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Economic News Release
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Metropolitan Area Employment and Unemployment (Monthly) News Release

For release 10:00 a.m. (ET) Wednesday, September 27, 2023 	                                USDL-23-2073

Technical information: 
 Employment:   (202) 691-6559  *  sminfo@bls.gov    *  www.bls.gov/sae 
 Unemployment: (202) 691-6392  *  lausinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/lau 

Media contact: (202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov


              METROPOLITAN AREA EMPLOYMENT AND UNEMPLOYMENT -- AUGUST 2023


Unemployment rates were higher in August than a year earlier in 189 of the 389 metropolitan areas, 
lower in 186 areas, and unchanged in 14 areas, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today.
A total of nine areas had jobless rates of less than 2.0 percent and five areas had rates of at least 
8.0 percent. Nonfarm payroll employment increased over the year in 66 metropolitan areas, decreased 
in 1 area, and was essentially unchanged in 322 areas. The national unemployment rate in August was 
3.9 percent, not seasonally adjusted, little changed from a year earlier.

This news release presents statistics from two monthly programs. The civilian labor force and 
unemployment data are based on the same concepts and definitions as those used for the national 
household survey estimates. These data pertain to individuals by where they reside. The employment
data are from an establishment survey that measures nonfarm employment, hours, and earnings by 
industry. These data pertain to jobs on payrolls defined by where the establishments are located.
For more information about the concepts and statistical methodologies used by these two programs, 
see the Technical Note.

Metropolitan Area Unemployment (Not Seasonally Adjusted)

In August, Bismarck, ND, had the lowest unemployment rate, 1.5 percent. The next lowest rate was in 
Fargo, ND-MN, 1.6 percent. El Centro, CA, and Yuma, AZ, had the highest rates, 19.7 percent and 18.7 
percent, respectively. A total of 221 areas had August jobless rates below the U.S. rate of 3.9 percent, 
151 areas had rates above it, and 17 areas had rates equal to that of the nation. (See table 1.)

The largest over-the-year unemployment rate increase in August occurred in Vineland-Bridgeton, NJ 
(+2.9 percentage points), followed by El Centro, CA (+2.7 points). Thirty other areas had rate 
increases of at least 1.0 percentage point. Kokomo, IN, had the largest over-the-year rate decrease 
in August (-2.1 percentage points), while 42 other areas had rate declines of at least 1.0 point.

Of the 51 metropolitan areas with a 2010 Census population of 1 million or more, Baltimore-Columbia-
Towson, MD, had the lowest jobless rate in August, 1.8 percent. Las Vegas-Henderson-Paradise, NV, had 
the highest rate, 6.1 percent. Twenty-seven large areas had over-the-year unemployment rate increases, 
23 had decreases, and 1 had no change. The largest rate increase was in San Jose-Sunnyvale-Santa Clara, 
CA (+1.2 percentage points). The largest jobless rate decline occurred in Baltimore-Columbia-Towson,
MD (-1.7 percentage points).

Metropolitan Division Unemployment (Not Seasonally Adjusted)

Eleven of the most populous metropolitan areas are made up of 38 metropolitan divisions, which are 
essentially separately identifiable employment centers. In August, Silver Spring-Frederick-Rockville, 
MD, had the lowest division unemployment rate, 1.6 percent. Elgin, IL, and Los Angeles-Long Beach-
Glendale, CA, had the highest rates among the divisions, 5.8 percent each. (See table 2.)

In August, 18 metropolitan divisions had over-the-year unemployment rate increases, 18 had decreases,
and 2 had no change. The largest rate increase occurred in Newark, NJ-PA (+2.0 percentage points). The
largest over-the-year jobless rate decline occurred in Silver Spring-Frederick-Rockville, MD (-1.5 
percentage points).

Metropolitan Area Nonfarm Employment (Not Seasonally Adjusted)

In August, nonfarm payroll employment increased over the year in 66 metropolitan areas, decreased in 
1 area, and was essentially unchanged in 322 areas. The largest over-the-year employment increases 
occurred in New York-Newark-Jersey City, NY-NJ-PA (+208,200), Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington, TX (+154,800),
and Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim, CA (+142,400). The largest over-the-year percentage gains in
employment occurred in Midland, TX (+5.3 percent), and Huntsville, AL (+4.6 percent), followed by Ann Arbor,
MI, Charleston-North Charleston, SC, Las Vegas-Henderson-Paradise, NV, and Trenton, NJ (+4.5 percent each). 
The over-the-year decrease in employment occurred in Elkhart-Goshen, IN (-5,200, or -3.5 percent). 
(See table 3.)

Over the year, nonfarm employment increased in 32 metropolitan areas with a 2010 Census population of 
1 million or more, while employment was essentially unchanged in 19 areas. The largest over-the-year
percentage increases in employment in these large metropolitan areas occurred in Las Vegas-Henderson-
Paradise, NV (+4.5 percent), Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington, TX (+3.8 percent), and Charlotte-Concord-
Gastonia, NC-SC (+3.7 percent).

Metropolitan Division Nonfarm Employment (Not Seasonally Adjusted)

In August, nonfarm payroll employment increased over the year in 15 metropolitan divisions and was 
essentially unchanged in 23 divisions. The largest over-the-year increases in employment among the
metropolitan divisions occurred in New York-Jersey City-White Plains, NY-NJ (+174,400), Dallas-Plano-
Irving, TX (+112,700), and Los Angeles-Long Beach-Glendale, CA (+99,700). (See table 4.)

The largest over-the-year percentage increases in employment occurred in Dallas-Plano-Irving, TX 
(+3.8 percent), Fort Worth-Arlington, TX (+3.6 percent), and Philadelphia, PA (+3.5 percent).

_____________
The State Employment and Unemployment news release for September is scheduled to be released on 
Friday, October 20, 2023, at 10:00 a.m. (ET). The Metropolitan Area Employment and Unemployment news 
release for September is scheduled to be released on Wednesday, November 1, 2023, at 10:00 a.m. (ET).




Technical Note
  
   This news release presents civilian labor force and unemployment data from the
Local Area Unemployment Statistics (LAUS) program (tables 1 and 2) for 389
metropolitan statistical areas and metropolitan New England City and Town Areas
(NECTAs), plus 7 areas in Puerto Rico. Estimates for 38 metropolitan and NECTA
divisions also are presented. Nonfarm payroll employment estimates from the
Current Employment Statistics (CES) program (tables 3 and 4) are provided for
the same areas. State estimates were previously published in the news release
State Employment and Unemployment, and are republished in this news release for
ease of reference. The LAUS and CES programs are both federal-state cooperative
endeavors.

Civilian labor force and unemployment--from the LAUS program

   Definitions. The civilian labor force and unemployment data are based on the
same concepts and definitions as those used for the official national estimates
obtained from the Current Population Survey (CPS), a sample survey of households
that is conducted for the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) by the U.S. Census
Bureau. The LAUS program measures employed persons and unemployed persons on a
place-of-residence basis. The universe for each is the civilian noninstitutional
population 16 years of age and older. Employed persons are those who did any work
at all for pay or profit in the reference week (typically the week including the
12th of the month) or worked 15 hours or more without pay in a family business or
farm, plus those not working who had a job from which they were temporarily absent,
whether or not paid, for such reasons as labor-management dispute, illness, or
vacation. Unemployed persons are those who were not employed during the reference
week (based on the definition above), had actively looked for a job sometime in the
4-week period ending with the reference week, and were currently available for work;
persons on layoff expecting recall need not be looking for work to be counted as
unemployed. The civilian labor force is the sum of employed and unemployed persons.
The unemployment rate is the number of unemployed as a percent of the civilian labor
force.

   Method of estimation. Estimates for states, the District of Columbia, the Los
Angeles-Long Beach-Glendale metropolitan division, and New York City are produced
using time-series models with real-time benchmarking to national CPS totals. Model-
based estimates are also produced for the following areas and their respective
balances: the Chicago-Naperville-Arlington Heights, IL Metropolitan Division;
Cleveland-Elyria, OH Metropolitan Statistical Area; Detroit-Warren-Dearborn, MI
Metropolitan Statistical Area; Miami-Miami Beach-Kendall, FL Metropolitan Division;
and Seattle-Bellevue-Everett, WA Metropolitan Division. Modeling improves the
statistical basis of the estimation for these areas and provides important tools
for analysis, such as measures of errors and seasonally adjusted series. For all
other substate areas in this news release, estimates are prepared through indirect
estimation procedures using a building-block approach. Estimates of employed
persons, which are based largely on “place of work” estimates from the CES program,
are adjusted to refer to place of residence as used in the CPS. Unemployment
estimates are aggregates of persons previously employed in industries covered by
state unemployment insurance (UI) laws and entrants to the labor force from the
CPS. The substate estimates of employment and unemployment, which geographically
exhaust the entire state, are adjusted proportionally to ensure that they add to
the independently estimated model-based area totals. A detailed description of the
estimation procedures is available from BLS upon request.

   Annual revisions. Civilian labor force and unemployment data shown for the prior
year reflect adjustments made at the beginning of each year, usually implemented with
the issuance of January estimates. The adjusted model-based estimates typically reflect
updated population data from the U.S. Census Bureau, any revisions in other input
data sources, and model re-estimation. All substate estimates then are re-estimated
using updated inputs and adjusted to add to the revised model-based totals. In early
2021, a new generation of time-series models was implemented, resulting in the
replacement of data back to the series beginnings.

Employment--from the CES program 

   Definitions. Employment data refer to persons on establishment payrolls who receive
pay for any part of the pay period that includes the 12th of the month. Persons are
counted at their place of work rather than at their place of residence; those appearing
on more than one payroll are counted on each payroll. Industries are classified on the
basis of their principal activity in accordance with the 2022 version of the North
American Industry Classification System.

   Method of estimation. CES State and Area employment data are produced using several
estimation procedures. Where possible, these data are produced using a "weighted link
relative" estimation technique in which a ratio of current month weighted employment
to that of the previous-month weighted employment is computed from a sample of
establishments reporting for both months. The estimates of employment for the current
month are then obtained by multiplying these ratios by the previous month's employment
estimates. The weighted link relative technique is utilized for data series where the
sample size meets certain statistical criteria. For some employment series, the
estimates are produced with a model that uses direct sample estimates (described
above) combined with other regressors to compensate for smaller sample sizes. 

   Annual revisions.  Employment estimates are adjusted annually to a complete count
of jobs, called benchmarks, derived principally from tax reports that are submitted by
employers who are covered under state unemployment insurance (UI) laws. The benchmark
information is used to adjust the monthly estimates between the new benchmark and the
preceding one and also to establish the level of employment for the new benchmark month.
Thus, the benchmarking process establishes the level of employment, and the sample is used
to measure the month-to-month changes in the level for the subsequent months.

   Seasonal adjustment. Payroll employment data are seasonally adjusted for states,
metropolitan areas, and metropolitan divisions at the total nonfarm level. For states,
data are seasonally adjusted at the supersector level as well. Revisions to historical
data for the most recent 5 years are made once a year, coincident with annual benchmark
adjustments.

   Payroll employment data are seasonally adjusted concurrently, using all available
estimates including those for the current month, to develop sample-based seasonal factors.
Concurrent sample-based factors are created every month for the current month's preliminary
estimate as well as the previous month's final estimate.

Reliability of the estimates

   The estimates presented in this news release are based on sample surveys, administrative data,
and modeling and, thus, are subject to sampling and other types of errors. Sampling error
is a measure of sampling variability—that is, variation that occurs by chance because a
sample rather than the entire population is surveyed. Survey data also are subject to
nonsampling errors, such as those which can be introduced into the data collection and
processing operations. Estimates not directly derived from sample surveys are subject to
additional errors resulting from the specific estimation processes used. The sums of
individual items may not always equal the totals shown in the same tables because of
rounding.

Use of error measures

   Civilian labor force and unemployment estimates. Measures of sampling error are not
available for metropolitan areas or metropolitan divisions. Model-based error measures for
states are available on the BLS website at www.bls.gov/laus/lastderr.htm. Measures of
nonsampling error are not available for the areas contained in this news release. Information
on recent data revisions for states and local areas is available online at
www.bls.gov/lau/launews1.htm.

   Employment estimates. Changes in metropolitan area nonfarm payroll employment are cited
in the analysis of this news release only if they have been determined to be statistically
significant at the 90-percent confidence level.  Measures of sampling error for the total
nonfarm employment series are available for metropolitan areas and metropolitan divisions
at www.bls.gov/web/laus/790stderr.htm. Measures of sampling error for more detailed series
at the area and division level are available upon request. Measures of sampling error for
states at the supersector level and for the private service-providing, goods-producing,
total private and total nonfarm levels are available on the BLS website at 
www.bls.gov/web/laus/790stderr.htm. Information on recent benchmark revisions
is available online at www.bls.gov/web/laus/benchmark.pdf.

Area definitions

   The substate area data published in this news release reflect the delineations issued by the
U.S. Office of Management and Budget on April 10, 2018. Data reflect New England City and
Town Area (NECTA) definitions, rather than county-based definitions, in the six New England
States. A detailed list of the geographic definitions is available online at
www.bls.gov/lau/lausmsa.htm.

Additional information

   Estimates of unadjusted and seasonally adjusted civilian labor force and unemployment
data for states and seven substate areas are available in the news release State Employment
and Unemployment. Estimates of civilian labor force and unemployment for all states,
metropolitan areas, counties, cities with a population of 25,000 or more, and other areas
used in the administration of various federal economic assistance programs are available
on the Internet at www.bls.gov/lau/. Employment data from the CES program for states and
metropolitan areas are available on the BLS website at www.bls.gov/sae/.

   If you are deaf, hard of hearing, or have a speech disability, please dial 7-1-1 to 
access telecommunications relay services.




LABOR FORCE DATA
NOT SEASONALLY ADJUSTED

Table 1. Civilian labor force and unemployment by state and metropolitan area
State and area Civilian labor force Unemployed
July August Number Percent of labor force
2022 2023 2022 2023(p) July August July August
2022 2023 2022 2023(p) 2022 2023 2022 2023(p)

Alabama

2,298,341 2,315,791 2,297,604 2,310,017 68,672 53,154 67,520 56,536 3.0 2.3 2.9 2.4

Anniston-Oxford-Jacksonville

46,177 46,238 46,371 46,260 1,605 1,242 1,545 1,278 3.5 2.7 3.3 2.8

Auburn-Opelika

79,268 80,836 79,934 81,095 2,233 1,789 2,220 1,830 2.8 2.2 2.8 2.3

Birmingham-Hoover

571,007 571,298 569,565 568,042 15,274 12,074 15,282 12,922 2.7 2.1 2.7 2.3

Daphne-Fairhope-Foley

105,485 106,965 104,243 105,678 2,694 2,132 2,726 2,324 2.6 2.0 2.6 2.2

Decatur

75,878 76,716 75,925 76,656 1,903 1,444 1,867 1,606 2.5 1.9 2.5 2.1

Dothan

66,738 67,366 66,770 67,546 1,950 1,566 1,933 1,702 2.9 2.3 2.9 2.5

Florence-Muscle Shoals

66,935 67,005 66,919 67,027 2,178 1,659 2,135 1,812 3.3 2.5 3.2 2.7

Gadsden

39,524 39,193 39,305 39,080 1,343 1,028 1,302 1,071 3.4 2.6 3.3 2.7

Huntsville

248,699 255,346 247,932 254,947 6,126 4,779 5,986 5,095 2.5 1.9 2.4 2.0

Mobile

192,808 193,793 193,070 193,825 7,113 5,195 7,094 5,737 3.7 2.7 3.7 3.0

Montgomery

176,533 177,757 177,166 176,246 5,703 4,202 5,569 4,401 3.2 2.4 3.1 2.5

Tuscaloosa

116,776 118,917 117,688 118,986 3,778 2,872 3,580 2,893 3.2 2.4 3.0 2.4

Alaska

363,181 364,252 361,328 361,300 12,488 13,781 10,588 13,432 3.4 3.8 2.9 3.7

Anchorage

197,083 200,587 197,615 199,497 6,454 6,990 5,462 6,827 3.3 3.5 2.8 3.4

Fairbanks

45,448 44,917 45,184 44,739 1,423 1,543 1,190 1,462 3.1 3.4 2.6 3.3

Arizona

3,615,100 3,707,616 3,635,207 3,712,306 154,367 176,008 162,387 171,787 4.3 4.7 4.5 4.6

Flagstaff

73,667 76,769 73,725 76,395 3,511 3,870 3,617 3,691 4.8 5.0 4.9 4.8

Lake Havasu City-Kingman

91,314 92,617 90,869 91,563 4,424 4,716 4,653 4,345 4.8 5.1 5.1 4.7

Phoenix-Mesa-Scottsdale

2,587,712 2,655,984 2,589,722 2,651,445 96,848 111,206 99,839 107,054 3.7 4.2 3.9 4.0

Prescott

107,493 110,632 108,975 110,157 4,241 5,041 4,258 4,279 3.9 4.6 3.9 3.9

Sierra Vista-Douglas

48,291 48,572 48,839 48,884 2,402 2,660 2,474 2,509 5.0 5.5 5.1 5.1

Tucson

488,716 497,989 491,927 496,316 20,700 23,130 21,138 21,672 4.2 4.6 4.3 4.4

Yuma

94,307 98,427 101,382 104,757 14,474 16,773 18,152 19,615 15.3 17.0 17.9 18.7

Arkansas

1,384,275 1,405,739 1,372,929 1,395,313 53,337 45,851 48,306 45,813 3.9 3.3 3.5 3.3

Fayetteville-Springdale-Rogers

309,222 320,405 305,793 318,231 8,297 7,661 7,660 7,796 2.7 2.4 2.5 2.4

Fort Smith

119,175 120,756 118,023 120,449 4,292 4,441 4,073 4,465 3.6 3.7 3.5 3.7

Hot Springs

43,521 43,422 42,501 42,418 1,911 1,568 1,709 1,497 4.4 3.6 4.0 3.5

Jonesboro

68,904 70,402 67,658 69,224 2,273 1,960 2,106 1,992 3.3 2.8 3.1 2.9

Little Rock-North Little Rock-Conway

365,814 375,720 359,766 366,569 13,368 10,981 12,200 11,013 3.7 2.9 3.4 3.0

Pine Bluff

32,858 32,959 32,519 32,534 1,907 1,487 1,750 1,386 5.8 4.5 5.4 4.3

California

19,233,954 19,362,806 19,237,794 19,340,754 789,198 932,759 787,545 993,596 4.1 4.8 4.1 5.1

Bakersfield

390,934 394,717 397,201 397,355 26,548 32,538 25,742 32,041 6.8 8.2 6.5 8.1

Chico

89,320 89,916 90,948 91,089 3,945 4,628 3,971 4,850 4.4 5.1 4.4 5.3

El Centro

68,932 69,699 71,527 71,856 10,505 12,526 12,132 14,183 15.2 18.0 17.0 19.7

Fresno

451,569 458,183 454,353 458,361 26,891 32,406 26,289 32,299 6.0 7.1 5.8 7.0

Hanford-Corcoran

56,395 57,608 56,661 57,503 3,629 4,581 3,470 4,413 6.4 8.0 6.1 7.7

Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim

6,542,251 6,601,985 6,516,103 6,596,795 291,279 327,255 281,906 354,634 4.5 5.0 4.3 5.4

Madera

62,195 63,204 64,318 64,693 3,676 4,572 3,505 4,554 5.9 7.2 5.4 7.0

Merced

116,219 114,727 115,533 116,066 8,274 10,184 7,875 9,969 7.1 8.9 6.8 8.6

Modesto

244,681 241,761 244,565 241,181 12,856 15,888 12,419 15,695 5.3 6.6 5.1 6.5

Napa

72,435 72,600 71,999 71,959 2,083 2,419 2,143 2,604 2.9 3.3 3.0 3.6

Oxnard-Thousand Oaks-Ventura

409,993 414,290 411,362 412,133 14,669 17,453 15,338 19,134 3.6 4.2 3.7 4.6

Redding

71,870 71,718 73,406 72,998 3,165 3,515 3,215 3,725 4.4 4.9 4.4 5.1

Riverside-San Bernardino-Ontario

2,149,624 2,142,140 2,150,890 2,142,569 89,405 105,355 91,522 112,876 4.2 4.9 4.3 5.3

Sacramento--Roseville--Arden-Arcade

1,128,876 1,137,638 1,132,276 1,134,959 40,653 48,068 41,599 51,375 3.6 4.2 3.7 4.5

Salinas

230,115 238,427 229,271 237,348 9,919 11,646 9,627 11,668 4.3 4.9 4.2 4.9

San Diego-Carlsbad

1,589,923 1,596,570 1,591,557 1,594,099 53,960 62,902 55,445 68,416 3.4 3.9 3.5 4.3

San Francisco-Oakland-Hayward

2,545,076 2,567,476 2,544,571 2,552,969 73,812 95,215 76,241 102,940 2.9 3.7 3.0 4.0

San Jose-Sunnyvale-Santa Clara

1,078,698 1,088,543 1,079,940 1,084,326 28,650 39,490 29,322 42,498 2.7 3.6 2.7 3.9

San Luis Obispo-Paso Robles-Arroyo Grande

137,461 139,734 136,138 138,119 4,142 4,681 4,188 5,120 3.0 3.3 3.1 3.7

Santa Cruz-Watsonville

136,866 136,301 136,615 135,756 5,507 6,598 5,367 6,870 4.0 4.8 3.9 5.1

Santa Maria-Santa Barbara

226,347 229,441 223,939 226,091 7,197 8,140 7,190 8,786 3.2 3.5 3.2 3.9

Santa Rosa

248,844 249,592 250,255 250,060 7,591 9,155 7,740 9,592 3.1 3.7 3.1 3.8

Stockton-Lodi

344,347 343,971 345,358 345,929 17,119 21,076 17,097 21,543 5.0 6.1 5.0 6.2

Vallejo-Fairfield

202,793 202,019 202,547 201,974 8,079 9,279 8,269 9,869 4.0 4.6 4.1 4.9

Visalia-Porterville

205,680 207,903 209,078 209,441 16,369 20,621 16,663 20,601 8.0 9.9 8.0 9.8

Yuba City

78,048 79,907 78,955 80,074 4,296 5,282 4,186 5,141 5.5 6.6 5.3 6.4

Colorado

3,207,188 3,264,182 3,212,071 3,273,533 92,634 113,636 88,886 115,525 2.9 3.5 2.8 3.5

Boulder

200,702 203,746 200,886 204,451 5,062 6,707 4,635 6,669 2.5 3.3 2.3 3.3

Colorado Springs

371,879 381,996 372,024 382,210 11,972 14,300 11,273 14,337 3.2 3.7 3.0 3.8

Denver-Aurora-Lakewood

1,725,804 1,754,357 1,731,823 1,754,043 48,405 60,560 47,220 62,310 2.8 3.5 2.7 3.6

Fort Collins

211,475 217,025 212,080 219,161 5,510 6,805 5,240 6,934 2.6 3.1 2.5 3.2

Grand Junction

76,358 77,561 76,992 78,400 2,495 2,971 2,317 2,882 3.3 3.8 3.0 3.7

Greeley

169,778 171,898 170,522 173,547 5,331 6,192 5,034 6,340 3.1 3.6 3.0 3.7

Pueblo

75,680 76,528 75,895 76,993 3,259 3,657 3,128 3,791 4.3 4.8 4.1 4.9

Connecticut

1,955,793 1,928,775 1,928,919 1,902,079 83,325 76,052 78,780 66,072 4.3 3.9 4.1 3.5

Bridgeport-Stamford-Norwalk

485,300 477,896 476,291 468,098 20,895 19,744 19,643 17,135 4.3 4.1 4.1 3.7

Danbury

110,288 108,100 108,684 105,811 4,152 3,891 3,912 3,302 3.8 3.6 3.6 3.1

Hartford-West Hartford-East Hartford

631,486 622,359 624,937 616,223 27,378 24,559 26,023 21,389 4.3 3.9 4.2 3.5

New Haven

343,626 339,373 337,958 335,956 14,164 12,620 13,319 11,050 4.1 3.7 3.9 3.3

Norwich-New London-Westerly

142,985 142,640 141,832 141,245 5,873 5,148 5,594 4,476 4.1 3.6 3.9 3.2

Waterbury

113,143 111,934 111,394 110,470 5,718 5,345 5,514 4,796 5.1 4.8 4.9 4.3

Delaware

499,329 509,945 498,447 514,025 23,049 21,692 24,128 23,804 4.6 4.3 4.8 4.6

Dover

79,353 81,898 79,249 82,819 4,504 4,159 4,785 4,459 5.7 5.1 6.0 5.4

Salisbury(1)

206,898 210,184 204,723 209,332 8,078 5,906 8,363 6,478 3.9 2.8 4.1 3.1

District of Columbia

398,415 399,680 391,193 395,592 18,818 21,148 17,834 21,877 4.7 5.3 4.6 5.5

Washington-Arlington-Alexandria

3,470,109 3,556,199 3,441,495 3,524,971 109,276 86,075 112,175 93,214 3.1 2.4 3.3 2.6

Florida

10,794,492 11,174,442 10,838,084 11,226,082 325,193 342,175 329,096 350,845 3.0 3.1 3.0 3.1

Cape Coral-Fort Myers

373,036 390,029 374,686 394,942 10,943 12,462 11,076 12,916 2.9 3.2 3.0 3.3

Crestview-Fort Walton Beach-Destin

142,293 146,853 140,667 146,559 3,567 3,956 3,501 4,067 2.5 2.7 2.5 2.8

Deltona-Daytona Beach-Ormond Beach

316,872 333,075 319,339 335,703 10,246 11,314 10,400 11,758 3.2 3.4 3.3 3.5

Gainesville

147,241 152,874 146,172 152,382 4,551 5,104 4,333 5,103 3.1 3.3 3.0 3.3

Homosassa Springs

48,634 51,091 49,701 52,966 2,080 2,359 2,158 2,519 4.3 4.6 4.3 4.8

Jacksonville

839,977 882,117 841,602 885,527 25,175 27,852 25,291 28,272 3.0 3.2 3.0 3.2

Lakeland-Winter Haven

338,282 348,083 341,248 351,981 12,328 13,670 12,516 13,971 3.6 3.9 3.7 4.0

Miami-Fort Lauderdale-West Palm Beach

3,202,815 3,278,629 3,220,557 3,278,992 93,448 85,247 95,668 86,772 2.9 2.6 3.0 2.6

Naples-Immokalee-Marco Island

187,753 190,525 188,321 191,511 5,663 6,159 5,765 6,446 3.0 3.2 3.1 3.4

North Port-Sarasota-Bradenton

384,369 399,162 383,992 397,816 11,241 12,689 11,396 13,263 2.9 3.2 3.0 3.3

Ocala

148,774 153,153 149,169 153,858 5,301 5,881 5,397 6,075 3.6 3.8 3.6 3.9

Orlando-Kissimmee-Sanford

1,436,604 1,491,723 1,444,174 1,505,523 42,690 46,497 42,830 47,324 3.0 3.1 3.0 3.1

Palm Bay-Melbourne-Titusville

298,037 307,947 298,450 308,591 8,685 9,617 8,735 9,952 2.9 3.1 2.9 3.2

Panama City

95,569 98,368 95,488 98,954 2,606 2,742 2,555 2,815 2.7 2.8 2.7 2.8

Pensacola-Ferry Pass-Brent

239,991 246,755 238,918 247,094 7,218 7,883 7,024 7,912 3.0 3.2 2.9 3.2

Port St. Lucie

231,447 241,195 233,088 242,912 7,699 8,397 7,899 8,792 3.3 3.5 3.4 3.6

Punta Gorda

76,616 79,191 76,845 79,660 2,479 2,819 2,600 3,017 3.2 3.6 3.4 3.8

Sebastian-Vero Beach

67,999 69,802 68,075 70,128 2,478 2,635 2,514 2,809 3.6 3.8 3.7 4.0

Sebring

35,664 37,047 36,010 37,550 1,563 1,745 1,590 1,806 4.4 4.7 4.4 4.8

Tallahassee

200,516 207,800 200,013 209,363 6,380 6,965 6,221 6,850 3.2 3.4 3.1 3.3

Tampa-St. Petersburg-Clearwater

1,654,238 1,730,355 1,661,031 1,740,322 47,582 53,864 48,256 55,623 2.9 3.1 2.9 3.2

The Villages

37,293 39,468 37,781 40,187 1,508 1,699 1,604 1,844 4.0 4.3 4.2 4.6

Georgia

5,232,345 5,319,444 5,216,939 5,333,672 164,670 173,464 176,547 204,075 3.1 3.3 3.4 3.8

Albany

64,308 64,905 64,196 64,874 2,613 2,508 2,871 2,824 4.1 3.9 4.5 4.4

Athens-Clarke County

96,092 99,476 97,421 101,453 2,991 3,112 3,380 3,875 3.1 3.1 3.5 3.8

Atlanta-Sandy Springs-Roswell

3,190,715 3,244,883 3,181,444 3,252,085 95,276 103,239 102,084 121,450 3.0 3.2 3.2 3.7

Augusta-Richmond County

262,053 266,187 261,467 263,430 9,823 10,738 10,116 10,568 3.7 4.0 3.9 4.0

Brunswick

54,175 55,253 53,731 55,313 1,568 1,575 1,795 2,025 2.9 2.9 3.3 3.7

Columbus

121,319 124,355 120,808 124,306 4,525 4,494 5,031 5,176 3.7 3.6 4.2 4.2

Dalton

58,588 59,217 58,099 59,013 2,398 2,473 2,320 2,659 4.1 4.2 4.0 4.5

Gainesville

107,103 108,719 106,792 109,182 2,546 2,718 2,975 3,392 2.4 2.5 2.8 3.1

Hinesville

34,532 34,667 34,528 35,138 1,174 1,125 1,244 1,372 3.4 3.2 3.6 3.9

Macon-Bibb County

98,843 101,221 98,903 100,903 3,686 3,691 3,887 4,347 3.7 3.6 3.9 4.3

Rome

43,913 45,913 43,855 45,749 1,407 1,552 1,493 1,766 3.2 3.4 3.4 3.9

Savannah

198,119 202,048 196,346 201,081 5,788 5,701 6,296 6,983 2.9 2.8 3.2 3.5

Valdosta

62,767 61,914 62,302 62,549 2,122 2,202 2,259 2,632 3.4 3.6 3.6 4.2

Warner Robins

86,837 87,331 85,623 88,134 2,949 2,671 3,126 3,300 3.4 3.1 3.7 3.7

Hawaii

679,750 673,804 681,083 673,352 24,133 17,986 25,260 20,906 3.6 2.7 3.7 3.1

Kahului-Wailuku-Lahaina

87,860 87,216 88,914 88,464 2,989 2,176 3,044 3,606 3.4 2.5 3.4 4.1

Urban Honolulu

460,747 455,782 460,437 454,048 16,192 11,912 17,171 13,252 3.5 2.6 3.7 2.9

Idaho

959,439 973,175 958,113 975,884 24,724 31,639 25,025 31,527 2.6 3.3 2.6 3.2

Boise City

410,696 422,587 411,678 424,458 10,558 13,660 10,639 13,729 2.6 3.2 2.6 3.2

Coeur d'Alene

86,525 87,060 86,126 87,823 2,373 2,863 2,451 3,186 2.7 3.3 2.8 3.6

Idaho Falls

80,075 83,084 79,497 82,958 1,777 2,250 1,786 2,247 2.2 2.7 2.2 2.7

Lewiston

32,095 32,170 32,148 32,198 877 922 987 1,012 2.7 2.9 3.1 3.1

Pocatello

42,997 44,938 43,159 44,775 1,171 1,853 1,242 1,451 2.7 4.1 2.9 3.2

Twin Falls

59,862 56,580 59,692 56,955 1,558 1,858 1,533 1,967 2.6 3.3 2.6 3.5

Illinois

6,540,824 6,484,426 6,503,782 6,487,015 308,164 293,072 312,947 341,077 4.7 4.5 4.8 5.3

Bloomington

97,111 97,148 96,718 98,856 3,591 4,513 3,605 4,905 3.7 4.6 3.7 5.0

Carbondale-Marion

58,876 58,645 57,778 58,622 2,498 3,017 2,479 3,140 4.2 5.1 4.3 5.4

Champaign-Urbana

123,070 123,674 120,198 122,840 4,904 6,156 4,926 6,777 4.0 5.0 4.1 5.5

Chicago-Naperville-Elgin

5,007,773 4,953,097 4,989,546 4,938,619 243,330 209,391 247,811 250,569 4.9 4.2 5.0 5.1

Danville

32,449 33,021 31,956 33,210 1,603 2,183 1,619 2,343 4.9 6.6 5.1 7.1

Davenport-Moline-Rock Island(1)

191,075 191,623 189,148 189,875 7,123 8,484 7,089 8,732 3.7 4.4 3.7 4.6

Decatur

46,301 46,188 46,291 46,655 2,550 3,174 2,547 3,357 5.5 6.9 5.5 7.2

Kankakee

52,974 52,369 52,356 52,850 2,482 3,175 2,774 3,599 4.7 6.1 5.3 6.8

Peoria

173,246 173,940 172,496 175,633 7,505 9,488 7,487 10,221 4.3 5.5 4.3 5.8

Rockford

161,430 160,321 159,435 161,924 8,398 10,862 8,785 12,024 5.2 6.8 5.5 7.4

Springfield

105,069 105,236 105,661 108,097 4,171 5,089 4,258 5,472 4.0 4.8 4.0 5.1

Indiana

3,453,526 3,460,845 3,430,933 3,431,073 115,488 138,109 109,816 128,388 3.3 4.0 3.2 3.7

Bloomington

79,774 78,975 80,834 79,499 2,871 3,493 2,425 2,961 3.6 4.4 3.0 3.7

Columbus

44,941 45,196 45,031 45,045 1,210 1,453 1,118 1,346 2.7 3.2 2.5 3.0

Elkhart-Goshen

120,830 116,899 119,316 114,949 3,363 6,093 3,382 5,047 2.8 5.2 2.8 4.4

Evansville

162,101 161,307 160,085 159,078 5,405 6,032 5,043 5,644 3.3 3.7 3.2 3.5

Fort Wayne

225,356 226,888 223,741 225,835 7,026 8,298 6,455 7,742 3.1 3.7 2.9 3.4

Indianapolis-Carmel-Anderson

1,133,810 1,146,668 1,132,033 1,138,900 35,587 40,975 33,350 38,706 3.1 3.6 2.9 3.4

Kokomo

34,438 33,201 33,784 33,286 1,712 1,773 2,386 1,654 5.0 5.3 7.1 5.0

Lafayette-West Lafayette

112,176 108,765 112,361 108,423 3,831 4,307 3,340 3,691 3.4 4.0 3.0 3.4

Michigan City-La Porte

47,888 47,102 47,243 46,535 1,873 2,137 1,763 2,044 3.9 4.5 3.7 4.4

Muncie

51,376 50,731 51,122 50,492 2,121 2,516 1,939 2,212 4.1 5.0 3.8 4.4

South Bend-Mishawaka

157,770 157,992 157,034 156,657 6,371 7,638 6,124 7,242 4.0 4.8 3.9 4.6

Terre Haute

73,084 73,373 72,792 72,648 2,926 3,213 2,777 2,977 4.0 4.4 3.8 4.1

Iowa

1,727,773 1,748,117 1,711,771 1,727,915 48,379 53,903 49,973 57,321 2.8 3.1 2.9 3.3

Ames

57,542 57,262 58,500 58,363 1,385 1,537 1,495 1,570 2.4 2.7 2.6 2.7

Cedar Rapids

146,820 147,699 146,160 147,006 4,640 5,308 4,864 6,694 3.2 3.6 3.3 4.6

Des Moines-West Des Moines

381,531 387,046 380,174 381,423 10,045 11,426 10,451 11,579 2.6 3.0 2.7 3.0

Dubuque

56,583 56,556 56,497 56,074 1,576 1,664 1,574 1,717 2.8 2.9 2.8 3.1

Iowa City

98,848 99,498 99,419 100,238 2,452 2,721 2,618 3,172 2.5 2.7 2.6 3.2

Sioux City

94,775 95,987 93,673 94,993 2,709 2,674 2,645 2,657 2.9 2.8 2.8 2.8

Waterloo-Cedar Falls

88,539 89,870 88,294 89,396 2,485 2,882 2,618 3,036 2.8 3.2 3.0 3.4

Kansas

1,523,093 1,533,875 1,500,210 1,511,442 50,878 47,879 47,017 49,066 3.3 3.1 3.1 3.2

Lawrence

65,144 66,186 65,590 67,800 2,270 2,153 2,035 2,103 3.5 3.3 3.1 3.1

Manhattan

45,677 48,580 45,808 48,948 1,659 1,543 1,500 1,466 3.6 3.2 3.3 3.0

Topeka

124,128 125,093 122,241 122,875 4,048 3,774 3,752 3,882 3.3 3.0 3.1 3.2

Wichita

323,217 323,288 318,792 321,460 11,943 11,233 11,219 11,631 3.7 3.5 3.5 3.6

Kentucky

2,058,721 2,043,393 2,053,785 2,034,242 89,721 94,688 79,092 86,583 4.4 4.6 3.9 4.3

Bowling Green

83,593 84,310 84,639 84,555 3,578 3,976 3,153 3,580 4.3 4.7 3.7 4.2

Elizabethtown-Fort Knox

65,760 64,317 64,913 63,593 3,100 3,050 2,695 2,760 4.7 4.7 4.2 4.3

Lexington-Fayette

276,698 277,406 276,155 277,238 9,790 10,882 8,763 10,002 3.5 3.9 3.2 3.6

Louisville/Jefferson County

677,629 669,645 673,496 665,573 26,665 27,190 22,135 24,996 3.9 4.1 3.3 3.8

Owensboro

54,666 52,938 54,067 52,545 2,340 2,517 2,207 2,264 4.3 4.8 4.1 4.3

Louisiana

2,110,600 2,092,738 2,088,168 2,077,487 89,654 69,686 82,106 71,468 4.2 3.3 3.9 3.4

Alexandria

66,860 65,538 64,901 64,313 2,518 1,967 2,316 1,999 3.8 3.0 3.6 3.1

Baton Rouge

432,425 432,386 431,184 432,498 16,954 13,090 15,688 13,432 3.9 3.0 3.6 3.1

Hammond

56,966 57,355 56,668 56,847 2,891 2,330 2,650 2,352 5.1 4.1 4.7 4.1

Houma-Thibodaux

86,647 84,155 85,569 83,288 3,544 2,457 3,213 2,508 4.1 2.9 3.8 3.0

Lafayette

217,783 215,166 215,017 212,950 8,595 6,401 7,883 6,710 3.9 3.0 3.7 3.2

Lake Charles

96,550 96,330 95,657 95,565 3,878 2,813 3,533 2,863 4.0 2.9 3.7 3.0

Monroe

80,871 80,369 79,947 79,100 3,434 2,730 3,196 2,795 4.2 3.4 4.0 3.5

New Orleans-Metairie

595,208 590,188 589,391 587,073 25,715 20,302 23,422 21,182 4.3 3.4 4.0 3.6

Shreveport-Bossier City

188,848 186,331 185,464 183,996 8,266 6,395 7,552 6,482 4.4 3.4 4.1 3.5

Maine

688,609 700,392 685,971 697,086 17,060 17,517 15,309 17,498 2.5 2.5 2.2 2.5

Bangor

68,503 69,178 68,267 68,889 1,704 1,751 1,570 1,802 2.5 2.5 2.3 2.6

Lewiston-Auburn

52,851 53,827 52,552 53,564 1,421 1,463 1,280 1,471 2.7 2.7 2.4 2.7

Portland-South Portland

207,614 213,182 208,266 213,155 4,375 4,627 4,015 4,747 2.1 2.2 1.9 2.2

Maryland

3,213,051 3,241,184 3,188,829 3,215,176 110,350 55,858 110,094 57,993 3.4 1.7 3.5 1.8

Baltimore-Columbia-Towson

1,497,757 1,510,254 1,491,504 1,503,853 51,669 26,431 51,725 27,559 3.4 1.8 3.5 1.8

California-Lexington Park

58,129 58,254 57,638 57,621 2,080 1,047 2,111 1,070 3.6 1.8 3.7 1.9

Cumberland

43,508 44,324 43,175 43,889 1,842 1,139 1,868 1,266 4.2 2.6 4.3 2.9

Hagerstown-Martinsburg

133,920 132,585 133,084 131,473 4,529 3,401 4,649 3,931 3.4 2.6 3.5 3.0

Massachusetts

3,787,260 3,749,238 3,783,710 3,748,274 148,710 108,122 145,927 107,189 3.9 2.9 3.9 2.9

Barnstable Town

136,600 134,275 135,468 133,571 4,930 3,603 4,814 3,505 3.6 2.7 3.6 2.6

Boston-Cambridge-Nashua

2,807,982 2,795,048 2,807,702 2,794,089 102,057 76,094 100,637 76,421 3.6 2.7 3.6 2.7

Leominster-Gardner

78,520 76,962 78,431 77,257 3,514 2,458 3,555 2,476 4.5 3.2 4.5 3.2

New Bedford

85,332 83,287 84,869 83,194 4,517 3,185 4,535 3,200 5.3 3.8 5.3 3.8

Pittsfield

41,962 40,005 41,389 39,855 1,751 1,207 1,703 1,172 4.2 3.0 4.1 2.9

Springfield

370,868 363,603 370,419 362,145 17,255 12,233 17,053 11,978 4.7 3.4 4.6 3.3

Worcester

361,764 354,262 361,877 354,048 14,940 10,923 14,643 10,608 4.1 3.1 4.0 3.0

Michigan

4,878,546 5,022,969 4,881,928 5,067,869 219,599 216,356 207,769 214,924 4.5 4.3 4.3 4.2

Ann Arbor

194,230 203,981 194,013 206,085 8,696 8,085 7,608 7,960 4.5 4.0 3.9 3.9

Battle Creek

60,388 61,479 60,234 61,609 3,368 3,150 3,145 2,985 5.6 5.1 5.2 4.8

Bay City

49,602 50,904 49,467 51,227 2,820 2,632 2,590 2,537 5.7 5.2 5.2 5.0

Detroit-Warren-Dearborn

2,121,482 2,186,364 2,128,314 2,211,938 78,233 85,913 79,718 91,177 3.7 3.9 3.7 4.1

Flint

180,224 184,593 180,478 185,952 11,449 10,240 10,528 9,810 6.4 5.5 5.8 5.3

Grand Rapids-Wyoming

583,839 605,556 585,490 611,462 23,651 23,007 21,928 22,073 4.1 3.8 3.7 3.6

Jackson

73,537 75,324 73,193 75,895 3,806 3,469 3,432 3,324 5.2 4.6 4.7 4.4

Kalamazoo-Portage

165,904 170,000 165,638 171,423 7,891 7,654 7,415 7,314 4.8 4.5 4.5 4.3

Lansing-East Lansing

241,472 248,519 240,238 249,425 14,386 10,858 11,720 10,329 6.0 4.4 4.9 4.1

Midland

40,623 41,705 40,652 41,843 1,956 1,765 1,818 1,712 4.8 4.2 4.5 4.1

Monroe

74,359 76,270 73,909 76,280 4,215 3,523 3,600 3,346 5.7 4.6 4.9 4.4

Muskegon

78,117 79,474 78,402 79,820 4,470 4,159 4,213 3,853 5.7 5.2 5.4 4.8

Niles-Benton Harbor

73,172 75,150 72,975 75,498 3,703 3,565 3,423 3,383 5.1 4.7 4.7 4.5

Saginaw

83,086 85,377 82,871 86,026 5,252 4,793 4,774 4,594 6.3 5.6 5.8 5.3

Minnesota

3,102,966 3,126,858 3,097,547 3,119,622 78,425 101,485 82,519 100,210 2.5 3.2 2.7 3.2

Duluth

139,891 142,647 139,649 141,791 4,628 5,239 4,798 5,141 3.3 3.7 3.4 3.6

Mankato-North Mankato

59,311 62,389 59,629 62,356 1,301 1,675 1,325 1,633 2.2 2.7 2.2 2.6

Minneapolis-St. Paul-Bloomington

2,027,704 2,053,358 2,026,325 2,039,333 50,951 64,964 54,242 65,718 2.5 3.2 2.7 3.2

Rochester

128,742 130,700 128,259 130,823 2,770 3,460 2,903 3,365 2.2 2.6 2.3 2.6

St. Cloud

110,860 111,363 110,550 111,358 2,754 3,855 2,878 3,805 2.5 3.5 2.6 3.4

Mississippi

1,266,561 1,244,864 1,248,443 1,232,246 58,476 49,347 50,748 48,623 4.6 4.0 4.1 3.9

Gulfport-Biloxi-Pascagoula

166,881 165,371 165,201 164,222 7,624 6,279 6,749 6,328 4.6 3.8 4.1 3.9

Hattiesburg

69,803 68,243 69,232 68,172 2,862 2,394 2,461 2,384 4.1 3.5 3.6 3.5

Jackson

265,366 264,241 262,400 261,794 10,925 9,114 9,486 9,140 4.1 3.4 3.6 3.5

Missouri

3,090,233 3,168,350 3,067,092 3,129,790 84,176 106,153 86,871 104,953 2.7 3.4 2.8 3.4

Cape Girardeau

46,600 47,536 47,220 48,380 1,305 1,611 1,318 1,574 2.8 3.4 2.8 3.3

Columbia

100,120 104,115 99,986 103,375 2,243 2,893 2,348 2,811 2.2 2.8 2.3 2.7

Jefferson City

75,753 79,038 74,968 77,613 1,783 2,370 1,908 2,229 2.4 3.0 2.5 2.9

Joplin

85,087 86,454 83,870 85,863 2,212 2,950 2,269 2,757 2.6 3.4 2.7 3.2

Kansas City

1,177,117 1,210,745 1,162,367 1,187,339 35,956 38,170 34,363 40,946 3.1 3.2 3.0 3.4

St. Joseph

60,421 61,405 59,594 60,726 1,614 1,951 1,662 1,899 2.7 3.2 2.8 3.1

St. Louis(2)

1,486,674 1,518,965 1,472,089 1,505,893 42,892 55,138 44,643 55,006 2.9 3.6 3.0 3.7

Springfield

243,690 248,168 241,492 243,763 5,334 6,961 5,903 7,092 2.2 2.8 2.4 2.9

Montana

576,165 583,646 576,614 583,860 14,156 14,077 14,174 14,368 2.5 2.4 2.5 2.5

Billings

94,281 93,802 94,484 93,933 2,346 2,287 2,297 2,352 2.5 2.4 2.4 2.5

Great Falls

39,184 39,154 39,657 39,483 1,012 988 997 1,000 2.6 2.5 2.5 2.5

Missoula

66,916 68,462 66,764 68,457 1,627 1,632 1,592 1,687 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.5

Nebraska

1,069,635 1,066,383 1,060,293 1,052,499 27,990 24,526 26,128 20,239 2.6 2.3 2.5 1.9

Grand Island

46,354 46,320 45,649 45,736 1,097 1,001 1,043 838 2.4 2.2 2.3 1.8

Lincoln

189,544 191,192 189,365 189,614 4,475 3,967 4,412 3,433 2.4 2.1 2.3 1.8

Omaha-Council Bluffs

512,625 515,754 510,754 507,677 14,456 12,819 13,882 11,403 2.8 2.5 2.7 2.2

Nevada

1,561,199 1,595,040 1,572,396 1,612,709 86,534 92,136 88,890 93,113 5.5 5.8 5.7 5.8

Carson City

25,482 26,297 25,512 26,343 1,031 1,253 1,072 1,274 4.0 4.8 4.2 4.8

Las Vegas-Henderson-Paradise

1,154,210 1,181,483 1,164,524 1,195,494 71,005 72,463 72,337 72,889 6.2 6.1 6.2 6.1

Reno

258,666 264,964 260,146 267,644 9,198 11,779 9,818 12,138 3.6 4.4 3.8 4.5

New Hampshire

778,512 765,357 779,032 759,484 19,073 14,789 21,317 17,776 2.4 1.9 2.7 2.3

Dover-Durham

86,512 85,417 86,300 84,764 2,037 1,634 2,079 1,911 2.4 1.9 2.4 2.3

Manchester

121,103 121,121 121,360 120,379 2,904 2,206 3,255 2,657 2.4 1.8 2.7 2.2

Portsmouth

79,837 78,213 79,899 77,906 1,578 1,377 1,817 1,595 2.0 1.8 2.3 2.0

New Jersey

4,791,532 4,919,390 4,786,079 4,883,335 171,706 233,417 150,905 246,441 3.6 4.7 3.2 5.0

Atlantic City-Hammonton

125,196 129,591 125,573 128,930 5,784 7,424 5,143 7,805 4.6 5.7 4.1 6.1

Ocean City

58,917 60,990 58,188 59,948 2,113 2,755 1,811 2,790 3.6 4.5 3.1 4.7

Trenton

218,382 226,797 217,233 224,819 7,048 9,648 6,086 10,149 3.2 4.3 2.8 4.5

Vineland-Bridgeton

68,275 71,317 69,923 71,523 3,370 4,897 3,074 5,199 4.9 6.9 4.4 7.3

New Mexico

945,363 969,600 943,507 967,361 39,955 46,113 34,369 40,619 4.2 4.8 3.6 4.2

Albuquerque

439,703 448,426 439,006 449,694 17,352 20,631 15,052 18,629 3.9 4.6 3.4 4.1

Farmington

48,010 49,377 49,546 49,370 2,397 2,726 2,052 2,357 5.0 5.5 4.1 4.8

Las Cruces

98,157 101,523 99,145 100,231 4,537 5,370 3,796 4,522 4.6 5.3 3.8 4.5

Santa Fe

73,195 73,259 72,132 73,105 2,768 3,207 2,368 2,890 3.8 4.4 3.3 4.0

New York

9,700,959 9,869,843 9,673,378 9,830,000 417,425 407,509 409,978 431,632 4.3 4.1 4.2 4.4

Albany-Schenectady-Troy

460,075 474,087 459,379 474,095 14,881 13,624 15,008 14,886 3.2 2.9 3.3 3.1

Binghamton

104,450 105,511 104,004 105,149 4,111 3,538 4,102 3,920 3.9 3.4 3.9 3.7

Buffalo-Cheektowaga-Niagara Falls

543,685 561,070 545,287 558,088 20,921 18,691 21,620 21,118 3.8 3.3 4.0 3.8

Elmira

35,136 35,191 34,848 35,137 1,357 1,263 1,398 1,369 3.9 3.6 4.0 3.9

Glens Falls

61,652 62,692 61,205 62,302 1,910 1,684 1,908 1,851 3.1 2.7 3.1 3.0

Ithaca

48,786 50,745 48,535 50,561 1,628 1,455 1,533 1,606 3.3 2.9 3.2 3.2

Kingston

88,311 89,706 87,827 89,507 3,006 2,798 3,076 3,173 3.4 3.1 3.5 3.5

New York-Newark-Jersey City

10,317,682 10,502,040 10,291,643 10,444,797 436,572 483,456 412,273 507,038 4.2 4.6 4.0 4.9

Rochester

526,636 535,918 523,754 533,677 19,147 16,936 19,488 18,939 3.6 3.2 3.7 3.5

Syracuse

313,120 320,744 312,879 321,391 11,394 10,105 11,467 11,163 3.6 3.2 3.7 3.5

Utica-Rome

129,895 131,042 128,753 130,373 4,897 4,252 4,942 4,642 3.8 3.2 3.8 3.6

Watertown-Fort Drum

45,818 46,118 45,438 45,962 1,761 1,634 1,816 1,763 3.8 3.5 4.0 3.8

North Carolina

5,203,845 5,288,277 5,167,884 5,271,911 203,275 188,930 215,096 189,342 3.9 3.6 4.2 3.6

Asheville

239,802 243,597 237,906 244,124 7,655 6,956 8,150 7,186 3.2 2.9 3.4 2.9

Burlington

83,924 84,598 83,116 84,218 3,465 3,201 3,604 3,123 4.1 3.8 4.3 3.7

Charlotte-Concord-Gastonia

1,441,837 1,490,026 1,429,061 1,477,292 52,124 49,999 55,447 48,178 3.6 3.4 3.9 3.3

Durham-Chapel Hill

322,625 329,995 318,382 327,237 11,049 10,424 11,524 10,392 3.4 3.2 3.6 3.2

Fayetteville

147,093 146,205 146,761 146,091 8,178 7,356 8,590 7,225 5.6 5.0 5.9 4.9

Goldsboro

51,115 51,081 50,400 50,992 2,232 2,001 2,328 2,020 4.4 3.9 4.6 4.0

Greensboro-High Point

362,897 365,996 362,556 369,102 15,999 14,985 16,964 14,892 4.4 4.1 4.7 4.0

Greenville

88,669 89,225 87,740 88,952 4,083 3,889 4,243 3,814 4.6 4.4 4.8 4.3

Hickory-Lenoir-Morganton

176,516 176,724 174,723 175,349 6,413 6,022 6,813 6,045 3.6 3.4 3.9 3.4

Jacksonville

66,724 68,233 68,483 69,831 3,178 2,914 3,392 2,936 4.8 4.3 5.0 4.2

New Bern

52,609 52,811 51,939 52,572 2,011 1,854 2,142 1,866 3.8 3.5 4.1 3.5

Raleigh

791,481 807,194 780,191 803,004 26,272 25,549 27,788 25,762 3.3 3.2 3.6 3.2

Rocky Mount

62,784 62,648 62,397 62,011 3,691 3,231 3,968 3,126 5.9 5.2 6.4 5.0

Wilmington

163,189 162,699 161,648 162,381 5,658 5,436 6,021 5,441 3.5 3.3 3.7 3.4

Winston-Salem

332,790 337,318 329,335 336,419 12,961 11,872 13,635 11,803 3.9 3.5 4.1 3.5

North Dakota

421,557 424,570 420,574 420,583 8,272 7,991 8,650 6,492 2.0 1.9 2.1 1.5

Bismarck

73,943 73,178 72,740 70,983 1,378 1,348 1,482 1,096 1.9 1.8 2.0 1.5

Fargo

150,755 149,516 149,728 148,770 2,544 2,795 2,640 2,389 1.7 1.9 1.8 1.6

Grand Forks

54,231 54,743 53,506 54,690 1,179 1,325 1,172 1,119 2.2 2.4 2.2 2.0

Ohio

5,813,432 5,852,699 5,789,723 5,873,539 250,629 200,943 240,799 216,630 4.3 3.4 4.2 3.7

Akron

351,123 351,529 349,835 353,110 15,054 12,356 14,821 13,731 4.3 3.5 4.2 3.9

Canton-Massillon

195,785 194,607 194,886 195,998 8,161 6,657 8,115 7,544 4.2 3.4 4.2 3.8

Cincinnati

1,150,659 1,169,502 1,150,642 1,171,566 44,695 39,627 42,742 41,585 3.9 3.4 3.7 3.5

Cleveland-Elyria

1,047,433 1,066,838 1,042,913 1,054,311 51,628 37,795 47,135 39,353 4.9 3.5 4.5 3.7

Columbus

1,136,942 1,133,506 1,131,969 1,141,397 42,301 35,311 41,389 38,422 3.7 3.1 3.7 3.4

Dayton

384,847 388,368 382,958 393,395 16,422 13,741 15,948 15,016 4.3 3.5 4.2 3.8

Lima

47,379 46,474 47,078 46,707 2,009 1,734 1,997 1,937 4.2 3.7 4.2 4.1

Mansfield

51,096 50,828 50,570 51,089 2,472 2,032 2,313 2,106 4.8 4.0 4.6 4.1

Springfield

63,102 63,826 62,793 64,231 2,926 2,306 2,665 2,397 4.6 3.6 4.2 3.7

Toledo

294,308 295,445 293,411 295,519 13,000 11,032 13,037 11,905 4.4 3.7 4.4 4.0

Weirton-Steubenville(1)

50,665 50,453 50,543 50,563 2,798 2,590 2,883 2,934 5.5 5.1 5.7 5.8

Youngstown-Warren-Boardman

230,483 228,877 229,166 231,118 12,072 9,441 12,002 10,419 5.2 4.1 5.2 4.5

Oklahoma

1,894,342 1,949,088 1,888,196 1,959,914 59,387 59,480 62,930 65,075 3.1 3.1 3.3 3.3

Enid

27,056 27,531 26,649 27,760 796 797 829 884 2.9 2.9 3.1 3.2

Lawton

50,762 51,996 50,526 51,833 1,873 1,885 1,988 2,102 3.7 3.6 3.9 4.1

Oklahoma City

719,798 741,198 716,449 741,267 20,683 21,061 22,162 23,375 2.9 2.8 3.1 3.2

Tulsa

490,314 504,397 487,346 505,399 15,664 15,414 16,717 16,901 3.2 3.1 3.4 3.3

Oregon

2,191,021 2,159,181 2,200,720 2,162,031 93,950 83,019 102,597 82,788 4.3 3.8 4.7 3.8

Albany

62,004 60,276 62,066 60,534 2,948 2,513 3,196 2,458 4.8 4.2 5.1 4.1

Bend-Redmond

104,100 101,800 104,897 102,310 4,277 3,759 4,583 3,796 4.1 3.7 4.4 3.7

Corvallis

47,718 47,594 47,898 47,616 1,937 1,595 2,040 1,585 4.1 3.4 4.3 3.3

Eugene

182,118 176,586 182,970 176,246 8,803 7,395 9,578 7,346 4.8 4.2 5.2 4.2

Grants Pass

36,553 36,035 37,040 36,272 2,108 1,781 2,279 1,833 5.8 4.9 6.2 5.1

Medford

106,873 105,841 108,115 105,476 5,252 5,000 5,824 4,605 4.9 4.7 5.4 4.4

Portland-Vancouver-Hillsboro

1,370,587 1,365,110 1,379,779 1,369,375 54,696 48,555 61,022 50,889 4.0 3.6 4.4 3.7

Salem

215,232 212,058 216,064 212,609 9,637 8,180 10,400 8,141 4.5 3.9 4.8 3.8

Pennsylvania

6,543,436 6,546,338 6,540,760 6,575,974 321,492 247,097 337,045 284,755 4.9 3.8 5.2 4.3

Allentown-Bethlehem-Easton

455,338 456,323 456,434 457,195 21,372 18,389 22,072 21,087 4.7 4.0 4.8 4.6

Altoona

59,949 59,508 59,862 59,695 3,109 2,240 3,220 2,523 5.2 3.8 5.4 4.2

Bloomsburg-Berwick

43,255 43,170 43,306 43,567 2,139 1,618 2,150 1,811 4.9 3.7 5.0 4.2

Chambersburg-Waynesboro

79,212 78,539 78,554 79,413 3,389 2,498 3,495 2,971 4.3 3.2 4.4 3.7

East Stroudsburg

84,711 82,600 84,550 83,283 5,249 3,882 5,683 4,465 6.2 4.7 6.7 5.4

Erie

127,083 125,247 126,664 126,513 6,795 5,836 7,088 6,610 5.3 4.7 5.6 5.2

Gettysburg

55,254 55,302 54,884 55,638 2,234 1,692 2,361 1,977 4.0 3.1 4.3 3.6

Harrisburg-Carlisle

310,414 314,447 311,256 316,722 13,343 10,296 13,862 12,235 4.3 3.3 4.5 3.9

Johnstown

55,577 55,209 55,474 55,459 3,594 2,597 3,677 2,930 6.5 4.7 6.6 5.3

Lancaster

294,873 295,657 293,574 297,989 12,248 9,436 12,759 10,713 4.2 3.2 4.3 3.6

Lebanon

74,140 75,514 74,112 76,216 3,259 2,499 3,438 2,931 4.4 3.3 4.6 3.8

Philadelphia-Camden-Wilmington

3,234,078 3,284,115 3,240,035 3,289,771 145,589 130,238 148,994 146,674 4.5 4.0 4.6 4.5

Pittsburgh

1,192,444 1,190,418 1,188,995 1,189,492 60,051 44,476 62,862 50,878 5.0 3.7 5.3 4.3

Reading

215,909 215,726 215,546 216,815 10,440 8,304 10,984 9,666 4.8 3.8 5.1 4.5

Scranton--Wilkes-Barre--Hazleton

278,591 279,982 278,866 282,086 15,538 12,394 16,555 13,978 5.6 4.4 5.9 5.0

State College

75,849 75,598 77,498 77,669 3,354 2,387 3,384 2,846 4.4 3.2 4.4 3.7

Williamsport

55,292 54,776 55,351 55,260 2,850 2,023 2,912 2,329 5.2 3.7 5.3 4.2

York-Hanover

241,158 240,074 241,252 241,310 10,893 8,379 11,225 9,593 4.5 3.5 4.7 4.0

Rhode Island

575,096 573,927 574,529 574,387 19,146 13,532 22,942 17,921 3.3 2.4 4.0 3.1

Providence-Warwick

708,267 703,288 708,170 704,034 25,337 17,979 28,982 22,233 3.6 2.6 4.1 3.2

South Carolina

2,390,049 2,499,634 2,382,975 2,466,428 80,231 87,668 83,989 59,616 3.4 3.5 3.5 2.4

Charleston-North Charleston

410,539 439,155 407,033 430,186 12,002 12,943 12,565 8,998 2.9 2.9 3.1 2.1

Columbia

401,991 416,160 399,991 411,188 13,026 14,014 13,590 9,422 3.2 3.4 3.4 2.3

Florence

95,810 100,813 95,990 99,277 3,420 3,723 3,538 2,459 3.6 3.7 3.7 2.5

Greenville-Anderson-Mauldin

440,907 457,809 438,963 452,667 13,519 14,901 13,991 10,018 3.1 3.3 3.2 2.2

Hilton Head Island-Bluffton-Beaufort

91,794 95,775 91,019 93,915 2,977 3,261 3,132 2,176 3.2 3.4 3.4 2.3

Myrtle Beach-Conway-North Myrtle Beach

216,645 225,619 213,835 221,102 8,303 8,369 9,094 6,641 3.8 3.7 4.3 3.0

Spartanburg

164,947 172,559 164,452 170,567 5,907 6,295 5,904 4,244 3.6 3.6 3.6 2.5

Sumter

42,078 43,590 41,532 42,816 1,636 1,812 1,739 1,257 3.9 4.2 4.2 2.9

South Dakota

481,638 488,196 479,996 487,057 8,781 8,279 10,876 9,886 1.8 1.7 2.3 2.0

Rapid City

81,025 81,679 81,893 81,713 1,398 1,324 1,819 1,581 1.7 1.6 2.2 1.9

Sioux Falls

163,908 167,989 163,799 166,926 2,416 2,330 3,130 2,972 1.5 1.4 1.9 1.8

Tennessee

3,364,137 3,418,790 3,343,433 3,370,924 124,053 124,670 120,044 113,114 3.7 3.6 3.6 3.4

Chattanooga

274,594 281,588 273,250 278,336 9,562 9,907 9,539 9,495 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.4

Clarksville

118,521 120,047 118,059 119,079 5,244 5,348 4,990 4,959 4.4 4.5 4.2 4.2

Cleveland

57,175 58,247 56,405 57,330 2,266 2,286 2,125 2,090 4.0 3.9 3.8 3.6

Jackson

64,751 64,985 64,181 63,810 2,446 2,329 2,294 2,123 3.8 3.6 3.6 3.3

Johnson City

91,599 92,799 90,823 91,545 3,457 3,479 3,378 3,154 3.8 3.7 3.7 3.4

Kingsport-Bristol-Bristol

135,527 138,845 135,235 137,436 5,112 5,042 5,058 4,677 3.8 3.6 3.7 3.4

Knoxville

442,228 452,681 437,773 445,115 15,147 15,580 14,443 13,706 3.4 3.4 3.3 3.1

Memphis

637,781 635,018 632,931 622,650 30,200 28,527 29,017 27,222 4.7 4.5 4.6 4.4

Morristown

53,600 53,918 52,805 52,876 2,070 2,038 1,940 1,804 3.9 3.8 3.7 3.4

Nashville-Davidson--Murfreesboro--Franklin

1,130,459 1,158,959 1,124,397 1,142,130 32,844 33,228 32,421 30,905 2.9 2.9 2.9 2.7

Texas

14,678,367 15,180,276 14,674,216 15,188,537 590,021 683,046 579,361 685,589 4.0 4.5 3.9 4.5

Abilene

81,010 83,148 81,115 82,984 2,884 3,291 2,811 3,251 3.6 4.0 3.5 3.9

Amarillo

135,648 137,401 135,052 137,008 4,206 4,911 4,076 4,887 3.1 3.6 3.0 3.6

Austin-Round Rock

1,400,934 1,454,310 1,402,781 1,453,862 41,598 55,514 41,112 56,451 3.0 3.8 2.9 3.9

Beaumont-Port Arthur

164,593 171,053 164,943 170,966 10,208 11,529 10,037 11,377 6.2 6.7 6.1 6.7

Brownsville-Harlingen

178,466 180,811 178,050 182,582 10,389 11,104 9,993 10,874 5.8 6.1 5.6 6.0

College Station-Bryan

140,893 147,330 140,994 145,943 4,813 5,635 4,722 5,517 3.4 3.8 3.3 3.8

Corpus Christi

203,353 206,951 202,281 206,009 10,101 10,286 9,980 10,291 5.0 5.0 4.9 5.0

Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington

4,256,924 4,459,874 4,270,616 4,466,361 155,603 184,966 153,423 186,757 3.7 4.1 3.6 4.2

El Paso

371,770 382,217 371,698 381,153 16,019 19,637 15,846 19,664 4.3 5.1 4.3 5.2

Houston-The Woodlands-Sugar Land

3,510,757 3,624,944 3,512,045 3,634,817 152,353 174,430 150,900 176,656 4.3 4.8 4.3 4.9

Killeen-Temple

182,815 187,982 182,609 187,114 8,447 9,318 8,208 9,323 4.6 5.0 4.5 5.0

Laredo

117,219 119,256 116,989 119,462 4,840 5,468 4,522 5,257 4.1 4.6 3.9 4.4

Longview

96,916 99,717 96,730 99,821 4,255 4,665 4,207 4,755 4.4 4.7 4.3 4.8

Lubbock

169,032 171,682 168,007 171,307 6,364 6,971 5,883 6,618 3.8 4.1 3.5 3.9

McAllen-Edinburg-Mission

370,173 382,111 370,747 383,331 25,227 26,790 24,719 26,209 6.8 7.0 6.7 6.8

Midland

109,467 115,704 109,842 115,843 3,221 3,295 3,111 3,282 2.9 2.8 2.8 2.8

Odessa

83,463 86,555 83,401 86,613 3,189 3,260 3,111 3,279 3.8 3.8 3.7 3.8

San Angelo

56,211 57,715 56,134 57,386 1,962 2,348 1,926 2,326 3.5 4.1 3.4 4.1

San Antonio-New Braunfels

1,252,906 1,291,344 1,250,433 1,289,819 47,572 54,813 46,616 55,130 3.8 4.2 3.7 4.3

Sherman-Denison

66,150 67,915 65,934 67,972 2,485 2,936 2,475 2,949 3.8 4.3 3.8 4.3

Texarkana

62,873 63,986 62,329 63,430 2,923 2,759 2,801 2,679 4.6 4.3 4.5 4.2

Tyler

112,409 114,119 112,020 114,014 4,284 4,857 4,238 4,859 3.8 4.3 3.8 4.3

Victoria

44,153 45,525 44,218 45,433 1,885 2,070 1,837 2,055 4.3 4.5 4.2 4.5

Waco

132,718 138,791 133,968 138,404 5,132 5,793 4,884 5,711 3.9 4.2 3.6 4.1

Wichita Falls

64,520 65,280 63,989 65,095 2,622 2,935 2,544 2,862 4.1 4.5 4.0 4.4

Utah

1,745,923 1,820,250 1,751,602 1,813,950 40,600 49,171 44,341 54,015 2.3 2.7 2.5 3.0

Logan

76,025 78,206 76,062 77,846 1,508 1,823 1,726 2,075 2.0 2.3 2.3 2.7

Ogden-Clearfield

357,414 371,940 356,890 369,685 7,975 9,788 8,937 10,809 2.2 2.6 2.5 2.9

Provo-Orem

347,130 361,617 350,334 361,749 7,527 9,658 8,354 10,792 2.2 2.7 2.4 3.0

St. George

85,569 88,489 87,595 90,560 2,209 2,666 2,498 2,870 2.6 3.0 2.9 3.2

Salt Lake City

722,612 756,967 724,088 750,290 17,075 20,683 18,220 22,370 2.4 2.7 2.5 3.0

Vermont

347,759 355,241 346,470 353,041 9,078 6,540 9,575 7,719 2.6 1.8 2.8 2.2

Burlington-South Burlington

128,582 131,786 128,060 130,250 2,848 1,924 2,958 2,396 2.2 1.5 2.3 1.8

Virginia

4,480,075 4,657,422 4,463,166 4,616,674 135,535 124,366 148,852 140,912 3.0 2.7 3.3 3.1

Blacksburg-Christiansburg-Radford

92,618 94,606 92,417 95,465 2,989 2,710 3,196 3,212 3.2 2.9 3.5 3.4

Charlottesville

122,368 129,121 122,145 126,874 3,611 3,236 3,878 3,684 3.0 2.5 3.2 2.9

Harrisonburg

67,635 71,216 66,928 70,142 2,240 1,971 2,381 2,336 3.3 2.8 3.6 3.3

Lynchburg

122,343 127,802 122,575 126,583 4,336 4,149 4,938 4,707 3.5 3.2 4.0 3.7

Richmond

710,794 742,294 707,937 734,739 22,043 20,911 24,801 23,792 3.1 2.8 3.5 3.2

Roanoke

159,158 165,439 158,796 164,510 4,807 4,448 5,316 5,042 3.0 2.7 3.3 3.1

Staunton-Waynesboro

61,701 64,658 61,403 63,542 1,778 1,599 2,046 1,714 2.9 2.5 3.3 2.7

Virginia Beach-Norfolk-Newport News

867,088 892,845 863,588 883,875 29,039 25,504 31,859 28,927 3.3 2.9 3.7 3.3

Winchester

78,643 81,238 77,978 80,312 2,093 1,997 2,264 2,284 2.7 2.5 2.9 2.8

Washington

3,995,954 4,077,702 4,010,385 4,063,996 159,342 144,465 179,992 163,391 4.0 3.5 4.5 4.0

Bellingham

114,730 116,243 114,943 112,750 5,086 3,982 6,101 4,774 4.4 3.4 5.3 4.2

Bremerton-Silverdale

128,050 130,766 128,843 130,053 5,292 4,220 6,339 5,093 4.1 3.2 4.9 3.9

Kennewick-Richland

153,547 155,377 153,504 153,325 6,963 5,541 8,264 6,685 4.5 3.6 5.4 4.4

Longview

48,483 49,267 49,101 49,127 2,493 1,954 2,961 2,342 5.1 4.0 6.0 4.8

Mount Vernon-Anacortes

62,050 63,106 62,385 62,689 2,881 2,235 3,395 2,628 4.6 3.5 5.4 4.2

Olympia-Tumwater

145,945 151,336 147,627 149,781 6,199 4,892 7,396 5,853 4.2 3.2 5.0 3.9

Seattle-Tacoma-Bellevue

2,222,257 2,285,366 2,228,124 2,282,960 79,449 81,857 83,954 87,548 3.6 3.6 3.8 3.8

Spokane-Spokane Valley

282,742 289,482 285,983 287,767 12,271 9,554 14,724 11,616 4.3 3.3 5.1 4.0

Walla Walla

32,798 33,069 32,908 32,834 1,348 1,053 1,591 1,264 4.1 3.2 4.8 3.8

Wenatchee

74,198 70,189 70,137 68,863 2,601 2,009 3,546 2,716 3.5 2.9 5.1 3.9

Yakima

137,837 137,226 136,641 138,949 6,681 5,087 8,438 6,488 4.8 3.7 6.2 4.7

West Virginia

792,644 793,974 789,158 798,058 32,638 29,907 33,785 34,952 4.1 3.8 4.3 4.4

Beckley

46,585 47,751 46,548 47,839 1,923 1,778 2,010 2,005 4.1 3.7 4.3 4.2

Charleston

91,098 91,440 90,851 91,715 3,645 3,361 3,846 3,988 4.0 3.7 4.2 4.3

Huntington-Ashland

145,757 147,459 145,586 149,060 6,671 6,362 6,601 6,792 4.6 4.3 4.5 4.6

Morgantown

71,093 70,841 70,998 71,860 2,763 2,314 2,840 2,605 3.9 3.3 4.0 3.6

Parkersburg-Vienna

39,263 39,458 39,239 39,487 1,629 1,496 1,742 1,761 4.1 3.8 4.4 4.5

Wheeling

60,464 59,700 60,120 59,698 2,850 2,399 2,911 2,759 4.7 4.0 4.8 4.6

Wisconsin

3,117,881 3,179,988 3,106,353 3,169,907 97,846 100,500 98,179 116,996 3.1 3.2 3.2 3.7

Appleton

133,248 136,294 133,081 135,938 3,728 3,804 3,747 4,534 2.8 2.8 2.8 3.3

Eau Claire

93,712 95,427 93,673 95,478 2,677 2,845 2,747 3,396 2.9 3.0 2.9 3.6

Fond du Lac

57,352 58,375 56,895 58,229 1,673 1,701 1,692 1,925 2.9 2.9 3.0 3.3

Green Bay

174,611 178,067 173,987 177,916 4,948 5,167 5,061 6,072 2.8 2.9 2.9 3.4

Janesville-Beloit

86,544 88,478 86,335 88,207 3,143 3,182 3,292 3,599 3.6 3.6 3.8 4.1

La Crosse-Onalaska

76,305 78,285 76,532 78,625 1,978 2,106 1,913 2,479 2.6 2.7 2.5 3.2

Madison

400,680 407,958 397,651 405,543 9,620 10,296 9,571 12,153 2.4 2.5 2.4 3.0

Milwaukee-Waukesha-West Allis

819,068 834,664 819,886 834,753 29,221 29,888 29,293 34,630 3.6 3.6 3.6 4.1

Oshkosh-Neenah

93,543 95,147 93,153 94,861 2,702 2,795 2,723 3,344 2.9 2.9 2.9 3.5

Racine

100,041 102,560 99,958 102,606 3,887 3,873 3,997 4,492 3.9 3.8 4.0 4.4

Sheboygan

62,633 64,001 62,243 63,611 1,626 1,695 1,647 1,973 2.6 2.6 2.6 3.1

Wausau

73,725 74,571 72,896 73,966 2,040 2,222 2,081 2,523 2.8 3.0 2.9 3.4

Wyoming

295,171 301,929 295,456 299,957 9,778 8,307 10,087 8,093 3.3 2.8 3.4 2.7

Casper

39,124 40,102 39,362 40,323 1,465 1,234 1,532 1,224 3.7 3.1 3.9 3.0

Cheyenne

48,718 50,181 49,089 50,008 1,639 1,412 1,727 1,424 3.4 2.8 3.5 2.8

Puerto Rico

1,146,279 1,185,535 1,161,635 1,194,766 65,477 80,526 69,531 72,373 5.7 6.8 6.0 6.1

Aguadilla-Isabela

93,112 97,387 95,052 97,505 7,288 8,804 7,522 7,508 7.8 9.0 7.9 7.7

Arecibo

55,698 57,611 56,757 58,230 4,195 4,443 4,360 3,935 7.5 7.7 7.7 6.8

Guayama

20,422 21,379 20,535 21,528 1,616 2,020 1,621 1,846 7.9 9.4 7.9 8.6

Mayaguez

28,807 30,779 29,360 31,044 1,975 2,412 2,007 2,033 6.9 7.8 6.8 6.5

Ponce

95,490 99,078 97,091 101,025 6,897 8,939 7,636 8,700 7.2 9.0 7.9 8.6

San German

36,129 38,149 36,809 38,510 2,675 3,459 2,754 3,095 7.4 9.1 7.5 8.0

San Juan-Carolina-Caguas

773,908 796,480 782,157 801,831 37,688 46,095 39,986 41,096 4.9 5.8 5.1 5.1

Footnotes
(1) For operational reasons, these interstate areas are listed under the state that accounts for the larger share of the population, which is different from the state that contains the first principal city.
(2) The area boundary does not reflect the Office of Management and Budget delineation.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data refer to place of residence. Data for Puerto Rico are derived from a monthly household survey similar to the Current Population Survey. Area delineations are based on Office of Management and Budget Bulletin No. 18-03, dated April 10, 2018, and are available on the BLS website at https://www.bls.gov/lau/lausmsa.htm. Areas in the six New England states are Metropolitan New England City and Town Areas (NECTAs), while areas in other states are county-based. Some metropolitan areas lie in two or more states. They are listed under the state containing the first principal city, unless otherwise footnoted. Estimates for the latest month are subject to revision the following month.


LABOR FORCE DATA
NOT SEASONALLY ADJUSTED

Table 2. Civilian labor force and unemployment by state, selected metropolitan area, and metropolitan division(1)
State, area, and division Civilian labor force Unemployed
July August Number Percent of labor force
2022 2023 2022 2023(p) July August July August
2022 2023 2022 2023(p) 2022 2023 2022 2023(p)

California

19,233,954 19,362,806 19,237,794 19,340,754 789,198 932,759 787,545 993,596 4.1 4.8 4.1 5.1

Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim

6,542,251 6,601,985 6,516,103 6,596,795 291,279 327,255 281,906 354,634 4.5 5.0 4.3 5.4

Anaheim-Santa Ana-Irvine

1,584,783 1,596,727 1,588,191 1,592,508 49,953 57,528 51,238 62,648 3.2 3.6 3.2 3.9

Los Angeles-Long Beach-Glendale

4,957,468 5,005,258 4,927,912 5,004,287 241,326 269,727 230,668 291,986 4.9 5.4 4.7 5.8

San Francisco-Oakland-Hayward

2,545,076 2,567,476 2,544,571 2,552,969 73,812 95,215 76,241 102,940 2.9 3.7 3.0 4.0

Oakland-Hayward-Berkeley

1,378,477 1,389,842 1,380,264 1,385,177 45,535 57,749 46,817 62,283 3.3 4.2 3.4 4.5

San Francisco-Redwood City-South San Francisco

1,033,910 1,044,563 1,031,867 1,035,460 24,797 33,017 25,820 35,752 2.4 3.2 2.5 3.5

San Rafael

132,689 133,071 132,440 132,332 3,480 4,449 3,604 4,905 2.6 3.3 2.7 3.7

District of Columbia

398,415 399,680 391,193 395,592 18,818 21,148 17,834 21,877 4.7 5.3 4.6 5.5

Washington-Arlington-Alexandria(2)

3,470,109 3,556,199 3,441,495 3,524,971 109,276 86,075 112,175 93,214 3.1 2.4 3.3 2.6

Silver Spring-Frederick-Rockville(3)

693,430 698,402 687,130 691,044 21,546 10,900 21,404 11,158 3.1 1.6 3.1 1.6

Washington-Arlington-Alexandria(2)

2,776,679 2,857,797 2,754,365 2,833,927 87,730 75,175 90,771 82,056 3.2 2.6 3.3 2.9

Florida

10,794,492 11,174,442 10,838,084 11,226,082 325,193 342,175 329,096 350,845 3.0 3.1 3.0 3.1

Miami-Fort Lauderdale-West Palm Beach

3,202,815 3,278,629 3,220,557 3,278,992 93,448 85,247 95,668 86,772 2.9 2.6 3.0 2.6

Fort Lauderdale-Pompano Beach-Deerfield Beach

1,069,190 1,103,343 1,073,283 1,110,853 30,949 33,577 31,626 34,491 2.9 3.0 2.9 3.1

Miami-Miami Beach-Kendall

1,368,585 1,389,199 1,380,890 1,382,332 38,952 26,099 40,178 25,964 2.8 1.9 2.9 1.9

West Palm Beach-Boca Raton-Delray Beach

765,040 786,087 766,384 785,807 23,547 25,571 23,864 26,317 3.1 3.3 3.1 3.3

Illinois

6,540,824 6,484,426 6,503,782 6,487,015 308,164 293,072 312,947 341,077 4.7 4.5 4.8 5.3

Chicago-Naperville-Elgin(2)

5,007,773 4,953,097 4,989,546 4,938,619 243,330 209,391 247,811 250,569 4.9 4.2 5.0 5.1

Chicago-Naperville-Arlington Heights

3,872,217 3,813,278 3,866,315 3,795,581 197,621 150,727 201,205 188,092 5.1 4.0 5.2 5.0

Elgin

325,624 327,323 321,674 330,667 13,481 17,472 13,624 19,055 4.1 5.3 4.2 5.8

Gary(3)

342,856 344,276 339,845 341,756 14,953 18,277 15,334 18,114 4.4 5.3 4.5 5.3

Lake County-Kenosha County(2)

467,076 468,220 461,712 470,615 17,275 22,915 17,648 25,308 3.7 4.9 3.8 5.4

Massachusetts

3,787,260 3,749,238 3,783,710 3,748,274 148,710 108,122 145,927 107,189 3.9 2.9 3.9 2.9

Boston-Cambridge-Nashua(2)

2,807,982 2,795,048 2,807,702 2,794,089 102,057 76,094 100,637 76,421 3.6 2.7 3.6 2.7

Boston-Cambridge-Newton

1,682,690 1,681,798 1,681,794 1,681,888 59,654 44,546 58,007 44,063 3.5 2.6 3.4 2.6

Brockton-Bridgewater-Easton

109,307 108,129 109,648 108,369 5,054 3,859 4,974 3,813 4.6 3.6 4.5 3.5

Framingham

158,626 157,127 158,220 156,690 5,243 4,010 5,121 3,944 3.3 2.6 3.2 2.5

Haverhill-Newburyport-Amesbury Town(2)

119,253 117,429 119,378 117,083 3,921 2,963 4,043 3,112 3.3 2.5 3.4 2.7

Lawrence-Methuen Town-Salem(2)

99,568 98,281 99,861 98,618 5,092 3,616 5,105 3,714 5.1 3.7 5.1 3.8

Lowell-Billerica-Chelmsford(2)

195,964 193,910 196,098 194,275 7,572 5,558 7,580 5,634 3.9 2.9 3.9 2.9

Lynn-Saugus-Marblehead

85,585 84,563 85,547 84,643 3,618 2,640 3,546 2,622 4.2 3.1 4.1 3.1

Nashua(2)

177,935 176,059 178,352 174,637 4,681 3,674 5,187 4,355 2.6 2.1 2.9 2.5

Peabody-Salem-Beverly

92,807 92,500 92,631 92,499 3,489 2,488 3,380 2,470 3.8 2.7 3.6 2.7

Taunton-Middleborough-Norton

86,247 85,252 86,173 85,387 3,733 2,740 3,694 2,694 4.3 3.2 4.3 3.2

Michigan

4,878,546 5,022,969 4,881,928 5,067,869 219,599 216,356 207,769 214,924 4.5 4.3 4.3 4.2

Detroit-Warren-Dearborn

2,121,482 2,186,364 2,128,314 2,211,938 78,233 85,913 79,718 91,177 3.7 3.9 3.7 4.1

Detroit-Dearborn-Livonia

790,537 816,364 793,794 825,284 37,269 39,378 36,557 41,306 4.7 4.8 4.6 5.0

Warren-Troy-Farmington Hills

1,330,944 1,370,000 1,334,520 1,386,652 40,963 46,535 43,161 49,870 3.1 3.4 3.2 3.6

New York

9,700,959 9,869,843 9,673,378 9,830,000 417,425 407,509 409,978 431,632 4.3 4.1 4.2 4.4

New York-Newark-Jersey City(2)

10,317,682 10,502,040 10,291,643 10,444,797 436,572 483,456 412,273 507,038 4.2 4.6 4.0 4.9

Dutchess County-Putnam County

200,470 200,488 198,609 199,936 6,562 5,947 6,546 6,648 3.3 3.0 3.3 3.3

Nassau County-Suffolk County

1,566,628 1,586,282 1,559,180 1,578,479 51,164 47,102 52,439 53,247 3.3 3.0 3.4 3.4

Newark(3)

1,305,048 1,344,811 1,302,321 1,334,359 47,901 65,606 42,118 69,189 3.7 4.9 3.2 5.2

New York-Jersey City-White Plains(2)

7,245,536 7,370,459 7,231,533 7,332,023 330,945 364,801 311,170 377,954 4.6 4.9 4.3 5.2

Pennsylvania

6,543,436 6,546,338 6,540,760 6,575,974 321,492 247,097 337,045 284,755 4.9 3.8 5.2 4.3

Philadelphia-Camden-Wilmington(2)

3,234,078 3,284,115 3,240,035 3,289,771 145,589 130,238 148,994 146,674 4.5 4.0 4.6 4.5

Camden(3)

682,600 705,212 683,860 700,087 24,984 33,446 22,260 35,211 3.7 4.7 3.3 5.0

Montgomery County-Bucks County-Chester County

1,128,507 1,138,987 1,126,693 1,141,414 45,477 35,297 47,829 41,303 4.0 3.1 4.2 3.6

Philadelphia

1,034,902 1,044,407 1,041,178 1,051,322 57,754 45,270 61,235 52,496 5.6 4.3 5.9 5.0

Wilmington(3)

388,069 395,509 388,304 396,948 17,374 16,225 17,670 17,664 4.5 4.1 4.6 4.4

Texas

14,678,367 15,180,276 14,674,216 15,188,537 590,021 683,046 579,361 685,589 4.0 4.5 3.9 4.5

Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington

4,256,924 4,459,874 4,270,616 4,466,361 155,603 184,966 153,423 186,757 3.7 4.1 3.6 4.2

Dallas-Plano-Irving

2,882,062 3,021,458 2,893,531 3,028,658 104,316 125,401 102,914 126,780 3.6 4.2 3.6 4.2

Fort Worth-Arlington

1,374,862 1,438,416 1,377,085 1,437,703 51,287 59,565 50,509 59,977 3.7 4.1 3.7 4.2

Washington

3,995,954 4,077,702 4,010,385 4,063,996 159,342 144,465 179,992 163,391 4.0 3.5 4.5 4.0

Seattle-Tacoma-Bellevue

2,222,257 2,285,366 2,228,124 2,282,960 79,449 81,857 83,954 87,548 3.6 3.6 3.8 3.8

Seattle-Bellevue-Everett

1,774,264 1,826,490 1,774,746 1,826,233 58,764 65,086 59,172 67,330 3.3 3.6 3.3 3.7

Tacoma-Lakewood

447,993 458,876 453,378 456,727 20,685 16,771 24,782 20,218 4.6 3.7 5.5 4.4

Footnotes
(1) These 11 areas contain all of the 38 metropolitan divisions.
(2) Part of the area (or division) is in one or more adjacent states.
(3) All of the division is in one or more adjacent states.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data refer to place of residence. Area delineations are based on Office of Management and Budget Bulletin No. 18-03, dated April 10, 2018, and are available on the BLS website at https://www.bls.gov/lau/lausmsa.htm. Areas in the six New England states are Metropolitan New England City and Town Areas (NECTAs), while areas in other states are county-based. Some metropolitan areas lie in two or more states. They are listed under the state containing the first principal city. Metropolitan divisions are listed under their metropolitan areas. Some divisions lie in more than one state, and some, like Camden, NJ, are totally outside the states under which their metropolitan areas are listed. For Washington-Arlington-Alexandria, DC-VA-MD-WV, the metropolitan area and division titles are identical. Estimates for the latest month are subject to revision the following month.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
NOT SEASONALLY ADJUSTED
Table 3. Employees on nonfarm payrolls by state and metropolitan area, not seasonally adjusted
[In thousands]
State and area July August Change from
August 2022 to August 2023(p)
2022 2023 2022 2023(p) Number Percent

Alabama

2,112.6 2,147.9 2,111.7 2,149.8 38.1 1.8

Anniston-Oxford-Jacksonville

46.7 47.4 47.0 47.7 0.7 1.5

Auburn-Opelika

69.5 71.9 70.2 72.4 2.2 3.1

Birmingham-Hoover

558.0 563.7 556.0 562.4 6.4 1.2

Daphne-Fairhope-Foley

87.2 90.0 85.8 88.9 3.1 3.6

Decatur

59.1 60.0 59.2 60.2 1.0 1.7

Dothan

61.6 63.4 61.6 63.8 2.2 3.6

Florence-Muscle Shoals

57.4 58.4 57.3 58.4 1.1 1.9

Gadsden

34.0 34.2 33.7 34.1 0.4 1.2

Huntsville

263.8 274.4 262.8 274.9 12.1 4.6

Mobile

188.5 192.6 188.6 192.8 4.2 2.2

Montgomery

178.7 182.3 179.4 181.3 1.9 1.1

Tuscaloosa

109.2 113.0 110.1 113.4 3.3 3.0


Alaska

341.9 344.0 339.3 343.2 3.9 1.1

Anchorage

176.5 183.8 177.0 184.2 7.2 4.1

Fairbanks

37.8 38.0 37.6 38.0 0.4 1.1


Arizona

3,035.7 3,094.9 3,087.9 3,144.6 56.7 1.8

Flagstaff

65.6 68.3 66.5 68.7 2.2 3.3

Lake Havasu City-Kingman

55.3 55.5 55.7 55.9