/laus/lastderr.htm. Measures of
nonsampling error are not available for the areas contained in this news release. Information
on recent data revisions for states and local areas is available online at
www.bls.gov/lau/launews1.htm.

   Employment estimates. Changes in metropolitan area nonfarm payroll employment are cited
in the analysis of this news release only if they have been determined to be statistically
significant at the 90-percent confidence level.  Measures of sampling error for the total
nonfarm employment series are available for metropolitan areas and metropolitan divisions
at www.bls.gov/web/laus/790stderr.htm. Measures of sampling error for more detailed series
at the area and division level are available upon request. Measures of sampling error for
states  at the supersector level and for the private service-providing, goods-producing,
total private and total nonfarm levels are available on the BLS website at 
www.bls.gov/web/laus/790stderr.htm. Information on recent benchmark revisions
is available online at www.bls.gov/web/laus/benchmark.pdf.

Area definitions

   The substate area data published in this news release reflect the delineations issued by the
U.S. Office of Management and Budget on April 10, 2018. Data reflect New England City and
Town Area (NECTA) definitions, rather than county-based definitions, in the six New England
States. A detailed list of the geographic definitions is available online at
www.bls.gov/lau/lausmsa.htm.

Additional information

   Estimates of unadjusted and seasonally adjusted civilian labor force and unemployment
data for states and seven substate areas are available in the news release State Employment
and Unemployment. Estimates of civilian labor force and unemployment for all states,
metropolitan areas, counties, cities with a population of 25,000 or more, and other areas
used in the administration of various federal economic assistance programs are available
on the Internet at www.bls.gov/lau/. Employment data from the CES program are available on
the BLS website at www.bls.gov/sae/.

   Information in this news release will be made available to sensory impaired individuals
upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay Service: (800) 877-8339. 




LABOR FORCE DATA
NOT SEASONALLY ADJUSTED

Table 1. Civilian labor force and unemployment by state and metropolitan area
State and area Civilian labor force Unemployed
March April Number Percent of labor force
2020 2021 2020 2021(p) March April March April
2020 2021 2020 2021(p) 2020 2021 2020 2021(p)

Alabama

2,227,126 2,213,954 2,175,494 2,222,921 61,666 75,788 276,037 65,164 2.8 3.4 12.7 2.9

Anniston-Oxford-Jacksonville

45,990 45,771 46,591 46,148 1,475 1,854 8,253 1,611 3.2 4.1 17.7 3.5

Auburn-Opelika

75,701 75,849 71,495 76,616 1,935 2,080 8,826 1,751 2.6 2.7 12.3 2.3

Birmingham-Hoover

547,477 547,422 532,681 549,844 13,683 17,259 61,032 15,040 2.5 3.2 11.5 2.7

Daphne-Fairhope-Foley

96,986 96,447 94,023 98,523 2,418 2,908 13,632 2,497 2.5 3.0 14.5 2.5

Decatur

73,053 73,322 71,759 73,565 1,723 1,940 7,320 1,662 2.4 2.6 10.2 2.3

Dothan

63,576 63,355 61,345 63,851 1,753 2,065 5,914 1,775 2.8 3.3 9.6 2.8

Florence-Muscle Shoals

65,774 64,886 64,635 65,207 1,967 2,195 9,466 1,876 3.0 3.4 14.6 2.9

Gadsden

41,527 39,268 40,856 39,515 1,559 1,587 7,825 1,363 3.8 4.0 19.2 3.4

Huntsville

232,161 235,321 223,592 236,056 5,368 6,124 22,398 5,245 2.3 2.6 10.0 2.2

Mobile

188,033 186,411 188,676 187,655 6,547 9,026 26,809 7,779 3.5 4.8 14.2 4.1

Montgomery

171,888 169,476 169,441 171,078 4,816 7,098 22,739 6,199 2.8 4.2 13.4 3.6

Tuscaloosa

118,627 113,393 112,391 114,118 3,004 4,130 19,186 3,591 2.5 3.6 17.1 3.1

Alaska

349,989 344,975 341,223 350,453 21,832 25,490 42,175 26,458 6.2 7.4 12.4 7.5

Anchorage

197,073 195,769 193,483 198,915 10,982 13,817 24,742 14,356 5.6 7.1 12.8 7.2

Fairbanks

45,115 43,987 43,589 45,170 2,367 2,553 4,364 2,634 5.2 5.8 10.0 5.8

Arizona

3,585,541 3,599,372 3,523,144 3,607,237 186,149 231,829 499,744 230,441 5.2 6.4 14.2 6.4

Flagstaff

77,285 74,463 73,402 75,509 5,273 5,972 13,374 5,667 6.8 8.0 18.2 7.5

Lake Havasu City-Kingman

87,760 88,749 89,892 88,935 5,723 6,272 18,292 6,376 6.5 7.1 20.3 7.2

Phoenix-Mesa-Scottsdale

2,526,025 2,549,883 2,483,098 2,558,892 116,275 155,844 334,249 153,594 4.6 6.1 13.5 6.0

Prescott

106,658 108,886 105,257 109,247 5,266 6,025 16,711 6,017 4.9 5.5 15.9 5.5

Sierra Vista-Douglas

52,122 52,566 50,687 52,643 3,159 3,105 5,965 3,150 6.1 5.9 11.8 6.0

Tucson

500,907 499,062 492,397 498,984 25,025 33,056 68,383 32,684 5.0 6.6 13.9 6.6

Yuma

102,359 95,250 99,665 94,855 14,547 10,752 24,880 12,379 14.2 11.3 25.0 13.1

Arkansas

1,367,760 1,359,037 1,367,099 1,365,153 57,100 64,627 132,291 56,479 4.2 4.8 9.7 4.1

Fayetteville-Springdale-Rogers

287,777 290,297 282,448 293,920 8,475 10,109 21,409 8,495 2.9 3.5 7.6 2.9

Fort Smith

117,737 119,229 118,580 120,306 4,740 5,790 12,855 5,173 4.0 4.9 10.8 4.3

Hot Springs

41,923 41,385 40,882 41,971 1,760 2,516 6,144 2,202 4.2 6.1 15.0 5.2

Jonesboro

66,660 65,893 65,287 66,671 2,300 2,670 5,658 2,273 3.5 4.1 8.7 3.4

Little Rock-North Little Rock-Conway

358,344 352,669 358,966 357,242 14,208 17,399 37,191 15,683 4.0 4.9 10.4 4.4

Pine Bluff

34,458 34,932 34,659 35,143 2,110 2,383 3,335 2,158 6.1 6.8 9.6 6.1

California

19,167,207 18,911,292 18,451,970 18,812,393 974,161 1,549,839 2,944,524 1,519,999 5.1 8.2 16.0 8.1

Bakersfield

386,184 368,230 374,498 372,662 42,450 40,752 69,695 40,060 11.0 11.1 18.6 10.7

Chico

97,618 92,607 92,137 91,479 5,947 6,872 14,690 6,516 6.1 7.4 15.9 7.1

El Centro

72,740 65,076 72,869 64,910 14,586 10,191 20,854 10,459 20.1 15.7 28.6 16.1

Fresno

456,060 439,075 445,117 436,728 44,876 43,451 76,241 42,068 9.8 9.9 17.1 9.6

Hanford-Corcoran

58,171 55,131 57,166 54,668 6,572 5,795 9,658 5,571 11.3 10.5 16.9 10.2

Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim

6,539,772 6,653,903 6,284,639 6,646,549 329,070 660,790 1,086,479 657,894 5.0 9.9 17.3 9.9

Madera

62,882 61,687 59,914 60,166 6,023 5,837 10,435 5,688 9.6 9.5 17.4 9.5

Merced

118,777 115,196 116,892 114,068 13,756 13,136 21,592 12,461 11.6 11.4 18.5 10.9

Modesto

244,322 239,563 240,047 237,755 18,505 20,949 41,399 20,449 7.6 8.7 17.2 8.6

Napa

71,732 68,469 66,343 67,727 2,666 4,448 11,789 4,234 3.7 6.5 17.8 6.3

Oxnard-Thousand Oaks-Ventura

421,354 406,447 404,736 405,165 17,864 25,812 58,679 25,041 4.2 6.4 14.5 6.2

Redding

73,347 73,365 72,463 72,533 4,524 5,471 11,402 5,107 6.2 7.5 15.7 7.0

Riverside-San Bernardino-Ontario

2,091,475 2,089,076 2,023,574 2,064,855 96,058 160,012 307,106 157,605 4.6 7.7 15.2 7.6

Sacramento--Roseville--Arden-Arcade

1,102,083 1,089,510 1,070,490 1,078,951 47,342 74,128 153,962 71,690 4.3 6.8 14.4 6.6

Salinas

214,867 206,682 215,561 215,598 23,969 21,634 41,183 18,566 11.2 10.5 19.1 8.6

San Diego-Carlsbad

1,573,622 1,533,968 1,512,665 1,517,505 59,209 104,363 240,383 102,072 3.8 6.8 15.9 6.7

San Francisco-Oakland-Hayward

2,564,034 2,442,957 2,433,670 2,419,503 81,028 143,747 334,366 140,842 3.2 5.9 13.7 5.8

San Jose-Sunnyvale-Santa Clara

1,078,812 1,042,431 1,039,827 1,034,827 33,697 53,657 128,668 52,274 3.1 5.1 12.4 5.1

San Luis Obispo-Paso Robles-Arroyo Grande

138,870 129,796 129,536 128,262 4,860 7,541 19,214 7,175 3.5 5.8 14.8 5.6

Santa Cruz-Watsonville

139,057 129,751 132,150 129,380 10,258 10,587 23,211 10,024 7.4 8.2 17.6 7.7

Santa Maria-Santa Barbara

222,676 214,439 214,288 216,282 10,979 14,096 29,940 12,949 4.9 6.6 14.0 6.0

Santa Rosa

254,505 240,879 240,967 238,274 8,496 14,307 37,133 13,652 3.3 5.9 15.4 5.7

Stockton-Lodi

330,476 333,389 329,544 328,124 24,736 30,414 58,835 29,470 7.5 9.1 17.9 9.0

Vallejo-Fairfield

206,981 201,954 200,434 199,250 9,474 15,488 31,533 15,058 4.6 7.7 15.7 7.6

Visalia-Porterville

206,179 193,644 201,485 196,851 27,193 22,455 37,561 21,743 13.2 11.6 18.6 11.0

Yuba City

77,312 72,928 76,251 73,014 7,197 7,316 13,123 6,835 9.3 10.0 17.2 9.4

Colorado

3,079,676 3,155,812 2,959,510 3,182,651 153,311 205,805 360,423 200,310 5.0 6.5 12.2 6.3

Boulder

193,451 195,450 182,720 196,350 7,876 10,842 18,337 10,348 4.1 5.5 10.0 5.3

Colorado Springs

351,891 362,538 337,927 367,394 20,199 24,344 42,506 23,788 5.7 6.7 12.6 6.5

Denver-Aurora-Lakewood

1,644,922 1,686,532 1,589,323 1,707,025 78,692 112,280 196,528 109,665 4.8 6.7 12.4 6.4

Fort Collins

200,202 206,709 191,968 209,231 8,864 12,084 21,839 11,443 4.4 5.8 11.4 5.5

Grand Junction

75,042 75,778 71,326 76,273 4,854 5,452 9,123 5,188 6.5 7.2 12.8 6.8

Greeley

164,607 167,346 159,436 168,829 7,952 11,414 15,957 10,891 4.8 6.8 10.0 6.5

Pueblo

76,877 77,928 73,586 78,535 5,327 6,663 8,351 6,744 6.9 8.6 11.3 8.6

Connecticut

1,903,646 1,723,503 1,805,067 1,740,468 80,956 142,105 151,084 131,871 4.3 8.2 8.4 7.6

Bridgeport-Stamford-Norwalk

461,632 415,202 432,816 420,754 19,871 34,756 35,937 31,702 4.3 8.4 8.3 7.5

Danbury

105,914 95,163 98,558 96,434 3,990 6,924 8,147 6,335 3.8 7.3 8.3 6.6

Hartford-West Hartford-East Hartford

630,237 570,152 605,783 574,991 26,386 46,632 48,089 44,031 4.2 8.2 7.9 7.7

New Haven

330,140 304,929 316,037 308,466 13,152 23,285 23,583 21,953 4.0 7.6 7.5 7.1

Norwich-New London-Westerly

139,270 125,295 127,519 125,406 6,201 11,544 18,028 10,465 4.5 9.2 14.1 8.3

Waterbury

111,341 102,971 105,164 103,704 6,093 10,291 9,904 9,478 5.5 10.0 9.4 9.1

Delaware

482,043 490,936 473,726 489,695 25,293 32,463 63,108 29,868 5.2 6.6 13.3 6.1

Dover

79,448 80,454 79,510 80,138 4,632 5,986 11,360 5,621 5.8 7.4 14.3 7.0

Salisbury(1)

188,235 189,863 178,372 190,543 11,928 13,183 25,895 11,679 6.3 6.9 14.5 6.1

District of Columbia

420,428 403,594 405,479 401,028 22,944 27,975 42,947 26,493 5.5 6.9 10.6 6.6

Washington-Arlington-Alexandria

3,508,530 3,331,047 3,376,600 3,325,898 111,125 185,832 318,911 166,351 3.2 5.6 9.4 5.0

Florida

10,566,114 10,271,525 9,717,870 10,357,312 531,061 542,176 1,348,861 532,443 5.0 5.3 13.9 5.1

Cape Coral-Fort Myers

364,016 355,083 331,925 356,048 18,830 16,399 49,878 16,510 5.2 4.6 15.0 4.6

Crestview-Fort Walton Beach-Destin

131,770 132,627 122,079 133,373 5,831 5,298 17,072 5,061 4.4 4.0 14.0 3.8

Deltona-Daytona Beach-Ormond Beach

311,485 302,727 286,365 303,122 18,345 15,480 43,399 15,770 5.9 5.1 15.2 5.2

Gainesville

150,162 148,627 135,343 150,485 6,943 5,972 12,422 6,007 4.6 4.0 9.2 4.0

Homosassa Springs

48,742 48,839 44,820 48,749 3,808 3,130 6,932 3,018 7.8 6.4 15.5 6.2

Jacksonville

803,316 800,334 736,713 806,799 41,586 35,355 84,996 35,285 5.2 4.4 11.5 4.4

Lakeland-Winter Haven

320,814 324,471 308,041 326,274 19,071 18,056 43,625 18,812 5.9 5.6 14.2 5.8

Miami-Fort Lauderdale-West Palm Beach

3,159,869 3,044,863 2,866,593 3,080,068 133,330 194,413 384,520 180,691 4.2 6.4 13.4 5.9

Naples-Immokalee-Marco Island

189,817 187,651 167,457 188,279 9,232 7,423 23,909 7,159 4.9 4.0 14.3 3.8

North Port-Sarasota-Bradenton

380,253 374,294 344,711 376,723 19,521 16,535 50,121 16,202 5.1 4.4 14.5 4.3

Ocala

143,537 143,569 132,993 144,568 8,954 7,786 16,714 7,830 6.2 5.4 12.6 5.4

Orlando-Kissimmee-Sanford

1,395,686 1,270,102 1,319,038 1,285,407 71,463 69,011 234,008 71,420 5.1 5.4 17.7 5.6

Palm Bay-Melbourne-Titusville

290,746 289,925 271,094 291,900 15,223 13,003 35,774 13,022 5.2 4.5 13.2 4.5

Panama City

91,265 91,631 83,330 92,202 4,548 4,145 11,188 4,075 5.0 4.5 13.4 4.4

Pensacola-Ferry Pass-Brent

235,825 235,376 218,140 236,735 12,100 10,680 25,952 10,656 5.1 4.5 11.9 4.5

Port St. Lucie

228,496 225,088 207,799 227,767 13,597 10,957 28,830 11,212 6.0 4.9 13.9 4.9

Punta Gorda

74,827 73,529 68,093 73,490 4,324 3,666 10,379 3,534 5.8 5.0 15.2 4.8

Sebastian-Vero Beach

68,049 66,485 61,964 66,644 4,104 3,431 8,874 3,558 6.0 5.2 14.3 5.3

Sebring

36,748 36,053 32,968 36,100 2,766 2,233 3,748 2,280 7.5 6.2 11.4 6.3

Tallahassee

198,559 195,751 179,477 196,494 10,210 9,028 15,732 9,078 5.1 4.6 8.8 4.6

Tampa-St. Petersburg-Clearwater

1,608,157 1,593,655 1,496,603 1,606,230 87,928 74,011 207,400 75,091 5.5 4.6 13.9 4.7

The Villages

34,598 32,834 30,935 32,663 2,589 2,155 3,967 2,029 7.5 6.6 12.8 6.2

Georgia

5,201,099 5,174,762 4,950,530 5,170,111 192,874 208,569 602,733 196,478 3.7 4.0 12.2 3.8

Albany

67,544 66,358 64,372 66,576 2,988 3,557 7,220 3,300 4.4 5.4 11.2 5.0

Athens-Clarke County

100,407 98,536 94,572 98,934 3,448 3,325 10,568 3,106 3.4 3.4 11.2 3.1

Atlanta-Sandy Springs-Roswell

3,136,377 3,106,520 2,980,616 3,116,379 115,140 126,882 376,241 120,581 3.7 4.1 12.6 3.9

Augusta-Richmond County

271,696 272,332 260,051 271,964 9,737 11,260 26,409 10,395 3.6 4.1 10.2 3.8

Brunswick

52,224 53,248 49,223 52,714 1,812 2,041 7,532 1,919 3.5 3.8 15.3 3.6

Columbus

125,174 123,012 120,608 122,509 4,916 5,579 14,314 5,079 3.9 4.5 11.9 4.1

Dalton

59,631 59,970 60,036 59,603 2,437 2,381 11,863 2,360 4.1 4.0 19.8 4.0

Gainesville

104,362 104,729 99,570 104,468 2,875 2,799 10,355 2,641 2.8 2.7 10.4 2.5

Hinesville

34,697 34,763 33,070 34,857 1,326 1,344 3,270 1,203 3.8 3.9 9.9 3.5

Macon-Bibb County

103,922 104,382 98,917 103,996 4,088 4,754 11,105 4,430 3.9 4.6 11.2 4.3

Rome

44,038 44,361 42,770 44,466 1,622 1,646 5,886 1,556 3.7 3.7 13.8 3.5

Savannah

196,679 198,330 186,260 198,812 6,881 8,051 27,541 7,720 3.5 4.1 14.8 3.9

Valdosta

65,370 66,084 62,425 66,170 2,492 2,595 6,097 2,517 3.8 3.9 9.8 3.8

Warner Robins

88,334 88,789 83,243 88,927 3,011 3,355 8,206 2,957 3.4 3.8 9.9 3.3

Hawaii

670,957 652,552 636,024 653,202 14,196 56,542 139,050 52,991 2.1 8.7 21.9 8.1

Kahului-Wailuku-Lahaina

87,053 80,830 84,845 81,015 1,817 9,941 27,900 9,281 2.1 12.3 32.9 11.5

Urban Honolulu

455,618 448,923 428,667 448,730 9,126 34,607 80,654 32,346 2.0 7.7 18.8 7.2

Idaho

884,713 894,325 868,898 900,334 29,288 36,018 100,962 30,181 3.3 4.0 11.6 3.4

Boise City

380,060 381,841 372,627 383,214 10,831 14,376 45,391 12,495 2.8 3.8 12.2 3.3

Coeur d'Alene

79,596 81,701 80,320 81,602 3,542 4,362 13,205 3,178 4.4 5.3 16.4 3.9

Idaho Falls

72,086 74,900 70,102 75,300 2,012 2,408 5,601 2,005 2.8 3.2 8.0 2.7

Lewiston

31,318 31,295 30,877 31,740 1,139 1,224 3,148 1,090 3.6 3.9 10.2 3.4

Pocatello

42,712 43,832 41,095 44,038 1,362 1,658 3,957 1,411 3.2 3.8 9.6 3.2

Twin Falls

53,280 52,852 52,401 53,247 1,673 2,056 5,458 1,748 3.1 3.9 10.4 3.3

Illinois

6,307,742 6,102,774 5,964,800 6,155,621 253,673 433,143 970,481 434,308 4.0 7.1 16.3 7.1

Bloomington

92,787 88,644 86,843 89,314 2,966 4,411 11,239 4,321 3.2 5.0 12.9 4.8

Carbondale-Marion

58,822 57,285 56,630 57,777 2,153 3,435 9,892 3,275 3.7 6.0 17.5 5.7

Champaign-Urbana

124,163 123,829 116,400 124,996 3,692 6,094 12,772 6,062 3.0 4.9 11.0 4.8

Chicago-Naperville-Elgin

4,784,802 4,636,085 4,521,950 4,679,260 196,554 345,081 747,790 349,389 4.1 7.4 16.5 7.5

Danville

32,106 31,766 31,503 32,026 1,390 2,188 5,365 2,082 4.3 6.9 17.0 6.5

Davenport-Moline-Rock Island(1)

188,685 181,844 184,575 181,719 8,318 10,848 29,428 10,089 4.4 6.0 15.9 5.6

Decatur

46,528 45,092 44,496 45,651 2,398 3,869 6,873 3,629 5.2 8.6 15.4 7.9

Kankakee

54,190 51,243 51,384 51,270 2,679 3,822 8,312 3,513 4.9 7.5 16.2 6.9

Peoria

169,462 163,294 162,803 163,585 7,699 11,104 27,907 10,546 4.5 6.8 17.1 6.4

Rockford

158,555 152,704 157,903 152,490 8,440 12,289 35,520 14,804 5.3 8.0 22.5 9.7

Springfield

102,957 99,570 95,621 100,103 3,725 6,200 14,264 5,901 3.6 6.2 14.9 5.9

Indiana

3,313,299 3,295,778 3,198,078 3,327,059 123,603 153,244 528,808 139,684 3.7 4.6 16.5 4.2

Bloomington

79,791 77,371 74,185 77,610 2,902 3,200 7,432 2,693 3.6 4.1 10.0 3.5

Columbus

44,477 43,519 41,498 43,439 1,213 1,655 7,250 1,437 2.7 3.8 17.5 3.3

Elkhart-Goshen

109,792 113,516 100,845 113,500 3,383 3,920 31,075 3,412 3.1 3.5 30.8 3.0

Evansville

157,782 155,205 152,084 155,562 5,459 6,867 23,110 6,186 3.5 4.4 15.2 4.0

Fort Wayne

214,207 216,565 209,450 215,764 7,600 9,667 39,899 8,702 3.5 4.5 19.0 4.0

Indianapolis-Carmel-Anderson

1,059,372 1,063,220 1,009,070 1,067,283 35,042 48,190 129,564 44,442 3.3 4.5 12.8 4.2

Kokomo

35,570 34,555 41,837 34,624 1,627 2,049 12,972 2,118 4.6 5.9 31.0 6.1

Lafayette-West Lafayette

111,834 110,331 99,592 109,984 3,820 4,436 12,599 3,900 3.4 4.0 12.7 3.5

Michigan City-La Porte

46,336 46,762 47,675 46,819 2,330 3,109 9,623 2,828 5.0 6.6 20.2 6.0

Muncie

53,326 52,350 51,364 52,400 2,313 2,587 8,202 2,332 4.3 4.9 16.0 4.5

South Bend-Mishawaka

157,920 156,049 154,152 156,341 6,510 8,314 31,929 7,494 4.1 5.3 20.7 4.8

Terre Haute

71,821 69,844 70,305 69,783 3,397 3,782 11,132 3,482 4.7 5.4 15.8 5.0

Iowa

1,709,220 1,646,332 1,704,471 1,651,244 60,457 73,935 188,141 63,523 3.5 4.5 11.0 3.8

Ames

59,824 56,012 58,651 56,380 1,188 1,670 4,752 1,417 2.0 3.0 8.1 2.5

Cedar Rapids

146,343 138,592 145,986 138,916 5,621 7,416 18,570 6,409 3.8 5.4 12.7 4.6

Des Moines-West Des Moines

362,251 353,063 363,031 356,261 12,166 15,526 43,922 13,629 3.4 4.4 12.1 3.8

Dubuque

56,108 54,455 56,543 55,033 2,113 2,627 7,114 2,189 3.8 4.8 12.6 4.0

Iowa City

98,548 92,988 97,566 94,152 2,498 3,591 9,623 3,177 2.5 3.9 9.9 3.4

Sioux City

92,800 89,020 92,320 89,398 3,176 3,646 8,766 3,120 3.4 4.1 9.5 3.5

Waterloo-Cedar Falls

89,615 85,344 89,230 85,936 3,450 3,895 10,476 3,419 3.8 4.6 11.7 4.0

Kansas

1,487,454 1,506,301 1,476,015 1,498,390 52,338 57,593 184,383 50,642 3.5 3.8 12.5 3.4

Lawrence

64,968 64,662 63,804 65,352 2,140 2,404 8,030 2,094 3.3 3.7 12.6 3.2

Manhattan

47,355 46,409 45,804 46,495 1,382 1,463 4,014 1,205 2.9 3.2 8.8 2.6

Topeka

118,972 121,031 119,246 121,267 4,371 4,234 14,808 3,681 3.7 3.5 12.4 3.0

Wichita

319,164 320,804 329,942 318,668 12,525 17,003 62,715 15,472 3.9 5.3 19.0 4.9

Kentucky

2,071,046 1,981,508 2,078,415 1,982,425 100,710 99,575 347,938 75,878 4.9 5.0 16.7 3.8

Bowling Green

84,579 80,977 82,846 81,108 3,958 3,664 14,869 2,761 4.7 4.5 17.9 3.4

Elizabethtown-Fort Knox

67,210 63,051 69,100 63,241 3,341 3,142 13,202 2,540 5.0 5.0 19.1 4.0

Lexington-Fayette

274,067 264,003 274,163 264,645 10,430 11,459 43,374 8,395 3.8 4.3 15.8 3.2

Louisville/Jefferson County

671,134 650,425 669,137 650,262 27,362 30,253 112,477 25,405 4.1 4.7 16.8 3.9

Owensboro

54,872 52,264 54,668 52,098 2,437 2,550 8,403 1,855 4.4 4.9 15.4 3.6

Louisiana

2,146,472 2,059,354 2,033,649 2,060,371 113,933 135,972 259,225 136,010 5.3 6.6 12.7 6.6

Alexandria

64,491 63,359 61,162 63,199 3,480 3,081 5,250 2,785 5.4 4.9 8.6 4.4

Baton Rouge

429,374 418,240 401,199 417,177 21,201 24,132 47,024 24,332 4.9 5.8 11.7 5.8

Hammond

56,870 55,900 55,164 56,006 3,328 4,188 8,245 4,054 5.9 7.5 14.9 7.2

Houma-Thibodaux

90,078 87,983 86,555 87,657 4,480 5,243 9,466 4,886 5.0 6.0 10.9 5.6

Lafayette

218,106 210,944 207,421 209,777 11,404 13,405 23,380 12,445 5.2 6.4 11.3 5.9

Lake Charles

109,724 97,019 103,462 96,648 5,348 7,167 12,837 6,741 4.9 7.4 12.4 7.0

Monroe

81,010 78,472 75,398 78,416 4,807 4,877 7,773 4,556 5.9 6.2 10.3 5.8

New Orleans-Metairie

610,860 579,459 585,437 587,499 29,639 43,363 97,373 47,740 4.9 7.5 16.6 8.1

Shreveport-Bossier City

189,846 182,354 178,562 183,307 10,478 11,847 20,586 11,580 5.5 6.5 11.5 6.3

Maine

692,623 668,477 648,822 670,291 29,481 36,110 63,329 35,196 4.3 5.4 9.8 5.3

Bangor

71,806 68,298 67,417 68,273 2,924 3,352 6,071 3,345 4.1 4.9 9.0 4.9

Lewiston-Auburn

56,037 54,403 53,528 54,218 2,150 2,846 4,913 2,830 3.8 5.2 9.2 5.2

Portland-South Portland

208,652 198,680 195,427 200,321 7,507 9,457 19,569 9,280 3.6 4.8 10.0 4.6

Maryland

3,287,072 3,108,211 3,104,331 3,111,886 127,045 188,570 273,123 181,434 3.9 6.1 8.8 5.8

Baltimore-Columbia-Towson

1,533,411 1,456,087 1,448,348 1,456,622 58,947 83,898 129,806 79,233 3.8 5.8 9.0 5.4

California-Lexington Park

59,118 56,733 56,699 57,147 2,040 2,427 3,498 2,370 3.5 4.3 6.2 4.1

Cumberland

44,660 42,410 41,982 43,415 2,694 2,775 5,183 2,488 6.0 6.5 12.3 5.7

Hagerstown-Martinsburg

133,236 126,944 126,332 128,102 5,520 6,440 13,855 6,001 4.1 5.1 11.0 4.7

Massachusetts

3,712,130 3,703,116 3,382,826 3,701,234 116,907 243,726 550,084 219,081 3.1 6.6 16.3 5.9

Barnstable Town

115,961 119,719 106,813 121,192 5,895 10,059 22,818 8,328 5.1 8.4 21.4 6.9

Boston-Cambridge-Nashua

2,769,234 2,751,303 2,529,281 2,747,977 79,061 162,577 395,502 147,482 2.9 5.9 15.6 5.4

Leominster-Gardner

78,877 79,031 72,357 78,629 2,991 6,003 12,742 5,394 3.8 7.6 17.6 6.9

New Bedford

84,649 84,718 78,249 85,013 4,071 7,341 18,066 6,279 4.8 8.7 23.1 7.4

Pittsfield

40,363 40,656 37,087 40,154 1,726 3,485 6,917 3,071 4.3 8.6 18.7 7.6

Springfield

368,731 360,510 336,439 363,436 13,582 27,155 50,885 24,902 3.7 7.5 15.1 6.9

Worcester

355,689 349,040 325,517 348,276 12,120 23,432 47,857 20,890 3.4 6.7 14.7 6.0

Michigan

4,894,999 4,687,935 4,530,016 4,646,095 217,985 242,997 1,070,661 213,593 4.5 5.2 23.6 4.6

Ann Arbor

200,254 190,280 180,823 189,180 5,353 8,133 26,839 7,539 2.7 4.3 14.8 4.0

Battle Creek

61,787 60,013 59,697 59,436 2,574 3,825 14,465 3,542 4.2 6.4 24.2 6.0

Bay City

49,711 48,244 47,716 47,856 2,587 3,075 11,956 2,757 5.2 6.4 25.1 5.8

Detroit-Warren-Dearborn

2,138,004 2,017,127 1,913,920 1,992,220 103,866 91,025 470,539 73,680 4.9 4.5 24.6 3.7

Flint

179,316 175,043 174,414 174,885 8,815 12,458 53,874 11,966 4.9 7.1 30.9 6.8

Grand Rapids-Wyoming

581,842 563,503 544,296 559,201 17,381 26,542 114,137 23,591 3.0 4.7 21.0 4.2

Jackson

75,236 71,481 72,995 71,166 2,900 4,200 17,251 3,836 3.9 5.9 23.6 5.4

Kalamazoo-Portage

169,763 161,698 155,616 160,607 6,070 8,690 27,526 7,778 3.6 5.4 17.7 4.8

Lansing-East Lansing

251,087 236,641 232,929 235,071 8,374 11,877 44,039 12,921 3.3 5.0 18.9 5.5

Midland

39,556 38,777 37,675 38,794 1,742 2,002 7,467 1,731 4.4 5.2 19.8 4.5

Monroe

75,054 71,719 74,020 71,980 2,820 4,008 19,366 4,348 3.8 5.6 26.2 6.0

Muskegon

76,418 74,107 76,234 73,126 3,518 5,572 22,510 5,100 4.6 7.5 29.5 7.0

Niles-Benton Harbor

72,897 70,666 68,626 70,321 2,936 4,138 13,743 3,660 4.0 5.9 20.0 5.2

Saginaw

85,404 82,944 79,880 82,592 4,306 5,628 20,933 5,368 5.0 6.8 26.2 6.5

Minnesota

3,111,045 3,000,039 2,999,206 3,014,296 139,838 134,554 273,494 124,552 4.5 4.5 9.1 4.1

Duluth

144,282 140,345 141,127 140,434 8,094 6,962 18,523 6,737 5.6 5.0 13.1 4.8

Mankato-North Mankato

61,803 60,163 59,781 60,152 2,283 2,273 4,767 2,046 3.7 3.8 8.0 3.4

Minneapolis-St. Paul-Bloomington

2,040,801 1,964,021 1,958,894 1,975,473 81,333 84,189 190,902 80,995 4.0 4.3 9.7 4.1

Rochester

126,206 123,375 123,832 124,219 4,952 4,838 8,807 4,056 3.9 3.9 7.1 3.3

St. Cloud

113,125 110,629 110,901 110,868 5,535 5,463 9,599 4,867 4.9 4.9 8.7 4.4

Mississippi

1,281,468 1,264,301 1,213,416 1,273,203 79,363 78,085 186,761 74,208 6.2 6.2 15.4 5.8

Gulfport-Biloxi-Pascagoula

167,969 165,109 160,984 164,722 11,711 10,463 34,259 9,981 7.0 6.3 21.3 6.1

Hattiesburg

68,494 69,414 63,552 69,811 3,919 3,788 8,021 3,641 5.7 5.5 12.6 5.2

Jackson

266,804 262,594 249,853 265,039 15,993 14,754 36,114 14,001 6.0 5.6 14.5 5.3

Missouri

3,084,107 3,065,763 2,971,380 3,077,629 134,961 134,452 365,793 124,065 4.4 4.4 12.3 4.0

Cape Girardeau

48,361 47,868 46,150 48,133 2,058 1,870 5,518 1,651 4.3 3.9 12.0 3.4

Columbia

98,876 97,242 91,240 98,891 2,848 2,891 7,711 2,561 2.9 3.0 8.5 2.6

Jefferson City

75,111 75,589 72,502 76,248 2,729 2,424 5,815 2,026 3.6 3.2 8.0 2.7

Joplin

82,899 84,228 82,134 84,521 3,368 3,214 10,477 2,810 4.1 3.8 12.8 3.3

Kansas City

1,139,934 1,156,633 1,108,910 1,162,684 45,352 48,717 146,256 47,771 4.0 4.2 13.2 4.1

St. Joseph

62,925 62,486 61,087 62,648 2,546 2,323 5,337 1,954 4.0 3.7 8.7 3.1

St. Louis(2)

1,470,669 1,440,050 1,395,292 1,455,340 58,025 68,089 181,494 63,884 3.9 4.7 13.0 4.4

Springfield

236,504 238,773 226,349 240,293 8,966 8,497 26,131 7,322 3.8 3.6 11.5 3.0

Montana

539,456 530,088 538,926 535,361 25,551 23,387 64,616 20,465 4.7 4.4 12.0 3.8

Billings

88,937 86,481 88,829 87,635 3,660 3,542 10,037 3,069 4.1 4.1 11.3 3.5

Great Falls

38,132 36,848 37,620 37,228 1,606 1,587 4,714 1,364 4.2 4.3 12.5 3.7

Missoula

64,824 62,075 64,624 63,167 2,932 2,740 8,949 2,389 4.5 4.4 13.8 3.8

Nebraska

1,039,301 1,014,719 1,048,382 1,014,655 36,687 28,747 77,217 24,189 3.5 2.8 7.4 2.4

Grand Island

44,001 43,222 44,464 43,262 1,678 1,338 3,944 1,095 3.8 3.1 8.9 2.5

Lincoln

187,459 183,117 186,928 182,752 5,899 5,341 15,024 4,090 3.1 2.9 8.0 2.2

Omaha-Council Bluffs

494,276 482,968 498,267 483,584 18,239 15,870 43,438 13,787 3.7 3.3 8.7 2.9

Nevada

1,586,360 1,549,050 1,491,235 1,552,572 105,533 118,623 442,479 122,033 6.7 7.7 29.7 7.9

Carson City

26,675 27,253 25,001 27,157 1,835 1,408 5,219 1,482 6.9 5.2 20.9 5.5

Las Vegas-Henderson-Paradise

1,168,130 1,118,497 1,108,924 1,122,230 81,130 98,865 369,657 101,217 6.9 8.8 33.3 9.0

Reno

261,462 270,413 241,575 269,118 14,332 12,575 47,996 13,087 5.5 4.7 19.9 4.9

New Hampshire

766,392 749,468 728,134 743,532 24,141 23,691 117,573 20,026 3.1 3.2 16.1 2.7

Dover-Durham

86,205 84,866 80,835 84,193 2,439 2,847 11,584 2,426 2.8 3.4 14.3 2.9

Manchester

122,266 118,519 117,716 116,832 3,531 3,709 19,055 3,103 2.9 3.1 16.2 2.7

Portsmouth

76,811 75,531 71,525 75,812 2,214 2,587 10,118 2,201 2.9 3.4 14.1 2.9

New Jersey

4,560,340 4,439,157 4,439,001 4,397,265 189,899 346,824 729,319 315,274 4.2 7.8 16.4 7.2

Atlantic City-Hammonton

122,921 117,055 122,834 116,603 7,640 13,611 42,215 12,777 6.2 11.6 34.4 11.0

Ocean City

41,300 45,031 41,454 46,398 5,072 5,694 11,565 4,638 12.3 12.6 27.9 10.0

Trenton

206,544 203,824 202,023 200,700 7,345 12,797 22,685 11,445 3.6 6.3 11.2 5.7

Vineland-Bridgeton

66,428 65,111 66,976 64,651 4,424 6,175 11,360 5,403 6.7 9.5 17.0 8.4

New Mexico

955,595 947,280 904,428 949,776 52,848 75,222 88,126 72,626 5.5 7.9 9.7 7.6

Albuquerque

437,598 434,046 414,535 435,628 21,984 32,226 43,021 31,436 5.0 7.4 10.4 7.2

Farmington

51,173 49,679 48,748 49,802 3,517 4,785 5,421 4,433 6.9 9.6 11.1 8.9

Las Cruces

98,794 96,993 93,509 97,299 6,927 7,725 9,035 7,445 7.0 8.0 9.7 7.7

Santa Fe

72,779 70,712 67,213 70,811 3,215 5,285 7,345 5,119 4.4 7.5 10.9 7.2

New York

9,463,134 9,436,191 8,801,907 9,396,986 419,555 796,730 1,429,063 736,306 4.4 8.4 16.2 7.8

Albany-Schenectady-Troy

445,198 446,609 429,762 445,645 18,411 25,554 58,515 22,157 4.1 5.7 13.6 5.0

Binghamton

104,607 102,729 100,321 102,184 5,873 6,938 17,117 5,788 5.6 6.8 17.1 5.7

Buffalo-Cheektowaga-Niagara Falls

536,907 535,851 520,859 536,088 28,031 38,565 108,722 33,214 5.2 7.2 20.9 6.2

Elmira

35,377 34,602 34,444 34,283 1,733 2,375 6,124 2,069 4.9 6.9 17.8 6.0

Glens Falls

57,052 58,272 54,719 57,872 3,199 3,905 9,344 3,226 5.6 6.7 17.1 5.6

Ithaca

49,243 47,521 46,630 47,437 1,792 2,240 5,141 1,973 3.6 4.7 11.0 4.2

Kingston

86,076 85,134 81,757 84,927 3,747 5,253 13,639 4,473 4.4 6.2 16.7 5.3

New York-Newark-Jersey City

9,975,768 9,858,977 9,317,967 9,804,975 409,113 864,811 1,494,600 808,816 4.1 8.8 16.0 8.2

Rochester

515,169 516,993 495,846 517,895 24,694 33,258 79,063 29,212 4.8 6.4 15.9 5.6

Syracuse

303,343 299,749 295,956 299,543 15,036 19,761 51,114 17,113 5.0 6.6 17.3 5.7

Utica-Rome

127,466 126,981 123,175 126,319 6,549 8,876 20,107 7,533 5.1 7.0 16.3 6.0

Watertown-Fort Drum

42,636 42,713 41,189 42,425 3,189 3,028 7,490 2,454 7.5 7.1 18.2 5.8

North Carolina

4,890,781 4,991,166 4,660,070 4,974,962 193,957 228,648 613,315 217,379 4.0 4.6 13.2 4.4

Asheville

226,004 227,576 213,613 226,563 7,636 9,455 36,343 8,737 3.4 4.2 17.0 3.9

Burlington

79,533 81,417 75,439 81,179 3,063 3,681 9,773 3,471 3.9 4.5 13.0 4.3

Charlotte-Concord-Gastonia

1,333,559 1,362,064 1,280,696 1,354,417 49,193 62,044 166,166 59,884 3.7 4.6 13.0 4.4

Durham-Chapel Hill

299,234 306,363 283,720 305,742 10,319 11,512 28,186 10,754 3.4 3.8 9.9 3.5

Fayetteville

143,605 146,061 140,816 145,797 7,523 9,379 21,199 8,942 5.2 6.4 15.1 6.1

Goldsboro

50,343 50,435 47,832 50,175 2,068 2,412 4,598 2,294 4.1 4.8 9.6 4.6

Greensboro-High Point

356,786 359,930 343,532 358,959 14,823 18,577 52,197 17,669 4.2 5.2 15.2 4.9

Greenville

86,662 90,578 81,553 90,719 3,560 4,109 8,202 3,959 4.1 4.5 10.1 4.4

Hickory-Lenoir-Morganton

168,208 172,443 165,770 172,727 6,198 7,655 29,482 7,339 3.7 4.4 17.8 4.2

Jacksonville

62,645 64,946 59,857 65,142 2,836 3,124 7,740 2,932 4.5 4.8 12.9 4.5

New Bern

49,257 50,956 47,116 50,764 1,937 2,258 5,098 2,095 3.9 4.4 10.8 4.1

Raleigh

707,405 726,988 665,250 725,498 24,712 27,969 76,115 26,449 3.5 3.8 11.4 3.6

Rocky Mount

61,499 62,886 60,055 63,281 3,147 4,006 7,966 3,963 5.1 6.4 13.3 6.3

Wilmington

147,064 151,252 138,093 150,582 5,455 6,137 21,026 5,819 3.7 4.1 15.2 3.9

Winston-Salem

318,958 325,421 303,593 323,833 12,026 14,442 39,873 13,993 3.8 4.4 13.1 4.3

North Dakota

402,014 400,061 406,306 401,021 12,846 19,238 36,163 16,268 3.2 4.8 8.9 4.1

Bismarck

67,284 69,668 68,666 69,905 2,297 3,053 6,147 2,403 3.4 4.4 9.0 3.4

Fargo

139,650 142,322 138,767 142,524 4,343 5,342 11,455 4,572 3.1 3.8 8.3 3.2

Grand Forks

52,976 52,090 51,861 52,209 2,020 2,231 4,547 2,064 3.8 4.3 8.8 4.0

Ohio

5,821,848 5,719,585 5,521,458 5,758,674 337,584 278,590 921,291 272,508 5.8 4.9 16.7 4.7

Akron

364,531 355,059 339,802 355,728 22,006 19,393 50,936 17,726 6.0 5.5 15.0 5.0

Canton-Massillon

200,953 197,756 187,503 197,254 13,230 10,708 29,269 10,219 6.6 5.4 15.6 5.2

Cincinnati

1,136,979 1,108,831 1,066,951 1,122,871 53,979 46,966 145,499 45,404 4.7 4.2 13.6 4.0

Cleveland-Elyria

1,004,201 982,447 992,562 1,005,557 62,192 47,322 215,932 45,907 6.2 4.8 21.8 4.6

Columbus

1,109,946 1,121,271 1,042,647 1,114,217 52,654 55,675 137,517 50,304 4.7 5.0 13.2 4.5

Dayton

394,724 390,414 372,320 390,194 20,714 19,641 58,435 18,882 5.2 5.0 15.7 4.8

Lima

48,746 48,705 47,421 48,951 2,955 2,639 9,354 3,180 6.1 5.4 19.7 6.5

Mansfield

52,699 52,375 50,135 52,240 3,359 2,598 10,145 2,791 6.4 5.0 20.2 5.3

Springfield

63,562 63,156 61,149 63,145 3,868 3,190 10,568 3,039 6.1 5.1 17.3 4.8

Toledo

307,195 296,202 289,691 296,223 18,424 16,260 62,227 16,537 6.0 5.5 21.5 5.6

Weirton-Steubenville(1)

50,831 49,738 48,808 50,085 3,870 3,273 8,689 3,255 7.6 6.6 17.8 6.5

Youngstown-Warren-Boardman

238,700 230,431 225,724 229,698 18,534 15,709 44,374 15,487 7.8 6.8 19.7 6.7

Oklahoma

1,834,662 1,855,835 1,805,213 1,854,824 61,962 77,150 230,094 79,551 3.4 4.2 12.7 4.3

Enid

26,723 26,497 26,275 26,351 914 953 2,653 978 3.4 3.6 10.1 3.7

Lawton

50,615 50,748 51,198 50,830 1,713 1,995 8,544 2,129 3.4 3.9 16.7 4.2

Oklahoma City

684,670 695,181 668,400 699,613 20,996 28,333 89,103 30,293 3.1 4.1 13.3 4.3

Tulsa

480,456 478,941 470,223 478,433 16,208 20,353 63,341 20,773 3.4 4.2 13.5 4.3

Oregon

2,098,879 2,156,640 2,035,126 2,162,896 89,389 143,776 267,428 134,716 4.3 6.7 13.1 6.2

Albany

58,635 60,461 57,855 60,476 2,948 4,260 7,986 3,974 5.0 7.0 13.8 6.6

Bend-Redmond

96,547 101,836 93,031 101,964 4,216 7,195 15,114 6,410 4.4 7.1 16.2 6.3

Corvallis

47,759 47,883 45,026 47,779 1,597 2,389 4,233 2,196 3.3 5.0 9.4 4.6

Eugene

181,253 181,706 175,135 182,533 8,073 12,620 24,681 11,959 4.5 6.9 14.1 6.6

Grants Pass

35,647 37,531 34,489 37,597 2,015 2,879 4,718 2,654 5.7 7.7 13.7 7.1

Medford

104,001 108,539 100,475 108,348 5,221 7,538 14,105 6,980 5.0 6.9 14.0 6.4

Portland-Vancouver-Hillsboro

1,330,750 1,339,806 1,291,811 1,345,639 53,372 85,624 168,642 82,607 4.0 6.4 13.1 6.1

Salem

201,104 209,105 194,724 209,956 8,931 13,181 22,469 12,593 4.4 6.3 11.5 6.0

Pennsylvania

6,471,607 6,284,958 6,247,158 6,222,697 361,564 456,221 995,987 381,904 5.6 7.3 15.9 6.1

Allentown-Bethlehem-Easton

443,038 434,541 425,143 428,715 24,358 31,662 71,291 27,043 5.5 7.3 16.8 6.3

Altoona

59,388 58,134 57,968 57,603 3,382 3,895 10,310 3,345 5.7 6.7 17.8 5.8

Bloomsburg-Berwick

43,138 42,317 41,654 41,882 2,519 2,595 6,136 2,105 5.8 6.1 14.7 5.0

Chambersburg-Waynesboro

77,330 75,210 75,196 74,143 3,883 4,388 9,822 3,685 5.0 5.8 13.1 5.0

East Stroudsburg

83,189 79,655 78,492 78,080 5,715 6,855 16,800 5,826 6.9 8.6 21.4 7.5

Erie

129,057 125,492 122,768 123,304 8,136 11,208 21,190 9,092 6.3 8.9 17.3 7.4

Gettysburg

55,348 53,874 50,693 53,307 2,096 2,579 7,732 2,188 3.8 4.8 15.3 4.1

Harrisburg-Carlisle

299,701 296,538 292,995 293,137 13,507 18,081 39,904 15,214 4.5 6.1 13.6 5.2

Johnstown

57,422 54,871 55,568 53,812 4,118 4,370 9,846 3,576 7.2 8.0 17.7 6.6

Lancaster

284,207 276,139 272,614 273,813 11,611 15,147 40,499 12,806 4.1 5.5 14.9 4.7

Lebanon

71,880 70,514 69,755 69,821 3,458 4,441 10,023 3,769 4.8 6.3 14.4 5.4

Philadelphia-Camden-Wilmington

3,145,416 3,067,379 3,046,987 3,041,649 155,617 224,703 455,975 195,409 4.9 7.3 15.0 6.4

Pittsburgh

1,204,315 1,164,116 1,162,273 1,156,214 69,788 85,691 192,668 71,527 5.8 7.4 16.6 6.2

Reading

214,327 206,742 206,114 202,803 11,820 15,517 37,153 12,848 5.5 7.5 18.0 6.3

Scranton--Wilkes-Barre--Hazleton

278,100 269,865 269,988 266,099 19,126 23,945 48,223 19,662 6.9 8.9 17.9 7.4

State College

79,691 73,942 75,259 73,468 3,295 3,526 7,698 3,001 4.1 4.8 10.2 4.1

Williamsport

56,316 55,350 55,175 55,104 3,839 4,286 8,815 3,487 6.8 7.7 16.0 6.3

York-Hanover

234,159 231,145 226,122 229,476 10,812 13,777 35,382 11,686 4.6 6.0 15.6 5.1

Rhode Island

558,186 539,706 537,571 533,412 27,014 38,993 94,316 26,992 4.8 7.2 17.5 5.1

Providence-Warwick

690,340 673,090 659,362 666,287 32,306 48,782 119,322 35,608 4.7 7.2 18.1 5.3

South Carolina

2,354,415 2,392,634 2,339,790 2,372,303 73,206 114,498 258,154 103,534 3.1 4.8 11.0 4.4

Charleston-North Charleston

392,668 396,857 380,968 395,922 10,208 17,393 41,977 15,680 2.6 4.4 11.0 4.0

Columbia

399,101 404,312 394,969 401,201 11,453 17,980 30,475 16,187 2.9 4.4 7.7 4.0

Florence

96,106 97,389 95,174 97,066 3,166 4,853 7,856 4,452 3.3 5.0 8.3 4.6

Greenville-Anderson-Mauldin

431,105 436,334 426,094 430,347 12,060 18,729 48,108 16,900 2.8 4.3 11.3 3.9

Hilton Head Island-Bluffton-Beaufort

88,885 91,307 85,283 91,419 2,507 3,714 9,162 3,226 2.8 4.1 10.7 3.5

Myrtle Beach-Conway-North Myrtle Beach

196,294 199,553 192,512 201,775 8,762 12,245 37,643 11,060 4.5 6.1 19.6 5.5

Spartanburg

166,851 172,582 172,783 171,717 4,805 8,358 23,606 7,664 2.9 4.8 13.7 4.5

Sumter

42,855 43,769 42,875 43,477 1,711 2,397 4,514 2,190 4.0 5.5 10.5 5.0

South Dakota

459,393 466,364 466,394 468,202 16,100 15,200 44,088 13,873 3.5 3.3 9.5 3.0

Rapid City

73,188 74,597 75,276 75,705 2,728 2,535 8,963 2,378 3.7 3.4 11.9 3.1

Sioux Falls

155,631 157,884 157,995 158,885 4,815 4,759 14,175 4,161 3.1 3.0 9.0 2.6

Tennessee

3,306,102 3,299,464 3,161,316 3,327,563 142,819 168,629 492,948 155,240 4.3 5.1 15.6 4.7

Chattanooga

275,725 274,039 263,045 274,055 10,773 11,796 36,972 10,442 3.9 4.3 14.1 3.8

Clarksville

117,621 116,842 113,719 117,088 6,008 6,630 19,191 5,401 5.1 5.7 16.9 4.6

Cleveland

58,536 59,361 57,000 59,677 2,672 3,054 7,866 2,434 4.6 5.1 13.8 4.1

Jackson

64,398 64,253 60,338 64,720 2,741 3,237 8,139 2,927 4.3 5.0 13.5 4.5

Johnson City

92,367 90,437 87,092 90,648 4,226 4,570 11,749 3,758 4.6 5.1 13.5 4.1

Kingsport-Bristol-Bristol

137,022 134,382 133,424 133,709 5,951 7,107 18,388 5,757 4.3 5.3 13.8 4.3

Knoxville

430,995 430,903 410,508 431,788 17,215 19,474 56,478 16,001 4.0 4.5 13.8 3.7

Memphis

636,440 642,235 602,619 652,169 31,971 41,481 78,521 43,078 5.0 6.5 13.0 6.6

Morristown

52,717 52,637 52,424 52,888 2,508 2,591 8,617 2,232 4.8 4.9 16.4 4.2

Nashville-Davidson--Murfreesboro--Franklin

1,080,770 1,077,565 1,026,695 1,090,065 36,387 45,943 161,751 45,057 3.4 4.3 15.8 4.1

Texas

13,953,661 14,094,131 13,326,311 14,043,919 704,889 1,006,954 1,698,726 881,310 5.1 7.1 12.7 6.3

Abilene

78,116 79,033 72,953 78,630 3,277 4,546 6,364 3,756 4.2 5.8 8.7 4.8

Amarillo

130,475 133,761 121,751 132,879 4,599 6,486 10,400 5,367 3.5 4.8 8.5 4.0

Austin-Round Rock

1,240,287 1,267,265 1,173,424 1,268,361 47,005 67,299 138,731 57,409 3.8 5.3 11.8 4.5

Beaumont-Port Arthur

172,548 173,392 167,542 172,635 13,730 18,655 29,224 17,161 8.0 10.8 17.4 9.9

Brownsville-Harlingen

168,585 170,871 162,372 169,777 13,021 17,049 26,248 15,483 7.7 10.0 16.2 9.1

College Station-Bryan

135,619 135,108 123,336 132,220 5,263 7,092 10,950 6,077 3.9 5.2 8.9 4.6

Corpus Christi

202,562 202,936 195,220 202,234 12,337 17,856 29,240 16,044 6.1 8.8 15.0 7.9

Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington

3,951,243 4,025,406 3,780,637 4,018,707 181,844 262,278 473,497 227,249 4.6 6.5 12.5 5.7

El Paso

362,402 367,713 349,676 366,486 18,954 28,611 49,990 25,175 5.2 7.8 14.3 6.9

Houston-The Woodlands-Sugar Land

3,411,243 3,395,894 3,278,843 3,396,623 187,892 270,964 459,232 240,711 5.5 8.0 14.0 7.1

Killeen-Temple

176,021 178,673 169,773 179,169 9,180 12,570 18,475 10,688 5.2 7.0 10.9 6.0

Laredo

117,054 115,785 109,895 114,651 6,338 9,204 14,372 8,081 5.4 7.9 13.1 7.0

Longview

97,158 96,240 92,300 95,753 5,382 7,511 10,888 6,569 5.5 7.8 11.8 6.9

Lubbock

160,666 163,980 150,991 163,479 6,187 9,488 14,529 8,008 3.9 5.8 9.6 4.9

McAllen-Edinburg-Mission

359,125 365,337 347,439 364,476 32,458 40,661 60,690 37,678 9.0 11.1 17.5 10.3

Midland

107,083 97,658 98,013 98,173 3,607 7,408 10,010 6,632 3.4 7.6 10.2 6.8

Odessa

85,687 79,391 81,228 78,715 4,055 8,664 10,992 7,813 4.7 10.9 13.5 9.9

San Angelo

54,654 54,801 51,769 54,488 2,263 3,311 5,124 2,851 4.1 6.0 9.9 5.2

San Antonio-New Braunfels

1,187,428 1,217,685 1,132,086 1,215,392 53,106 78,950 148,299 67,793 4.5 6.5 13.1 5.6

Sherman-Denison

63,815 65,304 60,245 64,881 2,868 3,734 6,088 3,085 4.5 5.7 10.1 4.8

Texarkana

63,986 63,835 61,695 63,879 3,435 4,184 8,179 3,659 5.4 6.6 13.3 5.7

Tyler

107,191 110,314 103,014 110,097 5,097 7,110 12,024 6,160 4.8 6.4 11.7 5.6

Victoria

44,299 44,184 42,989 43,858 2,409 3,489 5,914 3,077 5.4 7.9 13.8 7.0

Waco

124,904 130,070 118,999 129,274 5,929 7,901 12,056 6,637 4.7 6.1 10.1 5.1

Wichita Falls

63,798 64,034 61,204 63,764 2,785 4,211 6,510 3,531 4.4 6.6 10.6 5.5

Utah

1,626,054 1,636,759 1,611,373 1,641,386 47,156 46,785 163,709 45,678 2.9 2.9 10.2 2.8

Logan

73,416 72,172 71,966 72,616 1,639 1,528 4,296 1,458 2.2 2.1 6.0 2.0

Ogden-Clearfield

334,962 340,094 333,999 340,939 9,667 9,142 32,365 8,962 2.9 2.7 9.7 2.6

Provo-Orem

316,777 324,111 310,425 325,769 8,360 7,936 23,868 7,734 2.6 2.4 7.7 2.4

St. George

78,260 81,229 77,469 81,697 2,542 2,416 9,354 2,347 3.2 3.0 12.1 2.9

Salt Lake City

674,749 672,998 673,976 674,357 19,113 20,060 73,795 19,709 2.8 3.0 10.9 2.9

Vermont

340,422 312,565 348,360 312,703 9,779 10,026 52,241 9,521 2.9 3.2 15.0 3.0

Burlington-South Burlington

123,809 114,884 127,331 116,076 2,777 3,141 16,284 2,872 2.2 2.7 12.8 2.5

Virginia

4,436,793 4,248,551 4,369,898 4,216,889 123,223 216,835 481,130 165,997 2.8 5.1 11.0 3.9

Blacksburg-Christiansburg-Radford

92,974 89,030 90,912 88,752 3,109 3,844 10,454 2,830 3.3 4.3 11.5 3.2

Charlottesville

122,977 115,289 118,478 114,020 3,034 5,236 12,029 3,895 2.5 4.5 10.2 3.4

Harrisonburg

67,338 64,901 66,961 64,974 1,758 2,852 7,079 2,049 2.6 4.4 10.6 3.2

Lynchburg

123,613 117,140 121,223 115,893 4,025 6,290 12,616 4,641 3.3 5.4 10.4 4.0

Richmond

692,545 655,521 684,792 646,937 19,865 36,256 78,370 28,225 2.9 5.5 11.4 4.4

Roanoke

159,726 153,845 157,560 152,729 4,528 7,510 16,934 5,589 2.8 4.9 10.7 3.7

Staunton-Waynesboro

60,728 59,777 60,591 59,066 1,520 2,663 5,976 1,910 2.5 4.5 9.9 3.2

Virginia Beach-Norfolk-Newport News

863,445 832,811 850,877 822,552 26,157 48,170 105,142 37,621 3.0 5.8 12.4 4.6

Winchester

75,222 73,878 74,206 74,140 2,014 2,978 7,407 2,262 2.7 4.0 10.0 3.1

Washington

3,930,706 3,899,305 3,964,302 3,918,653 229,593 246,226 646,752 240,101 5.8 6.3 16.3 6.1

Bellingham

117,972 112,971 119,375 114,039 6,986 7,704 21,903 7,820 5.9 6.8 18.3 6.9

Bremerton-Silverdale

130,853 125,636 133,507 125,975 6,790 7,424 19,948 7,441 5.2 5.9 14.9 5.9

Kennewick-Richland

145,128 144,269 148,625 148,260 9,467 9,781 20,872 9,930 6.5 6.8 14.0 6.7

Longview

48,756 47,806 50,157 48,390 3,300 3,423 8,228 3,527 6.8 7.2 16.4 7.3

Mount Vernon-Anacortes

62,929 60,926 65,769 61,841 3,879 4,390 12,871 4,422 6.2 7.2 19.6 7.2

Olympia-Tumwater

147,279 143,473 150,456 143,671 8,918 8,578 24,708 8,593 6.1 6.0 16.4 6.0

Seattle-Tacoma-Bellevue

2,175,804 2,197,339 2,176,105 2,196,243 118,769 131,535 363,257 125,180 5.5 6.0 16.7 5.7

Spokane-Spokane Valley

287,461 278,496 293,977 280,852 18,825 18,205 48,260 17,605 6.5 6.5 16.4 6.3

Walla Walla

32,303 31,592 32,333 32,035 1,856 1,753 4,039 1,727 5.7 5.5 12.5 5.4

Wenatchee

64,505 62,035 65,793 63,483 4,226 4,127 10,610 4,070 6.6 6.7 16.1 6.4

Yakima

128,463 126,223 133,635 130,479 10,045 10,261 19,738 10,535 7.8 8.1 14.8 8.1

West Virginia

794,966 783,154 763,219 792,245 49,152 48,011 118,890 44,822 6.2 6.1 15.6 5.7

Beckley

46,521 45,996 45,636 46,979 3,153 3,187 8,386 3,006 6.8 6.9 18.4 6.4

Charleston

93,189 91,884 92,281 93,612 5,483 5,934 15,971 5,887 5.9 6.5 17.3 6.3

Huntington-Ashland

147,904 145,892 145,231 147,773 8,772 8,304 24,191 7,541 5.9 5.7 16.7 5.1

Morgantown

71,344 70,789 65,828 72,578 3,082 3,231 8,392 3,100 4.3 4.6 12.7 4.3

Parkersburg-Vienna

38,734 37,972 37,325 38,497 2,643 2,583 6,395 2,376 6.8 6.8 17.1 6.2

Wheeling

63,904 61,958 60,293 62,870 5,250 3,934 10,264 3,823 8.2 6.3 17.0 6.1

Wisconsin

3,041,275 3,070,571 3,033,527 3,070,884 115,879 147,187 452,666 131,599 3.8 4.8 14.9 4.3

Appleton

128,551 130,817 127,264 130,572 3,976 5,110 17,873 4,371 3.1 3.9 14.0 3.3

Eau Claire

91,405 94,118 88,665 93,619 3,677 4,390 11,925 3,597 4.0 4.7 13.4 3.8

Fond du Lac

55,411 57,789 54,596 57,199 1,900 2,355 9,477 1,924 3.4 4.1 17.4 3.4

Green Bay

169,216 171,308 168,571 172,059 6,016 7,482 24,020 6,390 3.6 4.4 14.2 3.7

Janesville-Beloit

83,909 84,696 85,363 85,589 3,632 4,335 14,840 4,328 4.3 5.1 17.4 5.1

La Crosse-Onalaska

75,822 76,616 73,119 76,229 2,471 2,993 9,245 2,456 3.3 3.9 12.6 3.2

Madison

384,987 387,620 374,548 387,949 10,218 14,321 44,223 12,640 2.7 3.7 11.8 3.3

Milwaukee-Waukesha-West Allis

799,499 800,160 794,132 804,275 29,428 42,191 120,264 40,708 3.7 5.3 15.1 5.1

Oshkosh-Neenah

90,146 92,326 90,284 91,921 2,746 3,576 13,077 3,196 3.0 3.9 14.5 3.5

Racine

95,815 96,493 96,819 95,916 4,505 5,679 15,702 5,227 4.7 5.9 16.2 5.4

Sheboygan

59,912 61,942 62,100 61,970 1,896 2,321 9,381 2,083 3.2 3.7 15.1 3.4

Wausau

71,683 72,826 71,975 72,647 2,268 2,786 8,912 2,381 3.2 3.8 12.4 3.3

Wyoming

297,605 294,569 288,142 293,373 17,589 17,284 16,751 16,467 5.9 5.9 5.8 5.6

Casper

41,123 40,672 39,604 41,265 2,513 3,226 3,010 3,061 6.1 7.9 7.6 7.4

Cheyenne

51,042 51,047 49,732 51,578 2,669 2,571 2,697 2,372 5.2 5.0 5.4 4.6

Puerto Rico

- 1,068,462 - 1,080,300 - 78,891 - 75,484 - 7.4 - 7.0

Aguadilla-Isabela

- 83,558 - 84,479 - 7,063 - 6,885 - 8.5 - 8.1

Arecibo

- 51,767 - 52,393 - 3,946 - 3,807 - 7.6 - 7.3

Guayama

- 19,702 - 19,965 - 1,598 - 1,569 - 8.1 - 7.9

Mayaguez

- 26,451 - 26,811 - 2,132 - 2,059 - 8.1 - 7.7

Ponce

- 89,393 - 90,348 - 7,905 - 7,633 - 8.8 - 8.4

San German

- 34,620 - 34,905 - 2,882 - 2,811 - 8.3 - 8.1

San Juan-Carolina-Caguas

- 721,328 - 731,157 - 49,328 - 46,806 - 6.8 - 6.4

Footnotes
(1) For operational reasons, these interstate areas are listed under the state that accounts for the larger share of the population, which is different from the state that contains the first principal city.
(2) The area boundary does not reflect the Office of Management and Budget delineation.
(p) Preliminary

- Data not available.
NOTE: Data refer to place of residence. Data for Puerto Rico are derived from a monthly household survey similar to the Current Population Survey. Area delineations are based on Office of Management and Budget Bulletin No. 18-03, dated April 10, 2018, and are available on the BLS website at https://www.bls.gov/lau/lausmsa.htm. Areas in the six New England states are Metropolitan New England City and Town Areas (NECTAs), while areas in other states are county-based. Some metropolitan areas lie in two or more states. They are listed under the state containing the first principal city, unless otherwise footnoted. Estimates for the latest month are subject to revision the following month.


LABOR FORCE DATA
NOT SEASONALLY ADJUSTED

Table 2. Civilian labor force and unemployment by state, selected metropolitan area, and metropolitan division(1)
State, area, and division Civilian labor force Unemployed
March April Number Percent of labor force
2020 2021 2020 2021(p) March April March April
2020 2021 2020 2021(p) 2020 2021 2020 2021(p)

California

19,167,207 18,911,292 18,451,970 18,812,393 974,161 1,549,839 2,944,524 1,519,999 5.1 8.2 16.0 8.1

Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim

6,539,772 6,653,903 6,284,639 6,646,549 329,070 660,790 1,086,479 657,894 5.0 9.9 17.3 9.9

Anaheim-Santa Ana-Irvine

1,598,456 1,542,599 1,525,382 1,536,029 52,690 97,297 219,551 95,510 3.3 6.3 14.4 6.2

Los Angeles-Long Beach-Glendale

4,941,316 5,111,304 4,759,257 5,110,520 276,380 563,493 866,928 562,384 5.6 11.0 18.2 11.0

San Francisco-Oakland-Hayward

2,564,034 2,442,957 2,433,670 2,419,503 81,028 143,747 334,366 140,842 3.2 5.9 13.7 5.8

Oakland-Hayward-Berkeley

1,393,246 1,343,063 1,332,237 1,325,441 49,618 87,412 197,487 85,414 3.6 6.5 14.8 6.4

San Francisco-Redwood City-South San Francisco

1,034,270 968,562 977,955 964,472 27,570 50,172 121,998 49,475 2.7 5.2 12.5 5.1

San Rafael

136,518 131,332 123,478 129,590 3,840 6,163 14,881 5,953 2.8 4.7 12.1 4.6

District of Columbia

420,428 403,594 405,479 401,028 22,944 27,975 42,947 26,493 5.5 6.9 10.6 6.6

Washington-Arlington-Alexandria(2)

3,508,530 3,331,047 3,376,600 3,325,898 111,125 185,832 318,911 166,351 3.2 5.6 9.4 5.0

Silver Spring-Frederick-Rockville(3)

705,671 666,117 667,043 667,682 22,180 37,204 52,155 36,433 3.1 5.6 7.8 5.5

Washington-Arlington-Alexandria(2)

2,802,859 2,664,930 2,709,557 2,658,216 88,945 148,628 266,756 129,918 3.2 5.6 9.8 4.9

Florida

10,566,114 10,271,525 9,717,870 10,357,312 531,061 542,176 1,348,861 532,443 5.0 5.3 13.9 5.1

Miami-Fort Lauderdale-West Palm Beach

3,159,869 3,044,863 2,866,593 3,080,068 133,330 194,413 384,520 180,691 4.2 6.4 13.4 5.9

Fort Lauderdale-Pompano Beach-Deerfield Beach

1,068,549 1,024,050 985,109 1,029,678 63,142 54,309 161,145 55,078 5.9 5.3 16.4 5.3

Miami-Miami Beach-Kendall

1,331,833 1,285,600 1,200,734 1,310,847 29,164 105,398 123,408 90,807 2.2 8.2 10.3 6.9

West Palm Beach-Boca Raton-Delray Beach

759,487 735,213 680,750 739,543 41,024 34,706 99,967 34,806 5.4 4.7 14.7 4.7

Illinois

6,307,742 6,102,774 5,964,800 6,155,621 253,673 433,143 970,481 434,308 4.0 7.1 16.3 7.1

Chicago-Naperville-Elgin(2)

4,784,802 4,636,085 4,521,950 4,679,260 196,554 345,081 747,790 349,389 4.1 7.4 16.5 7.5

Chicago-Naperville-Arlington Heights

3,683,584 3,572,940 3,469,702 3,610,490 144,554 274,627 569,547 284,011 3.9 7.7 16.4 7.9

Elgin

317,010 301,628 298,492 302,752 14,409 21,085 50,117 19,132 4.5 7.0 16.8 6.3

Gary(3)

331,752 323,781 325,755 326,952 18,320 22,140 62,771 21,920 5.5 6.8 19.3 6.7

Lake County-Kenosha County(2)

452,456 437,736 428,001 439,066 19,271 27,229 65,355 24,326 4.3 6.2 15.3 5.5

Massachusetts

3,712,130 3,703,116 3,382,826 3,701,234 116,907 243,726 550,084 219,081 3.1 6.6 16.3 5.9

Boston-Cambridge-Nashua(2)

2,769,234 2,751,303 2,529,281 2,747,977 79,061 162,577 395,502 147,482 2.9 5.9 15.6 5.4

Boston-Cambridge-Newton

1,654,310 1,639,130 1,493,939 1,637,968 42,578 94,396 214,689 86,278 2.6 5.8 14.4 5.3

Brockton-Bridgewater-Easton

109,258 108,552 102,215 108,738 3,881 8,390 20,014 7,659 3.6 7.7 19.6 7.0

Framingham

159,386 158,496 141,764 157,826 4,159 8,152 19,151 7,183 2.6 5.1 13.5 4.6

Haverhill-Newburyport-Amesbury Town(2)

116,597 115,891 107,145 116,539 3,911 6,278 18,989 5,525 3.4 5.4 17.7 4.7

Lawrence-Methuen Town-Salem(2)

96,798 99,862 93,992 99,601 4,014 9,232 20,738 8,564 4.1 9.2 22.1 8.6

Lowell-Billerica-Chelmsford(2)

193,836 194,156 178,052 194,242 5,898 11,959 27,990 10,845 3.0 6.2 15.7 5.6

Lynn-Saugus-Marblehead

84,911 85,880 79,200 85,739 2,676 6,754 15,423 6,177 3.2 7.9 19.5 7.2

Nashua(2)

176,908 172,249 169,090 170,857 6,041 5,647 27,802 4,747 3.4 3.3 16.4 2.8

Peabody-Salem-Beverly

92,335 91,112 83,721 90,681 2,751 5,778 14,914 5,221 3.0 6.3 17.8 5.8

Taunton-Middleborough-Norton

84,895 85,975 80,163 85,786 3,152 5,991 15,792 5,283 3.7 7.0 19.7 6.2

Michigan

4,894,999 4,687,935 4,530,016 4,646,095 217,985 242,997 1,070,661 213,593 4.5 5.2 23.6 4.6

Detroit-Warren-Dearborn

2,138,004 2,017,127 1,913,920 1,992,220 103,866 91,025 470,539 73,680 4.9 4.5 24.6 3.7

Detroit-Dearborn-Livonia

799,923 758,528 733,625 745,539 45,228 42,373 191,115 36,134 5.7 5.6 26.1 4.8

Warren-Troy-Farmington Hills

1,338,079 1,258,600 1,180,297 1,246,680 58,637 48,653 279,425 37,545 4.4 3.9 23.7 3.0

New York

9,463,134 9,436,191 8,801,907 9,396,986 419,555 796,730 1,429,063 736,306 4.4 8.4 16.2 7.8

New York-Newark-Jersey City(2)

9,975,768 9,858,977 9,317,967 9,804,975 409,113 864,811 1,494,600 808,816 4.1 8.8 16.0 8.2

Dutchess County-Putnam County

193,112 190,138 182,809 190,213 7,935 10,778 28,234 9,582 4.1 5.7 15.4 5.0

Nassau County-Suffolk County

1,467,456 1,441,024 1,373,308 1,439,153 59,482 86,318 240,990 77,471 4.1 6.0 17.5 5.4

Newark(3)

1,257,784 1,212,649 1,220,639 1,200,670 53,313 95,069 186,561 86,361 4.2 7.8 15.3 7.2

New York-Jersey City-White Plains(2)

7,057,416 7,015,166 6,541,211 6,974,939 288,383 672,646 1,038,815 635,402 4.1 9.6 15.9 9.1

Pennsylvania

6,471,607 6,284,958 6,247,158 6,222,697 361,564 456,221 995,987 381,904 5.6 7.3 15.9 6.1

Philadelphia-Camden-Wilmington(2)

3,145,416 3,067,379 3,046,987 3,041,649 155,617 224,703 455,975 195,409 4.9 7.3 15.0 6.4

Camden(3)

646,462 635,974 631,884 629,330 26,526 46,787 99,589 42,317 4.1 7.4 15.8 6.7

Montgomery County-Bucks County-Chester County

1,083,715 1,051,643 1,031,169 1,046,754 46,735 57,678 140,670 48,833 4.3 5.5 13.6 4.7

Philadelphia

1,031,951 995,861 1,009,171 983,501 63,545 95,270 170,042 81,282 6.2 9.6 16.8 8.3

Wilmington(3)

383,288 383,901 374,763 382,064 18,811 24,968 45,674 22,977 4.9 6.5 12.2 6.0

Texas

13,953,661 14,094,131 13,326,311 14,043,919 704,889 1,006,954 1,698,726 881,310 5.1 7.1 12.7 6.3

Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington

3,951,243 4,025,406 3,780,637 4,018,707 181,844 262,278 473,497 227,249 4.6 6.5 12.5 5.7

Dallas-Plano-Irving

2,661,798 2,717,609 2,550,596 2,713,540 121,744 174,101 317,384 151,473 4.6 6.4 12.4 5.6

Fort Worth-Arlington

1,289,445 1,307,797 1,230,041 1,305,167 60,100 88,177 156,113 75,776 4.7 6.7 12.7 5.8

Washington

3,930,706 3,899,305 3,964,302 3,918,653 229,593 246,226 646,752 240,101 5.8 6.3 16.3 6.1

Seattle-Tacoma-Bellevue

2,175,804 2,197,339 2,176,105 2,196,243 118,769 131,535 363,257 125,180 5.5 6.0 16.7 5.7

Seattle-Bellevue-Everett

1,719,132 1,759,336 1,700,133 1,755,920 90,813 101,141 274,790 94,232 5.3 5.7 16.2 5.4

Tacoma-Lakewood

456,672 438,003 475,972 440,323 27,956 30,394 88,467 30,948 6.1 6.9 18.6 7.0

Footnotes
(1) These 11 areas contain all of the 38 metropolitan divisions.
(2) Part of the area (or division) is in one or more adjacent states.
(3) All of the division is in one or more adjacent states.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data refer to place of residence. Area delineations are based on Office of Management and Budget Bulletin No. 18-03, dated April 10, 2018, and are available on the BLS website at https://www.bls.gov/lau/lausmsa.htm. Areas in the six New England states are Metropolitan New England City and Town Areas (NECTAs), while areas in other states are county-based. Some metropolitan areas lie in two or more states. They are listed under the state containing the first principal city. Metropolitan divisions are listed under their metropolitan areas. Some divisions lie in more than one state, and some, like Camden, NJ, are totally outside the states under which their metropolitan areas are listed. For Washington-Arlington-Alexandria, DC-VA-MD-WV, the metropolitan area and division titles are identical. Estimates for the latest month are subject to revision the following month.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
NOT SEASONALLY ADJUSTED
Table 3. Employees on nonfarm payrolls by state and metropolitan area, not seasonally adjusted
[In thousands]
State and area March April Change from
April 2020 to April 2021(p)
2020 2021 2020 2021(p) Number Percent

Alabama

2,070.4 2,021.2 1,842.7 2,013.6 170.9 9.3

Anniston-Oxford-Jacksonville

47.2 46.1 41.5 45.9 4.4 10.6

Auburn-Opelika

66.5 66.3 56.8 66.8 10.0 17.6

Birmingham-Hoover

541.5 530.7 486.2 528.5 42.3 8.7

Daphne-Fairhope-Foley

80.4 78.7 68.6 80.2 11.6 16.9

Decatur

58.2 57.4 53.9 57.0 3.1 5.8

Dothan

59.9 58.5 54.5 58.7 4.2 7.7

Florence-Muscle Shoals

57.5 55.7 50.5 55.5 5.0 9.9

Gadsden

36.5 33.7 30.6 33.7 3.1 10.1

Huntsville

249.2 249.0 224.5 247.5 23.0 10.2

Mobile

186.1 179.6 168.7 179.9 11.2 6.6

Montgomery