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Metropolitan Area Employment and Unemployment (Monthly) News Release

For release 10:00 a.m. (EDT) Wednesday, July 3, 2019							USDL-19-1136

Technical information:
 Employment:	(202) 691-6559  *  sminfo@bls.gov    *  www.bls.gov/sae
 Unemployment:	(202) 691-6392  *  lausinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/lau

Media contact:	(202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov


			METROPOLITAN AREA EMPLOYMENT AND UNEMPLOYMENT -- MAY 2019


Unemployment rates were lower in May than a year earlier in 254 of the 389 metropolitan areas, higher in 94 areas,
and unchanged in 41 areas, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. A total of 119 areas had jobless rates
of less than 3.0 percent and 2 areas had rates of at least 10.0 percent. Nonfarm payroll employment increased over
the year in 46 metropolitan areas, decreased in 2 areas, and was essentially unchanged in 341 areas. The national 
unemployment rate in May was 3.4 percent, not seasonally adjusted, and was little changed from a year 
earlier.

This news release presents statistics from two monthly programs. The civilian labor force and unemployment data are
based on the same concepts and definitions as those used for the national household survey estimates. These data
pertain to individuals by where they reside. The employment data come from an establishment survey that measures
nonfarm employment, hours, and earnings by industry. These data pertain to jobs on payrolls defined by where the
establishments are located. For more information about the concepts and statistical methodologies used 
by these two programs, see the Technical Note.

Metropolitan Area Unemployment (Not Seasonally Adjusted)

In May, Ames, IA, and Burlington-South Burlington, VT, had the lowest unemployment rates, 1.5 percent each, followed
by Midland, TX, 1.7 percent; Iowa City, IA, 1.8 percent; and Dubuque, IA, 1.9 percent. Yuma, AZ, and El Centro, CA,
had the highest unemployment rates, 17.1 percent and 16.4 percent, respectively. A total of 197 areas had May jobless
rates below the U.S. rate of 3.4 percent, 178 areas had rates above it, and 14 areas had rates equal to that of the
nation. (See table 1.)

Ocean City, NJ, had the largest over-the-year unemployment rate decrease in May (-2.3 percentage points). An additional
10 areas had rate declines of at least 1.0 percentage point. The largest over-the-year rate increases occurred in Flint,
MI (+1.3 percentage points), and Yakima, WA (+1.1 points).

Of the 51 metropolitan areas with a 2010 Census population of 1 million or more, Austin-Round Rock, TX; San Francisco-
Oakland-Hayward, CA; and San Jose-Sunnyvale-Santa Clara, CA, had the lowest unemployment rates in May, 2.2 percent each.
Detroit-Warren-Dearborn, MI, had the highest jobless rate among the large areas, 4.3 percent. Forty large areas had
over-the-year unemployment rate decreases, seven had increases, and four had no change. The largest rate declines occurred
in Cleveland-Elyria, OH, and Houston-The Woodlands-Sugar Land, TX (-0.9 percentage point each). The largest jobless
rate increase was in Detroit-Warren-Dearborn, MI (+0.8 percentage point).

Metropolitan Division Unemployment (Not Seasonally Adjusted)

Eleven of the most populous metropolitan areas are made up of 38 metropolitan divisions, which are essentially 
separately identifiable employment centers. In May, San Francisco-Redwood City-South San Francisco, CA, and San
Rafael, CA, had the lowest unemployment rates among the divisions, 1.8 percent and 1.9 percent, respectively.
Detroit-Dearborn-Livonia, MI, and Takoma-Lakewood, WA, had the highest division rates, 5.1 percent each. (See table 2.)

In May, 30 metropolitan divisions had over-the-year unemployment rate decreases, 5 had increases, and 3 had no change.
The largest rate declines occurred in Camden, NJ, and Newark, NJ-PA (-0.8 percentage point each). The largest
over-the-year jobless rate increases occurred in Detroit-Dearborn-Livonia, MI, and Warren-Troy-Farmington
Hills, MI (+0.8 percentage point each).

Metropolitan Area Nonfarm Employment (Not Seasonally Adjusted)

In May, 46 metropolitan areas had over-the-year increases in nonfarm payroll employment, 2 had decreases, and 341 were
essentially unchanged. The largest over-the-year employment increases occurred in New York-Newark-Jersey City, NY-NJ-PA
(+114,000), Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington, TX (+107,000), and Houston-The Woodlands-Sugar Land, TX (+79,800). The largest
over-the-year percentage gains in employment occurred in Ocean City, NJ (+8.0 percent), Reno, NV (+6.0 percent), and
Gainesville, GA (+5.1 percent). Employment fell in Bloomington, IN (-5,600, or -7.1 percent), and Lafayette-West
Lafayette, IN (-5,000, or -4.6 percent). (See table 3.)

Over the year, nonfarm employment rose in 29 of the 51 metropolitan areas with a 2010 Census population of 1 million or
more, while employment was essentially unchanged in 22 areas. The largest over-the-year percentage increases in employment
in these large metropolitan areas occurred in Phoenix-Mesa-Scottsdale, AZ (+3.2 percent), Orlando-Kissimmee-Sanford, FL
(+3.1 percent), and Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington, TX, and Las Vegas-Henderson-Paradise, NV (+2.9 percent each).

Metropolitan Division Nonfarm Employment (Not Seasonally Adjusted)

In May, nonfarm payroll employment increased in 11 of the 38 metropolitan divisions over the year and was essentially
unchanged in 27 divisions. The largest over-the-year increase in employment among the metropolitan divisions occurred
in New York-Jersey City-White Plains, NY-NJ (+104,800), followed by Dallas-Plano-Irving, TX (+89,400), and Los 
Angeles-Long Beach-Glendale, CA (+58,900). (See table 4.)

The largest over-the-year percentage increases in employment occurred in San Francisco-Redwood City-South San Francisco,
CA (+4.0 percent), Dallas-Plano-Irving, TX (+3.4 percent), and Seattle-Bellevue-Everett, WA (+2.9 percent).

_____________
The State Employment and Unemployment news release for June is scheduled to be released on Friday, July 19, 2019,
at 10:00 a.m. (EDT). The Metropolitan Area Employment and Unemployment news release for June is scheduled to be
released on Thursday, August 1, 2019, at 10:00 a.m. (EDT).




Technical Note
 
   This release presents civilian labor force and unemployment data from the
Local Area Unemployment Statistics (LAUS) program (tables 1 and 2) for 389
metropolitan statistical areas and metropolitan New England City and Town Areas
(NECTAs), plus 7 areas in Puerto Rico. Estimates for 38 metropolitan and NECTA
divisions also are presented. Nonfarm payroll employment estimates from the
Current Employment Statistics (CES) program (tables 3 and 4) are provided for
the same areas. State estimates were previously published in the news release
State Employment and Unemployment, and are republished in this release for
ease of reference. The LAUS and CES programs are both federal-state cooperative
endeavors.

Civilian labor force and unemployment--from the LAUS program

   Definitions. The civilian labor force and unemployment data are based on the
same concepts and definitions as those used for the official national estimates
obtained from the Current Population Survey (CPS), a sample survey of households
that is conducted for the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) by the U.S. Census
Bureau. The LAUS program measures employed persons and unemployed persons on a
place-of-residence basis.  The universe for each is the civilian noninstitutional
population 16 years of age and older. Employed persons are those who did any work
at all for pay or profit in the reference week (typically the week including the
12th of the month) or worked 15 hours or more without pay in a family business or
farm, plus those not working who had a job from which they were temporarily absent,
whether or not paid, for such reasons as labor-management dispute, illness, or
vacation. Unemployed persons are those who were not employed during the reference
week (based on the definition above), had actively looked for a job sometime in the
4-week period ending with the reference week, and were currently available for work;
persons on layoff expecting recall need not be looking for work to be counted as
unemployed. The civilian labor force is the sum of employed and unemployed persons.
The unemployment rate is the number of unemployed as a percent of the civilian labor
force.

   Method of estimation. Estimates for states, the District of Columbia, the Los
Angeles-Long Beach-Glendale metropolitan division, and New York City are produced
using time-series models with real-time benchmarking to national CPS totals. Model-
based estimates are also produced for the following areas and their respective
balances: the Chicago-Naperville-Arlington Heights, IL Metropolitan Division;
Cleveland-Elyria, OH Metropolitan Statistical Area; Detroit-Warren-Dearborn, MI
Metropolitan Statistical Area; Miami-Miami Beach-Kendall, FL Metropolitan Division;
and Seattle-Bellevue-Everett, WA Metropolitan Division. Modeling improves the
statistical basis of the estimation for these areas and provides important tools
for analysis, such as measures of errors and seasonally adjusted series. For all
other substate areas in this release, estimates are prepared through indirect
estimation procedures using a building-block approach.  Estimates of employed
persons, which are based largely on “place of work” estimates from the CES program,
are adjusted to refer to place of residence as used in the CPS. Unemployment
estimates are aggregates of persons previously employed in industries covered by
state unemployment insurance (UI) laws and entrants to the labor force from the
CPS. The substate estimates of employment and unemployment, which geographically
exhaust the entire state, are adjusted proportionally to ensure that they add to
the independently estimated model-based area totals. A detailed description of the
estimation procedures is available from BLS upon request.

   Annual revisions. Civilian labor force and unemployment data shown for the prior
year reflect adjustments made at the beginning of each year, usually implemented with
the issuance of January estimates. The adjusted model-based estimates typically reflect
updated population data from the U.S. Census Bureau, any revisions in other input
data sources, and model re-estimation. All substate estimates then are re-estimated
using updated inputs and adjusted to add to the revised model-based totals.  In early
2015, a new generation of time-series models was implemented, resulting in the
replacement of data back to the series beginnings. At the same time, enhancements were
made to the substate estimation methodology, and more timely inputs from the American
Community Survey were incorporated.

Employment--from the CES program 

   Definitions. Employment data refer to persons on establishment payrolls who receive
pay for any part of the pay period that includes the 12th of the month. Persons are
counted at their place of work rather than at their place of residence; those appearing
on more than one payroll are counted on each payroll. Industries are classified on the
basis of their principal activity in accordance with the 2017 version of the North
American Industry Classification System.

   Method of estimation. CES State and Area employment data are produced using several
estimation procedures. Where possible these data are produced using a "weighted link
relative" estimation technique in which a ratio of current-month weighted employment
to that of the previous-month weighted employment is computed from a sample of
establishments reporting for both months. The estimates of employment for the current
month are then obtained by multiplying these ratios by the previous month's employment
estimates. The weighted link relative technique is utilized for data series where the
sample size meets certain statistical criteria.

   For some employment series, the sample of establishments is very small or highly
variable. In these cases, a model-based approach is used in estimation. These models
use the direct sample estimates (described above), combined with forecasts of historical
(benchmarked) data to decrease volatility in estimation. Two different models
(Fay-Herriot Model and Small Domain Model) are used depending on the industry level
being estimated. For more detailed information about each model, refer to the BLS
Handbook of Methods.

   Annual revisions.  Employment estimates are adjusted annually to a complete count
of jobs, called benchmarks, derived principally from tax reports that are submitted by
employers who are covered under state unemployment insurance (UI) laws. The benchmark
information is used to adjust the monthly estimates between the new benchmark and the
preceding one and also to establish the level of employment for the new benchmark month.
Thus, the benchmarking process establishes the level of employment, and the sample is used
to measure the month-to-month changes in the level for the subsequent months.

   Seasonal adjustment. Payroll employment data are seasonally adjusted for states,
metropolitan areas, and metropolitan divisions at the total nonfarm level. For states,
data are seasonally adjusted at the supersector level as well. Revisions to historical
data for the most recent 5 years are made once a year, coincident with annual benchmark
adjustments.

   Payroll employment data are seasonally adjusted concurrently, using all available
estimates, including those for the current month, to develop sample-based seasonal factors.
Concurrent sample-based factors are created every month for the current month's preliminary
estimate as well as the previous month's final estimate in order to incorporate real-time
estimates. 

Reliability of the estimates

   The estimates presented in this release are based on sample surveys, administrative data,
and modeling and, thus, are subject to sampling and other types of errors. Sampling error
is a measure of sampling variability—that is, variation that occurs by chance because a
sample rather than the entire population is surveyed. Survey data also are subject to
nonsampling errors, such as those which can be introduced into the data collection and
processing operations. Estimates not directly derived from sample surveys are subject to
additional errors resulting from the specific estimation processes used. The sums of
individual items may not always equal the totals shown in the same tables because of
rounding.

Use of error measures

   Civilian labor force and unemployment estimates. Measures of sampling error are not
available for metropolitan areas or metropolitan divisions. Model-based error measures for
states are available on the BLS website at www.bls.gov/laus/lastderr.htm. Measures of
nonsampling error are not available for the areas contained in this release. Information
on recent data revisions for states and local areas is available online at
www.bls.gov/lau/launews1.htm.

   Employment estimates. Changes in metropolitan area nonfarm payroll employment are cited
in the analysis of this release only if they have been determined to be statistically
significant at the 90-percent confidence level.  Measures of sampling error for the total
nonfarm employment series are available for metropolitan areas and metropolitan divisions
at www.bls.gov/web/laus/790stderr.htm. Measures of sampling error for more detailed series
at the area and division level are available upon request. Measures of sampling error for
states  at the supersector level and for the private service-providing, goods-producing,
total private and total nonfarm levels are available on the BLS website at 
www.bls.gov/web/laus/790stderr.htm. Information on recent benchmark revisions
is available online at www.bls.gov/web/laus/benchmark.pdf.

Area definitions

   The substate area data published in this release reflect the delineations issued by the
U.S. Office of Management and Budget on April 10, 2018. Data reflect New England City and
Town Area (NECTA) definitions, rather than county-based definitions, in the six New England
States. A detailed list of the geographic definitions is available online at
www.bls.gov/lau/lausmsa.htm.

Additional information

   Estimates of unadjusted and seasonally adjusted civilian labor force and unemployment
data for states and seven substate areas are available in the news release State Employment
and Unemployment. Estimates of civilian labor force and unemployment for all states,
metropolitan areas, counties, cities with a population of 25,000 or more, and other areas
used in the administration of various federal economic assistance programs are available
on the Internet at www.bls.gov/lau/. Employment data from the CES program are available on
the BLS website at www.bls.gov/sae/.

   Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired individuals
upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay Service: (800) 877-8339. 




LABOR FORCE DATA
NOT SEASONALLY ADJUSTED

Table 1. Civilian labor force and unemployment by state and metropolitan area
State and area Civilian labor force Unemployed
April May Number Percent of labor force
2018 2019 2018 2019(p) April May April May
2018 2019 2018 2019(p) 2018 2019 2018 2019(p)

Alabama

2,195,860 2,247,241 2,196,747 2,257,466 75,763 75,210 78,177 64,950 3.5 3.3 3.6 2.9

Anniston-Oxford-Jacksonville

45,986 46,427 46,023 46,639 1,914 1,836 1,983 1,602 4.2 4.0 4.3 3.4

Auburn-Opelika

74,363 76,785 73,920 76,815 2,319 2,239 2,441 1,996 3.1 2.9 3.3 2.6

Birmingham-Hoover

542,986 556,268 543,107 560,352 16,986 16,749 17,431 14,489 3.1 3.0 3.2 2.6

Daphne-Fairhope-Foley

94,015 97,556 95,151 99,129 2,926 3,003 2,992 2,518 3.1 3.1 3.1 2.5

Decatur

69,748 72,103 70,129 72,896 2,298 2,162 2,356 1,843 3.3 3.0 3.4 2.5

Dothan

62,680 63,913 62,738 64,195 2,234 2,205 2,297 1,916 3.6 3.5 3.7 3.0

Florence-Muscle Shoals

65,369 66,163 65,204 66,626 2,486 2,476 2,531 2,230 3.8 3.7 3.9 3.3

Gadsden

42,951 44,231 42,984 44,368 1,564 1,592 1,605 1,379 3.6 3.6 3.7 3.1

Huntsville

222,136 227,513 221,826 227,458 6,740 6,561 6,916 5,623 3.0 2.9 3.1 2.5

Mobile

187,444 191,183 186,902 191,710 7,891 7,964 7,899 6,813 4.2 4.2 4.2 3.6

Montgomery

172,608 175,450 172,955 176,682 5,919 5,828 6,023 4,975 3.4 3.3 3.5 2.8

Tuscaloosa

114,731 118,873 114,228 118,794 3,708 3,625 4,361 3,387 3.2 3.0 3.8 2.9

Alaska

352,637 346,904 357,784 350,748 24,373 22,237 23,398 21,768 6.9 6.4 6.5 6.2

Anchorage

198,772 195,664 200,108 196,830 12,482 10,976 12,017 11,066 6.3 5.6 6.0 5.6

Fairbanks

45,755 44,561 46,646 44,887 2,866 2,589 2,733 2,490 6.3 5.8 5.9 5.5

Arizona

3,399,739 3,484,761 3,408,074 3,507,670 152,324 147,955 149,860 160,898 4.5 4.2 4.4 4.6

Flagstaff

76,217 76,708 76,749 76,815 3,764 3,638 3,573 3,847 4.9 4.7 4.7 5.0

Lake Havasu City-Kingman

84,555 86,984 85,085 87,771 4,557 4,547 4,404 4,824 5.4 5.2 5.2 5.5

Phoenix-Mesa-Scottsdale

2,380,015 2,450,501 2,382,341 2,465,546 93,238 91,273 90,761 98,536 3.9 3.7 3.8 4.0

Prescott

104,903 105,756 105,479 106,184 4,332 4,339 4,194 4,593 4.1 4.1 4.0 4.3

Sierra Vista-Douglas

49,328 49,523 49,696 49,604 2,615 2,671 2,514 2,733 5.3 5.4 5.1 5.5

Tucson

483,773 490,867 484,603 495,028 20,141 19,783 19,621 21,537 4.2 4.0 4.0 4.4

Yuma

92,642 94,771 94,503 96,067 14,862 13,580 16,487 16,400 16.0 14.3 17.4 17.1

Arkansas

1,349,698 1,359,733 1,353,659 1,367,965 45,257 39,182 47,498 43,401 3.4 2.9 3.5 3.2

Fayetteville-Springdale-Rogers

275,462 279,332 275,831 279,990 6,897 5,696 7,210 6,329 2.5 2.0 2.6 2.3

Fort Smith

120,290 118,281 119,965 118,976 4,395 3,449 4,512 3,841 3.7 2.9 3.8 3.2

Hot Springs

41,230 41,655 40,641 41,701 1,459 1,205 1,556 1,342 3.5 2.9 3.8 3.2

Jonesboro

63,951 64,876 64,406 65,133 1,825 1,501 1,941 1,759 2.9 2.3 3.0 2.7

Little Rock-North Little Rock-Conway

353,718 355,877 353,889 358,897 11,104 9,352 11,413 10,250 3.1 2.6 3.2 2.9

Pine Bluff

35,249 35,383 35,343 35,523 1,594 1,517 1,681 1,734 4.5 4.3 4.8 4.9

California

19,271,108 19,243,469 19,296,206 19,287,094 775,890 743,918 717,119 678,026 4.0 3.9 3.7 3.5

Bakersfield

383,510 385,925 386,570 387,301 32,868 32,372 29,243 27,721 8.6 8.4 7.6 7.2

Chico

102,804 102,696 102,716 102,385 4,990 5,124 4,376 4,382 4.9 5.0 4.3 4.3

El Centro

68,873 67,477 70,247 69,015 10,676 11,015 11,201 11,321 15.5 16.3 15.9 16.4

Fresno

445,860 454,907 449,287 453,708 35,274 34,974 30,679 28,878 7.9 7.7 6.8 6.4

Hanford-Corcoran

57,811 57,992 57,974 57,943 4,799 4,892 3,962 3,895 8.3 8.4 6.8 6.7

Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim

6,729,185 6,659,015 6,715,036 6,678,070 262,078 244,527 256,923 237,995 3.9 3.7 3.8 3.6

Madera

60,212 60,586 61,771 61,150 4,653 4,624 3,991 3,822 7.7 7.6 6.5 6.3

Merced

115,462 115,495 116,349 115,543 10,554 10,316 8,974 8,425 9.1 8.9 7.7 7.3

Modesto

243,228 239,953 244,245 241,403 15,936 15,260 14,585 13,477 6.6 6.4 6.0 5.6

Napa

74,146 73,987 75,485 74,603 2,137 2,002 1,816 1,713 2.9 2.7 2.4 2.3

Oxnard-Thousand Oaks-Ventura

426,909 424,979 426,450 423,241 14,543 13,659 13,275 12,523 3.4 3.2 3.1 3.0

Redding

73,486 72,963 73,817 73,059 3,738 3,560 3,167 2,988 5.1 4.9 4.3 4.1

Riverside-San Bernardino-Ontario

2,035,553 2,033,810 2,033,471 2,035,412 79,645 75,614 73,767 70,518 3.9 3.7 3.6 3.5

Sacramento--Roseville--Arden-Arcade

1,084,364 1,092,255 1,086,817 1,094,517 38,645 37,696 34,746 34,323 3.6 3.5 3.2 3.1

Salinas

227,351 228,990 230,914 229,645 15,673 16,277 11,874 10,818 6.9 7.1 5.1 4.7

San Diego-Carlsbad

1,579,671 1,576,670 1,580,304 1,581,079 48,507 46,798 44,830 43,500 3.1 3.0 2.8 2.8

San Francisco-Oakland-Hayward

2,558,098 2,578,934 2,562,095 2,585,828 65,367 62,182 60,319 57,439 2.6 2.4 2.4 2.2

San Jose-Sunnyvale-Santa Clara

1,068,765 1,080,308 1,072,857 1,081,974 27,383 25,683 24,846 23,602 2.6 2.4 2.3 2.2

San Luis Obispo-Paso Robles-Arroyo Grande

141,229 140,784 141,726 140,539 3,908 3,731 3,527 3,385 2.8 2.7 2.5 2.4

Santa Cruz-Watsonville

141,955 142,135 143,167 142,946 8,051 7,872 6,188 5,610 5.7 5.5 4.3 3.9

Santa Maria-Santa Barbara

216,471 217,726 218,083 217,954 8,093 7,662 6,774 6,363 3.7 3.5 3.1 2.9

Santa Rosa

260,614 259,472 262,172 260,737 6,935 6,640 6,153 5,911 2.7 2.6 2.3 2.3

Stockton-Lodi

323,478 321,991 327,683 325,785 19,677 19,337 17,263 16,690 6.1 6.0 5.3 5.1

Vallejo-Fairfield

208,872 206,900 208,866 206,473 7,851 7,587 7,050 6,813 3.8 3.7 3.4 3.3

Visalia-Porterville

205,665 208,784 208,389 207,458 20,235 20,749 17,710 16,862 9.8 9.9 8.5 8.1

Yuba City

73,791 74,271 74,427 74,148 5,645 5,731 4,732 4,609 7.6 7.7 6.4 6.2

Colorado

3,060,983 3,119,039 3,071,539 3,126,851 88,754 85,336 86,498 79,312 2.9 2.7 2.8 2.5

Boulder

192,725 197,417 193,516 199,091 4,874 4,609 4,667 4,105 2.5 2.3 2.4 2.1

Colorado Springs

345,484 351,919 347,573 354,845 11,963 11,439 11,363 10,566 3.5 3.3 3.3 3.0

Denver-Aurora-Lakewood

1,630,067 1,652,850 1,637,801 1,661,458 45,463 43,925 43,955 40,650 2.8 2.7 2.7 2.4

Fort Collins

200,487 206,168 202,397 207,615 4,921 4,814 4,756 4,227 2.5 2.3 2.3 2.0

Grand Junction

75,456 77,197 75,981 77,827 2,765 2,531 2,516 2,256 3.7 3.3 3.3 2.9

Greeley

163,365 168,128 165,128 168,876 4,328 4,198 4,145 3,696 2.6 2.5 2.5 2.2

Pueblo

75,444 75,892 76,138 76,312 3,285 3,089 3,064 2,837 4.4 4.1 4.0 3.7

Connecticut

1,883,037 1,888,547 1,904,223 1,908,356 77,951 61,544 78,072 68,309 4.1 3.3 4.1 3.6

Bridgeport-Stamford-Norwalk

460,640 461,474 465,943 467,210 19,173 14,671 19,070 16,975 4.2 3.2 4.1 3.6

Danbury

105,082 105,376 106,286 106,748 3,570 2,791 3,612 3,174 3.4 2.6 3.4 3.0

Hartford-West Hartford-East Hartford

619,082 621,414 625,459 626,999 26,135 20,975 25,672 22,451 4.2 3.4 4.1 3.6

New Haven

323,592 324,000 326,804 327,125 12,681 10,073 13,265 11,463 3.9 3.1 4.1 3.5

Norwich-New London-Westerly

140,512 140,373 142,716 142,455 5,614 4,399 5,760 4,942 4.0 3.1 4.0 3.5

Waterbury

110,722 111,157 112,285 112,234 5,621 4,482 5,693 4,928 5.1 4.0 5.1 4.4

Delaware

481,894 489,511 481,259 489,278 18,052 14,873 16,761 14,424 3.7 3.0 3.5 2.9

Dover

78,342 79,386 78,094 79,642 3,208 2,572 3,004 2,599 4.1 3.2 3.8 3.3

Salisbury(1)

187,267 189,976 191,113 192,955 9,201 8,354 8,087 7,106 4.9 4.4 4.2 3.7

District of Columbia

405,784 412,561 404,595 414,087 20,934 20,928 21,537 21,789 5.2 5.1 5.3 5.3

Washington-Arlington-Alexandria

3,384,044 3,412,280 3,395,509 3,439,611 103,837 97,368 107,921 107,557 3.1 2.9 3.2 3.1

Florida

10,189,508 10,265,561 10,249,456 10,365,951 349,665 300,849 345,015 318,572 3.4 2.9 3.4 3.1

Cape Coral-Fort Myers

342,302 348,456 341,863 349,762 10,943 9,844 10,864 10,349 3.2 2.8 3.2 3.0

Crestview-Fort Walton Beach-Destin

126,637 127,205 128,552 129,766 3,619 3,166 3,529 3,269 2.9 2.5 2.7 2.5

Deltona-Daytona Beach-Ormond Beach

298,912 299,603 300,972 303,947 10,814 9,551 10,843 10,203 3.6 3.2 3.6 3.4

Gainesville

145,185 144,719 143,008 143,575 4,567 3,872 4,378 4,064 3.1 2.7 3.1 2.8

Homosassa Springs

47,689 47,713 48,128 48,601 2,308 2,073 2,347 2,222 4.8 4.3 4.9 4.6

Jacksonville

765,968 763,707 775,709 781,893 24,878 21,641 24,857 23,118 3.2 2.8 3.2 3.0

Lakeland-Winter Haven

296,424 298,678 298,022 301,843 11,459 9,880 11,362 10,612 3.9 3.3 3.8 3.5

Miami-Fort Lauderdale-West Palm Beach

3,147,500 3,182,322 3,158,766 3,195,366 112,487 92,873 108,860 98,006 3.6 2.9 3.4 3.1

Naples-Immokalee-Marco Island

179,632 180,495 177,878 181,172 5,481 4,768 5,434 5,013 3.1 2.6 3.1 2.8

North Port-Sarasota-Bradenton

365,909 365,020 367,997 368,474 11,614 10,338 11,611 10,869 3.2 2.8 3.2 2.9

Ocala

135,295 136,769 135,933 138,463 5,578 4,798 5,545 5,070 4.1 3.5 4.1 3.7

Orlando-Kissimmee-Sanford

1,322,754 1,346,368 1,335,156 1,359,367 41,744 36,300 41,415 38,567 3.2 2.7 3.1 2.8

Palm Bay-Melbourne-Titusville

273,184 277,855 276,445 282,799 9,375 8,284 9,290 8,679 3.4 3.0 3.4 3.1

Panama City

94,985 92,300 96,710 94,333 3,157 3,396 3,128 3,450 3.3 3.7 3.2 3.7

Pensacola-Ferry Pass-Brent

224,350 225,252 226,477 228,296 7,434 6,370 7,311 6,677 3.3 2.8 3.2 2.9

Port St. Lucie

215,631 218,185 217,613 221,103 8,357 7,182 8,472 7,721 3.9 3.3 3.9 3.5

Punta Gorda

70,851 71,748 71,148 72,175 2,660 2,399 2,675 2,530 3.8 3.3 3.8 3.5

Sebastian-Vero Beach

64,870 65,463 64,943 66,228 2,579 2,231 2,655 2,380 4.0 3.4 4.1 3.6

Sebring

37,206 36,350 36,616 36,174 1,601 1,453 1,607 1,568 4.3 4.0 4.4 4.3

Tallahassee

193,448 194,703 192,819 194,682 6,358 5,458 6,193 5,784 3.3 2.8 3.2 3.0

Tampa-St. Petersburg-Clearwater

1,518,408 1,519,855 1,530,006 1,541,092 50,705 44,472 50,762 47,362 3.3 2.9 3.3 3.1

The Villages

31,052 31,462 31,223 31,775 1,517 1,393 1,538 1,461 4.9 4.4 4.9 4.6

Georgia

5,095,818 5,066,227 5,106,956 5,103,245 189,471 159,049 186,073 176,417 3.7 3.1 3.6 3.5

Albany

67,013 66,281 67,133 66,627 2,924 2,470 2,931 2,807 4.4 3.7 4.4 4.2

Athens-Clarke County

101,313 100,250 101,546 100,438 3,522 2,926 3,399 3,227 3.5 2.9 3.3 3.2

Atlanta-Sandy Springs-Roswell

3,064,608 3,046,639 3,070,515 3,074,578 110,755 92,046 108,797 102,435 3.6 3.0 3.5 3.3

Augusta-Richmond County

272,203 272,616 267,853 269,177 9,884 9,124 9,906 10,217 3.6 3.3 3.7 3.8

Brunswick

54,048 53,529 54,439 54,207 1,890 1,630 1,885 1,825 3.5 3.0 3.5 3.4

Columbus

125,168 123,429 125,521 124,119 5,455 4,666 5,494 5,021 4.4 3.8 4.4 4.0

Dalton

60,743 60,966 60,897 61,219 2,677 2,461 2,569 2,359 4.4 4.0 4.2 3.9

Gainesville

100,854 102,843 101,418 103,712 2,974 2,614 2,945 2,873 2.9 2.5 2.9 2.8

Hinesville

33,720 33,572 33,757 33,830 1,376 1,113 1,333 1,368 4.1 3.3 3.9 4.0

Macon-Bibb County

104,830 103,053 104,810 103,866 4,257 3,527 4,173 3,956 4.1 3.4 4.0 3.8

Rome

44,302 44,118 44,109 44,282 1,709 1,431 1,667 1,604 3.9 3.2 3.8 3.6

Savannah

188,623 186,017 189,643 187,895 6,402 5,450 6,322 6,088 3.4 2.9 3.3 3.2

Valdosta

64,171 64,396 64,633 64,701 2,414 1,999 2,451 2,162 3.8 3.1 3.8 3.3

Warner Robins

86,285 85,925 86,358 86,509 3,217 2,736 3,179 3,015 3.7 3.2 3.7 3.5

Hawaii

680,601 665,451 678,330 660,200 14,689 18,759 15,006 17,059 2.2 2.8 2.2 2.6

Kahului-Wailuku-Lahaina

85,939 84,494 86,021 83,801 1,884 2,355 1,915 2,115 2.2 2.8 2.2 2.5

Urban Honolulu

466,780 456,740 464,186 452,357 9,814 12,061 9,889 11,133 2.1 2.6 2.1 2.5

Idaho

849,330 868,687 855,937 874,946 25,634 23,693 21,067 21,068 3.0 2.7 2.5 2.4

Boise City

358,046 368,953 359,542 370,143 9,787 9,014 8,423 8,555 2.7 2.4 2.3 2.3

Coeur d'Alene

76,900 78,660 78,084 80,236 2,817 2,634 2,234 2,182 3.7 3.3 2.9 2.7

Idaho Falls

69,295 71,609 70,316 72,475 1,764 1,464 1,495 1,427 2.5 2.0 2.1 2.0

Lewiston

31,173 31,145 31,352 31,220 1,028 1,010 894 875 3.3 3.2 2.9 2.8

Pocatello

42,055 42,616 42,173 42,777 1,183 1,058 1,018 1,005 2.8 2.5 2.4 2.3

Twin Falls

52,368 52,910 52,439 53,019 1,410 1,304 1,230 1,248 2.7 2.5 2.3 2.4

Illinois

6,436,374 6,479,288 6,451,295 6,463,139 245,015 259,307 235,509 233,613 3.8 4.0 3.7 3.6

Bloomington

97,101 95,540 95,984 95,436 3,418 3,869 3,474 3,158 3.5 4.0 3.6 3.3

Carbondale-Marion

60,688 61,405 59,224 59,882 2,545 2,573 2,611 2,146 4.2 4.2 4.4 3.6

Champaign-Urbana

123,782 122,786 122,150 122,352 4,509 5,069 4,761 4,202 3.6 4.1 3.9 3.4

Chicago-Naperville-Elgin

4,837,182 4,887,141 4,848,539 4,860,439 177,546 183,175 166,909 170,253 3.7 3.7 3.4 3.5

Danville

34,010 33,351 33,992 33,249 1,843 1,775 1,874 1,481 5.4 5.3 5.5 4.5

Davenport-Moline-Rock Island(1)

191,307 194,360 191,602 195,045 7,218 7,619 6,869 6,816 3.8 3.9 3.6 3.5

Decatur

49,781 49,804 50,165 49,914 2,416 2,721 2,399 2,239 4.9 5.5 4.8 4.5

Kankakee

55,698 55,731 55,734 55,708 2,693 2,930 2,617 2,319 4.8 5.3 4.7 4.2

Peoria

178,900 180,478 179,804 181,071 8,168 8,738 8,056 7,145 4.6 4.8 4.5 3.9

Rockford

166,049 167,838 167,064 167,756 7,718 9,045 7,703 8,805 4.6 5.4 4.6 5.2

Springfield

111,322 111,359 111,373 111,822 4,003 4,636 3,951 3,734 3.6 4.2 3.5 3.3

Indiana

3,378,799 3,406,980 3,404,379 3,368,523 104,620 103,953 108,595 98,798 3.1 3.1 3.2 2.9

Bloomington

80,694 80,824 80,410 74,035 2,529 2,336 2,790 2,441 3.1 2.9 3.5 3.3

Columbus

45,115 46,066 45,346 45,530 1,049 977 1,156 1,015 2.3 2.1 2.5 2.2

Elkhart-Goshen

116,332 117,212 116,874 116,554 2,459 3,021 2,800 3,063 2.1 2.6 2.4 2.6

Evansville

163,649 165,656 163,636 164,375 4,754 4,524 5,029 4,650 2.9 2.7 3.1 2.8

Fort Wayne

215,882 219,608 218,386 219,014 6,027 5,772 6,465 5,898 2.8 2.6 3.0 2.7

Indianapolis-Carmel-Anderson

1,057,547 1,068,521 1,064,299 1,056,684 31,266 29,440 32,546 29,103 3.0 2.8 3.1 2.8

Kokomo

37,538 39,484 37,660 37,600 1,267 2,681 1,256 1,203 3.4 6.8 3.3 3.2

Lafayette-West Lafayette

114,247 111,924 114,646 107,808 3,208 2,874 3,441 2,965 2.8 2.6 3.0 2.8

Michigan City-La Porte

48,100 47,589 48,723 47,317 1,978 1,938 1,889 1,754 4.1 4.1 3.9 3.7

Muncie

54,838 54,941 54,563 52,105 1,954 1,867 2,035 1,863 3.6 3.4 3.7 3.6

South Bend-Mishawaka

162,155 163,639 162,062 162,807 5,265 5,305 5,372 5,349 3.2 3.2 3.3 3.3

Terre Haute

77,463 77,600 77,790 76,716 2,965 3,033 3,041 2,850 3.8 3.9 3.9 3.7

Iowa

1,682,952 1,715,300 1,682,376 1,714,513 42,946 36,185 36,195 36,425 2.6 2.1 2.2 2.1

Ames

59,015 60,767 57,040 59,943 895 764 841 892 1.5 1.3 1.5 1.5

Cedar Rapids

143,646 145,543 142,431 144,052 4,022 3,208 3,402 3,273 2.8 2.2 2.4 2.3

Des Moines-West Des Moines

352,857 365,334 352,150 366,717 8,290 7,791 7,397 7,781 2.3 2.1 2.1 2.1

Dubuque

55,177 56,797 55,211 56,402 1,367 1,122 1,091 1,053 2.5 2.0 2.0 1.9

Iowa City

98,530 98,701 96,313 96,775 1,909 1,514 1,746 1,725 1.9 1.5 1.8 1.8

Sioux City

90,745 94,152 90,622 94,236 2,345 2,060 2,035 2,063 2.6 2.2 2.2 2.2

Waterloo-Cedar Falls

89,843 91,233 89,263 90,552 2,406 2,060 2,016 2,040 2.7 2.3 2.3 2.3

Kansas

1,473,239 1,465,858 1,472,156 1,470,582 46,233 44,432 46,159 47,296 3.1 3.0 3.1 3.2

Lawrence

66,380 65,987 64,588 65,287 1,906 1,787 1,837 1,873 2.9 2.7 2.8 2.9

Manhattan

49,021 48,577 47,105 47,803 1,284 1,267 1,257 1,351 2.6 2.6 2.7 2.8

Topeka

119,725 119,539 119,194 119,744 3,762 3,627 3,773 3,832 3.1 3.0 3.2 3.2

Wichita

308,911 308,935 307,997 308,204 10,749 10,165 10,758 10,823 3.5 3.3 3.5 3.5

Kentucky

2,066,323 2,068,819 2,074,587 2,080,536 83,845 80,295 88,781 82,644 4.1 3.9 4.3 4.0

Bowling Green

84,141 84,896 84,566 85,371 2,958 2,932 3,069 3,076 3.5 3.5 3.6 3.6

Elizabethtown-Fort Knox

67,567 68,027 67,598 68,117 2,607 2,579 2,802 2,615 3.9 3.8 4.1 3.8

Lexington-Fayette

272,321 273,896 273,657 277,196 8,757 8,381 9,224 8,832 3.2 3.1 3.4 3.2

Louisville/Jefferson County

670,631 674,650 672,867 674,387 23,606 24,061 26,983 23,947 3.5 3.6 4.0 3.6

Owensboro

56,742 56,044 56,899 56,441 2,176 1,961 2,237 2,067 3.8 3.5 3.9 3.7

Louisiana

2,106,197 2,088,457 2,104,962 2,094,045 94,368 72,645 100,135 85,981 4.5 3.5 4.8 4.1

Alexandria

63,600 62,461 63,430 62,522 3,069 2,325 3,294 2,756 4.8 3.7 5.2 4.4

Baton Rouge

419,733 415,703 417,805 416,598 16,601 12,966 17,682 15,554 4.0 3.1 4.2 3.7

Hammond

54,231 53,906 54,232 54,120 2,699 2,096 2,829 2,505 5.0 3.9 5.2 4.6

Houma-Thibodaux

88,691 85,089 89,150 85,710 4,055 2,923 4,296 3,511 4.6 3.4 4.8 4.1

Lafayette

212,771 211,699 213,148 213,640 9,805 7,279 10,385 8,710 4.6 3.4 4.9 4.1

Lake Charles

113,913 113,666 113,576 113,616 4,023 3,167 4,274 3,801 3.5 2.8 3.8 3.3

Monroe

79,574 78,694 79,706 79,135 3,832 3,148 4,044 3,677 4.8 4.0 5.1 4.6

New Orleans-Metairie

595,069 597,111 593,670 595,550 25,215 19,317 26,725 22,811 4.2 3.2 4.5 3.8

Shreveport-Bossier City

187,986 183,654 187,958 183,990 8,938 6,957 9,675 8,164 4.8 3.8 5.1 4.4

Maine

693,112 686,294 696,513 688,503 24,502 23,806 22,874 22,388 3.5 3.5 3.3 3.3

Bangor

71,603 71,248 70,533 69,826 2,480 2,421 2,300 2,196 3.5 3.4 3.3 3.1

Lewiston-Auburn

55,922 55,834 55,887 55,556 1,824 1,808 1,713 1,732 3.3 3.2 3.1 3.1

Portland-South Portland

206,854 205,325 208,671 206,111 5,763 5,609 5,518 5,396 2.8 2.7 2.6 2.6

Maryland

3,179,675 3,194,480 3,191,396 3,219,282 117,152 107,329 119,695 114,367 3.7 3.4 3.8 3.6

Baltimore-Columbia-Towson

1,484,293 1,499,335 1,492,662 1,511,425 55,658 50,815 57,047 54,841 3.7 3.4 3.8 3.6

California-Lexington Park

55,130 55,160 55,146 55,511 1,917 1,640 1,968 1,799 3.5 3.0 3.6 3.2

Cumberland

44,182 44,553 44,282 44,853 2,432 1,993 2,238 2,042 5.5 4.5 5.1 4.6

Hagerstown-Martinsburg

130,697 131,815 130,546 132,812 5,518 4,457 5,343 4,645 4.2 3.4 4.1 3.5

Massachusetts

3,777,446 3,814,093 3,789,870 3,836,916 123,249 99,559 124,560 119,548 3.3 2.6 3.3 3.1

Barnstable Town

122,485 123,802 127,366 129,601 5,150 4,372 4,744 4,586 4.2 3.5 3.7 3.5

Boston-Cambridge-Nashua

2,796,245 2,824,004 2,801,804 2,836,089 81,822 66,627 83,937 80,632 2.9 2.4 3.0 2.8

Leominster-Gardner

81,153 82,516 81,543 82,939 3,119 2,560 3,031 2,867 3.8 3.1 3.7 3.5

New Bedford

85,472 86,402 84,768 86,946 4,297 3,290 4,190 3,879 5.0 3.8 4.9 4.5

Pittsfield

42,656 42,524 43,354 43,256 1,899 1,517 1,794 1,650 4.5 3.6 4.1 3.8

Springfield

379,252 387,787 378,198 386,675 15,175 12,301 15,310 14,592 4.0 3.2 4.0 3.8

Worcester

361,222 361,091 362,076 361,624 12,766 10,430 12,830 12,375 3.5 2.9 3.5 3.4

Michigan

4,865,880 4,926,510 4,907,004 4,951,857 180,285 183,606 173,340 195,058 3.7 3.7 3.5 3.9

Ann Arbor

195,976 198,038 192,993 196,032 5,062 5,007 5,452 5,626 2.6 2.5 2.8 2.9

Battle Creek

62,867 63,247 63,409 63,877 2,519 2,346 2,373 2,434 4.0 3.7 3.7 3.8

Bay City

50,256 50,311 50,547 50,447 2,391 2,152 2,169 2,157 4.8 4.3 4.3 4.3

Detroit-Warren-Dearborn

2,100,974 2,134,358 2,121,255 2,140,593 73,832 83,828 73,847 91,946 3.5 3.9 3.5 4.3

Flint

181,205 184,471 182,121 185,013 8,275 7,920 7,879 10,304 4.6 4.3 4.3 5.6

Grand Rapids-Wyoming

580,359 587,275 584,118 591,019 15,835 14,886 15,560 16,268 2.7 2.5 2.7 2.8

Jackson

74,703 75,708 75,274 76,250 2,690 2,505 2,629 2,563 3.6 3.3 3.5 3.4

Kalamazoo-Portage

168,749 170,350 168,672 170,032 5,711 5,252 5,568 5,684 3.4 3.1 3.3 3.3

Lansing-East Lansing

251,472 252,290 251,528 252,772 8,056 7,349 7,733 7,803 3.2 2.9 3.1 3.1

Midland

40,895 40,625 41,260 41,120 1,601 1,391 1,433 1,399 3.9 3.4 3.5 3.4

Monroe

75,435 76,757 75,685 77,282 2,576 2,724 2,796 3,105 3.4 3.5 3.7 4.0

Muskegon

77,850 78,409 78,733 79,520 3,326 2,908 3,241 3,078 4.3 3.7 4.1 3.9

Niles-Benton Harbor

73,090 73,829 73,978 74,623 2,910 2,623 2,842 2,823 4.0 3.6 3.8 3.8

Saginaw

86,388 87,036 86,865 87,363 3,923 3,721 3,662 4,027 4.5 4.3 4.2 4.6

Minnesota

3,060,343 3,088,291 3,062,860 3,097,429 92,774 101,343 72,576 88,845 3.0 3.3 2.4 2.9

Duluth

144,107 143,741 142,959 142,961 5,875 5,953 4,798 5,203 4.1 4.1 3.4 3.6

Mankato-North Mankato

61,405 62,099 60,921 61,845 1,479 1,658 1,208 1,588 2.4 2.7 2.0 2.6

Minneapolis-St. Paul-Bloomington

1,993,534 2,004,440 1,990,481 2,005,534 53,331 57,985 44,334 54,866 2.7 2.9 2.2 2.7

Rochester

122,809 125,248 122,725 125,442 3,215 3,494 2,413 3,118 2.6 2.8 2.0 2.5

St. Cloud

111,784 114,675 111,279 114,063 3,647 3,912 2,677 3,206 3.3 3.4 2.4 2.8

Mississippi

1,275,083 1,265,787 1,282,966 1,281,592 55,168 58,936 62,286 62,796 4.3 4.7 4.9 4.9

Gulfport-Biloxi-Pascagoula

164,608 161,783 165,932 163,792 7,363 7,736 8,296 8,117 4.5 4.8 5.0 5.0

Hattiesburg

68,154 69,562 68,115 69,815 2,651 2,874 2,978 3,018 3.9 4.1 4.4 4.3

Jackson

269,699 268,640 270,963 271,705 10,277 11,200 11,616 11,831 3.8 4.2 4.3 4.4

Missouri

3,058,829 3,036,167 3,061,364 3,060,453 90,686 86,976 91,272 94,028 3.0 2.9 3.0 3.1

Cape Girardeau

47,758 47,630 47,671 47,938 1,375 1,289 1,351 1,441 2.9 2.7 2.8 3.0

Columbia

98,265 96,922 97,823 97,174 2,007 1,979 2,028 2,261 2.0 2.0 2.1 2.3

Jefferson City

73,860 72,581 73,821 72,983 1,814 1,661 1,764 1,855 2.5 2.3 2.4 2.5

Joplin

84,143 83,564 84,006 83,953 2,218 2,208 2,147 2,515 2.6 2.6 2.6 3.0

Kansas City

1,129,888 1,125,982 1,129,926 1,133,815 34,916 33,151 37,944 35,071 3.1 2.9 3.4 3.1

St. Joseph

63,470 62,885 63,413 63,089 1,763 1,791 1,729 1,773 2.8 2.8 2.7 2.8

St. Louis(2)

1,455,660 1,456,366 1,458,618 1,465,444 45,187 45,424 45,074 44,847 3.1 3.1 3.1 3.1

Springfield

230,845 231,402 230,677 232,559 5,732 5,571 5,682 6,243 2.5 2.4 2.5 2.7

Montana

524,335 527,648 527,631 530,995 18,878 17,396 16,315 14,847 3.6 3.3 3.1 2.8

Billings

88,031 87,524 88,224 87,628 2,666 2,533 2,297 2,241 3.0 2.9 2.6 2.6

Great Falls

37,868 38,231 37,978 38,300 1,231 1,159 1,075 1,043 3.3 3.0 2.8 2.7

Missoula

63,261 64,314 63,625 64,728 1,934 1,909 1,673 1,606 3.1 3.0 2.6 2.5

Nebraska

1,018,547 1,035,655 1,022,657 1,040,984 28,192 30,306 26,829 31,072 2.8 2.9 2.6 3.0

Grand Island

43,610 43,993 43,755 44,165 1,271 1,309 1,194 1,344 2.9 3.0 2.7 3.0

Lincoln

182,102 184,287 182,112 185,075 4,572 4,962 4,464 5,223 2.5 2.7 2.5 2.8

Omaha-Council Bluffs

483,980 495,298 485,445 498,174 13,834 14,364 13,070 14,629 2.9 2.9 2.7 2.9

Nevada

1,486,528 1,521,065 1,493,574 1,535,936 67,491 55,001 65,341 58,782 4.5 3.6 4.4 3.8

Carson City

25,636 26,205 25,702 26,463 1,283 972 1,147 1,005 5.0 3.7 4.5 3.8

Las Vegas-Henderson-Paradise

1,088,323 1,110,090 1,093,056 1,121,733 51,894 41,688 50,540 45,178 4.8 3.8 4.6 4.0

Reno

248,844 261,123 250,064 263,804 9,059 7,721 8,612 7,925 3.6 3.0 3.4 3.0

New Hampshire

754,612 763,783 757,689 766,267 19,665 18,911 18,592 18,512 2.6 2.5 2.5 2.4

Dover-Durham

85,163 85,985 85,633 86,426 2,010 1,963 1,979 1,881 2.4 2.3 2.3 2.2

Manchester

119,563 121,566 119,558 121,319 2,927 2,793 2,775 2,827 2.4 2.3 2.3 2.3

Portsmouth

76,072 77,082 76,828 77,775 1,834 1,764 1,754 1,702 2.4 2.3 2.3 2.2

New Jersey

4,398,322 4,401,625 4,409,315 4,424,327 174,898 129,180 171,231 131,919 4.0 2.9 3.9 3.0

Atlantic City-Hammonton

115,681 118,993 116,122 120,112 6,922 5,097 6,455 4,957 6.0 4.3 5.6 4.1

Ocean City

41,632 43,588 45,433 48,064 4,224 3,154 3,172 2,283 10.1 7.2 7.0 4.7

Trenton

196,336 198,993 196,543 199,488 6,667 5,016 6,670 5,274 3.4 2.5 3.4 2.6

Vineland-Bridgeton

64,793 64,980 64,916 66,560 4,166 2,977 3,720 2,834 6.4 4.6 5.7 4.3

New Mexico

931,907 950,452 931,111 954,117 41,284 41,105 40,644 42,777 4.4 4.3 4.4 4.5

Albuquerque

427,050 434,635 424,426 435,446 17,585 17,443 17,498 18,527 4.1 4.0 4.1 4.3

Farmington

52,294 52,920 52,238 52,893 2,656 2,518 2,638 2,590 5.1 4.8 5.0 4.9

Las Cruces

96,384 98,223 96,708 99,399 5,170 5,200 4,943 5,220 5.4 5.3 5.1 5.3

Santa Fe

72,676 73,744 73,229 74,375 2,702 2,661 2,673 2,794 3.7 3.6 3.7 3.8

New York

9,514,505 9,542,495 9,536,204 9,539,001 383,604 339,292 350,083 360,778 4.0 3.6 3.7 3.8

Albany-Schenectady-Troy

446,424 451,478 448,663 449,141 16,952 14,420 15,216 14,565 3.8 3.2 3.4 3.2

Binghamton

106,982 106,920 107,714 106,470 5,195 4,302 4,477 4,178 4.9 4.0 4.2 3.9

Buffalo-Cheektowaga-Niagara Falls

535,592 539,008 541,524 540,677 25,054 20,446 22,302 20,379 4.7 3.8 4.1 3.8

Elmira

35,055 34,900 35,266 35,051 1,665 1,314 1,549 1,344 4.7 3.8 4.4 3.8

Glens Falls

57,847 58,617 58,993 59,553 2,774 2,459 2,242 2,143 4.8 4.2 3.8 3.6

Ithaca

51,019 52,115 50,101 51,127 1,812 1,564 1,604 1,614 3.6 3.0 3.2 3.2

Kingston

87,768 89,165 88,799 89,705 3,338 2,818 3,118 2,927 3.8 3.2 3.5 3.3

New York-Newark-Jersey City

9,892,429 9,890,327 9,907,779 9,901,257 377,538 321,402 359,306 348,410 3.8 3.2 3.6 3.5

Rochester

518,842 521,687 520,729 522,135 22,386 18,873 20,049 18,962 4.3 3.6 3.9 3.6

Syracuse

303,108 309,360 303,605 308,305 13,354 11,394 11,732 11,371 4.4 3.7 3.9 3.7

Utica-Rome

128,559 128,742 128,841 128,057 6,054 5,078 5,192 4,963 4.7 3.9 4.0 3.9

Watertown-Fort Drum

43,763 43,663 44,575 44,753 2,659 2,296 2,119 2,010 6.1 5.3 4.8 4.5

North Carolina

4,975,010 5,066,547 5,004,225 5,122,634 180,237 179,997 183,058 205,783 3.6 3.6 3.7 4.0

Asheville

232,441 241,836 234,098 245,209 6,685 6,849 6,765 8,005 2.9 2.8 2.9 3.3

Burlington

80,391 81,483 80,724 82,207 2,713 2,799 2,819 3,219 3.4 3.4 3.5 3.9

Charlotte-Concord-Gastonia

1,324,448 1,366,051 1,332,127 1,379,482 44,688 45,204 45,417 51,129 3.4 3.3 3.4 3.7

Durham-Chapel Hill

298,955 303,442 299,855 305,199 9,493 9,647 9,729 11,145 3.2 3.2 3.2 3.7

Fayetteville

148,122 150,900 148,957 152,163 6,893 6,933 7,049 7,904 4.7 4.6 4.7 5.2

Goldsboro

52,778 53,086 53,122 53,716 2,139 2,060 2,142 2,338 4.1 3.9 4.0 4.4

Greensboro-High Point

367,738 371,585 368,734 373,894 13,982 13,739 14,317 15,847 3.8 3.7 3.9 4.2

Greenville

90,433 90,479 90,803 91,524 3,518 3,383 3,765 4,114 3.9 3.7 4.1 4.5

Hickory-Lenoir-Morganton

173,107 176,141 174,184 176,946 5,663 5,932 5,733 6,856 3.3 3.4 3.3 3.9

Jacksonville

64,980 65,255 65,136 65,815 2,705 2,787 2,735 3,142 4.2 4.3 4.2 4.8

New Bern

51,120 51,746 51,304 52,225 1,907 1,946 1,914 2,207 3.7 3.8 3.7 4.2

Raleigh

709,808 723,071 714,260 728,498 22,523 22,771 22,810 26,189 3.2 3.1 3.2 3.6

Rocky Mount

64,678 64,649 64,764 65,378 3,635 3,201 3,692 3,579 5.6 5.0 5.7 5.5

Wilmington

149,514 151,684 151,012 154,880 5,003 5,106 5,036 5,777 3.3 3.4 3.3 3.7

Winston-Salem

326,113 332,193 327,235 336,350 11,190 11,106 11,357 12,893 3.4 3.3 3.5 3.8

North Dakota

403,296 403,516 405,962 405,710 11,728 10,135 9,204 8,465 2.9 2.5 2.3 2.1

Bismarck

67,489 67,969 67,671 68,208 2,156 1,795 1,637 1,473 3.2 2.6 2.4 2.2

Fargo

137,065 137,187 137,253 137,890 3,725 3,426 2,898 2,877 2.7 2.5 2.1 2.1

Grand Forks

55,235 54,774 55,026 54,816 1,593 1,557 1,262 1,397 2.9 2.8 2.3 2.5

Ohio

5,738,955 5,794,037 5,761,621 5,775,603 244,928 192,152 237,202 203,957 4.3 3.3 4.1 3.5

Akron

356,463 357,523 355,802 356,753 15,776 12,101 14,517 12,267 4.4 3.4 4.1 3.4

Canton-Massillon

199,035 199,741 199,589 199,622 9,777 7,281 8,739 7,538 4.9 3.6 4.4 3.8

Cincinnati

1,108,437 1,129,324 1,117,296 1,130,025 40,596 32,816 40,480 35,238 3.7 2.9 3.6 3.1

Cleveland-Elyria

1,039,978 1,044,474 1,030,023 1,034,227 49,424 39,512 49,835 40,527 4.8 3.8 4.8 3.9

Columbus

1,070,393 1,087,981 1,081,080 1,085,095 38,145 29,846 37,571 32,162 3.6 2.7 3.5 3.0

Dayton

385,080 386,009 385,927 384,296 15,286 12,001 15,172 13,254 4.0 3.1 3.9 3.4

Lima

47,591 47,881 47,786 47,774 2,007 1,450 1,932 1,546 4.2 3.0 4.0 3.2

Mansfield

52,491 53,142 53,214 53,209 2,457 1,827 2,255 1,854 4.7 3.4 4.2 3.5

Springfield

62,866 63,378 63,214 63,171 2,592 2,026 2,712 2,111 4.1 3.2 4.3 3.3

Toledo

301,570 301,449 302,537 303,740 13,217 10,375 13,906 14,138 4.4 3.4 4.6 4.7

Weirton-Steubenville(1)

50,197 49,760 50,342 49,664 3,077 2,239 2,848 2,291 6.1 4.5 5.7 4.6

Youngstown-Warren-Boardman

241,199 238,321 243,096 238,825 12,682 11,330 11,539 11,629 5.3 4.8 4.7 4.9

Oklahoma

1,839,219 1,816,608 1,843,360 1,831,290 60,882 50,188 64,385 56,705 3.3 2.8 3.5 3.1

Enid

27,207 26,577 27,407 26,688 817 688 861 765 3.0 2.6 3.1 2.9

Lawton

51,393 50,598 51,626 51,118 1,907 1,528 2,011 1,735 3.7 3.0 3.9 3.4

Oklahoma City

680,572 677,085 681,176 682,327 20,728 17,442 21,957 19,528 3.0 2.6 3.2 2.9

Tulsa

478,594 471,890 479,432 473,421 16,306 13,285 17,200 14,854 3.4 2.8 3.6 3.1

Oregon

2,089,666 2,106,615 2,090,640 2,106,365 83,001 82,651 74,776 70,183 4.0 3.9 3.6 3.3

Albany

58,387 58,763 58,247 58,530 2,631 2,673 2,328 2,247 4.5 4.5 4.0 3.8

Bend-Redmond

94,434 95,944 94,568 96,086 3,815 3,843 3,274 3,190 4.0 4.0 3.5 3.3

Corvallis

48,734 48,801 48,878 48,892 1,322 1,409 1,270 1,238 2.7 2.9 2.6 2.5

Eugene

181,891 182,138 182,200 181,937 7,738 7,789 7,095 6,536 4.3 4.3 3.9 3.6

Grants Pass

35,646 36,069 35,918 36,331 1,907 1,876 1,690 1,577 5.3 5.2 4.7 4.3

Medford

104,202 105,074 103,982 105,282 4,847 4,951 4,342 4,073 4.7 4.7 4.2 3.9

Portland-Vancouver-Hillsboro

1,302,206 1,322,236 1,300,973 1,319,891 48,793 49,162 45,175 43,597 3.7 3.7 3.5 3.3

Salem

199,027 201,314 199,959 201,994 8,208 8,414 7,403 7,184 4.1 4.2 3.7 3.6

Pennsylvania

6,378,250 6,421,347 6,403,511 6,471,001 252,656 205,924 248,799 242,836 4.0 3.2 3.9 3.8

Allentown-Bethlehem-Easton

433,371 434,327 435,472 439,096 18,281 14,824 17,912 16,856 4.2 3.4 4.1 3.8

Altoona

59,178 59,501 59,590 60,266 2,250 1,846 2,204 2,135 3.8 3.1 3.7 3.5

Bloomsburg-Berwick

42,560 42,368 42,120 42,946 1,701 1,398 1,679 1,736 4.0 3.3 4.0 4.0

Chambersburg-Waynesboro

75,461 77,372 76,461 78,492 2,563 2,128 2,506 2,510 3.4 2.8 3.3 3.2

East Stroudsburg

80,960 81,196 81,411 82,199 4,089 3,367 4,027 3,848 5.1 4.1 4.9 4.7

Erie

128,388 128,536 128,770 129,582 5,835 4,342 5,543 4,971 4.5 3.4 4.3 3.8

Gettysburg

54,711 55,002 54,998 55,895 1,568 1,245 1,575 1,535 2.9 2.3 2.9 2.7

Harrisburg-Carlisle

294,402 296,189 296,076 298,496 9,884 7,952 9,926 9,599 3.4 2.7 3.4 3.2

Johnstown

58,120 58,281 58,234 58,751 2,680 2,132 2,588 2,523 4.6 3.7 4.4 4.3

Lancaster

277,972 279,598 281,655 284,381 8,455 6,954 8,542 8,461 3.0 2.5 3.0 3.0

Lebanon

70,404 71,196 71,184 72,641 2,405 1,974 2,317 2,363 3.4 2.8 3.3 3.3

Philadelphia-Camden-Wilmington

3,068,374 3,100,010 3,067,259 3,105,396 120,347 97,010 120,594 110,664 3.9 3.1 3.9 3.6

Pittsburgh

1,196,798 1,202,410 1,198,875 1,208,685 46,985 37,965 45,565 44,171 3.9 3.2 3.8 3.7

Reading

210,446 212,376 212,222 214,982 8,038 6,868 8,020 8,202 3.8 3.2 3.8 3.8

Scranton--Wilkes-Barre--Hazleton

275,969 274,731 275,883 276,434 12,815 10,954 12,401 12,600 4.6 4.0 4.5 4.6

State College

80,212 82,538 80,071 82,310 2,319 1,891 2,417 2,478 2.9 2.3 3.0 3.0

Williamsport

57,217 56,190 56,951 56,628 2,586 1,998 2,418 2,283 4.5 3.6 4.2 4.0

York-Hanover

232,453 232,805 233,922 234,776 8,052 6,435 8,013 7,724 3.5 2.8 3.4 3.3

Rhode Island

550,675 545,023 551,828 547,473 21,010 16,372 20,079 17,966 3.8 3.0 3.6 3.3

Providence-Warwick

684,947 680,531 686,530 683,484 26,532 20,880 25,329 23,119 3.9 3.1 3.7 3.4

South Carolina

2,305,243 2,372,742 2,320,482 2,388,810 62,275 70,217 65,707 79,610 2.7 3.0 2.8 3.3

Charleston-North Charleston

378,073 390,595 380,735 393,802 8,494 9,950 9,150 11,360 2.2 2.5 2.4 2.9

Columbia

394,771 401,616 397,180 405,272 10,446 11,273 11,094 12,923 2.6 2.8 2.8 3.2

Florence

95,289 98,100 96,002 98,598 2,889 3,166 3,001 3,574 3.0 3.2 3.1 3.6

Greenville-Anderson-Mauldin

422,328 431,264 424,482 434,055 10,151 11,534 11,040 13,492 2.4 2.7 2.6 3.1

Hilton Head Island-Bluffton-Beaufort

87,336 90,617 88,666 92,293 2,133 2,492 2,318 2,901 2.4 2.8 2.6 3.1

Myrtle Beach-Conway-North Myrtle Beach

197,279 207,256 201,497 211,730 7,159 8,017 7,277 8,675 3.6 3.9 3.6 4.1

Spartanburg

159,070 163,318 159,201 163,738 3,943 4,424 4,173 5,096 2.5 2.7 2.6 3.1

Sumter

43,791 45,057 43,870 45,202 1,454 1,542 1,483 1,729 3.3 3.4 3.4 3.8

South Dakota

455,905 462,538 458,579 464,870 14,821 13,438 12,835 12,995 3.3 2.9 2.8 2.8

Rapid City

73,430 74,456 74,641 75,293 2,492 2,270 2,227 2,261 3.4 3.0 3.0 3.0

Sioux Falls

151,404 155,917 151,038 156,137 4,164 3,810 3,599 3,712 2.8 2.4 2.4 2.4

Tennessee

3,234,211 3,336,587 3,242,736 3,363,323 99,827 91,408 100,670 102,712 3.1 2.7 3.1 3.1

Chattanooga

269,663 275,659 269,083 277,348 8,586 7,709 8,670 8,393 3.2 2.8 3.2 3.0

Clarksville

114,709 118,444 115,258 119,546 4,210 4,080 4,390 4,532 3.7 3.4 3.8 3.8

Cleveland

56,791 58,635 56,741 59,085 1,849 1,657 1,905 1,900 3.3 2.8 3.4 3.2

Jackson

63,979 65,893 64,070 66,585 2,202 1,922 2,221 2,087 3.4 2.9 3.5 3.1

Johnson City

91,509 93,795 90,638 93,956 2,964 2,849 3,046 3,265 3.2 3.0 3.4 3.5

Kingsport-Bristol-Bristol

136,770 140,635 137,534 142,047 4,461 4,169 4,473 4,798 3.3 3.0 3.3 3.4

Knoxville

421,759 434,996 423,879 439,421 12,009 11,064 12,056 12,781 2.8 2.5 2.8 2.9

Memphis

630,603 644,068 633,919 650,774 23,863 22,577 24,852 24,489 3.8 3.5 3.9 3.8

Morristown

51,646 52,958 51,774 53,372 1,696 1,662 1,760 1,847 3.3 3.1 3.4 3.5

Nashville-Davidson--Murfreesboro--Franklin

1,036,508 1,077,447 1,038,957 1,084,039 24,999 22,932 25,235 26,144 2.4 2.1 2.4 2.4

Texas

13,817,292 14,000,887 13,810,959 13,966,869 507,416 415,613 498,723 408,694 3.7 3.0 3.6 2.9

Abilene

77,584 77,285 77,533 76,881 2,389 1,967 2,351 1,964 3.1 2.5 3.0 2.6

Amarillo

132,765 132,485 132,759 132,535 3,342 2,803 3,325 2,779 2.5 2.1 2.5 2.1

Austin-Round Rock

1,193,943 1,210,748 1,194,067 1,210,963 32,360 27,662 32,149 26,966 2.7 2.3 2.7 2.2

Beaumont-Port Arthur

175,961 175,846 175,462 175,310 10,442 7,940 9,881 7,950 5.9 4.5 5.6 4.5

Brownsville-Harlingen

166,236 165,001 165,069 164,777 10,223 7,760 9,694 7,584 6.1 4.7 5.9 4.6

College Station-Bryan

133,280 135,373 132,539 135,543 3,533 2,998 3,567 3,130 2.7 2.2 2.7 2.3

Corpus Christi

210,109 208,203 209,449 207,235 10,267 7,468 9,759 7,461 4.9 3.6 4.7 3.6

Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington

3,876,171 3,964,887 3,877,185 3,951,005 128,600 110,688 127,704 107,811 3.3 2.8 3.3 2.7

El Paso

360,962 362,820 360,169 362,086 14,553 11,956 14,268 11,732 4.0 3.3 4.0 3.2

Houston-The Woodlands-Sugar Land

3,382,577 3,425,788 3,377,820 3,416,332 140,807 109,976 137,706 108,025 4.2 3.2 4.1 3.2

Killeen-Temple

175,861 178,439 175,428 177,751 6,705 5,629 6,776 5,572 3.8 3.2 3.9 3.1

Laredo

116,446 117,489 115,656 117,124 4,108 3,796 4,038 3,784 3.5 3.2 3.5 3.2

Longview

98,215 96,543 98,073 96,103 3,857 3,110 3,759 3,015 3.9 3.2 3.8 3.1

Lubbock

162,711 163,505 162,834 163,305 4,492 3,782 4,473 3,758 2.8 2.3 2.7 2.3

McAllen-Edinburg-Mission

351,093 351,626 349,387 351,115 22,353 17,554 20,844 17,726 6.4 5.0 6.0 5.0

Midland

103,795 106,311 104,122 106,620 2,019 1,791 2,040 1,786 1.9 1.7 2.0 1.7

Odessa

84,763 86,300 84,813 86,378 2,155 1,766 2,133 1,819 2.5 2.0 2.5 2.1

San Angelo

55,804 56,033 55,640 55,916 1,602 1,401 1,616 1,414 2.9 2.5 2.9 2.5

San Antonio-New Braunfels

1,189,573 1,204,326 1,186,683 1,196,968 36,324 31,094 36,387 30,756 3.1 2.6 3.1 2.6

Sherman-Denison

63,176 64,190 63,164 64,163 1,935 1,620 1,935 1,643 3.1 2.5 3.1 2.6

Texarkana

64,247 64,652 64,591 64,704 2,666 2,390 3,099 2,375 4.1 3.7 4.8 3.7

Tyler

107,182 108,209 108,072 108,139 3,615 3,050 3,633 2,982 3.4 2.8 3.4 2.8

Victoria

46,698 46,411 46,629 46,233 1,716 1,341 1,663 1,321 3.7 2.9 3.6 2.9

Waco

125,289 125,896 125,132 125,354 4,197 3,441 4,231 3,419 3.3 2.7 3.4 2.7

Wichita Falls

66,008 65,696 65,955 65,259 2,015 1,736 2,042 1,723 3.1 2.6 3.1 2.6

Utah

1,560,360 1,582,128 1,567,748 1,588,356 47,198 42,328 45,863 43,573 3.0 2.7 2.9 2.7

Logan

70,568 71,493 70,812 71,844 1,770 1,582 1,641 1,591 2.5 2.2 2.3 2.2

Ogden-Clearfield

323,405 329,329 326,438 332,468 9,920 8,760 9,448 8,922 3.1 2.7 2.9 2.7

Provo-Orem

304,214 309,482 302,370 306,868 8,093 7,405 8,000 7,819 2.7 2.4 2.6 2.5

St. George

73,798 75,798 74,248 76,418 2,403 2,209 2,307 2,220 3.3 2.9 3.1 2.9

Salt Lake City

646,848 652,603 652,026 656,790 19,518 17,490 18,847 17,967 3.0 2.7 2.9 2.7

Vermont

342,835 344,489 344,092 346,777 10,047 7,528 8,666 6,564 2.9 2.2 2.5 1.9

Burlington-South Burlington

126,567 127,727 126,282 128,150 2,674 1,889 2,451 1,932 2.1 1.5 1.9 1.5

Virginia

4,331,542 4,363,922 4,346,095 4,400,145 118,817 109,110 121,640 125,789 2.7 2.5 2.8 2.9

Blacksburg-Christiansburg-Radford

92,036 90,864 90,701 90,687 2,523 2,283 2,589 2,813 2.7 2.5 2.9 3.1

Charlottesville

120,866 121,666 120,542 122,567 2,921 2,698 3,041 3,332 2.4 2.2 2.5 2.7

Harrisonburg

65,810 66,858 64,588 65,999 1,752 1,580 1,835 1,985 2.7 2.4 2.8 3.0

Lynchburg

121,664 123,170 121,948 123,823 3,841 3,394 3,983 4,154 3.2 2.8 3.3 3.4

Richmond

673,685 680,580 675,490 685,502 19,960 17,991 20,197 20,599 3.0 2.6 3.0 3.0

Roanoke

156,717 157,650 157,378 159,190 4,334 3,882 4,461 4,483 2.8 2.5 2.8 2.8

Staunton-Waynesboro

59,192 60,125 59,272 60,485 1,546 1,367 1,616 1,618 2.6 2.3 2.7 2.7

Virginia Beach-Norfolk-Newport News

851,306 852,479 855,330 861,263 25,249 23,930 25,832 27,252 3.0 2.8 3.0 3.2

Winchester

71,834 73,238 72,113 73,685 1,928 1,751 1,976 1,961 2.7 2.4 2.7 2.7

Washington

3,759,638 3,863,466 3,770,988 3,876,783 160,358 171,083 156,767 162,826 4.3 4.4 4.2 4.2

Bellingham

110,706 115,682 111,121 115,198 5,103 5,823 4,795 5,410 4.6 5.0 4.3 4.7

Bremerton-Silverdale

121,228 126,368 122,029 126,793 5,694 6,235 5,344 5,766 4.7 4.9 4.4 4.5

Kennewick-Richland

139,481 144,373 141,154 145,992 7,484 8,246 6,861 7,417 5.4 5.7 4.9 5.1

Longview

45,527 46,968 45,711 46,930 2,742 3,021 2,549 2,893 6.0 6.4 5.6 6.2

Mount Vernon-Anacortes

59,319 61,927 59,781 62,101 3,037 3,420 2,845 3,271 5.1 5.5 4.8 5.3

Olympia-Tumwater

136,471 142,922 136,944 142,110 6,426 7,303 6,109 6,695 4.7 5.1 4.5 4.7

Seattle-Tacoma-Bellevue

2,104,620 2,147,338 2,104,442 2,154,084 73,183 72,629 75,346 73,205 3.5 3.4 3.6 3.4

Spokane-Spokane Valley

264,174 276,678 265,556 276,674 13,967 15,912 12,892 14,167 5.3 5.8 4.9 5.1

Walla Walla

30,098 31,800 30,334 32,094 1,412 1,598 1,292 1,434 4.7 5.0 4.3 4.5

Wenatchee

63,603 65,060 64,237 66,092 3,150 3,561 2,947 3,235 5.0 5.5 4.6 4.9

Yakima

126,555 130,053 126,860 130,964 7,762 9,693 7,252 8,886 6.1 7.5 5.7 6.8

West Virginia

783,014 787,718 785,535 793,880 42,290 33,329 39,012 33,964 5.4 4.2 5.0 4.3

Beckley

44,873 44,923 45,451 46,064 2,722 1,968 2,413 2,067 6.1 4.4 5.3 4.5

Charleston

93,177 91,967 93,324 92,287 5,168 3,838 4,773 3,983 5.5 4.2 5.1 4.3

Huntington-Ashland

145,795 144,291 145,588 144,256 7,847 6,303 7,551 6,472 5.4 4.4 5.2 4.5

Morgantown

69,775 68,560 69,253 67,898 2,914 2,256 2,836 2,407 4.2 3.3 4.1 3.5

Parkersburg-Vienna

38,226 38,235 38,329 38,804 2,142 1,703 1,960 1,800 5.6 4.5 5.1 4.6

Wheeling

64,691 68,060 65,175 68,168 3,594 3,042 3,145 2,918 5.6 4.5 4.8 4.3

Wisconsin

3,124,037 3,106,510 3,129,532 3,086,614 92,716 82,845 85,067 83,955 3.0 2.7 2.7 2.7

Appleton

131,417 129,800 131,630 129,557 3,578 3,132 3,304 3,213 2.7 2.4 2.5 2.5

Eau Claire

93,529 92,786 93,255 91,787 2,713 2,559 2,267 2,405 2.9 2.8 2.4 2.6

Fond du Lac

57,330 57,154 57,440 57,038 1,438 1,220 1,389 1,370 2.5 2.1 2.4 2.4

Green Bay

174,660 174,901 174,963 174,274 4,962 4,318 4,471 4,578 2.8 2.5 2.6 2.6

Janesville-Beloit

85,172 85,491 85,000 85,027 2,573 2,408 2,466 2,606 3.0 2.8 2.9 3.1

La Crosse-Onalaska

78,262 78,517 77,514 77,664 2,001 1,857 1,847 1,921 2.6 2.4 2.4 2.5

Madison

387,261 384,340 386,622 379,499 8,272 7,682 8,397 8,631 2.1 2.0 2.2 2.3

Milwaukee-Waukesha-West Allis

821,555 821,202 820,349 815,025 24,451 22,142 24,232 23,925 3.0 2.7 3.0 2.9

Oshkosh-Neenah

93,185 92,351 92,845 91,823 2,433 2,148 2,348 2,345 2.6 2.3 2.5 2.6

Racine

99,081 98,434 99,257 97,761 3,474 3,130 3,229 3,108 3.5 3.2 3.3 3.2

Sheboygan

62,231 62,400 62,852 62,622 1,496 1,306 1,496 1,450 2.4 2.1 2.4 2.3

Wausau

73,771 73,708 73,889 73,193 2,012 1,752 1,825 1,779 2.7 2.4 2.5 2.4

Wyoming

287,157 285,196 288,015 285,329 11,619 9,498 11,135 9,508 4.0 3.3 3.9 3.3

Casper

39,295 39,125 38,924 38,580 1,757 1,355 1,728 1,410 4.5 3.5 4.4 3.7

Cheyenne

47,929 47,611 47,308 47,328 1,720 1,494 1,738 1,513 3.6 3.1 3.7 3.2

Puerto Rico

1,084,415 1,076,027 1,088,624 1,084,790 101,395 83,816 101,212 83,936 9.4 7.8 9.3 7.7

Aguadilla-Isabela

87,084 85,458 87,314 85,983 10,881 9,006 10,610 8,815 12.5 10.5 12.2 10.3

Arecibo

51,635 51,785 51,944 52,176 6,010 5,081 5,869 5,019 11.6 9.8 11.3 9.6

Guayama

20,288 19,933 20,235 20,090 2,942 2,511 2,905 2,540 14.5 12.6 14.4 12.6

Mayaguez

27,467 27,308 27,460 27,508 3,013 2,577 3,018 2,589 11.0 9.4 11.0 9.4

Ponce

91,042 90,997 91,598 91,642 10,719 10,115 10,823 10,309 11.8 11.1 11.8 11.2

San German

34,597 34,886 34,637 35,135 4,297 3,496 4,393 3,511 12.4 10.0 12.7 10.0

San Juan-Carolina-Caguas

730,020 724,889 732,106 730,748 57,791 46,209 57,660 46,251 7.9 6.4 7.9 6.3

Footnotes
(1) For operational reasons, these interstate areas are listed under the state that accounts for the larger share of the population, which is different from the state that contains the first principal city.
(2) The area boundary does not reflect the Office of Management and Budget delineation.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data refer to place of residence. Data for Puerto Rico are derived from a monthly household survey similar to the Current Population Survey. Area delineations are based on Office of Management and Budget Bulletin No. 18-03, dated April 10, 2018, and are available on the BLS website at https://www.bls.gov/lau/lausmsa.htm. Areas in the six New England states are Metropolitan New England City and Town Areas (NECTAs), while areas in other states are county-based. Some metropolitan areas lie in two or more states. They are listed under the state containing the first principal city, unless otherwise footnoted. Estimates for the latest month are subject to revision the following month.


LABOR FORCE DATA
NOT SEASONALLY ADJUSTED

Table 2. Civilian labor force and unemployment by state, selected metropolitan area, and metropolitan division(1)
State, area, and division Civilian labor force Unemployed
April May Number Percent of labor force
2018 2019 2018 2019(p) April May April May
2018 2019 2018 2019(p) 2018 2019 2018 2019(p)

California

19,271,108 19,243,469 19,296,206 19,287,094 775,890 743,918 717,119 678,026 4.0 3.9 3.7 3.5

Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim

6,729,185 6,659,015 6,715,036 6,678,070 262,078 244,527 256,923 237,995 3.9 3.7 3.8 3.6

Anaheim-Santa Ana-Irvine

1,614,513 1,606,083 1,614,348 1,606,019 44,007 41,650 40,881 38,562 2.7 2.6 2.5 2.4

Los Angeles-Long Beach-Glendale

5,114,672 5,052,932 5,100,688 5,072,051 218,071 202,877 216,042 199,433 4.3 4.0 4.2 3.9

San Francisco-Oakland-Hayward

2,558,098 2,578,934 2,562,095 2,585,828 65,367 62,182 60,319 57,439 2.6 2.4 2.4 2.2

Oakland-Hayward-Berkeley

1,401,611 1,404,041 1,403,415 1,407,437 40,382 38,684 37,197 35,986 2.9 2.8 2.7 2.6

San Francisco-Redwood City-South San Francisco

1,016,918 1,034,845 1,018,773 1,038,254 21,852 20,557 20,286 18,767 2.1 2.0 2.0 1.8

San Rafael

139,569 140,048 139,907 140,137 3,133 2,941 2,836 2,686 2.2 2.1 2.0 1.9

District of Columbia

405,784 412,561 404,595 414,087 20,934 20,928 21,537 21,789 5.2 5.1 5.3 5.3

Washington-Arlington-Alexandria(2)

3,384,044 3,412,280 3,395,509 3,439,611 103,837 97,368 107,921 107,557 3.1 2.9 3.2 3.1

Silver Spring-Frederick-Rockville(3)

681,293 680,840 682,571 687,064 20,140 18,707 21,603 20,797 3.0 2.7 3.2 3.0

Washington-Arlington-Alexandria(2)

2,702,751 2,731,440 2,712,938 2,752,547 83,697 78,661 86,318 86,760 3.1 2.9 3.2 3.2

Florida

10,189,508 10,265,561 10,249,456 10,365,951 349,665 300,849 345,015 318,572 3.4 2.9 3.4 3.1

Miami-Fort Lauderdale-West Palm Beach

3,147,500 3,182,322 3,158,766 3,195,366 112,487 92,873 108,860 98,006 3.6 2.9 3.4 3.1

Fort Lauderdale-Pompano Beach-Deerfield Beach

1,027,380 1,027,288 1,038,530 1,041,716 33,489 28,690 33,475 30,819 3.3 2.8 3.2 3.0

Miami-Miami Beach-Kendall

1,392,345 1,421,735 1,388,406 1,413,953 54,885 43,073 51,315 44,596 3.9 3.0 3.7 3.2

West Palm Beach-Boca Raton-Delray Beach

727,775 733,299 731,830 739,697 24,113 21,110 24,070 22,591 3.3 2.9 3.3 3.1

Illinois

6,436,374 6,479,288 6,451,295 6,463,139 245,015 259,307 235,509 233,613 3.8 4.0 3.7 3.6

Chicago-Naperville-Elgin(2)

4,837,182 4,887,141 4,848,539 4,860,439 177,546 183,175 166,909 170,253 3.7 3.7 3.4 3.5

Chicago-Naperville-Arlington Heights

3,704,494 3,738,418 3,711,865 3,718,225 131,518 132,885 122,338 129,397 3.6 3.6 3.3 3.5

Elgin

325,987 329,462 327,874 329,872 13,563 15,406 13,227 12,092 4.2 4.7 4.0 3.7

Gary(3)

342,684 347,536 342,606 341,660 14,646 15,213 14,354 12,947 4.3 4.4 4.2 3.8

Lake County-Kenosha County(2)

464,017 471,725 466,194 470,682 17,819 19,671 16,990 15,817 3.8 4.2 3.6 3.4

Massachusetts

3,777,446 3,814,093 3,789,870 3,836,916 123,249 99,559 124,560 119,548 3.3 2.6 3.3 3.1

Boston-Cambridge-Nashua(2)

2,796,245 2,824,004 2,801,804 2,836,089 81,822 66,627 83,937 80,632 2.9 2.4 3.0 2.8

Boston-Cambridge-Newton

1,667,751 1,687,734 1,670,508 1,694,191 45,363 36,687 47,419 45,897 2.7 2.2 2.8 2.7

Brockton-Bridgewater-Easton

110,966 111,931 110,845 112,137 3,940 3,096 4,030 3,769 3.6 2.8 3.6 3.4

Framingham

162,515 162,867 162,906 163,996 4,374 3,557 4,437 4,332 2.7 2.2 2.7 2.6

Haverhill-Newburyport-Amesbury Town(2)

117,301 118,325 118,320 119,553 3,611 3,184 3,476 3,410 3.1 2.7 2.9 2.9

Lawrence-Methuen Town-Salem(2)

99,537 98,568 99,993 99,088 4,504 3,563 4,558 4,095 4.5 3.6 4.6 4.1

Lowell-Billerica-Chelmsford(2)

196,491 198,174 196,820 199,403 6,364 4,987 6,436 6,070 3.2 2.5 3.3 3.0

Lynn-Saugus-Marblehead

86,685 87,094 87,050 87,697 2,703 2,217 2,821 2,776 3.1 2.5 3.2 3.2

Nashua(2)

173,095 176,425 173,345 176,193 5,048 4,594 4,744 4,544 2.9 2.6 2.7 2.6

Peabody-Salem-Beverly

94,805 95,511 94,893 95,860 2,867 2,310 2,987 2,843 3.0 2.4 3.1 3.0

Taunton-Middleborough-Norton

87,099 87,375 87,124 87,971 3,048 2,432 3,029 2,896 3.5 2.8 3.5 3.3

Michigan

4,865,880 4,926,510 4,907,004 4,951,857 180,285 183,606 173,340 195,058 3.7 3.7 3.5 3.9

Detroit-Warren-Dearborn

2,100,974 2,134,358 2,121,255 2,140,593 73,832 83,828 73,847 91,946 3.5 3.9 3.5 4.3

Detroit-Dearborn-Livonia

782,942 796,687 788,519 797,822 32,596 36,613 34,101 40,879 4.2 4.6 4.3 5.1

Warren-Troy-Farmington Hills

1,318,033 1,337,672 1,332,735 1,342,769 41,237 47,216 39,745 51,066 3.1 3.5 3.0 3.8

New York

9,514,505 9,542,495 9,536,204 9,539,001 383,604 339,292 350,083 360,778 4.0 3.6 3.7 3.8

New York-Newark-Jersey City(2)

9,892,429 9,890,327 9,907,779 9,901,257 377,538 321,402 359,306 348,410 3.8 3.2 3.6 3.5

Dutchess County-Putnam County

193,691 196,510 194,835 196,586 7,083 6,140 6,645 6,386 3.7 3.1 3.4 3.2

Nassau County-Suffolk County

1,474,152 1,485,528 1,489,321 1,493,794 53,250 44,676 49,841 47,173 3.6 3.0 3.3 3.2

Newark(3)

1,215,918 1,213,313 1,218,023 1,216,691 48,455 36,055 47,803 37,318 4.0 3.0 3.9 3.1

New York-Jersey City-White Plains(2)

7,008,668 6,994,976 7,005,600 6,994,186 268,750 234,531 255,017 257,533 3.8 3.4 3.6 3.7

Pennsylvania

6,378,250 6,421,347 6,403,511 6,471,001 252,656 205,924 248,799 242,836 4.0 3.2 3.9 3.8

Philadelphia-Camden-Wilmington(2)

3,068,374 3,100,010 3,067,259 3,105,396 120,347 97,010 120,594 110,664 3.9 3.1 3.9 3.6

Camden(3)

621,552 622,667 620,223 623,345 24,738 18,569 24,480 19,173 4.0 3.0 3.9 3.1

Montgomery County-Bucks County-Chester County

1,063,051 1,074,094 1,067,916 1,081,151 33,931 28,048 34,092 33,559 3.2 2.6 3.2 3.1

Philadelphia

1,001,421 1,016,034 999,750 1,014,976 47,191 38,469 48,174 45,940 4.7 3.8 4.8 4.5

Wilmington(3)

382,350 387,215 379,370 385,924 14,487 11,924 13,848 11,992 3.8 3.1 3.7 3.1

Texas

13,817,292 14,000,887 13,810,959 13,966,869 507,416 415,613 498,723 408,694 3.7 3.0 3.6 2.9

Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington

3,876,171 3,964,887 3,877,185 3,951,005 128,600 110,688 127,704 107,811 3.3 2.8 3.3 2.7

Dallas-Plano-Irving

2,614,152 2,685,361 2,614,027 2,674,257 87,372 75,052 86,537 72,997 3.3 2.8 3.3 2.7

Fort Worth-Arlington

1,262,019 1,279,526 1,263,158 1,276,748 41,228 35,636 41,167 34,814 3.3 2.8 3.3 2.7

Washington

3,759,638 3,863,466 3,770,988 3,876,783 160,358 171,083 156,767 162,826 4.3 4.4 4.2 4.2

Seattle-Tacoma-Bellevue

2,104,620 2,147,338 2,104,442 2,154,084 73,183 72,629 75,346 73,205 3.5 3.4 3.6 3.4

Seattle-Bellevue-Everett

1,685,120 1,711,007 1,683,847 1,718,026 51,298 48,915 54,498 50,900 3.0 2.9 3.2 3.0

Tacoma-Lakewood

419,500 436,331 420,595 436,058 21,885 23,714 20,848 22,305 5.2 5.4 5.0 5.1

Footnotes
(1) These 11 areas contain all of the 38 metropolitan divisions.
(2) Part of the area (or division) is in one or more adjacent states.
(3) All of the division is in one or more adjacent states.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data refer to place of residence. Area delineations are based on Office of Management and Budget Bulletin No. 18-03, dated April 10, 2018, and are available on the BLS website at https://www.bls.gov/lau/lausmsa.htm. Areas in the six New England states are Metropolitan New England City and Town Areas (NECTAs), while areas in other states are county-based. Some metropolitan areas lie in two or more states. They are listed under the state containing the first principal city. Metropolitan divisions are listed under their metropolitan areas. Some divisions lie in more than one state, and some, like Camden, NJ, are totally outside the states under which their metropolitan areas are listed. For Washington-Arlington-Alexandria, DC-VA-MD-WV, the metropolitan area and division titles are identical. Estimates for the latest month are subject to revision the following month.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
NOT SEASONALLY ADJUSTED
Table 3. Employees on nonfarm payrolls by state and metropolitan area, not seasonally adjusted
[In thousands]
State and area April May Change from
May 2018 to May 2019(p)
2018 2019 2018 2019(p) Number Percent

Alabama

2,039.9 2,074.6 2,042.9 2,081.7 38.8 1.9

Anniston-Oxford-Jacksonville

47.2 47.1 47.2 47.2 0.0 0.0

Auburn-Opelika

65.0 67.2 64.5 66.8 2.3 3.6

Birmingham-Hoover

536.6 545.9 537.6 548.2 10.6 2.0

Daphne-Fairhope-Foley

77.6 80.2 79.0 81.6 2.6 3.3

Decatur

55.2 56.7 55.5 57.4 1.9 3.4

Dothan

58.8 59.4 58.9 59.6 0.7 1.2

Florence-Muscle Shoals

56.9 57.1 57.0 57.4 0.4 0.7

Gadsden

37.9 38.6 37.8 38.8 1.0 2.6

Huntsville

237.8 242.0 238.2 241.3 3.1 1.3

Mobile

185.4 187.4 185.1 187.9 2.8 1.5

Montgomery

177.3 178.8 178.0 179.7 1.7 1.0

Tuscaloosa

109.4 112.5 108.5 112.0 3.5 3.2


Alaska

319.3 324.7 332.6 334.9 2.3 0.7

Anchorage

173.5 174.7 178.3 179.0 0.7 0.4

Fairbanks

37.1 36.9 38.4 37.8 -0.6 -1.6


Arizona

2,852.5 2,929.6 2,844.6 2,919.6 75.0 2.6

Flagstaff

68.4 68.6 68.5 68.2 -0.3 -0.4

Lake Havasu City-Kingman

51.0 52.8 51.1 52.9 1.8 3.5

Phoenix-Mesa-Scottsdale

2,101.3 2,166.5 2,094.5 2,161.0 66.5 3.2

Prescott

65.8 66.4 65.6 65.7 0.1 0.2

Sierra Vista-Douglas

33.7 33.8 33.8 3