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Economic News Release
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Metropolitan Area Employment and Unemployment (Monthly) News Release

For release 10:00 a.m. (ET) Wednesday, September 30, 2020			    USDL-20-1837

Technical information:
 Employment:		sminfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/sae
 Unemployment:		lausinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/lau
	
Media contact:		(202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov


	       METROPOLITAN AREA EMPLOYMENT AND UNEMPLOYMENT -- AUGUST 2020


Unemployment rates were higher in August than a year earlier in 387 of the 389 metropolitan
areas and lower in 2 areas, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. A total of
37 areas had jobless rates of less than 5.0 percent and 6 areas had rates of at least 15.0
percent. Nonfarm payroll employment decreased over the year in 254 metropolitan areas and
was essentially unchanged in 135 areas. The national unemployment rate in August was 8.5 
percent, not seasonally adjusted, up from 3.8 percent a year earlier.

This news release presents statistics from two monthly programs. The civilian labor force
and unemployment data are based on the same concepts and definitions as those used for the
national household survey estimates. These data pertain to individuals by where they reside.
The employment data are from an establishment survey that measures nonfarm employment, 
hours, and earnings by industry. These data pertain to jobs on payrolls defined by where 
the establishments are located. For more information about the concepts and statistical 
methodologies used by these two programs, see the Technical Note.

Metropolitan Area Unemployment (Not Seasonally Adjusted)

El Centro, CA, had the highest unemployment rate in August, 22.9 percent, followed by 
Kahului-Wailuku-Lahaina, HI, 20.7 percent. Idaho Falls, ID, and Logan, UT-ID, had the 
lowest unemployment rates, 2.7 percent each. A total of 267 areas had August jobless rates
below the U.S. rate of 8.5 percent, 111 areas had rates above it, and 11 areas had rates 
equal to that of the nation. (See table 1.)

The largest over-the-year unemployment rate increase in August occurred in Kahului-Wailuku-
Lahaina, HI (+18.2 percentage points). Rates rose over the year by at least 10.0 percentage
points in an additional three areas. The only jobless rate decreases from a year earlier 
occurred in Yuma, AZ (-5.0 percentage points), and Sierra Vista-Douglas, AZ (-0.8 point).

Of the 51 metropolitan areas with a 2010 Census population of 1 million or more, Las Vegas-
Henderson-Paradise, NV, had the highest unemployment rate in August, 15.5 percent, followed
by Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim, CA, 15.0 percent. Salt Lake City, UT, had the lowest 
jobless rate among the large areas, 4.7 percent. All 51 large areas had over-the-year 
unemployment rate increases, the largest of which were in Las Vegas-Henderson-Paradise, NV
(+11.4 percentage points), and Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim, CA (+10.7 points). The 
smallest rate increase from a year earlier occurred in Phoenix-Mesa-Scottsdale, AZ (+1.7 
percentage points).

Metropolitan Division Unemployment (Not Seasonally Adjusted)

Eleven of the most populous metropolitan areas are made up of 38 metropolitan divisions,
which are essentially separately identifiable employment centers. In August, Los Angeles-
Long Beach-Glendale, CA, had the highest unemployment rate among the divisions, 16.6 
percent. Dallas-Plano-Irving, TX, had the lowest division rate, 6.2 percent. (See table 2.)

In August, all 38 metropolitan divisions had over-the-year unemployment rate increases, the
largest of which were in Los Angeles-Long Beach-Glendale, CA (+11.8 percentage points), and
Lawrence-Methuen Town-Salem, MA-NH (+11.7 points). The smallest rate increase occurred in 
Dallas-Plano-Irving, TX (+2.7 percentage points).

Metropolitan Area Nonfarm Employment (Not Seasonally Adjusted)

In August, 254 metropolitan areas had over-the-year decreases in nonfarm payroll employment
and 135 areas were essentially unchanged. The largest over-the-year employment decreases 
occurred in New York-Newark-Jersey City, NY-NJ-PA (-1,176,100), Los Angeles-Long Beach-
Anaheim, CA (-633,000), and Chicago-Naperville-Elgin, IL-IN-WI (-366,600). The largest over-
the-year percentage losses in employment occurred in Kahului-Wailuku-Lahaina, HI (-28.1
percent), Ocean City, NJ (-25.4 percent), and Barnstable Town, MA (-18.7 percent). (See 
table 3.)

Over the year, nonfarm employment declined in all of the 51 metropolitan areas with a 2010
Census population of 1 million or more. The largest over-the-year percentage decreases in 
employment in these large metropolitan areas occurred in Las Vegas-Henderson-Paradise, NV 
(-12.2 percent), Rochester, NY (-11.9 percent), and New York-Newark-Jersey City, NY-NJ-PA 
(-11.8 percent).

Metropolitan Division Nonfarm Employment (Not Seasonally Adjusted)

In August, nonfarm payroll employment decreased in all of the 38 metropolitan divisions 
over the year. The largest over-the-year decrease in employment among the metropolitan 
divisions occurred in New York-Jersey City-White Plains, NY-NJ (-882,800), followed by Los 
Angeles-Long Beach-Glendale, CA (-443,900), and Chicago-Naperville-Arlington Heights, IL 
(-291,600). (See table 4.)

The largest over-the-year percentage decreases in employment occurred in Lynn-Saugus-
Marblehead, MA (-14.6 percent), Haverhill-Newburyport-Amesbury Town, MA-NH (-13.4 percent),
and Detroit-Dearborn-Livonia, MI (-12.4 percent). 

_____________
The State Employment and Unemployment news release for September is scheduled to be 
released on Tuesday, October 20, 2020, at 10:00 a.m. (ET). The Metropolitan Area Employment
and Unemployment news release for September is scheduled to be released on Wednesday, 
October 28, 2020, at 10:00 a.m. (ET).


 _______________________________________________________________________________________
|											|
|                 Coronavirus (COVID-19) Pandemic Impact on August 2020                 |
|			 Establishment and Household Survey Data			|
|											|
| BLS has continued to review all estimation and methodological procedures for the 	|
| establishment survey, which included the review of data, estimation processes, the 	|
| application of the birth-death model, and seasonal adjustment. Business births and 	|
| deaths cannot be adequately captured by the establishment survey as they occur. 	|
| Therefore, the Current Employment Statistics (CES) program uses a model to account 	|
| for the relatively stable net employment change generated by business births and 	|
| deaths. Due to the impact of COVID-19, the relationship between business births and 	|
| deaths is no longer stable. Typically, reports with zero employment are not included  |
| in estimation. For the July final and August preliminary estimates, CES included a 	|
| portion of these reports in the estimates and made modifications to the birth-death   |
| model. In addition for both months, the establishment survey included a portion of 	|
| the reports that returned to reporting positive employment from reporting zero 	|
| employment. For more information, see www.bls.gov/web/empsit/cesbd.htm.		|
|											|
| In the establishment survey, workers who are paid by their employer for all or any 	|
| part of the pay period including the 12th of the month are counted as employed, even 	|
| if they were not actually at their jobs. Workers who are temporarily or permanently 	|
| absent from their jobs and are not being paid are not counted as employed, even if 	|
| they are continuing to receive benefits. The length of the reference period does vary |
| across the respondents in the establishment survey; one-third of businesses have a 	|
| weekly pay period, slightly over 40 percent a bi-weekly, about 20 percent semi-	|
| monthly, and a small amount monthly.							|
|											|
| For the August 2020 estimates of household employment and unemployment from the Local |
| Area Unemployment Statistics (LAUS) program, BLS continued to implement level-shift   |
| outliers in the employment and/or unemployment inputs to the state models, based on 	|
| statistical evaluation of movements in each area's inputs. Both the Current 		|
| Population Survey inputs, which serve as the primary inputs to the LAUS models, and 	|
| the nonfarm payroll employment and unemployment insurance claims covariates were 	|
| examined for outliers. The resulting implementation of level shifts preserved 	|
| movements in the published estimates that the models otherwise would have discounted, |
| without requiring changes to how the models create estimates at other points in the 	|
| time series.										|
|											|
| The "Frequently asked questions" document at 						|
| www.bls.gov/covid19/employment-situation-covid19-faq-august-2020.htm extensively 	|
| discusses the impact of a misclassification in the household survey on the national 	|
| estimates for August 2020. Despite the considerable decline in its degree relative to |
| prior months, this misclassification continued to be widespread geographically, with 	|
| BLS analysis indicating that most states again were affected to at least some extent. |
| However, according to usual practice, the data from the household survey are accepted |
| as recorded. To maintain data integrity, no ad hoc actions are taken to reclassify 	|
| survey responses. Hence, the household survey estimates of employed and unemployed 	|
| people that serve as the primary inputs to the state models were affected to varying  |
| degrees by the misclassification, which in turn affected the official LAUS estimates  |
| for August 2020. Similar misclassifications had occurred in the household survey from |
| March through July (see www.bls.gov/covid19/effects-of-covid-19-pandemic-and-		|
| response-on-the-employment-situation-news-release.htm#summaries).			|
|											|
| Household data for substate areas are controlled to the employment and unemployment 	|
| totals for their respective model-based areas. Hence, the preliminary August and 	|
| revised July estimates for substate areas reflect the use of level-shift outliers, 	|
| where implemented, in the inputs for their model-based control areas. The substate 	|
| area estimates for both months also were impacted by misclassification in the 	|
| household survey, in proportion to the impacts of the misclassifications on the data  |
| for their model-based control areas.							|
|											|
| Household data for Puerto Rico are not modeled, but rather are derived from a monthly |
| household survey similar to the Current Population Survey. The Puerto Rico Department |
| of Labor has reported a misclassification in its household survey since May 2020 	|
| similar in nature to the misclassification in the Current Population Survey, which 	|
| has affected the local area data proportionally.					|
|_______________________________________________________________________________________|




Technical Note
 
   This news release presents civilian labor force and unemployment data from the
Local Area Unemployment Statistics (LAUS) program (tables 1 and 2) for 389
metropolitan statistical areas and metropolitan New England City and Town Areas
(NECTAs), plus 7 areas in Puerto Rico. Estimates for 38 metropolitan and NECTA
divisions also are presented. Nonfarm payroll employment estimates from the
Current Employment Statistics (CES) program (tables 3 and 4) are provided for
the same areas. State estimates were previously published in the news release
State Employment and Unemployment, and are republished in this news release for
ease of reference. The LAUS and CES programs are both federal-state cooperative
endeavors.

Civilian labor force and unemployment--from the LAUS program

   Definitions. The civilian labor force and unemployment data are based on the
same concepts and definitions as those used for the official national estimates
obtained from the Current Population Survey (CPS), a sample survey of households
that is conducted for the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) by the U.S. Census
Bureau. The LAUS program measures employed persons and unemployed persons on a
place-of-residence basis.  The universe for each is the civilian noninstitutional
population 16 years of age and older. Employed persons are those who did any work
at all for pay or profit in the reference week (typically the week including the
12th of the month) or worked 15 hours or more without pay in a family business or
farm, plus those not working who had a job from which they were temporarily absent,
whether or not paid, for such reasons as labor-management dispute, illness, or
vacation. Unemployed persons are those who were not employed during the reference
week (based on the definition above), had actively looked for a job sometime in the
4-week period ending with the reference week, and were currently available for work;
persons on layoff expecting recall need not be looking for work to be counted as
unemployed. The civilian labor force is the sum of employed and unemployed persons.
The unemployment rate is the number of unemployed as a percent of the civilian labor
force.

   Method of estimation. Estimates for states, the District of Columbia, the Los
Angeles-Long Beach-Glendale metropolitan division, and New York City are produced
using time-series models with real-time benchmarking to national CPS totals. Model-
based estimates are also produced for the following areas and their respective
balances: the Chicago-Naperville-Arlington Heights, IL Metropolitan Division;
Cleveland-Elyria, OH Metropolitan Statistical Area; Detroit-Warren-Dearborn, MI
Metropolitan Statistical Area; Miami-Miami Beach-Kendall, FL Metropolitan Division;
and Seattle-Bellevue-Everett, WA Metropolitan Division. Modeling improves the
statistical basis of the estimation for these areas and provides important tools
for analysis, such as measures of errors and seasonally adjusted series. For all
other substate areas in this news release, estimates are prepared through indirect
estimation procedures using a building-block approach.  Estimates of employed
persons, which are based largely on “place of work” estimates from the CES program,
are adjusted to refer to place of residence as used in the CPS. Unemployment
estimates are aggregates of persons previously employed in industries covered by
state unemployment insurance (UI) laws and entrants to the labor force from the
CPS. The substate estimates of employment and unemployment, which geographically
exhaust the entire state, are adjusted proportionally to ensure that they add to
the independently estimated model-based area totals. A detailed description of the
estimation procedures is available from BLS upon request.

   Annual revisions. Civilian labor force and unemployment data shown for the prior
year reflect adjustments made at the beginning of each year, usually implemented with
the issuance of January estimates. The adjusted model-based estimates typically reflect
updated population data from the U.S. Census Bureau, any revisions in other input
data sources, and model re-estimation. All substate estimates then are re-estimated
using updated inputs and adjusted to add to the revised model-based totals.  In early
2015, a new generation of time-series models was implemented, resulting in the
replacement of data back to the series beginnings. At the same time, enhancements were
made to the substate estimation methodology, and more timely inputs from the American
Community Survey were incorporated.

Employment--from the CES program 

   Definitions. Employment data refer to persons on establishment payrolls who receive
pay for any part of the pay period that includes the 12th of the month. Persons are
counted at their place of work rather than at their place of residence; those appearing
on more than one payroll are counted on each payroll. Industries are classified on the
basis of their principal activity in accordance with the 2017 version of the North
American Industry Classification System.

   Method of estimation. CES State and Area employment data are produced using several
estimation procedures. Where possible these data are produced using a "weighted link
relative" estimation technique in which a ratio of current-month weighted employment
to that of the previous-month weighted employment is computed from a sample of
establishments reporting for both months. The estimates of employment for the current
month are then obtained by multiplying these ratios by the previous month's employment
estimates. The weighted link relative technique is utilized for data series where the
sample size meets certain statistical criteria.

   For some employment series, the sample of establishments is very small or highly
variable. In these cases, a model-based approach is used in estimation. These models
use the direct sample estimates (described above), combined with forecasts of historical
(benchmarked) data to decrease volatility in estimation. Two different models
(Fay-Herriot Model and Small Domain Model) are used depending on the industry level
being estimated. For more detailed information about each model, refer to the BLS
Handbook of Methods.

   Annual revisions.  Employment estimates are adjusted annually to a complete count
of jobs, called benchmarks, derived principally from tax reports that are submitted by
employers who are covered under state unemployment insurance (UI) laws. The benchmark
information is used to adjust the monthly estimates between the new benchmark and the
preceding one and also to establish the level of employment for the new benchmark month.
Thus, the benchmarking process establishes the level of employment, and the sample is used
to measure the month-to-month changes in the level for the subsequent months.

   Seasonal adjustment. Payroll employment data are seasonally adjusted for states,
metropolitan areas, and metropolitan divisions at the total nonfarm level. For states,
data are seasonally adjusted at the supersector level as well. Revisions to historical
data for the most recent 5 years are made once a year, coincident with annual benchmark
adjustments.

   Payroll employment data are seasonally adjusted concurrently, using all available
estimates including those for the current month, to develop sample-based seasonal factors.
Concurrent sample-based factors are created every month for the current month's preliminary
estimate as well as the previous month's final estimate in order to incorporate real-time
estimates. 

Reliability of the estimates

   The estimates presented in this news release are based on sample surveys, administrative data,
and modeling and, thus, are subject to sampling and other types of errors. Sampling error
is a measure of sampling variability—that is, variation that occurs by chance because a
sample rather than the entire population is surveyed. Survey data also are subject to
nonsampling errors, such as those which can be introduced into the data collection and
processing operations. Estimates not directly derived from sample surveys are subject to
additional errors resulting from the specific estimation processes used. The sums of
individual items may not always equal the totals shown in the same tables because of
rounding.

Use of error measures

   Civilian labor force and unemployment estimates. Measures of sampling error are not
available for metropolitan areas or metropolitan divisions. Model-based error measures for
states are available on the BLS website at www.bls.gov/laus/lastderr.htm. Measures of
nonsampling error are not available for the areas contained in this news release. Information
on recent data revisions for states and local areas is available online at
www.bls.gov/lau/launews1.htm.

   Employment estimates. Changes in metropolitan area nonfarm payroll employment are cited
in the analysis of this news release only if they have been determined to be statistically
significant at the 90-percent confidence level.  Measures of sampling error for the total
nonfarm employment series are available for metropolitan areas and metropolitan divisions
at www.bls.gov/web/laus/790stderr.htm. Measures of sampling error for more detailed series
at the area and division level are available upon request. Measures of sampling error for
states  at the supersector level and for the private service-providing, goods-producing,
total private and total nonfarm levels are available on the BLS website at 
www.bls.gov/web/laus/790stderr.htm. Information on recent benchmark revisions
is available online at www.bls.gov/web/laus/benchmark.pdf.

Area definitions

   The substate area data published in this news release reflect the delineations issued by the
U.S. Office of Management and Budget on April 10, 2018. Data reflect New England City and
Town Area (NECTA) definitions, rather than county-based definitions, in the six New England
States. A detailed list of the geographic definitions is available online at
www.bls.gov/lau/lausmsa.htm.

Additional information

   Estimates of unadjusted and seasonally adjusted civilian labor force and unemployment
data for states and seven substate areas are available in the news release State Employment
and Unemployment. Estimates of civilian labor force and unemployment for all states,
metropolitan areas, counties, cities with a population of 25,000 or more, and other areas
used in the administration of various federal economic assistance programs are available
on the Internet at www.bls.gov/lau/. Employment data from the CES program are available on
the BLS website at www.bls.gov/sae/.

   Information in this news release will be made available to sensory impaired individuals
upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay Service: (800) 877-8339. 




LABOR FORCE DATA
NOT SEASONALLY ADJUSTED

Table 1. Civilian labor force and unemployment by state and metropolitan area
State and area Civilian labor force Unemployed
July August Number Percent of labor force
2019 2020 2019 2020(p) July August July August
2019 2020 2019 2020(p) 2019 2020 2019 2020(p)

Alabama

2,245,474 2,237,258 2,235,642 2,256,750 69,916 182,761 66,431 131,079 3.1 8.2 3.0 5.8

Anniston-Oxford-Jacksonville

46,131 44,787 46,104 45,027 1,661 4,244 1,569 3,095 3.6 9.5 3.4 6.9

Auburn-Opelika

76,138 73,471 76,167 75,373 2,129 5,330 2,023 3,764 2.8 7.3 2.7 5.0

Birmingham-Hoover

555,589 548,368 553,359 551,336 15,381 42,619 15,016 31,017 2.8 7.8 2.7 5.6

Daphne-Fairhope-Foley

99,665 98,731 97,939 98,321 2,544 7,298 2,572 5,071 2.6 7.4 2.6 5.2

Decatur

72,575 70,239 72,327 71,324 2,008 4,497 1,915 3,237 2.8 6.4 2.6 4.5

Dothan

64,851 63,803 64,054 64,229 1,975 4,529 1,935 3,354 3.0 7.1 3.0 5.2

Florence-Muscle Shoals

66,343 64,781 66,024 65,762 2,481 5,047 2,242 3,567 3.7 7.8 3.4 5.4

Gadsden

42,549 41,201 42,344 41,397 1,484 4,126 1,418 2,962 3.5 10.0 3.3 7.2

Huntsville

228,952 223,120 228,311 226,992 6,095 14,174 5,602 10,407 2.7 6.4 2.5 4.6

Mobile

188,081 190,864 188,145 188,484 7,387 23,403 6,925 16,000 3.9 12.3 3.7 8.5

Montgomery

173,392 173,207 172,340 172,230 5,267 17,420 5,103 12,605 3.0 10.1 3.0 7.3

Tuscaloosa

117,408 117,438 118,316 119,984 3,728 10,659 3,347 7,739 3.2 9.1 2.8 6.5

Alaska

359,113 351,992 353,859 335,272 20,150 38,066 18,805 21,465 5.6 10.8 5.3 6.4

Anchorage

193,776 192,610 191,034 183,979 10,244 21,202 9,593 12,225 5.3 11.0 5.0 6.6

Fairbanks

45,041 45,026 44,963 43,387 2,220 4,019 2,056 2,174 4.9 8.9 4.6 5.0

Arizona

3,550,152 3,563,198 3,556,056 3,413,331 180,844 392,648 178,406 214,332 5.1 11.0 5.0 6.3

Flagstaff

77,592 70,061 77,493 66,818 4,635 9,617 4,284 5,280 6.0 13.7 5.5 7.9

Lake Havasu City-Kingman

88,808 87,932 88,067 83,371 5,215 11,127 5,121 6,206 5.9 12.7 5.8 7.4

Phoenix-Mesa-Scottsdale

2,502,385 2,518,904 2,503,198 2,414,106 109,076 261,948 106,375 141,735 4.4 10.4 4.2 5.9

Prescott

107,835 109,601 107,395 105,414 5,043 10,538 4,953 5,677 4.7 9.6 4.6 5.4

Sierra Vista-Douglas

49,803 51,701 50,007 50,363 3,043 4,836 2,999 2,633 6.1 9.4 6.0 5.2

Tucson

498,093 500,705 496,370 477,907 23,748 53,175 23,078 28,258 4.8 10.6 4.6 5.9

Yuma

98,365 97,783 101,414 90,783 20,097 24,589 21,746 14,855 20.4 25.1 21.4 16.4

Arkansas

1,379,283 1,323,626 1,364,195 1,346,162 56,737 99,847 49,499 99,714 4.1 7.5 3.6 7.4

Fayetteville-Springdale-Rogers

284,839 273,584 281,309 278,548 8,530 15,709 7,580 15,964 3.0 5.7 2.7 5.7

Fort Smith

120,296 115,239 118,957 117,261 4,774 8,331 4,437 7,727 4.0 7.2 3.7 6.6

Hot Springs

42,818 41,629 41,798 42,512 1,826 4,003 1,588 4,334 4.3 9.6 3.8 10.2

Jonesboro

67,235 65,937 65,955 66,901 2,307 4,444 1,957 4,445 3.4 6.7 3.0 6.6

Little Rock-North Little Rock-Conway

366,061 346,561 360,444 351,468 13,706 28,879 11,926 29,400 3.7 8.3 3.3 8.4

Pine Bluff

35,418 33,537 34,912 34,143 2,132 3,146 1,858 3,269 6.0 9.4 5.3 9.6

California

19,465,613 18,919,860 19,428,941 18,729,407 857,771 2,624,606 808,406 2,171,794 4.4 13.9 4.2 11.6

Bakersfield

384,070 370,501 397,036 370,676 32,518 60,922 28,832 48,514 8.5 16.4 7.3 13.1

Chico

97,842 92,846 97,641 93,207 5,461 10,424 4,903 8,361 5.6 11.2 5.0 9.0

El Centro

70,275 71,720 72,360 69,233 14,224 19,365 15,967 15,882 20.2 27.0 22.1 22.9

Fresno

451,656 446,614 452,231 444,216 32,696 60,042 29,511 48,373 7.2 13.4 6.5 10.9

Hanford-Corcoran

57,888 56,774 57,580 55,458 4,499 7,359 3,989 5,908 7.8 13.0 6.9 10.7

Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim

6,756,753 6,547,231 6,730,056 6,485,849 306,734 1,113,441 292,389 972,011 4.5 17.0 4.3 15.0

Madera

61,042 61,219 61,847 61,806 4,413 7,885 3,928 6,170 7.2 12.9 6.4 10.0

Merced

112,782 112,252 115,472 113,200 9,425 16,192 8,272 12,842 8.4 14.4 7.2 11.3

Modesto

244,386 237,490 243,873 235,962 15,785 32,333 14,052 25,670 6.5 13.6 5.8 10.9

Napa

75,942 72,764 75,369 71,584 2,234 7,687 2,005 5,943 2.9 10.6 2.7 8.3

Oxnard-Thousand Oaks-Ventura

422,938 412,738 419,649 406,526 16,388 47,024 16,157 36,912 3.9 11.4 3.9 9.1

Redding

73,839 72,340 74,708 72,714 3,531 7,519 3,226 6,030 4.8 10.4 4.3 8.3

Riverside-San Bernardino-Ontario

2,074,443 2,066,063 2,065,573 2,032,794 94,788 277,577 90,466 223,104 4.6 13.4 4.4 11.0

Sacramento--Roseville--Arden-Arcade

1,105,826 1,085,217 1,103,466 1,075,222 43,517 125,866 40,776 101,281 3.9 11.6 3.7 9.4

Salinas

231,408 199,253 229,104 195,397 10,872 23,972 9,587 18,331 4.7 12.0 4.2 9.4

San Diego-Carlsbad

1,595,803 1,575,519 1,590,925 1,559,050 56,736 196,061 53,658 154,312 3.6 12.4 3.4 9.9

San Francisco-Oakland-Hayward

2,606,919 2,515,020 2,598,813 2,480,609 75,680 283,279 71,630 223,703 2.9 11.3 2.8 9.0

San Jose-Sunnyvale-Santa Clara

1,092,797 1,066,534 1,089,659 1,054,493 30,832 101,263 29,250 79,665 2.8 9.5 2.7 7.6

San Luis Obispo-Paso Robles-Arroyo Grande

140,314 132,307 139,474 129,647 4,523 13,264 4,180 10,155 3.2 10.0 3.0 7.8

Santa Cruz-Watsonville

144,340 131,221 143,841 130,892 6,215 14,783 5,555 11,282 4.3 11.3 3.9 8.6

Santa Maria-Santa Barbara

220,335 210,830 219,011 210,580 8,002 21,662 7,366 16,751 3.6 10.3 3.4 8.0

Santa Rosa

260,892 253,058 261,694 252,003 7,682 25,238 7,127 19,530 2.9 10.0 2.7 7.7

Stockton-Lodi

327,810 323,788 329,199 322,062 20,168 47,652 18,623 38,363 6.2 14.7 5.7 11.9

Vallejo-Fairfield

209,831 202,721 209,103 201,683 8,564 25,362 7,908 20,681 4.1 12.5 3.8 10.3

Visalia-Porterville

202,033 191,624 205,322 189,353 20,084 30,898 18,818 24,760 9.9 16.1 9.2 13.1

Yuba City

76,246 70,531 77,142 69,801 5,010 9,533 4,431 7,484 6.6 13.5 5.7 10.7

Colorado

3,171,847 3,105,010 3,170,260 3,100,236 85,711 230,335 83,635 205,082 2.7 7.4 2.6 6.6

Boulder

196,219 189,711 198,688 190,450 4,606 12,660 4,620 10,995 2.3 6.7 2.3 5.8

Colorado Springs

356,534 356,572 357,635 357,040 12,003 24,719 11,321 22,143 3.4 6.9 3.2 6.2

Denver-Aurora-Lakewood

1,688,814 1,678,133 1,693,749 1,678,717 44,060 131,885 43,444 117,936 2.6 7.9 2.6 7.0

Fort Collins

206,484 198,167 205,936 198,592 4,578 12,336 4,714 11,027 2.2 6.2 2.3 5.6

Grand Junction

76,401 76,678 76,940 77,389 2,664 5,340 2,377 4,805 3.5 7.0 3.1 6.2

Greeley

170,232 165,831 170,331 165,861 4,352 12,052 4,251 11,022 2.6 7.3 2.5 6.6

Pueblo

75,745 75,076 76,049 75,238 3,262 5,945 3,011 5,474 4.3 7.9 4.0 7.3

Connecticut

1,945,070 1,934,606 1,925,819 1,877,381 75,777 199,999 73,111 153,302 3.9 10.3 3.8 8.2

Bridgeport-Stamford-Norwalk

477,495 466,592 471,036 450,217 18,482 50,006 17,858 38,196 3.9 10.7 3.8 8.5

Danbury

109,699 108,002 108,523 105,237 3,551 9,839 3,422 7,416 3.2 9.1 3.2 7.0

Hartford-West Hartford-East Hartford

636,440 642,692 630,414 623,780 25,245 64,896 24,687 49,802 4.0 10.1 3.9 8.0

New Haven

332,738 335,687 331,036 327,243 12,839 32,609 12,239 25,152 3.9 9.7 3.7 7.7

Norwich-New London-Westerly

146,728 144,595 145,272 139,422 5,470 17,855 5,141 14,192 3.7 12.3 3.5 10.2

Waterbury

113,305 112,681 112,136 109,701 5,413 13,536 5,268 10,585 4.8 12.0 4.7 9.6

Delaware

492,940 510,795 490,824 503,759 20,243 54,496 20,234 45,671 4.1 10.7 4.1 9.1

Dover

79,191 86,081 78,973 85,093 3,916 9,993 3,853 8,367 4.9 11.6 4.9 9.8

Salisbury(1)

206,884 202,346 204,397 199,918 8,387 17,497 8,214 14,723 4.1 8.6 4.0 7.4

District of Columbia

416,468 399,448 407,817 394,337 24,138 35,715 22,418 34,292 5.8 8.9 5.5 8.7

Washington-Arlington-Alexandria

3,527,506 3,465,311 3,474,085 3,431,374 116,169 275,227 111,151 235,099 3.3 7.9 3.2 6.9

Florida

10,372,151 10,053,887 10,353,589 10,137,020 350,600 1,169,778 341,558 779,311 3.4 11.6 3.3 7.7

Cape Coral-Fort Myers

345,699 335,120 344,870 341,294 11,820 36,024 11,657 24,396 3.4 10.7 3.4 7.1

Crestview-Fort Walton Beach-Destin

133,459 123,307 131,279 124,804 3,750 8,711 3,616 5,646 2.8 7.1 2.8 4.5

Deltona-Daytona Beach-Ormond Beach

303,220 294,353 302,442 298,320 11,362 31,003 10,990 20,866 3.7 10.5 3.6 7.0

Gainesville

144,711 136,441 143,717 139,591 4,946 10,322 4,525 6,796 3.4 7.6 3.1 4.9

Homosassa Springs

46,672 45,315 47,414 46,791 2,455 5,078 2,416 3,406 5.3 11.2 5.1 7.3

Jacksonville

794,262 765,914 792,005 776,467 27,522 67,318 25,925 44,948 3.5 8.8 3.3 5.8

Lakeland-Winter Haven

306,720 305,207 308,001 309,832 12,602 40,409 12,179 28,989 4.1 13.2 4.0 9.4

Miami-Fort Lauderdale-West Palm Beach

3,165,320 3,052,189 3,157,142 3,064,740 96,275 409,777 95,162 259,325 3.0 13.4 3.0 8.5

Naples-Immokalee-Marco Island

175,679 170,840 175,558 173,127 6,260 17,853 6,463 12,178 3.6 10.5 3.7 7.0

North Port-Sarasota-Bradenton

367,810 351,753 365,827 353,721 12,396 33,367 12,261 22,253 3.4 9.5 3.4 6.3

Ocala

138,538 137,231 137,952 139,255 5,689 12,808 5,605 8,781 4.1 9.3 4.1 6.3

Orlando-Kissimmee-Sanford

1,374,139 1,354,980 1,372,815 1,348,791 44,835 208,147 43,231 147,873 3.3 15.4 3.1 11.0

Palm Bay-Melbourne-Titusville

287,648 282,254 287,115 285,860 9,745 26,135 9,538 17,727 3.4 9.3 3.3 6.2

Panama City

92,427 86,885 91,382 87,748 3,476 6,678 3,270 4,521 3.8 7.7 3.6 5.2

Pensacola-Ferry Pass-Brent

232,397 221,910 230,915 224,362 7,911 18,846 7,439 12,280 3.4 8.5 3.2 5.5

Port St. Lucie

219,356 213,651 219,592 217,645 8,906 21,805 8,675 14,748 4.1 10.2 4.0 6.8

Punta Gorda

71,184 70,479 71,267 71,620 2,748 7,079 2,819 4,798 3.9 10.0 4.0 6.7

Sebastian-Vero Beach

65,378 63,213 65,198 63,408 2,800 6,548 2,794 4,445 4.3 10.4 4.3 7.0

Sebring

35,501 35,155 35,498 35,613 1,820 3,609 1,780 2,437 5.1 10.3 5.0 6.8

Tallahassee

193,756 181,534 192,226 184,365 7,076 15,329 6,534 10,249 3.7 8.4 3.4 5.6

Tampa-St. Petersburg-Clearwater

1,562,931 1,519,156 1,559,786 1,532,594 53,288 155,415 52,027 104,061 3.4 10.2 3.3 6.8

The Villages

32,201 31,663 32,764 32,236 1,552 3,147 1,619 2,122 4.8 9.9 4.9 6.6

Georgia

5,126,399 5,022,761 5,097,809 4,894,071 196,151 402,700 186,680 286,484 3.8 8.0 3.7 5.9

Albany

66,482 65,153 66,443 63,374 3,108 5,759 2,996 4,124 4.7 8.8 4.5 6.5

Athens-Clarke County

97,904 95,264 97,867 93,085 3,629 6,381 3,466 4,411 3.7 6.7 3.5 4.7

Atlanta-Sandy Springs-Roswell

3,105,869 3,054,584 3,081,350 2,966,836 111,222 261,493 107,739 187,152 3.6 8.6 3.5 6.3

Augusta-Richmond County

268,368 263,307 266,787 256,524 10,908 19,499 10,265 13,630 4.1 7.4 3.8 5.3

Brunswick

53,589 47,216 53,547 46,068 1,950 3,732 1,949 2,636 3.6 7.9 3.6 5.7

Columbus

123,143 119,419 122,109 116,572 5,506 10,355 5,213 7,166 4.5 8.7 4.3 6.1

Dalton

59,311 56,602 58,604 54,863 2,863 4,519 2,592 2,875 4.8 8.0 4.4 5.2

Gainesville

102,131 98,654 101,937 96,428 3,190 5,537 3,006 3,722 3.1 5.6 2.9 3.9

Hinesville

34,328 34,048 34,305 33,517 1,472 2,251 1,425 1,686 4.3 6.6 4.2 5.0

Macon-Bibb County

103,236 100,006 102,646 97,303 4,319 8,263 4,216 5,793 4.2 8.3 4.1 6.0

Rome

44,436 44,313 43,744 43,035 2,083 3,146 1,682 2,022 4.7 7.1 3.8 4.7

Savannah

190,258 184,681 188,537 180,569 6,650 15,623 6,630 11,513 3.5 8.5 3.5 6.4

Valdosta

63,497 62,640 63,560 61,657 2,473 4,565 2,431 3,073 3.9 7.3 3.8 5.0

Warner Robins

86,356 81,458 85,936 80,069 3,279 5,160 3,180 3,676 3.8 6.3 3.7 4.6

Hawaii

667,217 641,266 663,706 636,633 18,429 86,259 17,821 79,300 2.8 13.5 2.7 12.5

Kahului-Wailuku-Lahaina

87,789 82,697 87,484 81,810 2,264 18,053 2,193 16,956 2.6 21.8 2.5 20.7

Urban Honolulu

450,177 434,103 448,845 431,316 11,749 49,778 11,590 45,634 2.6 11.5 2.6 10.6

Idaho

895,029 913,173 888,664 898,836 24,218 43,548 22,457 33,876 2.7 4.8 2.5 3.8

Boise City

380,137 392,078 379,079 384,956 10,296 20,456 9,582 15,719 2.7 5.2 2.5 4.1

Coeur d'Alene

82,244 80,782 81,725 79,081 2,379 4,883 2,319 3,819 2.9 6.0 2.8 4.8

Idaho Falls

73,631 77,942 73,081 76,318 1,593 2,444 1,510 2,023 2.2 3.1 2.1 2.7

Lewiston

31,425 30,461 31,267 30,044 980 1,611 918 1,268 3.1 5.3 2.9 4.2

Pocatello

42,646 41,173 41,837 40,698 1,370 1,898 1,044 1,466 3.2 4.6 2.5 3.6

Twin Falls

54,175 54,814 53,731 54,733 1,400 2,451 1,273 1,860 2.6 4.5 2.4 3.4

Illinois

6,534,712 6,326,578 6,459,291 6,349,369 276,947 728,120 257,769 691,640 4.2 11.5 4.0 10.9

Bloomington

95,224 89,864 94,794 94,545 3,908 7,301 3,629 6,797 4.1 8.1 3.8 7.2

Carbondale-Marion

59,841 58,471 59,041 60,609 2,568 5,464 2,458 5,125 4.3 9.3 4.2 8.5

Champaign-Urbana

120,871 117,545 117,754 120,785 5,067 9,453 4,595 8,928 4.2 8.0 3.9 7.4

Chicago-Naperville-Elgin

4,935,559 4,804,616 4,880,816 4,748,878 202,248 583,253 187,180 554,366 4.1 12.1 3.8 11.7

Danville

33,538 32,400 33,052 33,758 1,819 3,261 1,828 3,128 5.4 10.1 5.5 9.3

Davenport-Moline-Rock Island(1)

200,967 187,756 198,557 189,803 7,853 17,570 8,071 15,307 3.9 9.4 4.1 8.1

Decatur

49,761 46,869 49,107 49,551 2,767 5,716 2,662 5,528 5.6 12.2 5.4 11.2

Kankakee

56,811 55,132 55,978 57,622 2,647 5,327 2,563 5,146 4.7 9.7 4.6 8.9

Peoria

179,859 166,537 177,694 172,579 8,288 17,941 8,248 16,504 4.6 10.8 4.6 9.6

Rockford

170,106 164,817 167,169 168,264 11,462 23,245 9,924 18,991 6.7 14.1 5.9 11.3

Springfield

109,373 105,298 109,837 110,436 4,429 9,739 4,359 9,368 4.0 9.2 4.0 8.5

Indiana

3,412,239 3,356,434 3,385,489 3,364,666 119,491 267,984 113,806 217,524 3.5 8.0 3.4 6.5

Bloomington

75,703 75,422 76,503 77,996 2,889 5,190 2,920 4,277 3.8 6.9 3.8 5.5

Columbus

45,627 44,330 45,408 44,527 1,174 3,042 1,127 2,388 2.6 6.9 2.5 5.4

Elkhart-Goshen

110,236 107,653 112,661 107,061 4,136 8,759 3,613 6,542 3.8 8.1 3.2 6.1

Evansville

165,514 165,338 163,243 166,544 5,488 11,191 5,170 9,838 3.3 6.8 3.2 5.9

Fort Wayne

221,509 217,455 219,498 218,185 7,435 17,922 6,859 14,063 3.4 8.2 3.1 6.4

Indianapolis-Carmel-Anderson

1,089,609 1,088,210 1,080,875 1,091,896 34,741 85,157 33,570 71,094 3.2 7.8 3.1 6.5

Kokomo

36,999 37,612 37,037 37,423 1,434 3,278 1,367 2,664 3.9 8.7 3.7 7.1

Lafayette-West Lafayette

111,804 107,214 110,961 106,317 3,585 7,626 3,569 6,384 3.2 7.1 3.2 6.0

Michigan City-La Porte

48,620 48,819 47,782 47,971 2,026 5,188 1,930 4,056 4.2 10.6 4.0 8.5

Muncie

52,618 52,342 52,654 51,395 2,213 4,347 2,156 3,692 4.2 8.3 4.1 7.2

South Bend-Mishawaka

159,655 156,425 158,895 155,894 6,692 15,887 6,208 12,780 4.2 10.2 3.9 8.2

Terre Haute

75,968 73,744 75,461 74,491 3,305 6,008 3,205 5,086 4.4 8.1 4.2 6.8

Iowa

1,763,368 1,647,866 1,748,009 1,620,207 48,724 110,363 48,287 96,178 2.8 6.7 2.8 5.9

Ames

56,843 53,950 55,961 54,530 1,308 2,798 1,180 2,421 2.3 5.2 2.1 4.4

Cedar Rapids

151,045 142,132 150,220 139,972 4,467 11,187 4,480 11,172 3.0 7.9 3.0 8.0

Des Moines-West Des Moines

375,696 351,210 373,278 344,334 10,148 25,133 9,845 22,537 2.7 7.2 2.6 6.5

Dubuque

57,512 53,723 57,018 52,336 1,445 3,944 1,490 3,306 2.5 7.3 2.6 6.3

Iowa City

101,335 97,523 101,449 96,610 2,361 6,266 2,198 5,592 2.3 6.4 2.2 5.8

Sioux City

95,277 92,493 94,301 90,459 2,752 5,571 2,645 4,576 2.9 6.0 2.8 5.1

Waterloo-Cedar Falls

91,561 86,615 90,894 85,300 3,148 6,188 3,384 5,399 3.4 7.1 3.7 6.3

Kansas

1,508,779 1,515,003 1,485,168 1,494,595 56,697 116,591 50,095 105,906 3.8 7.7 3.4 7.1

Lawrence

63,017 63,071 64,895 64,798 2,302 5,176 2,073 4,666 3.7 8.2 3.2 7.2

Manhattan

45,517 42,741 46,202 45,175 1,603 3,165 1,429 2,668 3.5 7.4 3.1 5.9

Topeka

122,974 121,023 120,033 118,720 4,513 8,416 4,078 7,775 3.7 7.0 3.4 6.5

Wichita

321,702 327,866 314,877 321,029 12,600 36,028 11,447 32,897 3.9 11.0 3.6 10.2

Kentucky

2,090,399 1,854,698 2,069,554 2,004,008 101,089 92,834 86,918 149,419 4.8 5.0 4.2 7.5

Bowling Green

83,533 71,321 83,531 77,936 3,817 3,513 3,299 5,542 4.6 4.9 3.9 7.1

Elizabethtown-Fort Knox

69,115 60,988 67,895 65,033 3,295 3,008 2,812 4,810 4.8 4.9 4.1 7.4

Lexington-Fayette

276,198 248,469 273,739 268,362 10,605 11,086 9,184 17,714 3.8 4.5 3.4 6.6

Louisville/Jefferson County

685,834 622,203 676,589 663,753 30,147 34,909 25,696 47,319 4.4 5.6 3.8 7.1

Owensboro

56,675 51,815 55,949 54,495 2,404 2,251 2,068 3,719 4.2 4.3 3.7 6.8

Louisiana

2,116,103 2,038,615 2,097,206 2,106,476 115,749 203,076 112,426 169,779 5.5 10.0 5.4 8.1

Alexandria

64,306 61,622 63,603 63,973 3,779 4,555 3,684 3,881 5.9 7.4 5.8 6.1

Baton Rouge

418,963 406,342 416,428 425,333 21,209 37,211 20,840 30,293 5.1 9.2 5.0 7.1

Hammond

54,975 54,252 54,728 55,794 3,528 6,564 3,318 5,408 6.4 12.1 6.1 9.7

Houma-Thibodaux

90,110 86,673 89,436 90,202 4,514 7,361 4,350 6,111 5.0 8.5 4.9 6.8

Lafayette

215,288 210,841 212,893 216,364 11,366 19,236 10,974 16,050 5.3 9.1 5.2 7.4

Lake Charles

111,096 102,353 109,422 105,376 5,145 10,085 4,974 8,436 4.6 9.9 4.5 8.0

Monroe

80,046 81,022 78,635 83,910 4,710 6,752 4,612 5,759 5.9 8.3 5.9 6.9

New Orleans-Metairie

601,336 575,326 595,480 588,095 30,809 68,683 29,783 57,100 5.1 11.9 5.0 9.7

Shreveport-Bossier City

189,546 183,918 186,694 189,701 10,871 17,359 10,529 14,845 5.7 9.4 5.6 7.8

Maine

708,797 715,386 708,364 694,278 18,891 67,502 16,281 42,937 2.7 9.4 2.3 6.2

Bangor

70,436 71,287 70,530 69,410 1,939 6,158 1,630 3,969 2.8 8.6 2.3 5.7

Lewiston-Auburn

55,146 57,701 55,040 55,792 1,593 5,905 1,380 3,717 2.9 10.2 2.5 6.7

Portland-South Portland

213,230 214,245 212,603 208,654 4,637 21,039 4,098 13,045 2.2 9.8 1.9 6.3

Maryland

3,316,105 3,293,672 3,280,077 3,258,880 128,327 262,162 122,557 229,494 3.9 8.0 3.7 7.0

Baltimore-Columbia-Towson

1,543,891 1,532,158 1,534,162 1,520,344 61,622 118,550 59,725 102,664 4.0 7.7 3.9 6.8

California-Lexington Park

58,397 55,738 57,708 55,444 2,325 3,400 2,199 2,907 4.0 6.1 3.8 5.2

Cumberland

45,667 42,400 45,340 42,740 2,692 3,533 2,770 3,094 5.9 8.3 6.1 7.2

Hagerstown-Martinsburg

135,349 131,105 133,522 129,986 5,193 10,034 5,054 8,782 3.8 7.7 3.8 6.8

Massachusetts

3,865,262 3,725,151 3,855,804 3,581,311 121,141 605,796 108,391 399,730 3.1 16.3 2.8 11.2

Barnstable Town

144,347 128,917 142,441 122,747 4,187 20,021 3,706 12,952 2.9 15.5 2.6 10.6

Boston-Cambridge-Nashua

2,858,404 2,750,717 2,853,234 2,655,254 82,841 427,053 74,105 285,575 2.9 15.5 2.6 10.8

Leominster-Gardner

80,844 80,622 80,415 76,940 2,999 14,436 2,665 9,667 3.7 17.9 3.3 12.6

New Bedford

86,626 85,863 86,248 81,704 3,901 16,279 3,625 10,651 4.5 19.0 4.2 13.0

Pittsfield

44,785 42,373 44,456 40,617 1,520 7,264 1,499 4,753 3.4 17.1 3.4 11.7

Springfield

377,564 359,209 376,056 345,839 15,417 59,315 14,123 39,769 4.1 16.5 3.8 11.5

Worcester

363,284 358,568 363,031 346,835 12,765 53,588 11,556 35,630 3.5 14.9 3.2 10.3

Michigan

4,995,452 4,871,057 4,965,356 4,941,320 252,608 465,161 209,484 439,661 5.1 9.5 4.2 8.9

Ann Arbor

197,148 203,194 195,961 204,750 8,187 16,172 6,179 14,218 4.2 8.0 3.2 6.9

Battle Creek

62,631 62,005 62,248 62,309 3,263 6,768 2,686 6,092 5.2 10.9 4.3 9.8

Bay City

50,485 49,350 50,094 49,495 2,730 4,751 2,202 4,228 5.4 9.6 4.4 8.5

Detroit-Warren-Dearborn

2,192,505 2,041,322 2,183,702 2,093,744 116,168 206,752 103,756 212,859 5.3 10.1 4.8 10.2

Flint

184,551 186,165 183,576 186,708 11,223 21,993 8,666 19,867 6.1 11.8 4.7 10.6

Grand Rapids-Wyoming

584,115 590,311 581,784 595,192 22,756 49,700 17,643 43,054 3.9 8.4 3.0 7.2

Jackson

74,064 75,451 73,669 75,429 3,621 7,630 2,822 6,620 4.9 10.1 3.8 8.8

Kalamazoo-Portage

168,089 172,269 167,857 173,062 7,733 15,066 6,235 13,387 4.6 8.7 3.7 7.7

Lansing-East Lansing

244,714 243,746 242,233 244,738 11,285 20,637 8,449 18,496 4.6 8.5 3.5 7.6

Midland

40,500 40,118 40,174 40,560 1,813 3,204 1,461 2,839 4.5 8.0 3.6 7.0

Monroe

75,969 73,749 74,662 73,898 4,304 6,830 2,846 5,965 5.7 9.3 3.8 8.1

Muskegon

78,973 80,114 78,095 79,967 4,304 10,279 3,298 9,107 5.4 12.8 4.2 11.4

Niles-Benton Harbor

75,001 76,635 73,984 76,801 3,717 7,610 3,052 6,699 5.0 9.9 4.1 8.7

Saginaw

87,275 86,936 86,675 87,361 4,936 9,208 3,893 8,483 5.7 10.6 4.5 9.7

Minnesota

3,142,453 3,123,590 3,122,724 3,121,133 99,631 232,599 94,260 223,097 3.2 7.4 3.0 7.1

Duluth

142,698 139,270 141,574 138,955 5,739 12,218 5,483 11,117 4.0 8.8 3.9 8.0

Mankato-North Mankato

60,324 62,771 60,601 61,630 1,713 3,890 1,700 3,744 2.8 6.2 2.8 6.1

Minneapolis-St. Paul-Bloomington

2,052,753 2,030,261 2,047,731 2,039,663 61,878 166,109 59,849 160,134 3.0 8.2 2.9 7.9

Rochester

127,883 126,517 126,987 125,646 3,475 8,341 3,312 7,363 2.7 6.6 2.6 5.9

St. Cloud

113,323 115,839 112,331 114,460 3,320 7,112 3,237 6,838 2.9 6.1 2.9 6.0

Mississippi

1,294,421 1,232,114 1,272,644 1,238,773 81,327 123,987 71,648 97,785 6.3 10.1 5.6 7.9

Gulfport-Biloxi-Pascagoula

167,684 162,077 164,130 164,086 10,315 17,196 9,258 13,501 6.2 10.6 5.6 8.2

Hattiesburg

68,352 65,916 67,420 67,102 3,911 5,961 3,428 4,828 5.7 9.0 5.1 7.2

Jackson

271,590 257,875 266,411 259,214 15,107 24,067 13,251 18,230 5.6 9.3 5.0 7.0

Missouri

3,117,422 3,103,500 3,077,694 3,067,772 117,030 223,882 108,761 218,155 3.8 7.2 3.5 7.1

Cape Girardeau

47,555 44,146 47,932 44,783 1,773 2,888 1,739 2,783 3.7 6.5 3.6 6.2

Columbia

97,250 96,886 96,631 95,708 2,858 4,931 2,586 4,967 2.9 5.1 2.7 5.2

Jefferson City

76,323 75,654 75,366 74,300 2,402 4,198 2,317 4,366 3.1 5.5 3.1 5.9

Joplin

85,515 84,368 84,494 84,241 3,232 5,509 2,746 5,352 3.8 6.5 3.2 6.4

Kansas City

1,166,708 1,157,638 1,145,001 1,138,208 46,899 87,770 39,762 82,805 4.0 7.6 3.5 7.3

St. Joseph

64,676 63,600 63,140 62,524 2,275 3,502 1,966 3,449 3.5 5.5 3.1 5.5

St. Louis(2)

1,504,296 1,475,623 1,484,459 1,473,779 54,599 121,020 51,923 116,889 3.6 8.2 3.5 7.9

Springfield

238,189 238,110 233,578 233,029 7,130 15,043 7,739 13,682 3.0 6.3 3.3 5.9

Montana

543,860 543,757 542,082 537,184 16,834 32,874 16,824 27,741 3.1 6.0 3.1 5.2

Billings

88,202 89,674 88,105 88,881 2,768 5,291 2,689 4,393 3.1 5.9 3.1 4.9

Great Falls

37,674 38,677 37,579 38,273 1,199 2,406 1,249 2,034 3.2 6.2 3.3 5.3

Missoula

63,386 66,607 63,580 65,783 1,806 4,211 1,768 3,529 2.8 6.3 2.8 5.4

Nebraska

1,051,883 1,062,974 1,039,417 1,040,865 35,001 53,998 31,306 40,679 3.3 5.1 3.0 3.9

Grand Island

44,598 45,400 43,848 43,823 1,514 2,479 1,335 2,164 3.4 5.5 3.0 4.9

Lincoln

187,752 197,033 187,113 192,555 5,689 9,927 5,261 7,339 3.0 5.0 2.8 3.8

Omaha-Council Bluffs

507,334 512,813 502,944 501,394 16,761 30,693 15,231 22,526 3.3 6.0 3.0 4.5

Nevada

1,550,643 1,494,939 1,548,152 1,494,549 63,204 213,567 59,708 198,063 4.1 14.3 3.9 13.3

Carson City

26,541 25,409 26,435 25,434 1,018 2,057 960 1,856 3.8 8.1 3.6 7.3

Las Vegas-Henderson-Paradise

1,139,458 1,104,156 1,137,375 1,102,926 48,856 183,108 46,143 170,575 4.3 16.6 4.1 15.5

Reno

258,478 245,242 258,292 246,005 8,378 20,056 7,943 17,779 3.2 8.2 3.1 7.2

New Hampshire

787,198 747,132 783,726 745,326 19,857 58,966 19,639 47,347 2.5 7.9 2.5 6.4

Dover-Durham

87,005 82,294 86,621 82,010 2,054 6,707 1,988 5,015 2.4 8.2 2.3 6.1

Manchester

122,952 119,415 122,099 119,400 2,956 9,421 2,940 7,681 2.4 7.9 2.4 6.4

Portsmouth

80,559 75,477 80,182 75,320 1,742 5,824 1,724 4,454 2.2 7.7 2.2 5.9

New Jersey

4,555,166 4,650,728 4,530,548 4,586,367 176,079 668,630 166,692 500,771 3.9 14.4 3.7 10.9

Atlantic City-Hammonton

124,700 128,751 124,209 123,502 6,281 31,547 5,924 21,754 5.0 24.5 4.8 17.6

Ocean City

57,280 47,744 55,575 47,723 2,325 7,290 2,094 5,320 4.1 15.3 3.8 11.1

Trenton

204,653 208,761 204,770 206,545 7,407 23,732 7,025 17,472 3.6 11.4 3.4 8.5

Vineland-Bridgeton

63,596 67,136 63,760 67,064 3,773 10,105 3,550 7,594 5.9 15.1 5.6 11.3

New Mexico

960,503 915,348 955,627 893,293 52,663 122,000 47,067 102,883 5.5 13.3 4.9 11.5

Albuquerque

438,755 415,710 436,236 408,966 22,991 54,640 20,809 45,841 5.2 13.1 4.8 11.2

Farmington

51,601 49,077 50,950 48,277 3,327 7,628 3,009 6,536 6.4 15.5 5.9 13.5

Las Cruces

96,423 90,817 97,287 87,463 6,069 11,846 5,304 9,511 6.3 13.0 5.5 10.9

Santa Fe

76,902 70,222 76,039 68,059 3,416 9,468 3,078 7,836 4.4 13.5 4.0 11.5

New York

9,596,950 9,687,509 9,539,835 9,521,651 400,342 1,547,731 393,551 1,200,119 4.2 16.0 4.1 12.6

Albany-Schenectady-Troy

449,292 465,775 448,231 455,810 17,008 53,457 16,845 39,968 3.8 11.5 3.8 8.8

Binghamton

105,964 111,911 105,407 109,315 5,041 13,876 4,844 10,262 4.8 12.4 4.6 9.4

Buffalo-Cheektowaga-Niagara Falls

543,096 573,447 542,821 559,220 24,781 80,954 24,303 60,377 4.6 14.1 4.5 10.8

Elmira

34,662 38,359 34,435 37,723 1,515 4,783 1,496 3,604 4.4 12.5 4.3 9.6

Glens Falls

62,240 60,854 61,952 59,560 2,268 6,732 2,245 4,874 3.6 11.1 3.6 8.2

Ithaca

48,128 51,164 47,830 50,453 2,001 5,011 1,936 3,611 4.2 9.8 4.0 7.2

Kingston

88,568 93,650 87,711 91,552 3,560 11,581 3,535 8,508 4.0 12.4 4.0 9.3

New York-Newark-Jersey City

10,041,853 10,110,120 9,973,169 9,963,468 401,529 1,666,191 390,189 1,294,663 4.0 16.5 3.9 13.0

Rochester

521,882 529,427 519,422 517,932 22,345 68,315 22,206 51,098 4.3 12.9 4.3 9.9

Syracuse

309,474 316,466 308,429 307,216 13,245 41,174 13,057 30,081 4.3 13.0 4.2 9.8

Utica-Rome

130,621 133,907 130,325 130,860 5,683 16,195 5,564 12,146 4.4 12.1 4.3 9.3

Watertown-Fort Drum

45,199 43,643 44,724 42,755 2,233 5,434 2,295 3,925 4.9 12.5 5.1 9.2

North Carolina

5,125,881 4,944,753 5,074,829 4,813,107 219,539 436,774 210,207 327,976 4.3 8.8 4.1 6.8

Asheville

240,228 227,639 237,070 220,948 8,226 21,199 8,089 15,539 3.4 9.3 3.4 7.0

Burlington

83,371 80,809 82,566 79,078 3,638 7,046 3,412 5,271 4.4 8.7 4.1 6.7

Charlotte-Concord-Gastonia

1,382,416 1,352,145 1,375,195 1,317,491 54,025 125,319 51,412 94,230 3.9 9.3 3.7 7.2

Durham-Chapel Hill

308,115 292,321 306,525 286,854 11,817 23,093 11,383 17,134 3.8 7.9 3.7 6.0

Fayetteville

149,011 142,512 147,421 138,911 8,442 16,575 7,995 12,645 5.7 11.6 5.4 9.1

Goldsboro

52,517 48,200 51,194 47,296 2,410 3,919 2,295 2,981 4.6 8.1 4.5 6.3

Greensboro-High Point

371,752 360,468 371,044 349,449 17,208 36,905 16,436 27,478 4.6 10.2 4.4 7.9

Greenville

89,686 86,078 88,562 83,003 4,584 7,415 4,234 5,490 5.1 8.6 4.8 6.6

Hickory-Lenoir-Morganton

176,537 166,160 174,843 161,232 7,215 14,930 6,989 11,028 4.1 9.0 4.0 6.8

Jacksonville

63,597 62,334 65,310 63,120 3,296 5,255 3,213 4,003 5.2 8.4 4.9 6.3

New Bern

53,020 50,249 51,764 48,768 2,337 3,733 2,229 2,866 4.4 7.4 4.3 5.9

Raleigh

742,574 704,688 735,424 684,791 28,081 55,763 26,946 41,562 3.8 7.9 3.7 6.1

Rocky Mount

65,126 63,598 63,629 61,152 3,788 7,181 3,571 5,541 5.8 11.3 5.6 9.1

Wilmington

157,050 148,800 155,391 144,414 6,197 12,243 5,938 9,176 3.9 8.2 3.8 6.4

Winston-Salem

333,585 317,973 330,571 311,018 13,650 28,015 13,225 20,802 4.1 8.8 4.0 6.7

North Dakota

411,927 410,373 410,255 403,565 9,189 26,043 9,123 19,386 2.2 6.3 2.2 4.8

Bismarck

69,683 69,538 68,814 68,308 1,516 3,442 1,613 2,649 2.2 4.9 2.3 3.9

Fargo

140,281 143,549 139,563 140,792 2,999 7,286 2,852 5,518 2.1 5.1 2.0 3.9

Grand Forks

53,690 54,472 53,170 52,898 1,518 3,142 1,360 2,415 2.8 5.8 2.6 4.6

Ohio

5,884,316 5,734,905 5,848,312 5,786,919 266,365 528,987 246,429 510,199 4.5 9.2 4.2 8.8

Akron

363,326 347,805 362,314 351,179 16,588 31,938 15,849 31,737 4.6 9.2 4.4 9.0

Canton-Massillon

200,509 194,831 199,759 196,403 9,268 17,311 8,903 16,960 4.6 8.9 4.5 8.6

Cincinnati

1,142,548 1,110,315 1,136,205 1,140,209 47,849 84,561 44,291 90,693 4.2 7.6 3.9 8.0

Cleveland-Elyria

1,067,558 1,024,705 1,049,822 1,022,091 49,305 121,799 42,284 106,454 4.6 11.9 4.0 10.4

Columbus

1,115,322 1,082,647 1,112,562 1,098,259 44,071 90,293 42,090 91,000 4.0 8.3 3.8 8.3

Dayton

394,943 391,368 393,463 395,768 17,610 34,649 16,750 34,369 4.5 8.9 4.3 8.7

Lima

48,641 47,493 48,427 47,558 2,308 4,154 2,014 4,005 4.7 8.7 4.2 8.4

Mansfield

52,955 52,157 52,294 52,329 2,623 4,879 2,356 4,557 5.0 9.4 4.5 8.7

Springfield

63,579 63,054 63,507 63,912 3,165 5,363 2,736 5,314 5.0 8.5 4.3 8.3

Toledo

304,801 301,943 303,370 302,853 14,140 29,524 13,289 28,536 4.6 9.8 4.4 9.4

Weirton-Steubenville(1)

51,703 50,268 51,519 50,788 2,959 5,519 2,830 5,394 5.7 11.0 5.5 10.6

Youngstown-Warren-Boardman

242,305 228,674 240,770 228,111 14,853 26,557 14,361 25,511 6.1 11.6 6.0 11.2

Oklahoma

1,850,754 1,811,723 1,836,797 1,824,934 62,846 128,682 60,607 102,709 3.4 7.1 3.3 5.6

Enid

27,549 25,667 27,078 25,921 836 1,675 812 1,381 3.0 6.5 3.0 5.3

Lawton

51,236 50,191 50,537 50,413 1,962 3,665 1,902 2,794 3.8 7.3 3.8 5.5

Oklahoma City

690,680 677,533 682,873 683,202 21,612 48,099 21,040 37,896 3.1 7.1 3.1 5.5

Tulsa

488,582 472,479 481,898 472,384 16,090 35,829 15,638 28,593 3.3 7.6 3.2 6.1

Oregon

2,126,411 2,084,949 2,123,490 2,072,940 85,756 221,460 82,140 161,839 4.0 10.6 3.9 7.8

Albany

58,253 58,100 58,418 58,171 2,792 6,070 2,607 4,513 4.8 10.4 4.5 7.8

Bend-Redmond

97,698 93,969 97,993 93,722 3,679 10,055 3,524 6,896 3.8 10.7 3.6 7.4

Corvallis

46,188 44,767 46,439 44,251 1,714 3,795 1,627 2,729 3.7 8.5 3.5 6.2

Eugene

179,377 182,271 179,490 181,932 7,961 19,487 7,804 14,079 4.4 10.7 4.3 7.7

Grants Pass

35,865 34,384 36,275 34,373 1,830 3,691 1,833 2,799 5.1 10.7 5.1 8.1

Medford

103,568 102,504 104,367 103,385 5,322 11,223 4,668 8,146 5.1 10.9 4.5 7.9

Portland-Vancouver-Hillsboro

1,331,809 1,323,474 1,333,061 1,311,412 50,689 148,230 49,971 110,462 3.8 11.2 3.7 8.4

Salem

205,343 197,408 204,630 196,818 8,961 18,597 8,539 13,790 4.4 9.4 4.2 7.0

Pennsylvania

6,581,549 6,458,600 6,542,283 6,337,905 321,521 824,771 314,579 664,889 4.9 12.8 4.8 10.5

Allentown-Bethlehem-Easton

446,877 443,677 444,342 436,019 21,796 56,995 21,460 45,682 4.9 12.8 4.8 10.5

Altoona

60,843 59,292 60,599 58,120 3,270 7,037 3,017 5,376 5.4 11.9 5.0 9.2

Bloomsburg-Berwick

42,846 42,874 42,715 42,051 2,149 4,236 1,952 3,298 5.0 9.9 4.6 7.8

Chambersburg-Waynesboro

79,077 77,842 78,733 76,699 3,475 8,501 3,283 6,761 4.4 10.9 4.2 8.8

East Stroudsburg

84,978 81,323 84,044 79,311 4,959 12,651 4,744 10,163 5.8 15.6 5.6 12.8

Erie

130,267 126,265 129,231 122,859 6,603 17,049 6,022 13,683 5.1 13.5 4.7 11.1

Gettysburg

56,165 55,391 55,861 54,516 2,190 5,114 2,015 3,961 3.9 9.2 3.6 7.3

Harrisburg-Carlisle

309,299 306,140 307,279 300,671 13,111 32,721 12,808 26,092 4.2 10.7 4.2 8.7

Johnstown

58,394 56,378 57,977 55,328 3,653 7,368 3,506 5,828 6.3 13.1 6.0 10.5

Lancaster

292,146 295,190 290,354 290,299 11,839 30,098 11,250 23,306 4.1 10.2 3.9 8.0

Lebanon

74,280 72,552 73,701 71,227 3,170 7,946 3,157 6,399 4.3 11.0 4.3 9.0

Philadelphia-Camden-Wilmington

3,155,369 3,159,501 3,140,341 3,106,530 146,781 421,434 144,876 337,306 4.7 13.3 4.6 10.9

Pittsburgh

1,228,656 1,199,950 1,219,296 1,173,221 58,524 157,365 57,504 126,634 4.8 13.1 4.7 10.8

Reading

219,663 226,387 217,962 221,697 10,635 27,665 10,420 22,573 4.8 12.2 4.8 10.2

Scranton--Wilkes-Barre--Hazleton

278,675 266,208 278,184 262,518 16,290 37,670 16,449 30,800 5.8 14.2 5.9 11.7

State College

77,590 74,620 79,777 75,649 3,207 6,327 2,663 4,591 4.1 8.5 3.3 6.1

Williamsport

57,189 52,644 57,284 52,147 2,826 6,362 2,821 5,238 4.9 12.1 4.9 10.0

York-Hanover

239,871 235,137 238,284 231,339 10,761 25,661 10,279 20,650 4.5 10.9 4.3 8.9

Rhode Island

562,181 564,414 560,466 546,274 21,801 65,181 20,937 70,807 3.9 11.5 3.7 13.0

Providence-Warwick

696,920 699,138 695,676 675,893 26,907 88,751 25,568 85,378 3.9 12.7 3.7 12.6

South Carolina

2,402,172 2,487,636 2,385,686 2,428,166 72,245 220,921 67,954 160,004 3.0 8.9 2.8 6.6

Charleston-North Charleston

401,657 412,920 397,744 400,583 10,254 37,842 9,625 27,390 2.6 9.2 2.4 6.8

Columbia

406,952 419,900 404,596 409,986 11,657 32,607 10,914 24,229 2.9 7.8 2.7 5.9

Florence

98,648 104,519 97,973 101,516 3,252 8,875 3,058 6,758 3.3 8.5 3.1 6.7

Greenville-Anderson-Mauldin

438,913 458,879 434,460 449,587 11,932 36,490 11,183 25,729 2.7 8.0 2.6 5.7

Hilton Head Island-Bluffton-Beaufort

93,565 95,277 92,253 95,114 2,659 6,901 2,433 4,871 2.8 7.2 2.6 5.1

Myrtle Beach-Conway-North Myrtle Beach

214,409 208,477 208,894 200,651 8,168 22,158 7,719 16,161 3.8 10.6 3.7 8.1

Spartanburg

165,533 171,543 164,793 168,305 4,792 17,036 4,393 12,150 2.9 9.9 2.7 7.2

Sumter

43,834 46,091 43,309 44,998 1,577 4,564 1,491 3,417 3.6 9.9 3.4 7.6

South Dakota

471,856 473,798 468,482 463,355 14,359 28,882 15,340 21,806 3.0 6.1 3.3 4.7

Rapid City

77,917 76,737 78,050 74,063 2,358 5,219 2,596 3,879 3.0 6.8 3.3 5.2

Sioux Falls

157,811 160,014 156,227 155,654 3,778 8,884 4,296 6,559 2.4 5.6 2.7 4.2

Tennessee

3,377,806 3,178,426 3,339,297 3,381,884 132,139 321,520 113,486 289,511 3.9 10.1 3.4 8.6

Chattanooga

280,166 272,479 276,499 281,134 10,620 21,976 9,445 18,886 3.8 8.1 3.4 6.7

Clarksville

118,623 109,617 117,800 117,916 5,813 9,821 5,053 9,977 4.9 9.0 4.3 8.5

Cleveland

60,432 58,136 60,825 61,978 2,567 5,059 2,201 4,420 4.2 8.7 3.6 7.1

Jackson

66,016 61,629 64,876 65,467 2,629 5,924 2,351 5,447 4.0 9.6 3.6 8.3

Johnson City

92,116 85,092 91,220 90,525 3,967 7,324 3,461 6,654 4.3 8.6 3.8 7.4

Kingsport-Bristol-Bristol

138,594 130,054 137,876 135,285 5,850 11,526 5,102 9,783 4.2 8.9 3.7 7.2

Knoxville

437,431 410,319 430,826 435,600 16,709 32,696 13,922 28,895 3.8 8.0 3.2 6.6

Memphis

653,760 628,804 644,138 661,502 31,038 82,435 27,316 77,988 4.7 13.1 4.2 11.8

Morristown

53,205 51,013 52,634 53,466 2,301 4,574 1,992 3,909 4.3 9.0 3.8 7.3

Nashville-Davidson--Murfreesboro--Franklin

1,103,447 1,029,482 1,089,174 1,094,834 33,554 102,695 28,936 90,660 3.0 10.0 2.7 8.3

Texas

14,064,960 13,858,302 14,030,092 14,325,524 540,487 1,151,623 523,448 996,264 3.8 8.3 3.7 7.0

Abilene

78,826 77,048 78,712 79,926 2,621 4,639 2,520 3,929 3.3 6.0 3.2 4.9

Amarillo

132,139 125,372 131,934 129,986 3,825 6,490 3,627 5,500 2.9 5.2 2.7 4.2

Austin-Round Rock

1,240,719 1,224,494 1,235,631 1,279,008 36,333 82,797 35,066 70,089 2.9 6.8 2.8 5.5

Beaumont-Port Arthur

172,969 168,365 172,821 172,186 10,826 20,287 10,531 17,759 6.3 12.0 6.1 10.3

Brownsville-Harlingen

167,732 164,826 167,322 170,516 9,943 18,332 9,494 15,853 5.9 11.1 5.7 9.3

College Station-Bryan

130,393 132,768 130,345 138,138 4,211 7,747 3,989 6,458 3.2 5.8 3.1 4.7

Corpus Christi

206,849 201,627 206,439 207,592 9,536 20,276 9,319 17,405 4.6 10.1 4.5 8.4

Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington

3,987,104 3,949,765 3,977,030 4,085,756 141,791 299,657 137,239 256,982 3.6 7.6 3.5 6.3

El Paso

362,073 357,700 362,632 371,343 14,909 31,495 14,617 27,058 4.1 8.8 4.0 7.3

Houston-The Woodlands-Sugar Land

3,434,101 3,394,536 3,417,221 3,485,828 141,120 322,953 138,646 282,337 4.1 9.5 4.1 8.1

Killeen-Temple

177,281 174,318 176,406 180,805 7,360 12,537 6,998 10,857 4.2 7.2 4.0 6.0

Laredo

118,394 115,746 118,413 119,508 4,794 10,651 4,454 9,367 4.0 9.2 3.8 7.8

Longview

99,408 95,158 99,364 98,744 3,984 8,103 3,869 7,209 4.0 8.5 3.9 7.3

Lubbock

163,564 159,210 163,538 164,563 5,547 10,228 4,920 8,518 3.4 6.4 3.0 5.2

McAllen-Edinburg-Mission

348,112 352,024 351,616 362,085 24,070 44,291 23,156 39,374 6.9 12.6 6.6 10.9

Midland

111,590 102,740 110,710 106,263 2,485 9,717 2,502 8,560 2.2 9.5 2.3 8.1

Odessa

88,454 85,618 87,710 87,703 2,521 10,837 2,547 9,736 2.9 12.7 2.9 11.1

San Angelo

54,830 52,238 55,154 53,769 1,870 3,848 1,763 3,204 3.4 7.4 3.2 6.0

San Antonio-New Braunfels

1,208,286 1,193,165 1,204,321 1,234,237 41,391 95,374 39,982 81,149 3.4 8.0 3.3 6.6

Sherman-Denison

64,573 63,938 64,139 65,895 2,117 3,786 2,112 3,309 3.3 5.9 3.3 5.0

Texarkana

65,231 64,171 64,651 65,804 3,135 4,886 2,916 4,427 4.8 7.6 4.5 6.7

Tyler

107,191 105,836 107,003 109,612 3,915 7,655 3,818 6,610 3.7 7.2 3.6 6.0

Victoria

46,037 45,282 45,915 46,208 1,696 4,255 1,639 3,444 3.7 9.4 3.6 7.5

Waco

127,231 126,381 126,652 131,414 4,776 8,321 4,538 7,044 3.8 6.6 3.6 5.4

Wichita Falls

65,622 62,956 65,249 65,693 2,340 4,502 2,159 3,849 3.6 7.2 3.3 5.9

Utah

1,616,418 1,634,784 1,615,398 1,627,683 43,635 75,477 42,719 68,301 2.7 4.6 2.6 4.2

Logan

68,017 69,489 67,983 69,885 1,646 1,895 1,578 1,872 2.4 2.7 2.3 2.7

Ogden-Clearfield

337,708 344,383 335,595 342,843 9,048 13,689 8,880 12,632 2.7 4.0 2.6 3.7

Provo-Orem

310,745 316,882 312,210 318,978 8,070 11,423 7,782 10,755 2.6 3.6 2.5 3.4

St. George

76,101 78,122 77,311 78,079 2,401 4,045 2,398 3,707 3.2 5.2 3.1 4.7

Salt Lake City

676,600 677,617 675,391 670,838 17,666 35,827 17,526 31,656 2.6 5.3 2.6 4.7

Vermont

346,705 343,771 344,368 327,153 8,209 28,191 7,910 15,117 2.4 8.2 2.3 4.6

Burlington-South Burlington

127,289 123,964 127,344 118,531 2,589 9,408 2,509 5,083 2.0 7.6 2.0 4.3

Virginia

4,465,718 4,376,805 4,422,123 4,348,190 131,979 349,288 130,261 274,828 3.0 8.0 2.9 6.3

Blacksburg-Christiansburg-Radford

89,742 85,037 91,090 88,802 2,957 5,877 2,851 4,882 3.3 6.9 3.1 5.5

Charlottesville

123,017 121,799 120,948 120,615 3,451 9,004 3,360 6,740 2.8 7.4 2.8 5.6

Harrisonburg

66,640 64,294 65,702 63,726 2,025 4,283 1,930 3,144 3.0 6.7 2.9 4.9

Lynchburg

124,154 121,533 123,833 121,321 4,501 8,993 4,283 7,161 3.6 7.4 3.5 5.9

Richmond

697,236 687,185 690,208 679,914 21,943 60,414 21,787 47,271 3.1 8.8 3.2 7.0

Roanoke

159,553 155,589 159,213 154,578 4,739 11,796 4,724 9,252 3.0 7.6 3.0 6.0

Staunton-Waynesboro

61,042 63,147 60,549 62,359 1,623 3,966 1,650 3,064 2.7 6.3 2.7 4.9

Virginia Beach-Norfolk-Newport News

874,949 872,252 866,839 858,954 28,394 80,510 28,282 63,192 3.2 9.2 3.3 7.4

Winchester

75,022 71,073 74,830 70,537 2,121 4,396 2,065 3,455 2.8 6.2 2.8 4.9

Washington

3,944,959 3,989,011 3,930,563 3,963,255 164,164 400,223 160,846 333,170 4.2 10.0 4.1 8.4

Bellingham

115,641 120,916 114,378 119,202 5,730 14,037 5,731 11,258 5.0 11.6 5.0 9.4

Bremerton-Silverdale

128,283 134,663 128,041 134,904 5,880 12,617 5,748 10,380 4.6 9.4 4.5 7.7

Kennewick-Richland

151,057 156,340 149,340 154,686 7,315 16,784 7,280 13,166 4.8 10.7 4.9 8.5

Longview

47,659 50,526 47,709 50,244 2,802 5,759 2,845 4,715 5.9 11.4 6.0 9.4

Mount Vernon-Anacortes

63,642 65,589 63,724 64,465 3,323 7,881 3,351 6,259 5.2 12.0 5.3 9.7

Olympia-Tumwater

141,080 149,391 141,325 146,825 6,807 15,370 6,731 12,160 4.8 10.3 4.8 8.3

Seattle-Tacoma-Bellevue

2,179,576 2,194,244 2,180,017 2,192,099 75,320 201,704 71,067 174,120 3.5 9.2 3.3 7.9

Spokane-Spokane Valley

275,297 284,122 275,597 276,309 14,144 32,167 14,155 25,765 5.1 11.3 5.1 9.3

Walla Walla

32,424 31,940 32,106 31,943 1,564 2,676 1,504 2,241 4.8 8.4 4.7 7.0

Wenatchee

77,169 67,046 70,115 66,480 2,901 6,637 3,251 5,507 3.8 9.9 4.6 8.3

Yakima

140,212 138,148 137,152 137,292 7,727 17,094 8,402 13,877 5.5 12.4 6.1 10.1

West Virginia

805,335 769,225 801,184 772,389 38,061 76,141 38,253 67,061 4.7 9.9 4.8 8.7

Beckley

47,627 47,322 47,314 47,467 2,279 4,879 2,298 4,437 4.8 10.3 4.9 9.3

Charleston

94,839 92,361 94,155 92,245 4,305 10,119 4,462 9,132 4.5 11.0 4.7 9.9

Huntington-Ashland

147,572 144,114 147,059 147,447 7,736 12,619 7,355 12,866 5.2 8.8 5.0 8.7

Morgantown

69,840 68,325 70,752 69,398 2,718 5,965 2,732 4,625 3.9 8.7 3.9 6.7

Parkersburg-Vienna

39,469 39,251 39,303 39,311 1,976 3,921 1,980 3,322 5.0 10.0 5.0 8.5

Wheeling

66,951 61,139 65,687 61,023 3,331 6,495 3,273 6,048 5.0 10.6 5.0 9.9

Wisconsin

3,150,096 3,070,321 3,120,077 3,062,770 113,279 219,150 106,141 185,857 3.6 7.1 3.4 6.1

Appleton

133,137 127,235 131,519 127,514 4,346 7,707 3,921 6,527 3.3 6.1 3.0 5.1

Eau Claire

92,191 88,950 91,660 89,637 3,201 6,014 2,981 5,107 3.5 6.8 3.3 5.7

Fond du Lac

58,289 57,556 57,481 57,314 1,936 3,433 1,890 2,672 3.3 6.0 3.3 4.7

Green Bay

175,342 172,336 173,782 171,795 6,128 11,557 5,647 9,676 3.5 6.7 3.2 5.6

Janesville-Beloit

87,131 83,710 86,236 83,576 3,485 7,060 3,432 5,624 4.0 8.4 4.0 6.7

La Crosse-Onalaska

76,355 73,987 75,908 73,343 2,396 4,393 2,167 3,754 3.1 5.9 2.9 5.1

Madison

394,057 370,386 389,748 367,286 10,693 22,108 9,906 18,770 2.7 6.0 2.5 5.1

Milwaukee-Waukesha-West Allis

829,116 820,054 825,095 817,314 33,455 70,612 31,740 60,850 4.0 8.6 3.8 7.4

Oshkosh-Neenah

92,662 90,598 91,648 90,354 3,135 5,585 3,039 4,620 3.4 6.2 3.3 5.1

Racine

100,573 100,408 99,792 100,246 4,628 7,941 4,368 6,940 4.6 7.9 4.4 6.9

Sheboygan

64,099 61,880 63,409 61,551 1,893 3,878 1,758 3,089 3.0 6.3 2.8 5.0

Wausau

74,468 72,344 73,651 72,112 2,375 4,025 2,155 3,299 3.2 5.6 2.9 4.6

Wyoming

298,084 299,734 296,141 295,091 10,633 20,377 9,825 17,842 3.6 6.8 3.3 6.0

Casper

39,751 40,113 39,398 39,482 1,454 4,107 1,446 3,730 3.7 10.2 3.7 9.4

Cheyenne

49,052 49,156 48,570 48,677 1,654 2,886 1,645 2,498 3.4 5.9 3.4 5.1

Puerto Rico

1,105,444 1,042,138 1,078,607 1,048,938 86,848 75,757 75,758 88,480 7.9 7.3 7.0 8.4

Aguadilla-Isabela

87,467 80,244 85,027 81,367 8,958 6,410 7,372 7,372 10.2 8.0 8.7 9.1

Arecibo

53,871 51,700 52,091 52,277 4,932 3,728 4,251 4,216 9.2 7.2 8.2 8.1

Guayama

19,962 18,356 19,406 18,462 2,461 1,320 2,113 1,523 12.3 7.2 10.9 8.2

Mayaguez

27,890 25,364 26,755 25,472 2,789 1,812 2,367 2,075 10.0 7.1 8.8 8.1

Ponce

94,084 87,074 91,183 87,889 9,763 6,437 9,027 7,589 10.4 7.4 9.9 8.6

San German

35,123 32,128 34,030 32,693 3,829 2,418 3,202 2,888 10.9 7.5 9.4 8.8

San Juan-Carolina-Caguas

745,594 709,692 729,431 712,077 49,363 50,612 43,035 59,237 6.6 7.1 5.9 8.3

Footnotes
(1) For operational reasons, these interstate areas are listed under the state that accounts for the larger share of the population, which is different from the state that contains the first principal city.
(2) The area boundary does not reflect the Office of Management and Budget delineation.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data refer to place of residence. Data for Puerto Rico are derived from a monthly household survey similar to the Current Population Survey. Area delineations are based on Office of Management and Budget Bulletin No. 18-03, dated April 10, 2018, and are available on the BLS website at https://www.bls.gov/lau/lausmsa.htm. Areas in the six New England states are Metropolitan New England City and Town Areas (NECTAs), while areas in other states are county-based. Some metropolitan areas lie in two or more states. They are listed under the state containing the first principal city, unless otherwise footnoted. Estimates for the latest month are subject to revision the following month.


LABOR FORCE DATA
NOT SEASONALLY ADJUSTED

Table 2. Civilian labor force and unemployment by state, selected metropolitan area, and metropolitan division(1)
State, area, and division Civilian labor force Unemployed
July August Number Percent of labor force
2019 2020 2019 2020(p) July August July August
2019 2020 2019 2020(p) 2019 2020 2019 2020(p)

California

19,465,613 18,919,860 19,428,941 18,729,407 857,771 2,624,606 808,406 2,171,794 4.4 13.9 4.2 11.6

Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim

6,756,753 6,547,231 6,730,056 6,485,849 306,734 1,113,441 292,389 972,011 4.5 17.0 4.3 15.0

Anaheim-Santa Ana-Irvine

1,626,509 1,590,486 1,617,548 1,556,209 50,739 196,775 48,081 153,760 3.1 12.4 3.0 9.9

Los Angeles-Long Beach-Glendale

5,130,244 4,956,745 5,112,508 4,929,640 255,995 916,666 244,308 818,251 5.0 18.5 4.8 16.6

San Francisco-Oakland-Hayward

2,606,919 2,515,020 2,598,813 2,480,609 75,680 283,279 71,630 223,703 2.9 11.3 2.8 9.0

Oakland-Hayward-Berkeley

1,414,027 1,363,279 1,408,349 1,341,883 47,278 166,274 44,702 131,603 3.3 12.2 3.2 9.8

San Francisco-Redwood City-South San Francisco

1,051,513 1,017,917 1,049,571 1,006,292 24,805 104,990 23,503 82,830 2.4 10.3 2.2 8.2

San Rafael

141,379 133,824 140,893 132,434 3,597 12,015 3,425 9,270 2.5 9.0 2.4 7.0

District of Columbia

416,468 399,448 407,817 394,337 24,138 35,715 22,418 34,292 5.8 8.9 5.5 8.7

Washington-Arlington-Alexandria(2)

3,527,506 3,465,311 3,474,085 3,431,374 116,169 275,227 111,151 235,099 3.3 7.9 3.2 6.9

Silver Spring-Frederick-Rockville(3)

714,702 717,260 705,323 707,409 23,162 53,988 20,813 46,992 3.2 7.5 3.0 6.6

Washington-Arlington-Alexandria(2)

2,812,804 2,748,051 2,768,762 2,723,965 93,007 221,239 90,338 188,107 3.3 8.1 3.3 6.9

Florida

10,372,151 10,053,887 10,353,589 10,137,020 350,600 1,169,778 341,558 779,311 3.4 11.6 3.3 7.7

Miami-Fort Lauderdale-West Palm Beach

3,165,320 3,052,189 3,157,142 3,064,740 96,275 409,777 95,162 259,325 3.0 13.4 3.0 8.5

Fort Lauderdale-Pompano Beach-Deerfield Beach

1,046,699 1,019,382 1,046,333 1,015,939 34,231 135,070 33,329 93,918 3.3 13.3 3.2 9.2

Miami-Miami Beach-Kendall

1,384,625 1,339,153 1,377,292 1,351,810 35,504 193,766 35,333 109,265 2.6 14.5 2.6 8.1

West Palm Beach-Boca Raton-Delray Beach

733,996 693,654 733,517 696,991 26,540 80,941 26,500 56,142 3.6 11.7 3.6 8.1

Illinois

6,534,712 6,326,578 6,459,291 6,349,369 276,947 728,120 257,769 691,640 4.2 11.5 4.0 10.9

Chicago-Naperville-Elgin(2)

4,935,559 4,804,616 4,880,816 4,748,878 202,248 583,253 187,180 554,366 4.1 12.1 3.8 11.7

Chicago-Naperville-Arlington Heights

3,776,587 3,696,414 3,739,554 3,615,564 153,302 472,745 140,878 455,214 4.1 12.8 3.8 12.6

Elgin

334,425 314,009 328,335 327,319 14,381 32,961 13,339 31,077 4.3 10.5 4.1 9.5

Gary(3)

345,937 342,075 342,866 339,640 15,750 36,486 14,812 29,204 4.6 10.7 4.3 8.6

Lake County-Kenosha County(2)

478,610 452,118 470,061 466,355 18,815 41,061 18,151 38,871 3.9 9.1 3.9 8.3

Massachusetts

3,865,262 3,725,151 3,855,804 3,581,311 121,141 605,796 108,391 399,730 3.1 16.3 2.8 11.2

Boston-Cambridge-Nashua(2)

2,858,404 2,750,717 2,853,234 2,655,254 82,841 427,053 74,105 285,575 2.9 15.5 2.6 10.8

Boston-Cambridge-Newton

1,709,002 1,634,837 1,706,129 1,575,798 46,711 254,162 40,992 168,463 2.7 15.5 2.4 10.7

Brockton-Bridgewater-Easton

112,504 112,027 112,401 106,832 4,069 21,626 3,637 14,349 3.6 19.3 3.2 13.4

Framingham

165,037 157,731 164,569 152,652 4,380 21,601 3,899 13,987 2.7 13.7 2.4 9.2

Haverhill-Newburyport-Amesbury Town(2)

121,151 113,746 120,557 110,519 3,521 15,654 3,341 10,791 2.9 13.8 2.8 9.8

Lawrence-Methuen Town-Salem(2)

100,273 102,287 100,141 96,969 4,110 22,001 3,852 15,072 4.1 21.5 3.8 15.5

Lowell-Billerica-Chelmsford(2)

200,742 190,018 200,378 183,149 6,337 29,086 5,699 19,091 3.2 15.3 2.8 10.4

Lynn-Saugus-Marblehead

88,041 87,881 87,906 83,649 2,816 17,672 2,533 11,815 3.2 20.1 2.9 14.1

Nashua(2)

178,889 171,958 178,537 172,286 5,063 14,712 4,905 11,934 2.8 8.6 2.7 6.9

Peabody-Salem-Beverly

95,039 94,037 94,843 90,811 2,775 15,631 2,438 10,279 2.9 16.6 2.6 11.3

Taunton-Middleborough-Norton

87,726 86,195 87,773 82,589 3,059 14,908 2,809 9,794 3.5 17.3 3.2 11.9

Michigan

4,995,452 4,871,057 4,965,356 4,941,320 252,608 465,161 209,484 439,661 5.1 9.5 4.2 8.9

Detroit-Warren-Dearborn

2,192,505 2,041,322 2,183,702 2,093,744 116,168 206,752 103,756 212,859 5.3 10.1 4.8 10.2

Detroit-Dearborn-Livonia

820,208 768,444 816,837 789,284 53,463 95,747 46,351 101,556 6.5 12.5 5.7 12.9

Warren-Troy-Farmington Hills

1,372,297 1,272,878 1,366,864 1,304,460 62,705 111,005 57,405 111,303 4.6 8.7 4.2 8.5

New York

9,596,950 9,687,509 9,539,835 9,521,651 400,342 1,547,731 393,551 1,200,119 4.2 16.0 4.1 12.6

New York-Newark-Jersey City(2)

10,041,853 10,110,120 9,973,169 9,963,468 401,529 1,666,191 390,189 1,294,663 4.0 16.5 3.9 13.0

Dutchess County-Putnam County

198,029 200,860 195,451 196,081 7,466 24,924 7,468 18,368 3.8 12.4 3.8 9.4

Nassau County-Suffolk County

1,512,591 1,554,560 1,499,508 1,516,183 57,888 214,216 58,482 159,549 3.8 13.8 3.9 10.5

Newark(3)

1,252,776 1,276,765 1,243,940 1,252,633 49,583 179,831 46,985 136,324 4.0 14.1 3.8 10.9

New York-Jersey City-White Plains(2)

7,078,457 7,077,935 7,034,270 6,998,571 286,592 1,247,220 277,254 980,422 4.0 17.6 3.9 14.0

Pennsylvania

6,581,549 6,458,600 6,542,283 6,337,905 321,521 824,771 314,579 664,889 4.9 12.8 4.8 10.5

Philadelphia-Camden-Wilmington(2)

3,155,369 3,159,501 3,140,341 3,106,530 146,781 421,434 144,876 337,306 4.7 13.3 4.6 10.9

Camden(3)

636,033 656,301 635,863 650,262 26,049 88,262 24,808 65,250 4.1 13.4 3.9 10.0

Montgomery County-Bucks County-Chester County

1,111,446 1,060,899 1,100,898 1,044,681 44,932 116,192 43,790 92,261 4.0 11.0 4.0 8.8

Philadelphia

1,025,225 1,049,910 1,022,756 1,025,206 59,498 175,221 60,025 144,848 5.8 16.7 5.9 14.1

Wilmington(3)

382,665 392,391 380,824 386,381 16,302 41,759 16,253 34,947 4.3 10.6 4.3 9.0

Texas

14,064,960 13,858,302 14,030,092 14,325,524 540,487 1,151,623 523,448 996,264 3.8 8.3 3.7 7.0

Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington

3,987,104 3,949,765 3,977,030 4,085,756 141,791 299,657 137,239 256,982 3.6 7.6 3.5 6.3

Dallas-Plano-Irving

2,688,517 2,668,923 2,682,143 2,767,924 95,447 200,541 92,593 171,893 3.6 7.5 3.5 6.2

Fort Worth-Arlington

1,298,587 1,280,842 1,294,887 1,317,832 46,344 99,116 44,646 85,089 3.6 7.7 3.4 6.5

Washington

3,944,959 3,989,011 3,930,563 3,963,255 164,164 400,223 160,846 333,170 4.2 10.0 4.1 8.4

Seattle-Tacoma-Bellevue

2,179,576 2,194,244 2,180,017 2,192,099 75,320 201,704 71,067 174,120 3.5 9.2 3.3 7.9

Seattle-Bellevue-Everett

1,740,245 1,725,595 1,739,556 1,731,837 53,191 144,891 48,753 127,701 3.1 8.4 2.8 7.4

Tacoma-Lakewood

439,331 468,649 440,461 460,262 22,129 56,813 22,314 46,419 5.0 12.1 5.1 10.1

Footnotes
(1) These 11 areas contain all of the 38 metropolitan divisions.
(2) Part of the area (or division) is in one or more adjacent states.
(3) All of the division is in one or more adjacent states.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data refer to place of residence. Area delineations are based on Office of Management and Budget Bulletin No. 18-03, dated April 10, 2018, and are available on the BLS website at https://www.bls.gov/lau/lausmsa.htm. Areas in the six New England states are Metropolitan New England City and Town Areas (NECTAs), while areas in other states are county-based. Some metropolitan areas lie in two or more states. They are listed under the state containing the first principal city. Metropolitan divisions are listed under their metropolitan areas. Some divisions lie in more than one state, and some, like Camden, NJ, are totally outside the states under which their metropolitan areas are listed. For Washington-Arlington-Alexandria, DC-VA-MD-WV, the metropolitan area and division titles are identical. Estimates for the latest month are subject to revision the following month.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
NOT SEASONALLY ADJUSTED
Table 3. Employees on nonfarm payrolls by state and metropolitan area, not seasonally adjusted
[In thousands]
State and area July August Change from
August 2019 to August 2020(p)
2019 2020 2019 2020(p) Number Percent

Alabama

2,069.2 1,967.8 2,076.8 1,990.0 -86.8 -4.2

Anniston-Oxford-Jacksonville

47.2 43.4 47.3 43.8 -3.5 -7.4

Auburn-Opelika

67.0 62.0 67.3 64.1 -3.2 -4.8

Birmingham-Hoover

547.1 519.0 547.9 520.8 -27.1 -4.9

Daphne-Fairhope-Foley

82.7 79.3 81.5 78.7 -2.8 -3.4

Decatur

57.1 53.9 57.4 54.2 -3.2 -5.6

Dothan

60.2 57.7 59.9 58.0 -1.9 -3.2

Florence-Muscle Shoals

57.2 54.1 57.3 55.3 -2.0 -3.5

Gadsden

37.2 33.9 37.4 34.3 -3.1 -8.3

Huntsville

244.1 232.1 245.4 234.8 -10.6 -4.3

Mobile

184.9 173.4 186.5 174.3 -12.2 -6.5

Montgomery

177.3 166.3 17