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Economic News Release
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Metropolitan Area Employment and Unemployment (Monthly) News Release

For release 10:00 a.m. (EDT) Wednesday, June 3, 2020				USDL-20-1138

Technical information:
 Employment:	  sminfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/sae
 Unemployment:	  lausinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/lau
	
Media contact:	  (202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov


          METROPOLITAN AREA EMPLOYMENT AND UNEMPLOYMENT -- APRIL 2020


Unemployment rates were higher in April than a year earlier in all 389 metropolitan
areas, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. A total of 52 areas had
jobless rates of less than 10.0 percent and 12 areas had rates of at least 25.0
percent. Nonfarm payroll employment decreased over the year in 377 metropolitan
areas and was essentially unchanged in 12 areas. The national unemployment rate in
April was 14.4 percent, not seasonally adjusted, up from 3.3 percent a year earlier.

This news release presents statistics from two monthly programs. The civilian labor
force and unemployment data are based on the same concepts and definitions as those
used for the national household survey estimates. These data pertain to individuals
by where they reside. The employment data are from an establishment survey that 
measures nonfarm employment, hours, and earnings by industry. These data pertain to 
jobs on payrolls defined by where the establishments are located. For more information
about the concepts and statistical methodologies used by these two programs, see
the Technical Note.

Metropolitan Area Unemployment (Not Seasonally Adjusted)

Kahului-Wailuku-Lahaina, HI, had the highest unemployment rate in April, 35.0 percent,
followed by Kokomo, IN, 34.1 percent. Logan, UT-ID, had the lowest unemployment rate,
6.2 percent. The next lowest rates were in Columbia, MO, and Jefferson City, MO, 6.5
percent each. A total of 215 areas had April jobless rates below the U.S. rate of 14.4
percent, 172 areas had rates above it, and 2 areas had rates equal to that of the
nation. (See table 1.)

The largest over-the-year unemployment rate increases occurred in Kahului-Wailuku-Lahaina,
HI (+32.5 percentage points), Las Vegas-Henderson-Paradise, NV (+29.5 points), and
Atlantic City-Hammonton, NJ (+29.1 points). Rates rose over the year by at least 20.0
percentage points in an additional 10 areas. The smallest rate increases from a year
earlier occurred in Logan, UT-ID, and New Haven, CT (+4.0 percentage points each).

Of the 51 metropolitan areas with a 2010 Census population of 1 million or more, Las Vegas-
Henderson-Paradise, NV, had the highest unemployment rate in April, 33.5 percent. The
next highest rates were in Detroit-Warren-Dearborn, MI, 24.4 percent, and Cleveland-Elyria,
OH, 23.1 percent. Hartford-West Hartford-East Hartford, CT, and Minneapolis-St. Paul-
Bloomington, MN-WI, had the lowest jobless rates among the large areas, 7.5 percent and
9.2 percent, respectively. All 51 large areas had over-the-year unemployment rate 
increases. The largest jobless rate increases were in Las Vegas-Henderson-Paradise, NV
(+29.5 percentage points); Detroit-Warren-Dearborn, MI (+20.7 points); and Cleveland-
Elyria, OH (+19.5 points). The smallest rate increases occurred in Hartford-West Hartford-
East Hartford, CT, and Minneapolis-St. Paul-Bloomington, MN-WI (+4.1 percentage points
and +6.5 points, respectively). 

Metropolitan Division Unemployment (Not Seasonally Adjusted)

Eleven of the most populous metropolitan areas are made up of 38 metropolitan divisions,
which are essentially separately identifiable employment centers. In April, Detroit-
Dearborn-Livonia, MI, had the highest unemployment rate among the divisions, 25.9 percent,
followed by Warren-Troy-Farmington Hills, MI, 23.6 percent, and Lawrence-Methuen Town-Salem,
MA-NH, 21.7 percent. Silver Spring-Frederick-Rockville, MD, had the lowest division rate,
8.8 percent, followed by Washington-Arlington-Alexandria, DC-VA-MD-WV, 10.1 percent. (See
table 2.)

In April, all 38 metropolitan divisions had over-the-year unemployment rate increases. 
Detroit-Dearborn-Livonia, MI, had the largest rate increase (+21.6 percentage points),
followed by Warren-Troy-Farmington Hills, MI, and Lawrence-Methuen Town-Salem, MA-NH (+20.3
points and +18.0 points, respectively). The smallest rate increases occurred in Silver
Spring-Frederick-Rockville, MD (+6.2 percentage points), and Washington-Arlington-Alexandria,
DC-VA-MD-WV (+7.3 points).

Metropolitan Area Nonfarm Employment (Not Seasonally Adjusted)

In April, 377 metropolitan areas had over-the-year decreases in nonfarm payroll employment
and 12 were essentially unchanged. The largest over-the-year employment decreases occurred
in New York-Newark-Jersey City, NY-NJ-PA (-1,949,600), Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim, CA
(-916,200), and Chicago-Naperville-Elgin, IL-IN-WI (-610,900). The largest over-the-year
percentage losses in employment occurred in Atlantic City-Hammonton, NJ (-32.9 percent),
Norwich-New London-Westerly, CT-RI (-27.4 percent), and Barnstable Town, MA (-25.0 percent).
(See table 3.)

Over the year, nonfarm employment declined in all of the 51 metropolitan areas with a
2010 Census population of 1 million or more. The largest over-the-year percentage decreases 
in employment in these large metropolitan areas occurred in Detroit-Warren-Dearborn, MI
(-24.5 percent), Las Vegas-Henderson-Paradise, NV (-20.7 percent), and Buffalo-Cheektowaga-
Niagara Falls, NY (-20.3 percent). 

Metropolitan Division Nonfarm Employment (Not Seasonally Adjusted)

In April, nonfarm payroll employment decreased in all of the 38 metropolitan divisions over
the year. The largest over-the-year decrease in employment among the metropolitan divisions
occurred in New York-Jersey City-White Plains, NY-NJ (-1,405,200), followed by Los Angeles-
Long Beach-Glendale, CA (-659,700), and Chicago-Naperville-Arlington Heights, IL (-483,200).
(See table 4.)

The largest over-the-year percentage decreases in employment occurred in Warren-Troy-
Farmington Hills, MI (-25.9 percent), Detroit-Dearborn-Livonia, MI (-22.2 percent), and
Nassau County-Suffolk County, NY (-21.7 percent). 

_____________
The State Employment and Unemployment news release for May is scheduled to be released
on Friday, June 19, 2020, at 10:00 a.m. (EDT). The Metropolitan Area Employment and
Unemployment news release for May is scheduled to be released on Wednesday, July 1, 2020,
at 10:00 a.m. (EDT).


  ______________________________________________________________________________________
 |											|
 |		    Coronavirus (COVID-19) Pandemic Impact on April 2020		|
 |			  Establishment and Household Survey Data			|
 |											|
 | BLS has continued to review all estimation and methodological procedures for the     |
 | establishment survey, which included the review of data, estimation processes, the   |
 | application of the birth-death model, and seasonal adjustment. Business births and   |
 | deaths cannot be adequately captured by the establishment survey as they occur.      |
 | Therefore, the Current Employment Statistics (CES) program uses a model to account   |
 | for the relatively stable net employment change generated by business births and     |
 | deaths. Due to the impact of COVID-19, the relationship between business births and  |
 | deaths is no longer stable. For the March 2020 final estimates updated with this     |
 | news release, CES modified the birth-death model. Typically, reports with zero       |
 | employment are not included in estimation. For the March final estimates, CES        |
 | included a portion of these reports in the estimates. For the April 2020 preliminary |
 | estimates, in addition to the inclusion of reported zeros, the establishment survey  |
 | made modifications to the birth-death model. For more information, see               |
 | www.bls.gov/web/empsit/cesbd.htm.							|
 |											|
 | In the establishment survey, workers who are paid by their employer for all or any   |
 | part of the pay period including the 12th of the month are counted as employed, even |
 | if they were not actually at their jobs. Workers who are temporarily or permanently  |
 | absent from their jobs and are not being paid are not counted as employed, even if   |
 | they are continuing to receive benefits. The length of the reference period does     |
 | vary across the respondents in the establishment survey; one-third of businesses     |
 | have a weekly pay period, slightly over 40 percent a bi-weekly, about 20 percent     |
 | semi-monthly, and a small amount monthly.						|
 |											|
 | For the April 2020 estimates of household employment and unemployment from the Local |
 | Area Unemployment Statistics (LAUS) program, BLS implemented level-shift outliers in |
 | the employment and/or unemployment inputs to the state models, based on statistical  |
 | evaluation of movements in each area's inputs. Both the household survey inputs,     |
 | which serve as the primary inputs to the LAUS state models, and the nonfarm payroll  |
 | employment and unemployment insurance claims covariates were examined for outliers.  |
 | The resulting implementation of level shifts preserved movements in published        |
 | estimates that the models otherwise would have discounted, without requiring changes |
 | to how the models create estimates at other points in the time series. Outlier       |
 | detection and implementation of level shifts are usual aspects of the LAUS modeling  |
 | procedures. However, until March 2020 these activities generally had been limited to |
 | annual processing, following the completion of estimation for the full calendar      |
 | year. Furthermore, prior to April 2020, outlier detection for model-based areas had  |
 | been limited to the household survey inputs. The implementation of level shifts for  |
 | the model covariates in the April 2020 processing cycle resulted in some unusually   |
 | large monthly revisions to estimates for March 2020.					|
 |											|
 | The "Frequently asked questions" document at						|
 | www.bls.gov/cps/employment-situation-covid19-faq-april-2020.pdf extensively          |
 | discusses the impact of a misclassification in the household survey on the national  |
 | estimates for April 2020. This misclassification was widespread geographically, with |
 | BLS analysis indicating that all states were affected to at least some degree.       |
 | However, according to usual practice, the data from the household survey are         |
 | accepted as recorded. To maintain data integrity, no ad hoc actions are taken to     |
 | reclassify survey responses. Hence, the household survey estimates of employed and   |
 | unemployed people that serve as the primary inputs to the state models were affected |
 | to varying degrees by the misclassification, which in turn affected the official     |
 | LAUS estimates for April. To a lesser degree, a similar misclassification had        |
 | occurred in the household survey for March, as documented at 			|
 | www.bls.gov/cps/employment-situation-covid19-faq-march-2020.pdf.			|
 |											|
 | Household data for substate areas are controlled to the employment and unemployment  |
 | totals for their respective model-based areas. Hence, the preliminary April and      |
 | revised March 2020 estimates for substate areas reflect the enhanced use of level-   |
 | shift outliers, where implemented, in the inputs for their model-based control areas.|
 | The substate area estimates for both months also were impacted by misclassification  |
 | in the household survey, in proportion to the impacts of the misclassifications on   |
 | the data for their model-based control areas.					|
 |											|
 | Due to the effects of the pandemic and efforts to contain the virus, Puerto Rico was |
 | not able to conduct normal data collection for its household survey in March or      |
 | April 2020; therefore, its data were not published. Household data for Puerto Rico   |
 | are not modeled, but rather are derived from a monthly household survey similar to   |
 | the Current Population Survey. In the absence of total controls for March and April, |
 | data for substate areas in Puerto Rico could not be produced.			|
 |______________________________________________________________________________________|




Technical Note
 
   This news release presents civilian labor force and unemployment data from the
Local Area Unemployment Statistics (LAUS) program (tables 1 and 2) for 389
metropolitan statistical areas and metropolitan New England City and Town Areas
(NECTAs), plus 7 areas in Puerto Rico. Estimates for 38 metropolitan and NECTA
divisions also are presented. Nonfarm payroll employment estimates from the
Current Employment Statistics (CES) program (tables 3 and 4) are provided for
the same areas. State estimates were previously published in the news release
State Employment and Unemployment, and are republished in this news release for
ease of reference. The LAUS and CES programs are both federal-state cooperative
endeavors.

Civilian labor force and unemployment--from the LAUS program

   Definitions. The civilian labor force and unemployment data are based on the
same concepts and definitions as those used for the official national estimates
obtained from the Current Population Survey (CPS), a sample survey of households
that is conducted for the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) by the U.S. Census
Bureau. The LAUS program measures employed persons and unemployed persons on a
place-of-residence basis.  The universe for each is the civilian noninstitutional
population 16 years of age and older. Employed persons are those who did any work
at all for pay or profit in the reference week (typically the week including the
12th of the month) or worked 15 hours or more without pay in a family business or
farm, plus those not working who had a job from which they were temporarily absent,
whether or not paid, for such reasons as labor-management dispute, illness, or
vacation. Unemployed persons are those who were not employed during the reference
week (based on the definition above), had actively looked for a job sometime in the
4-week period ending with the reference week, and were currently available for work;
persons on layoff expecting recall need not be looking for work to be counted as
unemployed. The civilian labor force is the sum of employed and unemployed persons.
The unemployment rate is the number of unemployed as a percent of the civilian labor
force.

   Method of estimation. Estimates for states, the District of Columbia, the Los
Angeles-Long Beach-Glendale metropolitan division, and New York City are produced
using time-series models with real-time benchmarking to national CPS totals. Model-
based estimates are also produced for the following areas and their respective
balances: the Chicago-Naperville-Arlington Heights, IL Metropolitan Division;
Cleveland-Elyria, OH Metropolitan Statistical Area; Detroit-Warren-Dearborn, MI
Metropolitan Statistical Area; Miami-Miami Beach-Kendall, FL Metropolitan Division;
and Seattle-Bellevue-Everett, WA Metropolitan Division. Modeling improves the
statistical basis of the estimation for these areas and provides important tools
for analysis, such as measures of errors and seasonally adjusted series. For all
other substate areas in this news release, estimates are prepared through indirect
estimation procedures using a building-block approach.  Estimates of employed
persons, which are based largely on “place of work” estimates from the CES program,
are adjusted to refer to place of residence as used in the CPS. Unemployment
estimates are aggregates of persons previously employed in industries covered by
state unemployment insurance (UI) laws and entrants to the labor force from the
CPS. The substate estimates of employment and unemployment, which geographically
exhaust the entire state, are adjusted proportionally to ensure that they add to
the independently estimated model-based area totals. A detailed description of the
estimation procedures is available from BLS upon request.

   Annual revisions. Civilian labor force and unemployment data shown for the prior
year reflect adjustments made at the beginning of each year, usually implemented with
the issuance of January estimates. The adjusted model-based estimates typically reflect
updated population data from the U.S. Census Bureau, any revisions in other input
data sources, and model re-estimation. All substate estimates then are re-estimated
using updated inputs and adjusted to add to the revised model-based totals.  In early
2015, a new generation of time-series models was implemented, resulting in the
replacement of data back to the series beginnings. At the same time, enhancements were
made to the substate estimation methodology, and more timely inputs from the American
Community Survey were incorporated.

Employment--from the CES program 

   Definitions. Employment data refer to persons on establishment payrolls who receive
pay for any part of the pay period that includes the 12th of the month. Persons are
counted at their place of work rather than at their place of residence; those appearing
on more than one payroll are counted on each payroll. Industries are classified on the
basis of their principal activity in accordance with the 2017 version of the North
American Industry Classification System.

   Method of estimation. CES State and Area employment data are produced using several
estimation procedures. Where possible these data are produced using a "weighted link
relative" estimation technique in which a ratio of current-month weighted employment
to that of the previous-month weighted employment is computed from a sample of
establishments reporting for both months. The estimates of employment for the current
month are then obtained by multiplying these ratios by the previous month's employment
estimates. The weighted link relative technique is utilized for data series where the
sample size meets certain statistical criteria.

   For some employment series, the sample of establishments is very small or highly
variable. In these cases, a model-based approach is used in estimation. These models
use the direct sample estimates (described above), combined with forecasts of historical
(benchmarked) data to decrease volatility in estimation. Two different models
(Fay-Herriot Model and Small Domain Model) are used depending on the industry level
being estimated. For more detailed information about each model, refer to the BLS
Handbook of Methods.

   Annual revisions.  Employment estimates are adjusted annually to a complete count
of jobs, called benchmarks, derived principally from tax reports that are submitted by
employers who are covered under state unemployment insurance (UI) laws. The benchmark
information is used to adjust the monthly estimates between the new benchmark and the
preceding one and also to establish the level of employment for the new benchmark month.
Thus, the benchmarking process establishes the level of employment, and the sample is used
to measure the month-to-month changes in the level for the subsequent months.

   Seasonal adjustment. Payroll employment data are seasonally adjusted for states,
metropolitan areas, and metropolitan divisions at the total nonfarm level. For states,
data are seasonally adjusted at the supersector level as well. Revisions to historical
data for the most recent 5 years are made once a year, coincident with annual benchmark
adjustments.

   Payroll employment data are seasonally adjusted concurrently, using all available
estimates including those for the current month, to develop sample-based seasonal factors.
Concurrent sample-based factors are created every month for the current month's preliminary
estimate as well as the previous month's final estimate in order to incorporate real-time
estimates. 

Reliability of the estimates

   The estimates presented in this news release are based on sample surveys, administrative data,
and modeling and, thus, are subject to sampling and other types of errors. Sampling error
is a measure of sampling variability—that is, variation that occurs by chance because a
sample rather than the entire population is surveyed. Survey data also are subject to
nonsampling errors, such as those which can be introduced into the data collection and
processing operations. Estimates not directly derived from sample surveys are subject to
additional errors resulting from the specific estimation processes used. The sums of
individual items may not always equal the totals shown in the same tables because of
rounding.

Use of error measures

   Civilian labor force and unemployment estimates. Measures of sampling error are not
available for metropolitan areas or metropolitan divisions. Model-based error measures for
states are available on the BLS website at www.bls.gov/laus/lastderr.htm. Measures of
nonsampling error are not available for the areas contained in this news release. Information
on recent data revisions for states and local areas is available online at
www.bls.gov/lau/launews1.htm.

   Employment estimates. Changes in metropolitan area nonfarm payroll employment are cited
in the analysis of this news release only if they have been determined to be statistically
significant at the 90-percent confidence level.  Measures of sampling error for the total
nonfarm employment series are available for metropolitan areas and metropolitan divisions
at www.bls.gov/web/laus/790stderr.htm. Measures of sampling error for more detailed series
at the area and division level are available upon request. Measures of sampling error for
states  at the supersector level and for the private service-providing, goods-producing,
total private and total nonfarm levels are available on the BLS website at 
www.bls.gov/web/laus/790stderr.htm. Information on recent benchmark revisions
is available online at www.bls.gov/web/laus/benchmark.pdf.

Area definitions

   The substate area data published in this news release reflect the delineations issued by the
U.S. Office of Management and Budget on April 10, 2018. Data reflect New England City and
Town Area (NECTA) definitions, rather than county-based definitions, in the six New England
States. A detailed list of the geographic definitions is available online at
www.bls.gov/lau/lausmsa.htm.

Additional information

   Estimates of unadjusted and seasonally adjusted civilian labor force and unemployment
data for states and seven substate areas are available in the news release State Employment
and Unemployment. Estimates of civilian labor force and unemployment for all states,
metropolitan areas, counties, cities with a population of 25,000 or more, and other areas
used in the administration of various federal economic assistance programs are available
on the Internet at www.bls.gov/lau/. Employment data from the CES program are available on
the BLS website at www.bls.gov/sae/.

   Information in this news release will be made available to sensory impaired individuals
upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay Service: (800) 877-8339. 




LABOR FORCE DATA
NOT SEASONALLY ADJUSTED

Table 1. Civilian labor force and unemployment by state and metropolitan area
State and area Civilian labor force Unemployed
March April Number Percent of labor force
2019 2020 2019 2020(p) March April March April
2019 2020 2019 2020(p) 2019 2020 2019 2020(p)

Alabama

2,246,183 2,227,113 2,235,992 2,195,170 77,314 67,046 58,992 290,998 3.4 3.0 2.6 13.3

Anniston-Oxford-Jacksonville

46,300 45,630 45,910 47,701 1,858 1,620 1,436 8,762 4.0 3.6 3.1 18.4

Auburn-Opelika

76,430 76,676 76,111 74,057 2,522 2,092 1,769 9,216 3.3 2.7 2.3 12.4

Birmingham-Hoover

554,480 550,310 551,555 541,326 17,341 14,903 13,128 64,530 3.1 2.7 2.4 11.9

Daphne-Fairhope-Foley

97,617 96,391 97,486 91,688 3,149 2,609 2,394 14,387 3.2 2.7 2.5 15.7

Decatur

72,688 71,956 72,392 68,149 2,235 1,884 1,695 7,744 3.1 2.6 2.3 11.4

Dothan

64,509 63,599 63,853 60,142 2,282 1,907 1,733 6,217 3.5 3.0 2.7 10.3

Florence-Muscle Shoals

66,296 65,518 66,286 65,535 2,491 2,146 1,938 10,007 3.8 3.3 2.9 15.3

Gadsden

43,087 42,791 42,464 44,060 1,653 1,709 1,244 8,284 3.8 4.0 2.9 18.8

Huntsville

229,485 229,035 228,494 222,009 6,888 5,744 5,193 23,623 3.0 2.5 2.3 10.6

Mobile

189,946 187,625 188,444 186,844 7,911 7,131 6,244 28,173 4.2 3.8 3.3 15.1

Montgomery

173,681 170,972 173,135 171,420 5,911 5,213 4,560 23,944 3.4 3.0 2.6 14.0

Tuscaloosa

118,770 119,443 119,016 120,317 3,814 3,285 2,841 20,317 3.2 2.8 2.4 16.9

Alaska

345,061 340,653 343,620 334,747 23,455 19,953 21,609 45,980 6.8 5.9 6.3 13.7

Anchorage

194,115 191,260 193,485 189,829 11,583 10,027 10,683 27,143 6.0 5.2 5.5 14.3

Fairbanks

44,388 43,731 44,495 42,769 2,674 2,176 2,489 4,809 6.0 5.0 5.6 11.2

Arizona

3,521,017 3,588,453 3,504,642 3,541,277 165,883 220,450 157,118 458,154 4.7 6.1 4.5 12.9

Flagstaff

76,714 77,165 77,030 72,728 4,541 6,228 3,868 12,302 5.9 8.1 5.0 16.9

Lake Havasu City-Kingman

86,827 88,261 87,171 88,406 5,008 6,795 4,786 16,197 5.8 7.7 5.5 18.3

Phoenix-Mesa-Scottsdale

2,470,520 2,525,513 2,462,835 2,492,860 104,295 137,222 97,153 306,994 4.2 5.4 3.9 12.3

Prescott

105,992 106,535 105,871 110,896 4,776 6,264 4,584 15,344 4.5 5.9 4.3 13.8

Sierra Vista-Douglas

50,888 52,093 49,838 51,362 2,988 3,848 2,841 5,529 5.9 7.4 5.7 10.8

Tucson

497,331 500,658 494,965 496,958 22,254 29,815 20,877 62,819 4.5 6.0 4.2 12.6

Yuma

99,841 103,472 96,456 97,390 12,438 17,280 14,448 22,482 12.5 16.7 15.0 23.1

Arkansas

1,358,425 1,378,026 1,359,511 1,310,898 47,229 66,943 41,249 134,572 3.5 4.9 3.0 10.3

Fayetteville-Springdale-Rogers

278,115 286,187 278,239 267,670 6,984 9,815 6,035 21,397 2.5 3.4 2.2 8.0

Fort Smith

118,290 118,566 118,090 114,295 4,131 5,149 3,574 13,603 3.5 4.3 3.0 11.9

Hot Springs

41,557 42,119 41,662 40,003 1,498 2,070 1,269 6,116 3.6 4.9 3.0 15.3

Jonesboro

65,204 67,658 65,364 64,258 1,826 2,703 1,577 5,800 2.8 4.0 2.4 9.0

Little Rock-North Little Rock-Conway

359,094 357,479 358,898 344,518 11,205 16,331 9,846 37,385 3.1 4.6 2.7 10.9

Pine Bluff

34,840 35,177 34,805 32,753 1,766 2,489 1,584 3,384 5.1 7.1 4.6 10.3

California

19,393,147 19,192,116 19,238,934 18,519,433 864,141 1,106,405 733,781 2,989,198 4.5 5.8 3.8 16.1

Bakersfield

383,237 391,631 385,375 375,771 36,681 47,458 31,528 69,783 9.6 12.1 8.2 18.6

Chico

100,421 99,081 99,475 98,272 6,150 6,776 5,016 14,604 6.1 6.8 5.0 14.9

El Centro

71,080 73,121 69,023 71,484 11,769 15,216 10,818 20,047 16.6 20.8 15.7 28.0

Fresno

450,465 457,046 450,096 457,591 40,314 50,165 34,084 76,482 8.9 11.0 7.6 16.7

Hanford-Corcoran

58,193 59,193 57,420 58,251 5,730 7,345 4,767 9,810 9.8 12.4 8.3 16.8

Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim

6,741,839 6,584,222 6,687,849 6,289,315 278,628 386,520 246,420 1,180,141 4.1 5.9 3.7 18.8

Madera

61,899 63,367 60,745 63,051 5,259 6,749 4,501 10,450 8.5 10.7 7.4 16.6

Merced

117,654 116,614 115,884 116,325 12,086 15,349 10,052 21,837 10.3 13.2 8.7 18.8

Modesto

243,865 245,619 241,563 239,405 17,148 20,689 14,862 40,812 7.0 8.4 6.2 17.0

Napa

73,303 73,265 72,570 72,717 2,415 2,993 1,944 11,545 3.3 4.1 2.7 15.9

Oxnard-Thousand Oaks-Ventura

425,351 422,108 422,466 409,293 16,228 20,027 13,307 57,417 3.8 4.7 3.1 14.0

Redding

74,448 73,439 73,500 70,622 4,273 5,056 3,466 11,228 5.7 6.9 4.7 15.9

Riverside-San Bernardino-Ontario

2,073,615 2,062,891 2,050,895 2,047,533 87,684 107,313 74,023 295,530 4.2 5.2 3.6 14.4

Sacramento--Roseville--Arden-Arcade

1,102,678 1,098,853 1,088,877 1,041,195 44,656 52,771 36,819 148,139 4.0 4.8 3.4 14.2

Salinas

215,483 219,166 223,890 207,418 21,183 26,748 15,853 41,847 9.8 12.2 7.1 20.2

San Diego-Carlsbad

1,590,122 1,575,269 1,575,313 1,543,403 54,887 66,121 45,667 231,322 3.5 4.2 2.9 15.0

San Francisco-Oakland-Hayward

2,586,967 2,563,856 2,559,509 2,444,177 73,419 90,548 60,733 322,728 2.8 3.5 2.4 13.2

San Jose-Sunnyvale-Santa Clara

1,085,203 1,074,414 1,072,575 1,044,074 30,553 37,685 25,069 124,946 2.8 3.5 2.3 12.0

San Luis Obispo-Paso Robles-Arroyo Grande

141,534 141,756 141,284 135,095 4,430 5,447 3,655 18,552 3.1 3.8 2.6 13.7

Santa Cruz-Watsonville

141,236 141,468 144,070 132,798 9,304 11,428 7,661 23,142 6.6 8.1 5.3 17.4

Santa Maria-Santa Barbara

216,468 214,100 218,241 215,401 10,093 12,289 7,470 29,537 4.7 5.7 3.4 13.7

Santa Rosa

258,219 257,131 255,223 235,793 7,904 9,546 6,453 35,946 3.1 3.7 2.5 15.2

Stockton-Lodi

327,051 328,619 322,796 317,154 22,323 27,569 18,854 58,014 6.8 8.4 5.8 18.3

Vallejo-Fairfield

209,461 209,032 208,300 203,007 8,921 10,591 7,394 30,263 4.3 5.1 3.5 14.9

Visalia-Porterville

202,617 207,334 204,753 200,705 23,793 30,422 20,217 38,146 11.7 14.7 9.9 19.0

Yuba City

75,078 78,611 74,279 76,425 6,714 8,042 5,584 13,060 8.9 10.2 7.5 17.1

Colorado

3,114,112 3,120,125 3,109,558 3,046,679 97,015 167,668 85,675 364,834 3.1 5.4 2.8 12.0

Boulder

196,468 195,614 195,703 191,331 5,121 8,670 4,635 18,500 2.6 4.4 2.4 9.7

Colorado Springs

352,349 356,995 351,647 348,292 13,055 22,097 11,524 42,956 3.7 6.2 3.3 12.3

Denver-Aurora-Lakewood

1,655,557 1,668,413 1,655,599 1,638,635 49,469 85,957 44,061 198,911 3.0 5.2 2.7 12.1

Fort Collins

202,331 204,452 204,209 201,895 5,487 9,645 4,844 22,138 2.7 4.7 2.4 11.0

Grand Junction

76,563 76,111 76,505 73,342 2,985 5,325 2,529 9,270 3.9 7.0 3.3 12.6

Greeley

166,439 167,757 167,964 165,122 4,810 8,617 4,261 16,147 2.9 5.1 2.5 9.8

Pueblo

75,855 76,817 75,861 72,044 3,489 5,865 3,084 8,465 4.6 7.6 4.1 11.7

Connecticut

1,896,122 1,920,978 1,886,447 1,761,770 75,987 69,052 62,637 140,663 4.0 3.6 3.3 8.0

Bridgeport-Stamford-Norwalk

461,058 465,650 458,849 419,844 18,325 16,922 14,934 33,304 4.0 3.6 3.3 7.9

Danbury

105,751 106,910 105,186 96,651 3,721 3,399 2,834 7,546 3.5 3.2 2.7 7.8

Hartford-West Hartford-East Hartford

626,733 636,081 622,345 595,410 25,003 22,532 21,355 44,935 4.0 3.5 3.4 7.5

New Haven

325,658 331,332 325,283 306,495 12,474 11,207 10,247 21,951 3.8 3.4 3.2 7.2

Norwich-New London-Westerly

140,515 142,004 140,090 124,014 5,583 5,443 4,503 16,957 4.0 3.8 3.2 13.7

Waterbury

111,541 112,364 110,428 103,609 5,623 5,198 4,558 9,239 5.0 4.6 4.1 8.9

Delaware

486,109 477,155 486,111 463,346 17,869 24,084 16,882 68,510 3.7 5.0 3.5 14.8

Dover

79,490 78,164 79,157 78,850 3,115 4,404 2,925 12,480 3.9 5.6 3.7 15.8

Salisbury(1)

188,813 189,840 190,110 181,210 9,914 11,057 8,707 29,157 5.3 5.8 4.6 16.1

District of Columbia

409,447 421,750 409,186 403,204 22,965 24,835 20,741 44,838 5.6 5.9 5.1 11.1

Washington-Arlington-Alexandria

3,447,284 3,506,469 3,434,334 3,343,554 112,028 115,867 95,154 330,047 3.2 3.3 2.8 9.9

Florida

10,264,830 10,320,947 10,229,389 9,406,704 330,228 446,380 298,056 1,253,979 3.2 4.3 2.9 13.3

Cape Coral-Fort Myers

350,207 350,463 345,821 321,446 11,119 15,152 10,120 46,890 3.2 4.3 2.9 14.6

Crestview-Fort Walton Beach-Destin

126,952 129,501 126,842 118,333 3,631 4,822 3,271 16,064 2.9 3.7 2.6 13.6

Deltona-Daytona Beach-Ormond Beach

300,575 303,669 298,623 281,767 10,736 14,975 9,768 41,530 3.6 4.9 3.3 14.7

Gainesville

146,139 149,155 146,277 130,607 4,406 5,781 3,940 11,655 3.0 3.9 2.7 8.9

Homosassa Springs

47,766 47,894 46,966 44,560 2,339 3,188 2,115 7,024 4.9 6.7 4.5 15.8

Jacksonville

772,005 789,928 767,750 708,603 24,599 34,051 22,163 79,430 3.2 4.3 2.9 11.2

Lakeland-Winter Haven

303,081 308,409 301,351 285,778 11,280 15,217 10,230 38,252 3.7 4.9 3.4 13.4

Miami-Fort Lauderdale-West Palm Beach

3,131,428 3,086,694 3,139,186 2,805,124 94,725 126,215 84,881 371,436 3.0 4.1 2.7 13.2

Naples-Immokalee-Marco Island

184,789 185,559 181,382 164,585 5,408 7,408 4,895 22,072 2.9 4.0 2.7 13.4

North Port-Sarasota-Bradenton

370,723 373,780 366,985 333,306 11,685 15,879 10,619 47,258 3.2 4.2 2.9 14.2

Ocala

136,656 138,960 135,997 129,422 5,410 7,278 4,914 15,654 4.0 5.2 3.6 12.1

Orlando-Kissimmee-Sanford

1,347,674 1,359,650 1,342,310 1,250,221 41,143 57,264 37,370 202,692 3.1 4.2 2.8 16.2

Palm Bay-Melbourne-Titusville

279,950 285,109 279,366 268,858 9,251 12,666 8,459 34,815 3.3 4.4 3.0 12.9

Panama City

89,746 88,821 89,215 81,933 4,064 3,963 3,467 10,350 4.5 4.5 3.9 12.6

Pensacola-Ferry Pass-Brent

226,799 231,028 226,391 214,464 7,234 10,035 6,498 25,656 3.2 4.3 2.9 12.0

Port St. Lucie

218,557 223,121 217,486 205,810 8,054 11,092 7,353 27,696 3.7 5.0 3.4 13.5

Punta Gorda

72,270 73,987 71,379 64,362 2,700 3,604 2,452 10,066 3.7 4.9 3.4 15.6

Sebastian-Vero Beach

65,690 66,369 65,229 61,883 2,494 3,407 2,290 8,741 3.8 5.1 3.5 14.1

Sebring

36,197 36,776 36,077 33,475 1,645 2,254 1,494 3,819 4.5 6.1 4.1 11.4

Tallahassee

194,590 195,625 194,241 173,759 6,163 8,277 5,573 14,085 3.2 4.2 2.9 8.1

Tampa-St. Petersburg-Clearwater

1,539,396 1,567,314 1,529,411 1,432,214 50,297 68,105 45,524 187,052 3.3 4.3 3.0 13.1

The Villages

32,592 33,413 32,397 29,930 1,589 2,110 1,439 3,689 4.9 6.3 4.4 12.3

Georgia

5,102,935 5,167,293 5,064,999 4,872,842 182,864 233,410 158,519 596,017 3.6 4.5 3.1 12.2

Albany

66,647 67,581 66,167 62,218 2,926 3,625 2,526 7,030 4.4 5.4 3.8 11.3

Athens-Clarke County

99,057 98,493 98,958 92,677 3,465 4,218 2,908 10,441 3.5 4.3 2.9 11.3

Atlanta-Sandy Springs-Roswell

3,076,301 3,126,471 3,052,124 2,930,602 106,344 138,851 91,860 370,964 3.5 4.4 3.0 12.7

Augusta-Richmond County

268,195 270,773 269,205 256,877 10,332 11,294 8,712 27,107 3.9 4.2 3.2 10.6

Brunswick

52,295 52,320 52,591 45,940 1,887 2,240 1,621 7,193 3.6 4.3 3.1 15.7

Columbus

124,449 123,068 123,220 114,859 5,183 5,796 4,465 14,063 4.2 4.7 3.6 12.2

Dalton

59,415 58,612 58,932 60,269 2,720 3,020 2,440 12,346 4.6 5.2 4.1 20.5

Gainesville

101,899 102,986 100,922 96,929 3,033 3,558 2,619 10,266 3.0 3.5 2.6 10.6

Hinesville

34,372 34,902 33,935 32,209 1,269 1,637 1,101 3,083 3.7 4.7 3.2 9.6

Macon-Bibb County

103,785 103,436 102,192 97,179 4,056 4,805 3,499 10,414 3.9 4.6 3.4 10.7

Rome

44,207 44,435 43,598 44,399 1,679 1,978 1,416 5,972 3.8 4.5 3.2 13.5

Savannah

190,089 189,701 188,094 177,284 6,366 8,427 5,413 27,190 3.3 4.4 2.9 15.3

Valdosta

64,050 64,023 63,370 59,658 2,346 2,902 1,986 5,928 3.7 4.5 3.1 9.9

Warner Robins

86,563 86,959 85,579 80,004 3,118 3,644 2,733 8,149 3.6 4.2 3.2 10.2

Hawaii

665,482 667,544 663,211 633,025 17,942 15,049 17,225 148,980 2.7 2.3 2.6 23.5

Kahului-Wailuku-Lahaina

86,596 86,267 86,343 91,266 2,278 1,869 2,173 31,942 2.6 2.2 2.5 35.0

Urban Honolulu

452,267 453,211 449,581 419,548 11,596 9,678 11,055 83,882 2.6 2.1 2.5 20.0

Idaho

870,361 889,902 872,118 881,126 30,707 27,030 25,898 104,199 3.5 3.0 3.0 11.8

Boise City

372,146 381,732 371,422 379,549 11,333 9,946 9,863 46,598 3.0 2.6 2.7 12.3

Coeur d'Alene

78,371 80,041 79,261 80,479 3,896 3,254 2,869 13,677 5.0 4.1 3.6 17.0

Idaho Falls

70,919 73,848 71,206 74,534 1,981 1,858 1,609 5,804 2.8 2.5 2.3 7.8

Lewiston

31,288 31,143 31,310 29,119 1,292 1,018 1,041 3,185 4.1 3.3 3.3 10.9

Pocatello

42,955 43,505 42,992 41,492 1,313 1,259 1,164 4,087 3.1 2.9 2.7 9.9

Twin Falls

53,020 52,952 53,094 53,579 1,695 1,552 1,415 5,629 3.2 2.9 2.7 10.5

Illinois

6,458,721 6,267,000 6,413,186 6,115,743 286,272 262,659 234,005 1,032,810 4.4 4.2 3.6 16.9

Bloomington

96,136 88,720 97,432 85,284 4,250 2,332 3,182 10,947 4.4 2.6 3.3 12.8

Carbondale-Marion

61,268 56,638 60,969 56,705 2,847 1,691 2,093 9,701 4.6 3.0 3.4 17.1

Champaign-Urbana

125,648 118,825 126,428 113,780 5,360 2,890 4,174 12,402 4.3 2.4 3.3 10.9

Chicago-Naperville-Elgin

4,874,596 4,820,085 4,831,430 4,692,945 207,130 219,193 174,384 819,311 4.2 4.5 3.6 17.5

Danville

33,329 30,564 33,138 30,851 1,898 1,099 1,440 5,292 5.7 3.6 4.3 17.2

Davenport-Moline-Rock Island(1)

194,893 185,450 193,755 185,997 9,331 7,365 7,011 28,259 4.8 4.0 3.6 15.2

Decatur

48,648 44,958 48,864 41,659 2,823 1,875 2,221 6,728 5.8 4.2 4.5 16.2

Kankakee

55,974 52,708 55,298 51,527 3,345 2,105 2,422 8,207 6.0 4.0 4.4 15.9

Peoria

176,517 158,877 174,990 152,415 9,722 6,014 7,131 27,175 5.5 3.8 4.1 17.8

Rockford

167,187 150,864 164,826 156,131 10,080 6,614 7,398 35,039 6.0 4.4 4.5 22.4

Springfield

108,413 100,284 107,607 97,090 5,102 2,921 3,799 13,819 4.7 2.9 3.5 14.2

Indiana

3,391,157 3,273,454 3,373,458 3,230,276 126,893 104,961 96,412 553,940 3.7 3.2 2.9 17.1

Bloomington

80,421 78,040 80,908 74,293 2,964 2,475 2,164 7,690 3.7 3.2 2.7 10.4

Columbus

44,883 43,594 44,676 41,928 1,268 1,032 909 7,700 2.8 2.4 2.0 18.4

Elkhart-Goshen

114,568 108,468 113,517 114,147 3,532 2,883 2,797 33,439 3.1 2.7 2.5 29.3

Evansville

164,962 158,638 162,837 159,961 5,520 4,895 4,231 23,515 3.3 3.1 2.6 14.7

Fort Wayne

217,598 211,057 217,863 215,510 7,138 6,378 5,374 42,247 3.3 3.0 2.5 19.6

Indianapolis-Carmel-Anderson

1,066,187 1,038,555 1,065,603 993,947 35,354 29,555 27,415 132,081 3.3 2.8 2.6 13.3

Kokomo

36,850 35,710 37,534 41,165 1,567 1,387 2,485 14,035 4.3 3.9 6.6 34.1

Lafayette-West Lafayette

114,256 114,766 114,380 105,927 3,627 3,197 2,698 13,037 3.2 2.8 2.4 12.3

Michigan City-La Porte

48,258 46,104 47,814 46,875 2,568 1,994 1,788 9,674 5.3 4.3 3.7 20.6

Muncie

54,766 52,957 54,445 52,984 2,294 1,997 1,729 8,747 4.2 3.8 3.2 16.5

South Bend-Mishawaka

162,045 156,258 161,125 157,536 6,479 5,601 4,978 33,192 4.0 3.6 3.1 21.1

Terre Haute

76,784 73,082 76,210 71,317 3,762 2,894 2,807 11,754 4.9 4.0 3.7 16.5

Iowa

1,723,627 1,716,518 1,724,077 1,708,648 55,431 61,910 42,760 183,215 3.2 3.6 2.5 10.7

Ames

59,940 59,076 60,566 55,060 1,040 1,225 904 4,619 1.7 2.1 1.5 8.4

Cedar Rapids

148,190 146,482 148,262 148,021 4,929 5,726 3,801 17,994 3.3 3.9 2.6 12.2

Des Moines-West Des Moines

362,782 361,739 365,004 366,761 11,743 12,226 9,247 42,279 3.2 3.4 2.5 11.5

Dubuque

56,576 55,959 56,738 54,413 1,845 2,151 1,323 6,901 3.3 3.8 2.3 12.7

Iowa City

99,727 97,520 99,978 96,541 2,159 2,519 1,797 9,084 2.2 2.6 1.8 9.4

Sioux City

93,403 93,235 92,948 91,731 3,029 3,366 2,337 8,800 3.2 3.6 2.5 9.6

Waterloo-Cedar Falls

91,216 89,287 91,083 90,469 2,899 3,571 2,428 10,164 3.2 4.0 2.7 11.2

Kansas

1,476,085 1,501,963 1,473,233 1,495,940 49,849 43,497 41,220 174,016 3.4 2.9 2.8 11.6

Lawrence

66,081 66,172 66,701 66,823 2,007 1,773 1,674 7,515 3.0 2.7 2.5 11.2

Manhattan

48,044 47,598 48,835 45,100 1,392 1,149 1,168 3,769 2.9 2.4 2.4 8.4

Topeka

118,945 119,673 118,386 119,857 4,386 3,635 3,360 13,973 3.7 3.0 2.8 11.7

Wichita

313,189 318,673 313,879 333,415 11,129 10,400 9,421 59,353 3.6 3.3 3.0 17.8

Kentucky

2,072,300 2,066,706 2,063,511 2,056,469 97,348 110,123 80,609 331,023 4.7 5.3 3.9 16.1

Bowling Green

84,829 84,615 84,297 80,439 3,729 4,298 2,968 14,245 4.4 5.1 3.5 17.7

Elizabethtown-Fort Knox

67,943 67,505 67,368 69,307 3,158 3,633 2,611 12,369 4.6 5.4 3.9 17.8

Lexington-Fayette

270,740 268,085 272,697 271,015 10,338 11,392 8,452 40,114 3.8 4.2 3.1 14.8

Louisville/Jefferson County

676,297 669,791 672,203 647,246 27,872 28,527 23,832 107,386 4.1 4.3 3.5 16.6

Owensboro

55,549 54,989 55,620 54,704 2,413 2,662 1,977 7,770 4.3 4.8 3.6 14.2

Louisiana

2,082,795 2,129,078 2,082,577 1,928,325 85,628 135,115 78,569 280,233 4.1 6.3 3.8 14.5

Alexandria

62,559 64,221 62,776 57,680 2,781 4,221 2,511 5,699 4.4 6.6 4.0 9.9

Baton Rouge

419,976 432,805 416,712 385,848 15,257 24,042 14,022 50,325 3.6 5.6 3.4 13.0

Hammond

53,752 55,524 53,833 52,028 2,506 3,928 2,291 8,897 4.7 7.1 4.3 17.1

Houma-Thibodaux

87,287 88,708 87,120 83,118 3,463 5,308 3,162 10,232 4.0 6.0 3.6 12.3

Lafayette

210,062 213,064 210,350 193,218 8,563 13,696 7,884 25,374 4.1 6.4 3.7 13.1

Lake Charles

111,079 107,761 110,831 96,205 3,744 6,426 3,448 13,937 3.4 6.0 3.1 14.5

Monroe

79,209 81,366 78,697 72,903 3,715 5,831 3,400 8,436 4.7 7.2 4.3 11.6

New Orleans-Metairie

588,563 598,932 593,172 560,644 22,611 35,187 20,896 105,506 3.8 5.9 3.5 18.8

Shreveport-Bossier City

185,334 189,465 184,764 171,447 8,083 12,716 7,517 22,363 4.4 6.7 4.1 13.0

Maine

685,242 688,274 685,039 655,667 26,477 25,057 22,976 73,818 3.9 3.6 3.4 11.3

Bangor

70,755 72,332 71,783 69,023 2,674 2,571 2,324 7,108 3.8 3.6 3.2 10.3

Lewiston-Auburn

55,697 56,254 55,844 53,957 2,064 1,808 1,749 5,752 3.7 3.2 3.1 10.7

Portland-South Portland

205,392 206,560 206,370 192,148 6,297 5,684 5,426 21,292 3.1 2.8 2.6 11.1

Maryland

3,239,714 3,276,247 3,226,095 3,036,946 121,415 114,717 103,809 306,034 3.7 3.5 3.2 10.1

Baltimore-Columbia-Towson

1,510,674 1,526,488 1,506,352 1,400,170 56,848 53,297 49,135 145,130 3.8 3.5 3.3 10.4

California-Lexington Park

57,357 58,117 56,776 53,645 2,008 1,819 1,593 3,915 3.5 3.1 2.8 7.3

Cumberland

45,305 45,289 44,914 42,371 2,370 2,535 1,976 5,925 5.2 5.6 4.4 14.0

Hagerstown-Martinsburg

131,857 133,990 132,021 124,470 5,477 5,208 4,521 15,106 4.2 3.9 3.4 12.1

Massachusetts

3,801,221 3,763,557 3,784,300 3,386,216 124,631 111,438 103,672 538,660 3.3 3.0 2.7 15.9

Barnstable Town

119,494 117,568 121,700 107,299 6,223 5,670 4,540 22,653 5.2 4.8 3.7 21.1

Boston-Cambridge-Nashua

2,822,786 2,798,297 2,808,928 2,514,126 81,485 74,423 69,287 386,553 2.9 2.7 2.5 15.4

Leominster-Gardner

81,173 80,575 80,428 72,928 3,224 2,865 2,667 12,533 4.0 3.6 3.3 17.2

New Bedford

86,534 85,519 85,891 81,836 4,417 3,910 3,419 17,946 5.1 4.6 4.0 21.9

Pittsfield

42,737 41,007 42,264 38,075 1,892 1,654 1,575 6,813 4.4 4.0 3.7 17.9

Springfield

380,460 375,926 378,841 336,123 15,188 12,772 12,751 49,620 4.0 3.4 3.4 14.8

Worcester

363,777 362,909 361,650 326,326 13,016 11,400 10,835 46,829 3.6 3.1 3.0 14.4

Michigan

4,937,472 4,899,683 4,884,834 4,576,253 228,961 197,754 179,338 1,089,279 4.6 4.0 3.7 23.8

Ann Arbor

199,992 198,310 198,131 186,137 6,251 4,586 5,075 27,662 3.1 2.3 2.6 14.9

Battle Creek

63,089 61,451 62,268 60,383 2,922 2,194 2,365 14,884 4.6 3.6 3.8 24.6

Bay City

50,299 48,492 49,743 48,693 2,775 2,205 2,163 12,310 5.5 4.5 4.3 25.3

Detroit-Warren-Dearborn

2,158,185 2,165,074 2,124,913 1,929,715 100,870 100,381 78,881 471,785 4.7 4.6 3.7 24.4

Flint

182,521 180,757 181,839 184,035 9,909 7,501 7,975 55,459 5.4 4.1 4.4 30.1

Grand Rapids-Wyoming

584,367 575,963 579,384 538,452 19,482 14,733 15,057 117,501 3.3 2.6 2.6 21.8

Jackson

74,845 73,061 74,315 72,711 3,205 2,470 2,516 17,763 4.3 3.4 3.4 24.4

Kalamazoo-Portage

170,301 166,433 168,445 157,198 6,924 5,174 5,303 28,322 4.1 3.1 3.1 18.0

Lansing-East Lansing

252,402 248,954 251,866 237,500 9,370 7,116 7,408 45,337 3.7 2.9 2.9 19.1

Midland

40,736 39,617 40,406 38,411 1,815 1,480 1,398 7,686 4.5 3.7 3.5 20.0

Monroe

75,770 73,674 75,588 77,017 3,263 2,394 2,744 19,836 4.3 3.2 3.6 25.8

Muskegon

76,784 75,550 76,134 79,064 3,707 2,982 2,923 23,146 4.8 3.9 3.8 29.3

Niles-Benton Harbor

73,588 72,699 73,127 70,427 3,427 2,600 2,637 14,107 4.7 3.6 3.6 20.0

Saginaw

87,158 85,165 86,097 84,061 4,738 3,661 3,728 21,538 5.4 4.3 4.3 25.6

Minnesota

3,090,439 3,086,604 3,085,711 3,052,783 121,301 107,672 94,899 262,518 3.9 3.5 3.1 8.6

Duluth

144,313 142,608 144,002 142,218 6,949 6,410 5,766 18,142 4.8 4.5 4.0 12.8

Mankato-North Mankato

61,837 62,728 62,111 62,238 1,986 1,761 1,555 4,604 3.2 2.8 2.5 7.4

Minneapolis-St. Paul-Bloomington

2,019,968 2,019,216 2,012,570 1,993,021 69,395 62,817 54,965 183,882 3.4 3.1 2.7 9.2

Rochester

124,500 124,332 124,070 122,062 4,356 3,807 3,278 8,420 3.5 3.1 2.6 6.9

St. Cloud

113,341 113,193 113,494 113,324 4,882 4,268 3,674 9,253 4.3 3.8 3.2 8.2

Mississippi

1,269,582 1,268,451 1,267,432 1,191,786 64,742 60,590 60,185 186,051 5.1 4.8 4.7 15.6

Gulfport-Biloxi-Pascagoula

161,912 162,911 161,553 158,680 8,546 7,909 7,954 35,103 5.3 4.9 4.9 22.1

Hattiesburg

67,923 68,562 67,775 62,185 3,098 2,891 2,919 7,230 4.6 4.2 4.3 11.6

Jackson

266,799 264,454 265,852 246,928 12,200 11,395 11,471 34,142 4.6 4.3 4.3 13.8

Missouri

3,068,119 3,138,290 3,060,323 3,032,362 112,909 123,340 82,667 296,394 3.7 3.9 2.7 9.8

Cape Girardeau

48,295 49,206 48,086 46,434 1,625 1,870 1,207 4,525 3.4 3.8 2.5 9.7

Columbia

99,258 100,786 98,838 95,725 2,620 2,606 1,892 6,237 2.6 2.6 1.9 6.5

Jefferson City

74,795 75,656 74,703 71,972 2,253 2,495 1,575 4,673 3.0 3.3 2.1 6.5

Joplin

84,653 85,982 83,643 84,067 2,819 3,074 2,106 8,453 3.3 3.6 2.5 10.1

Kansas City

1,126,938 1,147,630 1,126,127 1,121,653 40,624 39,952 31,302 125,878 3.6 3.5 2.8 11.2

St. Joseph

63,165 64,035 63,127 61,938 2,263 2,318 1,695 4,397 3.6 3.6 2.7 7.1

St. Louis(2)

1,466,050 1,469,618 1,461,547 1,409,271 54,829 51,569 41,213 155,343 3.7 3.5 2.8 11.0

Springfield

234,712 241,219 233,265 233,889 7,294 8,178 5,322 21,218 3.1 3.4 2.3 9.1

Montana

527,703 535,146 528,624 518,439 22,162 22,642 17,703 61,461 4.2 4.2 3.3 11.9

Billings

87,557 87,282 87,489 85,616 3,302 3,247 2,577 9,530 3.8 3.7 2.9 11.1

Great Falls

38,029 37,866 37,969 36,972 1,534 1,432 1,175 4,491 4.0 3.8 3.1 12.1

Missoula

63,711 64,332 63,578 64,828 2,475 2,598 1,946 8,512 3.9 4.0 3.1 13.1

Nebraska

1,029,235 1,059,311 1,031,872 1,058,500 34,777 44,580 30,397 91,220 3.4 4.2 2.9 8.6

Grand Island

44,039 44,512 44,024 45,702 1,556 2,060 1,311 5,021 3.5 4.6 3.0 11.0

Lincoln

185,335 191,630 185,753 189,451 5,594 7,106 4,996 17,635 3.0 3.7 2.7 9.3

Omaha-Council Bluffs

491,732 506,106 492,965 500,194 17,176 21,842 14,682 50,107 3.5 4.3 3.0 10.0

Nevada

1,530,663 1,561,501 1,531,684 1,424,696 62,206 107,252 59,974 424,605 4.1 6.9 3.9 29.8

Carson City

26,020 26,797 26,084 23,131 1,178 1,897 1,056 4,952 4.5 7.1 4.0 21.4

Las Vegas-Henderson-Paradise

1,122,507 1,143,825 1,124,041 1,063,731 46,519 82,102 45,469 356,652 4.1 7.2 4.0 33.5

Reno

254,720 261,519 255,532 227,600 9,139 14,700 8,421 44,689 3.6 5.6 3.3 19.6

New Hampshire

770,508 764,208 765,976 713,552 22,725 21,078 19,243 122,573 2.9 2.8 2.5 17.2

Dover-Durham

86,282 85,686 86,395 79,610 2,393 2,150 1,989 12,379 2.8 2.5 2.3 15.5

Manchester

124,071 122,793 123,210 116,831 3,359 3,085 2,847 20,323 2.7 2.5 2.3 17.4

Portsmouth

75,974 75,831 76,418 69,589 2,042 1,912 1,774 10,538 2.7 2.5 2.3 15.1

New Jersey

4,450,191 4,565,536 4,422,942 4,455,935 164,678 168,965 124,804 707,163 3.7 3.7 2.8 15.9

Atlantic City-Hammonton

119,237 120,344 118,301 123,337 6,531 6,812 4,920 41,070 5.5 5.7 4.2 33.3

Ocean City

39,870 41,426 41,418 42,984 4,340 4,523 3,051 11,431 10.9 10.9 7.4 26.6

Trenton

200,508 208,308 198,761 204,228 6,336 6,540 4,847 21,543 3.2 3.1 2.4 10.5

Vineland-Bridgeton

64,385 66,372 64,732 67,334 3,857 3,967 2,881 10,927 6.0 6.0 4.5 16.2

New Mexico

945,164 962,996 944,960 912,946 45,161 60,045 41,959 103,972 4.8 6.2 4.4 11.4

Albuquerque

432,327 437,808 433,404 411,345 19,036 24,937 17,833 50,880 4.4 5.7 4.1 12.4

Farmington

51,684 51,977 51,885 48,300 2,845 4,012 2,551 6,414 5.5 7.7 4.9 13.3

Las Cruces

97,029 99,588 96,675 91,434 5,823 7,861 5,327 10,597 6.0 7.9 5.5 11.6

Santa Fe

73,746 75,958 73,569 69,551 2,832 3,649 2,723 8,588 3.8 4.8 3.7 12.3

New York

9,529,122 9,431,634 9,449,425 9,042,703 400,570 400,782 342,246 1,357,286 4.2 4.2 3.6 15.0

Albany-Schenectady-Troy

446,382 454,463 444,361 440,027 17,339 17,782 14,744 55,111 3.9 3.9 3.3 12.5

Binghamton

106,651 106,920 105,703 108,648 5,350 5,707 4,394 16,256 5.0 5.3 4.2 15.0

Buffalo-Cheektowaga-Niagara Falls

539,734 542,179 534,296 539,765 24,820 27,036 20,886 103,750 4.6 5.0 3.9 19.2

Elmira

35,147 35,286 34,754 36,415 1,531 1,674 1,333 5,795 4.4 4.7 3.8 15.9

Glens Falls

57,634 58,351 57,257 57,217 3,071 3,109 2,512 8,956 5.3 5.3 4.4 15.7

Ithaca

50,805 49,865 49,954 48,859 1,790 1,747 1,583 4,920 3.5 3.5 3.2 10.1

Kingston

87,153 88,609 86,796 89,971 3,429 3,621 2,884 13,148 3.9 4.1 3.3 14.6

New York-Newark-Jersey City

9,938,360 9,897,555 9,859,442 9,445,618 384,067 380,048 318,988 1,430,303 3.9 3.8 3.2 15.1

Rochester

519,912 521,720 517,162 504,037 22,453 23,846 19,276 74,861 4.3 4.6 3.7 14.9

Syracuse

304,662 307,595 302,319 300,722 13,882 14,570 11,639 48,913 4.6 4.7 3.8 16.3

Utica-Rome

128,922 128,632 128,034 127,334 6,203 6,351 5,191 19,206 4.8 4.9 4.1 15.1

Watertown-Fort Drum

43,497 43,619 43,014 43,637 2,798 3,124 2,324 7,380 6.4 7.2 5.4 16.9

North Carolina

5,072,312 4,979,418 5,050,492 4,675,542 203,528 212,807 178,912 585,304 4.0 4.3 3.5 12.5

Asheville

237,524 231,399 236,980 216,470 7,872 8,330 6,776 34,733 3.3 3.6 2.9 16.0

Burlington

82,651 81,202 81,976 73,413 3,243 3,353 2,829 9,331 3.9 4.1 3.5 12.7

Charlotte-Concord-Gastonia

1,363,808 1,353,433 1,356,316 1,266,077 50,841 53,087 44,320 161,328 3.7 3.9 3.3 12.7

Durham-Chapel Hill

305,996 301,558 304,804 277,931 10,975 11,062 9,616 26,431 3.6 3.7 3.2 9.5

Fayetteville

150,025 145,609 149,335 137,296 7,700 8,120 6,836 20,018 5.1 5.6 4.6 14.6

Goldsboro

53,052 50,874 52,676 45,924 2,269 2,306 2,017 4,387 4.3 4.5 3.8 9.6

Greensboro-High Point

374,294 363,339 372,529 332,783 15,547 16,263 13,651 49,765 4.2 4.5 3.7 15.0

Greenville

91,455 88,929 90,534 81,519 3,847 3,950 3,344 7,728 4.2 4.4 3.7 9.5

Hickory-Lenoir-Morganton

176,254 171,921 175,395 162,359 6,761 6,908 5,873 28,634 3.8 4.0 3.3 17.6

Jacksonville

65,764 64,589 65,523 61,868 3,172 3,155 2,791 7,325 4.8 4.9 4.3 11.8

New Bern

51,967 50,442 51,601 48,603 2,210 2,166 1,923 4,888 4.3 4.3 3.7 10.1

Raleigh

730,024 723,237 725,675 656,134 26,073 26,854 22,800 72,046 3.6 3.7 3.1 11.0

Rocky Mount

65,658 63,085 64,528 59,914 3,389 3,478 3,162 7,551 5.2 5.5 4.9 12.6

Wilmington

152,254 149,781 153,020 137,546 5,926 6,014 5,143 20,071 3.9 4.0 3.4 14.6

Winston-Salem

333,192 323,936 331,517 301,508 12,552 13,292 10,973 38,188 3.8 4.1 3.3 12.7

North Dakota

399,926 402,720 401,447 405,229 12,136 10,807 9,963 37,311 3.0 2.7 2.5 9.2

Bismarck

67,023 67,371 67,083 66,696 2,343 1,936 1,768 6,339 3.5 2.9 2.6 9.5

Fargo

137,618 139,553 137,843 140,203 4,137 3,542 3,325 11,670 3.0 2.5 2.4 8.3

Grand Forks

53,891 53,481 53,544 53,606 1,749 1,652 1,486 4,619 3.2 3.1 2.8 8.6

Ohio

5,774,816 5,729,866 5,752,958 5,676,170 244,786 311,030 202,345 989,327 4.2 5.4 3.5 17.4

Akron

358,664 354,508 357,031 341,310 16,072 19,079 13,066 54,546 4.5 5.4 3.7 16.0

Canton-Massillon

198,500 197,140 197,419 194,164 9,710 11,558 7,828 31,634 4.9 5.9 4.0 16.3

Cincinnati

1,121,271 1,113,065 1,113,799 1,077,860 41,809 48,943 34,734 152,041 3.7 4.4 3.1 14.1

Cleveland-Elyria

1,036,143 1,001,147 1,041,403 1,004,957 44,343 71,348 37,502 232,626 4.3 7.1 3.6 23.1

Columbus

1,085,692 1,096,446 1,080,284 1,068,761 38,380 45,511 32,444 146,108 3.5 4.2 3.0 13.7

Dayton

387,323 389,200 384,787 392,185 15,269 17,999 12,977 62,446 3.9 4.6 3.4 15.9

Lima

47,731 47,532 47,530 49,248 1,912 2,588 1,555 10,137 4.0 5.4 3.3 20.6

Mansfield

52,230 51,428 51,707 53,775 2,449 2,930 1,973 10,924 4.7 5.7 3.8 20.3

Springfield

63,127 63,706 62,885 65,149 2,667 3,382 2,188 11,362 4.2 5.3 3.5 17.4

Toledo

302,558 300,966 302,283 304,586 13,470 16,021 11,169 67,058 4.5 5.3 3.7 22.0

Weirton-Steubenville(1)

50,288 50,684 50,404 49,837 2,875 3,621 2,396 9,125 5.7 7.1 4.8 18.3

Youngstown-Warren-Boardman

239,543 234,609 237,290 235,749 14,678 16,588 12,228 46,739 6.1 7.1 5.2 19.8

Oklahoma

1,837,114 1,827,638 1,828,940 1,765,229 59,370 53,922 50,819 251,894 3.2 3.0 2.8 14.3

Enid

27,032 26,378 26,948 25,751 832 797 690 2,937 3.1 3.0 2.6 11.4

Lawton

50,883 50,703 50,744 50,104 1,827 1,493 1,532 9,515 3.6 2.9 3.0 19.0

Oklahoma City

683,593 680,431 680,839 656,417 20,695 18,131 17,729 97,226 3.0 2.7 2.6 14.8

Tulsa

481,111 477,674 478,439 463,026 15,611 14,115 13,456 69,450 3.2 3.0 2.8 15.0

Oregon

2,096,772 2,104,141 2,092,686 2,101,681 94,455 81,967 80,230 311,793 4.5 3.9 3.8 14.8

Albany

58,877 59,180 58,968 60,870 2,959 2,690 2,604 9,469 5.0 4.5 4.4 15.6

Bend-Redmond

94,850 95,746 95,049 96,492 4,972 3,827 3,751 17,556 5.2 4.0 3.9 18.2

Corvallis

48,747 49,525 48,457 48,077 1,653 1,453 1,370 4,918 3.4 2.9 2.8 10.2

Eugene

181,248 182,681 180,683 179,746 8,734 7,413 7,576 28,901 4.8 4.1 4.2 16.1

Grants Pass

35,615 35,824 35,518 35,775 2,171 1,855 1,824 5,563 6.1 5.2 5.1 15.5

Medford

103,253 101,891 102,912 103,221 5,565 4,788 4,802 16,568 5.4 4.7 4.7 16.1

Portland-Vancouver-Hillsboro

1,324,868 1,330,450 1,319,297 1,328,186 53,953 47,819 47,692 186,343 4.1 3.6 3.6 14.0

Salem

200,439 202,187 199,664 197,956 9,414 8,198 8,190 26,353 4.7 4.1 4.1 13.3

Pennsylvania

6,431,249 6,500,739 6,400,636 6,406,424 275,015 381,669 226,869 995,168 4.3 5.9 3.5 15.5

Allentown-Bethlehem-Easton

439,923 444,708 436,973 447,826 19,563 25,209 16,163 71,450 4.4 5.7 3.7 16.0

Altoona

58,803 59,126 58,712 61,376 2,523 3,571 2,026 10,588 4.3 6.0 3.5 17.3

Bloomsburg-Berwick

42,681 43,354 42,298 44,146 1,933 2,679 1,530 6,270 4.5 6.2 3.6 14.2

Chambersburg-Waynesboro

76,848 78,212 75,919 76,578 2,847 4,115 2,345 9,956 3.7 5.3 3.1 13.0

East Stroudsburg

82,615 83,514 81,768 80,387 4,381 6,028 3,720 16,754 5.3 7.2 4.5 20.8

Erie

128,543 128,613 127,485 128,271 6,005 8,589 4,765 21,378 4.7 6.7 3.7 16.7

Gettysburg

55,159 54,765 54,909 53,988 1,694 2,221 1,375 7,913 3.1 4.1 2.5 14.7

Harrisburg-Carlisle

296,996 301,253 296,718 299,187 10,299 14,212 8,776 40,066 3.5 4.7 3.0 13.4

Johnstown

57,872 58,314 57,387 58,635 3,014 4,381 2,340 10,193 5.2 7.5 4.1 17.4

Lancaster

280,334 283,179 279,779 277,006 9,189 12,260 7,674 40,786 3.3 4.3 2.7 14.7

Lebanon

71,381 72,414 71,019 73,494 2,639 3,648 2,185 10,129 3.7 5.0 3.1 13.8

Philadelphia-Camden-Wilmington

3,104,354 3,148,679 3,094,602 3,071,697 122,249 157,314 104,296 445,136 3.9 5.0 3.4 14.5

Pittsburgh

1,202,821 1,211,194 1,196,374 1,184,847 51,853 73,886 41,737 193,147 4.3 6.1 3.5 16.3

Reading

213,819 217,276 213,185 219,873 8,968 12,467 7,578 37,787 4.2 5.7 3.6 17.2

Scranton--Wilkes-Barre--Hazleton

274,883 278,684 273,616 274,348 14,870 20,154 12,064 48,793 5.4 7.2 4.4 17.8

State College

80,926 80,846 80,820 79,765 2,452 3,502 2,083 7,720 3.0 4.3 2.6 9.7

Williamsport

56,557 56,890 56,272 53,178 2,929 4,086 2,201 9,021 5.2 7.2 3.9 17.0

York-Hanover

233,997 235,902 232,701 241,180 8,511 11,417 7,103 35,840 3.6 4.8 3.1 14.9

Rhode Island

549,669 560,847 548,414 523,111 21,490 27,927 17,630 93,319 3.9 5.0 3.2 17.8

Providence-Warwick

686,034 694,829 683,687 648,851 27,506 32,939 22,307 118,109 4.0 4.7 3.3 18.2

South Carolina

2,370,345 2,403,025 2,363,633 2,369,620 79,731 72,853 60,382 289,686 3.4 3.0 2.6 12.2

Charleston-North Charleston

394,408 396,358 392,964 391,606 11,375 10,180 8,567 47,253 2.9 2.6 2.2 12.1

Columbia

402,352 410,691 400,751 394,821 12,786 11,421 9,669 33,817 3.2 2.8 2.4 8.6

Florence

97,569 98,460 97,020 95,355 3,497 3,146 2,697 8,720 3.6 3.2 2.8 9.1

Greenville-Anderson-Mauldin

435,870 440,241 432,550 442,523 13,272 12,075 9,912 54,418 3.0 2.7 2.3 12.3

Hilton Head Island-Bluffton-Beaufort

89,229 92,447 89,795 88,592 2,834 2,509 2,147 10,207 3.2 2.7 2.4 11.5

Myrtle Beach-Conway-North Myrtle Beach

199,239 201,869 202,729 194,031 9,368 8,930 7,352 41,476 4.7 4.4 3.6 21.4

Spartanburg

165,801 168,128 164,260 173,722 4,995 4,768 3,820 26,365 3.0 2.8 2.3 15.2

Sumter

43,724 44,621 43,664 45,226 1,709 1,668 1,312 5,001 3.9 3.7 3.0 11.1

South Dakota

459,822 465,585 460,099 468,288 16,563 15,725 15,271 51,298 3.6 3.4 3.3 11.0

Rapid City

72,728 74,403 73,782 75,771 2,852 2,642 2,583 10,420 3.9 3.6 3.5 13.8

Sioux Falls

154,133 156,014 154,845 155,936 4,850 4,683 4,362 16,473 3.1 3.0 2.8 10.6

Tennessee

3,330,420 3,381,975 3,323,559 3,217,232 116,176 109,312 96,887 482,905 3.5 3.2 2.9 15.0

Chattanooga

277,039 281,670 275,931 272,897 9,320 9,352 8,018 36,412 3.4 3.3 2.9 13.3

Clarksville

116,624 120,498 116,386 115,239 5,036 5,204 4,291 18,398 4.3 4.3 3.7 16.0

Cleveland

58,339 61,187 58,541 57,276 2,144 2,048 1,750 7,748 3.7 3.3 3.0 13.5

Jackson

65,195 65,457 64,926 58,116 2,372 2,117 2,024 7,931 3.6 3.2 3.1 13.6

Johnson City

93,367 93,450 92,642 88,354 3,571 3,279 3,008 11,641 3.8 3.5 3.2 13.2

Kingsport-Bristol-Bristol

138,303 138,674 138,132 133,540 5,319 5,247 4,283 18,260 3.8 3.8 3.1 13.7

Knoxville

432,342 435,526 430,858 413,806 14,382 13,229 11,721 55,944 3.3 3.0 2.7 13.5

Memphis

642,790 646,222 640,352 598,956 26,549 24,851 23,691 76,221 4.1 3.8 3.7 12.7

Morristown

53,025 53,660 53,243 52,648 2,062 1,936 1,752 8,573 3.9 3.6 3.3 16.3

Nashville-Davidson--Murfreesboro--Franklin

1,082,608 1,111,189 1,082,299 1,038,875 29,556 27,731 24,411 157,666 2.7 2.5 2.3 15.2

Texas

13,976,212 14,031,076 13,922,611 12,931,307 489,883 718,736 417,640 1,687,248 3.5 5.1 3.0 13.0

Abilene

78,315 78,129 78,167 70,944 2,406 3,397 1,960 6,279 3.1 4.3 2.5 8.9

Amarillo

131,682 131,654 131,790 119,039 3,529 4,800 2,787 10,425 2.7 3.6 2.1 8.8

Austin-Round Rock

1,228,466 1,235,984 1,227,316 1,132,878 33,047 47,371 27,985 138,089 2.7 3.8 2.3 12.2

Beaumont-Port Arthur

174,312 173,205 172,845 162,652 9,137 14,164 7,898 29,462 5.2 8.2 4.6 18.1

Brownsville-Harlingen

166,421 168,821 165,479 155,287 8,985 13,518 7,767 26,577 5.4 8.0 4.7 17.1

College Station-Bryan

137,377 137,292 135,154 123,034 3,663 5,418 3,012 10,906 2.7 3.9 2.2 8.9

Corpus Christi

206,895 205,198 206,199 186,127 9,100 12,736 7,442 29,525 4.4 6.2 3.6 15.9

Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington

3,931,453 3,962,016 3,922,980 3,685,992 130,478 183,947 111,608 470,108 3.3 4.6 2.8 12.8

El Paso

363,698 365,709 362,000 335,171 13,933 19,629 11,931 49,525 3.8 5.4 3.3 14.8

Houston-The Woodlands-Sugar Land

3,416,311 3,434,119 3,397,419 3,195,425 127,436 190,369 110,554 452,336 3.7 5.5 3.3 14.2

Killeen-Temple

175,929 177,456 176,063 162,674 6,701 9,356 5,674 18,350 3.8 5.3 3.2 11.3

Laredo

118,259 118,469 117,804 104,251 4,430 6,600 3,804 14,213 3.7 5.6 3.2 13.6

Longview

99,221 97,058 99,197 89,317 3,628 5,545 3,121 10,963 3.7 5.7 3.1 12.3

Lubbock

163,213 161,477 163,103 145,186 5,024 6,341 3,774 14,371 3.1 3.9 2.3 9.9

McAllen-Edinburg-Mission

352,114 359,346 349,258 338,467 20,245 33,660 17,618 61,656 5.7 9.4 5.0 18.2

Midland

109,512 108,242 110,122 95,438 2,238 3,651 1,833 9,718 2.0 3.4 1.7 10.2

Odessa

88,268 86,622 88,227 79,055 2,144 4,081 1,790 10,650 2.4 4.7 2.0 13.5

San Angelo

55,679 54,454 55,306 48,428 1,671 2,348 1,391 5,111 3.0 4.3 2.5 10.6

San Antonio-New Braunfels

1,196,465 1,198,501 1,193,380 1,115,308 37,248 54,081 31,304 146,803 3.1 4.5 2.6 13.2

Sherman-Denison

64,018 64,022 63,843 58,740 1,952 2,959 1,633 6,215 3.0 4.6 2.6 10.6

Texarkana

65,051 65,367 64,872 60,404 2,874 3,751 2,431 8,330 4.4 5.7 3.7 13.8

Tyler

107,033 105,512 107,114 98,894 3,589 5,167 3,051 12,035 3.4 4.9 2.8 12.2

Victoria

46,363 45,236 45,731 41,278 1,581 2,477 1,339 5,863 3.4 5.5 2.9 14.2

Waco

125,701 125,517 125,205 113,368 4,225 6,113 3,447 12,000 3.4 4.9 2.8 10.6

Wichita Falls

65,321 64,142 64,984 57,716 2,065 2,902 1,725 6,538 3.2 4.5 2.7 11.3

Utah

1,590,434 1,622,006 1,590,603 1,596,305 48,291 65,980 42,102 164,164 3.0 4.1 2.6 10.3

Logan

71,901 71,576 71,939 69,904 1,832 2,227 1,589 4,351 2.5 3.1 2.2 6.2

Ogden-Clearfield

328,015 333,996 329,371 336,097 9,973 13,520 8,688 32,534 3.0 4.0 2.6 9.7

Provo-Orem

311,496 318,119 310,851 307,382 8,657 11,608 7,407 23,873 2.8 3.6 2.4 7.8

St. George

75,225 77,664 75,564 75,471 2,448 3,495 2,225 9,282 3.3 4.5 2.9 12.3

Salt Lake City

657,756 672,045 659,515 663,706 19,724 26,884 17,359 74,028 3.0 4.0 2.6 11.2

Vermont

343,679 339,886 340,621 347,914 9,206 11,615 8,649 58,492 2.7 3.4 2.5 16.8

Burlington-South Burlington

125,188 123,894 125,298 125,055 2,539 3,293 2,175 18,110 2.0 2.7 1.7 14.5

Virginia

4,392,682 4,445,359 4,380,461 4,306,921 131,359 147,817 106,476 465,888 3.0 3.3 2.4 10.8

Blacksburg-Christiansburg-Radford

92,880 92,725 92,937 86,505 2,839 3,770 2,232 9,924 3.1 4.1 2.4 11.5

Charlottesville

122,011 124,988 123,591 120,921 3,295 3,646 2,629 11,625 2.7 2.9 2.1 9.6

Harrisonburg

67,112 66,834 67,177 65,427 1,957 2,130 1,546 6,701 2.9 3.2 2.3 10.2

Lynchburg

124,164 124,515 123,519 115,434 4,243 4,859 3,314 12,189 3.4 3.9 2.7 10.6

Richmond

685,554 694,676 682,818 667,873 21,420 23,749 17,571 75,567 3.1 3.4 2.6 11.3

Roanoke

158,733 159,725 157,982 152,294 4,695 5,456 3,777 16,256 3.0 3.4 2.4 10.7

Staunton-Waynesboro

60,595 60,610 60,529 61,725 1,718 1,826 1,333 5,857 2.8 3.0 2.2 9.5

Virginia Beach-Norfolk-Newport News

859,214 865,400 854,373 844,235 28,240 31,214 23,320 101,984 3.3 3.6 2.7 12.1

Winchester

73,382 74,611 73,179 71,984 2,205 2,324 1,751 7,139 3.0 3.1 2.4 9.9

Washington

3,889,343 3,895,060 3,875,503 3,932,156 187,240 209,204 160,332 622,779 4.8 5.4 4.1 15.8

Bellingham

115,563 115,692 115,201 119,559 5,980 5,482 5,689 20,517 5.2 4.7 4.9 17.2

Bremerton-Silverdale

127,968 129,623 127,232 131,278 6,485 5,427 6,073 18,451 5.1 4.2 4.8 14.1

Kennewick-Richland

142,055 146,081 144,204 149,902 10,100 7,842 8,085 19,053 7.1 5.4 5.6 12.7

Longview

48,125 47,986 47,578 48,734 3,110 2,724 2,957 7,668 6.5 5.7 6.2 15.7

Mount Vernon-Anacortes

62,367 62,319 62,577 65,337 3,579 3,223 3,351 12,485 5.7 5.2 5.4 19.1

Olympia-Tumwater

142,696 145,437 141,797 150,129 7,532 6,762 7,154 22,314 5.3 4.6 5.0 14.9

Seattle-Tacoma-Bellevue

2,169,172 2,165,143 2,154,351 2,158,872 77,012 118,960 64,082 360,161 3.6 5.5 3.0 16.7

Spokane-Spokane Valley

279,265 281,293 277,124 279,513 18,646 14,944 15,550 44,287 6.7 5.3 5.6 15.8

Walla Walla

31,460 31,572 31,726 31,787 1,909 1,421 1,560 3,507 6.1 4.5 4.9 11.0

Wenatchee

63,410 63,123 64,517 65,211 4,219 3,431 3,486 9,821 6.7 5.4 5.4 15.1

Yakima

127,283 128,874 129,058 132,966 11,818 8,667 9,450 18,434 9.3 6.7 7.3 13.9

West Virginia

784,130 812,584 789,799 775,157 41,124 50,094 35,643 122,798 5.2 6.2 4.5 15.8

Beckley

45,844 47,318 46,196 47,327 2,480 3,222 2,099 8,691 5.4 6.8 4.5 18.4

Charleston

91,551 94,679 91,943 91,658 4,681 5,602 4,089 16,474 5.1 5.9 4.4 18.0

Huntington-Ashland

145,540 148,871 145,316 147,468 7,687 8,886 6,604 24,661 5.3 6.0 4.5 16.7

Morgantown

69,579 72,623 70,172 69,393 2,842 3,154 2,430 8,579 4.1 4.3 3.5 12.4

Parkersburg-Vienna

38,266 40,141 38,925 39,983 2,164 2,697 1,818 6,717 5.7 6.7 4.7 16.8

Wheeling

64,706 65,168 65,036 62,095 3,810 4,966 3,259 10,867 5.9 7.6 5.0 17.5

Wisconsin

3,096,679 3,073,342 3,082,421 3,072,892 117,577 103,192 97,631 449,312 3.8 3.4 3.2 14.6

Appleton

130,377 128,631 129,832 129,830 4,258 3,544 3,706 17,692 3.3 2.8 2.9 13.6

Eau Claire

92,350 92,052 92,421 87,836 3,635 3,270 3,021 11,755 3.9 3.6 3.3 13.4

Fond du Lac

57,225 56,591 56,928 58,715 1,863 1,691 1,442 9,560 3.3 3.0 2.5 16.3

Green Bay

173,108 171,762 172,267 171,305 6,089 5,350 5,107 23,705 3.5 3.1 3.0 13.8

Janesville-Beloit

85,227 84,583 84,888 86,565 3,524 3,235 2,836 14,744 4.1 3.8 3.3 17.0

La Crosse-Onalaska

77,324 76,211 77,116 75,096 2,672 2,152 2,100 9,108 3.5 2.8 2.7 12.1

Madison

385,718 387,949 384,924 366,858 10,861 9,087 9,105 43,471 2.8 2.3 2.4 11.8

Milwaukee-Waukesha-West Allis

818,575 810,441 810,529 816,896 30,214 26,251 26,001 118,344 3.7 3.2 3.2 14.5

Oshkosh-Neenah

91,766 90,159 91,093 91,430 2,873 2,442 2,533 13,021 3.1 2.7 2.8 14.2

Racine

98,748 96,984 98,147 101,440 4,495 4,018 3,688 15,691 4.6 4.1 3.8 15.5

Sheboygan

61,845 60,703 61,526 62,458 1,851 1,692 1,535 9,340 3.0 2.8 2.5 15.0

Wausau

73,431 73,692 72,817 71,898 2,424 2,024 2,058 8,856 3.3 2.7 2.8 12.3

Wyoming

289,806 293,605 288,723 294,311 11,211 12,754 9,980 28,208 3.9 4.3 3.5 9.6

Casper

39,514 39,310 39,423 39,924 1,633 1,821 1,423 5,087 4.1 4.6 3.6 12.7

Cheyenne

48,713 49,303 48,719 50,631 1,795 1,932 1,576 4,528 3.7 3.9 3.2 8.9

Puerto Rico

1,073,349 - 1,081,928 - 99,258 - 84,380 - 9.2 - 7.8 -

Aguadilla-Isabela

86,208 - 86,260 - 10,983 - 9,040 - 12.7 - 10.5 -

Arecibo

52,452 - 52,580 - 6,244 - 5,106 - 11.9 - 9.7 -

Guayama

20,200 - 20,152 - 3,047 - 2,528 - 15.1 - 12.5 -

Mayaguez

26,813 - 27,102 - 3,011 - 2,604 - 11.2 - 9.6 -

Ponce

91,824 - 92,224 - 11,974 - 10,168 - 13.0 - 11.0 -

San German

34,196 - 34,226 - 4,189 - 3,518 - 12.2 - 10.3 -

San Juan-Carolina-Caguas

718,614 - 727,495 - 53,882 - 46,577 - 7.5 - 6.4 -

Footnotes
(1) For operational reasons, these interstate areas are listed under the state that accounts for the larger share of the population, which is different from the state that contains the first principal city.
(2) The area boundary does not reflect the Office of Management and Budget delineation.
(p) Preliminary

- Data not available.
NOTE: Data refer to place of residence. Data for Puerto Rico are derived from a monthly household survey similar to the Current Population Survey. Area delineations are based on Office of Management and Budget Bulletin No. 18-03, dated April 10, 2018, and are available on the BLS website at https://www.bls.gov/lau/lausmsa.htm. Areas in the six New England states are Metropolitan New England City and Town Areas (NECTAs), while areas in other states are county-based. Some metropolitan areas lie in two or more states. They are listed under the state containing the first principal city, unless otherwise footnoted. Estimates for the latest month are subject to revision the following month.


LABOR FORCE DATA
NOT SEASONALLY ADJUSTED

Table 2. Civilian labor force and unemployment by state, selected metropolitan area, and metropolitan division(1)
State, area, and division Civilian labor force Unemployed
March April Number Percent of labor force
2019 2020 2019 2020(p) March April March April
2019 2020 2019 2020(p) 2019 2020 2019 2020(p)

California

19,393,147 19,192,116 19,238,934 18,519,433 864,141 1,106,405 733,781 2,989,198 4.5 5.8 3.8 16.1

Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim

6,741,839 6,584,222 6,687,849 6,289,315 278,628 386,520 246,420 1,180,141 4.1 5.9 3.7 18.8

Anaheim-Santa Ana-Irvine

1,625,454 1,587,658 1,610,768 1,529,552 49,066 59,017 40,538 211,756 3.0 3.7 2.5 13.8

Los Angeles-Long Beach-Glendale

5,116,385 4,996,564 5,077,081 4,759,763 229,562 327,503 205,882 968,385 4.5 6.6 4.1 20.3

San Francisco-Oakland-Hayward

2,586,967 2,563,856 2,559,509 2,444,177 73,419 90,548 60,733 322,728 2.8 3.5 2.4 13.2

Oakland-Hayward-Berkeley

1,409,414 1,390,931 1,392,306 1,334,430 45,511 55,376 37,843 190,136 3.2 4.0 2.7 14.2

San Francisco-Redwood City-South San Francisco

1,037,997 1,035,215 1,029,239 980,959 24,398 30,890 20,017 118,280 2.4 3.0 1.9 12.1

San Rafael

139,556 137,710 137,964 128,788 3,510 4,282 2,873 14,312 2.5 3.1 2.1 11.1

District of Columbia

409,447 421,750 409,186 403,204 22,965 24,835 20,741 44,838 5.6 5.9 5.1 11.1

Washington-Arlington-Alexandria(2)

3,447,284 3,506,469 3,434,334 3,343,554 112,028 115,867 95,154 330,047 3.2 3.3 2.8 9.9

Silver Spring-Frederick-Rockville(3)

696,950 701,456 692,464 661,588 21,771 20,029 18,085 57,947 3.1 2.9 2.6 8.8

Washington-Arlington-Alexandria(2)

2,750,334 2,805,013 2,741,870 2,681,966 90,257 95,838 77,069 272,100 3.3 3.4 2.8 10.1

Florida

10,264,830 10,320,947 10,229,389 9,406,704 330,228 446,380 298,056 1,253,979 3.2 4.3 2.9 13.3

Miami-Fort Lauderdale-West Palm Beach

3,131,428 3,086,694 3,139,186 2,805,124 94,725 126,215 84,881 371,436 3.0 4.1 2.7 13.2

Fort Lauderdale-Pompano Beach-Deerfield Beach

1,031,298 1,036,395 1,026,061 935,487 31,978 43,881 29,147 136,008 3.1 4.2 2.8 14.5

Miami-Miami Beach-Kendall

1,366,682 1,317,241 1,383,594 1,215,918 38,833 50,060 34,190 144,294 2.8 3.8 2.5 11.9

West Palm Beach-Boca Raton-Delray Beach

733,448 733,058 729,531 653,719 23,914 32,274 21,544 91,134 3.3 4.4 3.0 13.9

Illinois

6,458,721 6,267,000 6,413,186 6,115,743 286,272 262,659 234,005 1,032,810 4.4 4.2 3.6 16.9

Chicago-Naperville-Elgin(2)

4,874,596 4,820,085 4,831,430 4,692,945 207,130 219,193 174,384 819,311 4.2 4.5 3.6 17.5

Chicago-Naperville-Arlington Heights

3,729,765 3,746,491 3,699,535 3,639,494 143,941 176,979 130,568 640,336 3.9 4.7 3.5 17.6

Elgin

329,924 307,699 326,518 294,432 18,178 11,178 12,642 48,962 5.5 3.6 3.9 16.6

Gary(3)

347,378 331,419 342,858 334,065 20,764 15,495 14,056 66,037 6.0 4.7 4.1 19.8

Lake County-Kenosha County(2)

467,529 434,476 462,519 424,954 24,247 15,541 17,118 63,976 5.2 3.6 3.7 15.1

Massachusetts

3,801,221 3,763,557 3,784,300 3,386,216 124,631 111,438 103,672 538,660 3.3 3.0 2.7 15.9

Boston-Cambridge-Nashua(2)

2,822,786 2,798,297 2,808,928 2,514,126 81,485 74,423 69,287 386,553 2.9 2.7 2.5 15.4

Boston-Cambridge-Newton

1,685,647 1,673,032 1,677,699 1,481,423 44,413 40,391 38,254 208,915 2.6 2.4 2.3 14.1

Brockton-Bridgewater-Easton

111,946 110,952 111,612 102,270 3,834 3,659 3,219 19,461 3.4 3.3 2.9 19.0

Framingham

162,732 161,825 161,895 142,632 4,514 3,961 3,700 18,744 2.8 2.4 2.3 13.1

Haverhill-Newburyport-Amesbury Town(2)

118,080 115,819 118,061 105,899 3,900 3,609 3,288 18,633 3.3 3.1 2.8 17.6

Lawrence-Methuen Town-Salem(2)

99,652 97,713 98,985 92,491 4,257 3,738 3,699 20,092 4.3 3.8 3.7 21.7

Lowell-Billerica-Chelmsford(2)

198,648 195,701 197,563 177,228 6,278 5,619 5,188 27,539 3.2 2.9 2.6 15.5

Lynn-Saugus-Marblehead

87,170 85,907 86,438 79,840 2,803 2,523 2,314 14,911 3.2 2.9 2.7 18.7

Nashua(2)

176,840 176,791 176,135 165,499 5,587 5,298 4,689 27,952 3.2 3.0 2.7 16.9

Peabody-Salem-Beverly

94,734 94,263 93,778 85,692 2,751 2,620 2,404 14,661 2.9 2.8 2.6 17.1

Taunton-Middleborough-Norton

87,337 86,294 86,762 81,152 3,148 3,005 2,532 15,645 3.6 3.5 2.9 19.3

Michigan

4,937,472 4,899,683 4,884,834 4,576,253 228,961 197,754 179,338 1,089,279 4.6 4.0 3.7 23.8

Detroit-Warren-Dearborn

2,158,185 2,165,074 2,124,913 1,929,715 100,870 100,381 78,881 471,785 4.7 4.6 3.7 24.4

Detroit-Dearborn-Livonia

807,165 808,989 793,142 741,441 43,238 43,792 34,395 191,742 5.4 5.4 4.3 25.9

Warren-Troy-Farmington Hills

1,351,020 1,356,084 1,331,770 1,188,275 57,632 56,589 44,486 280,043 4.3 4.2 3.3 23.6

New York

9,529,122 9,431,634 9,449,425 9,042,703 400,570 400,782 342,246 1,357,286 4.2 4.2 3.6 15.0

New York-Newark-Jersey City(2)

9,938,360 9,897,555 9,859,442 9,445,618 384,067 380,048 318,988 1,430,303 3.9 3.8 3.2 15.1

Dutchess County-Putnam County

194,990 196,354 193,690 192,776 7,109 7,635 6,270 27,125 3.6 3.9 3.2 14.1

Nassau County-Suffolk County

1,478,657 1,484,847 1,469,824 1,427,251 53,309 56,904 45,511 228,146 3.6 3.8 3.1 16.0

Newark(3)

1,228,545 1,252,818 1,220,575 1,209,962 45,904 47,675 34,975 180,562 3.7 3.8 2.9 14.9

New York-Jersey City-White Plains(2)

7,036,168 6,963,536 6,975,353 6,615,629 277,745 267,834 232,232 994,470 3.9 3.8 3.3 15.0

Pennsylvania

6,431,249 6,500,739 6,400,636 6,406,424 275,015 381,669 226,869 995,168 4.3 5.9 3.5 15.5

Philadelphia-Camden-Wilmington(2)

3,104,354 3,148,679 3,094,602 3,071,697 122,249 157,314 104,296 445,136 3.9 5.0 3.4 14.5

Camden(3)

629,599 651,257 625,719 640,680 23,482 23,637 17,954 94,675 3.7 3.6 2.9 14.8

Montgomery County-Bucks County-Chester County

1,075,634 1,078,920 1,073,166 1,037,762 36,408 49,377 30,957 137,935 3.4 4.6 2.9 13.3

Philadelphia

1,013,987 1,038,670 1,011,224 1,031,717 48,156 66,579 42,404 163,825 4.7 6.4 4.2 15.9

Wilmington(3)

385,134 379,832 384,493 361,538 14,203 17,721 12,981 48,701 3.7 4.7 3.4 13.5

Texas

13,976,212 14,031,076 13,922,611 12,931,307 489,883 718,736 417,640 1,687,248 3.5 5.1 3.0 13.0

Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington

3,931,453 3,962,016 3,922,980 3,685,992 130,478 183,947 111,608 470,108 3.3 4.6 2.8 12.8

Dallas-Plano-Irving

2,644,829 2,674,531 2,642,474 2,496,064 88,036 122,897 75,742 314,314 3.3 4.6 2.9 12.6

Fort Worth-Arlington

1,286,624 1,287,485 1,280,506 1,189,928 42,442 61,050 35,866 155,794 3.3 4.7 2.8 13.1

Washington

3,889,343 3,895,060 3,875,503 3,932,156 187,240 209,204 160,332 622,779 4.8 5.4 4.1 15.8

Seattle-Tacoma-Bellevue

2,169,172 2,165,143 2,154,351 2,158,872 77,012 118,960 64,082 360,161 3.6 5.5 3.0 16.7

Seattle-Bellevue-Everett

1,728,706 1,719,235 1,716,736 1,705,664 52,310 96,975 40,918 277,468 3.0 5.6 2.4 16.3

Tacoma-Lakewood

440,466 445,908 437,615 453,208 24,702 21,985 23,164 82,693 5.6 4.9 5.3 18.2

Footnotes
(1) These 11 areas contain all of the 38 metropolitan divisions.
(2) Part of the area (or division) is in one or more adjacent states.
(3) All of the division is in one or more adjacent states.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data refer to place of residence. Area delineations are based on Office of Management and Budget Bulletin No. 18-03, dated April 10, 2018, and are available on the BLS website at https://www.bls.gov/lau/lausmsa.htm. Areas in the six New England states are Metropolitan New England City and Town Areas (NECTAs), while areas in other states are county-based. Some metropolitan areas lie in two or more states. They are listed under the state containing the first principal city. Metropolitan divisions are listed under their metropolitan areas. Some divisions lie in more than one state, and some, like Camden, NJ, are totally outside the states under which their metropolitan areas are listed. For Washington-Arlington-Alexandria, DC-VA-MD-WV, the metropolitan area and division titles are identical. Estimates for the latest month are subject to revision the following month.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
NOT SEASONALLY ADJUSTED
Table 3. Employees on nonfarm payrolls by state and metropolitan area, not seasonally adjusted
[In thousands]
State and area March April Change from
April 2019 to April 2020(p)
2019 2020 2019 2020(p) Number Percent

Alabama

2,061.4 2,073.8 2,071.3 1,872.1 -199.2 -9.6

Anniston-Oxford-Jacksonville

47.1 47.2 47.1 43.1 -4.0 -8.5

Auburn-Opelika

66.2 67.9 67.0 61.0 -6.0 -9.0

Birmingham-Hoover

542.8 545.0 544.5 501.6 -42.9 -7.9

Daphne-Fairhope-Foley

79.9 80.0 80.7 66.9 -13.8 -17.1

Decatur

57.1 57.2 57.2 50.5 -6.7 -11.7

Dothan

59.9 59.9 59.8 54.1 -5.7 -9.5

Florence-Muscle Shoals

57.3 57.4 57.9 51.6 -6.3 -10.9

Gadsden

37.5 37.7 37.4 33.7 -3.7 -9.9

Huntsville

243.5 246.4 244.4 226.0 -18.4 -7.5

Mobile

185.9 185.8