Department of Labor Logo United States Department of Labor
Dot gov

The .gov means it's official.
Federal government websites often end in .gov or .mil. Before sharing sensitive information, make sure you're on a federal government site.

Https

The site is secure.
The https:// ensures that you are connecting to the official website and that any information you provide is encrypted and transmitted securely.

Economic News Release
PRINT:Print
LAU LAU Program Links
SAE SAE Program Links

Metropolitan Area Employment and Unemployment (Monthly) News Release

For release 10:00 a.m. (ET) Wednesday, August 30, 2023 	                                  USDL-23-1891

Technical information: 
 Employment:   (202) 691-6559  *  sminfo@bls.gov    *  www.bls.gov/sae 
 Unemployment: (202) 691-6392  *  lausinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/lau 

Media contact: (202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov


              METROPOLITAN AREA EMPLOYMENT AND UNEMPLOYMENT -- JULY 2023


Unemployment rates were lower in July than a year earlier in 192 of the 389 metropolitan areas, 
higher in 176 areas, and unchanged in 21 areas, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. 
A total of 12 areas had jobless rates of less than 2.0 percent and 5 areas had rates of at least 
8.0 percent. Nonfarm payroll employment increased over the year in 79 metropolitan areas, decreased 
in 1 area, and was essentially unchanged in 309 areas. The national unemployment rate in July was 
3.8 percent, not seasonally adjusted, the same as a year earlier.

This news release presents statistics from two monthly programs. The civilian labor force and 
unemployment data are based on the same concepts and definitions as those used for the national
household survey estimates. These data pertain to individuals by where they reside. The employment 
data are from an establishment survey that measures nonfarm employment, hours, and earnings by 
industry. These data pertain to jobs on payrolls defined by where the establishments are located.
For more information about the concepts and statistical methodologies used by these two programs,
see the Technical Note.

Metropolitan Area Unemployment (Not Seasonally Adjusted)

In July, Sioux Falls, SD, had the lowest unemployment rate, 1.4 percent. The next lowest rates 
were in Burlington-South Burlington, VT, 1.5 percent, and Rapid City, SD, 1.6 percent. El Centro, 
CA, had the highest rate, 17.7 percent. A total of 233 areas had July jobless rates below the U.S.
rate of 3.8 percent, 138 areas had rates above it, and 18 areas had rates equal to that of the 
nation. (See table 1.)

The largest over-the-year unemployment rate decreases in July occurred in California-Lexington Park,
MD, and Johnstown, PA (-1.8 percentage points each). Thirty-eight other areas had rate declines of 
at least 1.0 percentage point. El Centro, CA, had the largest over-the-year rate increase in July
(+2.5 percentage points), closely followed by Elkhart-Goshen, IN (+2.4 points).

Of the 51 metropolitan areas with a 2010 Census population of 1 million or more, Baltimore-Columbia-
Towson, MD, had the lowest jobless rate in July, 1.7 percent. Las Vegas-Henderson-Paradise, NV, had 
the highest rate, 6.1 percent. Twenty-four large areas had over-the-year unemployment rate decreases, 
24 had increases, and 3 had no change. The largest rate decline occurred in Baltimore-Columbia-Towson, 
MD (-1.7 percentage points). The largest jobless rate increase was in San Jose-Sunnyvale-Santa Clara, 
CA (+0.9 percentage point).

Metropolitan Division Unemployment (Not Seasonally Adjusted)

Eleven of the most populous metropolitan areas are made up of 38 metropolitan divisions, which 
are essentially separately identifiable employment centers. In July, Silver Spring-Frederick-
Rockville, MD, had the lowest division unemployment rate, 1.6 percent. Los Angeles-Long Beach-
Glendale, CA, had the highest rate among the divisions, 5.4 percent. (See table 2.)

In July, 20 metropolitan divisions had over-the-year unemployment rate decreases and 18 had 
increases. The largest rate decline occurred in Silver Spring-Frederick-Rockville, MD 
(-1.5 percentage points). The largest over-the-year jobless rate increases occurred in Elgin,
IL; Lake County-Kenosha County, IL-WI; and Newark, NJ-PA (+1.2 percentage points each).

Metropolitan Area Nonfarm Employment (Not Seasonally Adjusted)

In July, nonfarm payroll employment increased over the year in 79 metropolitan areas, decreased 
in 1 area, and was essentially unchanged in 309 areas. The largest over-the-year employment 
increases occurred in New York-Newark-Jersey City, NY-NJ-PA (+227,000), Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington, 
TX (+178,600), and Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim, CA (+152,600). The largest over-the-year 
percentage gain in employment occurred in Midland, TX (+6.3 percent), followed by Las Cruces, 
NM (+5.4 percent), and Charleston-North Charleston, SC (+5.0 percent). The over-the-year decrease 
in employment occurred in Elkhart-Goshen, IN (-6,300, or -4.3 percent). (See table 3.)

Over the year, nonfarm employment increased in 35 metropolitan areas with a 2010 Census population 
of 1 million or more, while employment was essentially unchanged in 16 areas. The largest 
over-the-year percentage increases in employment in these large metropolitan areas occurred in 
Las Vegas-Henderson-Paradise, NV (+4.5 percent), and Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington, TX (+4.4 percent),
followed by Charlotte-Concord-Gastonia, NC-SC, and Jacksonville, FL (+4.2 percent each).

Metropolitan Division Nonfarm Employment (Not Seasonally Adjusted)

In July, nonfarm payroll employment increased over the year in 16 metropolitan divisions and was 
essentially unchanged in 22 divisions. The largest over-the-year increases in employment among the
metropolitan divisions occurred in New York-Jersey City-White Plains, NY-NJ (+188,700), Dallas-
Plano-Irving, TX (+128,000), and Los Angeles-Long Beach-Glendale, CA (+104,300). (See table 4.)

The largest over-the-year percentage increases in employment occurred in Dallas-Plano-Irving,
TX (+4.4 percent), Fort Worth-Arlington, TX (+4.3 percent), and Miami-Miami Beach-Kendall, 
FL (+3.8 percent).

_____________
The State Employment and Unemployment news release for August is scheduled to be released on Tuesday, 
September 19, 2023, at 10:00 a.m. (ET). The Metropolitan Area Employment and Unemployment news release 
for August is scheduled to be released on Wednesday, September 27, 2023, at 10:00 a.m. (ET).




Technical Note
  
   This news release presents civilian labor force and unemployment data from the
Local Area Unemployment Statistics (LAUS) program (tables 1 and 2) for 389
metropolitan statistical areas and metropolitan New England City and Town Areas
(NECTAs), plus 7 areas in Puerto Rico. Estimates for 38 metropolitan and NECTA
divisions also are presented. Nonfarm payroll employment estimates from the
Current Employment Statistics (CES) program (tables 3 and 4) are provided for
the same areas. State estimates were previously published in the news release
State Employment and Unemployment, and are republished in this news release for
ease of reference. The LAUS and CES programs are both federal-state cooperative
endeavors.

Civilian labor force and unemployment--from the LAUS program

   Definitions. The civilian labor force and unemployment data are based on the
same concepts and definitions as those used for the official national estimates
obtained from the Current Population Survey (CPS), a sample survey of households
that is conducted for the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) by the U.S. Census
Bureau. The LAUS program measures employed persons and unemployed persons on a
place-of-residence basis. The universe for each is the civilian noninstitutional
population 16 years of age and older. Employed persons are those who did any work
at all for pay or profit in the reference week (typically the week including the
12th of the month) or worked 15 hours or more without pay in a family business or
farm, plus those not working who had a job from which they were temporarily absent,
whether or not paid, for such reasons as labor-management dispute, illness, or
vacation. Unemployed persons are those who were not employed during the reference
week (based on the definition above), had actively looked for a job sometime in the
4-week period ending with the reference week, and were currently available for work;
persons on layoff expecting recall need not be looking for work to be counted as
unemployed. The civilian labor force is the sum of employed and unemployed persons.
The unemployment rate is the number of unemployed as a percent of the civilian labor
force.

   Method of estimation. Estimates for states, the District of Columbia, the Los
Angeles-Long Beach-Glendale metropolitan division, and New York City are produced
using time-series models with real-time benchmarking to national CPS totals. Model-
based estimates are also produced for the following areas and their respective
balances: the Chicago-Naperville-Arlington Heights, IL Metropolitan Division;
Cleveland-Elyria, OH Metropolitan Statistical Area; Detroit-Warren-Dearborn, MI
Metropolitan Statistical Area; Miami-Miami Beach-Kendall, FL Metropolitan Division;
and Seattle-Bellevue-Everett, WA Metropolitan Division. Modeling improves the
statistical basis of the estimation for these areas and provides important tools
for analysis, such as measures of errors and seasonally adjusted series. For all
other substate areas in this news release, estimates are prepared through indirect
estimation procedures using a building-block approach. Estimates of employed
persons, which are based largely on “place of work” estimates from the CES program,
are adjusted to refer to place of residence as used in the CPS. Unemployment
estimates are aggregates of persons previously employed in industries covered by
state unemployment insurance (UI) laws and entrants to the labor force from the
CPS. The substate estimates of employment and unemployment, which geographically
exhaust the entire state, are adjusted proportionally to ensure that they add to
the independently estimated model-based area totals. A detailed description of the
estimation procedures is available from BLS upon request.

   Annual revisions. Civilian labor force and unemployment data shown for the prior
year reflect adjustments made at the beginning of each year, usually implemented with
the issuance of January estimates. The adjusted model-based estimates typically reflect
updated population data from the U.S. Census Bureau, any revisions in other input
data sources, and model re-estimation. All substate estimates then are re-estimated
using updated inputs and adjusted to add to the revised model-based totals. In early
2021, a new generation of time-series models was implemented, resulting in the
replacement of data back to the series beginnings.

Employment--from the CES program 

   Definitions. Employment data refer to persons on establishment payrolls who receive
pay for any part of the pay period that includes the 12th of the month. Persons are
counted at their place of work rather than at their place of residence; those appearing
on more than one payroll are counted on each payroll. Industries are classified on the
basis of their principal activity in accordance with the 2022 version of the North
American Industry Classification System.

   Method of estimation. CES State and Area employment data are produced using several
estimation procedures. Where possible, these data are produced using a "weighted link
relative" estimation technique in which a ratio of current month weighted employment
to that of the previous-month weighted employment is computed from a sample of
establishments reporting for both months. The estimates of employment for the current
month are then obtained by multiplying these ratios by the previous month's employment
estimates. The weighted link relative technique is utilized for data series where the
sample size meets certain statistical criteria. For some employment series, the
estimates are produced with a model that uses direct sample estimates (described
above) combined with other regressors to compensate for smaller sample sizes. 

   Annual revisions.  Employment estimates are adjusted annually to a complete count
of jobs, called benchmarks, derived principally from tax reports that are submitted by
employers who are covered under state unemployment insurance (UI) laws. The benchmark
information is used to adjust the monthly estimates between the new benchmark and the
preceding one and also to establish the level of employment for the new benchmark month.
Thus, the benchmarking process establishes the level of employment, and the sample is used
to measure the month-to-month changes in the level for the subsequent months.

   Seasonal adjustment. Payroll employment data are seasonally adjusted for states,
metropolitan areas, and metropolitan divisions at the total nonfarm level. For states,
data are seasonally adjusted at the supersector level as well. Revisions to historical
data for the most recent 5 years are made once a year, coincident with annual benchmark
adjustments.

   Payroll employment data are seasonally adjusted concurrently, using all available
estimates including those for the current month, to develop sample-based seasonal factors.
Concurrent sample-based factors are created every month for the current month's preliminary
estimate as well as the previous month's final estimate.

Reliability of the estimates

   The estimates presented in this news release are based on sample surveys, administrative data,
and modeling and, thus, are subject to sampling and other types of errors. Sampling error
is a measure of sampling variability—that is, variation that occurs by chance because a
sample rather than the entire population is surveyed. Survey data also are subject to
nonsampling errors, such as those which can be introduced into the data collection and
processing operations. Estimates not directly derived from sample surveys are subject to
additional errors resulting from the specific estimation processes used. The sums of
individual items may not always equal the totals shown in the same tables because of
rounding.

Use of error measures

   Civilian labor force and unemployment estimates. Measures of sampling error are not
available for metropolitan areas or metropolitan divisions. Model-based error measures for
states are available on the BLS website at www.bls.gov/laus/lastderr.htm. Measures of
nonsampling error are not available for the areas contained in this news release. Information
on recent data revisions for states and local areas is available online at
www.bls.gov/lau/launews1.htm.

   Employment estimates. Changes in metropolitan area nonfarm payroll employment are cited
in the analysis of this news release only if they have been determined to be statistically
significant at the 90-percent confidence level.  Measures of sampling error for the total
nonfarm employment series are available for metropolitan areas and metropolitan divisions
at www.bls.gov/web/laus/790stderr.htm. Measures of sampling error for more detailed series
at the area and division level are available upon request. Measures of sampling error for
states at the supersector level and for the private service-providing, goods-producing,
total private and total nonfarm levels are available on the BLS website at 
www.bls.gov/web/laus/790stderr.htm. Information on recent benchmark revisions
is available online at www.bls.gov/web/laus/benchmark.pdf.

Area definitions

   The substate area data published in this news release reflect the delineations issued by the
U.S. Office of Management and Budget on April 10, 2018. Data reflect New England City and
Town Area (NECTA) definitions, rather than county-based definitions, in the six New England
States. A detailed list of the geographic definitions is available online at
www.bls.gov/lau/lausmsa.htm.

Additional information

   Estimates of unadjusted and seasonally adjusted civilian labor force and unemployment
data for states and seven substate areas are available in the news release State Employment
and Unemployment. Estimates of civilian labor force and unemployment for all states,
metropolitan areas, counties, cities with a population of 25,000 or more, and other areas
used in the administration of various federal economic assistance programs are available
on the Internet at www.bls.gov/lau/. Employment data from the CES program for states and
metropolitan areas are available on the BLS website at www.bls.gov/sae/.

   If you are deaf, hard of hearing, or have a speech disability, please dial 7-1-1 to 
access telecommunications relay services.




LABOR FORCE DATA
NOT SEASONALLY ADJUSTED

Table 1. Civilian labor force and unemployment by state and metropolitan area
State and area Civilian labor force Unemployed
June July Number Percent of labor force
2022 2023 2022 2023(p) June July June July
2022 2023 2022 2023(p) 2022 2023 2022 2023(p)

Alabama

2,297,877 2,320,944 2,298,341 2,316,655 72,839 61,959 68,672 53,395 3.2 2.7 3.0 2.3

Anniston-Oxford-Jacksonville

46,367 46,416 46,177 46,282 1,729 1,374 1,605 1,248 3.7 3.0 3.5 2.7

Auburn-Opelika

79,715 81,280 79,268 80,987 2,388 2,109 2,233 1,796 3.0 2.6 2.8 2.2

Birmingham-Hoover

570,992 573,620 571,007 571,054 16,509 14,124 15,274 12,127 2.9 2.5 2.7 2.1

Daphne-Fairhope-Foley

105,188 107,113 105,485 106,863 3,020 2,481 2,694 2,143 2.9 2.3 2.6 2.0

Decatur

76,088 77,036 75,878 76,779 2,090 1,667 1,903 1,451 2.7 2.2 2.5 1.9

Dothan

66,357 67,308 66,738 67,365 2,112 1,840 1,950 1,574 3.2 2.7 2.9 2.3

Florence-Muscle Shoals

67,002 67,204 66,935 67,142 2,371 1,971 2,178 1,665 3.5 2.9 3.3 2.5

Gadsden

39,776 39,378 39,524 39,154 1,478 1,177 1,343 1,032 3.7 3.0 3.4 2.6

Huntsville

248,905 254,819 248,699 255,466 6,659 5,654 6,126 4,801 2.7 2.2 2.5 1.9

Mobile

192,195 194,814 192,808 193,857 7,322 6,087 7,113 5,219 3.8 3.1 3.7 2.7

Montgomery

175,632 178,401 176,533 178,046 5,746 4,865 5,703 4,221 3.3 2.7 3.2 2.4

Tuscaloosa

116,310 118,829 116,776 118,696 4,001 3,387 3,778 2,885 3.4 2.9 3.2 2.4

Alaska

362,266 362,432 363,181 364,209 14,982 15,421 12,488 13,904 4.1 4.3 3.4 3.8

Anchorage

199,809 201,751 197,083 200,457 7,695 7,869 6,454 7,053 3.9 3.9 3.3 3.5

Fairbanks

45,340 44,930 45,448 44,846 1,726 1,749 1,423 1,556 3.8 3.9 3.1 3.5

Arizona

3,613,206 3,701,733 3,615,100 3,708,122 153,716 163,170 154,367 176,104 4.3 4.4 4.3 4.7

Flagstaff

74,383 77,190 73,667 76,561 3,544 3,674 3,511 3,888 4.8 4.8 4.8 5.1

Lake Havasu City-Kingman

91,107 91,709 91,314 92,477 4,472 4,280 4,424 4,704 4.9 4.7 4.8 5.1

Phoenix-Mesa-Scottsdale

2,586,247 2,653,786 2,587,712 2,657,728 97,385 104,373 96,848 111,816 3.8 3.9 3.7 4.2

Prescott

107,930 110,135 107,493 110,122 4,280 4,634 4,241 4,786 4.0 4.2 3.9 4.3

Sierra Vista-Douglas

48,410 49,114 48,291 48,533 2,369 2,492 2,402 2,669 4.9 5.1 5.0 5.5

Tucson

487,027 494,186 488,716 498,196 20,855 21,838 20,700 23,204 4.3 4.4 4.2 4.7

Yuma

93,492 97,256 94,307 97,927 13,279 13,929 14,474 16,358 14.2 14.3 15.3 16.7

Arkansas

1,386,965 1,405,217 1,384,275 1,405,641 51,956 42,933 53,337 45,571 3.7 3.1 3.9 3.2

Fayetteville-Springdale-Rogers

305,345 315,392 309,222 320,403 8,488 7,329 8,297 7,623 2.8 2.3 2.7 2.4

Fort Smith

119,879 121,015 119,175 120,702 4,484 4,105 4,292 4,412 3.7 3.4 3.6 3.7

Hot Springs

43,092 42,977 43,521 43,462 1,832 1,491 1,911 1,557 4.3 3.5 4.4 3.6

Jonesboro

68,408 69,540 68,904 70,516 2,275 1,833 2,273 1,949 3.3 2.6 3.3 2.8

Little Rock-North Little Rock-Conway

364,562 372,142 365,814 375,156 12,960 10,332 13,368 10,881 3.6 2.8 3.7 2.9

Pine Bluff

32,989 32,875 32,858 32,977 1,740 1,333 1,907 1,465 5.3 4.1 5.8 4.4

California

19,138,557 19,308,686 19,233,954 19,362,446 790,978 944,653 789,198 931,239 4.1 4.9 4.1 4.8

Bakersfield

387,869 394,784 390,934 389,477 27,269 34,839 26,548 32,541 7.0 8.8 6.8 8.4

Chico

90,691 90,922 89,320 89,630 4,026 4,899 3,945 4,638 4.4 5.4 4.4 5.2

El Centro

69,304 71,075 68,932 69,522 9,537 12,102 10,505 12,296 13.8 17.0 15.2 17.7

Fresno

452,305 460,989 451,569 459,850 27,398 34,512 26,891 32,429 6.1 7.5 6.0 7.1

Hanford-Corcoran

55,569 57,279 56,395 57,768 3,743 4,825 3,629 4,575 6.7 8.4 6.4 7.9

Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim

6,517,341 6,607,944 6,542,251 6,599,813 290,952 323,673 291,279 327,660 4.5 4.9 4.5 5.0

Madera

62,592 64,056 62,195 63,172 3,746 4,904 3,676 4,559 6.0 7.7 5.9 7.2

Merced

116,144 116,933 116,219 117,529 8,590 11,021 8,274 10,148 7.4 9.4 7.1 8.6

Modesto

239,800 243,170 244,681 244,580 13,083 16,578 12,856 15,841 5.5 6.8 5.3 6.5

Napa

72,142 72,142 72,435 72,670 2,160 2,522 2,083 2,434 3.0 3.5 2.9 3.3

Oxnard-Thousand Oaks-Ventura

411,945 413,070 409,993 414,346 14,374 17,403 14,669 17,388 3.5 4.2 3.6 4.2

Redding

73,082 72,860 71,870 71,761 3,195 3,664 3,165 3,528 4.4 5.0 4.4 4.9

Riverside-San Bernardino-Ontario

2,138,153 2,127,660 2,149,624 2,141,776 87,590 106,045 89,405 105,083 4.1 5.0 4.2 4.9

Sacramento--Roseville--Arden-Arcade

1,116,174 1,126,902 1,128,876 1,135,591 40,942 49,379 40,653 48,019 3.7 4.4 3.6 4.2

Salinas

227,350 236,773 230,115 238,387 10,308 12,934 9,919 11,663 4.5 5.5 4.3 4.9

San Diego-Carlsbad

1,580,475 1,591,607 1,589,923 1,599,108 54,159 63,368 53,960 62,827 3.4 4.0 3.4 3.9

San Francisco-Oakland-Hayward

2,530,426 2,540,694 2,545,076 2,564,404 74,659 95,289 73,812 94,538 3.0 3.8 2.9 3.7

San Jose-Sunnyvale-Santa Clara

1,066,633 1,076,231 1,078,698 1,086,962 29,231 40,171 28,650 39,081 2.7 3.7 2.7 3.6

San Luis Obispo-Paso Robles-Arroyo Grande

137,830 139,817 137,461 140,363 4,236 4,956 4,142 4,701 3.1 3.5 3.0 3.3

Santa Cruz-Watsonville

135,388 135,436 136,866 136,648 5,707 7,143 5,507 6,588 4.2 5.3 4.0 4.8

Santa Maria-Santa Barbara

227,116 229,102 226,347 230,078 7,330 8,655 7,197 8,170 3.2 3.8 3.2 3.6

Santa Rosa

248,603 248,087 248,844 249,961 7,662 9,267 7,591 9,125 3.1 3.7 3.1 3.7

Stockton-Lodi

337,780 344,721 344,347 345,566 17,131 21,853 17,119 21,021 5.1 6.3 5.0 6.1

Vallejo-Fairfield

201,522 201,021 202,793 201,859 8,126 9,407 8,079 9,247 4.0 4.7 4.0 4.6

Visalia-Porterville

208,863 212,871 205,680 209,015 16,110 21,504 16,369 20,579 7.7 10.1 8.0 9.8

Yuba City

78,256 79,901 78,048 79,821 4,518 5,776 4,296 5,281 5.8 7.2 5.5 6.6

Colorado

3,205,833 3,254,512 3,207,188 3,263,952 96,426 109,051 92,634 113,185 3.0 3.4 2.9 3.5

Boulder

201,283 203,691 200,702 203,650 5,385 6,413 5,062 6,691 2.7 3.1 2.5 3.3

Colorado Springs

371,944 380,430 371,879 381,649 12,115 13,501 11,972 14,204 3.3 3.5 3.2 3.7

Denver-Aurora-Lakewood

1,730,419 1,749,276 1,725,804 1,754,720 50,404 58,253 48,405 60,326 2.9 3.3 2.8 3.4

Fort Collins

211,513 216,664 211,475 217,035 5,884 6,534 5,510 6,783 2.8 3.0 2.6 3.1

Grand Junction

76,249 76,995 76,358 77,402 2,624 2,850 2,495 2,962 3.4 3.7 3.3 3.8

Greeley

168,519 171,278 169,778 171,810 5,473 6,027 5,331 6,165 3.2 3.5 3.1 3.6

Pueblo

76,417 76,794 75,680 76,556 3,209 3,439 3,259 3,639 4.2 4.5 4.3 4.8

Connecticut

1,949,523 1,917,651 1,955,793 1,928,502 83,604 76,002 83,325 76,171 4.3 4.0 4.3 3.9

Bridgeport-Stamford-Norwalk

480,364 474,679 485,300 477,680 20,798 19,813 20,895 19,744 4.3 4.2 4.3 4.1

Danbury

109,106 107,497 110,288 107,823 4,108 3,807 4,152 3,900 3.8 3.5 3.8 3.6

Hartford-West Hartford-East Hartford

632,901 620,230 631,486 622,596 27,500 24,492 27,378 24,617 4.3 3.9 4.3 4.0

New Haven

343,295 337,352 343,626 339,475 14,173 12,775 14,164 12,628 4.1 3.8 4.1 3.7

Norwich-New London-Westerly

141,758 141,041 142,985 142,634 6,099 5,233 5,873 5,165 4.3 3.7 4.1 3.6

Waterbury

112,543 111,164 113,143 111,825 5,628 5,309 5,718 5,355 5.0 4.8 5.1 4.8

Delaware

499,392 506,732 499,329 509,922 23,871 22,434 23,049 21,701 4.8 4.4 4.6 4.3

Dover

80,331 81,374 79,353 81,935 4,692 4,274 4,504 4,168 5.8 5.3 5.7 5.1

Salisbury(1)

205,383 206,238 206,898 210,200 8,537 6,080 8,078 5,910 4.2 2.9 3.9 2.8

District of Columbia

392,180 394,821 398,415 399,545 19,221 21,647 18,818 21,124 4.9 5.5 4.7 5.3

Washington-Arlington-Alexandria

3,448,362 3,530,751 3,470,109 3,554,325 112,899 88,370 109,276 85,602 3.3 2.5 3.1 2.4

Florida

10,785,666 11,129,110 10,794,492 11,177,630 335,411 332,365 325,193 342,419 3.1 3.0 3.0 3.1

Cape Coral-Fort Myers

372,244 390,090 373,036 391,200 11,613 11,991 10,943 12,500 3.1 3.1 2.9 3.2

Crestview-Fort Walton Beach-Destin

141,824 145,528 142,293 146,907 3,775 3,736 3,567 3,954 2.7 2.6 2.5 2.7

Deltona-Daytona Beach-Ormond Beach

317,214 331,057 316,872 332,964 10,850 10,916 10,246 11,330 3.4 3.3 3.2 3.4

Gainesville

146,918 152,201 147,241 153,108 4,647 4,951 4,551 5,142 3.2 3.3 3.1 3.4

Homosassa Springs

49,718 52,065 48,634 51,124 2,210 2,261 2,080 2,363 4.4 4.3 4.3 4.6

Jacksonville

835,827 880,096 839,977 883,274 26,208 26,820 25,175 27,838 3.1 3.0 3.0 3.2

Lakeland-Winter Haven

338,624 347,505 338,282 348,457 12,805 13,081 12,328 13,645 3.8 3.8 3.6 3.9

Miami-Fort Lauderdale-West Palm Beach

3,197,512 3,249,462 3,202,815 3,278,342 92,610 86,047 93,448 85,317 2.9 2.6 2.9 2.6

Naples-Immokalee-Marco Island

188,591 189,888 187,753 190,029 5,807 5,689 5,663 6,175 3.1 3.0 3.0 3.2

North Port-Sarasota-Bradenton

385,584 396,673 384,369 399,317 11,995 12,025 11,241 12,720 3.1 3.0 2.9 3.2

Ocala

148,565 152,598 148,774 153,113 5,553 5,670 5,301 5,883 3.7 3.7 3.6 3.8

Orlando-Kissimmee-Sanford

1,429,787 1,485,128 1,436,604 1,491,319 44,429 44,686 42,690 46,469 3.1 3.0 3.0 3.1

Palm Bay-Melbourne-Titusville

297,788 307,170 298,037 308,750 9,162 9,157 8,685 9,641 3.1 3.0 2.9 3.1

Panama City

94,900 98,348 95,569 98,427 2,702 2,630 2,606 2,753 2.8 2.7 2.7 2.8

Pensacola-Ferry Pass-Brent

238,217 245,515 239,991 246,873 7,515 7,590 7,218 7,886 3.2 3.1 3.0 3.2

Port St. Lucie

231,831 240,796 231,447 241,216 8,104 8,113 7,699 8,392 3.5 3.4 3.3 3.5

Punta Gorda

76,501 78,836 76,616 79,235 2,651 2,682 2,479 2,834 3.5 3.4 3.2 3.6

Sebastian-Vero Beach

68,325 69,482 67,999 69,843 2,597 2,517 2,478 2,625 3.8 3.6 3.6 3.8

Sebring

36,497 37,251 35,664 37,026 1,662 1,703 1,563 1,750 4.6 4.6 4.4 4.7

Tallahassee

200,182 206,310 200,516 207,535 6,649 6,752 6,380 6,990 3.3 3.3 3.2 3.4

Tampa-St. Petersburg-Clearwater

1,659,420 1,733,215 1,654,238 1,730,989 49,952 51,720 47,582 53,865 3.0 3.0 2.9 3.1

The Villages

37,557 39,338 37,293 39,500 1,669 1,586 1,508 1,714 4.4 4.0 4.0 4.3

Georgia

5,245,789 5,311,943 5,232,345 5,318,955 178,095 186,970 164,670 173,604 3.4 3.5 3.1 3.3

Albany

64,840 65,532 64,308 64,977 2,753 2,709 2,613 2,513 4.2 4.1 4.1 3.9

Athens-Clarke County

96,634 99,968 96,092 99,250 3,519 3,574 2,991 3,118 3.6 3.6 3.1 3.1

Atlanta-Sandy Springs-Roswell

3,192,690 3,238,185 3,190,715 3,244,242 103,778 111,149 95,276 103,330 3.3 3.4 3.0 3.2

Augusta-Richmond County

263,784 265,521 262,053 266,181 10,247 10,995 9,823 10,728 3.9 4.1 3.7 4.0

Brunswick

53,482 54,845 54,175 55,195 1,762 1,790 1,568 1,582 3.3 3.3 2.9 2.9

Columbus

120,827 124,301 121,319 124,468 4,824 4,858 4,525 4,505 4.0 3.9 3.7 3.6

Dalton

58,848 58,535 58,588 59,299 2,396 2,235 2,398 2,467 4.1 3.8 4.1 4.2

Gainesville

107,692 108,909 107,103 108,616 2,886 2,977 2,546 2,722 2.7 2.7 2.4 2.5

Hinesville

34,721 34,766 34,532 34,655 1,262 1,244 1,174 1,124 3.6 3.6 3.4 3.2

Macon-Bibb County

100,159 100,734 98,843 100,938 3,867 4,081 3,686 3,696 3.9 4.1 3.7 3.7

Rome

43,332 45,590 43,913 45,895 1,621 1,698 1,407 1,545 3.7 3.7 3.2 3.4

Savannah

199,345 200,058 198,119 201,811 6,387 6,364 5,788 5,705 3.2 3.2 2.9 2.8

Valdosta

63,027 62,396 62,767 62,025 2,318 2,461 2,122 2,204 3.7 3.9 3.4 3.6

Warner Robins

87,332 87,532 86,837 87,396 3,154 3,018 2,949 2,676 3.6 3.4 3.4 3.1

Hawaii

676,097 676,660 679,750 673,878 27,230 22,391 24,133 18,148 4.0 3.3 3.6 2.7

Kahului-Wailuku-Lahaina

87,251 87,328 87,860 87,098 3,396 2,718 2,989 2,183 3.9 3.1 3.4 2.5

Urban Honolulu

458,953 458,450 460,747 455,768 18,296 14,986 16,192 12,026 4.0 3.3 3.5 2.6

Idaho

958,292 975,695 959,439 973,402 25,183 28,593 24,724 31,716 2.6 2.9 2.6 3.3

Boise City

412,192 422,560 410,696 422,408 10,642 12,435 10,558 13,708 2.6 2.9 2.6 3.2

Coeur d'Alene

85,858 87,117 86,525 86,671 2,404 2,651 2,373 2,862 2.8 3.0 2.7 3.3

Idaho Falls

81,198 83,549 80,075 83,237 1,896 2,127 1,777 2,257 2.3 2.5 2.2 2.7

Lewiston

32,400 32,350 32,095 32,141 950 847 877 933 2.9 2.6 2.7 2.9

Pocatello

44,191 45,060 42,997 44,764 1,218 1,315 1,171 1,853 2.8 2.9 2.7 4.1

Twin Falls

56,291 56,936 59,862 56,523 1,498 1,737 1,558 1,866 2.7 3.1 2.6 3.3

Illinois

6,535,627 6,461,363 6,540,824 6,483,999 315,420 292,972 308,164 293,193 4.8 4.5 4.7 4.5

Bloomington

95,785 95,269 97,111 97,369 3,609 4,109 3,591 4,522 3.8 4.3 3.7 4.6

Carbondale-Marion

56,881 56,124 58,876 58,567 2,496 2,694 2,498 3,016 4.4 4.8 4.2 5.1

Champaign-Urbana

120,381 120,305 123,070 123,757 4,949 5,666 4,904 6,162 4.1 4.7 4.0 5.0

Chicago-Naperville-Elgin

5,020,466 4,965,745 5,007,773 4,952,891 251,515 219,628 243,330 209,411 5.0 4.4 4.9 4.2

Danville

31,988 32,219 32,449 33,017 1,563 1,898 1,603 2,183 4.9 5.9 4.9 6.6

Davenport-Moline-Rock Island(1)

189,519 190,107 191,075 191,062 6,995 8,270 7,123 8,459 3.7 4.4 3.7 4.4

Decatur

45,512 45,231 46,301 46,191 2,561 2,839 2,550 3,180 5.6 6.3 5.5 6.9

Kankakee

52,366 51,754 52,974 52,351 2,524 2,951 2,482 3,173 4.8 5.7 4.7 6.1

Peoria

171,385 171,690 173,246 173,845 7,460 8,649 7,505 9,494 4.4 5.0 4.3 5.5

Rockford

159,355 156,593 161,430 160,416 8,551 9,852 8,398 10,875 5.4 6.3 5.2 6.8

Springfield

104,370 103,525 105,069 105,280 4,181 4,608 4,171 5,082 4.0 4.5 4.0 4.8

Indiana

3,437,185 3,456,925 3,453,526 3,459,605 115,304 127,945 115,488 137,978 3.4 3.7 3.3 4.0

Bloomington

80,764 78,152 79,774 78,984 2,781 3,059 2,871 3,499 3.4 3.9 3.6 4.4

Columbus

44,510 44,970 44,941 45,228 1,175 1,332 1,210 1,456 2.6 3.0 2.7 3.2

Elkhart-Goshen

121,994 116,672 120,830 116,821 3,210 5,131 3,363 6,070 2.6 4.4 2.8 5.2

Evansville

162,258 161,404 162,101 161,257 5,462 5,640 5,405 6,030 3.4 3.5 3.3 3.7

Fort Wayne

223,424 227,331 225,356 227,087 6,995 7,579 7,026 8,290 3.1 3.3 3.1 3.7

Indianapolis-Carmel-Anderson

1,119,316 1,142,730 1,133,810 1,146,205 35,374 38,070 35,587 40,990 3.2 3.3 3.1 3.6

Kokomo

34,463 33,159 34,438 33,411 2,182 1,834 1,712 1,778 6.3 5.5 5.0 5.3

Lafayette-West Lafayette

111,915 107,428 112,176 108,028 3,762 3,803 3,831 4,310 3.4 3.5 3.4 4.0

Michigan City-La Porte

47,996 47,685 47,888 47,179 1,868 2,063 1,873 2,132 3.9 4.3 3.9 4.5

Muncie

51,289 50,718 51,376 50,645 2,117 2,294 2,121 2,520 4.1 4.5 4.1 5.0

South Bend-Mishawaka

158,436 158,513 157,770 157,841 6,228 7,074 6,371 7,614 3.9 4.5 4.0 4.8

Terre Haute

73,057 73,537 73,084 73,192 2,891 3,005 2,926 3,212 4.0 4.1 4.0 4.4

Iowa

1,722,810 1,746,289 1,727,773 1,747,497 46,801 52,597 48,379 53,915 2.7 3.0 2.8 3.1

Ames

57,173 57,464 57,542 57,555 1,319 1,464 1,385 1,541 2.3 2.5 2.4 2.7

Cedar Rapids

146,206 147,132 146,820 147,589 4,386 5,161 4,640 5,312 3.0 3.5 3.2 3.6

Des Moines-West Des Moines

378,558 385,700 381,531 386,693 9,717 10,985 10,045 11,431 2.6 2.8 2.6 3.0

Dubuque

56,739 56,792 56,583 56,557 1,490 1,622 1,576 1,661 2.6 2.9 2.8 2.9

Iowa City

98,275 99,298 98,848 99,057 2,381 2,581 2,452 2,721 2.4 2.6 2.5 2.7

Sioux City

94,171 95,328 94,775 95,361 2,615 2,615 2,709 2,675 2.8 2.7 2.9 2.8

Waterloo-Cedar Falls

88,438 89,250 88,539 89,716 2,455 2,792 2,485 2,882 2.8 3.1 2.8 3.2

Kansas

1,514,960 1,528,467 1,523,093 1,534,132 41,890 45,932 50,878 48,089 2.8 3.0 3.3 3.1

Lawrence

64,028 65,684 65,144 66,146 1,827 1,982 2,270 2,161 2.9 3.0 3.5 3.3

Manhattan

45,205 47,718 45,677 48,473 1,361 1,424 1,659 1,550 3.0 3.0 3.6 3.2

Topeka

122,415 123,542 124,128 125,267 3,344 3,673 4,048 3,792 2.7 3.0 3.3 3.0

Wichita

322,715 322,820 323,217 323,216 10,024 10,700 11,943 11,285 3.1 3.3 3.7 3.5

Kentucky

2,066,551 2,069,187 2,058,721 2,042,319 91,481 93,026 89,721 93,883 4.4 4.5 4.4 4.6

Bowling Green

85,097 86,562 83,593 84,535 3,712 3,822 3,578 3,950 4.4 4.4 4.3 4.7

Elizabethtown-Fort Knox

65,372 65,132 65,760 64,380 3,073 2,976 3,100 3,020 4.7 4.6 4.7 4.7

Lexington-Fayette

277,363 279,817 276,698 277,039 10,400 10,554 9,790 10,758 3.7 3.8 3.5 3.9

Louisville/Jefferson County

676,441 674,592 677,629 669,162 24,957 25,934 26,665 26,729 3.7 3.8 3.9 4.0

Owensboro

54,789 53,574 54,666 52,859 2,442 2,486 2,340 2,507 4.5 4.6 4.3 4.7

Louisiana

2,108,928 2,113,654 2,110,600 2,092,407 94,630 93,394 89,654 69,728 4.5 4.4 4.2 3.3

Alexandria

65,520 65,840 66,860 65,476 2,657 2,699 2,518 1,967 4.1 4.1 3.8 3.0

Baton Rouge

428,651 436,138 432,425 431,684 17,833 17,582 16,954 13,101 4.2 4.0 3.9 3.0

Hammond

57,233 57,892 56,966 57,414 3,080 3,108 2,891 2,328 5.4 5.4 5.1 4.1

Houma-Thibodaux

86,764 85,268 86,647 84,476 3,809 3,471 3,544 2,456 4.4 4.1 4.1 2.9

Lafayette

217,212 216,592 217,783 214,953 9,234 8,882 8,595 6,406 4.3 4.1 3.9 3.0

Lake Charles

97,167 97,650 96,550 96,429 4,125 3,889 3,878 2,814 4.2 4.0 4.0 2.9

Monroe

81,063 80,768 80,871 80,132 3,602 3,707 3,434 2,733 4.4 4.6 4.2 3.4

New Orleans-Metairie

597,102 595,791 595,208 590,572 26,850 26,525 25,715 20,315 4.5 4.5 4.3 3.4

Shreveport-Bossier City

188,445 188,102 188,848 186,204 8,619 8,638 8,266 6,397 4.6 4.6 4.4 3.4

Maine

683,322 693,603 688,609 699,876 18,171 17,432 17,060 17,305 2.7 2.5 2.5 2.5

Bangor

68,500 69,423 68,503 69,036 1,795 1,754 1,704 1,740 2.6 2.5 2.5 2.5

Lewiston-Auburn

52,834 53,846 52,851 53,754 1,485 1,448 1,421 1,446 2.8 2.7 2.7 2.7

Portland-South Portland

206,978 211,989 207,614 213,203 4,756 4,653 4,375 4,548 2.3 2.2 2.1 2.1

Maryland

3,196,022 3,205,598 3,213,051 3,240,890 119,271 53,218 110,350 55,728 3.7 1.7 3.4 1.7

Baltimore-Columbia-Towson

1,492,131 1,495,138 1,497,757 1,509,765 55,375 25,062 51,669 26,365 3.7 1.7 3.4 1.7

California-Lexington Park

58,524 57,425 58,129 58,238 2,161 989 2,080 1,047 3.7 1.7 3.6 1.8

Cumberland

44,277 44,076 43,508 44,461 1,947 1,170 1,842 1,143 4.4 2.7 4.2 2.6

Hagerstown-Martinsburg

133,012 131,724 133,920 132,556 4,878 3,405 4,529 3,404 3.7 2.6 3.4 2.6

Massachusetts

3,780,059 3,742,891 3,787,260 3,750,727 147,360 105,510 148,710 108,141 3.9 2.8 3.9 2.9

Barnstable Town

132,036 130,892 136,600 132,455 5,076 3,576 4,930 3,609 3.8 2.7 3.6 2.7

Boston-Cambridge-Nashua

2,803,108 2,793,059 2,807,982 2,798,313 101,131 74,274 102,057 76,094 3.6 2.7 3.6 2.7

Leominster-Gardner

79,045 77,278 78,520 76,964 3,468 2,341 3,514 2,458 4.4 3.0 4.5 3.2

New Bedford

85,777 83,540 85,332 83,333 4,382 2,969 4,517 3,194 5.1 3.6 5.3 3.8

Pittsfield

41,465 39,978 41,962 39,986 1,782 1,204 1,751 1,209 4.3 3.0 4.2 3.0

Springfield

373,151 362,669 370,868 363,289 16,864 11,851 17,255 12,253 4.5 3.3 4.7 3.4

Worcester

361,893 354,661 361,764 354,420 14,663 10,525 14,940 10,930 4.1 3.0 4.1 3.1

Michigan

4,877,537 5,000,477 4,878,546 5,024,984 215,128 207,164 219,599 216,485 4.4 4.1 4.5 4.3

Ann Arbor

194,423 204,129 194,230 203,473 8,369 7,918 8,696 8,090 4.3 3.9 4.5 4.0

Battle Creek

60,631 61,688 60,388 61,606 3,202 3,023 3,368 3,152 5.3 4.9 5.6 5.1

Bay City

49,534 50,921 49,602 50,709 2,712 2,607 2,820 2,634 5.5 5.1 5.7 5.2

Detroit-Warren-Dearborn

2,109,008 2,151,060 2,121,482 2,187,339 81,346 79,209 78,233 85,966 3.9 3.7 3.7 3.9

Flint

180,318 185,232 180,224 184,610 10,535 10,027 11,449 10,247 5.8 5.4 6.4 5.6

Grand Rapids-Wyoming

588,690 609,534 583,839 607,257 23,303 22,488 23,651 23,021 4.0 3.7 4.1 3.8

Jackson

75,516 76,384 73,537 75,983 3,621 3,388 3,806 3,471 4.8 4.4 5.2 4.6

Kalamazoo-Portage

167,869 171,839 165,904 170,706 7,723 7,638 7,891 7,658 4.6 4.4 4.8 4.5

Lansing-East Lansing

241,773 250,931 241,472 249,278 11,227 10,644 14,386 10,865 4.6 4.2 6.0 4.4

Midland

40,712 41,503 40,623 41,552 1,948 1,772 1,956 1,766 4.8 4.3 4.8 4.3

Monroe

75,916 76,892 74,359 76,417 4,175 3,474 4,215 3,523 5.5 4.5 5.7 4.6

Muskegon

78,425 79,671 78,117 79,477 4,189 3,956 4,470 4,162 5.3 5.0 5.7 5.2

Niles-Benton Harbor

73,241 75,573 73,172 75,457 3,618 3,510 3,703 3,564 4.9 4.6 5.1 4.7

Saginaw

83,291 85,405 83,086 85,191 4,951 4,697 5,252 4,796 5.9 5.5 6.3 5.6

Minnesota

3,091,273 3,142,999 3,102,966 3,126,508 84,555 106,503 78,425 101,122 2.7 3.4 2.5 3.2

Duluth

140,419 142,976 139,891 142,536 5,038 5,797 4,628 5,222 3.6 4.1 3.3 3.7

Mankato-North Mankato

59,598 62,635 59,311 62,246 1,444 1,719 1,301 1,671 2.4 2.7 2.2 2.7

Minneapolis-St. Paul-Bloomington

2,021,356 2,063,701 2,027,704 2,053,897 55,028 68,384 50,951 64,616 2.7 3.3 2.5 3.1

Rochester

126,910 129,536 128,742 130,560 3,070 3,612 2,770 3,459 2.4 2.8 2.2 2.6

St. Cloud

109,669 111,698 110,860 111,182 3,050 3,988 2,754 3,857 2.8 3.6 2.5 3.5

Mississippi

1,263,682 1,248,669 1,266,561 1,244,720 59,633 49,734 58,476 49,469 4.7 4.0 4.6 4.0

Gulfport-Biloxi-Pascagoula

166,598 164,951 166,881 165,501 7,841 6,380 7,624 6,263 4.7 3.9 4.6 3.8

Hattiesburg

69,259 69,107 69,803 68,247 2,902 2,465 2,862 2,404 4.2 3.6 4.1 3.5

Jackson

263,180 264,578 265,366 263,984 11,168 9,264 10,925 9,167 4.2 3.5 4.1 3.5

Missouri

3,082,801 3,169,324 3,090,233 3,168,701 69,881 103,116 84,176 106,274 2.3 3.3 2.7 3.4

Cape Girardeau

47,874 49,165 46,600 48,978 1,148 1,629 1,305 1,615 2.4 3.3 2.8 3.3

Columbia

98,668 102,984 100,120 104,007 1,874 2,880 2,243 2,893 1.9 2.8 2.2 2.8

Jefferson City

75,032 78,226 75,753 78,792 1,457 2,269 1,783 2,373 1.9 2.9 2.4 3.0

Joplin

83,900 86,351 85,087 86,456 1,884 2,943 2,212 2,955 2.2 3.4 2.6 3.4

Kansas City

1,152,478 1,194,761 1,177,117 1,210,153 28,492 36,601 35,956 38,310 2.5 3.1 3.1 3.2

St. Joseph

59,919 60,588 60,421 61,361 1,344 1,911 1,614 1,954 2.2 3.2 2.7 3.2

St. Louis(2)

1,470,578 1,497,800 1,486,674 1,518,368 38,173 51,932 42,892 55,163 2.6 3.5 2.9 3.6

Springfield

240,975 247,304 243,690 248,731 4,651 7,189 5,334 6,971 1.9 2.9 2.2 2.8

Montana

573,811 583,941 576,165 583,059 15,920 15,591 14,156 14,074 2.8 2.7 2.5 2.4

Billings

94,495 93,484 94,281 93,609 2,638 2,494 2,346 2,283 2.8 2.7 2.5 2.4

Great Falls

39,532 39,971 39,184 39,131 1,107 1,076 1,012 991 2.8 2.7 2.6 2.5

Missoula

68,056 69,515 66,916 68,492 1,850 1,786 1,627 1,631 2.7 2.6 2.4 2.4

Nebraska

1,067,595 1,070,326 1,069,635 1,066,481 28,180 26,283 27,990 24,547 2.6 2.5 2.6 2.3

Grand Island

46,047 45,848 46,354 46,384 1,154 1,084 1,097 1,003 2.5 2.4 2.4 2.2

Lincoln

189,372 191,650 189,544 191,346 4,886 4,561 4,475 3,972 2.6 2.4 2.4 2.1

Omaha-Council Bluffs

508,306 514,934 512,625 514,836 14,114 13,451 14,456 12,827 2.8 2.6 2.8 2.5

Nevada

1,552,522 1,585,738 1,561,199 1,595,292 87,171 90,469 86,534 92,264 5.6 5.7 5.5 5.8

Carson City

25,416 26,140 25,482 26,294 1,067 1,255 1,031 1,250 4.2 4.8 4.0 4.8

Las Vegas-Henderson-Paradise

1,144,229 1,171,600 1,154,210 1,181,939 71,329 70,690 71,005 72,593 6.2 6.0 6.2 6.1

Reno

259,090 265,146 258,666 264,919 9,411 11,898 9,198 11,781 3.6 4.5 3.6 4.4

New Hampshire

771,636 764,661 778,512 765,026 18,488 13,453 19,073 14,840 2.4 1.8 2.4 1.9

Dover-Durham

85,555 85,112 86,512 85,393 2,015 1,519 2,037 1,641 2.4 1.8 2.4 1.9

Manchester

121,201 122,113 121,103 121,119 2,819 2,017 2,904 2,209 2.3 1.7 2.4 1.8

Portsmouth

78,629 78,329 79,837 78,400 1,603 1,309 1,578 1,375 2.0 1.7 2.0 1.8

New Jersey

4,766,052 4,916,903 4,791,532 4,918,923 170,074 222,266 171,706 232,993 3.6 4.5 3.6 4.7

Atlantic City-Hammonton

124,613 129,716 125,196 129,302 5,766 7,111 5,784 7,423 4.6 5.5 4.6 5.7

Ocean City

54,488 57,184 58,917 60,985 2,200 2,830 2,113 2,766 4.0 4.9 3.6 4.5

Trenton

216,782 225,991 218,382 226,668 6,975 9,243 7,048 9,587 3.2 4.1 3.2 4.2

Vineland-Bridgeton

68,893 71,404 68,275 71,227 3,146 4,377 3,370 4,882 4.6 6.1 4.9 6.9

New Mexico

948,380 967,114 945,363 969,872 44,256 43,403 39,955 46,181 4.7 4.5 4.2 4.8

Albuquerque

439,864 448,356 439,703 448,405 19,085 18,929 17,352 20,613 4.3 4.2 3.9 4.6

Farmington

47,883 49,242 48,010 49,285 2,691 2,637 2,397 2,740 5.6 5.4 5.0 5.6

Las Cruces

99,356 101,757 98,157 101,674 5,111 5,366 4,537 5,382 5.1 5.3 4.6 5.3

Santa Fe

73,441 73,146 73,195 73,278 2,987 2,818 2,768 3,218 4.1 3.9 3.8 4.4

New York

9,678,860 9,849,987 9,700,959 9,869,173 400,594 418,389 417,425 407,411 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.1

Albany-Schenectady-Troy

460,864 468,885 460,075 472,950 13,891 13,422 14,881 13,614 3.0 2.9 3.2 2.9

Binghamton

105,743 105,852 104,450 105,513 3,833 3,601 4,111 3,543 3.6 3.4 3.9 3.4

Buffalo-Cheektowaga-Niagara Falls

548,868 558,768 543,685 560,626 19,052 18,107 20,921 18,669 3.5 3.2 3.8 3.3

Elmira

35,764 35,250 35,136 35,198 1,273 1,260 1,357 1,260 3.6 3.6 3.9 3.6

Glens Falls

61,090 61,810 61,652 62,685 1,850 1,708 1,910 1,700 3.0 2.8 3.1 2.7

Ithaca

47,587 49,590 48,786 50,542 1,446 1,481 1,628 1,455 3.0 3.0 3.3 2.9

Kingston

89,489 89,815 88,311 89,975 2,766 2,745 3,006 2,793 3.1 3.1 3.4 3.1

New York-Newark-Jersey City

10,259,951 10,503,513 10,317,682 10,505,217 427,104 487,603 436,572 483,089 4.2 4.6 4.2 4.6

Rochester

529,578 533,159 526,636 535,261 17,667 16,695 19,147 16,905 3.3 3.1 3.6 3.2

Syracuse

311,325 317,025 313,120 320,338 10,664 10,155 11,394 10,086 3.4 3.2 3.6 3.1

Utica-Rome

128,609 129,398 129,895 130,889 4,510 4,255 4,897 4,247 3.5 3.3 3.8 3.2

Watertown-Fort Drum

45,899 45,524 45,818 46,118 1,608 1,570 1,761 1,629 3.5 3.4 3.8 3.5

North Carolina

5,186,862 5,264,989 5,203,845 5,288,479 206,597 188,909 203,275 189,200 4.0 3.6 3.9 3.6

Asheville

239,619 243,055 239,802 243,677 8,204 7,031 7,655 6,964 3.4 2.9 3.2 2.9

Burlington

83,233 84,143 83,924 84,702 3,434 3,156 3,465 3,208 4.1 3.8 4.1 3.8

Charlotte-Concord-Gastonia

1,432,396 1,479,721 1,441,837 1,490,532 52,857 49,885 52,124 50,077 3.7 3.4 3.6 3.4

Durham-Chapel Hill

319,054 325,042 322,625 330,681 11,250 10,249 11,049 10,435 3.5 3.2 3.4 3.2

Fayetteville

149,260 147,583 147,093 145,994 8,035 7,371 8,178 7,360 5.4 5.0 5.6 5.0

Goldsboro

51,146 51,435 51,115 51,018 2,270 2,025 2,232 2,003 4.4 3.9 4.4 3.9

Greensboro-High Point

364,591 365,975 362,897 366,786 15,937 14,903 15,999 15,005 4.4 4.1 4.4 4.1

Greenville

88,099 89,198 88,669 89,267 3,984 3,781 4,083 3,896 4.5 4.2 4.6 4.4

Hickory-Lenoir-Morganton

176,253 176,109 176,516 176,797 6,748 6,093 6,413 6,025 3.8 3.5 3.6 3.4

Jacksonville

68,919 69,728 66,724 68,103 3,254 2,911 3,178 2,920 4.7 4.2 4.8 4.3

New Bern

52,742 52,778 52,609 52,924 2,113 1,873 2,011 1,857 4.0 3.5 3.8 3.5

Raleigh

777,879 792,373 791,481 805,406 26,739 25,308 26,272 25,575 3.4 3.2 3.3 3.2

Rocky Mount

62,105 62,571 62,784 62,636 3,650 3,228 3,691 3,236 5.9 5.2 5.9 5.2

Wilmington

161,285 163,206 163,189 162,797 5,846 5,455 5,658 5,444 3.6 3.3 3.5 3.3

Winston-Salem

330,992 336,605 332,790 337,322 13,173 11,951 12,961 11,894 4.0 3.6 3.9 3.5

North Dakota

421,466 424,160 421,557 424,642 9,924 9,569 8,272 7,985 2.4 2.3 2.0 1.9

Bismarck

73,503 72,246 73,943 73,351 1,652 1,632 1,378 1,347 2.2 2.3 1.9 1.8

Fargo

149,460 149,971 150,755 149,625 3,084 3,251 2,544 2,802 2.1 2.2 1.7 1.9

Grand Forks

53,773 54,465 54,231 54,227 1,369 1,454 1,179 1,322 2.5 2.7 2.2 2.4

Ohio

5,800,463 5,847,489 5,813,432 5,852,679 255,777 220,041 250,629 201,018 4.4 3.8 4.3 3.4

Akron

350,229 350,190 351,123 351,318 15,343 13,150 15,054 12,353 4.4 3.8 4.3 3.5

Canton-Massillon

195,265 195,105 195,785 194,704 8,307 7,213 8,161 6,670 4.3 3.7 4.2 3.4

Cincinnati

1,146,004 1,168,152 1,150,659 1,168,033 45,272 40,924 44,695 39,549 4.0 3.5 3.9 3.4

Cleveland-Elyria

1,042,975 1,058,192 1,047,433 1,066,729 55,794 46,751 51,628 37,853 5.3 4.4 4.9 3.5

Columbus

1,130,730 1,136,012 1,136,942 1,134,584 43,002 37,538 42,301 35,296 3.8 3.3 3.7 3.1

Dayton

384,495 387,597 384,847 389,069 16,585 14,595 16,422 13,731 4.3 3.8 4.3 3.5

Lima

46,995 46,451 47,379 46,467 2,047 1,942 2,009 1,735 4.4 4.2 4.2 3.7

Mansfield

51,098 50,764 51,096 50,885 2,345 2,072 2,472 2,037 4.6 4.1 4.8 4.0

Springfield

63,222 63,995 63,102 63,891 2,784 2,397 2,926 2,298 4.4 3.7 4.6 3.6

Toledo

294,614 294,446 294,308 294,836 13,054 11,655 13,000 11,026 4.4 4.0 4.4 3.7

Weirton-Steubenville(1)

50,885 50,286 50,665 50,414 2,792 2,559 2,798 2,571 5.5 5.1 5.5 5.1

Youngstown-Warren-Boardman

231,158 229,329 230,483 229,024 12,239 9,948 12,072 9,447 5.3 4.3 5.2 4.1

Oklahoma

1,898,045 1,948,983 1,894,342 1,949,371 64,146 59,218 59,387 59,312 3.4 3.0 3.1 3.0

Enid

26,942 27,253 27,056 27,419 876 798 796 796 3.3 2.9 2.9 2.9

Lawton

50,709 51,511 50,762 51,977 1,990 1,898 1,873 1,882 3.9 3.7 3.7 3.6

Oklahoma City

717,013 737,977 719,798 742,992 22,268 20,951 20,683 21,000 3.1 2.8 2.9 2.8

Tulsa

493,032 502,518 490,314 503,398 16,994 15,222 15,664 15,358 3.4 3.0 3.2 3.1

Oregon

2,166,464 2,149,319 2,191,021 2,159,278 88,551 76,228 93,950 83,146 4.1 3.5 4.3 3.9

Albany

61,278 59,996 62,004 60,287 2,759 2,353 2,948 2,511 4.5 3.9 4.8 4.2

Bend-Redmond

103,321 101,748 104,100 101,640 4,025 3,501 4,277 3,766 3.9 3.4 4.1 3.7

Corvallis

49,525 49,630 47,718 47,611 1,941 1,549 1,937 1,613 3.9 3.1 4.1 3.4

Eugene

183,706 178,409 182,118 176,349 8,230 6,824 8,803 7,412 4.5 3.8 4.8 4.2

Grants Pass

36,948 36,120 36,553 35,938 1,967 1,649 2,108 1,787 5.3 4.6 5.8 5.0

Medford

106,736 104,549 106,873 105,491 4,920 4,267 5,252 5,005 4.6 4.1 4.9 4.7

Portland-Vancouver-Hillsboro

1,351,887 1,355,483 1,370,587 1,364,717 52,990 44,487 54,696 48,661 3.9 3.3 4.0 3.6

Salem

212,080 212,895 215,232 214,656 9,062 7,731 9,637 8,184 4.3 3.6 4.5 3.8

Pennsylvania

6,518,537 6,542,637 6,543,436 6,547,428 308,633 248,379 321,492 247,634 4.7 3.8 4.9 3.8

Allentown-Bethlehem-Easton

455,361 456,880 455,338 455,380 20,663 18,555 21,372 18,415 4.5 4.1 4.7 4.0

Altoona

60,072 59,341 59,949 59,520 2,994 2,304 3,109 2,248 5.0 3.9 5.2 3.8

Bloomsburg-Berwick

43,288 43,133 43,255 43,152 2,090 1,728 2,139 1,623 4.8 4.0 4.9 3.8

Chambersburg-Waynesboro

78,871 78,528 79,212 78,513 3,288 2,513 3,389 2,497 4.2 3.2 4.3 3.2

East Stroudsburg

83,306 82,754 84,711 82,551 5,069 4,091 5,249 3,886 6.1 4.9 6.2 4.7

Erie

127,182 125,414 127,083 126,604 6,695 5,149 6,795 5,925 5.3 4.1 5.3 4.7

Gettysburg

55,315 55,171 55,254 55,234 2,200 1,750 2,234 1,692 4.0 3.2 4.0 3.1

Harrisburg-Carlisle

308,231 313,737 310,414 314,660 12,854 10,632 13,343 10,310 4.2 3.4 4.3 3.3

Johnstown

55,743 55,329 55,577 55,220 3,471 2,710 3,594 2,604 6.2 4.9 6.5 4.7

Lancaster

295,194 295,153 294,873 295,701 12,080 9,534 12,248 9,467 4.1 3.2 4.2 3.2

Lebanon

74,120 75,519 74,140 75,452 3,195 2,571 3,259 2,499 4.3 3.4 4.4 3.3

Philadelphia-Camden-Wilmington

3,219,508 3,278,469 3,234,078 3,281,935 139,665 127,077 145,589 130,299 4.3 3.9 4.5 4.0

Pittsburgh

1,185,053 1,188,574 1,192,444 1,192,165 57,297 45,226 60,051 44,580 4.8 3.8 5.0 3.7

Reading

215,974 215,841 215,909 215,573 10,338 8,614 10,440 8,318 4.8 4.0 4.8 3.9

Scranton--Wilkes-Barre--Hazleton

276,842 279,512 278,591 280,169 14,878 12,324 15,538 12,416 5.4 4.4 5.6 4.4

State College

75,382 76,280 75,849 75,565 3,422 2,704 3,354 2,404 4.5 3.5 4.4 3.2

Williamsport

55,320 55,065 55,292 54,940 2,823 2,136 2,850 2,031 5.1 3.9 5.2 3.7

York-Hanover

240,249 240,085 241,158 239,956 10,582 8,562 10,893 8,393 4.4 3.6 4.5 3.5

Rhode Island

574,035 575,578 575,096 573,709 16,609 17,318 19,146 13,486 2.9 3.0 3.3 2.4

Providence-Warwick

707,909 705,701 708,267 703,126 22,645 21,420 25,337 17,927 3.2 3.0 3.6 2.5

South Carolina

2,402,819 2,482,407 2,390,049 2,499,243 83,440 86,714 80,231 87,811 3.5 3.5 3.4 3.5

Charleston-North Charleston

408,395 433,429 410,539 438,086 12,538 12,807 12,002 12,960 3.1 3.0 2.9 3.0

Columbia

403,795 410,006 401,991 416,181 13,569 13,871 13,026 14,048 3.4 3.4 3.2 3.4

Florence

96,929 99,844 95,810 101,146 3,448 3,634 3,420 3,728 3.6 3.6 3.6 3.7

Greenville-Anderson-Mauldin

442,685 456,108 440,907 457,011 14,133 14,881 13,519 14,926 3.2 3.3 3.1 3.3

Hilton Head Island-Bluffton-Beaufort

91,629 94,169 91,794 95,901 3,127 3,134 2,977 3,263 3.4 3.3 3.2 3.4

Myrtle Beach-Conway-North Myrtle Beach

215,242 224,564 216,645 225,625 8,954 8,567 8,303 8,379 4.2 3.8 3.8 3.7

Spartanburg

166,199 171,931 164,947 172,755 5,964 6,188 5,907 6,308 3.6 3.6 3.6 3.7

Sumter

42,392 43,135 42,078 43,646 1,702 1,796 1,636 1,815 4.0 4.2 3.9 4.2

South Dakota

482,658 489,978 481,638 488,384 10,416 9,672 8,781 8,290 2.2 2.0 1.8 1.7

Rapid City

81,400 81,418 81,025 81,207 1,768 1,591 1,398 1,325 2.2 2.0 1.7 1.6

Sioux Falls

163,710 168,727 163,908 168,582 3,043 2,829 2,416 2,337 1.9 1.7 1.5 1.4

Tennessee

3,389,546 3,403,324 3,364,137 3,419,126 135,982 129,198 124,053 125,118 4.0 3.8 3.7 3.7

Chattanooga

275,206 280,217 274,594 282,551 10,508 10,685 9,562 9,940 3.8 3.8 3.5 3.5

Clarksville

119,910 121,331 118,521 119,061 5,635 5,464 5,244 5,351 4.7 4.5 4.4 4.5

Cleveland

58,002 57,832 57,175 58,337 2,489 2,396 2,266 2,299 4.3 4.1 4.0 3.9

Jackson

65,142 64,524 64,751 64,911 2,554 2,379 2,446 2,337 3.9 3.7 3.8 3.6

Johnson City

92,836 92,878 91,599 92,911 3,871 3,711 3,457 3,493 4.2 4.0 3.8 3.8

Kingsport-Bristol-Bristol

135,705 138,900 135,527 138,938 5,591 5,357 5,112 5,027 4.1 3.9 3.8 3.6

Knoxville

445,169 450,781 442,228 453,126 17,102 16,046 15,147 15,639 3.8 3.6 3.4 3.5

Memphis

638,889 630,515 637,781 634,657 30,969 28,798 30,200 28,631 4.8 4.6 4.7 4.5

Morristown

53,740 53,704 53,600 53,948 2,361 2,178 2,070 2,049 4.4 4.1 3.9 3.8

Nashville-Davidson--Murfreesboro--Franklin

1,138,845 1,154,265 1,130,459 1,158,407 37,042 34,789 32,844 33,338 3.3 3.0 2.9 2.9

Texas

14,673,500 15,047,054 14,678,367 15,180,378 614,934 628,236 590,021 683,466 4.2 4.2 4.0 4.5

Abilene

80,630 82,185 81,010 83,090 3,030 3,150 2,884 3,299 3.8 3.8 3.6 4.0

Amarillo

136,577 136,146 135,648 137,347 4,486 4,488 4,206 4,914 3.3 3.3 3.1 3.6

Austin-Round Rock

1,397,711 1,446,314 1,400,934 1,454,775 43,530 50,542 41,598 55,387 3.1 3.5 3.0 3.8

Beaumont-Port Arthur

165,500 169,580 164,593 171,016 10,350 10,870 10,208 11,547 6.3 6.4 6.2 6.8

Brownsville-Harlingen

177,200 179,308 178,466 180,695 10,832 10,617 10,389 11,240 6.1 5.9 5.8 6.2

College Station-Bryan

141,476 146,974 140,893 147,275 5,159 5,280 4,813 5,648 3.6 3.6 3.4 3.8

Corpus Christi

203,530 205,054 203,353 206,846 10,592 9,418 10,101 10,310 5.2 4.6 5.0 5.0

Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington

4,250,461 4,403,830 4,256,924 4,458,306 161,403 170,259 155,603 184,961 3.8 3.9 3.7 4.1

El Paso

371,255 376,918 371,770 381,758 16,885 16,929 16,019 19,660 4.5 4.5 4.3 5.1

Houston-The Woodlands-Sugar Land

3,516,926 3,601,188 3,510,757 3,626,626 157,960 160,782 152,353 174,434 4.5 4.5 4.3 4.8

Killeen-Temple

183,154 185,732 182,815 187,998 8,687 8,468 8,447 9,340 4.7 4.6 4.6 5.0

Laredo

118,317 118,440 117,219 119,173 5,315 5,270 4,840 5,477 4.5 4.4 4.1 4.6

Longview

96,890 98,767 96,916 99,846 4,359 4,454 4,255 4,669 4.5 4.5 4.4 4.7

Lubbock

168,991 169,974 169,032 171,714 6,656 6,338 6,364 6,971 3.9 3.7 3.8 4.1

McAllen-Edinburg-Mission

372,591 381,162 370,173 382,534 26,292 25,431 25,227 26,860 7.1 6.7 6.8 7.0

Midland

108,282 114,625 109,467 115,662 3,430 2,964 3,221 3,301 3.2 2.6 2.9 2.9

Odessa

82,707 86,070 83,463 86,542 3,449 2,969 3,189 3,266 4.2 3.4 3.8 3.8

San Angelo

56,646 57,748 56,211 58,056 2,115 2,375 1,962 2,354 3.7 4.1 3.5 4.1

San Antonio-New Braunfels

1,256,100 1,287,378 1,252,906 1,291,056 49,699 49,444 47,572 54,865 4.0 3.8 3.8 4.2

Sherman-Denison

66,109 67,387 66,150 68,101 2,630 2,712 2,485 2,935 4.0 4.0 3.8 4.3

Texarkana

63,507 63,351 62,873 63,956 2,940 2,557 2,923 2,761 4.6 4.0 4.6 4.3

Tyler

112,438 112,675 112,409 114,025 4,544 4,327 4,284 4,861 4.0 3.8 3.8 4.3

Victoria

44,547 45,104 44,153 45,488 2,007 1,918 1,885 2,075 4.5 4.3 4.3 4.6

Waco

132,390 136,877 132,718 138,751 5,387 5,472 5,132 5,805 4.1 4.0 3.9 4.2

Wichita Falls

64,982 65,026 64,520 65,291 2,779 2,689 2,622 2,940 4.3 4.1 4.1 4.5

Utah

1,745,004 1,821,444 1,745,923 1,819,754 44,878 49,758 40,600 49,254 2.6 2.7 2.3 2.7

Logan

78,343 80,693 76,025 78,381 1,871 1,947 1,508 1,828 2.4 2.4 2.0 2.3

Ogden-Clearfield

355,058 371,902 357,414 371,075 8,922 9,810 7,975 9,809 2.5 2.6 2.2 2.6

Provo-Orem

348,588 360,872 347,130 362,385 8,802 10,044 7,527 9,680 2.5 2.8 2.2 2.7

St. George

86,691 89,559 85,569 88,740 2,313 2,671 2,209 2,661 2.7 3.0 2.6 3.0

Salt Lake City

717,719 752,757 722,612 755,814 18,130 20,479 17,075 20,731 2.5 2.7 2.4 2.7

Vermont

346,435 353,552 347,759 354,961 9,975 7,557 9,078 6,503 2.9 2.1 2.6 1.8

Burlington-South Burlington

128,027 131,357 128,582 131,537 3,263 2,408 2,848 1,914 2.5 1.8 2.2 1.5

Virginia

4,455,851 4,635,410 4,480,075 4,655,920 131,425 131,507 135,535 123,738 2.9 2.8 3.0 2.7

Blacksburg-Christiansburg-Radford

91,572 94,145 92,618 94,476 2,920 2,964 2,989 2,707 3.2 3.1 3.2 2.9

Charlottesville

121,870 128,663 122,368 129,389 3,526 3,493 3,611 3,226 2.9 2.7 3.0 2.5

Harrisonburg

68,034 70,762 67,635 71,118 2,179 2,203 2,240 1,978 3.2 3.1 3.3 2.8

Lynchburg

121,952 126,743 122,343 127,373 4,197 4,396 4,336 4,136 3.4 3.5 3.5 3.2

Richmond

701,086 733,806 710,794 743,263 21,258 21,733 22,043 20,837 3.0 3.0 3.1 2.8

Roanoke

159,017 165,343 159,158 165,585 4,737 4,729 4,807 4,445 3.0 2.9 3.0 2.7

Staunton-Waynesboro

61,486 64,144 61,701 64,556 1,757 1,718 1,778 1,598 2.9 2.7 2.9 2.5

Virginia Beach-Norfolk-Newport News

863,261 892,051 867,088 892,169 27,811 26,759 29,039 25,450 3.2 3.0 3.3 2.9

Winchester

78,176 80,878 78,643 80,842 2,045 2,088 2,093 1,995 2.6 2.6 2.7 2.5

Washington

3,986,858 4,057,386 3,995,954 4,078,290 161,138 133,614 159,342 145,595 4.0 3.3 4.0 3.6

Bellingham

114,226 115,986 114,730 116,072 5,509 3,604 5,086 3,997 4.8 3.1 4.4 3.4

Bremerton-Silverdale

128,010 130,984 128,050 130,927 5,702 3,825 5,292 4,247 4.5 2.9 4.1 3.2

Kennewick-Richland

155,023 152,674 153,547 155,646 7,529 5,306 6,963 5,580 4.9 3.5 4.5 3.6

Longview

48,649 49,436 48,483 49,442 2,665 1,796 2,493 1,967 5.5 3.6 5.1 4.0

Mount Vernon-Anacortes

61,615 62,520 62,050 63,175 3,112 2,035 2,881 2,251 5.1 3.3 4.6 3.6

Olympia-Tumwater

146,240 151,220 145,945 151,434 6,710 4,424 6,199 4,920 4.6 2.9 4.2 3.2

Seattle-Tacoma-Bellevue

2,216,434 2,276,478 2,222,257 2,285,595 74,866 76,095 79,449 82,536 3.4 3.3 3.6 3.6

Spokane-Spokane Valley

285,020 289,631 282,742 288,852 13,217 8,748 12,271 9,639 4.6 3.0 4.3 3.3

Walla Walla

32,650 32,620 32,798 32,961 1,494 1,003 1,348 1,063 4.6 3.1 4.1 3.2

Wenatchee

68,821 67,463 74,198 70,249 3,037 1,916 2,601 2,026 4.4 2.8 3.5 2.9

Yakima

137,843 132,692 137,837 136,735 7,272 4,926 6,681 5,130 5.3 3.7 4.8 3.8

West Virginia

799,544 798,558 792,644 793,378 34,364 31,219 32,638 29,902 4.3 3.9 4.1 3.8

Beckley

46,338 47,384 46,585 47,642 2,011 1,833 1,923 1,779 4.3 3.9 4.1 3.7

Charleston

91,734 91,850 91,098 91,494 3,864 3,474 3,645 3,357 4.2 3.8 4.0 3.7

Huntington-Ashland

145,950 147,740 145,757 147,470 6,986 6,603 6,671 6,374 4.8 4.5 4.6 4.3

Morgantown

71,610 70,614 71,093 70,740 2,959 2,471 2,763 2,317 4.1 3.5 3.9 3.3

Parkersburg-Vienna

39,582 39,472 39,263 39,394 1,736 1,594 1,629 1,501 4.4 4.0 4.1 3.8

Wheeling

60,859 60,099 60,464 59,522 2,957 2,556 2,850 2,400 4.9 4.3 4.7 4.0

Wisconsin

3,125,113 3,181,145 3,117,881 3,179,612 108,290 108,895 97,846 100,322 3.5 3.4 3.1 3.2

Appleton

133,475 136,730 133,248 136,236 4,160 4,199 3,728 3,802 3.1 3.1 2.8 2.8

Eau Claire

93,904 95,204 93,712 95,342 3,043 3,135 2,677 2,843 3.2 3.3 2.9 3.0

Fond du Lac

57,318 58,404 57,352 58,247 1,832 1,852 1,673 1,698 3.2 3.2 2.9 2.9

Green Bay

174,311 178,679 174,611 177,897 5,666 5,619 4,948 5,155 3.3 3.1 2.8 2.9

Janesville-Beloit

86,449 88,085 86,544 88,358 3,427 3,423 3,143 3,171 4.0 3.9 3.6 3.6

La Crosse-Onalaska

75,970 77,980 76,305 78,080 2,344 2,399 1,978 2,102 3.1 3.1 2.6 2.7

Madison

399,431 405,754 400,680 406,907 11,261 11,449 9,620 10,276 2.8 2.8 2.4 2.5

Milwaukee-Waukesha-West Allis

814,449 827,705 819,068 836,833 31,036 31,450 29,221 29,793 3.8 3.8 3.6 3.6

Oshkosh-Neenah

92,955 95,423 93,543 95,097 3,063 3,098 2,702 2,793 3.3 3.2 2.9 2.9

Racine

99,337 101,481 100,041 102,406 4,088 3,939 3,887 3,855 4.1 3.9 3.9 3.8

Sheboygan

63,036 63,887 62,633 63,502 1,931 1,915 1,626 1,695 3.1 3.0 2.6 2.7

Wausau

74,406 74,806 73,725 74,241 2,305 2,414 2,040 2,215 3.1 3.2 2.8 3.0

Wyoming

295,446 302,369 295,171 301,955 10,977 8,881 9,778 8,317 3.7 2.9 3.3 2.8

Casper

39,008 39,943 39,124 40,128 1,603 1,284 1,465 1,235 4.1 3.2 3.7 3.1

Cheyenne

48,590 50,107 48,718 50,411 1,809 1,493 1,639 1,416 3.7 3.0 3.4 2.8

Puerto Rico

1,169,133 1,161,964 1,146,279 1,185,535 67,990 71,886 65,477 80,526 5.8 6.2 5.7 6.8

Aguadilla-Isabela

94,349 95,269 93,112 97,365 7,267 8,070 7,288 8,818 7.7 8.5 7.8 9.1

Arecibo

56,751 56,263 55,698 57,731 4,399 4,054 4,195 4,458 7.8 7.2 7.5 7.7

Guayama

20,771 20,849 20,422 21,443 1,606 1,863 1,616 2,029 7.7 8.9 7.9 9.5

Mayaguez

29,804 30,019 28,807 30,825 1,953 1,990 1,975 2,422 6.6 6.6 6.9 7.9

Ponce

97,050 97,668 95,490 99,295 7,127 8,145 6,897 9,005 7.3 8.3 7.2 9.1

San German

37,299 37,422 36,129 38,196 2,837 3,069 2,675 3,480 7.6 8.2 7.4 9.1

San Juan-Carolina-Caguas

789,050 780,710 773,908 795,983 39,564 40,852 37,688 45,930 5.0 5.2 4.9 5.8

Footnotes
(1) For operational reasons, these interstate areas are listed under the state that accounts for the larger share of the population, which is different from the state that contains the first principal city.
(2) The area boundary does not reflect the Office of Management and Budget delineation.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data refer to place of residence. Data for Puerto Rico are derived from a monthly household survey similar to the Current Population Survey. Area delineations are based on Office of Management and Budget Bulletin No. 18-03, dated April 10, 2018, and are available on the BLS website at https://www.bls.gov/lau/lausmsa.htm. Areas in the six New England states are Metropolitan New England City and Town Areas (NECTAs), while areas in other states are county-based. Some metropolitan areas lie in two or more states. They are listed under the state containing the first principal city, unless otherwise footnoted. Estimates for the latest month are subject to revision the following month.


LABOR FORCE DATA
NOT SEASONALLY ADJUSTED

Table 2. Civilian labor force and unemployment by state, selected metropolitan area, and metropolitan division(1)
State, area, and division Civilian labor force Unemployed
June July Number Percent of labor force
2022 2023 2022 2023(p) June July June July
2022 2023 2022 2023(p) 2022 2023 2022 2023(p)

California

19,138,557 19,308,686 19,233,954 19,362,446 790,978 944,653 789,198 931,239 4.1 4.9 4.1 4.8

Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim

6,517,341 6,607,944 6,542,251 6,599,813 290,952 323,673 291,279 327,660 4.5 4.9 4.5 5.0

Anaheim-Santa Ana-Irvine

1,582,054 1,584,065 1,584,783 1,595,558 50,434 58,458 49,953 57,503 3.2 3.7 3.2 3.6

Los Angeles-Long Beach-Glendale

4,935,287 5,023,879 4,957,468 5,004,255 240,518 265,215 241,326 270,157 4.9 5.3 4.9 5.4

San Francisco-Oakland-Hayward

2,530,426 2,540,694 2,545,076 2,564,404 74,659 95,289 73,812 94,538 3.0 3.8 2.9 3.7

Oakland-Hayward-Berkeley

1,371,745 1,375,915 1,378,477 1,387,264 45,907 57,912 45,535 57,411 3.3 4.2 3.3 4.1

San Francisco-Redwood City-South San Francisco

1,026,258 1,032,870 1,033,910 1,043,945 25,220 32,843 24,797 32,720 2.5 3.2 2.4 3.1

San Rafael

132,423 131,909 132,689 133,195 3,532 4,534 3,480 4,407 2.7 3.4 2.6 3.3

District of Columbia

392,180 394,821 398,415 399,545 19,221 21,647 18,818 21,124 4.9 5.5 4.7 5.3

Washington-Arlington-Alexandria(2)

3,448,362 3,530,751 3,470,109 3,554,325 112,899 88,370 109,276 85,602 3.3 2.5 3.1 2.4

Silver Spring-Frederick-Rockville(3)

688,211 693,378 693,430 698,769 24,238 10,363 21,546 10,876 3.5 1.5 3.1 1.6

Washington-Arlington-Alexandria(2)

2,760,151 2,837,373 2,776,679 2,855,556 88,661 78,007 87,730 74,726 3.2 2.7 3.2 2.6

Florida

10,785,666 11,129,110 10,794,492 11,177,630 335,411 332,365 325,193 342,419 3.1 3.0 3.0 3.1

Miami-Fort Lauderdale-West Palm Beach

3,197,512 3,249,462 3,202,815 3,278,342 92,610 86,047 93,448 85,317 2.9 2.6 2.9 2.6

Fort Lauderdale-Pompano Beach-Deerfield Beach

1,068,831 1,097,004 1,069,190 1,102,534 32,437 32,118 30,949 33,544 3.0 2.9 2.9 3.0

Miami-Miami Beach-Kendall

1,363,068 1,372,094 1,368,585 1,389,212 35,835 29,634 38,952 26,185 2.6 2.2 2.8 1.9

West Palm Beach-Boca Raton-Delray Beach

765,613 780,364 765,040 786,596 24,338 24,295 23,547 25,588 3.2 3.1 3.1 3.3

Illinois

6,535,627 6,461,363 6,540,824 6,483,999 315,420 292,972 308,164 293,193 4.8 4.5 4.7 4.5

Chicago-Naperville-Elgin(2)

5,020,466 4,965,745 5,007,773 4,952,891 251,515 219,628 243,330 209,411 5.0 4.4 4.9 4.2

Chicago-Naperville-Arlington Heights

3,898,155 3,836,686 3,872,217 3,812,964 205,247 164,482 197,621 150,747 5.3 4.3 5.1 4.0

Elgin

322,051 321,609 325,624 327,451 13,465 15,836 13,481 17,503 4.2 4.9 4.1 5.3

Gary(3)

340,316 345,751 342,856 344,572 15,228 18,076 14,953 18,227 4.5 5.2 4.4 5.3

Lake County-Kenosha County(2)

459,944 461,699 467,076 467,904 17,575 21,234 17,275 22,934 3.8 4.6 3.7 4.9

Massachusetts

3,780,059 3,742,891 3,787,260 3,750,727 147,360 105,510 148,710 108,141 3.9 2.8 3.9 2.9

Boston-Cambridge-Nashua(2)

2,803,108 2,793,059 2,807,982 2,798,313 101,131 74,274 102,057 76,094 3.6 2.7 3.6 2.7

Boston-Cambridge-Newton

1,678,863 1,678,221 1,682,690 1,684,603 59,631 44,206 59,654 44,537 3.6 2.6 3.5 2.6

Brockton-Bridgewater-Easton

109,285 108,059 109,307 108,189 4,887 3,655 5,054 3,858 4.5 3.4 4.6 3.6

Framingham

158,850 157,411 158,626 157,142 5,277 3,904 5,243 4,009 3.3 2.5 3.3 2.6

Haverhill-Newburyport-Amesbury Town(2)

118,920 117,508 119,253 117,578 3,851 2,782 3,921 2,964 3.2 2.4 3.3 2.5

Lawrence-Methuen Town-Salem(2)

99,114 98,014 99,568 98,265 4,878 3,461 5,092 3,614 4.9 3.5 5.1 3.7

Lowell-Billerica-Chelmsford(2)

195,685 194,902 195,964 193,759 7,398 5,346 7,572 5,555 3.8 2.7 3.9 2.9

Lynn-Saugus-Marblehead

85,658 84,621 85,585 84,663 3,666 2,562 3,618 2,641 4.3 3.0 4.2 3.1

Nashua(2)

177,699 176,377 177,935 175,820 4,430 3,286 4,681 3,684 2.5 1.9 2.6 2.1

Peabody-Salem-Beverly

92,931 92,759 92,807 92,906 3,528 2,497 3,489 2,490 3.8 2.7 3.8 2.7

Taunton-Middleborough-Norton

86,103 85,187 86,247 85,388 3,585 2,575 3,733 2,742 4.2 3.0 4.3 3.2

Michigan

4,877,537 5,000,477 4,878,546 5,024,984 215,128 207,164 219,599 216,485 4.4 4.1 4.5 4.3

Detroit-Warren-Dearborn

2,109,008 2,151,060 2,121,482 2,187,339 81,346 79,209 78,233 85,966 3.9 3.7 3.7 3.9

Detroit-Dearborn-Livonia

785,235 802,029 790,537 816,720 36,820 35,063 37,269 39,402 4.7 4.4 4.7 4.8

Warren-Troy-Farmington Hills

1,323,774 1,349,032 1,330,944 1,370,619 44,527 44,146 40,963 46,564 3.4 3.3 3.1 3.4

New York

9,678,860 9,849,987 9,700,959 9,869,173 400,594 418,389 417,425 407,411 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.1

New York-Newark-Jersey City(2)

10,259,951 10,503,513 10,317,682 10,505,217 427,104 487,603 436,572 483,089 4.2 4.6 4.2 4.6

Dutchess County-Putnam County

200,227 199,990 200,470 200,175 6,143 5,928 6,562 5,933 3.1 3.0 3.3 3.0

Nassau County-Suffolk County

1,559,068 1,571,860 1,566,628 1,589,601 45,982 45,108 51,164 47,035 2.9 2.9 3.3 3.0

Newark(3)

1,303,681 1,343,772 1,305,048 1,345,392 47,727 62,980 47,901 65,513 3.7 4.7 3.7 4.9

New York-Jersey City-White Plains(2)

7,196,975 7,387,891 7,245,536 7,370,049 327,252 373,587 330,945 364,608 4.5 5.1 4.6 4.9

Pennsylvania

6,518,537 6,542,637 6,543,436 6,547,428 308,633 248,379 321,492 247,634 4.7 3.8 4.9 3.8

Philadelphia-Camden-Wilmington(2)

3,219,508 3,278,469 3,234,078 3,281,935 139,665 127,077 145,589 130,299 4.3 3.9 4.5 4.0

Camden(3)

680,269 703,457 682,600 704,395 24,214 31,403 24,984 33,401 3.6 4.5 3.7 4.7

Montgomery County-Bucks County-Chester County

1,122,827 1,137,547 1,128,507 1,138,353 42,957 34,554 45,477 35,388 3.8 3.0 4.0 3.1

Philadelphia

1,029,425 1,042,813 1,034,902 1,043,596 54,579 44,648 57,754 45,281 5.3 4.3 5.6 4.3

Wilmington(3)

386,987 394,652 388,069 395,591 17,915 16,472 17,374 16,229 4.6 4.2 4.5 4.1

Texas

14,673,500 15,047,054 14,678,367 15,180,378 614,934 628,236 590,021 683,466 4.2 4.2 4.0 4.5

Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington

4,250,461 4,403,830 4,256,924 4,458,306 161,403 170,259 155,603 184,961 3.8 3.9 3.7 4.1

Dallas-Plano-Irving

2,876,643 2,983,731 2,882,062 3,019,188 108,151 115,650 104,316 125,342 3.8 3.9 3.6 4.2

Fort Worth-Arlington

1,373,818 1,420,099 1,374,862 1,439,118 53,252 54,609 51,287 59,619 3.9 3.8 3.7 4.1

Washington

3,986,858 4,057,386 3,995,954 4,078,290 161,138 133,614 159,342 145,595 4.0 3.3 4.0 3.6

Seattle-Tacoma-Bellevue

2,216,434 2,276,478 2,222,257 2,285,595 74,866 76,095 79,449 82,536 3.4 3.3 3.6 3.6

Seattle-Bellevue-Everett

1,768,088 1,820,720 1,774,264 1,826,811 52,737 60,850 58,764 65,649 3.0 3.3 3.3 3.6

Tacoma-Lakewood

448,346 455,758 447,993 458,784 22,129 15,245 20,685 16,887 4.9 3.3 4.6 3.7

Footnotes
(1) These 11 areas contain all of the 38 metropolitan divisions.
(2) Part of the area (or division) is in one or more adjacent states.
(3) All of the division is in one or more adjacent states.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data refer to place of residence. Area delineations are based on Office of Management and Budget Bulletin No. 18-03, dated April 10, 2018, and are available on the BLS website at https://www.bls.gov/lau/lausmsa.htm. Areas in the six New England states are Metropolitan New England City and Town Areas (NECTAs), while areas in other states are county-based. Some metropolitan areas lie in two or more states. They are listed under the state containing the first principal city. Metropolitan divisions are listed under their metropolitan areas. Some divisions lie in more than one state, and some, like Camden, NJ, are totally outside the states under which their metropolitan areas are listed. For Washington-Arlington-Alexandria, DC-VA-MD-WV, the metropolitan area and division titles are identical. Estimates for the latest month are subject to revision the following month.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
NOT SEASONALLY ADJUSTED
Table 3. Employees on nonfarm payrolls by state and metropolitan area, not seasonally adjusted
[In thousands]
State and area June July Change from
July 2022 to July 2023(p)
2022 2023 2022 2023(p) Number Percent

Alabama

2,107.9 2,161.6 2,112.6 2,151.2 38.6 1.8

Anniston-Oxford-Jacksonville

46.9 47.6 46.7 47.4 0.7 1.5

Auburn-Opelika

69.8 72.1 69.5 71.8 2.3 3.3

Birmingham-Hoover

555.5 565.7 558.0 562.8 4.8 0.9

Daphne-Fairhope-Foley

86.7 90.4 87.2 89.7 2.5 2.9

Decatur

59.1 60.5 59.1 60.0 0.9 1.5

Dothan

61.2 63.5 61.6 63.2 1.6 2.6

Florence-Muscle Shoals

57.1 58.6 57.4 58.6 1.2 2.1

Gadsden

34.1 34.4 34.0 34.3 0.3 0.9

Huntsville

263.2 273.7 263.8 274.1 10.3 3.9

Mobile

187.4 193.1 188.5 192.2 3.7 2.0

Montgomery

177.0 182.9 178.7 182.4 3.7 2.1

Tuscaloosa

108.4 113.0 109.2 112.6 3.4 3.1


Alaska

334.2 339.4 341.9 343.3 1.4 0.4

Anchorage

177.2 184.1 176.5 183.6 7.1 4.0

Fairbanks

37.2 37.7 37.8 37.8 0.0 0.0


Arizona

3,032.6 3,107.6 3,035.7 3,096.0 60.3 2.0

Flagstaff

66.6 69.0 65.6 68.2 2.6 4.0

Lake Havasu City-Kingman