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Economic News Release
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Metropolitan Area Employment and Unemployment (Monthly) News Release

For release 10:00 a.m. (ET) Wednesday, June 30, 2021 			 USDL-21-1223

Technical information: 
 Employment:	sminfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/sae 
 Unemployment: 	lausinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/lau 

Media contact: 	(202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov


          METROPOLITAN AREA EMPLOYMENT AND UNEMPLOYMENT -- MAY 2021


Unemployment rates were lower in May than a year earlier in all 389 metropolitan
areas, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. A total of 27 areas
had jobless rates of less than 3.0 percent and 6 areas had rates of at least 10.0
percent. Nonfarm payroll employment increased over the year in 275 metropolitan
areas and was essentially unchanged in 114 areas. The national unemployment rate
in May was 5.5 percent, not seasonally adjusted, down from 13.0 percent a year
earlier.

This news release presents statistics from two monthly programs. The civilian
labor force and unemployment data are based on the same concepts and definitions
as those used for the national household survey estimates. These data pertain to
individuals by where they reside. The employment data are from an establishment
survey that measures nonfarm employment, hours, and earnings by industry. These
data pertain to jobs on payrolls defined by where the establishments are located.
For more information about the concepts and statistical methodologies used by
these two programs, see the Technical Note.

Metropolitan Area Unemployment (Not Seasonally Adjusted)

In May, Burlington-South Burlington, VT, had the lowest unemployment rate, 1.2
percent, followed by Manchester, NH, 1.4 percent. Yuma, AZ, had the highest rate,
17.0 percent. A total of 247 areas had May jobless rates below the U.S. rate of
5.5 percent, 131 areas had rates above it, and 11 areas had rates equal to that
of the nation. (See table 1.)

The largest over-the-year unemployment rate decreases occurred in Atlantic City-
Hammonton, NJ (-25.9 percentage points), and Kahului-Wailuku-Lahaina, HI (-22.1
points). Rates fell over the year by at least 15.0 percentage points in an 
additional seven areas. The smallest rate decrease from a year earlier occurred
in California-Lexington Park, MD (-1.9 percentage points).

Of the 51 metropolitan areas with a 2010 Census population of 1 million or more,
Birmingham-Hoover, AL, and Salt Lake City, UT, had the lowest jobless rates, 2.6
percent and 2.8 percent, respectively. Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim, CA, had
the highest unemployment rate in May, 9.1 percent, followed by Las Vegas-
Henderson-Paradise, NV, 8.9 percent. All 51 large areas had over-the-year
unemployment rate decreases. The largest jobless rate declines were in Detroit-
Warren-Dearborn, MI (-20.2 percentage points), Las Vegas-Henderson-Paradise, NV
(-19.2 points), and Orlando-Kissimmee-Sanford, FL (-17.2 points). The smallest
over-the-year rate decrease occurred in Memphis, TN-MS-AR (-3.6 percentage points).

Metropolitan Division Unemployment (Not Seasonally Adjusted)

Eleven of the most populous metropolitan areas are made up of 38 metropolitan
divisions, which are essentially separately identifiable employment centers. In
May, Nashua, NH-MA, had the lowest division unemployment rate, 1.5 percent. Los
Angeles-Long Beach-Glendale, CA, had the highest rate among the divisions, 10.1
percent. (See table 2.)

In May, all 38 metropolitan divisions had over-the-year unemployment rate
decreases. Detroit-Dearborn-Livonia, MI, had the largest rate decline (-21.4
percentage points), followed by Warren-Troy-Farmington Hills, MI (-19.5 points).
The smallest rate decrease occurred in Silver Spring-Frederick-Rockville, MD
(-3.1 percentage points).

Metropolitan Area Nonfarm Employment (Not Seasonally Adjusted)

In May, 275 metropolitan areas had over-the-year increases in nonfarm payroll
employment and 114 were essentially unchanged. The largest over-the-year
employment increases occurred in New York-Newark-Jersey City, NY-NJ-PA (+878,700),
Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim, CA (+455,500), and Detroit-Warren-Dearborn, MI
(+318,500). The largest over-the-year percentage gains in employment occurred
in Ocean City, NJ (+41.1 percent), Atlantic City-Hammonton, NJ (+40.5 percent),
and Flint, MI (+23.0 percent). (See table 3.)

Over the year, nonfarm employment increased in all 51 metropolitan areas with
a 2010 Census population of 1 million or more. The largest over-the-year
percentage increases in employment in these large metropolitan areas occurred
in Las Vegas-Henderson-Paradise, NV (+21.4 percent), Detroit-Warren-Dearborn,
MI (+20.1 percent), and Buffalo-Cheektowaga-Niagara Falls, NY (+17.4 percent). 

Metropolitan Division Nonfarm Employment (Not Seasonally Adjusted)

In May, nonfarm payroll employment increased in all 38 metropolitan divisions.
The largest over-the-year increase in employment among the metropolitan divisions
occurred in New York-Jersey City-White Plains, NY-NJ (+628,000), followed by
Los Angeles-Long Beach-Glendale, CA (+294,000), and Chicago-Naperville-Arlington
Heights, IL (+241,400). (See table 4.)

The largest over-the-year percentage increases in employment occurred in Warren-
Troy-Farmington Hills, MI (+20.5 percent), Detroit-Dearborn-Livonia, MI (+19.3
percent), and Haverhill-Newburyport-Amesbury Town, MA-NH (+16.4 percent). 

_____________
The State Employment and Unemployment news release for June is scheduled to
be released on Friday, July 16, 2021, at 10:00 a.m. (ET). The Metropolitan
Area Employment and Unemployment news release for June is scheduled to be
released on Wednesday, July 28, 2021, at 10:00 a.m. (ET).

 _______________________________________________________________________________
|										|
|              Coronavirus (COVID-19) Pandemic Impact on May 2021              	|
|                   Establishment and Household Survey Data			|
|										|
| BLS has continued to review all estimation and methodological procedures	|
| for the establishment survey, which included the review of data, estimation	|
| processes, the application of the birth-death model, and seasonal 		|
| adjustment. Business births and deaths cannot be adequately captured by	|
| the establishment survey as they occur. Therefore, the Current Employment	|
| Statistics (CES) program uses a model to account for the relatively stable	|
| net employment change generated by business births and deaths. Due to the	|
| impact of COVID-19, the relationship between business births and deaths is	|
| no longer stable. Typically, reports with zero employment are not included	|
| in estimation. For the April final and May preliminary estimates, CES 	|
| included a portion of these reports in the estimates and made modifications 	|
| to the birth-death model. In addition for both months, the establishment 	|
| survey included a portion of the reports that returned to reporting 		|
| positive employment from reporting zero employment. For more information, 	|
| see www.bls.gov/web/empsit/cesbd.htm.						|
|										|
| In the establishment survey, workers who are paid by their employer for 	|
| all or any part of the pay period including the 12th of the month are 	|
| counted as employed, even if they were not actually at their jobs. Workers	|
| who are temporarily or permanently absent from their jobs and are not being	|
| paid are not counted as employed, even if they are continuing to receive	|
| benefits. The length of the reference period does vary across the 		|
| respondents in the establishment survey; one-third of businesses have a	|
| weekly pay period, slightly over 40 percent a bi-weekly, about 20 percent	|
| semi-monthly, and a small amount monthly.					|
|										|
| For the May 2021 estimates of household employment and unemployment from 	|
| the Local Area Unemployment Statistics (LAUS) program, BLS continued to	|
| implement level-shift outliers in the employment and/or unemployment 		|
| inputs to the state models, based on statistical evaluation of movements	|
| in each area's inputs. Both the Current Population Survey inputs, which 	|
| serve as the primary inputs to the LAUS models, and the nonfarm payroll	|
| employment and unemployment insurance claims covariates were examined		|
| for outliers. The resulting implementation of level shifts preserved 		|
| movements in the published estimates that the models otherwise would have	|
| discounted, without requiring changes to how the models create estimates	|
| at other points in the time series.						|
|										|
| The "Frequently asked questions" document at 					|
| www.bls.gov/covid19/employment-situation-covid19-faq-may-2021.htm 		|
| extensively discusses the impact of a misclassification in the household	|
| survey on the national estimates for May 2021. Despite the considerable	|
| decline in its degree relative to prior months, this misclassification	|
| continued to be widespread geographically, with BLS analysis indicating	|
| that most states again were affected to at least some extent. However,	|
| according to usual practice, the data from the household survey are 		|
| accepted as recorded. To maintain data integrity, no ad hoc actions are	|
| taken to reclassify survey responses. Hence, the household survey estimates	|
| of employed and unemployed people that serve as the primary inputs to the	|
| state models were affected to varying degrees by the misclassification,	|
| which in turn affected the official LAUS estimates for May 2021. Similar	|
| misclassifications had occurred in the household survey from March 2020 	|
| through April 2021 (see www.bls.gov/covid19/effects-of-covid-19-pandemic-	|
| and-response-on-the-employment-situation-news-release.htm#summaries).		|
|										|
| Household data for substate areas are controlled to the employment and	|
| unemployment totals for their respective model-based areas. Hence, the	|
| preliminary May and revised April estimates for substate areas reflect	|
| the use of level-shift outliers, where implemented, in the inputs for 	|
| their model-based control areas. The substate area estimates also were	|
| impacted by misclassification in the household survey, in proportion		|
| to the impacts of the misclassifications on the data for their model-		|
| based control areas.								|
|										|
| Household data for Puerto Rico are not modeled, but rather are derived	|
| from a monthly household survey similar to the Current Population Survey.	|
| The Puerto Rico Department of Labor has reported a misclassification		|
| in its household survey since May 2020 similar in nature to the 		|
| misclassification in the Current Population Survey, which has affected	|
| the local area data proportionally.						|
|_______________________________________________________________________________|




Technical Note
 
   Special technical note: This technical note describes the procedures regularly
used on a monthly basis to develop estimates from the CES survey and the LAUS
program. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, some of the procedures described in this
technical note have been modified. The modifications are briefly described in the
box note of this news release. More information on the changes to the CES business
birth-death model is available at www.bls.gov/web/empsit/cesbd.htm.
   
   This news release presents civilian labor force and unemployment data from the
Local Area Unemployment Statistics (LAUS) program (tables 1 and 2) for 389
metropolitan statistical areas and metropolitan New England City and Town Areas
(NECTAs), plus 7 areas in Puerto Rico. Estimates for 38 metropolitan and NECTA
divisions also are presented. Nonfarm payroll employment estimates from the
Current Employment Statistics (CES) program (tables 3 and 4) are provided for
the same areas. State estimates were previously published in the news release
State Employment and Unemployment, and are republished in this news release for
ease of reference. The LAUS and CES programs are both federal-state cooperative
endeavors.

Civilian labor force and unemployment--from the LAUS program

   Definitions. The civilian labor force and unemployment data are based on the
same concepts and definitions as those used for the official national estimates
obtained from the Current Population Survey (CPS), a sample survey of households
that is conducted for the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) by the U.S. Census
Bureau. The LAUS program measures employed persons and unemployed persons on a
place-of-residence basis.  The universe for each is the civilian noninstitutional
population 16 years of age and older. Employed persons are those who did any work
at all for pay or profit in the reference week (typically the week including the
12th of the month) or worked 15 hours or more without pay in a family business or
farm, plus those not working who had a job from which they were temporarily absent,
whether or not paid, for such reasons as labor-management dispute, illness, or
vacation. Unemployed persons are those who were not employed during the reference
week (based on the definition above), had actively looked for a job sometime in the
4-week period ending with the reference week, and were currently available for work;
persons on layoff expecting recall need not be looking for work to be counted as
unemployed. The civilian labor force is the sum of employed and unemployed persons.
The unemployment rate is the number of unemployed as a percent of the civilian labor
force.

   Method of estimation. Estimates for states, the District of Columbia, the Los
Angeles-Long Beach-Glendale metropolitan division, and New York City are produced
using time-series models with real-time benchmarking to national CPS totals. Model-
based estimates are also produced for the following areas and their respective
balances: the Chicago-Naperville-Arlington Heights, IL Metropolitan Division;
Cleveland-Elyria, OH Metropolitan Statistical Area; Detroit-Warren-Dearborn, MI
Metropolitan Statistical Area; Miami-Miami Beach-Kendall, FL Metropolitan Division;
and Seattle-Bellevue-Everett, WA Metropolitan Division. Modeling improves the
statistical basis of the estimation for these areas and provides important tools
for analysis, such as measures of errors and seasonally adjusted series. For all
other substate areas in this news release, estimates are prepared through indirect
estimation procedures using a building-block approach.  Estimates of employed
persons, which are based largely on “place of work” estimates from the CES program,
are adjusted to refer to place of residence as used in the CPS. Unemployment
estimates are aggregates of persons previously employed in industries covered by
state unemployment insurance (UI) laws and entrants to the labor force from the
CPS. The substate estimates of employment and unemployment, which geographically
exhaust the entire state, are adjusted proportionally to ensure that they add to
the independently estimated model-based area totals. A detailed description of the
estimation procedures is available from BLS upon request.

   Annual revisions. Civilian labor force and unemployment data shown for the prior
year reflect adjustments made at the beginning of each year, usually implemented with
the issuance of January estimates. The adjusted model-based estimates typically reflect
updated population data from the U.S. Census Bureau, any revisions in other input
data sources, and model re-estimation. All substate estimates then are re-estimated
using updated inputs and adjusted to add to the revised model-based totals. In early
2021, a new generation of time-series models was implemented, resulting in the
replacement of data back to the series beginnings.

Employment--from the CES program 

   Definitions. Employment data refer to persons on establishment payrolls who receive
pay for any part of the pay period that includes the 12th of the month. Persons are
counted at their place of work rather than at their place of residence; those appearing
on more than one payroll are counted on each payroll. Industries are classified on the
basis of their principal activity in accordance with the 2017 version of the North
American Industry Classification System.

   Method of estimation. CES State and Area employment data are produced using several
estimation procedures. Where possible these data are produced using a "weighted link
relative" estimation technique in which a ratio of current-month weighted employment
to that of the previous-month weighted employment is computed from a sample of
establishments reporting for both months. The estimates of employment for the current
month are then obtained by multiplying these ratios by the previous month's employment
estimates. The weighted link relative technique is utilized for data series where the
sample size meets certain statistical criteria.

   For some employment series, the sample of establishments is very small or highly
variable. In these cases, a model-based approach is used in estimation. These models
use the direct sample estimates (described above), combined with forecasts of historical
(benchmarked) data to decrease volatility in estimation. Two different models
(Fay-Herriot Model and Small Domain Model) are used depending on the industry level
being estimated. For more detailed information about each model, refer to the BLS
Handbook of Methods.

   Annual revisions.  Employment estimates are adjusted annually to a complete count
of jobs, called benchmarks, derived principally from tax reports that are submitted by
employers who are covered under state unemployment insurance (UI) laws. The benchmark
information is used to adjust the monthly estimates between the new benchmark and the
preceding one and also to establish the level of employment for the new benchmark month.
Thus, the benchmarking process establishes the level of employment, and the sample is used
to measure the month-to-month changes in the level for the subsequent months.

   Seasonal adjustment. Payroll employment data are seasonally adjusted for states,
metropolitan areas, and metropolitan divisions at the total nonfarm level. For states,
data are seasonally adjusted at the supersector level as well. Revisions to historical
data for the most recent 5 years are made once a year, coincident with annual benchmark
adjustments.

   Payroll employment data are seasonally adjusted concurrently, using all available
estimates including those for the current month, to develop sample-based seasonal factors.
Concurrent sample-based factors are created every month for the current month's preliminary
estimate as well as the previous month's final estimate.

Reliability of the estimates

   The estimates presented in this news release are based on sample surveys, administrative data,
and modeling and, thus, are subject to sampling and other types of errors. Sampling error
is a measure of sampling variability—that is, variation that occurs by chance because a
sample rather than the entire population is surveyed. Survey data also are subject to
nonsampling errors, such as those which can be introduced into the data collection and
processing operations. Estimates not directly derived from sample surveys are subject to
additional errors resulting from the specific estimation processes used. The sums of
individual items may not always equal the totals shown in the same tables because of
rounding.

Use of error measures

   Civilian labor force and unemployment estimates. Measures of sampling error are not
available for metropolitan areas or metropolitan divisions. Model-based error measures for
states are available on the BLS website at www.bls.gov/laus/lastderr.htm. Measures of
nonsampling error are not available for the areas contained in this news release. Information
on recent data revisions for states and local areas is available online at
www.bls.gov/lau/launews1.htm.

   Employment estimates. Changes in metropolitan area nonfarm payroll employment are cited
in the analysis of this news release only if they have been determined to be statistically
significant at the 90-percent confidence level.  Measures of sampling error for the total
nonfarm employment series are available for metropolitan areas and metropolitan divisions
at www.bls.gov/web/laus/790stderr.htm. Measures of sampling error for more detailed series
at the area and division level are available upon request. Measures of sampling error for
states  at the supersector level and for the private service-providing, goods-producing,
total private and total nonfarm levels are available on the BLS website at 
www.bls.gov/web/laus/790stderr.htm. Information on recent benchmark revisions
is available online at www.bls.gov/web/laus/benchmark.pdf.

Area definitions

   The substate area data published in this news release reflect the delineations issued by the
U.S. Office of Management and Budget on April 10, 2018. Data reflect New England City and
Town Area (NECTA) definitions, rather than county-based definitions, in the six New England
States. A detailed list of the geographic definitions is available online at
www.bls.gov/lau/lausmsa.htm.

Additional information

   Estimates of unadjusted and seasonally adjusted civilian labor force and unemployment
data for states and seven substate areas are available in the news release State Employment
and Unemployment. Estimates of civilian labor force and unemployment for all states,
metropolitan areas, counties, cities with a population of 25,000 or more, and other areas
used in the administration of various federal economic assistance programs are available
on the Internet at www.bls.gov/lau/. Employment data from the CES program are available on
the BLS website at www.bls.gov/sae/.

   Information in this news release will be made available to sensory impaired individuals
upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay Service: (800) 877-8339. 




LABOR FORCE DATA
NOT SEASONALLY ADJUSTED

Table 1. Civilian labor force and unemployment by state and metropolitan area
State and area Civilian labor force Unemployed
April May Number Percent of labor force
2020 2021 2020 2021(p) April May April May
2020 2021 2020 2021(p) 2020 2021 2020 2021(p)

Alabama

2,175,494 2,222,794 2,211,140 2,208,901 276,037 65,092 168,304 63,643 12.7 2.9 7.6 2.9

Anniston-Oxford-Jacksonville

46,591 46,114 45,800 46,152 8,253 1,607 4,273 1,573 17.7 3.5 9.3 3.4

Auburn-Opelika

71,495 76,592 73,350 75,366 8,826 1,753 5,404 1,773 12.3 2.3 7.4 2.4

Birmingham-Hoover

532,681 550,374 544,813 547,881 61,032 15,012 38,506 14,451 11.5 2.7 7.1 2.6

Daphne-Fairhope-Foley

94,023 98,707 96,634 99,266 13,632 2,497 7,388 2,354 14.5 2.5 7.6 2.4

Decatur

71,759 73,522 72,976 73,197 7,320 1,659 4,334 1,623 10.2 2.3 5.9 2.2

Dothan

61,345 64,033 63,641 63,342 5,914 1,774 3,960 1,720 9.6 2.8 6.2 2.7

Florence-Muscle Shoals

64,635 65,242 64,673 64,804 9,466 1,875 5,373 1,887 14.6 2.9 8.3 2.9

Gadsden

40,856 39,617 39,509 39,611 7,825 1,360 4,146 1,349 19.2 3.4 10.5 3.4

Huntsville

223,592 236,471 229,375 235,564 22,398 5,237 13,656 5,136 10.0 2.2 6.0 2.2

Mobile

188,676 187,687 190,613 185,430 26,809 7,775 18,991 7,614 14.2 4.1 10.0 4.1

Montgomery

169,441 171,149 172,807 170,121 22,739 6,192 14,675 6,106 13.4 3.6 8.5 3.6

Tuscaloosa

112,391 114,136 112,896 113,196 19,186 3,585 10,697 3,639 17.1 3.1 9.5 3.2

Alaska

341,223 348,398 345,972 351,548 42,175 24,425 41,361 23,557 12.4 7.0 12.0 6.7

Anchorage

193,483 197,670 195,631 199,133 24,742 13,246 23,133 12,674 12.8 6.7 11.8 6.4

Fairbanks

43,589 45,112 44,654 45,549 4,364 2,437 4,332 2,341 10.0 5.4 9.7 5.1

Arizona

3,523,144 3,609,550 3,613,337 3,626,864 499,744 232,992 387,259 242,461 14.2 6.5 10.7 6.7

Flagstaff

73,402 75,423 74,219 74,490 13,374 5,729 10,278 5,986 18.2 7.6 13.8 8.0

Lake Havasu City-Kingman

89,892 88,593 92,762 89,174 18,292 6,450 15,117 6,696 20.3 7.3 16.3 7.5

Phoenix-Mesa-Scottsdale

2,483,098 2,560,308 2,553,049 2,573,490 334,249 155,261 258,462 159,101 13.5 6.1 10.1 6.2

Prescott

105,257 109,270 107,942 109,597 16,711 6,082 11,545 6,245 15.9 5.6 10.7 5.7

Sierra Vista-Douglas

50,687 52,624 51,923 52,589 5,965 3,187 4,537 3,369 11.8 6.1 8.7 6.4

Tucson

492,397 500,208 505,090 504,326 68,383 33,031 52,404 33,784 13.9 6.6 10.4 6.7

Yuma

99,665 94,629 97,109 94,531 24,880 12,559 20,893 16,093 25.0 13.3 21.5 17.0

Arkansas

1,367,099 1,367,128 1,359,019 1,366,507 132,291 58,531 118,575 60,425 9.7 4.3 8.7 4.4

Fayetteville-Springdale-Rogers

282,448 294,043 280,589 295,181 21,409 8,799 18,524 9,358 7.6 3.0 6.6 3.2

Fort Smith

118,580 119,633 119,229 120,151 12,855 4,552 11,911 4,826 10.8 3.8 10.0 4.0

Hot Springs

40,882 42,057 41,547 42,047 6,144 2,267 5,297 2,296 15.0 5.4 12.7 5.5

Jonesboro

65,287 66,774 65,688 66,955 5,658 2,345 5,205 2,472 8.7 3.5 7.9 3.7

Little Rock-North Little Rock-Conway

358,966 357,848 356,620 355,879 37,191 16,269 34,075 16,383 10.4 4.5 9.6 4.6

Pine Bluff

34,659 35,214 34,433 34,835 3,335 2,232 3,257 2,212 9.6 6.3 9.5 6.3

California

18,451,970 18,813,978 18,348,132 18,949,731 2,944,524 1,521,536 2,834,868 1,426,083 16.0 8.1 15.5 7.5

Bakersfield

374,498 373,296 382,878 378,935 69,695 39,740 64,636 38,170 18.6 10.6 16.9 10.1

Chico

92,137 91,352 91,357 91,994 14,690 6,436 12,107 6,084 15.9 7.0 13.3 6.6

El Centro

72,869 65,067 72,007 66,702 20,854 10,518 19,816 10,585 28.6 16.2 27.5 15.9

Fresno

445,117 436,908 444,229 445,694 76,241 41,692 67,543 39,227 17.1 9.5 15.2 8.8

Hanford-Corcoran

57,166 54,800 57,640 56,329 9,658 5,515 8,583 5,177 16.9 10.1 14.9 9.2

Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim

6,284,639 6,657,902 6,183,301 6,675,299 1,086,479 667,411 1,104,092 610,669 17.3 10.0 17.9 9.1

Madera

59,914 60,043 61,836 63,295 10,435 5,614 9,173 5,294 17.4 9.3 14.8 8.4

Merced

116,892 113,867 114,828 116,777 21,592 12,363 18,016 11,551 18.5 10.9 15.7 9.9

Modesto

240,047 237,124 237,954 240,306 41,399 20,277 37,049 19,319 17.2 8.6 15.6 8.0

Napa

66,343 67,788 68,298 71,379 11,789 4,210 10,383 3,958 17.8 6.2 15.2 5.5

Oxnard-Thousand Oaks-Ventura

404,736 405,583 403,864 406,750 58,679 24,770 54,946 23,781 14.5 6.1 13.6 5.8

Redding

72,463 72,519 71,481 73,222 11,402 5,026 9,145 4,663 15.7 6.9 12.8 6.4

Riverside-San Bernardino-Ontario

2,023,574 2,062,576 2,027,329 2,078,373 307,106 155,616 303,039 150,632 15.2 7.5 14.9 7.2

Sacramento--Roseville--Arden-Arcade

1,070,490 1,077,536 1,068,195 1,082,672 153,962 70,849 146,322 67,912 14.4 6.6 13.7 6.3

Salinas

215,561 215,211 216,395 221,592 41,183 18,506 32,078 16,214 19.1 8.6 14.8 7.3

San Diego-Carlsbad

1,512,665 1,515,125 1,507,154 1,519,341 240,383 101,018 234,493 97,177 15.9 6.7 15.6 6.4

San Francisco-Oakland-Hayward

2,433,670 2,416,241 2,431,683 2,433,437 334,366 139,944 316,935 134,175 13.7 5.8 13.0 5.5

San Jose-Sunnyvale-Santa Clara

1,039,827 1,033,928 1,037,702 1,041,533 128,668 51,798 118,290 49,429 12.4 5.0 11.4 4.7

San Luis Obispo-Paso Robles-Arroyo Grande

129,536 128,408 128,114 129,423 19,214 7,106 16,788 6,747 14.8 5.5 13.1 5.2

Santa Cruz-Watsonville

132,150 129,523 131,335 132,000 23,211 9,986 18,840 8,959 17.6 7.7 14.3 6.8

Santa Maria-Santa Barbara

214,288 216,210 215,578 219,636 29,940 12,807 26,715 11,922 14.0 5.9 12.4 5.4

Santa Rosa

240,967 238,142 240,073 242,489 37,133 13,566 32,283 12,831 15.4 5.7 13.4 5.3

Stockton-Lodi

329,544 328,164 334,828 334,309 58,835 29,154 52,894 27,911 17.9 8.9 15.8 8.3

Vallejo-Fairfield

200,434 198,868 198,940 199,818 31,533 14,964 28,892 14,336 15.7 7.5 14.5 7.2

Visalia-Porterville

201,485 197,116 203,859 201,176 37,561 21,621 33,645 20,563 18.6 11.0 16.5 10.2

Yuba City

76,251 73,694 75,573 75,188 13,123 6,780 11,083 6,393 17.2 9.2 14.7 8.5

Colorado

2,959,510 3,182,413 3,084,205 3,177,068 360,423 199,970 360,601 182,559 12.2 6.3 11.7 5.7

Boulder

182,720 196,269 192,829 196,786 18,337 10,357 18,932 9,340 10.0 5.3 9.8 4.7

Colorado Springs

337,927 367,254 350,897 369,677 42,506 23,541 39,716 21,440 12.6 6.4 11.3 5.8

Denver-Aurora-Lakewood

1,589,323 1,706,208 1,656,416 1,704,007 196,528 109,630 201,852 100,041 12.4 6.4 12.2 5.9

Fort Collins

191,968 209,479 200,501 208,628 21,839 11,365 20,380 10,265 11.4 5.4 10.2 4.9

Grand Junction

71,326 76,588 73,957 75,991 9,123 5,147 8,079 4,558 12.8 6.7 10.9 6.0

Greeley

159,436 168,837 165,119 167,195 15,957 10,884 16,687 9,840 10.0 6.4 10.1 5.9

Pueblo

73,586 78,790 76,327 78,676 8,351 6,666 7,923 6,256 11.3 8.5 10.4 8.0

Connecticut

1,805,067 1,739,813 1,882,909 1,741,469 151,084 131,354 219,130 104,216 8.4 7.5 11.6 6.0

Bridgeport-Stamford-Norwalk

432,816 420,431 454,764 422,457 35,937 31,522 53,736 25,189 8.3 7.5 11.8 6.0

Danbury

98,558 96,331 103,165 96,565 8,147 6,273 11,370 4,737 8.3 6.5 11.0 4.9

Hartford-West Hartford-East Hartford

605,783 574,584 626,053 572,830 48,089 43,917 69,680 34,748 7.9 7.6 11.1 6.1

New Haven

316,037 308,333 328,747 308,881 23,583 21,902 34,204 17,465 7.5 7.1 10.4 5.7

Norwich-New London-Westerly

127,519 125,430 135,806 125,800 18,028 10,282 23,702 8,263 14.1 8.2 17.5 6.6

Waterbury

105,164 103,761 110,056 103,593 9,904 9,483 14,024 7,751 9.4 9.1 12.7 7.5

Delaware

473,726 489,892 476,031 483,191 63,108 29,925 64,570 24,845 13.3 6.1 13.6 5.1

Dover

79,510 80,024 79,298 78,181 11,360 5,636 11,819 4,846 14.3 7.0 14.9 6.2

Salisbury(1)

178,372 189,895 181,896 192,670 25,895 11,743 25,000 10,174 14.5 6.2 13.7 5.3

District of Columbia

405,479 401,023 396,512 402,951 42,947 26,517 35,665 25,562 10.6 6.6 9.0 6.3

Washington-Arlington-Alexandria

3,376,600 3,325,416 3,347,545 3,340,815 318,911 167,835 290,168 167,501 9.4 5.0 8.7 5.0

Florida

9,717,870 10,364,012 9,972,760 10,458,871 1,348,861 535,519 1,428,081 523,442 13.9 5.2 14.3 5.0

Cape Coral-Fort Myers

331,925 356,641 342,953 354,786 49,878 16,544 47,646 16,200 15.0 4.6 13.9 4.6

Crestview-Fort Walton Beach-Destin

122,079 133,257 125,686 135,046 17,072 5,012 13,071 4,879 14.0 3.8 10.4 3.6

Deltona-Daytona Beach-Ormond Beach

286,365 302,259 293,062 306,849 43,399 15,834 41,929 15,484 15.2 5.2 14.3 5.0

Gainesville

135,343 150,514 136,668 148,356 12,422 6,003 11,987 5,931 9.2 4.0 8.8 4.0

Homosassa Springs

44,820 48,651 46,503 49,073 6,932 3,023 6,598 3,006 15.5 6.2 14.2 6.1

Jacksonville

736,713 808,017 760,243 817,322 84,996 35,599 83,834 34,619 11.5 4.4 11.0 4.2

Lakeland-Winter Haven

308,041 326,328 327,886 328,368 43,625 18,988 60,425 18,913 14.2 5.8 18.4 5.8

Miami-Fort Lauderdale-West Palm Beach

2,866,593 3,083,073 2,921,783 3,114,926 384,520 181,755 401,194 177,210 13.4 5.9 13.7 5.7

Naples-Immokalee-Marco Island

167,457 189,061 174,253 188,392 23,909 7,104 22,764 6,986 14.3 3.8 13.1 3.7

North Port-Sarasota-Bradenton

344,711 375,888 356,049 379,304 50,121 16,100 46,100 15,744 14.5 4.3 12.9 4.2

Ocala

132,993 144,610 136,428 145,265 16,714 7,838 15,946 7,747 12.6 5.4 11.7 5.3

Orlando-Kissimmee-Sanford

1,319,038 1,286,757 1,347,379 1,306,788 234,008 72,137 304,419 70,869 17.7 5.6 22.6 5.4

Palm Bay-Melbourne-Titusville

271,094 291,901 279,334 295,313 35,774 13,061 34,223 12,821 13.2 4.5 12.3 4.3

Panama City

83,330 92,464 86,695 93,669 11,188 4,100 9,330 3,938 13.4 4.4 10.8 4.2

Pensacola-Ferry Pass-Brent

218,140 237,594 223,431 238,580 25,952 10,681 23,316 10,247 11.9 4.5 10.4 4.3

Port St. Lucie

207,799 227,921 216,064 230,039 28,830 11,279 27,866 10,971 13.9 4.9 12.9 4.8

Punta Gorda

68,093 73,375 70,292 73,743 10,379 3,514 9,349 3,477 15.2 4.8 13.3 4.7

Sebastian-Vero Beach

61,964 67,064 63,875 67,286 8,874 3,523 8,407 3,418 14.3 5.3 13.2 5.1

Sebring

32,968 36,094 34,093 36,282 3,748 2,276 3,984 2,242 11.4 6.3 11.7 6.2

Tallahassee

179,477 196,598 182,092 196,329 15,732 9,187 16,227 8,876 8.8 4.7 8.9 4.5

Tampa-St. Petersburg-Clearwater

1,496,603 1,605,915 1,536,021 1,618,604 207,400 75,815 205,243 73,972 13.9 4.7 13.4 4.6

The Villages

30,935 32,639 31,564 32,939 3,967 1,997 4,131 1,903 12.8 6.1 13.1 5.8

Georgia

4,950,530 5,172,654 5,024,074 5,146,949 602,733 200,416 475,469 199,083 12.2 3.9 9.5 3.9

Albany

64,372 66,546 65,204 65,685 7,220 3,396 5,668 3,319 11.2 5.1 8.7 5.1

Athens-Clarke County

94,572 98,754 95,896 97,444 10,568 3,167 8,183 3,338 11.2 3.2 8.5 3.4

Atlanta-Sandy Springs-Roswell

2,980,616 3,116,749 3,025,719 3,100,999 376,241 122,819 308,356 121,288 12.6 3.9 10.2 3.9

Augusta-Richmond County

260,051 271,852 263,126 269,509 26,409 10,549 22,786 9,914 10.2 3.9 8.7 3.7

Brunswick

49,223 52,793 50,435 53,135 7,532 1,956 5,154 2,099 15.3 3.7 10.2 4.0

Columbus

120,608 122,854 122,599 122,067 14,314 5,179 11,550 5,151 11.9 4.2 9.4 4.2

Dalton

60,036 59,662 59,126 59,004 11,863 2,413 6,586 2,266 19.8 4.0 11.1 3.8

Gainesville

99,570 104,598 101,549 104,047 10,355 2,699 7,740 2,813 10.4 2.6 7.6 2.7

Hinesville

33,070 34,870 33,657 34,460 3,270 1,225 2,525 1,258 9.9 3.5 7.5 3.7

Macon-Bibb County

98,917 104,145 100,592 103,658 11,105 4,523 8,961 4,459 11.2 4.3 8.9 4.3

Rome

42,770 44,471 43,095 44,028 5,886 1,592 4,118 1,585 13.8 3.6 9.6 3.6

Savannah

186,260 199,979 188,816 198,906 27,541 7,880 20,379 7,720 14.8 3.9 10.8 3.9

Valdosta

62,425 66,148 63,030 65,093 6,097 2,587 4,917 2,546 9.8 3.9 7.8 3.9

Warner Robins

83,243 88,987 85,237 88,660 8,206 3,013 5,865 3,065 9.9 3.4 6.9 3.5

Hawaii

636,024 652,263 635,899 645,113 139,050 52,049 139,572 48,377 21.9 8.0 21.9 7.5

Kahului-Wailuku-Lahaina

84,845 80,696 84,158 80,043 27,900 9,062 27,327 8,330 32.9 11.2 32.5 10.4

Urban Honolulu

428,667 448,480 427,919 443,265 80,654 31,825 82,992 29,775 18.8 7.1 19.4 6.7

Idaho

868,898 900,639 883,908 905,050 100,962 30,501 75,012 26,516 11.6 3.4 8.5 2.9

Boise City

372,627 383,437 378,218 386,154 45,391 12,607 34,828 11,307 12.2 3.3 9.2 2.9

Coeur d'Alene

80,320 81,559 81,041 82,882 13,205 3,204 8,768 2,749 16.4 3.9 10.8 3.3

Idaho Falls

70,102 75,258 72,313 76,187 5,601 2,026 4,090 1,796 8.0 2.7 5.7 2.4

Lewiston

30,877 31,625 30,805 31,692 3,148 1,047 2,269 966 10.2 3.3 7.4 3.0

Pocatello

41,095 44,035 42,050 43,729 3,957 1,433 3,042 1,270 9.6 3.3 7.2 2.9

Twin Falls

52,401 53,102 53,058 53,094 5,458 1,767 4,054 1,548 10.4 3.3 7.6 2.9

Illinois

5,964,800 6,157,687 6,130,554 6,172,284 970,481 436,317 936,083 412,826 16.3 7.1 15.3 6.7

Bloomington

86,843 89,198 88,122 88,723 11,239 4,341 10,151 3,765 12.9 4.9 11.5 4.2

Carbondale-Marion

56,630 57,895 57,242 55,708 9,892 3,295 9,188 2,841 17.5 5.7 16.1 5.1

Champaign-Urbana

116,400 125,167 117,815 122,696 12,772 6,090 12,266 5,233 11.0 4.9 10.4 4.3

Chicago-Naperville-Elgin

4,521,950 4,681,085 4,646,938 4,701,925 747,790 351,122 723,656 345,354 16.5 7.5 15.6 7.3

Danville

31,503 31,988 31,730 31,842 5,365 2,083 4,682 1,858 17.0 6.5 14.8 5.8

Davenport-Moline-Rock Island(1)

184,575 182,424 185,565 183,123 29,428 10,330 26,047 9,187 15.9 5.7 14.0 5.0

Decatur

44,496 45,798 46,044 46,052 6,873 3,650 7,018 3,183 15.4 8.0 15.2 6.9

Kankakee

51,384 51,185 52,766 51,263 8,312 3,514 7,549 2,997 16.2 6.9 14.3 5.8

Peoria

162,803 163,578 166,576 164,937 27,907 10,584 25,685 9,054 17.1 6.5 15.4 5.5

Rockford

157,903 152,364 160,123 151,341 35,520 14,891 32,538 12,716 22.5 9.8 20.3 8.4

Springfield

95,621 99,992 98,570 100,175 14,264 5,908 13,891 5,044 14.9 5.9 14.1 5.0

Indiana

3,198,078 3,328,155 3,267,075 3,364,236 528,808 140,724 388,902 150,077 16.5 4.2 11.9 4.5

Bloomington

74,185 77,473 76,207 77,405 7,432 2,706 6,200 2,970 10.0 3.5 8.1 3.8

Columbus

41,498 43,537 42,681 44,252 7,250 1,442 5,581 1,572 17.5 3.3 13.1 3.6

Elkhart-Goshen

100,845 113,695 108,787 114,903 31,075 3,434 12,397 3,677 30.8 3.0 11.4 3.2

Evansville

152,084 155,612 155,646 156,533 23,110 6,222 17,159 6,564 15.2 4.0 11.0 4.2

Fort Wayne

209,450 215,458 212,027 218,340 39,899 8,761 28,996 9,320 19.0 4.1 13.7 4.3

Indianapolis-Carmel-Anderson

1,009,070 1,068,693 1,041,412 1,078,574 129,564 44,789 106,585 46,407 12.8 4.2 10.2 4.3

Kokomo

41,837 34,674 40,411 35,815 12,972 2,135 8,981 2,746 31.0 6.2 22.2 7.7

Lafayette-West Lafayette

99,592 110,087 102,772 106,843 12,599 3,916 12,261 4,382 12.7 3.6 11.9 4.1

Michigan City-La Porte

47,675 46,917 47,516 47,774 9,623 2,854 7,211 2,941 20.2 6.1 15.2 6.2

Muncie

51,364 52,400 50,840 52,208 8,202 2,346 6,060 2,562 16.0 4.5 11.9 4.9

South Bend-Mishawaka

154,152 156,340 157,106 158,307 31,929 7,570 20,963 7,843 20.7 4.8 13.3 5.0

Terre Haute

70,305 69,682 71,717 69,762 11,132 3,492 8,352 3,632 15.8 5.0 11.6 5.2

Iowa

1,704,471 1,654,353 1,655,737 1,657,304 188,141 66,189 137,551 66,626 11.0 4.0 8.3 4.0

Ames

58,651 56,406 54,594 55,665 4,752 1,473 3,158 1,672 8.1 2.6 5.8 3.0

Cedar Rapids

145,986 139,393 141,840 139,299 18,570 6,737 13,313 6,638 12.7 4.8 9.4 4.8

Des Moines-West Des Moines

363,031 357,349 351,526 357,795 43,922 14,319 31,606 14,591 12.1 4.0 9.0 4.1

Dubuque

56,543 55,003 55,174 55,322 7,114 2,276 5,706 2,211 12.6 4.1 10.3 4.0

Iowa City

97,566 94,091 94,142 92,617 9,623 3,349 7,143 3,482 9.9 3.6 7.6 3.8

Sioux City

92,320 89,518 89,008 89,850 8,766 3,228 6,726 3,216 9.5 3.6 7.6 3.6

Waterloo-Cedar Falls

89,230 86,060 86,587 85,557 10,476 3,562 8,184 3,494 11.7 4.1 9.5 4.1

Kansas

1,476,015 1,498,651 1,484,126 1,503,306 184,383 50,588 137,808 55,364 12.5 3.4 9.3 3.7

Lawrence

63,804 65,188 64,660 64,348 8,030 2,074 6,431 2,238 12.6 3.2 9.9 3.5

Manhattan

45,804 46,476 46,307 45,935 4,014 1,209 3,182 1,356 8.8 2.6 6.9 3.0

Topeka

119,246 121,064 118,902 121,168 14,808 3,659 10,607 3,976 12.4 3.0 8.9 3.3

Wichita

329,942 318,691 322,010 320,298 62,715 15,411 43,201 16,336 19.0 4.8 13.4 5.1

Kentucky

2,078,415 1,983,308 2,078,339 1,981,545 347,938 76,562 231,384 76,479 16.7 3.9 11.1 3.9

Bowling Green

82,846 81,502 81,922 80,940 14,869 2,787 10,134 3,049 17.9 3.4 12.4 3.8

Elizabethtown-Fort Knox

69,100 63,513 67,435 63,164 13,202 2,565 8,898 2,489 19.1 4.0 13.2 3.9

Lexington-Fayette

274,163 264,761 275,767 265,781 43,374 8,457 26,359 8,744 15.8 3.2 9.6 3.3

Louisville/Jefferson County

669,137 653,065 670,072 655,192 112,477 25,778 79,577 23,924 16.8 3.9 11.9 3.7

Owensboro

54,668 52,162 54,942 51,987 8,403 1,863 5,609 1,951 15.4 3.6 10.2 3.8

Louisiana

2,033,649 2,061,021 2,041,909 2,070,465 259,225 137,274 275,240 138,453 12.7 6.7 13.5 6.7

Alexandria

61,162 63,258 61,425 63,396 5,250 2,809 5,837 2,890 8.6 4.4 9.5 4.6

Baton Rouge

401,199 416,808 405,131 417,118 47,024 24,554 50,359 25,069 11.7 5.9 12.4 6.0

Hammond

55,164 56,129 55,815 56,608 8,245 4,092 9,060 4,233 14.9 7.3 16.2 7.5

Houma-Thibodaux

86,555 87,712 86,211 88,568 9,466 4,936 9,667 4,952 10.9 5.6 11.2 5.6

Lafayette

207,421 210,272 208,596 212,034 23,380 12,562 24,988 12,623 11.3 6.0 12.0 6.0

Lake Charles

103,462 96,750 102,358 98,018 12,837 6,802 14,374 6,728 12.4 7.0 14.0 6.9

Monroe

75,398 78,446 76,682 79,157 7,773 4,600 8,633 4,613 10.3 5.9 11.3 5.8

New Orleans-Metairie

585,437 587,363 585,067 588,148 97,373 48,182 97,574 47,930 16.6 8.2 16.7 8.1

Shreveport-Bossier City

178,562 182,355 179,200 183,513 20,586 11,689 23,311 11,864 11.5 6.4 13.0 6.5

Maine

648,822 670,279 677,547 672,232 63,329 35,264 58,628 31,714 9.8 5.3 8.7 4.7

Bangor

67,417 68,212 68,518 67,251 6,071 3,344 5,807 2,959 9.0 4.9 8.5 4.4

Lewiston-Auburn

53,528 54,067 55,724 53,827 4,913 2,836 4,746 2,615 9.2 5.2 8.5 4.9

Portland-South Portland

195,427 200,462 203,298 200,642 19,569 9,297 19,037 8,420 10.0 4.6 9.4 4.2

Maryland

3,104,331 3,113,254 3,130,185 3,122,889 273,123 183,551 290,402 182,141 8.8 5.9 9.3 5.8

Baltimore-Columbia-Towson

1,448,348 1,457,183 1,459,365 1,462,691 129,806 80,278 133,637 80,386 9.0 5.5 9.2 5.5

California-Lexington Park

56,699 56,906 56,803 56,958 3,498 2,382 3,541 2,473 6.2 4.2 6.2 4.3

Cumberland

41,982 43,316 42,515 43,219 5,183 2,527 4,597 2,464 12.3 5.8 10.8 5.7

Hagerstown-Martinsburg

126,332 128,189 129,846 128,929 13,855 6,077 12,976 5,915 11.0 4.7 10.0 4.6

Massachusetts

3,382,826 3,702,672 3,585,611 3,733,956 550,084 219,829 552,517 227,424 16.3 5.9 15.4 6.1

Barnstable Town

106,813 121,464 116,568 126,558 22,818 8,345 21,248 8,268 21.4 6.9 18.2 6.5

Boston-Cambridge-Nashua

2,529,281 2,747,890 2,673,789 2,760,971 395,502 147,879 402,114 150,753 15.6 5.4 15.0 5.5

Leominster-Gardner

72,357 78,700 76,657 79,250 12,742 5,418 12,601 5,527 17.6 6.9 16.4 7.0

New Bedford

78,249 84,812 82,565 85,445 18,066 6,298 17,008 6,331 23.1 7.4 20.6 7.4

Pittsfield

37,087 40,312 39,266 40,633 6,917 3,079 6,428 3,049 18.7 7.6 16.4 7.5

Springfield

336,439 365,292 355,451 366,042 50,885 24,987 52,399 25,033 15.1 6.8 14.7 6.8

Worcester

325,517 347,502 343,393 350,764 47,857 20,955 48,785 21,439 14.7 6.0 14.2 6.1

Michigan

4,530,016 4,647,038 4,711,928 4,723,959 1,070,661 213,922 994,641 246,399 23.6 4.6 21.1 5.2

Ann Arbor

180,823 188,778 192,357 186,963 26,839 7,550 26,372 8,701 14.8 4.0 13.7 4.7

Battle Creek

59,697 59,411 64,267 60,512 14,465 3,546 13,993 4,090 24.2 6.0 21.8 6.8

Bay City

47,716 47,831 50,403 48,247 11,956 2,760 9,730 2,924 25.1 5.8 19.3 6.1

Detroit-Warren-Dearborn

1,913,920 1,992,674 1,943,895 2,027,452 470,539 73,829 481,970 92,723 24.6 3.7 24.8 4.6

Flint

174,414 174,536 182,612 177,503 53,874 11,981 46,050 13,248 30.9 6.9 25.2 7.5

Grand Rapids-Wyoming

544,296 560,020 575,850 571,710 114,137 23,619 96,343 27,102 21.0 4.2 16.7 4.7

Jackson

72,995 70,997 75,825 72,042 17,251 3,841 14,979 4,278 23.6 5.4 19.8 5.9

Kalamazoo-Portage

155,616 160,618 166,574 160,974 27,526 7,787 25,393 8,840 17.7 4.8 15.2 5.5

Lansing-East Lansing

232,929 235,090 246,470 237,434 44,039 12,936 39,675 13,309 18.9 5.5 16.1 5.6

Midland

37,675 38,781 40,176 39,421 7,467 1,733 6,182 1,930 19.8 4.5 15.4 4.9

Monroe

74,020 71,981 76,745 72,908 19,366 4,356 16,106 4,900 26.2 6.1 21.0 6.7

Muskegon

76,234 73,474 80,590 74,891 22,510 5,106 19,921 5,901 29.5 6.9 24.7 7.9

Niles-Benton Harbor

68,626 70,382 72,504 71,734 13,743 3,665 13,521 4,114 20.0 5.2 18.6 5.7

Saginaw

79,880 82,535 84,396 83,170 20,933 5,374 17,881 5,850 26.2 6.5 21.2 7.0

Minnesota

2,999,206 3,016,125 3,085,306 3,040,263 273,494 125,714 343,985 111,722 9.1 4.2 11.1 3.7

Duluth

141,127 140,595 141,160 140,214 18,523 6,805 19,806 5,666 13.1 4.8 14.0 4.0

Mankato-North Mankato

59,781 60,211 60,851 60,183 4,767 2,065 5,899 1,950 8.0 3.4 9.7 3.2

Minneapolis-St. Paul-Bloomington

1,958,894 1,977,053 2,013,083 1,988,520 190,902 81,754 238,397 74,722 9.7 4.1 11.8 3.8

Rochester

123,832 123,996 129,301 124,777 8,807 4,093 14,130 3,695 7.1 3.3 10.9 3.0

St. Cloud

110,901 110,963 113,139 111,177 9,599 4,910 11,921 4,435 8.7 4.4 10.5 4.0

Mississippi

1,213,416 1,274,354 1,232,242 1,277,983 186,761 75,367 141,301 77,566 15.4 5.9 11.5 6.1

Gulfport-Biloxi-Pascagoula

160,984 164,902 159,989 165,759 34,259 10,107 26,352 10,425 21.3 6.1 16.5 6.3

Hattiesburg

63,552 69,898 65,156 69,979 8,021 3,717 6,449 3,825 12.6 5.3 9.9 5.5

Jackson

249,853 264,978 254,140 264,097 36,114 14,220 28,694 14,582 14.5 5.4 11.3 5.5

Missouri

2,971,380 3,077,698 2,899,861 3,100,576 365,793 125,042 282,688 144,934 12.3 4.1 9.7 4.7

Cape Girardeau

46,150 48,159 45,399 48,290 5,518 1,668 3,876 1,842 12.0 3.5 8.5 3.8

Columbia

91,240 98,571 89,744 98,804 7,711 2,574 5,919 3,050 8.5 2.6 6.6 3.1

Jefferson City

72,502 76,520 71,111 76,308 5,815 2,039 4,189 2,413 8.0 2.7 5.9 3.2

Joplin

82,134 84,334 78,869 84,673 10,477 2,834 7,140 3,375 12.8 3.4 9.1 4.0

Kansas City

1,108,910 1,162,935 1,099,607 1,173,470 146,256 48,145 114,721 58,748 13.2 4.1 10.4 5.0

St. Joseph

61,087 62,620 59,445 62,793 5,337 1,963 3,843 2,265 8.7 3.1 6.5 3.6

St. Louis(2)

1,395,292 1,455,407 1,384,049 1,458,819 181,494 64,283 157,437 67,696 13.0 4.4 11.4 4.6

Springfield

226,349 240,842 221,337 241,084 26,131 7,372 17,948 8,473 11.5 3.1 8.1 3.5

Montana

538,926 535,765 528,665 541,147 64,616 20,829 46,920 17,296 12.0 3.9 8.9 3.2

Billings

88,829 87,582 87,429 88,721 10,037 3,137 7,115 2,634 11.3 3.6 8.1 3.0

Great Falls

37,620 37,217 37,125 37,649 4,714 1,382 3,192 1,166 12.5 3.7 8.6 3.1

Missoula

64,624 63,123 63,295 63,927 8,949 2,430 6,331 2,020 13.8 3.8 10.0 3.2

Nebraska

1,048,382 1,013,887 1,033,445 1,023,092 77,217 23,235 56,164 23,586 7.4 2.3 5.4 2.3

Grand Island

44,464 43,257 44,085 43,370 3,944 1,033 3,414 1,056 8.9 2.4 7.7 2.4

Lincoln

186,928 182,559 185,448 184,975 15,024 3,926 10,097 4,029 8.0 2.2 5.4 2.2

Omaha-Council Bluffs

498,267 483,157 493,191 489,343 43,438 13,191 31,581 13,276 8.7 2.7 6.4 2.7

Nevada

1,491,235 1,553,171 1,434,996 1,562,551 442,479 122,685 353,210 119,827 29.7 7.9 24.6 7.7

Carson City

25,001 27,180 24,383 27,032 5,219 1,486 3,582 1,342 20.9 5.5 14.7 5.0

Las Vegas-Henderson-Paradise

1,108,924 1,122,052 1,060,649 1,133,052 369,657 101,726 298,230 100,708 33.3 9.1 28.1 8.9

Reno

241,575 269,559 236,108 269,888 47,996 13,190 36,629 12,140 19.9 4.9 15.5 4.5

New Hampshire

728,134 742,918 759,191 734,656 117,573 19,832 102,490 10,017 16.1 2.7 13.5 1.4

Dover-Durham

80,835 84,233 84,682 83,811 11,584 2,410 10,563 1,462 14.3 2.9 12.5 1.7

Manchester

117,716 116,710 121,773 114,902 19,055 3,072 16,611 1,572 16.2 2.6 13.6 1.4

Portsmouth

71,525 75,725 75,062 76,078 10,118 2,188 8,763 1,408 14.1 2.9 11.7 1.9

New Jersey

4,439,001 4,391,801 4,467,266 4,390,151 729,319 310,460 742,793 301,236 16.4 7.1 16.6 6.9

Atlantic City-Hammonton

122,834 116,613 120,815 117,626 42,215 12,604 43,455 11,911 34.4 10.8 36.0 10.1

Ocean City

41,454 45,861 43,088 48,605 11,565 4,565 10,603 3,978 27.9 10.0 24.6 8.2

Trenton

202,023 200,839 203,120 201,662 22,685 11,322 23,524 11,076 11.2 5.6 11.6 5.5

Vineland-Bridgeton

66,976 64,672 67,495 65,840 11,360 5,330 11,130 5,117 17.0 8.2 16.5 7.8

New Mexico

904,428 949,169 905,575 946,564 88,126 72,165 90,120 69,997 9.7 7.6 10.0 7.4

Albuquerque

414,535 435,564 414,464 432,758 43,021 31,247 42,728 30,476 10.4 7.2 10.3 7.0

Farmington

48,748 49,757 48,593 48,985 5,421 4,418 5,584 4,207 11.1 8.9 11.5 8.6

Las Cruces

93,509 97,382 94,362 97,621 9,035 7,400 8,870 7,103 9.7 7.6 9.4 7.3

Santa Fe

67,213 70,770 68,981 71,276 7,345 5,082 7,440 4,998 10.9 7.2 10.8 7.0

New York

8,801,907 9,385,870 8,919,480 9,269,604 1,429,063 724,778 1,401,883 640,203 16.2 7.7 15.7 6.9

Albany-Schenectady-Troy

429,762 443,775 442,071 442,284 58,515 21,584 46,492 18,962 13.6 4.9 10.5 4.3

Binghamton

100,321 102,281 103,223 101,811 17,117 5,594 12,437 4,925 17.1 5.5 12.0 4.8

Buffalo-Cheektowaga-Niagara Falls

520,859 535,948 527,299 537,322 108,722 32,410 81,889 28,497 20.9 6.0 15.5 5.3

Elmira

34,444 34,298 35,028 34,215 6,124 1,994 4,830 1,780 17.8 5.8 13.8 5.2

Glens Falls

54,719 57,881 56,568 58,351 9,344 3,139 6,846 2,634 17.1 5.4 12.1 4.5

Ithaca

46,630 47,391 47,451 47,157 5,141 1,922 4,125 1,688 11.0 4.1 8.7 3.6

Kingston

81,757 84,745 84,756 84,905 13,639 4,359 10,366 3,893 16.7 5.1 12.2 4.6

New York-Newark-Jersey City

9,317,967 9,792,949 9,395,895 9,671,559 1,494,600 797,765 1,593,804 726,724 16.0 8.1 17.0 7.5

Rochester

495,846 518,520 508,532 515,426 79,063 28,462 60,307 24,903 15.9 5.5 11.9 4.8

Syracuse

295,956 299,284 301,935 297,235 51,114 16,666 38,365 14,640 17.3 5.6 12.7 4.9

Utica-Rome

123,175 126,191 126,529 125,711 20,107 7,349 15,276 6,379 16.3 5.8 12.1 5.1

Watertown-Fort Drum

41,189 42,054 42,330 42,585 7,490 2,394 5,301 2,058 18.2 5.7 12.5 4.8

North Carolina

4,660,070 4,974,688 4,812,007 4,959,097 613,315 218,069 659,606 222,136 13.2 4.4 13.7 4.5

Asheville

213,613 226,314 221,725 224,557 36,343 8,749 37,887 9,032 17.0 3.9 17.1 4.0

Burlington

75,439 81,095 77,798 80,751 9,773 3,482 10,615 3,589 13.0 4.3 13.6 4.4

Charlotte-Concord-Gastonia

1,280,696 1,355,430 1,325,284 1,352,627 166,166 59,974 183,696 57,845 13.0 4.4 13.9 4.3

Durham-Chapel Hill

283,720 305,621 292,020 303,913 28,186 10,788 32,353 11,356 9.9 3.5 11.1 3.7

Fayetteville

140,816 145,824 143,779 144,306 21,199 8,982 23,890 9,115 15.1 6.2 16.6 6.3

Goldsboro

47,832 50,111 48,813 50,255 4,598 2,296 5,129 2,363 9.6 4.6 10.5 4.7

Greensboro-High Point

343,532 358,600 354,153 356,760 52,197 17,740 54,550 18,138 15.2 4.9 15.4 5.1

Greenville

81,553 90,836 84,218 89,997 8,202 3,981 9,551 4,094 10.1 4.4 11.3 4.5

Hickory-Lenoir-Morganton

165,770 172,468 168,187 172,326 29,482 7,354 25,910 7,422 17.8 4.3 15.4 4.3

Jacksonville

59,857 65,051 61,552 64,334 7,740 2,944 7,921 3,061 12.9 4.5 12.9 4.8

New Bern

47,116 50,913 48,666 50,513 5,098 2,107 5,423 2,207 10.8 4.1 11.1 4.4

Raleigh

665,250 724,944 686,131 721,513 76,115 26,529 83,598 27,376 11.4 3.7 12.2 3.8

Rocky Mount

60,055 63,185 61,445 62,837 7,966 3,969 9,387 4,066 13.3 6.3 15.3 6.5

Wilmington

138,093 151,348 143,672 150,835 21,026 5,830 20,471 6,078 15.2 3.9 14.2 4.0

Winston-Salem

303,593 323,590 311,744 322,366 39,873 14,034 42,489 14,071 13.1 4.3 13.6 4.4

North Dakota

406,306 401,220 413,655 405,462 36,163 16,351 34,839 14,191 8.9 4.1 8.4 3.5

Bismarck

68,666 69,866 69,710 70,483 6,147 2,416 5,150 2,158 9.0 3.5 7.4 3.1

Fargo

138,767 142,525 141,863 144,632 11,455 4,597 10,470 4,062 8.3 3.2 7.4 2.8

Grand Forks

51,861 52,203 53,563 52,637 4,547 2,079 4,630 1,870 8.8 4.0 8.6 3.6

Ohio

5,521,458 5,760,125 5,805,415 5,522,832 921,291 274,461 846,651 277,034 16.7 4.8 14.6 5.0

Akron

339,802 355,413 358,957 340,259 50,936 17,848 48,768 17,722 15.0 5.0 13.6 5.2

Canton-Massillon

187,503 197,380 199,426 187,909 29,269 10,287 27,930 9,985 15.6 5.2 14.0 5.3

Cincinnati

1,066,951 1,122,472 1,123,459 1,083,029 145,499 45,714 137,595 46,172 13.6 4.1 12.2 4.3

Cleveland-Elyria

992,562 1,005,809 1,015,990 999,777 215,932 46,194 175,325 50,970 21.8 4.6 17.3 5.1

Columbus

1,042,647 1,115,864 1,112,544 1,059,635 137,517 50,660 134,324 50,111 13.2 4.5 12.1 4.7

Dayton

372,320 390,708 393,748 369,104 58,435 19,027 56,271 19,188 15.7 4.9 14.3 5.2

Lima

47,421 49,035 49,315 46,286 9,354 3,212 8,309 2,805 19.7 6.6 16.8 6.1

Mansfield

50,135 52,057 52,694 49,374 10,145 2,808 9,414 2,805 20.2 5.4 17.9 5.7

Springfield

61,149 63,205 63,874 60,716 10,568 3,058 8,967 3,711 17.3 4.8 14.0 6.1

Toledo

289,691 296,622 304,769 284,502 62,227 16,753 60,650 16,438 21.5 5.6 19.9 5.8

Weirton-Steubenville(1)

48,808 50,528 51,259 48,987 8,689 3,285 8,100 2,951 17.8 6.5 15.8 6.0

Youngstown-Warren-Boardman

225,724 229,790 237,336 218,917 44,374 15,638 40,240 13,529 19.7 6.8 17.0 6.2

Oklahoma

1,805,213 1,841,830 1,833,616 1,869,907 230,094 66,435 180,775 68,577 12.7 3.6 9.9 3.7

Enid

26,275 26,260 26,782 26,674 2,653 854 2,161 855 10.1 3.3 8.1 3.2

Lawton

51,198 50,720 51,075 51,284 8,544 1,834 6,253 1,993 16.7 3.6 12.2 3.9

Oklahoma City

668,400 694,675 680,609 702,358 89,103 25,587 69,506 25,374 13.3 3.7 10.2 3.6

Tulsa

470,223 475,204 478,019 484,364 63,341 17,576 48,571 18,329 13.5 3.7 10.2 3.8

Oregon

2,035,126 2,155,161 2,111,005 2,165,460 267,428 126,731 245,554 118,452 13.1 5.9 11.6 5.5

Albany

57,855 60,399 59,027 60,480 7,986 3,744 6,636 3,565 13.8 6.2 11.2 5.9

Bend-Redmond

93,031 101,439 97,422 100,940 15,114 6,029 12,910 5,605 16.2 5.9 13.3 5.6

Corvallis

45,026 47,793 46,171 47,849 4,233 2,056 3,847 1,910 9.4 4.3 8.3 4.0

Eugene

175,135 181,733 179,811 182,269 24,681 11,296 21,907 10,604 14.1 6.2 12.2 5.8

Grants Pass

34,489 37,451 36,501 37,847 4,718 2,498 4,044 2,379 13.7 6.7 11.1 6.3

Medford

100,475 107,810 105,982 108,763 14,105 6,573 12,503 6,224 14.0 6.1 11.8 5.7

Portland-Vancouver-Hillsboro

1,291,811 1,340,423 1,323,249 1,348,773 168,642 76,973 156,522 71,767 13.1 5.7 11.8 5.3

Salem

194,724 209,557 202,608 210,624 22,469 11,857 20,591 11,023 11.5 5.7 10.2 5.2

Pennsylvania

6,247,158 6,233,518 6,414,340 6,248,218 995,987 392,554 881,094 360,636 15.9 6.3 13.7 5.8

Allentown-Bethlehem-Easton

425,143 429,798 437,523 432,988 71,291 27,863 62,928 25,729 16.8 6.5 14.4 5.9

Altoona

57,968 57,733 59,733 57,671 10,310 3,449 8,169 3,094 17.8 6.0 13.7 5.4

Bloomsburg-Berwick

41,654 41,903 42,387 41,929 6,136 2,126 4,947 1,969 14.7 5.1 11.7 4.7

Chambersburg-Waynesboro

75,196 74,335 78,220 75,021 9,822 3,795 9,100 3,507 13.1 5.1 11.6 4.7

East Stroudsburg

78,492 78,281 80,632 78,233 16,800 5,986 15,486 5,517 21.4 7.6 19.2 7.1

Erie

122,768 123,938 126,569 123,043 21,190 9,349 18,265 8,392 17.3 7.5 14.4 6.8

Gettysburg

50,693 53,010 53,382 54,441 7,732 2,240 6,629 2,057 15.3 4.2 12.4 3.8

Harrisburg-Carlisle

292,995 294,789 300,900 295,005 39,904 15,674 36,307 14,555 13.6 5.3 12.1 4.9

Johnstown

55,568 54,000 56,657 53,913 9,846 3,673 7,758 3,417 17.7 6.8 13.7 6.3

Lancaster

272,614 274,560 283,430 277,521 40,499 13,173 34,340 12,497 14.9 4.8 12.1 4.5

Lebanon

69,755 70,042 72,817 70,861 10,023 3,881 8,881 3,639 14.4 5.5 12.2 5.1

Philadelphia-Camden-Wilmington

3,046,987 3,044,620 3,099,053 3,039,856 455,975 198,822 440,673 184,197 15.0 6.5 14.2 6.1

Pittsburgh

1,162,273 1,157,845 1,189,651 1,159,011 192,668 73,250 166,602 66,731 16.6 6.3 14.0 5.8

Reading

206,114 203,251 213,446 203,167 37,153 13,279 31,779 12,297 18.0 6.5 14.9 6.1

Scranton--Wilkes-Barre--Hazleton

269,988 266,391 276,247 265,881 48,223 20,246 42,727 18,281 17.9 7.6 15.5 6.9

State College

75,259 74,039 78,043 74,110 7,698 3,046 6,630 2,982 10.2 4.1 8.5 4.0

Williamsport

55,175 55,080 55,895 54,915 8,815 3,593 6,900 3,255 16.0 6.5 12.3 5.9

York-Hanover

226,122 229,701 233,820 229,950 35,382 12,059 30,714 11,243 15.6 5.2 13.1 4.9

Rhode Island

537,571 533,353 518,972 532,629 94,316 26,944 70,540 25,739 17.5 5.1 13.6 4.8

Providence-Warwick

659,362 666,405 649,117 667,073 119,322 35,683 94,340 34,694 18.1 5.4 14.5 5.2

South Carolina

2,339,790 2,371,533 2,370,836 2,382,434 258,154 103,615 270,209 86,426 11.0 4.4 11.4 3.6

Charleston-North Charleston

380,968 395,518 389,646 397,057 41,977 15,646 44,657 13,272 11.0 4.0 11.5 3.3

Columbia

394,969 401,073 399,680 402,592 30,475 16,279 35,662 13,443 7.7 4.1 8.9 3.3

Florence

95,174 97,214 96,666 97,044 7,856 4,464 9,004 3,674 8.3 4.6 9.3 3.8

Greenville-Anderson-Mauldin

426,094 430,693 428,830 431,863 48,108 16,916 50,229 14,172 11.3 3.9 11.7 3.3

Hilton Head Island-Bluffton-Beaufort

85,283 91,493 88,289 93,173 9,162 3,212 9,357 2,724 10.7 3.5 10.6 2.9

Myrtle Beach-Conway-North Myrtle Beach

192,512 201,999 199,704 203,700 37,643 10,990 33,872 9,651 19.6 5.4 17.0 4.7

Spartanburg

172,783 170,786 171,686 170,989 23,606 7,728 23,140 6,538 13.7 4.5 13.5 3.8

Sumter

42,875 43,756 42,810 43,642 4,514 2,198 4,734 1,784 10.5 5.0 11.1 4.1

South Dakota

466,394 468,642 459,424 471,821 44,088 14,000 32,727 13,454 9.5 3.0 7.1 2.9

Rapid City

75,276 75,731 74,834 77,420 8,963 2,409 6,259 2,354 11.9 3.2 8.4 3.0

Sioux Falls

157,995 159,272 156,345 160,691 14,175 4,199 11,435 4,070 9.0 2.6 7.3 2.5

Tennessee

3,161,316 3,327,729 3,149,838 3,336,728 492,948 155,488 307,225 151,892 15.6 4.7 9.8 4.6

Chattanooga

263,045 274,398 262,158 275,931 36,972 10,557 22,795 10,875 14.1 3.8 8.7 3.9

Clarksville

113,719 117,446 113,549 119,414 19,191 5,605 11,839 5,822 16.9 4.8 10.4 4.9

Cleveland

57,000 59,592 60,372 59,765 7,866 2,532 4,749 2,570 13.8 4.2 7.9 4.3

Jackson

60,338 64,794 61,380 64,838 8,139 2,961 5,352 2,964 13.5 4.6 8.7 4.6

Johnson City

87,092 91,009 86,077 91,130 11,749 3,871 6,916 3,974 13.5 4.3 8.0 4.4

Kingsport-Bristol-Bristol

133,424 133,991 130,279 135,202 18,388 5,914 11,389 6,037 13.8 4.4 8.7 4.5

Knoxville

410,508 432,166 409,519 431,658 56,478 16,509 32,072 16,731 13.8 3.8 7.8 3.9

Memphis

602,619 649,593 613,896 652,391 78,521 41,092 60,959 40,999 13.0 6.3 9.9 6.3

Morristown

52,424 52,879 51,465 53,144 8,617 2,265 5,216 2,285 16.4 4.3 10.1 4.3

Nashville-Davidson--Murfreesboro--Franklin

1,026,695 1,089,578 1,022,118 1,092,115 161,751 45,064 102,911 42,119 15.8 4.1 10.1 3.9

Texas

13,326,311 14,060,909 13,549,965 14,061,243 1,698,726 897,924 1,592,840 829,251 12.7 6.4 11.8 5.9

Abilene

72,953 78,744 74,519 79,067 6,364 3,821 6,100 3,638 8.7 4.9 8.2 4.6

Amarillo

121,751 133,157 126,900 133,670 10,400 5,457 9,566 5,170 8.5 4.1 7.5 3.9

Austin-Round Rock

1,173,424 1,270,145 1,190,302 1,272,161 138,731 58,509 123,804 54,040 11.8 4.6 10.4 4.2

Beaumont-Port Arthur

167,542 172,995 168,397 173,928 29,224 17,499 27,648 16,762 17.4 10.1 16.4 9.6

Brownsville-Harlingen

162,372 170,138 165,134 168,774 26,248 15,833 23,561 14,696 16.2 9.3 14.3 8.7

College Station-Bryan

123,336 132,432 127,189 133,199 10,950 6,184 10,406 5,936 8.9 4.7 8.2 4.5

Corpus Christi

195,220 202,327 197,576 201,929 29,240 16,314 26,289 15,063 15.0 8.1 13.3 7.5

Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington

3,780,637 4,020,079 3,844,575 4,029,456 473,497 231,523 438,511 213,210 12.5 5.8 11.4 5.3

El Paso

349,676 366,619 355,439 366,015 49,990 25,666 47,082 23,416 14.3 7.0 13.2 6.4

Houston-The Woodlands-Sugar Land

3,278,843 3,401,335 3,336,448 3,405,598 459,232 245,390 434,180 224,874 14.0 7.2 13.0 6.6

Killeen-Temple

169,773 179,329 171,140 179,595 18,475 10,899 16,873 10,442 10.9 6.1 9.9 5.8

Laredo

109,895 114,789 112,817 114,508 14,372 8,224 14,749 7,652 13.1 7.2 13.1 6.7

Longview

92,300 95,944 93,006 95,683 10,888 6,681 10,360 6,241 11.8 7.0 11.1 6.5

Lubbock

150,991 163,751 154,524 163,462 14,529 8,154 13,317 7,603 9.6 5.0 8.6 4.7

McAllen-Edinburg-Mission

347,439 363,727 353,373 359,943 60,690 38,367 56,705 35,024 17.5 10.5 16.0 9.7

Midland

98,013 98,420 97,040 97,981 10,010 6,760 11,912 6,073 10.2 6.9 12.3 6.2

Odessa

81,228 78,887 81,445 78,151 10,992 7,938 12,985 7,085 13.5 10.1 15.9 9.1

San Angelo

51,769 54,553 52,461 54,654 5,124 2,906 4,959 2,735 9.9 5.3 9.5 5.0

San Antonio-New Braunfels

1,132,086 1,220,026 1,154,666 1,213,925 148,299 69,046 137,795 63,858 13.1 5.7 11.9 5.3

Sherman-Denison

60,245 64,935 61,505 64,943 6,088 3,149 5,425 3,042 10.1 4.8 8.8 4.7

Texarkana

61,695 63,982 62,095 64,340 8,179 3,758 6,274 3,640 13.3 5.9 10.1 5.7

Tyler

103,014 110,235 105,719 111,632 12,024 6,268 10,878 5,789 11.7 5.7 10.3 5.2

Victoria

42,989 44,153 42,936 44,179 5,914 3,124 5,062 2,922 13.8 7.1 11.8 6.6

Waco

118,999 129,320 122,387 128,977 12,056 6,746 10,922 6,551 10.1 5.2 8.9 5.1

Wichita Falls

61,204 63,861 61,508 64,119 6,510 3,596 5,551 3,390 10.6 5.6 9.0 5.3

Utah

1,611,373 1,642,115 1,579,138 1,666,112 163,709 46,280 120,686 44,905 10.2 2.8 7.6 2.7

Logan

71,966 72,614 70,612 73,671 4,296 1,478 2,946 1,498 6.0 2.0 4.2 2.0

Ogden-Clearfield

333,999 341,131 326,820 348,254 32,365 9,078 23,883 8,954 9.7 2.7 7.3 2.6

Provo-Orem

310,425 325,294 305,373 329,589 23,868 7,839 17,007 7,630 7.7 2.4 5.6 2.3

St. George

77,469 81,697 76,439 82,332 9,354 2,384 6,486 2,311 12.1 2.9 8.5 2.8

Salt Lake City

673,976 675,574 658,850 683,158 73,795 19,959 55,813 19,228 10.9 3.0 8.5 2.8

Vermont

348,360 312,581 330,491 312,428 52,241 9,437 31,187 4,499 15.0 3.0 9.4 1.4

Burlington-South Burlington

127,331 116,390 121,226 116,071 16,284 2,845 10,337 1,402 12.8 2.4 8.5 1.2

Virginia

4,369,898 4,216,376 4,263,233 4,238,174 481,130 166,057 367,260 173,758 11.0 3.9 8.6 4.1

Blacksburg-Christiansburg-Radford

90,912 88,778 87,125 86,818 10,454 2,822 7,190 3,132 11.5 3.2 8.3 3.6

Charlottesville

118,478 113,867 116,320 114,253 12,029 3,863 9,516 4,191 10.2 3.4 8.2 3.7

Harrisonburg

66,961 65,174 63,647 63,975 7,079 2,042 5,511 2,329 10.6 3.1 8.7 3.6

Lynchburg

121,223 115,722 118,611 115,758 12,616 4,617 9,363 4,949 10.4 4.0 7.9 4.3

Richmond

684,792 645,821 667,979 647,847 78,370 28,099 60,617 29,123 11.4 4.4 9.1 4.5

Roanoke

157,560 152,522 152,675 153,179 16,934 5,557 13,260 5,965 10.7 3.6 8.7 3.9

Staunton-Waynesboro

60,591 59,017 58,725 59,281 5,976 1,895 4,446 2,035 9.9 3.2 7.6 3.4

Virginia Beach-Norfolk-Newport News

850,877 821,669 833,672 825,402 105,142 37,448 81,601 38,920 12.4 4.6 9.8 4.7

Winchester

74,206 74,091 73,240 74,311 7,407 2,263 5,488 2,321 10.0 3.1 7.5 3.1

Washington

3,964,302 3,898,749 3,899,857 3,908,226 646,752 220,275 496,674 206,412 16.3 5.6 12.7 5.3

Bellingham

119,375 113,594 114,575 114,397 21,903 7,017 15,904 6,430 18.3 6.2 13.9 5.6

Bremerton-Silverdale

133,507 125,317 129,313 126,678 19,948 6,702 15,059 6,125 14.9 5.3 11.6 4.8

Kennewick-Richland

148,625 147,505 147,353 150,173 20,872 8,913 15,792 7,956 14.0 6.0 10.7 5.3

Longview

50,157 47,935 48,859 48,448 8,228 3,178 6,592 2,906 16.4 6.6 13.5 6.0

Mount Vernon-Anacortes

65,769 61,414 62,508 62,331 12,871 3,967 9,053 3,625 19.6 6.5 14.5 5.8

Olympia-Tumwater

150,456 143,050 144,344 144,380 24,708 7,732 18,085 7,111 16.4 5.4 12.5 4.9

Seattle-Tacoma-Bellevue

2,176,105 2,188,298 2,163,547 2,178,916 363,257 116,929 281,022 112,056 16.7 5.3 13.0 5.1

Spokane-Spokane Valley

293,977 280,045 283,134 283,527 48,260 15,848 35,661 14,376 16.4 5.7 12.6 5.1

Walla Walla

32,333 31,865 31,509 32,550 4,039 1,550 2,923 1,387 12.5 4.9 9.3 4.3

Wenatchee

65,793 63,020 64,115 64,244 10,610 3,654 7,853 3,390 16.1 5.8 12.2 5.3

Yakima

133,635 129,203 131,178 130,192 19,738 9,448 16,059 8,574 14.8 7.3 12.2 6.6

West Virginia

763,219 792,533 786,764 790,096 118,890 45,323 96,576 39,141 15.6 5.7 12.3 5.0

Beckley

45,636 46,987 46,305 46,588 8,386 3,026 6,223 2,534 18.4 6.4 13.4 5.4

Charleston

92,281 93,544 94,010 92,996 15,971 5,949 12,832 5,178 17.3 6.4 13.6 5.6

Huntington-Ashland

145,231 147,649 148,235 146,347 24,191 7,636 19,377 7,015 16.7 5.2 13.1 4.8

Morgantown

65,828 72,348 68,484 72,170 8,392 3,139 6,793 2,734 12.7 4.3 9.9 3.8

Parkersburg-Vienna

37,325 38,685 38,330 38,198 6,395 2,385 5,179 2,103 17.1 6.2 13.5 5.5

Wheeling

60,293 62,929 63,215 61,197 10,264 3,886 9,821 3,480 17.0 6.2 15.5 5.7

Wisconsin

3,033,527 3,072,925 3,045,283 3,088,352 452,666 133,910 326,531 121,450 14.9 4.4 10.7 3.9

Appleton

127,264 130,463 128,175 131,973 17,873 4,438 12,194 4,130 14.0 3.4 9.5 3.1

Eau Claire

88,665 93,407 89,568 93,675 11,925 3,666 8,593 3,181 13.4 3.9 9.6 3.4

Fond du Lac

54,596 57,512 55,554 58,304 9,477 1,959 5,887 1,872 17.4 3.4 10.6 3.2

Green Bay

168,571 172,040 170,565 173,051 24,020 6,495 18,624 6,034 14.2 3.8 10.9 3.5

Janesville-Beloit

85,363 85,701 84,684 86,443 14,840 4,431 10,372 4,104 17.4 5.2 12.2 4.7

La Crosse-Onalaska

73,119 76,341 74,283 76,715 9,245 2,504 7,090 2,328 12.6 3.3 9.5 3.0

Madison

374,548 388,269 379,049 391,831 44,223 12,867 31,957 12,091 11.8 3.3 8.4 3.1

Milwaukee-Waukesha-West Allis

794,132 804,334 801,674 811,824 120,264 41,465 94,515 38,354 15.1 5.2 11.8 4.7

Oshkosh-Neenah

90,284 91,702 90,751 93,077 13,077 3,249 8,797 3,150 14.5 3.5 9.7 3.4

Racine

96,819 96,132 96,539 96,962 15,702 5,345 11,249 4,802 16.2 5.6 11.7 5.0

Sheboygan

62,100 62,155 61,440 62,933 9,381 2,128 7,052 2,094 15.1 3.4 11.5 3.3

Wausau

71,975 72,777 72,260 73,452 8,912 2,423 5,990 2,284 12.4 3.3 8.3 3.1

Wyoming

288,142 293,740 298,976 294,589 16,751 16,723 26,021 15,933 5.8 5.7 8.7 5.4

Casper

39,604 41,378 41,042 40,372 3,010 3,106 4,689 2,797 7.6 7.5 11.4 6.9

Cheyenne

49,732 51,656 51,434 51,068 2,697 2,407 4,042 2,410 5.4 4.7 7.9 4.7

Puerto Rico

- 1,080,300 1,035,192 1,087,123 - 75,484 99,121 87,629 - 7.0 9.6 8.1

Aguadilla-Isabela

- 84,413 81,303 85,223 - 6,912 8,652 7,854 - 8.2 10.6 9.2

Arecibo

- 52,329 49,438 52,946 - 3,803 5,144 4,481 - 7.3 10.4 8.5

Guayama

- 19,932 18,794 20,027 - 1,557 1,595 1,755 - 7.8 8.5 8.8

Mayaguez

- 26,826 25,490 26,914 - 2,054 2,572 2,399 - 7.7 10.1 8.9

Ponce

- 90,199 84,752 91,356 - 7,645 8,339 8,766 - 8.5 9.8 9.6

San German

- 34,956 32,230 35,287 - 2,868 3,316 3,302 - 8.2 10.3 9.4

San Juan-Carolina-Caguas

- 731,427 704,258 734,422 - 46,709 65,923 54,558 - 6.4 9.4 7.4

Footnotes
(1) For operational reasons, these interstate areas are listed under the state that accounts for the larger share of the population, which is different from the state that contains the first principal city.
(2) The area boundary does not reflect the Office of Management and Budget delineation.
(p) Preliminary

- Data not available.
NOTE: Data refer to place of residence. Data for Puerto Rico are derived from a monthly household survey similar to the Current Population Survey. Area delineations are based on Office of Management and Budget Bulletin No. 18-03, dated April 10, 2018, and are available on the BLS website at https://www.bls.gov/lau/lausmsa.htm. Areas in the six New England states are Metropolitan New England City and Town Areas (NECTAs), while areas in other states are county-based. Some metropolitan areas lie in two or more states. They are listed under the state containing the first principal city, unless otherwise footnoted. Estimates for the latest month are subject to revision the following month.


LABOR FORCE DATA
NOT SEASONALLY ADJUSTED

Table 2. Civilian labor force and unemployment by state, selected metropolitan area, and metropolitan division(1)
State, area, and division Civilian labor force Unemployed
April May Number Percent of labor force
2020 2021 2020 2021(p) April May April May
2020 2021 2020 2021(p) 2020 2021 2020 2021(p)

California

18,451,970 18,813,978 18,348,132 18,949,731 2,944,524 1,521,536 2,834,868 1,426,083 16.0 8.1 15.5 7.5

Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim

6,284,639 6,657,902 6,183,301 6,675,299 1,086,479 667,411 1,104,092 610,669 17.3 10.0 17.9 9.1

Anaheim-Santa Ana-Irvine

1,525,382 1,536,581 1,517,496 1,554,973 219,551 94,503 225,811 91,193 14.4 6.2 14.9 5.9

Los Angeles-Long Beach-Glendale

4,759,257 5,121,321 4,665,805 5,120,326 866,928 572,908 878,281 519,476 18.2 11.2 18.8 10.1

San Francisco-Oakland-Hayward

2,433,670 2,416,241 2,431,683 2,433,437 334,366 139,944 316,935 134,175 13.7 5.8 13.0 5.5

Oakland-Hayward-Berkeley

1,332,237 1,323,316 1,332,974 1,332,568 197,487 84,729 185,329 81,307 14.8 6.4 13.9 6.1

San Francisco-Redwood City-South San Francisco

977,955 963,225 974,037 970,664 121,998 49,299 117,921 47,237 12.5 5.1 12.1 4.9

San Rafael

123,478 129,700 124,672 130,205 14,881 5,916 13,685 5,631 12.1 4.6 11.0 4.3

District of Columbia

405,479 401,023 396,512 402,951 42,947 26,517 35,665 25,562 10.6 6.6 9.0 6.3

Washington-Arlington-Alexandria(2)

3,376,600 3,325,416 3,347,545 3,340,815 318,911 167,835 290,168 167,501 9.4 5.0 8.7 5.0

Silver Spring-Frederick-Rockville(3)

667,043 668,197 673,848 671,870 52,155 36,761 58,156 36,954 7.8 5.5 8.6 5.5

Washington-Arlington-Alexandria(2)

2,709,557 2,657,219 2,673,697 2,668,945 266,756 131,074 232,012 130,547 9.8 4.9 8.7 4.9

Florida

9,717,870 10,364,012 9,972,760 10,458,871 1,348,861 535,519 1,428,081 523,442 13.9 5.2 14.3 5.0

Miami-Fort Lauderdale-West Palm Beach

2,866,593 3,083,073 2,921,783 3,114,926 384,520 181,755 401,194 177,210 13.4 5.9 13.7 5.7

Fort Lauderdale-Pompano Beach-Deerfield Beach

985,109 1,030,559 1,023,461 1,044,242 161,145 55,835 177,811 54,271 16.4 5.4 17.4 5.2

Miami-Miami Beach-Kendall

1,200,734 1,310,760 1,190,613 1,323,340 123,408 90,874 122,125 88,740 10.3 6.9 10.3 6.7

West Palm Beach-Boca Raton-Delray Beach

680,750 741,754 707,709 747,344 99,967 35,046 101,258 34,199 14.7 4.7 14.3 4.6

Illinois

5,964,800 6,157,687 6,130,554 6,172,284 970,481 436,317 936,083 412,826 16.3 7.1 15.3 6.7

Chicago-Naperville-Elgin(2)

4,521,950 4,681,085 4,646,938 4,701,925 747,790 351,122 723,656 345,354 16.5 7.5 15.6 7.3

Chicago-Naperville-Arlington Heights

3,469,702 3,611,785 3,572,949 3,628,368 569,547 285,272 565,966 284,928 16.4 7.9 15.8 7.9

Elgin

298,492 302,678 305,039 301,436 50,117 19,219 47,659 15,917 16.8 6.3 15.6 5.3

Gary(3)

325,755 326,807 330,489 331,160 62,771 22,142 51,528 24,094 19.3 6.8 15.6 7.3

Lake County-Kenosha County(2)

428,001 439,815 438,461 440,961 65,355 24,489 58,503 20,415 15.3 5.6 13.3 4.6

Massachusetts

3,382,826 3,702,672 3,585,611 3,733,956 550,084 219,829 552,517 227,424 16.3 5.9 15.4 6.1

Boston-Cambridge-Nashua(2)

2,529,281 2,747,890 2,673,789 2,760,971 395,502 147,879 402,114 150,753 15.6 5.4 15.0 5.5

Boston-Cambridge-Newton

1,493,939 1,638,396 1,580,914 1,649,613 214,689 86,571 224,353 90,825 14.4 5.3 14.2 5.5

Brockton-Bridgewater-Easton

102,215 108,764 107,840 109,604 20,014 7,682 20,381 7,898 19.6 7.1 18.9 7.2

Framingham

141,764 157,475 150,341 158,139 19,151 7,212 19,490 7,545 13.5 4.6 13.0 4.8

Haverhill-Newburyport-Amesbury Town(2)

107,145 116,378 113,085 116,381 18,989 5,532 17,825 5,110 17.7 4.8 15.8 4.4

Lawrence-Methuen Town-Salem(2)

93,992 99,692 100,083 99,734 20,738 8,582 21,058 8,534 22.1 8.6 21.0 8.6

Lowell-Billerica-Chelmsford(2)

178,052 194,199 188,519 195,312 27,990 10,852 28,083 11,001 15.7 5.6 14.9 5.6

Lynn-Saugus-Marblehead

79,200 85,771 84,255 86,390 15,423 6,207 16,070 6,406 19.5 7.2 19.1 7.4

Nashua(2)

169,090 170,743 176,539 168,232 27,802 4,696 25,002 2,562 16.4 2.8 14.2 1.5

Peabody-Salem-Beverly

83,721 90,688 88,069 91,121 14,914 5,242 14,757 5,482 17.8 5.8 16.8 6.0

Taunton-Middleborough-Norton

80,163 85,784 84,144 86,445 15,792 5,303 15,095 5,390 19.7 6.2 17.9 6.2

Michigan

4,530,016 4,647,038 4,711,928 4,723,959 1,070,661 213,922 994,641 246,399 23.6 4.6 21.1 5.2

Detroit-Warren-Dearborn

1,913,920 1,992,674 1,943,895 2,027,452 470,539 73,829 481,970 92,723 24.6 3.7 24.8 4.6

Detroit-Dearborn-Livonia

733,625 745,720 746,427 759,981 191,115 36,207 204,669 45,235 26.1 4.9 27.4 6.0

Warren-Troy-Farmington Hills

1,180,297 1,246,955 1,197,467 1,267,472 279,425 37,622 277,300 47,489 23.7 3.0 23.2 3.7

New York

8,801,907 9,385,870 8,919,480 9,269,604 1,429,063 724,778 1,401,883 640,203 16.2 7.7 15.7 6.9

New York-Newark-Jersey City(2)

9,317,967 9,792,949 9,395,895 9,671,559 1,494,600 797,765 1,593,804 726,724 16.0 8.1 17.0 7.5

Dutchess County-Putnam County

182,809 190,101 189,689 188,797 28,234 9,326 21,663 8,160 15.4 4.9 11.4 4.3

Nassau County-Suffolk County

1,373,308 1,437,635 1,429,658 1,430,764 240,990 75,517 191,339 65,857 17.5 5.3 13.4 4.6

Newark(3)

1,220,639 1,199,012 1,229,222 1,195,701 186,561 85,061 191,931 82,418 15.3 7.1 15.6 6.9

New York-Jersey City-White Plains(2)

6,541,211 6,966,201 6,547,326 6,856,297 1,038,815 627,861 1,188,871 570,289 15.9 9.0 18.2 8.3

Pennsylvania

6,247,158 6,233,518 6,414,340 6,248,218 995,987 392,554 881,094 360,636 15.9 6.3 13.7 5.8

Philadelphia-Camden-Wilmington(2)

3,046,987 3,044,620 3,099,053 3,039,856 455,975 198,822 440,673 184,197 15.0 6.5 14.2 6.1

Camden(3)

631,884 628,822 633,989 629,284 99,589 41,877 99,418 40,856 15.8 6.7 15.7 6.5

Montgomery County-Bucks County-Chester County

1,031,169 1,047,609 1,061,071 1,053,094 140,670 49,930 126,724 46,626 13.6 4.8 11.9 4.4

Philadelphia

1,009,171 984,810 1,028,110 979,382 170,042 83,989 167,980 76,653 16.8 8.5 16.3 7.8

Wilmington(3)

374,763 383,379 375,883 378,096 45,674 23,026 46,551 20,062 12.2 6.0 12.4 5.3

Texas

13,326,311 14,060,909 13,549,965 14,061,243 1,698,726 897,924 1,592,840 829,251 12.7 6.4 11.8 5.9

Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington

3,780,637 4,020,079 3,844,575 4,029,456 473,497 231,523 438,511 213,210 12.5 5.8 11.4 5.3

Dallas-Plano-Irving

2,550,596 2,714,826 2,591,902 2,722,790 317,384 154,317 293,044 142,050 12.4 5.7 11.3 5.2

Fort Worth-Arlington

1,230,041 1,305,253 1,252,673 1,306,666 156,113 77,206 145,467 71,160 12.7 5.9 11.6 5.4

Washington

3,964,302 3,898,749 3,899,857 3,908,226 646,752 220,275 496,674 206,412 16.3 5.6 12.7 5.3

Seattle-Tacoma-Bellevue

2,176,105 2,188,298 2,163,547 2,178,916 363,257 116,929 281,022 112,056 16.7 5.3 13.0 5.1

Seattle-Bellevue-Everett

1,700,133 1,750,798 1,709,000 1,739,233 274,790 89,145 214,689 86,529 16.2 5.1 12.6 5.0

Tacoma-Lakewood

475,972 437,500 454,547 439,683 88,467 27,784 66,333 25,527 18.6 6.4 14.6 5.8

Footnotes
(1) These 11 areas contain all of the 38 metropolitan divisions.
(2) Part of the area (or division) is in one or more adjacent states.
(3) All of the division is in one or more adjacent states.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data refer to place of residence. Area delineations are based on Office of Management and Budget Bulletin No. 18-03, dated April 10, 2018, and are available on the BLS website at https://www.bls.gov/lau/lausmsa.htm. Areas in the six New England states are Metropolitan New England City and Town Areas (NECTAs), while areas in other states are county-based. Some metropolitan areas lie in two or more states. They are listed under the state containing the first principal city. Metropolitan divisions are listed under their metropolitan areas. Some divisions lie in more than one state, and some, like Camden, NJ, are totally outside the states under which their metropolitan areas are listed. For Washington-Arlington-Alexandria, DC-VA-MD-WV, the metropolitan area and division titles are identical. Estimates for the latest month are subject to revision the following month.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
NOT SEASONALLY ADJUSTED
Table 3. Employees on nonfarm payrolls by state and metropolitan area, not seasonally adjusted
[In thousands]
State and area April May Change from
May 2020 to May 2021(p)
2020 2021 2020 2021(p) Number Percent

Alabama

1,842.7 2,010.6 1,892.3 2,015.3 123.0 6.5

Anniston-Oxford-Jacksonville

41.5 45.9 42.8 46.3 3.5 8.2

Auburn-Opelika

56.8 66.6 58.7 65.7 7.0 11.9

Birmingham-Hoover

486.2 528.3 497.7 530.7 33.0 6.6

Daphne-Fairhope-Foley

68.6 80.2 73.4 81.8 8.4 11.4

Decatur

53.9 56.7 54.6 56.9 2.3 4.2

Dothan

54.5 58.9 56.0 58.5 2.5 4.5

Florence-Muscle Shoals

50.5 55.6 51.7 55.6 3.9 7.5

Gadsden

30.6 33.7 31.2 34.0 2.8 9.0

Huntsville

224.5 247.8 229.8 248.9 19.1 8.3

Mobile

168.7 179.6 170.6