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Economic News Release
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Metropolitan Area Employment and Unemployment (Monthly) News Release

For release 10:00 a.m. (EDT) Wednesday, July 1, 2020			 USDL-20-1309

Technical information:
 Employment:     sminfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/sae
 Unemployment:   lausinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/lau
	
Media contact:   (202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov


        METROPOLITAN AREA EMPLOYMENT AND UNEMPLOYMENT -- MAY 2020


Unemployment rates were higher in May than a year earlier in all 389 metropolitan
areas, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. A total of 109 areas
had jobless rates of less than 10.0 percent and 16 areas had rates of at least
20.0 percent. Nonfarm payroll employment decreased over the year in 357
metropolitan areas and was essentially unchanged in 32 areas. The national
unemployment rate in May was 13.0 percent, not seasonally adjusted, up from
3.4 percent a year earlier.

This news release presents statistics from two monthly programs. The civilian
labor force and unemployment data are based on the same concepts and definitions
as those used for the national household survey estimates. These data pertain
to individuals by where they reside. The employment data are from an establishment
survey that measures nonfarm employment, hours, and earnings by industry. These
data pertain to jobs on payrolls defined by where the establishments are located.
For more information about the concepts and statistical methodologies used by
these two programs, see the Technical Note.

Metropolitan Area Unemployment (Not Seasonally Adjusted)

Kahului-Wailuku-Lahaina, HI, had the highest unemployment rate in May, 33.4
percent, followed by Atlantic City-Hammonton, NJ, 32.4 percent. Logan, UT-ID,
had the lowest unemployment rate, 4.8 percent. The next lowest rates were in
Lincoln, NE, and Idaho Falls, ID, 5.0 percent and 5.5 percent, respectively. A
total of 245 areas had May jobless rates below the U.S. rate of 13.0 percent,
142 areas had rates above it, and 2 areas had rates equal to that of the nation.
(See table 1.)

The largest over-the-year unemployment rate increases occurred in Kahului-Wailuku-
Lahaina, HI (+30.9 percentage points), and Atlantic City-Hammonton, NJ (+28.2
points). Rates rose over the year by at least 15.0 percentage points in an
additional 17 areas. The smallest jobless rate increase from a year earlier
occurred in Yuma, AZ (+0.6 percentage point).

Of the 51 metropolitan areas with a 2010 Census population of 1 million or more,
Las Vegas-Henderson-Paradise, NV, had the highest unemployment rate in May, 29.0
percent. The next highest rates were in Detroit-Warren-Dearborn, MI, 23.7 percent,
and Orlando-Kissimmee-Sanford, FL, 22.6 percent. Phoenix-Mesa-Scottsdale, AZ,
had the lowest jobless rate among the large areas, 8.3 percent, followed by
Birmingham-Hoover, AL, and Hartford-West Hartford-East Hartford, CT, 8.7 percent
each. All 51 large areas had over-the-year unemployment rate increases, the largest
of which were in Las Vegas-Henderson-Paradise, NV (+25.0 percentage points);
Detroit-Warren-Dearborn, MI (+19.9 points); and Orlando-Kissimmee-Sanford, FL
(+19.7 points). The smallest rate increase occurred in Phoenix-Mesa-Scottsdale,
AZ (+4.3 percentage points).

Metropolitan Division Unemployment (Not Seasonally Adjusted)

Eleven of the most populous metropolitan areas are made up of 38 metropolitan
divisions, which are essentially separately identifiable employment centers. In
May, Detroit-Dearborn-Livonia, MI, had the highest unemployment rate among the
divisions, 26.4 percent. Silver Spring-Frederick-Rockville, MD, and Washington-
Arlington-Alexandria, DC-VA-MD-WV, had the lowest division rates, 9.0 percent
each. (See table 2.)

In May, all 38 metropolitan divisions had over-the-year unemployment rate increases,
the largest of which was in Detroit-Dearborn-Livonia, MI (+21.8 percentage points).
The smallest rate increases occurred in Washington-Arlington-Alexandria, DC-VA-
MD-WV (+6.0 percentage points), and Silver Spring-Frederick-Rockville, MD (+6.1
points).

Metropolitan Area Nonfarm Employment (Not Seasonally Adjusted)

In May, 357 metropolitan areas had over-the-year decreases in nonfarm payroll
employment and 32 were essentially unchanged. The largest over-the-year employment
decreases occurred in New York-Newark-Jersey City, NY-NJ-PA (-1,811,400), Los
Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim, CA (-859,000), and Chicago-Naperville-Elgin, IL-IN-WI
(-576,700). The largest over-the-year percentage losses in employment occurred
in Atlantic City-Hammonton, NJ (-32.3 percent), Kahului-Wailuku-Lahaina, HI (-30.5
percent), and Ocean City, NJ (-27.3 percent). (See table 3.)

Over the year, nonfarm employment declined in all of the 51 metropolitan areas
with a 2010 Census population of 1 million or more. The largest over-the-year
percentage decreases in employment in these large metropolitan areas occurred
in Las Vegas-Henderson-Paradise, NV (-21.3 percent), Detroit-Warren-Dearborn, MI
(-19.9 percent), and Buffalo-Cheektowaga-Niagara Falls, NY (-18.8 percent). 

Metropolitan Division Nonfarm Employment (Not Seasonally Adjusted)

In May, nonfarm payroll employment decreased in all of the 38 metropolitan
divisions over the year. The largest over-the-year decrease in employment among
the metropolitan divisions occurred in New York-Jersey City-White Plains, NY-NJ
(-1,330,800), followed by Los Angeles-Long Beach-Glendale, CA (-602,600), and
Chicago-Naperville-Arlington Heights, IL (-455,200). (See table 4.)

The largest over-the-year percentage decreases in employment occurred in Detroit-
Dearborn-Livonia, MI (-20.7 percent), Warren-Troy-Farmington Hills, MI (-19.4
percent), and Haverhill-Newburyport-Amesbury Town, MA-NH (-18.8 percent). 

_____________
The State Employment and Unemployment news release for June is scheduled
to be released on Friday, July 17, 2020, at 10:00 a.m. (EDT). The Metropolitan
Area Employment and Unemployment news release for June is scheduled to be
released on Wednesday, July 29, 2020, at 10:00 a.m. (EDT).


  ________________________________________________________________________________
 | 										  |
 | 		     Coronavirus (COVID-19) Impact on May 2020			  |
 | 		      Establishment and Household Survey Data			  |
 |										  |
 | BLS has continued to review all estimation and methodological procedures	  |
 | for the establishment survey, which included the review of data, estimation	  |
 | processes, the application of the birth-death model, and seasonal adjustment.  |
 | Business births and deaths cannot be adequately captured by the establishment  |
 | survey as they occur. Therefore, the Current Employment Statistics (CES)	  |
 | program uses a model to account for the relatively stable net employment	  |
 | change generated by business births and deaths. Due to the impact of COVID-19, |
 | the relationship between business births and deaths is no longer stable.	  |
 | Typically, reports with zero employment are not included in estimation. For	  |
 | the April final estimates, CES included a portion of these reports in the	  |
 | estimates and made modifications to the birth-death model. For the May 2020	  |
 | preliminary estimates, in addition to the inclusion of reported zeros and	  |
 | the modification of the model, the establishment survey included a portion	  |
 | of the reports that returned to reporting positive employment from reporting	  |
 | zero employment. For more information, see www.bls.gov/web/empsit/cesbd.htm.	  |
 |										  |
 | In the establishment survey, workers who are paid by their employer for all	  |
 | or any part of the pay period including the 12th of the month are counted as	  |
 | employed, even if they were not actually at their jobs. Workers who are	  |
 | temporarily or permanently absent from their jobs and are not being paid are	  |
 | not counted as employed, even if they are continuing to receive benefits. The  |
 | length of the reference period does vary across the respondents in the	  |
 | establishment survey; one-third of businesses have a weekly pay period,	  |
 | slightly over 40 percent a bi-weekly, about 20 percent semi-monthly, and a	  |
 | small amount monthly.							  |
 |										  |
 | For the May 2020 estimates of household employment and unemployment from the	  |
 | Local Area Unemployment Statistics (LAUS) program, BLS continued to implement  |
 | level-shift outliers in the employment and/or unemployment inputs to the	  |
 | state models, based on statistical evaluation of movements in each area's	  |
 | inputs. Both the Current Population Survey inputs, which serve as the primary  |
 | inputs to the LAUS models, and the nonfarm payroll employment and unemployment |
 | insurance claims covariates were examined for outliers. The resulting	  |
 | implementation of level shifts preserved movements in the published estimates  |
 | that the models otherwise would have discounted, without requiring changes	  |
 | to how the models create estimates at other points in the time series.	  |
 | 										  |
 | The “Frequently asked questions” document at 				  |
 | www.bls.gov/cps/employment-situation-covid19-faq-may-2020.pdf extensively	  |
 | discusses the impact of a misclassification in the household survey on the	  |
 | national estimates for May 2020. This misclassification was widespread	  |
 | geographically, with BLS analysis indicating that all states were affected	  |
 | to at least some degree. However, according to usual practice, the data from	  |
 | the household survey are accepted as recorded. To maintain data integrity,	  |
 | no ad hoc actions are taken to reclassify survey responses. Hence, the	  |
 | household survey estimates of employed and unemployed people that serve as	  |
 | the primary inputs to the state models were affected to varying degrees by	  |
 | the misclassification, which in turn affected the official LAUS estimates for  |
 | May. Similar misclassifications had occurred in the household survey for	  |
 | March and April, as documented at 						  |
 | www.bls.gov/cps/employment-situation-covid19-faq-march-2020.pdf and		  |
 | www.bls.gov/cps/employment-situation-covid19-faq-april-2020.pdf, respectively. |
 | 										  |
 | Household data for substate areas are controlled to the employment and	  |
 | unemployment totals for their respective model-based areas. Hence, the	  |
 | preliminary May and revised April estimates for substate areas reflect the	  |
 | use of level-shift outliers, where implemented, in the inputs for their model- |
 | based control areas. The substate area estimates for both months also were	  |
 | impacted by misclassification in the household survey, in proportion to the	  |
 | impacts of the misclassifications on the data for their model-based control	  |
 | areas.									  |
 | 										  |
 | Household data for Puerto Rico are not modeled, but rather are derived from	  |
 | a monthly household survey similar to the Current Population Survey. Due to	  |
 | the effects of the pandemic and efforts to contain the virus, Puerto Rico	  |
 | had not been able to conduct its household survey for March or April 2020.	  |
 | Although survey data collection resumed for May 2020, BLS has not had	  |
 | sufficient opportunity to evaluate the resulting estimates or begin the	  |
 | process of interpolating data for the missing months. Hence, May estimates	  |
 | for substate areas in Puerto Rico are not being published by BLS in		  |
 | conjunction with this news release.						  |
 |________________________________________________________________________________|




Technical Note
 
   This news release presents civilian labor force and unemployment data from the
Local Area Unemployment Statistics (LAUS) program (tables 1 and 2) for 389
metropolitan statistical areas and metropolitan New England City and Town Areas
(NECTAs), plus 7 areas in Puerto Rico. Estimates for 38 metropolitan and NECTA
divisions also are presented. Nonfarm payroll employment estimates from the
Current Employment Statistics (CES) program (tables 3 and 4) are provided for
the same areas. State estimates were previously published in the news release
State Employment and Unemployment, and are republished in this news release for
ease of reference. The LAUS and CES programs are both federal-state cooperative
endeavors.

Civilian labor force and unemployment--from the LAUS program

   Definitions. The civilian labor force and unemployment data are based on the
same concepts and definitions as those used for the official national estimates
obtained from the Current Population Survey (CPS), a sample survey of households
that is conducted for the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) by the U.S. Census
Bureau. The LAUS program measures employed persons and unemployed persons on a
place-of-residence basis.  The universe for each is the civilian noninstitutional
population 16 years of age and older. Employed persons are those who did any work
at all for pay or profit in the reference week (typically the week including the
12th of the month) or worked 15 hours or more without pay in a family business or
farm, plus those not working who had a job from which they were temporarily absent,
whether or not paid, for such reasons as labor-management dispute, illness, or
vacation. Unemployed persons are those who were not employed during the reference
week (based on the definition above), had actively looked for a job sometime in the
4-week period ending with the reference week, and were currently available for work;
persons on layoff expecting recall need not be looking for work to be counted as
unemployed. The civilian labor force is the sum of employed and unemployed persons.
The unemployment rate is the number of unemployed as a percent of the civilian labor
force.

   Method of estimation. Estimates for states, the District of Columbia, the Los
Angeles-Long Beach-Glendale metropolitan division, and New York City are produced
using time-series models with real-time benchmarking to national CPS totals. Model-
based estimates are also produced for the following areas and their respective
balances: the Chicago-Naperville-Arlington Heights, IL Metropolitan Division;
Cleveland-Elyria, OH Metropolitan Statistical Area; Detroit-Warren-Dearborn, MI
Metropolitan Statistical Area; Miami-Miami Beach-Kendall, FL Metropolitan Division;
and Seattle-Bellevue-Everett, WA Metropolitan Division. Modeling improves the
statistical basis of the estimation for these areas and provides important tools
for analysis, such as measures of errors and seasonally adjusted series. For all
other substate areas in this news release, estimates are prepared through indirect
estimation procedures using a building-block approach.  Estimates of employed
persons, which are based largely on “place of work” estimates from the CES program,
are adjusted to refer to place of residence as used in the CPS. Unemployment
estimates are aggregates of persons previously employed in industries covered by
state unemployment insurance (UI) laws and entrants to the labor force from the
CPS. The substate estimates of employment and unemployment, which geographically
exhaust the entire state, are adjusted proportionally to ensure that they add to
the independently estimated model-based area totals. A detailed description of the
estimation procedures is available from BLS upon request.

   Annual revisions. Civilian labor force and unemployment data shown for the prior
year reflect adjustments made at the beginning of each year, usually implemented with
the issuance of January estimates. The adjusted model-based estimates typically reflect
updated population data from the U.S. Census Bureau, any revisions in other input
data sources, and model re-estimation. All substate estimates then are re-estimated
using updated inputs and adjusted to add to the revised model-based totals.  In early
2015, a new generation of time-series models was implemented, resulting in the
replacement of data back to the series beginnings. At the same time, enhancements were
made to the substate estimation methodology, and more timely inputs from the American
Community Survey were incorporated.

Employment--from the CES program 

   Definitions. Employment data refer to persons on establishment payrolls who receive
pay for any part of the pay period that includes the 12th of the month. Persons are
counted at their place of work rather than at their place of residence; those appearing
on more than one payroll are counted on each payroll. Industries are classified on the
basis of their principal activity in accordance with the 2017 version of the North
American Industry Classification System.

   Method of estimation. CES State and Area employment data are produced using several
estimation procedures. Where possible these data are produced using a "weighted link
relative" estimation technique in which a ratio of current-month weighted employment
to that of the previous-month weighted employment is computed from a sample of
establishments reporting for both months. The estimates of employment for the current
month are then obtained by multiplying these ratios by the previous month's employment
estimates. The weighted link relative technique is utilized for data series where the
sample size meets certain statistical criteria.

   For some employment series, the sample of establishments is very small or highly
variable. In these cases, a model-based approach is used in estimation. These models
use the direct sample estimates (described above), combined with forecasts of historical
(benchmarked) data to decrease volatility in estimation. Two different models
(Fay-Herriot Model and Small Domain Model) are used depending on the industry level
being estimated. For more detailed information about each model, refer to the BLS
Handbook of Methods.

   Annual revisions.  Employment estimates are adjusted annually to a complete count
of jobs, called benchmarks, derived principally from tax reports that are submitted by
employers who are covered under state unemployment insurance (UI) laws. The benchmark
information is used to adjust the monthly estimates between the new benchmark and the
preceding one and also to establish the level of employment for the new benchmark month.
Thus, the benchmarking process establishes the level of employment, and the sample is used
to measure the month-to-month changes in the level for the subsequent months.

   Seasonal adjustment. Payroll employment data are seasonally adjusted for states,
metropolitan areas, and metropolitan divisions at the total nonfarm level. For states,
data are seasonally adjusted at the supersector level as well. Revisions to historical
data for the most recent 5 years are made once a year, coincident with annual benchmark
adjustments.

   Payroll employment data are seasonally adjusted concurrently, using all available
estimates including those for the current month, to develop sample-based seasonal factors.
Concurrent sample-based factors are created every month for the current month's preliminary
estimate as well as the previous month's final estimate in order to incorporate real-time
estimates. 

Reliability of the estimates

   The estimates presented in this news release are based on sample surveys, administrative data,
and modeling and, thus, are subject to sampling and other types of errors. Sampling error
is a measure of sampling variability—that is, variation that occurs by chance because a
sample rather than the entire population is surveyed. Survey data also are subject to
nonsampling errors, such as those which can be introduced into the data collection and
processing operations. Estimates not directly derived from sample surveys are subject to
additional errors resulting from the specific estimation processes used. The sums of
individual items may not always equal the totals shown in the same tables because of
rounding.

Use of error measures

   Civilian labor force and unemployment estimates. Measures of sampling error are not
available for metropolitan areas or metropolitan divisions. Model-based error measures for
states are available on the BLS website at www.bls.gov/laus/lastderr.htm. Measures of
nonsampling error are not available for the areas contained in this news release. Information
on recent data revisions for states and local areas is available online at
www.bls.gov/lau/launews1.htm.

   Employment estimates. Changes in metropolitan area nonfarm payroll employment are cited
in the analysis of this news release only if they have been determined to be statistically
significant at the 90-percent confidence level.  Measures of sampling error for the total
nonfarm employment series are available for metropolitan areas and metropolitan divisions
at www.bls.gov/web/laus/790stderr.htm. Measures of sampling error for more detailed series
at the area and division level are available upon request. Measures of sampling error for
states  at the supersector level and for the private service-providing, goods-producing,
total private and total nonfarm levels are available on the BLS website at 
www.bls.gov/web/laus/790stderr.htm. Information on recent benchmark revisions
is available online at www.bls.gov/web/laus/benchmark.pdf.

Area definitions

   The substate area data published in this news release reflect the delineations issued by the
U.S. Office of Management and Budget on April 10, 2018. Data reflect New England City and
Town Area (NECTA) definitions, rather than county-based definitions, in the six New England
States. A detailed list of the geographic definitions is available online at
www.bls.gov/lau/lausmsa.htm.

Additional information

   Estimates of unadjusted and seasonally adjusted civilian labor force and unemployment
data for states and seven substate areas are available in the news release State Employment
and Unemployment. Estimates of civilian labor force and unemployment for all states,
metropolitan areas, counties, cities with a population of 25,000 or more, and other areas
used in the administration of various federal economic assistance programs are available
on the Internet at www.bls.gov/lau/. Employment data from the CES program are available on
the BLS website at www.bls.gov/sae/.

   Information in this news release will be made available to sensory impaired individuals
upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay Service: (800) 877-8339. 




LABOR FORCE DATA
NOT SEASONALLY ADJUSTED

Table 1. Civilian labor force and unemployment by state and metropolitan area
State and area Civilian labor force Unemployed
April May Number Percent of labor force
2019 2020 2019 2020(p) April May April May
2019 2020 2019 2020(p) 2019 2020 2019 2020(p)

Alabama

2,235,992 2,196,340 2,232,314 2,241,200 58,992 290,604 55,339 210,750 2.6 13.2 2.5 9.4

Anniston-Oxford-Jacksonville

45,910 47,895 46,092 45,571 1,436 8,717 1,363 5,377 3.1 18.2 3.0 11.8

Auburn-Opelika

76,111 74,427 75,563 76,373 1,769 9,261 1,713 6,643 2.3 12.4 2.3 8.7

Birmingham-Hoover

551,555 540,432 550,714 553,015 13,128 64,257 12,333 48,294 2.4 11.9 2.2 8.7

Daphne-Fairhope-Foley

97,486 93,597 98,311 96,903 2,394 14,457 2,182 9,295 2.5 15.4 2.2 9.6

Decatur

72,392 68,882 72,232 69,767 1,695 7,710 1,571 5,440 2.3 11.2 2.2 7.8

Dothan

63,853 60,506 63,836 62,652 1,733 6,255 1,636 4,985 2.7 10.3 2.6 8.0

Florence-Muscle Shoals

66,286 65,069 66,144 65,323 1,938 9,980 1,897 6,735 2.9 15.3 2.9 10.3

Gadsden

42,464 43,456 42,724 42,098 1,244 8,246 1,171 5,207 2.9 19.0 2.7 12.4

Huntsville

228,494 220,335 228,208 225,483 5,193 23,531 4,835 17,050 2.3 10.7 2.1 7.6

Mobile

188,444 186,958 187,604 189,762 6,244 28,222 5,796 23,816 3.3 15.1 3.1 12.6

Montgomery

173,135 170,911 173,611 173,901 4,560 23,841 4,234 18,349 2.6 13.9 2.4 10.6

Tuscaloosa

119,016 121,570 117,726 121,502 2,841 20,210 2,883 13,430 2.4 16.6 2.4 11.1

Alaska

343,620 334,391 348,619 333,842 21,609 45,960 21,029 41,667 6.3 13.7 6.0 12.5

Anchorage

193,485 189,799 194,629 187,824 10,683 27,131 10,688 23,336 5.5 14.3 5.5 12.4

Fairbanks

44,495 42,677 44,943 42,900 2,489 4,803 2,378 4,397 5.6 11.3 5.3 10.2

Arizona

3,504,642 3,534,894 3,514,657 3,535,642 157,118 464,122 161,415 309,001 4.5 13.1 4.6 8.7

Flagstaff

77,030 71,690 76,964 70,371 3,868 12,459 3,874 8,211 5.0 17.4 5.0 11.7

Lake Havasu City-Kingman

87,171 86,810 87,815 86,578 4,786 16,787 4,793 11,955 5.5 19.3 5.5 13.8

Phoenix-Mesa-Scottsdale

2,462,835 2,491,579 2,468,113 2,497,573 97,153 310,530 98,991 206,215 3.9 12.5 4.0 8.3

Prescott

105,871 109,749 106,679 109,463 4,584 15,523 4,570 9,259 4.3 14.1 4.3 8.5

Sierra Vista-Douglas

49,838 50,443 50,168 50,680 2,841 5,593 2,748 3,665 5.7 11.1 5.5 7.2

Tucson

494,965 497,905 497,207 500,776 20,877 63,542 21,420 41,967 4.2 12.8 4.3 8.4

Yuma

96,456 96,910 96,746 92,493 14,448 23,006 16,631 16,480 15.0 23.7 17.2 17.8

Arkansas

1,359,511 1,309,020 1,363,674 1,347,400 41,249 134,683 45,702 125,990 3.0 10.3 3.4 9.4

Fayetteville-Springdale-Rogers

278,239 267,236 279,152 277,239 6,035 21,654 6,717 19,707 2.2 8.1 2.4 7.1

Fort Smith

118,090 114,997 119,110 119,115 3,574 13,582 4,016 13,644 3.0 11.8 3.4 11.5

Hot Springs

41,662 39,997 41,357 41,695 1,269 6,256 1,411 5,655 3.0 15.6 3.4 13.6

Jonesboro

65,364 64,781 65,628 66,056 1,577 5,797 1,853 5,571 2.4 8.9 2.8 8.4

Little Rock-North Little Rock-Conway

358,898 343,638 358,949 354,556 9,846 37,496 10,789 35,796 2.7 10.9 3.0 10.1

Pine Bluff

34,805 33,570 34,899 34,878 1,584 3,393 1,807 3,451 4.6 10.1 5.2 9.9

California

19,238,934 18,518,277 19,261,786 18,405,776 733,781 2,993,792 694,948 2,921,159 3.8 16.2 3.6 15.9

Bakersfield

385,375 370,837 386,497 368,426 31,528 69,232 28,249 67,299 8.2 18.7 7.3 18.3

Chico

99,475 93,891 99,095 90,387 5,016 14,553 4,431 12,186 5.0 15.5 4.5 13.5

El Centro

69,023 71,885 70,532 71,659 10,818 20,172 11,698 19,917 15.7 28.1 16.6 27.8

Fresno

450,096 450,261 452,032 444,961 34,084 75,904 29,282 69,707 7.6 16.9 6.5 15.7

Hanford-Corcoran

57,420 57,120 57,968 56,204 4,767 9,713 3,979 9,020 8.3 17.0 6.9 16.0

Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim

6,687,849 6,297,229 6,686,003 6,256,593 246,420 1,181,960 247,034 1,194,508 3.7 18.8 3.7 19.1

Madera

60,745 62,100 62,272 62,233 4,501 10,370 3,872 9,459 7.4 16.7 6.2 15.2

Merced

115,884 115,510 117,247 113,780 10,052 21,617 8,495 18,774 8.7 18.7 7.2 16.5

Modesto

241,563 233,351 242,732 233,254 14,862 40,829 13,606 37,541 6.2 17.5 5.6 16.1

Napa

72,570 72,320 74,257 72,143 1,944 11,611 1,730 10,380 2.7 16.1 2.3 14.4

Oxnard-Thousand Oaks-Ventura

422,466 412,295 422,230 406,768 13,307 57,409 12,732 54,959 3.1 13.9 3.0 13.5

Redding

73,500 72,127 73,885 70,310 3,466 11,220 2,984 9,176 4.7 15.6 4.0 13.1

Riverside-San Bernardino-Ontario

2,050,895 2,019,053 2,045,294 2,026,281 74,023 296,755 71,945 301,980 3.6 14.7 3.5 14.9

Sacramento--Roseville--Arden-Arcade

1,088,877 1,060,954 1,090,489 1,067,807 36,819 148,678 34,625 144,969 3.4 14.0 3.2 13.6

Salinas

223,890 201,695 229,342 198,069 15,853 41,373 11,086 33,333 7.1 20.5 4.8 16.8

San Diego-Carlsbad

1,575,313 1,550,244 1,576,186 1,552,362 45,667 232,794 44,141 232,872 2.9 15.0 2.8 15.0

San Francisco-Oakland-Hayward

2,559,509 2,453,579 2,561,694 2,440,000 60,733 323,851 58,798 310,217 2.4 13.2 2.3 12.7

San Jose-Sunnyvale-Santa Clara

1,072,575 1,049,966 1,074,494 1,041,013 25,069 125,491 24,105 116,281 2.3 12.0 2.2 11.2

San Luis Obispo-Paso Robles-Arroyo Grande

141,284 133,405 141,818 129,072 3,655 18,657 3,450 16,409 2.6 14.0 2.4 12.7

Santa Cruz-Watsonville

144,070 134,979 142,122 130,308 7,661 22,971 5,732 18,757 5.3 17.0 4.0 14.4

Santa Maria-Santa Barbara

218,241 212,287 219,150 208,566 7,470 29,450 6,441 26,920 3.4 13.9 2.9 12.9

Santa Rosa

255,223 248,613 256,524 246,676 6,453 36,076 6,048 31,448 2.5 14.5 2.4 12.7

Stockton-Lodi

322,796 325,606 327,709 320,790 18,854 57,940 16,897 53,289 5.8 17.8 5.2 16.6

Vallejo-Fairfield

208,300 201,461 208,198 199,754 7,394 30,397 6,888 28,410 3.5 15.1 3.3 14.2

Visalia-Porterville

204,753 195,697 205,833 191,928 20,217 37,793 17,332 35,307 9.9 19.3 8.4 18.4

Yuba City

74,279 74,810 74,762 72,813 5,584 12,992 4,676 11,369 7.5 17.4 6.3 15.6

Colorado

3,109,558 3,039,495 3,119,482 3,049,684 85,675 369,691 80,659 305,613 2.8 12.2 2.6 10.0

Boulder

195,703 192,996 197,793 194,668 4,635 18,817 4,175 16,053 2.4 9.7 2.1 8.2

Colorado Springs

351,647 345,261 354,613 346,465 11,524 43,503 10,780 33,534 3.3 12.6 3.0 9.7

Denver-Aurora-Lakewood

1,655,599 1,635,879 1,664,907 1,637,743 44,061 201,569 41,279 171,093 2.7 12.3 2.5 10.4

Fort Collins

204,209 201,200 206,087 201,699 4,844 22,393 4,318 17,251 2.4 11.1 2.1 8.6

Grand Junction

76,505 74,253 76,735 76,142 2,529 9,378 2,286 6,866 3.3 12.6 3.0 9.0

Greeley

167,964 164,491 169,182 164,395 4,261 16,345 3,799 14,153 2.5 9.9 2.2 8.6

Pueblo

75,861 73,254 76,192 73,412 3,084 8,579 2,880 6,721 4.1 11.7 3.8 9.2

Connecticut

1,886,447 1,761,222 1,905,616 1,771,587 62,637 141,698 67,905 164,152 3.3 8.0 3.6 9.3

Bridgeport-Stamford-Norwalk

458,849 419,957 465,503 422,721 14,934 33,701 16,879 40,127 3.3 8.0 3.6 9.5

Danbury

105,186 96,614 106,690 98,757 2,834 7,641 3,147 8,462 2.7 7.9 2.9 8.6

Hartford-West Hartford-East Hartford

622,345 595,743 626,888 597,890 21,355 45,107 22,336 52,271 3.4 7.6 3.6 8.7

New Haven

325,283 306,441 327,625 306,362 10,247 22,107 11,383 25,651 3.2 7.2 3.5 8.4

Norwich-New London-Westerly

140,090 124,020 141,989 126,562 4,503 17,093 4,910 18,727 3.2 13.8 3.5 14.8

Waterbury

110,428 103,186 111,320 103,282 4,558 9,280 4,892 10,514 4.1 9.0 4.4 10.2

Delaware

486,111 462,965 484,877 470,988 16,882 68,460 16,258 73,024 3.5 14.8 3.4 15.5

Dover

79,157 77,949 78,676 79,197 2,925 12,334 2,934 13,432 3.7 15.8 3.7 17.0

Salisbury(1)

190,110 179,927 194,722 184,977 8,707 28,409 7,386 27,823 4.6 15.8 3.8 15.0

District of Columbia

409,186 403,629 408,260 386,642 20,741 44,790 21,301 32,864 5.1 11.1 5.2 8.5

Washington-Arlington-Alexandria

3,434,334 3,377,684 3,452,965 3,363,924 95,154 329,649 103,578 303,481 2.8 9.8 3.0 9.0

Florida

10,229,389 9,442,006 10,297,648 9,730,795 298,056 1,274,185 310,611 1,394,645 2.9 13.5 3.0 14.3

Cape Coral-Fort Myers

345,821 321,431 345,234 330,990 10,120 46,991 10,504 46,472 2.9 14.6 3.0 14.0

Crestview-Fort Walton Beach-Destin

126,842 117,701 130,028 119,071 3,271 16,016 3,336 13,009 2.6 13.6 2.6 10.9

Deltona-Daytona Beach-Ormond Beach

298,623 281,731 301,334 287,349 9,768 41,306 10,311 41,620 3.3 14.7 3.4 14.5

Gainesville

146,277 130,541 144,214 132,930 3,940 11,441 4,082 11,549 2.7 8.8 2.8 8.7

Homosassa Springs

46,966 45,445 47,445 46,357 2,115 6,760 2,241 6,643 4.5 14.9 4.7 14.3

Jacksonville

767,750 707,091 779,073 734,111 22,163 79,493 23,447 81,954 2.9 11.2 3.0 11.2

Lakeland-Winter Haven

301,351 288,555 303,558 315,084 10,230 40,396 10,843 60,041 3.4 14.0 3.6 19.1

Miami-Fort Lauderdale-West Palm Beach

3,139,186 2,807,469 3,147,395 2,884,139 84,881 376,359 87,247 391,112 2.7 13.4 2.8 13.6

Naples-Immokalee-Marco Island

181,382 165,603 179,247 168,696 4,895 22,238 5,080 22,026 2.7 13.4 2.8 13.1

North Port-Sarasota-Bradenton

366,985 333,783 369,376 343,893 10,619 47,201 11,023 45,481 2.9 14.1 3.0 13.2

Ocala

135,997 129,001 137,269 132,646 4,914 15,537 5,136 15,474 3.6 12.0 3.7 11.7

Orlando-Kissimmee-Sanford

1,342,310 1,285,901 1,355,270 1,328,127 37,370 216,430 39,214 300,708 2.8 16.8 2.9 22.6

Palm Bay-Melbourne-Titusville

279,366 267,189 282,542 272,891 8,459 34,262 8,751 34,333 3.0 12.8 3.1 12.6

Panama City

89,215 82,569 90,967 84,572 3,467 10,605 3,479 9,516 3.9 12.8 3.8 11.3

Pensacola-Ferry Pass-Brent

226,391 208,489 228,632 212,130 6,498 24,682 6,740 23,352 2.9 11.8 2.9 11.0

Port St. Lucie

217,486 205,071 219,760 211,283 7,353 27,392 7,804 27,502 3.4 13.4 3.6 13.0

Punta Gorda

71,379 67,281 71,663 68,435 2,452 9,884 2,556 9,217 3.4 14.7 3.6 13.5

Sebastian-Vero Beach

65,229 60,549 65,226 61,736 2,290 8,489 2,413 8,307 3.5 14.0 3.7 13.5

Sebring

36,077 33,826 36,326 35,019 1,494 3,592 1,590 3,906 4.1 10.6 4.4 11.2

Tallahassee

194,241 171,764 193,099 175,498 5,573 14,235 5,833 15,199 2.9 8.3 3.0 8.7

Tampa-St. Petersburg-Clearwater

1,529,411 1,432,682 1,546,072 1,479,937 45,524 189,652 47,885 193,901 3.0 13.2 3.1 13.1

The Villages

32,397 30,522 32,657 31,354 1,439 3,739 1,489 4,049 4.4 12.3 4.6 12.9

Georgia

5,064,999 4,880,560 5,085,861 4,900,874 158,519 594,420 168,072 464,678 3.1 12.2 3.3 9.5

Albany

66,167 62,751 66,217 63,146 2,526 7,027 2,729 5,456 3.8 11.2 4.1 8.6

Athens-Clarke County

98,958 93,859 98,265 95,758 2,908 10,452 3,068 7,859 2.9 11.1 3.1 8.2

Atlanta-Sandy Springs-Roswell

3,052,124 2,930,563 3,071,436 2,944,498 91,860 371,030 97,732 301,917 3.0 12.7 3.2 10.3

Augusta-Richmond County

269,205 257,725 267,303 261,253 8,712 26,771 9,296 22,929 3.2 10.4 3.5 8.8

Brunswick

52,591 46,444 52,943 46,341 1,621 7,506 1,735 5,127 3.1 16.2 3.3 11.1

Columbus

123,220 115,519 123,567 116,282 4,465 14,127 4,703 11,084 3.6 12.2 3.8 9.5

Dalton

58,932 59,930 58,494 58,440 2,440 11,879 2,232 6,516 4.1 19.8 3.8 11.1

Gainesville

100,922 96,843 101,369 96,628 2,619 10,315 2,752 7,717 2.6 10.7 2.7 8.0

Hinesville

33,935 32,453 34,233 32,979 1,101 3,233 1,294 2,462 3.2 10.0 3.8 7.5

Macon-Bibb County

102,192 97,012 102,569 97,463 3,499 10,690 3,753 8,659 3.4 11.0 3.7 8.9

Rome

43,598 44,151 43,562 44,666 1,416 5,849 1,518 4,077 3.2 13.2 3.5 9.1

Savannah

188,094 178,075 188,911 180,031 5,413 27,323 5,779 20,032 2.9 15.3 3.1 11.1

Valdosta

63,370 60,524 63,416 61,702 1,986 5,947 2,051 4,776 3.1 9.8 3.2 7.7

Warner Robins

85,579 79,739 86,152 80,754 2,733 8,041 2,876 5,732 3.2 10.1 3.3 7.1

Hawaii

663,211 634,102 660,719 631,606 17,225 149,901 17,075 141,832 2.6 23.6 2.6 22.5

Kahului-Wailuku-Lahaina

86,343 89,046 85,892 85,182 2,173 30,805 2,116 28,421 2.5 34.6 2.5 33.4

Urban Honolulu

449,581 418,298 447,027 421,124 11,055 85,839 11,119 83,699 2.5 20.5 2.5 19.9

Idaho

872,118 881,168 879,900 884,204 25,898 104,533 22,733 75,893 3.0 11.9 2.6 8.6

Boise City

371,422 379,051 374,019 380,979 9,863 46,725 9,259 35,043 2.7 12.3 2.5 9.2

Coeur d'Alene

79,261 80,902 80,622 79,566 2,869 13,736 2,348 8,900 3.6 17.0 2.9 11.2

Idaho Falls

71,206 73,354 72,369 75,089 1,609 5,812 1,548 4,149 2.3 7.9 2.1 5.5

Lewiston

31,310 29,540 31,260 29,024 1,041 3,232 902 2,435 3.3 10.9 2.9 8.4

Pocatello

42,992 39,698 43,094 40,444 1,164 4,109 1,087 3,088 2.7 10.4 2.5 7.6

Twin Falls

53,094 53,811 53,234 52,881 1,415 5,663 1,334 4,116 2.7 10.5 2.5 7.8

Illinois

6,413,186 6,090,530 6,416,363 6,265,841 234,005 1,021,001 222,493 920,610 3.6 16.8 3.5 14.7

Bloomington

97,432 84,313 95,642 87,574 3,182 10,863 3,013 9,537 3.3 12.9 3.2 10.9

Carbondale-Marion

60,969 56,965 59,666 57,979 2,093 9,643 2,025 8,715 3.4 16.9 3.4 15.0

Champaign-Urbana

126,428 113,081 124,671 115,004 4,174 12,288 4,009 11,503 3.3 10.9 3.2 10.0

Chicago-Naperville-Elgin

4,831,430 4,668,836 4,828,532 4,792,192 174,384 807,160 163,684 724,120 3.6 17.3 3.4 15.1

Danville

33,138 30,979 33,026 32,169 1,440 5,263 1,396 4,757 4.3 17.0 4.2 14.8

Davenport-Moline-Rock Island(1)

193,755 186,448 194,940 189,196 7,011 28,493 6,858 26,649 3.6 15.3 3.5 14.1

Decatur

48,864 42,401 49,294 44,703 2,221 6,662 2,118 6,628 4.5 15.7 4.3 14.8

Kankakee

55,298 51,690 55,598 53,899 2,422 8,100 2,225 7,188 4.4 15.7 4.0 13.3

Peoria

174,990 152,496 176,275 158,108 7,131 26,954 6,776 24,077 4.1 17.7 3.8 15.2

Rockford

164,826 156,162 165,285 160,122 7,398 34,636 8,355 30,858 4.5 22.2 5.1 19.3

Springfield

107,607 96,298 107,826 100,086 3,799 13,706 3,547 13,007 3.5 14.2 3.3 13.0

Indiana

3,373,458 3,220,384 3,382,235 3,345,747 96,412 547,911 99,835 396,808 2.9 17.0 3.0 11.9

Bloomington

80,908 74,484 80,392 79,644 2,164 7,695 2,456 6,320 2.7 10.3 3.1 7.9

Columbus

44,676 44,242 44,899 45,375 909 7,600 1,028 5,774 2.0 17.2 2.3 12.7

Elkhart-Goshen

113,517 114,091 113,356 107,289 2,797 32,679 3,090 12,751 2.5 28.6 2.7 11.9

Evansville

162,837 160,578 162,514 168,646 4,231 23,722 4,695 17,795 2.6 14.8 2.9 10.6

Fort Wayne

217,863 215,152 218,391 221,007 5,374 41,693 5,980 29,930 2.5 19.4 2.7 13.5

Indianapolis-Carmel-Anderson

1,065,603 991,279 1,068,726 1,047,847 27,415 131,675 29,520 106,631 2.6 13.3 2.8 10.2

Kokomo

37,534 40,783 36,160 42,845 2,485 13,652 1,213 9,356 6.6 33.5 3.4 21.8

Lafayette-West Lafayette

114,380 102,225 114,076 106,034 2,698 13,051 3,035 12,551 2.4 12.8 2.7 11.8

Michigan City-La Porte

47,814 47,989 48,002 48,444 1,788 10,061 1,757 7,429 3.7 21.0 3.7 15.3

Muncie

54,445 52,748 53,492 54,490 1,729 8,574 1,880 6,274 3.2 16.3 3.5 11.5

South Bend-Mishawaka

161,125 155,488 161,273 156,583 4,978 32,988 5,376 21,322 3.1 21.2 3.3 13.6

Terre Haute

76,210 70,338 76,122 72,791 2,807 11,591 2,878 8,579 3.7 16.5 3.8 11.8

Iowa

1,724,077 1,709,966 1,726,212 1,681,811 42,760 184,635 41,050 162,693 2.5 10.8 2.4 9.7

Ames

60,566 54,990 59,824 53,695 904 4,690 1,007 3,725 1.5 8.5 1.7 6.9

Cedar Rapids

148,262 146,218 147,578 144,139 3,801 18,231 3,703 15,657 2.6 12.5 2.5 10.9

Des Moines-West Des Moines

365,004 365,491 364,004 352,916 9,247 42,952 8,821 37,081 2.5 11.8 2.4 10.5

Dubuque

56,738 53,890 56,823 54,923 1,323 6,944 1,185 6,715 2.3 12.9 2.1 12.2

Iowa City

99,978 96,719 98,338 94,210 1,797 9,313 1,956 8,230 1.8 9.6 2.0 8.7

Sioux City

92,948 93,631 92,739 93,393 2,337 8,915 2,246 7,832 2.5 9.5 2.4 8.4

Waterloo-Cedar Falls

91,083 90,494 90,627 89,915 2,428 10,291 2,292 9,703 2.7 11.4 2.5 10.8

Kansas

1,473,233 1,496,570 1,475,384 1,498,065 41,220 174,577 44,053 147,268 2.8 11.7 3.0 9.8

Lawrence

66,701 65,917 65,900 66,036 1,674 7,567 1,770 6,851 2.5 11.5 2.7 10.4

Manhattan

48,835 45,075 48,122 45,182 1,168 3,782 1,256 3,415 2.4 8.4 2.6 7.6

Topeka

118,386 119,286 118,306 118,653 3,360 14,013 3,562 11,409 2.8 11.7 3.0 9.6

Wichita

313,879 334,886 313,521 329,677 9,421 59,435 10,050 45,797 3.0 17.7 3.2 13.9

Kentucky

2,063,511 2,054,250 2,074,273 2,040,012 80,609 333,569 86,279 222,010 3.9 16.2 4.2 10.9

Bowling Green

84,297 79,145 84,770 80,218 2,968 14,275 3,221 9,690 3.5 18.0 3.8 12.1

Elizabethtown-Fort Knox

67,368 69,393 67,577 67,947 2,611 12,605 2,748 8,413 3.9 18.2 4.1 12.4

Lexington-Fayette

272,697 270,381 275,910 267,343 8,452 41,108 9,269 24,497 3.1 15.2 3.4 9.2

Louisville/Jefferson County

672,203 646,142 672,675 646,252 23,832 108,572 25,026 76,757 3.5 16.8 3.7 11.9

Owensboro

55,620 54,098 55,829 54,457 1,977 8,051 2,164 5,622 3.6 14.9 3.9 10.3

Louisiana

2,082,577 1,929,961 2,085,409 2,041,451 78,569 280,620 89,769 266,657 3.8 14.5 4.3 13.1

Alexandria

62,776 57,732 62,679 61,505 2,511 5,716 2,868 5,681 4.0 9.9 4.6 9.2

Baton Rouge

416,712 387,224 415,382 410,422 14,022 50,366 16,249 48,362 3.4 13.0 3.9 11.8

Hammond

53,833 52,050 53,707 54,556 2,291 8,909 2,633 8,774 4.3 17.1 4.9 16.1

Houma-Thibodaux

87,120 82,836 87,968 86,235 3,162 10,240 3,668 9,361 3.6 12.4 4.2 10.9

Lafayette

210,350 195,074 211,142 209,129 7,884 25,405 9,114 24,305 3.7 13.0 4.3 11.6

Lake Charles

110,831 97,997 110,653 107,113 3,448 13,955 3,986 13,984 3.1 14.2 3.6 13.1

Monroe

78,697 72,166 78,909 77,683 3,400 8,456 3,823 8,402 4.3 11.7 4.8 10.8

New Orleans-Metairie

593,172 556,995 592,915 578,274 20,896 105,621 23,838 94,616 3.5 19.0 4.0 16.4

Shreveport-Bossier City

184,764 171,154 184,936 181,967 7,517 22,407 8,520 22,688 4.1 13.1 4.6 12.5

Maine

685,039 652,223 688,088 662,027 22,976 70,464 20,644 61,914 3.4 10.8 3.0 9.4

Bangor

71,783 68,212 70,649 67,305 2,324 6,742 2,008 6,129 3.2 9.9 2.8 9.1

Lewiston-Auburn

55,844 53,363 55,447 54,443 1,749 5,457 1,600 4,999 3.1 10.2 2.9 9.2

Portland-South Portland

206,370 193,777 207,483 195,242 5,426 21,753 4,984 20,114 2.6 11.2 2.4 10.3

Maryland

3,226,095 3,089,838 3,244,597 3,103,222 103,809 302,569 111,054 300,245 3.2 9.8 3.4 9.7

Baltimore-Columbia-Towson

1,506,352 1,423,797 1,517,116 1,437,741 49,135 143,881 53,100 137,177 3.3 10.1 3.5 9.5

California-Lexington Park

56,776 54,820 57,083 54,006 1,593 3,841 1,757 3,704 2.8 7.0 3.1 6.9

Cumberland

44,914 42,459 45,114 42,201 1,976 5,641 2,020 4,784 4.4 13.3 4.5 11.3

Hagerstown-Martinsburg

132,021 126,842 132,550 128,365 4,521 14,852 4,674 13,312 3.4 11.7 3.5 10.4

Massachusetts

3,784,300 3,387,179 3,790,731 3,514,873 103,672 543,130 109,174 572,513 2.7 16.0 2.9 16.3

Barnstable Town

121,700 107,884 126,942 114,657 4,540 22,712 4,173 22,185 3.7 21.1 3.3 19.3

Boston-Cambridge-Nashua

2,808,928 2,516,025 2,809,844 2,604,313 69,287 389,791 74,261 412,931 2.5 15.5 2.6 15.9

Leominster-Gardner

80,428 73,112 80,387 75,928 2,667 12,596 2,619 13,067 3.3 17.2 3.3 17.2

New Bedford

85,891 82,340 85,665 83,791 3,419 18,005 3,533 17,769 4.0 21.9 4.1 21.2

Pittsfield

42,264 38,170 42,657 39,219 1,575 6,863 1,501 6,682 3.7 18.0 3.5 17.0

Springfield

378,841 331,301 377,675 342,948 12,751 50,089 13,439 52,701 3.4 15.1 3.6 15.4

Worcester

361,650 326,776 361,479 337,258 10,835 47,171 11,444 49,214 3.0 14.4 3.2 14.6

Michigan

4,884,834 4,553,132 4,923,525 4,753,935 179,338 1,076,470 184,604 985,423 3.7 23.6 3.7 20.7

Ann Arbor

198,131 186,452 197,099 198,005 5,075 27,586 5,612 27,218 2.6 14.8 2.8 13.7

Battle Creek

62,268 59,888 62,580 65,505 2,365 14,849 2,420 14,406 3.8 24.8 3.9 22.0

Bay City

49,743 49,024 50,110 50,159 2,163 12,273 2,134 10,030 4.3 25.0 4.3 20.0

Detroit-Warren-Dearborn

2,124,913 1,901,828 2,139,667 1,930,669 78,881 460,509 82,283 457,525 3.7 24.2 3.8 23.7

Flint

181,839 184,165 181,436 193,901 7,975 55,298 10,215 47,437 4.4 30.0 5.6 24.5

Grand Rapids-Wyoming

579,384 544,905 583,537 581,697 15,057 117,157 16,206 99,234 2.6 21.5 2.8 17.1

Jackson

74,315 71,979 74,728 77,077 2,516 17,714 2,533 15,436 3.4 24.6 3.4 20.0

Kalamazoo-Portage

168,445 156,426 168,589 167,939 5,303 28,245 5,663 26,165 3.1 18.1 3.4 15.6

Lansing-East Lansing

251,866 235,864 252,387 249,299 7,408 45,209 7,738 40,870 2.9 19.2 3.1 16.4

Midland

40,406 38,000 40,752 40,235 1,398 7,665 1,381 6,366 3.5 20.2 3.4 15.8

Monroe

75,588 76,011 76,340 78,187 2,744 19,821 3,091 16,557 3.6 26.1 4.0 21.2

Muskegon

76,134 79,299 77,086 82,618 2,923 23,077 3,047 20,512 3.8 29.1 4.0 24.8

Niles-Benton Harbor

73,127 69,228 74,374 74,875 2,637 14,111 2,798 13,927 3.6 20.4 3.8 18.6

Saginaw

86,097 85,274 86,642 88,934 3,728 21,474 3,970 18,414 4.3 25.2 4.6 20.7

Minnesota

3,085,711 3,053,423 3,094,150 3,060,535 94,899 263,224 83,114 286,934 3.1 8.6 2.7 9.4

Duluth

144,002 142,596 143,174 140,109 5,766 17,502 4,999 17,674 4.0 12.3 3.5 12.6

Mankato-North Mankato

62,111 61,164 61,865 60,003 1,555 4,654 1,484 4,999 2.5 7.6 2.4 8.3

Minneapolis-St. Paul-Bloomington

2,012,570 1,993,733 2,012,906 1,962,191 54,965 184,137 51,769 203,117 2.7 9.2 2.6 10.4

Rochester

124,070 123,605 124,441 124,601 3,278 8,481 2,926 11,868 2.6 6.9 2.4 9.5

St. Cloud

113,494 112,946 113,041 110,953 3,674 9,328 3,003 10,049 3.2 8.3 2.7 9.1

Mississippi

1,267,432 1,194,015 1,277,185 1,213,027 60,185 187,779 67,760 127,805 4.7 15.7 5.3 10.5

Gulfport-Biloxi-Pascagoula

161,553 159,551 163,943 159,932 7,954 34,610 8,813 24,284 4.9 21.7 5.4 15.2

Hattiesburg

67,775 62,435 67,817 64,166 2,919 7,939 3,264 5,680 4.3 12.7 4.8 8.9

Jackson

265,852 249,470 267,911 253,422 11,471 36,027 12,727 25,726 4.3 14.4 4.8 10.2

Missouri

3,060,323 3,030,512 3,072,393 3,013,983 82,667 297,480 91,760 295,268 2.7 9.8 3.0 9.8

Cape Girardeau

48,086 46,644 48,399 44,798 1,207 4,543 1,401 4,047 2.5 9.7 2.9 9.0

Columbia

98,838 96,279 98,620 93,649 1,892 6,260 2,221 6,175 1.9 6.5 2.3 6.6

Jefferson City

74,703 72,310 74,753 72,956 1,575 4,733 1,812 4,362 2.1 6.5 2.4 6.0

Joplin

83,643 84,259 83,996 83,201 2,106 8,516 2,468 7,429 2.5 10.1 2.9 8.9

Kansas City

1,126,127 1,119,628 1,128,980 1,122,459 31,302 126,423 33,634 120,907 2.8 11.3 3.0 10.8

St. Joseph

63,127 61,680 62,872 61,496 1,695 4,407 1,723 4,026 2.7 7.1 2.7 6.5

St. Louis(2)

1,461,547 1,411,378 1,465,940 1,426,647 41,213 155,203 43,458 160,092 2.8 11.0 3.0 11.2

Springfield

233,265 232,334 234,519 229,560 5,322 21,267 6,114 18,772 2.3 9.2 2.6 8.2

Montana

528,624 518,037 532,019 522,050 17,703 61,588 15,197 44,176 3.3 11.9 2.9 8.5

Billings

87,489 85,755 87,611 85,799 2,577 9,544 2,288 6,685 2.9 11.1 2.6 7.8

Great Falls

37,969 36,848 38,071 37,961 1,175 4,501 1,061 3,023 3.1 12.2 2.8 8.0

Missoula

63,578 64,082 64,193 64,014 1,946 8,529 1,646 5,972 3.1 13.3 2.6 9.3

Nebraska

1,031,872 1,058,900 1,037,150 1,056,413 30,397 91,239 30,785 53,561 2.9 8.6 3.0 5.1

Grand Island

44,024 45,521 44,221 44,733 1,311 5,022 1,319 3,301 3.0 11.0 3.0 7.4

Lincoln

185,753 189,842 185,818 188,773 4,996 17,652 5,197 9,408 2.7 9.3 2.8 5.0

Omaha-Council Bluffs

492,965 501,049 494,733 499,180 14,682 50,034 14,737 31,551 3.0 10.0 3.0 6.3

Nevada

1,531,684 1,425,549 1,538,540 1,384,397 59,974 428,703 59,063 348,602 3.9 30.1 3.8 25.2

Carson City

26,084 23,589 26,393 22,721 1,056 4,982 1,013 3,446 4.0 21.1 3.8 15.2

Las Vegas-Henderson-Paradise

1,124,041 1,055,879 1,129,068 1,019,889 45,469 359,352 45,344 295,805 4.0 34.0 4.0 29.0

Reno

255,532 223,676 256,741 220,613 8,421 45,669 7,992 35,234 3.3 20.4 3.1 16.0

New Hampshire

765,976 713,750 768,801 722,492 19,243 122,865 18,515 104,528 2.5 17.2 2.4 14.5

Dover-Durham

86,395 78,979 86,530 80,223 1,989 12,237 1,860 10,679 2.3 15.5 2.1 13.3

Manchester

123,210 117,490 123,310 118,268 2,847 20,389 2,829 17,490 2.3 17.4 2.3 14.8

Portsmouth

76,418 69,863 76,934 71,221 1,774 10,426 1,676 8,810 2.3 14.9 2.2 12.4

New Jersey

4,422,942 4,454,525 4,443,339 4,505,921 124,804 710,317 133,039 673,248 2.8 15.9 3.0 14.9

Atlantic City-Hammonton

118,301 122,476 118,905 123,210 4,920 41,408 4,981 39,892 4.2 33.8 4.2 32.4

Ocean City

41,418 42,045 45,722 43,448 3,051 11,330 2,302 9,827 7.4 26.9 5.0 22.6

Trenton

198,761 202,050 200,414 202,738 4,847 21,991 5,307 20,986 2.4 10.9 2.6 10.4

Vineland-Bridgeton

64,732 67,714 66,272 67,626 2,881 11,147 2,858 10,197 4.5 16.5 4.3 15.1

New Mexico

944,960 911,148 944,675 898,438 41,959 104,090 42,160 78,815 4.4 11.4 4.5 8.8

Albuquerque

433,404 412,265 432,023 406,690 17,833 50,848 18,287 37,402 4.1 12.3 4.2 9.2

Farmington

51,885 48,362 51,710 47,507 2,551 6,403 2,527 4,883 4.9 13.2 4.9 10.3

Las Cruces

96,675 91,298 97,165 91,016 5,327 10,630 5,172 7,737 5.5 11.6 5.3 8.5

Santa Fe

73,569 69,089 74,140 69,010 2,723 8,667 2,765 6,487 3.7 12.5 3.7 9.4

New York

9,449,425 9,039,687 9,457,173 9,063,361 342,246 1,364,458 345,064 1,289,082 3.6 15.1 3.6 14.2

Albany-Schenectady-Troy

444,361 441,630 444,463 453,013 14,744 55,569 14,624 43,556 3.3 12.6 3.3 9.6

Binghamton

105,703 108,132 106,242 109,551 4,394 16,350 4,189 11,655 4.2 15.1 3.9 10.6

Buffalo-Cheektowaga-Niagara Falls

534,296 539,356 536,693 541,433 20,886 104,066 20,451 77,301 3.9 19.3 3.8 14.3

Elmira

34,754 36,692 34,843 37,530 1,333 5,869 1,338 4,550 3.8 16.0 3.8 12.1

Glens Falls

57,257 56,861 58,034 58,230 2,512 9,009 2,152 6,530 4.4 15.8 3.7 11.2

Ithaca

49,954 48,430 49,179 49,800 1,583 4,948 1,602 3,891 3.2 10.2 3.3 7.8

Kingston

86,796 87,774 87,373 89,381 2,884 13,108 2,942 9,808 3.3 14.9 3.4 11.0

New York-Newark-Jersey City

9,859,442 9,443,120 9,872,404 9,484,882 318,988 1,435,211 333,212 1,449,935 3.2 15.2 3.4 15.3

Rochester

517,162 505,650 516,558 510,582 19,276 75,168 19,028 56,398 3.7 14.9 3.7 11.0

Syracuse

302,319 301,607 303,407 304,429 11,639 49,012 11,404 36,163 3.8 16.3 3.8 11.9

Utica-Rome

128,034 127,929 128,219 128,865 5,191 19,240 4,984 14,416 4.1 15.0 3.9 11.2

Watertown-Fort Drum

43,014 42,604 43,684 42,217 2,324 7,315 1,997 5,066 5.4 17.2 4.6 12.0

North Carolina

5,050,492 4,683,309 5,081,718 4,841,906 178,912 585,170 196,440 617,073 3.5 12.5 3.9 12.7

Asheville

236,980 214,388 237,789 222,424 6,776 34,767 7,598 35,851 2.9 16.2 3.2 16.1

Burlington

81,976 73,034 82,382 76,710 2,829 9,324 3,141 9,925 3.5 12.8 3.8 12.9

Charlotte-Concord-Gastonia

1,356,316 1,276,060 1,362,806 1,327,021 44,320 161,802 48,110 175,213 3.3 12.7 3.5 13.2

Durham-Chapel Hill

304,804 279,163 305,664 282,975 9,616 26,686 10,670 29,874 3.2 9.6 3.5 10.6

Fayetteville

149,335 137,721 149,923 142,524 6,836 20,072 7,475 21,974 4.6 14.6 5.0 15.4

Goldsboro

52,676 45,917 52,968 47,199 2,017 4,410 2,194 4,745 3.8 9.6 4.1 10.1

Greensboro-High Point

372,529 336,543 373,813 349,323 13,651 49,708 15,132 50,795 3.7 14.8 4.0 14.5

Greenville

90,534 79,995 91,057 86,416 3,344 7,778 3,905 8,871 3.7 9.7 4.3 10.3

Hickory-Lenoir-Morganton

175,395 161,168 175,997 163,759 5,873 28,285 6,518 24,583 3.3 17.6 3.7 15.0

Jacksonville

65,523 61,529 65,820 63,407 2,791 7,391 3,024 7,402 4.3 12.0 4.6 11.7

New Bern

51,601 47,618 51,949 48,570 1,923 4,888 2,095 5,026 3.7 10.3 4.0 10.3

Raleigh

725,675 660,658 729,398 679,922 22,800 72,392 25,203 77,885 3.1 11.0 3.5 11.5

Rocky Mount

64,528 59,577 64,894 62,949 3,162 7,601 3,393 8,673 4.9 12.8 5.2 13.8

Wilmington

153,020 137,836 154,656 141,814 5,143 20,135 5,608 19,260 3.4 14.6 3.6 13.6

Winston-Salem

331,517 300,707 332,547 310,423 10,973 38,087 12,224 39,830 3.3 12.7 3.7 12.8

North Dakota

401,447 405,037 404,896 403,634 9,963 37,311 8,303 34,855 2.5 9.2 2.1 8.6

Bismarck

67,083 67,024 67,418 66,398 1,768 6,344 1,447 5,171 2.6 9.5 2.1 7.8

Fargo

137,843 139,034 138,943 138,992 3,325 10,755 2,773 9,391 2.4 7.7 2.0 6.8

Grand Forks

53,544 53,397 53,893 52,814 1,486 4,425 1,338 4,220 2.8 8.3 2.5 8.0

Ohio

5,752,958 5,652,649 5,781,125 5,747,599 202,345 977,318 213,510 768,392 3.5 17.3 3.7 13.4

Akron

357,031 342,178 357,462 345,381 13,066 54,148 13,034 42,768 3.7 15.8 3.6 12.4

Canton-Massillon

197,419 192,978 198,659 194,892 7,828 31,301 7,996 24,727 4.0 16.2 4.0 12.7

Cincinnati

1,113,799 1,074,746 1,121,391 1,103,802 34,734 151,184 37,293 123,248 3.1 14.1 3.3 11.2

Cleveland-Elyria

1,041,403 1,003,673 1,035,875 1,041,377 37,502 225,213 39,603 178,467 3.6 22.4 3.8 17.1

Columbus

1,080,284 1,060,888 1,090,198 1,075,278 32,444 145,561 34,456 117,276 3.0 13.7 3.2 10.9

Dayton

384,787 389,832 387,871 389,909 12,977 62,063 14,133 49,398 3.4 15.9 3.6 12.7

Lima

47,530 48,866 47,927 48,954 1,555 10,033 1,631 7,347 3.3 20.5 3.4 15.0

Mansfield

51,707 53,442 52,363 53,246 1,973 10,830 1,973 8,332 3.8 20.3 3.8 15.6

Springfield

62,885 64,955 63,202 63,588 2,188 11,288 2,243 7,892 3.5 17.4 3.5 12.4

Toledo

302,283 304,529 307,201 308,651 11,169 66,502 15,046 52,601 3.7 21.8 4.9 17.0

Weirton-Steubenville(1)

50,404 49,602 50,442 50,284 2,396 9,131 2,409 7,584 4.8 18.4 4.8 15.1

Youngstown-Warren-Boardman

237,290 233,919 238,905 232,807 12,228 46,599 12,316 35,618 5.2 19.9 5.2 15.3

Oklahoma

1,828,940 1,768,046 1,836,265 1,818,696 50,819 253,592 58,531 228,467 2.8 14.3 3.2 12.6

Enid

26,948 25,575 27,053 26,010 690 2,926 782 2,762 2.6 11.4 2.9 10.6

Lawton

50,744 50,097 50,818 50,469 1,532 9,561 1,768 7,977 3.0 19.1 3.5 15.8

Oklahoma City

680,839 658,867 682,350 682,045 17,729 97,544 20,197 87,513 2.6 14.8 3.0 12.8

Tulsa

478,439 464,045 480,077 474,466 13,456 69,867 15,331 61,338 2.8 15.1 3.2 12.9

Oregon

2,092,686 2,101,238 2,092,575 2,110,532 80,230 311,651 71,990 291,933 3.8 14.8 3.4 13.8

Albany

58,968 60,724 58,533 59,910 2,604 9,293 2,316 7,921 4.4 15.3 4.0 13.2

Bend-Redmond

95,049 96,249 95,754 97,176 3,751 17,585 3,299 15,444 3.9 18.3 3.4 15.9

Corvallis

48,457 47,671 48,453 47,359 1,370 4,924 1,267 4,593 2.8 10.3 2.6 9.7

Eugene

180,683 180,016 180,388 182,536 7,576 28,781 6,720 26,266 4.2 16.0 3.7 14.4

Grants Pass

35,518 35,928 35,781 36,148 1,824 5,487 1,618 4,855 5.1 15.3 4.5 13.4

Medford

102,912 102,887 102,918 105,133 4,802 16,412 4,170 14,917 4.7 16.0 4.1 14.2

Portland-Vancouver-Hillsboro

1,319,297 1,329,175 1,315,744 1,335,054 47,692 189,218 44,343 183,809 3.6 14.2 3.4 13.8

Salem

199,664 198,684 200,385 199,845 8,190 26,191 7,384 24,535 4.1 13.2 3.7 12.3

Pennsylvania

6,400,636 6,402,435 6,447,401 6,462,626 226,869 999,618 258,627 834,558 3.5 15.6 4.0 12.9

Allentown-Bethlehem-Easton

436,973 441,308 440,949 442,184 16,163 71,335 17,932 59,558 3.7 16.2 4.1 13.5

Altoona

58,712 61,364 59,231 60,794 2,026 10,403 2,261 7,950 3.5 17.0 3.8 13.1

Bloomsburg-Berwick

42,298 44,087 42,093 42,876 1,530 6,170 1,835 4,800 3.6 14.0 4.4 11.2

Chambersburg-Waynesboro

75,919 76,584 77,185 79,709 2,345 9,884 2,677 8,572 3.1 12.9 3.5 10.8

East Stroudsburg

81,768 83,058 82,569 82,686 3,720 16,826 4,114 14,758 4.5 20.3 5.0 17.8

Erie

127,485 126,086 127,955 127,093 4,765 21,235 5,264 17,269 3.7 16.8 4.1 13.6

Gettysburg

54,909 54,638 55,202 56,501 1,375 7,842 1,636 6,399 2.5 14.4 3.0 11.3

Harrisburg-Carlisle

296,718 301,504 299,080 306,900 8,776 40,091 10,245 34,428 3.0 13.3 3.4 11.2

Johnstown

57,387 57,618 57,872 57,178 2,340 9,967 2,676 7,579 4.1 17.3 4.6 13.3

Lancaster

279,779 277,205 283,772 288,482 7,674 40,783 9,026 32,328 2.7 14.7 3.2 11.2

Lebanon

71,019 73,845 72,444 75,274 2,185 10,109 2,530 8,417 3.1 13.7 3.5 11.2

Philadelphia-Camden-Wilmington

3,094,602 3,086,576 3,101,906 3,102,674 104,296 456,549 117,240 414,761 3.4 14.8 3.8 13.4

Pittsburgh

1,196,374 1,178,100 1,202,261 1,191,818 41,737 193,692 46,924 159,066 3.5 16.4 3.9 13.3

Reading

213,185 223,420 215,269 227,232 7,578 37,424 8,753 30,422 3.6 16.8 4.1 13.4

Scranton--Wilkes-Barre--Hazleton

273,616 271,021 273,791 270,478 12,064 48,394 13,418 41,045 4.4 17.9 4.9 15.2

State College

80,820 79,742 80,537 80,425 2,083 7,756 2,637 6,571 2.6 9.7 3.3 8.2

Williamsport

56,272 52,782 56,285 52,488 2,201 8,923 2,440 6,655 3.9 16.9 4.3 12.7

York-Hanover

232,701 240,179 234,833 241,345 7,103 35,631 8,244 29,129 3.1 14.8 3.5 12.1

Rhode Island

548,414 523,359 550,312 518,556 17,630 93,510 18,150 82,910 3.2 17.9 3.3 16.0

Providence-Warwick

683,687 649,848 685,457 649,532 22,307 118,448 22,806 107,390 3.3 18.2 3.3 16.5

South Carolina

2,363,633 2,370,275 2,377,726 2,427,358 60,382 289,022 64,906 295,316 2.6 12.2 2.7 12.2

Charleston-North Charleston

392,964 388,423 395,600 396,162 8,567 47,027 9,287 48,795 2.2 12.1 2.3 12.3

Columbia

400,751 398,180 402,295 411,814 9,669 33,777 10,513 38,804 2.4 8.5 2.6 9.4

Florence

97,020 96,292 97,831 98,966 2,697 8,691 2,885 9,724 2.8 9.0 2.9 9.8

Greenville-Anderson-Mauldin

432,550 441,067 434,099 448,310 9,912 54,183 10,983 55,276 2.3 12.3 2.5 12.3

Hilton Head Island-Bluffton-Beaufort

89,795 87,845 91,119 92,030 2,147 10,213 2,370 10,186 2.4 11.6 2.6 11.1

Myrtle Beach-Conway-North Myrtle Beach

202,729 192,528 206,220 201,147 7,352 40,978 7,616 35,927 3.6 21.3 3.7 17.9

Spartanburg

164,260 174,436 164,726 174,286 3,820 26,625 4,181 25,564 2.3 15.3 2.5 14.7

Sumter

43,664 45,137 43,736 45,687 1,312 4,970 1,393 5,096 3.0 11.0 3.2 11.2

South Dakota

460,099 467,575 462,992 464,600 15,271 51,348 14,197 42,821 3.3 11.0 3.1 9.2

Rapid City

73,782 75,619 74,934 74,764 2,583 10,449 2,479 8,139 3.5 13.8 3.3 10.9

Sioux Falls

154,845 156,821 155,091 158,433 4,362 16,496 4,085 14,992 2.8 10.5 2.6 9.5

Tennessee

3,323,559 3,219,243 3,336,509 3,303,771 96,887 482,906 104,130 362,833 2.9 15.0 3.1 11.0

Chattanooga

275,931 274,951 276,075 277,836 8,018 36,343 8,356 25,982 2.9 13.2 3.0 9.4

Clarksville

116,386 115,056 117,061 119,421 4,291 18,490 4,721 12,769 3.7 16.1 4.0 10.7

Cleveland

58,541 56,684 58,681 58,830 1,750 7,713 1,926 5,623 3.0 13.6 3.3 9.6

Jackson

64,926 58,694 65,093 61,255 2,024 7,971 2,099 6,289 3.1 13.6 3.2 10.3

Johnson City

92,642 88,823 91,936 89,704 3,008 11,519 3,293 8,182 3.2 13.0 3.6 9.1

Kingsport-Bristol-Bristol

138,132 133,045 138,568 134,221 4,283 18,080 4,731 13,288 3.1 13.6 3.4 9.9

Knoxville

430,858 411,519 432,298 423,524 11,721 55,534 12,942 38,048 2.7 13.5 3.0 9.0

Memphis

640,352 597,060 644,084 624,801 23,691 76,572 25,134 67,835 3.7 12.8 3.9 10.9

Morristown

53,243 52,889 53,311 53,507 1,752 8,471 1,865 6,229 3.3 16.0 3.5 11.6

Nashville-Davidson--Murfreesboro--Franklin

1,082,299 1,042,756 1,087,467 1,067,764 24,411 158,523 26,627 121,487 2.3 15.2 2.4 11.4

Texas

13,922,611 12,953,286 13,926,760 13,462,785 417,640 1,693,762 435,592 1,710,623 3.0 13.1 3.1 12.7

Abilene

78,167 70,781 78,140 73,781 1,960 6,362 2,075 6,554 2.5 9.0 2.7 8.9

Amarillo

131,790 118,942 132,061 122,277 2,787 10,518 2,928 10,420 2.1 8.8 2.2 8.5

Austin-Round Rock

1,227,316 1,136,198 1,225,988 1,169,689 27,985 138,785 28,958 132,803 2.3 12.2 2.4 11.4

Beaumont-Port Arthur

172,845 162,169 172,566 168,400 7,898 29,370 8,382 29,980 4.6 18.1 4.9 17.8

Brownsville-Harlingen

165,479 156,495 165,540 160,672 7,767 26,458 8,044 25,714 4.7 16.9 4.9 16.0

College Station-Bryan

135,154 125,605 134,677 129,720 3,012 10,948 3,329 11,197 2.2 8.7 2.5 8.6

Corpus Christi

206,199 187,780 205,863 193,593 7,442 29,451 7,874 28,508 3.6 15.7 3.8 14.7

Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington

3,922,980 3,694,671 3,926,375 3,830,901 111,608 471,159 115,327 469,624 2.8 12.8 2.9 12.3

El Paso

362,000 335,669 361,452 350,771 11,931 50,140 12,421 50,945 3.3 14.9 3.4 14.5

Houston-The Woodlands-Sugar Land

3,397,419 3,185,290 3,399,189 3,322,543 110,554 454,790 115,222 463,133 3.3 14.3 3.4 13.9

Killeen-Temple

176,063 164,017 175,892 168,379 5,674 18,325 5,956 17,998 3.2 11.2 3.4 10.7

Laredo

117,804 108,142 118,482 112,758 3,804 14,441 4,016 16,008 3.2 13.4 3.4 14.2

Longview

99,197 89,946 98,949 92,055 3,121 10,944 3,206 11,220 3.1 12.2 3.2 12.2

Lubbock

163,103 144,953 162,906 152,301 3,774 14,527 3,973 14,301 2.3 10.0 2.4 9.4

McAllen-Edinburg-Mission

349,258 337,518 349,154 350,075 17,618 61,171 18,882 61,857 5.0 18.1 5.4 17.7

Midland

110,122 98,074 109,702 102,288 1,833 9,906 1,940 12,725 1.7 10.1 1.8 12.4

Odessa

88,227 79,892 87,802 84,591 1,790 10,937 1,954 13,970 2.0 13.7 2.2 16.5

San Angelo

55,306 48,288 54,929 50,442 1,391 5,122 1,490 5,357 2.5 10.6 2.7 10.6

San Antonio-New Braunfels

1,193,380 1,115,403 1,192,549 1,166,786 31,304 148,488 32,842 148,502 2.6 13.3 2.8 12.7

Sherman-Denison

63,843 59,788 63,849 61,009 1,633 6,145 1,754 5,894 2.6 10.3 2.7 9.7

Texarkana

64,872 62,091 65,169 63,351 2,431 8,248 2,510 6,713 3.7 13.3 3.9 10.6

Tyler

107,114 99,841 106,825 103,938 3,051 12,022 3,163 11,761 2.8 12.0 3.0 11.3

Victoria

45,731 41,654 45,861 42,874 1,339 5,910 1,398 5,460 2.9 14.2 3.0 12.7

Waco

125,205 114,478 125,126 118,029 3,447 12,040 3,630 11,764 2.8 10.5 2.9 10.0

Wichita Falls

64,984 57,848 64,895 60,096 1,725 6,551 1,817 6,024 2.7 11.3 2.8 10.0

Utah

1,590,603 1,593,900 1,599,711 1,609,113 42,102 165,215 41,197 135,782 2.6 10.4 2.6 8.4

Logan

71,939 69,158 72,152 69,073 1,589 4,366 1,522 3,293 2.2 6.3 2.1 4.8

Ogden-Clearfield

329,371 335,483 332,658 340,364 8,688 32,690 8,415 26,923 2.6 9.7 2.5 7.9

Provo-Orem

310,851 305,140 308,763 308,972 7,407 24,017 7,434 19,084 2.4 7.9 2.4 6.2

St. George

75,564 75,371 75,961 77,279 2,225 9,382 2,122 7,212 2.9 12.4 2.8 9.3

Salt Lake City

659,515 664,963 665,237 667,408 17,359 74,532 16,932 62,861 2.6 11.2 2.5 9.4

Vermont

340,621 347,808 341,657 341,620 8,649 58,413 7,493 43,065 2.5 16.8 2.2 12.6

Burlington-South Burlington

125,298 124,210 125,070 123,952 2,175 18,224 2,219 14,147 1.7 14.7 1.8 11.4

Virginia

4,380,461 4,312,563 4,401,947 4,332,115 106,476 464,883 118,238 397,994 2.4 10.8 2.7 9.2

Blacksburg-Christiansburg-Radford

92,937 87,203 91,859 83,863 2,232 9,849 2,657 7,665 2.4 11.3 2.9 9.1

Charlottesville

123,591 121,318 123,608 122,241 2,629 11,529 3,143 10,198 2.1 9.5 2.5 8.3

Harrisonburg

67,177 65,725 65,914 64,405 1,546 6,675 1,872 5,872 2.3 10.2 2.8 9.1

Lynchburg

123,519 119,358 123,287 117,891 3,314 12,099 3,911 10,095 2.7 10.1 3.2 8.6

Richmond

682,818 672,848 685,796 677,998 17,571 75,286 19,365 65,750 2.6 11.2 2.8 9.7

Roanoke

157,982 154,705 158,330 154,112 3,777 16,173 4,194 14,230 2.4 10.5 2.6 9.2

Staunton-Waynesboro

60,529 61,883 60,634 61,725 1,333 5,812 1,520 4,809 2.2 9.4 2.5 7.8

Virginia Beach-Norfolk-Newport News

854,373 839,094 859,269 852,812 23,320 101,432 25,563 88,681 2.7 12.1 3.0 10.4

Winchester

73,179 71,573 73,641 71,805 1,751 7,081 1,900 5,812 2.4 9.9 2.6 8.1

Washington

3,875,503 3,948,775 3,888,371 3,936,502 160,332 634,546 158,985 583,007 4.1 16.1 4.1 14.8

Bellingham

115,201 119,667 114,936 119,541 5,689 21,207 5,403 18,719 4.9 17.7 4.7 15.7

Bremerton-Silverdale

127,232 132,712 127,404 133,610 6,073 19,296 5,751 17,726 4.8 14.5 4.5 13.3

Kennewick-Richland

144,204 149,159 146,921 150,090 8,085 20,157 7,443 18,491 5.6 13.5 5.1 12.3

Longview

47,578 48,630 47,572 49,594 2,957 7,966 2,890 7,682 6.2 16.4 6.1 15.5

Mount Vernon-Anacortes

62,577 65,334 62,744 64,507 3,351 12,484 3,281 10,702 5.4 19.1 5.2 16.6

Olympia-Tumwater

141,797 150,044 141,359 148,138 7,154 23,899 6,710 21,272 5.0 15.9 4.7 14.4

Seattle-Tacoma-Bellevue

2,154,351 2,168,122 2,161,440 2,165,105 64,082 360,062 69,343 330,165 3.0 16.6 3.2 15.2

Spokane-Spokane Valley

277,124 280,537 277,303 279,274 15,550 46,723 14,179 41,854 5.6 16.7 5.1 15.0

Walla Walla

31,726 32,223 31,661 32,151 1,560 3,928 1,437 3,457 4.9 12.2 4.5 10.8

Wenatchee

64,517 65,152 65,020 65,115 3,486 10,320 3,230 9,282 5.4 15.8 5.0 14.3

Yakima

129,058 133,602 130,493 134,980 9,450 19,077 8,856 18,882 7.3 14.3 6.8 14.0

West Virginia

789,799 775,460 794,398 780,855 35,643 122,366 35,373 97,429 4.5 15.8 4.5 12.5

Beckley

46,196 47,267 46,905 47,371 2,099 8,638 2,143 6,303 4.5 18.3 4.6 13.3

Charleston

91,943 92,142 92,539 91,904 4,089 16,441 4,119 12,935 4.4 17.8 4.5 14.1

Huntington-Ashland

145,316 147,636 145,749 148,014 6,604 24,706 6,714 18,980 4.5 16.7 4.6 12.8

Morgantown

70,172 68,847 70,043 69,387 2,430 8,638 2,516 6,824 3.5 12.5 3.6 9.8

Parkersburg-Vienna

38,925 39,597 39,000 40,189 1,818 6,584 1,861 5,264 4.7 16.6 4.8 13.1

Wheeling

65,036 61,756 65,600 63,438 3,259 10,766 3,065 9,293 5.0 17.4 4.7 14.6

Wisconsin

3,082,421 3,029,571 3,085,969 3,081,769 97,631 411,689 94,828 361,778 3.2 13.6 3.1 11.7

Appleton

129,832 126,743 130,027 128,532 3,706 16,274 3,651 13,517 2.9 12.8 2.8 10.5

Eau Claire

92,421 88,413 92,171 89,973 3,021 10,847 2,715 9,559 3.3 12.3 2.9 10.6

Fond du Lac

56,928 57,329 57,109 58,080 1,442 8,613 1,560 6,551 2.5 15.0 2.7 11.3

Green Bay

172,267 169,122 172,773 174,055 5,107 21,851 5,199 20,556 3.0 12.9 3.0 11.8

Janesville-Beloit

84,888 85,026 84,832 84,386 2,836 13,461 2,951 11,502 3.3 15.8 3.5 13.6

La Crosse-Onalaska

77,116 73,646 76,830 73,755 2,100 8,323 2,105 7,491 2.7 11.3 2.7 10.2

Madison

384,924 363,846 382,348 370,124 9,105 40,248 9,814 35,326 2.4 11.1 2.6 9.5

Milwaukee-Waukesha-West Allis

810,529 805,797 812,363 829,443 26,001 109,472 26,925 104,402 3.2 13.6 3.3 12.6

Oshkosh-Neenah

91,093 89,910 91,139 91,007 2,533 11,900 2,646 9,676 2.8 13.2 2.9 10.6

Racine

98,147 99,971 98,154 101,551 3,688 14,272 3,516 12,458 3.8 14.3 3.6 12.3

Sheboygan

61,526 61,425 62,176 62,772 1,535 8,545 1,630 7,873 2.5 13.9 2.6 12.5

Wausau

72,817 70,998 73,010 73,341 2,058 8,131 1,995 6,659 2.8 11.5 2.7 9.1

Wyoming

288,723 293,713 290,120 292,808 9,980 28,237 9,616 25,374 3.5 9.6 3.3 8.7

Casper

39,423 40,233 38,975 39,251 1,423 5,081 1,427 4,576 3.6 12.6 3.7 11.7

Cheyenne

48,719 50,162 48,095 49,998 1,576 4,536 1,541 3,922 3.2 9.0 3.2 7.8

Puerto Rico

1,081,928 - 1,091,373 - 84,380 - 84,550 - 7.8 - 7.7 -

Aguadilla-Isabela

86,260 - 86,800 - 9,040 - 8,851 - 10.5 - 10.2 -

Arecibo

52,580 - 52,955 - 5,106 - 5,034 - 9.7 - 9.5 -

Guayama

20,152 - 20,293 - 2,528 - 2,560 - 12.5 - 12.6 -

Mayaguez

27,102 - 27,331 - 2,604 - 2,619 - 9.6 - 9.6 -

Ponce

92,224 - 93,125 - 10,168 - 10,369 - 11.0 - 11.1 -

San German

34,226 - 34,481 - 3,518 - 3,516 - 10.3 - 10.2 -

San Juan-Carolina-Caguas

727,495 - 733,877 - 46,577 - 46,686 - 6.4 - 6.4 -

Footnotes
(1) For operational reasons, these interstate areas are listed under the state that accounts for the larger share of the population, which is different from the state that contains the first principal city.
(2) The area boundary does not reflect the Office of Management and Budget delineation.
(p) Preliminary

- Data not available.
NOTE: Data refer to place of residence. Data for Puerto Rico are derived from a monthly household survey similar to the Current Population Survey. Area delineations are based on Office of Management and Budget Bulletin No. 18-03, dated April 10, 2018, and are available on the BLS website at https://www.bls.gov/lau/lausmsa.htm. Areas in the six New England states are Metropolitan New England City and Town Areas (NECTAs), while areas in other states are county-based. Some metropolitan areas lie in two or more states. They are listed under the state containing the first principal city, unless otherwise footnoted. Estimates for the latest month are subject to revision the following month.


LABOR FORCE DATA
NOT SEASONALLY ADJUSTED

Table 2. Civilian labor force and unemployment by state, selected metropolitan area, and metropolitan division(1)
State, area, and division Civilian labor force Unemployed
April May Number Percent of labor force
2019 2020 2019 2020(p) April May April May
2019 2020 2019 2020(p) 2019 2020 2019 2020(p)

California

19,238,934 18,518,277 19,261,786 18,405,776 733,781 2,993,792 694,948 2,921,159 3.8 16.2 3.6 15.9

Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim

6,687,849 6,297,229 6,686,003 6,256,593 246,420 1,181,960 247,034 1,194,508 3.7 18.8 3.7 19.1

Anaheim-Santa Ana-Irvine

1,610,768 1,540,338 1,611,417 1,548,933 40,538 212,626 39,120 224,450 2.5 13.8 2.4 14.5

Los Angeles-Long Beach-Glendale

5,077,081 4,756,891 5,074,586 4,707,660 205,882 969,334 207,914 970,058 4.1 20.4 4.1 20.6

San Francisco-Oakland-Hayward

2,559,509 2,453,579 2,561,694 2,440,000 60,733 323,851 58,798 310,217 2.4 13.2 2.3 12.7

Oakland-Hayward-Berkeley

1,392,306 1,340,711 1,393,942 1,334,658 37,843 190,684 36,792 180,549 2.7 14.2 2.6 13.5

San Francisco-Redwood City-South San Francisco

1,029,239 984,789 1,029,427 978,360 20,017 118,801 19,277 116,605 1.9 12.1 1.9 11.9

San Rafael

137,964 128,079 138,325 126,982 2,873 14,366 2,729 13,063 2.1 11.2 2.0 10.3

District of Columbia

409,186 403,629 408,260 386,642 20,741 44,790 21,301 32,864 5.1 11.1 5.2 8.5

Washington-Arlington-Alexandria(2)

3,434,334 3,377,684 3,452,965 3,363,924 95,154 329,649 103,578 303,481 2.8 9.8 3.0 9.0

Silver Spring-Frederick-Rockville(3)

692,464 672,640 695,856 672,558 18,085 58,001 20,270 60,443 2.6 8.6 2.9 9.0

Washington-Arlington-Alexandria(2)

2,741,870 2,705,044 2,757,109 2,691,366 77,069 271,648 83,308 243,038 2.8 10.0 3.0 9.0

Florida

10,229,389 9,442,006 10,297,648 9,730,795 298,056 1,274,185 310,611 1,394,645 2.9 13.5 3.0 14.3

Miami-Fort Lauderdale-West Palm Beach

3,139,186 2,807,469 3,147,395 2,884,139 84,881 376,359 87,247 391,112 2.7 13.4 2.8 13.6

Fort Lauderdale-Pompano Beach-Deerfield Beach

1,026,061 940,796 1,038,920 988,718 29,147 140,525 30,934 157,752 2.8 14.9 3.0 16.0

Miami-Miami Beach-Kendall

1,383,594 1,213,833 1,374,809 1,212,569 34,190 143,445 33,538 136,825 2.5 11.8 2.4 11.3

West Palm Beach-Boca Raton-Delray Beach

729,531 652,840 733,666 682,852 21,544 92,389 22,775 96,535 3.0 14.2 3.1 14.1

Illinois

6,413,186 6,090,530 6,416,363 6,265,841 234,005 1,021,001 222,493 920,610 3.6 16.8 3.5 14.7

Chicago-Naperville-Elgin(2)

4,831,430 4,668,836 4,828,532 4,792,192 174,384 807,160 163,684 724,120 3.6 17.3 3.4 15.1

Chicago-Naperville-Arlington Heights

3,699,535 3,619,642 3,694,475 3,703,922 130,568 631,744 123,584 570,075 3.5 17.5 3.3 15.4

Elgin

326,518 292,593 327,772 304,093 12,642 48,364 11,505 44,731 3.9 16.5 3.5 14.7

Gary(3)

342,858 334,005 341,945 346,246 14,056 64,876 13,042 52,722 4.1 19.4 3.8 15.2

Lake County-Kenosha County(2)

462,519 422,596 464,340 437,931 17,118 62,176 15,553 56,592 3.7 14.7 3.3 12.9

Massachusetts

3,784,300 3,387,179 3,790,731 3,514,873 103,672 543,130 109,174 572,513 2.7 16.0 2.9 16.3

Boston-Cambridge-Nashua(2)

2,808,928 2,516,025 2,809,844 2,604,313 69,287 389,791 74,261 412,931 2.5 15.5 2.6 15.9

Boston-Cambridge-Newton

1,677,699 1,483,320 1,677,021 1,537,346 38,254 211,032 41,992 231,912 2.3 14.2 2.5 15.1

Brockton-Bridgewater-Easton

111,612 103,148 111,383 106,753 3,219 19,686 3,432 21,039 2.9 19.1 3.1 19.7

Framingham

161,895 143,498 162,198 148,865 3,700 18,883 3,956 20,214 2.3 13.2 2.4 13.6

Haverhill-Newburyport-Amesbury Town(2)

118,061 106,085 118,646 109,260 3,288 18,659 3,215 17,765 2.8 17.6 2.7 16.3

Lawrence-Methuen Town-Salem(2)

98,985 92,967 98,986 97,958 3,699 20,336 3,794 21,288 3.7 21.9 3.8 21.7

Lowell-Billerica-Chelmsford(2)

197,563 175,500 197,826 181,794 5,188 27,649 5,562 28,956 2.6 15.8 2.8 15.9

Lynn-Saugus-Marblehead

86,438 79,718 86,588 83,383 2,314 15,120 2,537 16,590 2.7 19.0 2.9 19.9

Nashua(2)

176,135 164,832 176,482 166,564 4,689 27,962 4,538 24,108 2.7 17.0 2.6 14.5

Peabody-Salem-Beverly

93,778 86,155 93,642 89,152 2,404 14,744 2,592 15,320 2.6 17.1 2.8 17.2

Taunton-Middleborough-Norton

86,762 80,802 87,072 83,238 2,532 15,720 2,643 15,739 2.9 19.5 3.0 18.9

Michigan

4,884,834 4,553,132 4,923,525 4,753,935 179,338 1,076,470 184,604 985,423 3.7 23.6 3.7 20.7

Detroit-Warren-Dearborn

2,124,913 1,901,828 2,139,667 1,930,669 78,881 460,509 82,283 457,525 3.7 24.2 3.8 23.7

Detroit-Dearborn-Livonia

793,142 726,341 797,188 735,101 34,395 187,169 36,524 194,351 4.3 25.8 4.6 26.4

Warren-Troy-Farmington Hills

1,331,770 1,175,487 1,342,478 1,195,568 44,486 273,339 45,758 263,174 3.3 23.3 3.4 22.0

New York

9,449,425 9,039,687 9,457,173 9,063,361 342,246 1,364,458 345,064 1,289,082 3.6 15.1 3.6 14.2

New York-Newark-Jersey City(2)

9,859,442 9,443,120 9,872,404 9,484,882 318,988 1,435,211 333,212 1,449,935 3.2 15.2 3.4 15.3

Dutchess County-Putnam County

193,690 189,947 194,460 192,879 6,270 27,087 6,414 20,511 3.2 14.3 3.3 10.6

Nassau County-Suffolk County

1,469,824 1,427,531 1,478,984 1,470,434 45,511 229,277 47,214 179,751 3.1 16.1 3.2 12.2

Newark(3)

1,220,575 1,211,193 1,223,115 1,229,434 34,975 181,173 37,700 173,026 2.9 15.0 3.1 14.1

New York-Jersey City-White Plains(2)

6,975,353 6,614,449 6,975,845 6,592,135 232,232 997,674 241,884 1,076,647 3.3 15.1 3.5 16.3

Pennsylvania

6,400,636 6,402,435 6,447,401 6,462,626 226,869 999,618 258,627 834,558 3.5 15.6 4.0 12.9

Philadelphia-Camden-Wilmington(2)

3,094,602 3,086,576 3,101,906 3,102,674 104,296 456,549 117,240 414,761 3.4 14.8 3.8 13.4

Camden(3)

625,719 644,345 627,184 645,351 17,954 97,303 19,395 89,959 2.9 15.1 3.1 13.9

Montgomery County-Bucks County-Chester County

1,073,166 1,042,773 1,081,755 1,054,694 30,957 141,159 35,821 118,740 2.9 13.5 3.3 11.3

Philadelphia

1,011,224 1,035,494 1,011,828 1,035,783 42,404 168,903 48,946 154,923 4.2 16.3 4.8 15.0

Wilmington(3)

384,493 363,964 381,139 366,846 12,981 49,184 13,078 51,139 3.4 13.5 3.4 13.9

Texas

13,922,611 12,953,286 13,926,760 13,462,785 417,640 1,693,762 435,592 1,710,623 3.0 13.1 3.1 12.7

Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington

3,922,980 3,694,671 3,926,375 3,830,901 111,608 471,159 115,327 469,624 2.8 12.8 2.9 12.3

Dallas-Plano-Irving

2,642,474 2,500,313 2,643,980 2,584,060 75,742 315,057 78,161 312,939 2.9 12.6 3.0 12.1

Fort Worth-Arlington

1,280,506 1,194,358 1,282,395 1,246,841 35,866 156,102 37,166 156,685 2.8 13.1 2.9 12.6

Washington

3,875,503 3,948,775 3,888,371 3,936,502 160,332 634,546 158,985 583,007 4.1 16.1 4.1 14.8

Seattle-Tacoma-Bellevue

2,154,351 2,168,122 2,161,440 2,165,105 64,082 360,062 69,343 330,165 3.0 16.6 3.2 15.2

Seattle-Bellevue-Everett

1,716,736 1,710,760 1,723,907 1,703,919 40,918 274,615 47,034 252,314 2.4 16.1 2.7 14.8

Tacoma-Lakewood

437,615 457,362 437,533 461,186 23,164 85,447 22,309 77,851 5.3 18.7 5.1 16.9

Footnotes
(1) These 11 areas contain all of the 38 metropolitan divisions.
(2) Part of the area (or division) is in one or more adjacent states.
(3) All of the division is in one or more adjacent states.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data refer to place of residence. Area delineations are based on Office of Management and Budget Bulletin No. 18-03, dated April 10, 2018, and are available on the BLS website at https://www.bls.gov/lau/lausmsa.htm. Areas in the six New England states are Metropolitan New England City and Town Areas (NECTAs), while areas in other states are county-based. Some metropolitan areas lie in two or more states. They are listed under the state containing the first principal city. Metropolitan divisions are listed under their metropolitan areas. Some divisions lie in more than one state, and some, like Camden, NJ, are totally outside the states under which their metropolitan areas are listed. For Washington-Arlington-Alexandria, DC-VA-MD-WV, the metropolitan area and division titles are identical. Estimates for the latest month are subject to revision the following month.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
NOT SEASONALLY ADJUSTED
Table 3. Employees on nonfarm payrolls by state and metropolitan area, not seasonally adjusted
[In thousands]
State and area April May Change from
May 2019 to May 2020(p)
2019 2020 2019 2020(p) Number Percent

Alabama

2,071.3 1,871.9 2,075.9 1,914.4 -161.5 -7.8

Anniston-Oxford-Jacksonville

47.1 43.1 47.4 42.4 -5.0 -10.5

Auburn-Opelika

67.0 61.3 66.3 63.2 -3.1 -4.7

Birmingham-Hoover

544.5 499.6 545.3 508.2 -37.1 -6.8

Daphne-Fairhope-Foley

80.7 68.8 81.8 74.3 -7.5 -9.2

Decatur

57.2 51.1 57.4 51.5 -5.9 -10.3

Dothan

59.8 54.3 59.8 55.3 -4.5 -7.5

Florence-Muscle Shoals

57.9 51.1 57.6 52.2 -5.4 -9.4

Gadsden

37.4 33.0 37.7 33.3 -4.4 -11.7

Huntsville

244.4 223.6 245.1 227.3